Science.gov

Sample records for human energy macro

  1. Comprehensive country energy assessments using the MARKAL-MACRO model

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, A.W.

    1997-07-01

    A number of comprehensive country energy assessments were performed in the late 1970s and early 1980s in cooperation with the governments of various countries. The assessments provided a framework for analyzing the impacts of various national strategies for meeting energy requirements. These analyses considered the total energy framework. Economics, energy supply, national resources, energy use, environmental impacts, technologies, energy efficiencies, and sociopolitical impacts were some of the factors addressed. These analyses incorporated the best available data bases and computer models to facilitate the analyses. National policy makers identified the various strategies to examine. The results of the analyses were provided to the national policy makers to support their decision making. Almost 20 years have passed since these assessments were performed. There have been major changes in energy supply and use, technologies, economics, available resources, and environmental concerns. The available tools for performing the assessments have improved drastically. The availability of improved computer modeling, i.e., MARKAL-MACRO, and improved data collection methods and data bases now permit such assessments to be performed in a more sophisticated manner to provide state of the art support to policy makers. The MARKAL-MACRO model was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory over the last 25 years to support strategic energy planning. It is widely used in the international community for integrating analyses of environmental options, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It was used to perform the analyses in the least cost energy strategy study for the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Improvements continue to be made to MARKAL-MACRO and its capabilities extended. A methodology to conduct Country Energy Assessments using MARKAL-MACRO is discussed.

  2. Interspecies scaling and prediction of human clearance: comparison of small- and macro-molecule drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Yeamin; Smith, David E.; Feng, Meihau Rose

    2014-01-01

    Human clearance prediction for small- and macro-molecule drugs was evaluated and compared using various scaling methods and statistical analysis.Human clearance is generally well predicted using single or multiple species simple allometry for macro- and small-molecule drugs excreted renally.The prediction error is higher for hepatically eliminated small-molecules using single or multiple species simple allometry scaling, and it appears that the prediction error is mainly associated with drugs with low hepatic extraction ratio (Eh). The error in human clearance prediction for hepatically eliminated small-molecules was reduced using scaling methods with a correction of maximum life span (MLP) or brain weight (BRW).Human clearance of both small- and macro-molecule drugs is well predicted using the monkey liver blood flow method. Predictions using liver blood flow from other species did not work as well, especially for the small-molecule drugs. PMID:21892879

  3. Quantum theory and human perception of the macro-world.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new 'conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing-light as a geometric theory-and human touching-only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle-plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects-as they occur in smaller entities-appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general theory will be needed

  4. Quantum theory and human perception of the macro-world

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the question of ‘why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time’, starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new ‘conceptual quantum interpretation’, including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing—light as a geometric theory—and human touching—only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle—plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects—as they occur in smaller entities—appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general

  5. Macro And Microcosmus: Moon Influence On The Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchin, Giorgio

    Belief in the action of the macrocosmus, i.e., celestial bodies, on the microcosmus, i.e., on man, goes back to the dawn of human thinking. More specifically, lunar phases have been considered to act on behaviour and on physiological functions. This possible relationship has not only been taken for granted for many centuries in ancient medicine but also investigated in a number of modern published works, mainly on the issues of emergency activity; violent behaviour; car accidents; drug overdose; menses and birth; and mood disorders. Indeed, if the idea that the stars and planets may influence human health and behaviour can be traced so far in the past, it seems that not only the laymen but a high proportion of health professionals continue to hold this credence: recently, in New Orleans a questionnaire sent to 325 people indicated that 140 individuals (43%) held the opinion that lunar phenomena alter personal behaviour. Specifically, it came out that mental health professionals (social workers, clinical psychologists, nurses' aides) held this belief more strongly than other occupational groups (Vance, 1995). A short historical outline of some old beliefs and the results of contemporary research on this fascinating, time-honoured field, will be presented.

  6. Macro-System Model for Hydrogen Energy Systems Analysis in Transportation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  7. The macro-microscopic peculiarities of the human urinary bladder glands.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, G

    2010-01-01

    We studied the glands of the 130 persons, victims from the casual reasons (a trauma, an asphyxia, etc.) from newborn to senile age; we investigated different variants of a bladder glands forms, the changes in different parts of the organs wall (proximal, average, distal thirds) from the newborn period to senile age by the method of macro-microsopy and morphometry on the total preparations of urinary bladder. Glands preliminary have been stained by a solution 0,05% methylene dark blue with Sinelnicov's method and by hematoxilin and eozin. The glands were investigated with the application of stereo binocular microscope MBS-9. Statistical data processing included calculation of arithmetic-mean values, their errors, confidential intervals (excel). The view of the human urinary bladder glands in the macro-microscopy investigation is different. The glands have roundish, oval, ribbon forms. The form of the glands in the different parts of human urinary bladder (proximal, middle and distal) is difference. In the microtopography the glands have been proximal-distal changes; the quantity of glands increase from the proximal to distal portion. The human urinary bladder have many complex glands (the glands with 3, 4 and more beginnings parts) to the quantity in the distal part. PMID:20834080

  8. Study of the ultrahigh-energy primary-cosmic-ray composition with the MACRO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baldini, A.; Bam, B.B.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, P.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiera, C.; Cobis, A.; Cormack, R.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Ficenec, D.; Forti, C.; Foti, L.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giubellino, P.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Klein, S.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Martellotti, G.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Matteuzzi

    1992-08-01

    We present the analysis of multiple-muon events collected with one supermodule (1013 h live time) and two supermodules (1195 h live time) of the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso, Italy. Multimuon rates are shown to be sensitive to primary-cosmic-ray energies between {similar to}50 TeV and several thousand TeV. Experimental data are compared with the expected rates from two composition models: a light (i.e., proton-rich) and a heavy (i.e., Fe-rich) composition. The predictions are based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the hadronic interactions of cosmic-ray nuclei, followed by a detailed tracking of the muons through the rock and the experimental apparatus. The results show good sensitivity of the MACRO detector to primary composition. The data exhibit a preference towards the light composition model.

  9. MARKAL-MACRO: A methodology for informed energy, economy and environmental decision making. Informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, G.A.

    1995-05-16

    Since the mid-1970`s, energy system analysts have been using models to represent the complexities of interactions in energy systems to help shape policy. Since the mid-1980`s, heightened awareness has made it necessary also to consider the environmental impacts of energy policies. MARKAL is a cost-minimizing energy-environment system planning model used to explore mid- to long-term responses to different technological futures, emissions limitations, and policy scenarios. MARKAL-MACRO is an extension of MARKAL that integrates these capabilities directly with a neoclassical macroeconomic growth model. By combining bottom-up engineering and top-down macroeconomic approaches in a single modeling framework, MARKAL-MACR is able to capture the interplay between the energy system, the economy and the environment, allowing the affects on demands of endogenously determined energy prices to be explored.

  10. Intravital lectin perfusion analysis of vascular permeability in human micro- and macro- blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Debbage, P L; Sölder, E; Seidl, S; Hutzler, P; Hugl, B; Ofner, D; Kreczy, A

    2001-10-01

    We previously applied intravital lectin perfusion in mouse models to elucidate mechanisms underlying vascular permeability. The present work transfers this technique to human models, analysing vascular permeability in macro- and microvessels. Human vascular endothelial surface carbohydrate biochemistry differs significantly from its murine counterpart, lacking alpha-galactosyl epitopes and expressing the L-fucose moiety in the glycocalyx; the poly-N-lactosamine glycan backbone is common to all mammals. We examined extensively lectin binding specificities in sections and in vivo, and then applied the poly-N-lactosamine-specific lectin LEA and the L-fucose-specific lectin UEA-I in human intravital perfusions. Transendothelial transport differed in macrovessels and microvessels. In microvessels of adult human fat tissue, rectal wall and rectal carcinomas, slow transendothelial transport by vesicles was followed by significant retention at the subendothelial basement membrane; paracellular passage was not observed. Passage time exceeded 1 h. Thus we found barrier mechanisms resembling those we described previously in murine tissues. In both adult and fetal macrovessels, the vena saphena magna and the umbilical vein, respectively, rapid passage across the endothelial lining was observed, the tracer localising completely in the subendothelial tissues within 15 min; vesicular transport was more rapid than in microvessels, and retention at the subendothelial basement membrane briefer. PMID:11702193

  11. Contemporary Macro-Issues in Human Work Organizations--Agenda for the Scientist-Practitioner in Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, James J.

    This paper presents a brief survey of several contemporary macro-issues in human work organizations as context for--and part of the work of--scientists-practitioners in organizational communication. A special attempt has been made to identify concerns or issues--called "TransIssues" for the purposes of this paper--that appear to cut across two…

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Macro Bridge Procedure to Update Regional Macroeconomic Forecasts with National Macroeconomic Forecasts

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) uses macroeconomic variables such as income, employment, industrial production and consumer prices at both the national and regional1 levels as explanatory variables in the generation of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). This documentation explains how national macroeconomic forecasts are used to update regional macroeconomic forecasts through the RSTEM Macro Bridge procedure.

  13. The influence of environment and energy macro surroundings on the development of tourism in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2012-06-01

    Trying to anticipate the future of tourism may be a particularly fraught task. However, this does not mean that trying to predict the future of tourism is not without value. From a business perspective, examining the future enables firms to anticipate new business conditions and develop new strategies. From a destination perspective, reflections on the future enable consideration of how to maintain or improve the qualities of a destination. The paper is focused on an analysis of the impacts of the energy and ecological macro environments on tourism trends in 21st century. Mass international tourism has thrived on the abundant and cheap supply of energy, and this may be about to change as the world moves towards 'Peak Oil'. The resultant scarcity and high price of all energy fuels will produce changes in human activities, specifically in tourism. The basis of the health of the economy is the health of the environment. Therefore issues of global environmental changes are increasingly influencing consideration of trends in tourism. In this looming transitional era tourism needs to make some dramatic changes to harmonize with the new realities of a post-energy world affected additionaly by global warming and other environmental changes. PMID:22856267

  14. High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. II. Primary spectra and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Montaruli, T.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P.; Cecchini, S.; Dekhissi, H.; Fantini, R.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Barish, B.C.; Goretti, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Michael, D.G.; Nolty, R.; Peck, C.W.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C.W.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Carboni, M.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Ronga, F.; Satta, L.; Sciubba, A.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Antolini, R.; Bosio, T.; Di Credico, A.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Mikheyev, S.; Parlati, S.; Reynoldson, J.; Scapparone, E.; Bower, C.; Habig, A.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Miller, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; De Mitri, I.; Monacelli, P.; Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Martello, D.; Palamara, O.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Ricciardi, M.; Surdo, A.; Baker, R.; and others

    1997-08-01

    Multimuon data from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method, which allows one to estimate the primary cosmic ray fluxes. The estimated all-particle spectrum is higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct measurements but is consistent with EAS array measurements. The spectral indexes of the fitted energy spectrum are 2.56{plus_minus}0.05 for E{lt}500 TeV and 2.9{plus_minus}0.3 for E{gt}5000 TeV with a gradual change at intermediate energies. The average mass number shows little dependence on the primary energy below 1000 TeV, with a value of 10.1{plus_minus}2.5 at 100 TeV. At higher energies the best fit average mass shows a mild increase with energy, even though no definite conclusion can be reached taking into account errors. The fitted spectra cover a range from {approximately} 50 TeV up to several thousand TeV. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Guided macro-mutation in a graded energy based genetic algorithm for protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahmood A; Iqbal, Sumaiya; Khatib, Firas; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Sattar, Abdul

    2016-04-01

    Protein structure prediction is considered as one of the most challenging and computationally intractable combinatorial problem. Thus, the efficient modeling of convoluted search space, the clever use of energy functions, and more importantly, the use of effective sampling algorithms become crucial to address this problem. For protein structure modeling, an off-lattice model provides limited scopes to exercise and evaluate the algorithmic developments due to its astronomically large set of data-points. In contrast, an on-lattice model widens the scopes and permits studying the relatively larger proteins because of its finite set of data-points. In this work, we took the full advantage of an on-lattice model by using a face-centered-cube lattice that has the highest packing density with the maximum degree of freedom. We proposed a graded energy-strategically mixes the Miyazawa-Jernigan (MJ) energy with the hydrophobic-polar (HP) energy-based genetic algorithm (GA) for conformational search. In our application, we introduced a 2×2 HP energy guided macro-mutation operator within the GA to explore the best possible local changes exhaustively. Conversely, the 20×20 MJ energy model-the ultimate objective function of our GA that needs to be minimized-considers the impacts amongst the 20 different amino acids and allow searching the globally acceptable conformations. On a set of benchmark proteins, our proposed approach outperformed state-of-the-art approaches in terms of the free energy levels and the root-mean-square deviations. PMID:26878130

  16. Hepatitis E virus ORF1 encoded macro domain protein interacts with light chain subunit of human ferritin and inhibits its secretion.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Nishant Kumar; Lole, Kavita S

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is the major causative agent of acute hepatitis in developing countries. Its genome has three open reading frames (ORFs)-called as ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3. ORF1 encodes nonstructural polyprotein having multiple domains, namely: Methyltransferase, Y domain, Protease, Macro domain, Helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In the present study, we show that HEV-macro domain specifically interacts with light chain subunit of human ferritin (FTL). In cultured hepatoma cells, HEV-macro domain reduces secretion of ferritin without causing any change in the expression levels of FTL. This inhibitory effect was further enhanced upon Brefeldin-A treatment. The levels of transferrin Receptor 1 or ferroportin, two important proteins in iron metabolism, remained unchanged in HEV-macro domain expressing cells. Similarly, there were no alterations in the levels of cellular labile iron pool and reactive oxygen species, indicating that HEV-macro domain does not influence cellular iron homeostasis/metabolism. As ferritin is an acute-phase protein, secreted in higher level in infected persons and HEV-macro domain has the property of reducing synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, we propose that by directly binding to FTL, macro domain prevents ferritin from entering into circulation and helps in further attenuation of the host immune response. PMID:27170377

  17. Going "Macro": Exploring the Careers of Macro Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Applewhite, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    Important benefits accrue to the profession and to its vulnerable clientele when social workers hold positions with substantial community or policy influence. However, fewer social workers are holding these positions than in the past, and student preferences to pursue macro-specific training have declined. To improve the social work profession's ability to recruit and educate students interested in competing for leadership positions in human services organizations, this article analyzes data from a survey of MSW graduates of a public school of social work located in the southwestern United States and currently working as macro practitioners. Findings indicate that macro social workers can successfully compete for mid-level and top-level administrative and policy positions, and provide evidence contrary to many of the concerns students express when deciding whether to pursue a macro concentration or career. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for supporting and educating social work students interested in pursuing a macro practice career. PMID:26173360

  18. High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. I. Analysis methods and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Montaruli, T.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P.; Cecchini, S.; Dekhissi, H.; Fantini, R.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Barish, B.C.; Goretti, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Michael, D.G.; Nolty, R.; Peck, C.W.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C.W.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Carboni, M.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Ronga, F.; Satta, L.; Sciubba, A.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Antolini, R.; Bosio, T.; Di Credico, A.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Mikheyev, S.; Parlati, S.; Reynoldson, J.; Scapparone, E.; Bower, C.; Habig, A.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Miller, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; De Mitri, I.; Monacelli, P.; Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Martello, D.; Palamara, O.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Ricciardi, M.; Surdo, A.; Baker, R.; and others

    1997-08-01

    In this paper, the first of a two-part work, we present the reconstruction and measurement of muon events detected underground by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso (E{sub {mu}}{ge} 1.3 TeV in atmosphere). The main aim of this work is to discuss the muon multiplicity distribution as measured in the detector. The data sample analyzed consists of 4.4{times}10{sup 6} muon events, of which {approximately} 263000 are multiple muons, corresponding to a total live time of 5850 h. In this sample, the observed multiplicities extend above N{sub {mu}}=35, with intermuon separations up to 50 m and beyond. Additional complementing measurements, such as the inclusive muon flux, the angular distribution, and the muon separation distribution (decoherence), are also included. The physical interpretation of the results presented here is reported in the following companion paper. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. MACRO AND MICRO APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical approaches to the determination of pesticides and metabolites in human and animal tissues will take many forms. Several factors must be considered in choosing an analytical scheme if the results are to be meaningful. Whenever possible the residue chemist will use stand...

  20. Isolation and Culture of Human Endothelial Cells from Micro- and Macro-vessels.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The endothelium from different vascular beds exhibits a high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity. Endothelial cells (EC) can be harvested easily from large vessels by mechanical removal or collagenase digestion. In particular, the human umbilical vein has been used due to its wide availability, and the study of ECs derived from it has undoubtedly greatly advanced our knowledge of vascular biology. However, the majority of the body's endothelium (>95 %) forms the microvasculature, and it is these cells providing the interface between the blood and tissues that play a critical role in the development of new blood vessels. This has led to the establishment of techniques for the isolation of microvascular ECs (MEC) from different tissues to provide more physiologically relevant in vitro models of angiogenesis and EC function.In this chapter the use of superparamagnetic beads (Dynabeads) coated with anti-PECAM-1 (CD31) antibodies (PECA-beads) to culture MECs from human adipose tissue is described along with the standard methods used to characterize them. Adipose tissue is an ideal source of MECs as it is composed mainly of adipocytes with a very rich microvasculature and is easy to disaggregate. Furthermore, it can be obtained in large quantities during plastic surgery procedures. Adipose obtained at reduction mammoplasty or abdominoplasty is first dissected free of the connective tissue, minced finely, and subjected to collagenase type II digestion. The adipocytes are removed by centrifugation to obtain a microvessel rich pellet, which is further disaggregated with trypsin/EDTA solution. Following filtration to remove fragments of the connective tissue, the pellet is incubated with PECA-beads and microvessel fragments/ECs and washed and harvested using a magnet. In addition, the adaptation of this basic technique for the isolation of the human lung and stomach MECs is also described along with common methods for the preparation of large vessel endothelial cells. PMID

  1. Effects of macro- versus nanoporous silicon substrates on human aortic endothelial cell behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human aortic endothelial cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is a common, progressive, and multifactorial disease that is the clinical endpoint of an inflammatory process and endothelial dysfunction. Study and development of new therapies against cardiovascular disease must be tested in vitro cell models, prior to be evaluated in vivo. To this aim, new cell culture platforms are developed that allow cells to grow and respond to their environment in a realistic manner. In this work, the cell adhesion and morphology of endothelial cells are investigated on functionalized porous silicon substrates with two different pore size configurations: macroporous and nanoporous silicon. Herein, we modified the surfaces of porous silicon substrates by aminopropyl triethoxysilane, and we studied how different pore geometries induced different cellular response in the cell morphology and adhesion. The cell growth over the surface of porous silicon becomes an attractive field, especially for medical applications. Surface properties of the biomaterial are associated with cell adhesion and as well as, with proliferation, migration and differentiation. PMID:25246859

  2. Effects of macro- versus nanoporous silicon substrates on human aortic endothelial cell behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formentín, Pilar; Alba, María; Catalán, Úrsula; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Pallarès, Josep; Solà, Rosà; Marsal, Lluís F.

    2014-08-01

    Human aortic endothelial cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is a common, progressive, and multifactorial disease that is the clinical endpoint of an inflammatory process and endothelial dysfunction. Study and development of new therapies against cardiovascular disease must be tested in vitro cell models, prior to be evaluated in vivo . To this aim, new cell culture platforms are developed that allow cells to grow and respond to their environment in a realistic manner. In this work, the cell adhesion and morphology of endothelial cells are investigated on functionalized porous silicon substrates with two different pore size configurations: macroporous and nanoporous silicon. Herein, we modified the surfaces of porous silicon substrates by aminopropyl triethoxysilane, and we studied how different pore geometries induced different cellular response in the cell morphology and adhesion. The cell growth over the surface of porous silicon becomes an attractive field, especially for medical applications. Surface properties of the biomaterial are associated with cell adhesion and as well as, with proliferation, migration and differentiation.

  3. Energy and human health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Frumkin, Howard; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Butler, Colin D; Chafe, Zoë A; Fairlie, Ian; Kinney, Patrick; Kjellstrom, Tord; Mauzerall, Denise L; McKone, Thomas E; McMichael, Anthony J; Schneider, Mycle

    2013-01-01

    Energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. But each source of energy entails some health risks. This article reviews the health impacts of each major source of energy, focusing on those with major implications for the burden of disease globally. The biggest health impacts accrue to the harvesting and burning of solid fuels, coal and biomass, mainly in the form of occupational health risks and household and general ambient air pollution. Lack of access to clean fuels and electricity in the world's poor households is a particularly serious risk for health. Although energy efficiency brings many benefits, it also entails some health risks, as do renewable energy systems, if not managed carefully. We do not review health impacts of climate change itself, which are due mostly to climate-altering pollutants from energy systems, but do discuss the potential for achieving near-term health cobenefits by reducing certain climate-related emissions. PMID:23330697

  4. Design and application of a technologically explicit hybrid energy-economy policy model with micro and macro economic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataille, Christopher G. F.

    2005-11-01

    Are further energy efficiency gains, or more recently greenhouse gas reductions, expensive or cheap? Analysts provide conflicting advice to policy makers based on divergent modelling perspectives, a 'top-down/bottom-up debate' in which economists use equation based models that equilibrate markets by maximizing consumer welfare, and technologists use technology simulation models that minimize the financial cost of providing energy services. This thesis summarizes a long term research project to find a middle ground between these two positions that is more useful to policy makers. Starting with the individual components of a behaviourally realistic and technologically explicit simulation model (ISTUM---Inter Sectoral Technology Use Model), or "hybrid", the individual sectors of the economy are linked using a framework of micro and macro economic feedbacks. These feedbacks are taken from the economic theory that informs the computable general equilibrium (CGE) family of models. Speaking in the languages of both economists and engineers, the resulting "physical" equilibrium model of Canada (CIMS---Canadian Integrated Modeling System), equilibrates energy and end-product markets, including imports and exports, for seven regions and 15 economic sectors, including primary industry, manufacturing, transportation, commerce, residences, governmental infrastructure and the energy supply sectors. Several different policy experiments demonstrate the value-added of the model and how its results compare to top-down and bottom-up practice. In general, the results show that technical adjustments make up about half the response to simulated energy policy, and macroeconomic demand adjustments the other half. Induced technical adjustments predominate with minor policies, while the importance of macroeconomic demand adjustment increases with the strength of the policy. Results are also shown for an experiment to derive estimates of future elasticity of substitution (ESUB) and

  5. From MEMS to macro-world: a micro-milling machined wideband vibration piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannacci, J.; Sordo, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we discuss a novel mechanical resonator design for the realization of vibration Energy Harvester (EH) capable to deliver power levels in the mW range. The device overcomes the typical constraint of frequency narrowband operability of standard cantilevered EHs, by exploiting a circular-shaped resonator with an increased number of mechanical Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs), leading to several resonant modes in the range of vibrations of interest (i.e. multi-modal wideband EH). The device, named Four-Leaf Clover (FLC), is simulated in Ansys Worbench™, showing a significant number of resonant modes up to vibrations of around 2 kHz (modal eigenfrequencies analysis), and exhibiting levels of converted power up to a few mW at resonance (harmonic coupled-field analysis). The sole FLC mechanical structure is realized by micro-milling an Aluminum foil, while a cantilevered test structure also including PolyVinyliDene Fluoride (PVDF) film sheet is assembled in order to collect first experimental feedback on generated power levels. The first lab based tests show peak-to-peak voltages of several Volts when the cantilever is stimulated with a mechanical pulse. Further developments of this work will comprise the assembly of an FLC demonstrator with PVDF pads, and its experimental testing in order to validate the simulated results.

  6. A study of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray mass composition with the MACRO and EAS-TOP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutu, Stephane

    Two components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers are measured simultaneously at the Gran Sasso Laboratory: the electromagnetic shower at the ground surface by the EAS-TOP extensive air shower array, and the deep-underground muons by the MACRO experiment. The two independent data sets collected during 96.3 days of simultaneous running are combined, and underground muon multiplicity distributions are obtained for anticoincident events (no surface trigger) and high-energy, coincident events. These categories correspond to ranges in primary energy from about 2 x 103 GeV to a few times 105 GeV, and from about 1.5 x 105 GeV to about 107 GeV, respectively. The experimental shower size and muon multiplicity distributions, as well as the distribution of mean muon multiplicity as a function of shower size (N-barmu -- log(Ne) relation), are compared to the ones obtained with detailed Monte Carlo calculations (with a generator based on recent hadronic accelerator data) using various trial compositions as input. This is done in an effort to discriminate between these models of primary cosmic-ray mass composition at and above the 'kneel' in the all-particle spectrum, where contradictory experimental evidence exists and where a knowledge of the composition would bear upon possible mechanisms for cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation. Detailed studies of simulated anticoincident event rates (which arise from a region of primary energy where the composition has been measured directly by satellite and balloon experiments) uncover problems with the generator used, with between 25 and 40 percent too few high-energy muons created. This, combined with the dependence of absolute event rates on the assumed differential primary energy spectra, hampers the interpretation in terms of composition of underground muon or surface air shower data taken separately. However, the N-barmu -- log(Ne) relation is independent of the spectra or overall Monte Carlo normalization problems. The simulated

  7. Macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar.

    PubMed

    Xin Li; Dengyu Qiao; Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Radar has the advantage of being able to detect hidden individuals, which can be used in homeland security, disaster rescue, and healthcare monitoring-related applications. Human macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar is studied in this paper. First, a frequency domain analysis is carried out to show that the macro-motion yields a bandpass signal in slow-time. Second, the FTFW (fast-time frequency windowing), which has the advantage of avoiding the measuring range reduction, and the HLF (high-pass linear-phase filter), which can preserve the motion signal effectively, are proposed to preprocess the radar echo. Last, a threshold decision method, based on the energy detector structure, is presented. PMID:25570432

  8. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge; Smaranda, Loredana; Vanninathan, Muthusamy

    2011-09-01

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  9. Microwave-mediated extracellular synthesis of metallic silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using macro-algae (Gracilaria edulis) extracts and its anticancer activity against human PC3 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini, Ramaramesh Indra; Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Geetha, Natesan; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and novel microwave-mediated protocol was established for extracellular synthesis of metallic silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using the extracts of macro-algae Gracilaria edulis (GE) and also examined its anticancer activity against human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3). The formation of silver nanoparticles (GEAgNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (GEZnONPs) in the reaction mixture was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were spherical and rod-shaped, respectively. Cell viability assays were carried out to determine the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and ZnONPs against PC3 and normal African monkey kidney (VERO) cell line. The inhibitory concentration values were found to be 39.60, 28.55, 53.99 μg/mL and 68.49, 88.05, 71.98 μg/mL against PC3 cells and Vero cells for AgNPs, ZnONPs, and aqueous G. edulis extracts, respectively, at 48 h incubation period. As evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, the percentage of the apoptotic bodies was found to be 62 and 70 % for AgNPs and ZnONPs, respectively. The present results strongly suggest that the synthesized ZnONPs showed an effective anticancer activity against PC3 cell lines than AgNPs. PMID:25380639

  10. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C. ); Manne, A.S. ); Wene, C.O. Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg )

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled [open quotes]top-down macroeconomic[close quotes] and [open quotes]bottom-up engineering[close quotes] perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  11. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C.; Manne, A.S.; Wene, C.O. |

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled {open_quotes}top-down macroeconomic{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}bottom-up engineering{close_quotes} perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands? Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources? Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands? An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  12. Virtual reality as a human factors design analysis tool: Macro-ergonomic application validation and assessment of the Space Station Freedom payload control area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1994-01-01

    A virtual reality (VR) Applications Program has been under development at MSFC since 1989. Its objectives are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, missions operations training, and science training. A variety of activities are under way within many of these areas. One ongoing macro-ergonomic application of VR relates to the design of the Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA), the control room from which onboard payload operations are managed. Several preliminary conceptual PCA layouts have been developed and modeled in VR. Various managers and potential end users have virtually 'entered' these rooms and provided valuable feedback. Before VR can be used with confidence in a particular application, it must be validated, or calibrated, for that class of applications. Two associated validation studies for macro-ergonomic applications are under way to help characterize possible distortions of filtering of relevant perceptions in a virtual world. In both studies, existing control rooms and their 'virtual counterparts will be empirically compared using distance and heading estimations to objects and subjective assessments. Approaches and findings of the PCA activities and details of the studies are presented.

  13. Brain aging in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): magnetic resonance imaging studies of macro- and microstructural changes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Errangi, Bhargav; Li, Longchuan; Glasser, Matthew F.; Westlye, Lars T.; Fjell, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Hu, Xiaoping; Herndon, James G.; Preuss, Todd M.; Rilling, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Among primates, humans are uniquely vulnerable to many age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We used structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the brains of chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys across each species' adult lifespan, and compared these results with published findings in humans. As in humans, gray matter volume decreased with age in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Also like humans, chimpanzees showed a trend for decreased white matter volume with age, but this decrease occurred proportionally later in the chimpanzee lifespan than in humans. Diffusion MRI revealed widespread age-related decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in radial diffusivity in chimpanzees and macaques. However, both the fractional anisotropy decline and the radial diffusivity increase started at a proportionally earlier age in humans than in chimpanzees. Thus, even though overall patterns of gray and white matter aging are similar in humans and chimpanzees, the longer lifespan of humans provides more time for white matter to deteriorate before death, with the result that some neurological effects of aging may be exacerbated in our species. PMID:23623601

  14. Brain aging in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): magnetic resonance imaging studies of macro- and microstructural changes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Errangi, Bhargav; Li, Longchuan; Glasser, Matthew F; Westlye, Lars T; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B; Hu, Xiaoping; Herndon, James G; Preuss, Todd M; Rilling, James K

    2013-10-01

    Among primates, humans are uniquely vulnerable to many age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We used structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the brains of chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys across each species' adult lifespan, and compared these results with published findings in humans. As in humans, gray matter volume decreased with age in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Also like humans, chimpanzees showed a trend for decreased white matter volume with age, but this decrease occurred proportionally later in the chimpanzee lifespan than in humans. Diffusion MRI revealed widespread age-related decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in radial diffusivity in chimpanzees and macaques. However, both the fractional anisotropy decline and the radial diffusivity increase started at a proportionally earlier age in humans than in chimpanzees. Thus, even though overall patterns of gray and white matter aging are similar in humans and chimpanzees, the longer lifespan of humans provides more time for white matter to deteriorate before death, with the result that some neurological effects of aging may be exacerbated in our species. PMID:23623601

  15. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  16. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  17. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  18. University Macro Analytic Simulation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert; Gulko, Warren

    The University Macro Analytic Simulation System (UMASS) has been designed as a forecasting tool to help university administrators budgeting decisions. Alternative budgeting strategies can be tested on a computer model and then an operational alternative can be selected on the basis of the most desirable projected outcome. UMASS uses readily…

  19. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  20. Human action recognition using motion energy template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yanhua; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Human action recognition is an active and interesting research topic in computer vision and pattern recognition field that is widely used in the real world. We proposed an approach for human activity analysis based on motion energy template (MET), a new high-level representation of video. The main idea for the MET model is that human actions could be expressed as the composition of motion energy acquired in a three-dimensional (3-D) space-time volume by using a filter bank. The motion energies were directly computed from raw video sequences, thus some problems, such as object location and segmentation, etc., are definitely avoided. Another important competitive merit of this MET method is its insensitivity to gender, hair, and clothing. We extract MET features by using the Bhattacharyya coefficient to measure the motion energy similarity between the action template video and the tested video, and then the 3-D max-pooling. Using these features as input to the support vector machine, extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets, Weizmann and KTH, were carried out. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, such as variation energy image, dynamic templates and local motion pattern descriptors, the experimental results demonstrate that our MET model is competitive and promising.

  1. Macro-System Model Project #AN011 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M. F.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M.

    2010-06-08

    A review of the Macro-System Model for hydrogen production pathways analysis, including objectives, accomplishments, collaborations, and future work. Presented at the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC.

  2. Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A

    2005-07-15

    In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of {sup 14}C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic {sup 14}C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings.

  3. Micro and Macro Segregation in Alloys Solidifying with Equiaxed Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Leon-Torres, Jose; Sen, Subhayu

    1996-01-01

    To understand macro segregation formation in Al-Cu alloys, experiments were run under terrestrial gravity (1g) and under low gravity during parabolic flights (10(exp -2) g). Alloys of two different compositions (2% and 5% Cu) were solidified at two different cooling rates. Systematic microscopic and SEM observations produced microstructural and segregation maps for all samples. These maps may be used as benchmark experiments for validation of microstructure evolution and segregation models. As expected, the macro segregation maps are very complex. When segregation was measured along the central axis of the sample, the highest macro segregation for samples solidified at 1g was obtained for the lowest cooling rate. This behavior is attributed to the longer time available for natural convection and shrinkage flow to affect solute redistribution. In samples solidified under low-g, the highest macro-segregation was obtained at the highest cooling rate. In general, low-gravity solidification resulted in less segregation. To explain the experimental findings, an analytical (Flemings-Nereo) and a numerical model were used. For the numerical model, the continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the microscopic transport phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model proposed considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The Flemings-Nereo model explains well macro segregation in the initial stages of low-gravity segregation. The numerical model can describe the complex macro segregation pattern and the differences between low- and high-gravity solidification.

  4. Dielectric polymer: scavenging energy from human motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar; Chaillout, Jean-Jacques

    2008-03-01

    More and more sensors are embedded in human body for medical applications, for sport. The short lifetime of the batteries, available on the market, reveals a real problem of autonomy of these systems. A promising alternative is to scavenge the ambient energy such as the mechanical one. Up to now, few scavenging structures have operating frequencies compatible with ambient one. And, most of the developed structures are rigid and use vibration as mechanical source. For these reasons, we developed a scavenger that operates in a large frequency spectrum from quasi-static to dynamic range. This generator is fully flexible, light and does not hamper the human motion. Thus, we report in this paper an analytical model for dielectric generator with news electrical and mechanical characterization, and the development of an innovating application: scavenging energy from human motion. The generator is located on the knee and design to scavenge 0.1mJ per scavenging cycle at a frequency of 1Hz, enough to supply a low consumption system and with a poling voltage as low as possible to facilitate the power management. Our first prototype is a membrane with an area of 5*3cm and 31µm in thickness which scavenge 0.1mJ under 170V at constant charge Q.

  5. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    PubMed

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner. PMID:17257347

  6. Reliable prediction of micro-anomalies from macro-observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sonjoy; Chakravarty, Sourish

    2014-03-01

    A stochastic multi-scale based approach is presented in this work to detect signatures of micro-anomalies from macrolevel response variables. By micro-anomalies, we primarily refer to micro-cracks of size 10-100 μm (depending on the material), while macro-level response variables imply, e.g., strains, strain energy density of macro-level structures (typical size often varying in the order of 10-100 m). The micro-anomalies referred above are not discernible to the naked eyes. Nevertheless, they can cause catastrophic failures of structural systems due to fatigue cyclic loading that results in initiation of fatigue cracks. Analysis of such precursory state of internal damage evolution, before amacro-crack visibly appears (say, size of a few cms), is beyond the scope of the conventional crack propagation analysis, e.g., classical fracture mechanics. The present work addresses this issue in a certain sense by incorporating the effects of micro-cracks into the macro-scale constitutive material properties (e.g., constitutive elasticity tensors) within a probabilistic formalism based on random matrix theory, maximum entropy principle, and principles of minimum complementary energy and minimum potential energy. Distinct differences are observed in the macro-level response characteristics depending on the presence or absence of micro-cracks. This particular feature can now be used to reliably detect micro-cracks from experimental measurements of macro-observables. The present work, therefore, further proposes an efficient and robust optimization scheme: (1) to identify locations of micro-cracks in macroscopic structural systems, say, in an aircraft wing which is of the size of 10- 100 m, and (2) to determine the weakened (due to the presence of micro-cracks) macroscopic material properties which will be useful in predicting the remaining useful life of structural systems. The proposed optimization scheme achieves better convergence rate and accuracy by exploiting positive

  7. Energy Metabolism of Human Neutrophils during Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Borregaard, Niels; Herlin, Troels

    1982-01-01

    Detailed quantitative studies were performed on the generation and utilization of energy by resting and phagocytosing human neutrophils. The ATP content was 1.9 fmol/cell, was constant during rest, and was not influenced by the presence or absence of glucose in the medium. The intracellular content of phosphocreatine was less than 0.2 fmol/cell. In the presence of glucose, ATP was generated almost exclusively from lactate produced from glucose taken up from the surrounding medium. The amount of lactate produced could account for 85% of the glucose taken up by the cells, and the intracellular glycosyl store, glycogen, was not drawn upon. The rate of ATP generation as calculated from the rate of lactate production was 1.3 fmol/cell/min. During phagocytosis, there was no measurable increase in glucose consumption or lactate production, and the ATP content fell rapidly to 0.8 fmol/cell. This disappearance of ATP was apparently irreversible since no corresponding increase in ADP or AMP was observed. It therefore appears that this phagocytosis-induced fall in ATP concentration represents all the extra energy utilized in human neutrophils in the presence of glucose. In the absence of glucose, the rate of ATP generation in the resting cell was considerably smaller, 0.75 fmol/cell per min, as calculated from the rate of glycolysis, which is sustained exclusively by glycogenolysis. Under this condition, however, phagocytosis induces significant enhancement of glycogenolysis and the rate of lactate production is increased by 60%, raising the rate of ATP generation to 1.2 fmol/cell per min. Nonetheless, the ATP content drops significantly from 1.9 to 1.0 fmol/cell. Neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease have the same rate of glycolysis and the same ATP content as normal cells, thus confirming that the defective respiration of these cells does not affect their energy metabolism. PMID:7107894

  8. CFD development for macro particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiang; Glenn, Chance; Xiao, Zhigang; Zhang, Sijun

    2014-05-01

    Numerous industrial operations involve fluid-particle systems, in which both phases display very complex behaviour. Some examples include fluidisation technology in catalytic reactors, pneumatic transportation of grain or powder materials, carbon nanotube alignment in the nano-devices and circuit integration and so on. In this paper, a macro particle method is developed to model the fluid-particle flows. The macro particle is formed by a collection of micro-sized particles so that the number of macro particles to be tracked is much less than the number of smaller particles. Unlike the calculations of instantaneous point variables of fluid phase with moving discrete boundaries of the smaller particles with direct numerical simulation, the boundary of each macro particle is just dealt with the blocked-off approach. On the other hand, the flow fields based on the present method is solved by original Navier-Stokes, rather than the modified ones based on the locally averaged theorem. The flow fields are solved on the length scale of computational cells, while the resolutions of solid particles are the size of macro particle, which is determined as needed in specific applications. The macro particle method is validated by several selected cases, which demonstrate that the macro particle method could accurately resolve fluid-particle systems in an efficient, robust and flexible fashion.

  9. Macros help solve common petroleum engineering calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, D.

    1995-11-06

    A toolkit consisting of macros provides petroleum engineers an easy method for incorporating petroleum fluid properties into spreadsheets. Published correlations were used to write the macros, defined as Microsoft Excel functions. Engineers can call these functions when constructing spreadsheets and eliminate having to access external sources for many common fluid property correlations. The Excel functions also allow the correlations to be easily incorporated into existing spreadsheets. A collection of spreadsheets is included with the toolkit that use these functions for the solution of common petroleum engineering problems. Functions, terms, spreadsheets are listed in the accompany box. The article also explains how to obtain a diskette containing the macros.

  10. Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rouyer, Jean-Loup

    2002-07-01

    In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of CEI. for France from 0.6 to 0.78, and from 0.7 to 0.85 for USA. In 1997, CEI of China was 0.46, and 0.38 for India. This index is a good tool to measure the progression of development of the countries and the related energy needs. Comparison of the evolutions of CEI of these different countries shows a similar positive trend with some delay between OECD countries and China or India. A positive scenario for the future is based on a similar curve for these developing countries with learning effect which produces development with less energy consumption. This simulation results however in energy needs that exceed fossil fuel today available resources in 2070. Ultimate fossil

  11. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  12. Loss of histone variant macroH2A2 expression associates with progression of anal neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wan-Hsiang; Miyai, Katsumi; Sporn, Judith C; Luo, Linda; Wang, Jean Y J; Cosman, Bard; Ramamoorthy, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Aims The macroH2A histone variants are epigenetic marks for inactivated chromatin. In this study, we examined the expression of macroH2A2 in anal neoplasm from anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) to anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods AIN and anal SCC samples were analysed for macroH2A2 expression, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). The association of macroH2A2 expression with clinical grade, disease recurrence, overall survival and viral involvement was determined. Results macroH2A2 was expressed in normal squamous tissue and lower grade AIN (I and II). Expression was lost in 38% of high-grade AIN (III) and 71% of anal SCC (p=0.002). Patients with AIN with macroH2A2-negative lesions showed earlier recurrence than those with macroH2A2-positive neoplasm (p=0.017). With anal SCC, macroH2A2 loss was more prevalent in the HPV-negative tumours. Conclusions Loss of histone variant macroH2A2 expression is associated with the progression of anal neoplasm and can be used as a prognostic biomarker for high-grade AIN and SCC. PMID:26658220

  13. Bracing micro/macro manipulators control

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Book, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    This paper proposes a bracing strategy for micro/macro manipulators. The bracing micro/macro manipulator can provide advantages in accurate positioning, large work-space, and contact-task capability however, in exchange for improvement in performance one must accept the complex control problem along wit the complex dynamics. This research develops a control scheme for a bracing manipulator which makes multiple contacts with the environment. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed ideas for real world applications.

  14. Crowd macro state detection using entropy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Yuan, Mengqi; Su, Guofeng; Chen, Tao

    2015-08-01

    In the crowd security research area a primary concern is to identify the macro state of crowd behaviors to prevent disasters and to supervise the crowd behaviors. The entropy is used to describe the macro state of a self-organization system in physics. The entropy change indicates the system macro state change. This paper provides a method to construct crowd behavior microstates and the corresponded probability distribution using the individuals' velocity information (magnitude and direction). Then an entropy model was built up to describe the crowd behavior macro state. Simulation experiments and video detection experiments were conducted. It was verified that in the disordered state, the crowd behavior entropy is close to the theoretical maximum entropy; while in ordered state, the entropy is much lower than half of the theoretical maximum entropy. The crowd behavior macro state sudden change leads to the entropy change. The proposed entropy model is more applicable than the order parameter model in crowd behavior detection. By recognizing the entropy mutation, it is possible to detect the crowd behavior macro state automatically by utilizing cameras. Results will provide data support on crowd emergency prevention and on emergency manual intervention.

  15. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  16. MacroH2A1.1 and PARP-1 cooperate to regulate transcription by promoting CBP-mediated H2B acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongshan; Ruiz, Penelope D.; Novikov, Leonid; Casill, Alyssa D.; Park, Jong Woo; Gamble, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The histone variant macroH2A1 regulates gene expression important for differentiation, stem cell reprogramming and tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate that in primary human cells, macroH2A1 participates in two physically and functionally distinct types of chromatin either marked by H3K27me3 or nine histone acetylations. Using RNA-seq, we found that macroH2A1-regulated genes, which have roles in cancer progression, are specifically found in macroH2A1-containing acetylated chromatin. Of the two macroH2A1 variants, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2, the former is suppressed in cancer and can interact with PARP-generated poly(ADP-ribose). Through the recruitment of PARP-1, macroH2A1.1 promotes the CBP-mediated acetylation of H2B K12 and K120 which either positively or negatively regulates the expression of macroH2A1-target genes. While macroH2A1-regulated H2B acetylation is a common feature of primary cells, this regulation is typically lost in cancer cells. Consequently, our results provide important insight into macroH2A1.1’s role in cancer suppression. PMID:25306110

  17. Exploring the Links Between Macro-Level Contextual Factors and Their Influence on Nursing Workforce Composition

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2012-01-01

    Research that links macro-level socioeconomic development variables to healthcare human resources workforce composition is scarce at best. The purpose of this study was to explore the links between non-nursing factors and nursing workforce composition through a secondary, descriptive analysis of year 2000, publicly available national nursing human resources data from Mexico. Building on previous research, the authors conducted multiple robust regression analysis by federal typing of nursing human resources from 31 Mexican states against macro-level socioeconomic development variables. Average education in a state was significantly associated in predicting all types of formally educated nurses in Mexico. Other results suggest that macro level indicators have a different association with each type of nurse. Context may play a greater role in determining nursing workforce composition than previously thought. Further studies may help to explain differences both within and between countries. PMID:22513839

  18. Cardiac phase: Amplitude analysis using macro programming

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, K.W.; Hickey, K.A.

    1981-11-01

    The analysis of EKG gated radionuclide cardiac imaging data with Fourier amplitude and phase images is becoming a valuable clinical technique, demonstrating location, size, and severity of regional ventricular abnormalities. Not all commercially available nuclear medicine computer systems offer software for phase and amplitude analysis; however, many systems do have the capability of linear image arithmetic using simple macro commands which can easily be sequenced into stored macro-strings or programs. Using simple but accurate series approximations for the Fourier operations, macro programs have been written for a Digital Equipment Corporation Gamma-11 system to obtain phase and amplitude images from routine gated cardiac studies. In addition, dynamic cine-mode presentation of the onset of mechanical systole is generated from the phase data, using only a second set of macro programs. This approach is easily adapted to different data acquisition protocols, and can be used on any system with macro commands for image arithmetic. Key words: Fourier analysis, cardiac cycle, gated blood pool imaging, amplitude image, phase image

  19. macroH2A1 histone variant represses rDNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong; Das, Sadhan; Douet, Julien; Wong, Jiemin; Buschbeck, Marcus; Mongelard, Fabien; Bouvet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of ribosomal DNA transcription is an important step for the control of cell growth. Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of canonical histones have been involved in this regulation, but much less is known about the role of histone variants. In this work, we show that the histone variant macroH2A1 is present on the promoter of methylated rDNA genes. The inhibition of the expression of macroH2A1 in human HeLa and HepG2 cells and in a mouse ES cell line resulted in an up to 5-fold increase of pre-rRNA levels. This increased accumulation of pre-rRNA is accompanied by an increase of the loading of RNA polymerase I and UBF on the rDNA without any changes in the number of active rDNA genes. The inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription by actinomycin D or by knocking down nucleolin, induces the recruitment of macroH2A1 on the rDNA and the relocalization of macroH2A1 in the nucleolus. Interestingly, the inhibition of rDNA transcription induced by nucleolin depletion is alleviated by the inactivation of macroH2A1. These results demonstrate that macroH2A1 is a new factor involved in the regulation of rDNA transcription. PMID:24071584

  20. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  1. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  2. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    PubMed

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  3. Ultrafast pulse lasers jump to macro applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebel, Martin; Lutze, Walter; Scheller, Torsten

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast Lasers have been proven for several micro applications, e.g. stent cutting, for many years. Within its development of applications Jenoptik has started to use ultrafast lasers in macro applications in the automotive industry. The JenLas D2.fs-lasers with power output control via AOM is an ideal tool for closed loop controlled material processing. Jenoptik enhanced his well established sensor controlled laser weakening process for airbag covers to a new level. The patented process enables new materials using this kind of technology. One of the most sensitive cover materials is genuine leather. As a natural product it is extremely inhomogeneous and sensitive for any type of thermal load. The combination of femtosecond pulse ablation and closed loop control by multiple sensor array opens the door to a new quality level of defined weakening. Due to the fact, that the beam is directed by scanning equipment the process can be split in multiple cycles additionally reducing the local energy input. The development used the 5W model as well as the latest 10W release of JenLas D2.fs and achieved amazing processing speeds which directly fulfilled the requirements of the automotive industry. Having in mind that the average cycle time of automotive processes is about 60s, trials had been done of processing weakening lines in genuine leather of 1.2mm thickness. Parameters had been about 15 cycles with 300mm/s respectively resulting in an average speed of 20mm/s and a cycle time even below 60s. First samples had already given into functional and aging tests and passed successfully.

  4. Inclusive jet production in pp(macro) collisions.

    PubMed

    Abbott, B; Abdesselam, A; Abolins, M; Abramov, V; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Alves, G A; Amos, N; Anderson, E W; Baarmand, M M; Babintsev, V V; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, T C; Baden, A; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begel, M; Belyaev, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Boehnlein, A; Bojko, N I; Borcherding, F; Brandt, A; Breedon, R; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burtovoi, V S; Butler, J M; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, D; Casilum, Z; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chekulaev, S V; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Chung, M; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Cochran, J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Cummings, M A; Cutts, D; Davis, G A; Davis, K; De, K; Del Signore, K; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Di Loreto, G; Doulas, S; Draper, P; Ducros, Y; Dudko, L V; Duensing, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Dyshkant, A; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Engelmann, R; Eno, S; Eppley, G; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fahland, T; Feher, S; Fein, D; Ferbel, T; Fisk, H E; Fisyak, Y; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M; Frame, K C; Fuess, S; Gallas, E; Galyaev, A N; Gao, M; Gavrilov, V; Genik, R J; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gilmartin, R; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Goncharov, P I; González Solís, J L; Gordon, H; Goss, L T; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graf, N; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Grinstein, S; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Gupta, A; Gurzhiev, S N; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Hahn, K S; Hall, R E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Heuring, T; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoftun, J S; Hou, S; Huang, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jaffré, M; Jerger, S A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Karmgard, D; Kim, S K; Klima, B; Klopfenstein, C; Knuteson, B; Ko, W; Kohli, J M; Kostritskiy, A V; Kotcher, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kozlovsky, E A; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kuznetsov, V E; Landsberg, G; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipton, R; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L; Lundstedt, C; Luo, C; Maciel, A K; Madaras, R J; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Marshall, T; Martin, M I; Martin, R D; Mauritz, K M; May, B; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; McMahon, T; Melanson, H L; Meng, X C; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mishra, C S; Mokhov, N; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M; da Motta, H; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Negroni, S; Norman, D; Nunnemann, T; Oesch, L; Oguri, V; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Padley, P; Pan, L J; Papageorgiou, K; Para, A; Parashar, N; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Paterno, M; Patwa, A; Pawlik, B; Perkins, J; Peters, M; Peters, O; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piekarz, H; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quintas, P Z; Raja, R; Rajagopalan, S; Ramberg, E; Rapidis, P A; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Rockwell, T; Roco, M; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rutherfoord, J; Santoro, A; Sawyer, L; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schwartzman, A; Sen, N; Shabalina, E; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Singh, H; Singh, J B; Sirotenko, V; Slattery, P; Smith, E; Smith, R P; Snihur, R; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Solomon, J; Sorín, V; Sosebee, M; Sotnikova, N; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Steinbrück, G; Stephens, R W; Stichelbaut, F; Stoker, D; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Taylor, W; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thompson, J; Toback, D; Tripathi, S M; Trippe, T G; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; van Gemmeren, P; Vaniev, V; Van Kooten, R; Varelas, N; Volkov, A A; Vorobiev, A P; Wahl, H D; Wang, H; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weerts, H; White, A; White, J T; Whiteson, D; Wightman, J A; Wijngaarden, D A; Willis, S; Wimpenny, S J; Wirjawan, J V; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Yamada, R; Yamin, P; Yasuda, T; Yip, K; Youssef, S; Yu, J; Yu, Z; Zanabria, M; Zheng, H; Zhou, Z; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2001-02-26

    We report a new measurement of the pseudorapidity (eta) and transverse-energy ( E(T)) dependence of the inclusive jet production cross section in pp(macro) collisions at square root of s = 1.8 TeV using 95 pb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The differential cross section d(2)sigma/(dE(T)d eta) is presented up to eta = 3, significantly extending previous measurements. The results are in good overall agreement with next-to-leading order predictions from QCD and indicate a preference for certain parton distribution functions. PMID:11290229

  5. Teaching Macro Principles "after" the Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinder, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Recent events should force everyone who teaches macroeconomics (or finance, for that matter) to reconsider their curriculums. In this short article, the author shares his thoughts about what should and should not be changed in the way economists teach macro principles to beginning students. Two tradeoffs are paramount and must be faced by every…

  6. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  7. The Mechanics of CSCL Macro Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Hong, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Macro scripts structure collaborative learning and foster the emergence of knowledge-productive interactions such as argumentation, explanations and mutual regulation. We propose a pedagogical model for the designing of scripts and illustrate this model using three scripts. In brief, a script disturbs the natural convergence of a team and in doing…

  8. Energy harvesting for human wearable and implantable bio-sensors.

    PubMed

    Mitcheson, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    There are clear trade-offs between functionality, battery lifetime and battery volume for wearable and implantable wireless-biosensors which energy harvesting devices may be able to overcome. Reliable energy harvesting has now become a reality for machine condition monitoring and is finding applications in chemical process plants, refineries and water treatment works. However, practical miniature devices that can harvest sufficient energy from the human body to power a wireless bio-sensor are still in their infancy. This paper reviews the options for human energy harvesting in order to determine power availability for harvester-powered body sensor networks. The main competing technologies for energy harvesting from the human body are inertial kinetic energy harvesting devices and thermoelectric devices. These devices are advantageous to some other types as they can be hermetically sealed. In this paper the fundamental limit to the power output of these devices is compared as a function of generator volume when attached to a human whilst walking and running. It is shown that the kinetic energy devices have the highest fundamental power limits in both cases. However, when a comparison is made between the devices using device effectivenesses figures from previously demonstrated prototypes presented in the literature, the thermal device is competitive with the kinetic energy harvesting device when the subject is running and achieves the highest power density when the subject is walking. PMID:21097254

  9. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  10. Wordperfect's toolbox: Formatting documents using styles and macros

    SciTech Connect

    May, W.E. )

    1990-01-01

    An automated system for formatting documents provides the technical communicator with tools to increase productivity, provide consistent document appearance, and decrease hassle and error. This paper demonstrates such a system, which uses WordPerfect's styles and macros, and illustrates the keystrokes necessary to format procedures and tables. Levels of automation will be discussed, progressing from manual application of styles, to applying styles with macros, to repeating macros with the escape key and through a parent macro. 3 refs.

  11. Expression, purification and crystallization of the SARS-CoV macro domain

    SciTech Connect

    Malet, Hélène; Dalle, Karen; Brémond, Nicolas; Tocque, Fabienne; Blangy, Stéphanie; Campanacci, Valérie; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre

    2006-04-01

    The SARS-CoV macro domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. Selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Macro domains or X domains are found as modules of multidomain proteins, but can also constitute a protein on their own. Recently, biochemical and structural studies of cellular macro domains have been performed, showing that they are active as ADP-ribose-1′′-phosphatases. Macro domains are also present in a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses, but their precise function in viral replication is still unknown. The major human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes 16 non-structural proteins (nsps), one of which (nsp3) encompasses a macro domain. The SARS-CoV nsp3 gene region corresponding to amino acids 182–355 has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.5, b = 55.6, c = 108.9 Å, β = 91.4°, and the asymmetric unit contains either two or three molecules. Both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffract to 1.8 Å.

  12. Applications of MACRO Photogrammetry in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajski, D.; Solter, A.; Gašparovic, M.

    2016-06-01

    Many valuable archaeological artefacts have the size of a few centimetres or less. The production of relevant documentation of such artefacts is mainly limited to subjective interpretation and manual drawing techniques using a magnifier. Most of the laser scanners available for the archaeological purposes cannot reach sufficient space resolution to gather all relevant features of the artefact, such as the shape, the relief, the texture and any damage present. Digital photogrammetric techniques make measuring with high accuracy possible and such techniques can be used to produce the relevant archaeometric documentation with a high level of detail. The approaches for shooting a good macro photograph (in the photogrammetric sense) will be explored and discussed as well as the design of a calibration test-field and the self-calibration methods suitable for macro photogrammetry. Finally, the method will be tested by producing a photorealistic 3D-model of an ancient figurine.

  13. Search for nuclearites using the MACRO detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, P.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiera, C.; Cobis, A.; Cormack, R.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Ficenec, D.; Forti, C.; Foti, L.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giubellino, P.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Klein, S.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Martellotti, G.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Masera,

    1992-09-28

    A negative search using 1/12 of the eventual MACRO detector has yielded nuclearite flux limits of 1.1[times]10[sup [minus]14] cm[sup [minus]2] sr[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1] for 10[sup [minus]10][lt][ital m][lt]0.1 g, and 5.5[times]10[sup [minus]15] cm[sup [minus]2] sr[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1] for [ital m][gt]0.1 g. We have modified the formula of De Rujula and Glashow for the light yield of nuclearites to include the uv light absorbed and reemitted in the visible region, and proved that the MACRO sensitivity extends almost to the escape velocity of the Earth. Our flux limit, therefore, can be used to address nuclearites that are possibly trapped in the solar system.

  14. Introduction to macro-econophysics and finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimkes, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Closed integrals in physics lead to equations for sources and vortices in fluid mechanics, electrodynamics and thermodynamics. In economics, the Stokes integral of economic circuits leads to new fundamental equations of macro-econophysics. These equations differ significantly from the laws of neoclassical theory. Entropy of markets replaces of the economic Cobb Douglas function and leads to stochastic processes and micro-econophysics of financial markets.

  15. Understanding the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition.

    PubMed

    Steg, Linda; Perlaviciute, Goda; van der Werff, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health, economic prospects, and basic food and water sources of people. A wide range of changes in household energy behavior is needed to realize a sustainable energy transition. We propose a general framework to understand and encourage sustainable energy behaviors, comprising four key issues. First, we need to identify which behaviors need to be changed. A sustainable energy transition involves changes in a wide range of energy behaviors, including the adoption of sustainable energy sources and energy-efficient technology, investments in energy efficiency measures in buildings, and changes in direct and indirect energy use behavior. Second, we need to understand which factors underlie these different types of sustainable energy behaviors. We discuss three main factors that influence sustainable energy behaviors: knowledge, motivations, and contextual factors. Third, we need to test the effects of interventions aimed to promote sustainable energy behaviors. Interventions can be aimed at changing the actual costs and benefits of behavior, or at changing people's perceptions and evaluations of different costs and benefits of behavioral options. Fourth, it is important to understand which factors affect the acceptability of energy policies and energy systems changes. We discuss important findings from psychological studies on these four topics, and propose a research agenda to further explore these topics. We emphasize the need of an integrated approach in studying the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition that increases our understanding of which general factors affect a wide range of energy behaviors as well as the acceptability of different energy policies and energy system changes. PMID:26136705

  16. Understanding the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition

    PubMed Central

    Steg, Linda; Perlaviciute, Goda; van der Werff, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health, economic prospects, and basic food and water sources of people. A wide range of changes in household energy behavior is needed to realize a sustainable energy transition. We propose a general framework to understand and encourage sustainable energy behaviors, comprising four key issues. First, we need to identify which behaviors need to be changed. A sustainable energy transition involves changes in a wide range of energy behaviors, including the adoption of sustainable energy sources and energy-efficient technology, investments in energy efficiency measures in buildings, and changes in direct and indirect energy use behavior. Second, we need to understand which factors underlie these different types of sustainable energy behaviors. We discuss three main factors that influence sustainable energy behaviors: knowledge, motivations, and contextual factors. Third, we need to test the effects of interventions aimed to promote sustainable energy behaviors. Interventions can be aimed at changing the actual costs and benefits of behavior, or at changing people’s perceptions and evaluations of different costs and benefits of behavioral options. Fourth, it is important to understand which factors affect the acceptability of energy policies and energy systems changes. We discuss important findings from psychological studies on these four topics, and propose a research agenda to further explore these topics. We emphasize the need of an integrated approach in studying the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition that increases our understanding of which general factors affect a wide range of energy behaviors as well as the acceptability of different energy policies and energy system changes. PMID:26136705

  17. Ordered Macro/Mesoporous TiO2 Hollow Microspheres with Highly Crystalline Thin Shells for High-Efficiency Photoconversion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Lan, Kun; Bagabas, Abdulaziz A; Zhang, Pengfei; Gao, Wenjun; Wang, Jingxiu; Sun, Zhenkun; Fan, Jianwei; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-02-01

    Well ordered, uniform 3D open macro/mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres with highly crystalline anatase thin shells have been successfully synthesized by a simple solvent evaporation-driven confined self-assembly method. The 3D open macro/mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres show high energy-conversion efficiency (up to 9.5%) and remarkable photocatalytic activity (with photodegradation of 100% for methylene blue in 12 min under UV light irradiation). PMID:26708310

  18. Human Motion Energy Harvesting for AAL Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Becker, P.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Research and development into the topic of ambient assisted living has led to an increasing range of devices that facilitate a person's life. The issue of the power supply of these modern mobile systems however has not been solved satisfactorily yet. In this paper a flat inductive multi-coil harvester for integration into the shoe sole is presented. The device is designed for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications and particularly to power a self-lacing shoe. The harvester exploits the horizontal swing motion of the foot to generate energy. Stacks of opposing magnets move through a number of equally spaced coils to induce a voltage. The requirement of a flat structure which can be integrated into the shoe sole is met by a reduced form factor of the magnet stack. In order to exploit the full width of the shoe sole, supporting structures are used to parallelize the harvester and therefore increase the number of active elements, i.e. magnets and coils. The development and characterization of different harvester variations is presented with the best tested design generating an average power of up to 2.14 mW at a compact device size of 75 × 41.5 × 15 mm3 including housing.

  19. Hydrogen Macro System Model User Guide, Version 1.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.; Genung, K.; Hoseley, R.; Smith, A.; Yuzugullu, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  20. Enhanced stopping of macro-particles in particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.; Tonge, J.; Ellis, I.; Mori, W. B.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-05-15

    We derive an equation for energy transfer from relativistic charged particles to a cold background plasma appropriate for finite-size particles that are used in particle-in-cell simulation codes. Expressions for one-, two-, and three-dimensional particles are presented, with special attention given to the two-dimensional case. This energy transfer is due to the electric field of the wake set up in the background plasma by the relativistic particle. The enhanced stopping is dependent on the q{sup 2}/m, where q is the charge and m is the mass of the relativistic particle, and therefore simulation macro-particles with large charge but identical q/m will stop more rapidly. The stopping power also depends on the effective particle shape of the macro-particle. These conclusions are verified in particle-in-cell simulations. We present 2D simulations of test particles, relaxation of high-energy tails, and integrated fast ignition simulations showing that the enhanced drag on macro-particles may adversely affect the results of these simulations in a wide range of high-energy density plasma scenarios. We also describe a particle splitting algorithm which can potentially overcome this problem and show its effect in controlling the stopping of macro-particles.

  1. Mice without MacroH2A Histone Variants

    PubMed Central

    Changolkar, Lakshmi N.; Costanzi, Carl; Leu, N. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    MacroH2A core histone variants have a unique structure that includes a C-terminal nonhistone domain. They are highly conserved in vertebrates and are thought to regulate gene expression. However, the nature of genes regulated by macroH2As and their biological significance remain unclear. Here, we examine macroH2A function in vivo by knocking out both macroH2A1 and macroH2A2 in the mouse. While macroH2As are not required for early development, the absence of macroH2As impairs prenatal and postnatal growth and can significantly reduce reproductive efficiency. The distributions of macroH2A.1- and macroH2A.2-containing nucleosomes show substantial overlap, as do their effects on gene expression. Our studies in fetal and adult liver indicate that macroH2As can exert large positive or negative effects on gene expression, with macroH2A.1 and macroH2A.2 acting synergistically on the expression of some genes and apparently having opposing effects on others. These effects are very specific and in the adult liver preferentially involve genes related to lipid metabolism, including the leptin receptor. MacroH2A-dependent gene regulation changes substantially in postnatal development and can be strongly affected by fasting. We propose that macroH2As produce adaptive changes to gene expression, which in the liver focus on metabolism. PMID:25312643

  2. Recycling Energy to Restore Impaired Ankle Function during Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Steven H.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Humans normally dissipate significant energy during walking, largely at the transitions between steps. The ankle then acts to restore energy during push-off, which may be the reason that ankle impairment nearly always leads to poorer walking economy. The replacement of lost energy is necessary for steady gait, in which mechanical energy is constant on average, external dissipation is negligible, and no net work is performed over a stride. However, dissipation and replacement by muscles might not be necessary if energy were instead captured and reused by an assistive device. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a microprocessor-controlled artificial foot that captures some of the energy that is normally dissipated by the leg and “recycles” it as positive ankle work. In tests on subjects walking with an artificially-impaired ankle, a conventional prosthesis reduced ankle push-off work and increased net metabolic energy expenditure by 23% compared to normal walking. Energy recycling restored ankle push-off to normal and reduced the net metabolic energy penalty to 14%. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that reduced ankle push-off contributes to the increased metabolic energy expenditure accompanying ankle impairments, and demonstrate that energy recycling can be used to reduce such cost. PMID:20174659

  3. The Mass Flux of Non-renewable Energy for Humanity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Edwin

    The global energy supply relies on non-renewable energy sources, coal, crude oil, and natural gas, along with nuclear power from uranium and these finite resources are located within the upper few kilometers of the Earth's crust. The total quantity of non-renewable energy resources consumed relative to the total quantity available is an essential question facing humanity. Analyses of energy consumption was conducted for the period 1800--2014 using data from the U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and World Energy Production, 1800--1985 to determine the balance between non-renewable energy resources consumed and ultimately recoverable reserves. Annual energy consumption was plotted for each non-renewable resource followed by analyses to determine annual growth rates of consumption. Results indicated total energy consumption grew approximately exponentially 3.6% per year from 1800--1975 and was linear from 1975--2014. The ultimately recoverable reserves (URR) plus the total quantity consumed to date equals the total energy resource reserve prior to exploitation (7.15 x 1018 grams). Knowing the original resource quantity and the annual consumption and growth rates, we can forecast the duration of remaining resources using different scenarios. Alternatively, we can use population growth models and consumption trends to determine the per capita allocation trends and model that into the future. Alternative modeling of future resource allocation on a per capita bases suggests that resource lifetime may be significantly less than that predicted from consumption and production dynamics alone.

  4. DNA Hypomethylation and Histone Variant macroH2A1 Synergistically Attenuate Chemotherapy-Induced Senescence to Promote Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression.

    PubMed

    Borghesan, Michela; Fusilli, Caterina; Rappa, Francesca; Panebianco, Concetta; Rizzo, Giovanni; Oben, Jude A; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Faulkes, Chris; Pata, Illar; Agodi, Antonella; Rezaee, Farhad; Minogue, Shane; Warren, Alessandra; Peterson, Abigail; Sedivy, John M; Douet, Julien; Buschbeck, Marcus; Cappello, Francesco; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2016-02-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for progression of liver diseases to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cellular senescence contributes to age-related tissue dysfunction, but the epigenetic basis underlying drug-induced senescence remains unclear. macroH2A1, a variant of histone H2A, is a marker of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci that synergizes with DNA methylation to silence tumor-suppressor genes in human fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated the relationship between macroH2A1 splice variants, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2, and liver carcinogenesis. We found that protein levels of both macroH2A1 isoforms were increased in the livers of very elderly rodents and humans, and were robust immunohistochemical markers of human cirrhosis and HCC. In response to the chemotherapeutic and DNA-demethylating agent 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), transgenic expression of macroH2A1 isoforms in HCC cell lines prevented the emergence of a senescent-like phenotype and induced synergistic global DNA hypomethylation. Conversely, macroH2A1 depletion amplified the antiproliferative effects of 5-aza-dC in HCC cells, but failed to enhance senescence. Senescence-associated secretory phenotype and whole-transcriptome analyses implicated the p38 MAPK/IL8 pathway in mediating macroH2A1-dependent escape of HCC cells from chemotherapy-induced senescence. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing revealed that this hepatic antisenescence state also required active transcription that could not be attributed to genomic occupancy of these histones. Collectively, our findings reveal a new mechanism by which drug-induced senescence is epigenetically regulated by macroH2A1 and DNA methylation and suggest macroH2A1 as a novel biomarker of hepatic senescence that could potentially predict prognosis and disease progression. PMID:26772755

  5. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  6. Emergent Behavior in the Macro World: Rigidity of Granular Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2015-03-01

    Diversity in the natural world emerges from the collective behavior of large numbers of interacting objects. The origin of collectively organized structures over the vast range of length scales from the subatomic to colloidal is the competition between energy and entropy. Thermal motion provides the mechanism for organization by allowing particles to explore the space of configurations. This well-established paradigm of emergent behavior breaks down for collections of macroscopic objects ranging from grains of sand to asteroids. In this macro-world of particulate systems, thermal motion is absent, and mechanical forces are all important. We lack understanding of the basic, unifying principles that underlie the emergence of order in this world. In this talk, I will explore the origin of rigidity of granular solids, and present a new paradigm for emergence of order in these athermal systems. This work has been supported by NSF-DMR 1409093 and by the W. M. Keck foundation

  7. Pyrolysis and gasification of typical components in wastes with macro-TGA.

    PubMed

    Meng, Aihong; Chen, Shen; Long, Yanqiu; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Yanguo; Li, Qinghai

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of typical components of solid waste, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were performed and compared in a macro thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Three model biomasses, poplar stem, orange peel and Chinese cabbage, were applied to pyrolysis and gasification simulation by their components based on TG curves. Compared to those from TGA, peaks temperature of the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of each samples pyrolysis on macro-TGA delayed 30-55°C due to heat transferring effect. CO2 promoted the thermal decomposition of hemicellulose, lignin, starch, pectin and model biomasses significantly by Boudouard reaction, and enhanced slightly the decomposition of PET. The activation energy (AE) of biomass components pyrolysis on macro-TGA was 167-197 kJ/mol, while that of plastic samples was 185-235 kJ/mol. The activation energy of 351-377 kJ/mol was corresponding to the Boudouard reaction in CO2 gasification. All overlap ratios in pseudo-components simulation were higher than 0.98 to indicate that pseudo-components model could be applied to both pyrolysis and CO2 gasification, and the mass fractions of components derived from pyrolysis and gasification were slightly different but not brought in obvious difference in simulating curves when they were applied across. PMID:26318422

  8. Micro manipulator motion control to counteract macro manipulator structural vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Evans, M.S.; Bennett, D.W.

    1995-02-01

    Inertial force damping control by micro manipulator modulation is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a micro/macro manipulator system. The proposed controller, developed using classical control theory, is added to the existing control system. The proposed controller uses real-time measurements of macro manipulator flexibility to adjust the motion of the micro manipulator to counteract structural vibrations. Experimental studies using an existing micro/macro flexible link manipulator testbed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to suppression of vibrations in the macro/micro manipulator system using micro-manipulator-based inertial active damping control.

  9. Thirst for Power: Energy, Water and Human Survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, M.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are precious resources, and they are interconnected. The energy sector uses a lot of water -- the thermoelectric power sector alone is the largest user of water in the U.S., withdrawing 200 billion gallons daily for powerplant cooling. Conversely, the water sector is responsible for over twelve percent of national energy consumption for moving, pumping, treating, and heating water. This interdependence means that droughts can cause energy shortages, and power outages can bring the water system to a halt. It also means that water efficiency is a pathway to energy efficiency and vice versa. This talk will give a big-picture overview of global energy and water trends to describe how they interact, what conflicts are looming, and how they can work together. This talk will include the vulnerabilities and cross-cutting solutions such as efficient markets and smart technologies that embed more information about resource management. It will include discussion of how population growth, economic growth, climate change, and short-sighted policies are likely to make things worse. Yet, more integrated planning with long-term sustainability in mind along with cultural shifts, advanced technologies, and better design can avert such a daunting future. Combining anecdotes and personal stories with insights into the latest science of energy and water, this talk will identify a hopeful path toward wise, long-range water-energy decisions and a more reliable and abundant future for humanity.

  10. Human energy expenditure in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nawi, N M; Yahya, A; Chen, G; Bockari-Gevao, S M; Maraseni, T N

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the human energy consumption of various field operations involved in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia. Based on recorded average heart rates, fertilizing was found to be the most strenuous operation, with an average heart rate of 138 beats min(-1). There were no significant differences in the average heart rates of the subjects among the individual tasks within the first plowing, second plowing, and harvesting operations, with the average heart rates for these three tasks being 116, 106, and 106 beats min(-1), respectively. The corresponding energy expenditures were 3.90, 3.43, and 3.35 kcal min(-1). Loading the seed into the blower tank and broadcasting the seed were the most critical tasks for the seed broadcasting operation, with average heart rates of 124 and 136 beats min(-1), respectively. The highest energy expenditure of 418.38 kcal ha(-1) was observed for seed broadcasting, and the lowest energy expenditure of 127.96 kcal ha(-1) was for second plowing. The total seasonal human energy expenditure for rice cultivation was estimated to be 5810.71 kcal ha(-1), 55.7% of which was spent on pesticide spraying. Although the sample size in this study was relatively small, the results indicated that human energy expenditure per unit area (kcal ha(-1)) was positively linked to the average heart rate of the subjects and negatively linked to the field capacity. Thus, mechanization of certain tasks could decrease worker physical effort and fatigue and increase production. PMID:22458015

  11. [Energy saving and LED lamp lighting and human health].

    PubMed

    Deĭnego, V N; Kaptsov, V A

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of new sources of high-intensity with large proportion of blue light in the spectrum revealed new risks of their influence on the function of the eye and human health, especially for children and teenagers. There is an urgent need to reconsider the research methods of vision hygiene in conditions of energy-saving and LED bulbs lighting. On the basis of a systematic approach and knowledge of the newly discovered photosensitive receptors there was built hierarchical model of the interaction of "light environment - the eye - the system of formation of visual images - the hormonal system of the person - his psycho-physiological state." This approach allowed us to develop a range of risk for the negative impact of spectrum on the functions of the eye and human health, as well as to formulate the hygiene requirements for energy-efficient high-intensity light sources. PMID:24624829

  12. Harvesting human kinematical energy based on liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Dewei; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Yixin

    2009-03-01

    A flexible human energy harvesting generator - Liquid Metal Magnetohydrodynamics Generator (LMMG) is proposed and fabricated. Conceptual experiments were performed to investigate this electricity harvesting principle. Theoretical analysis predicts that the present method is promising at converting otherwise wasted human kinematical energy via a directional selective generation paradigm. In vitro experiment demonstrates output of 1.4 V/3.61 μW by 5.68 g Ga 62In 25Sn 13 liquid metal with a rather high efficiency of more than 45%. The in vivo experiment actuated by a wrist swing during brisk walking with the plastic valve to rectify the flow, verified the potentiality of unidirectional actuation. This concept based on the flexible movement of LMMG is robust to supply electricity which would be important for future wearable micro/nano devices as a voltage constrained charge provider.

  13. Dynamics of energy harvesting backpack with human being interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yue; Zuo, Lei

    2016-04-01

    In last ten years, a lot of researchers have begun to look into obtaining electricity from the movement between human and their backpack that occurs during walking. In this paper, an innovative, elastically-suspended backpack with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) based energy harvester is developed to generate electricity with high efficiency and reliability. Up to 28 Watts peak electrical power can be produced by the MMR based backpack energy harvester. A dynamic model for the system is presented along with experimental results. Three dual mass models for different distinct harvesters: pure viscous, non MMR, and MMR, are proposed, and a comparison in the output power and human comfort between the three models is discussed.

  14. The Human Genome Initiative of the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The structural characterization of genes and elucidation of their encoded functions have become a cornerstone of modern health research, biology and biotechnology. A genome program is an organized effort to locate and identify the functions of all the genes of an organism. Beginning with the DOE-sponsored, 1986 human genome workshop at Santa Fe, the value of broadly organized efforts supporting total genome characterization became a subject of intensive study. There is now national recognition that benefits will rapidly accrue from an effective scientific infrastructure for total genome research. In the US genome research is now receiving dedicated funds. Several other nations are implementing genome programs. Supportive infrastructure is being improved through both national and international cooperation. The Human Genome Initiative of the Department of Energy (DOE) is a focused program of Resource and Technology Development, with objectives of speeding and bringing economies to the national human genome effort. This report relates the origins and progress of the Initiative. 34 refs.

  15. The Human Genome Initiative of the Department of Energy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1988-01-01

    The structural characterization of genes and elucidation of their encoded functions have become a cornerstone of modern health research, biology and biotechnology. A genome program is an organized effort to locate and identify the functions of all the genes of an organism. Beginning with the DOE-sponsored, 1986 human genome workshop at Santa Fe, the value of broadly organized efforts supporting total genome characterization became a subject of intensive study. There is now national recognition that benefits will rapidly accrue from an effective scientific infrastructure for total genome research. In the US genome research is now receiving dedicated funds. Several other nations are implementing genome programs. Supportive infrastructure is being improved through both national and international cooperation. The Human Genome Initiative of the Department of Energy (DOE) is a focused program of Resource and Technology Development, with objectives of speeding and bringing economies to the national human genome effort. This report relates the origins and progress of the Initiative.

  16. Simultaneous macro and micro dosimetry with MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.B.; Kaplan, G.I.; Carolan, M.G.; Allen, B.J.; Maughan, R.; Yudelev, M.; Kota, C.; Coderre, J.

    1996-12-01

    The application of MOSFET dosimeters in complicated mixed radiation fields for measurement of absorbed dose distribution in tissue equivalent phantoms has been studied. The spectra of secondary charged particles have been measured simultaneously with average absorbed doses by the same MOSFET dosimeter. A good correlation has been observed between neutron depth dose distribution in a water phantom obtained using MOSFETs in integral mode and a tissue equivalent (T.E.) ionization chamber. Such MOSFET dosimeters are a promising tool for micro-macro dosimetry in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and Fast Neutron Therapy (FNT). Paired MOSFETs with one of the dosimeters covered by {sup 10}B have been applied for measuring of average boron dose distribution and microdosimetric spectra due to alpha particles and {sup 7}Li ions throughout a perspex phantom exposed in the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR).

  17. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs. PMID:26559074

  18. Micro-macro analysis of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Massimo; Possamai, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems have attracted considerable interest because of their wide range of applications, and are often studied via a "classic" approach: study a specific system, find a complex network behind it, and analyze the corresponding properties. This simple methodology has produced a great deal of interesting results, but relies on an often implicit underlying assumption: the level of detail on which the system is observed. However, in many situations, physical or abstract, the level of detail can be one out of many, and might also depend on intrinsic limitations in viewing the data with a different level of abstraction or precision. So, a fundamental question arises: do properties of a network depend on its level of observability, or are they invariant? If there is a dependence, then an apparently correct network modeling could in fact just be a bad approximation of the true behavior of a complex system. In order to answer this question, we propose a novel micro-macro analysis of complex systems that quantitatively describes how the structure of complex networks varies as a function of the detail level. To this extent, we have developed a new telescopic algorithm that abstracts from the local properties of a system and reconstructs the original structure according to a fuzziness level. This way we can study what happens when passing from a fine level of detail ("micro") to a different scale level ("macro"), and analyze the corresponding behavior in this transition, obtaining a deeper spectrum analysis. The obtained results show that many important properties are not universally invariant with respect to the level of detail, but instead strongly depend on the specific level on which a network is observed. Therefore, caution should be taken in every situation where a complex network is considered, if its context allows for different levels of observability. PMID:25635812

  19. LARCMACS: A TEX macro set for typesetting NASA reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, Linda H.; Mccaskill, Mary K.

    1988-01-01

    This LARCMACS user's manual describes the February 1988 version of LARCMACS, the TEX macro set used by the Technical Editing Branch (TEB) at NASA Langley Research Center. These macros were developed by the authors to facilitate the typesetting of NASA formal reports. They are also useful, however, for informal NASA reports and other technical documents such as meeting papers. LARCMACS are distributed by TEB for the convenience of the Langley TEX user community. LARCMACS contain macros for obtaining the standard double-column format for NASA reports, for typesetting tables in the ruled format traditional in NASA reports, and for typesetting difficult mathematical expressions. Each macro is described and numerous examples are included. Definitions of the LARCMACS macros are also included.

  20. Weighted directional energy model of human stereo correspondence.

    PubMed

    Prince, S J; Eagle, R A

    2000-01-01

    Previous work [Prince, S. J. D, & Eagle, R. A. (1999). Size-disparity correlation in human binocular depth perception. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 266, 1361-1365] has demonstrated that disparity sign discrimination performance in isolated bandpass patterns is supported at disparities much larger than a phase disparity model might predict. One possibility is that this extended performance relies on a separate second-order system [Hess, R. F., & Wilcox, L. M. (1994). Linear and non-linear filtering in stereopsis. Vision Research, 34, 2431-2438]. Here, a 'weighted directional energy' model is developed which explains a large body of crossed versus uncrossed disparity discrimination data with a single mechanism. This model assumes a population of binocular complex cells at every image point with a range of position disparity shifts. These cells sample a local energy function which is weighted so that energy at large disparities is relatively attenuated. Disparity sign is determined by summing and comparing energy at crossed and uncrossed disparities in the presence of noise. The model qualitatively predicts matching data for one-dimensional Gabor stimuli. This scheme also predicts DMax in Gabor stimuli and filtered noise. Moreover, a range of 'non-linear' phenomena, in which disparity is perceived from contrast envelope information alone, can be explained. The weighted directional energy model presents a biologically plausible, parsimonious explanation of matching behaviour in bandpass stimuli for both 'first-order' and 'second-order' stimuli which obviates the need for multiple mechanisms in stereo correspondence. PMID:10738073

  1. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design. PMID:26737430

  2. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  3. Scavenging energy from human motion with tubular dielectric polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar

    2010-04-01

    Scavenging energy from human motion is a challenge to supply low consumption systems for sport or medical applications. A promising solution is to use electroactive polymers and especially dielectric polymers to scavenge mechanical energy during walk. In this paper, we present a tubular dielectric generator which is the first step toward an integration of these structures into textiles. For a 10cm length and under a strain of 100%, the structure is able to scavenge 1.5μJ for a poling voltage of 200V and up to 40μJ for a poling voltage of 1000V. A 30cm length structure is finally compared to our previous planar structure, and the power management module for those structures is discussed.

  4. Energy Harvesting from Human Motion Using Footstep-Induced Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H.; Xu, R.; Seto, K.; Yeatman, E. M.; Kim, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an unobtrusive in-shoe energy harvester converting foot-strike energy into electricity to power wearable or portable devices. An air-pumped turbine system is developed to address the issues of the limited vertical deformation of shoes and the low frequency of human motion that impede harvesting energy from this source. The air pump is employed to convert the vertical foot-strike motion into airflow. The generated airflow passes through the miniaturized wind turbine whose transduction is realized by an electromagnetic generator. Energy is extracted from the generator with a higher frequency than that of footsteps, boosting the output power of the device. The turbine casing is specifically designed to enable the device to operate continuously with airflow in both directions. A prototype was fabricated and then tested under different situations. A 6 mW peak power output was obtained with a 4.9 Ω load. The achievable power from this design was estimated theoretically for understanding and further improvement.

  5. Low power energy harvesting and storage techniques from ambient human powered energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    small amounts of electricity to low-power electronic devices. These studies were focused to investigate and obtain power from different energy sources, such as vibration, light, sound, airflow, heat, waste mechanical energy and temperature variations. This research studied forms of ambient energy sources such as waste mechanical (rotational) energy from hydraulic door closers, and fitness exercise bicycles, and its conversion and storage into usable electrical energy. In both of these examples of applications, hydraulic door closers and fitness exercise bicycles, human presence is required. A person has to open the door in order for the hydraulic door closer mechanism to function. Fitness exercise bicycles need somebody to cycle the pedals to generate electricity (while burning calories.) Also vibrations, body motions, and compressions from human interactions were studied using small piezoelectric fiber composites which are capable of recovering waste mechanical energy and converting it to useful electrical energy. Based on ambient energy sources, electrical energy conversion and storage circuits were designed and tested for low power electronic applications. These sources were characterized according to energy harvesting (scavenging) methods, and power and energy density. At the end of the study, the ambient energy sources were matched with possible electronic applications as a viable energy source.

  6. A force-controllable macro-micro manipulator and its application to medical robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Uecker, Darrin R.; Wang, Yulun

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an 8-degrees-of-freedom macro-micro robot. This robot is capable of performing tasks that require accurate force control, such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning. The design of the macro-micro mechanism, the control algorithms, and the hardware/software implementation of the algorithms are described in this paper. Initial experimental results are reported. In addition, this paper includes a discussion of medical surgery and the role that force control may play. We introduce a new class of robotic systems collectively called Robotic Enhancement Technology (RET). RET systems introduce the combination of robotic manipulation with human control to perform manipulation tasks beyond the individual capability of either human or machine. The RET class of robotic systems offers new challenges in mechanism design, control-law development, and man/machine interface design. We believe force-controllable mechanisms such as the macro-micro structure we have developed are a necessary part of RET. Work in progress in the area of RET systems and their application to minimally invasive surgery is presented, along with future research directions.

  7. Katrina: macro-ethical issues for engineers.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Byron

    2010-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst disasters in United States history. Failures within New Orleans' engineered hurricane protection system (levees and floodwalls) contributed to the severity of the event and have drawn considerable public attention. In the time since Katrina, forensic investigations have uncovered a range of issues and problems related to the engineering work. In this article, my goal is to distill from these investigations, and the related literature that has accumulated, some overarching macro-ethical issues that are relevant for all engineers. I attempt to frame these issues, using illustrative examples taken from Katrina, in a way that might be of pedagogical use and benefit for engineering educators interested in engaging their students in discussions of engineering ethics, societal impact of engineered systems, engineering design, or related topics. Some of the issues discussed are problems of unanticipated failure modes, faulty assumptions, lack or misuse of information, the importance of resiliency, the effects of time, balancing competing interests, attending to the details of interfaces, the fickleness of risk perception, and how the past constrains the present. PMID:19821060

  8. Mentat: An object-oriented macro data flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Mentat, an object-oriented macro data flow system designed to facilitate parallelism in distributed systems, is presented. The macro data flow model is a model of computation similar to the data flow model with two principal differences: the computational complexity of the actors is much greater than in traditional data flow systems, and there are persistent actors that maintain state information between executions. Mentat is a system that combines the object-oriented programming paradigm and the macro data flow model of computation. Mentat programs use a dynamic structure called a future list to represent the future of computations.

  9. Body size and human energy requirements: Reduced mass-specific total energy expenditure in tall adults.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian resting energy expenditure (REE) increases as approximately weight(0.75) while mass-specific REE scales as approximately weight(-0.25). Energy needs for replacing resting losses are thus less relative to weight (W) in large compared with small mammals, a classic observation with biological implications. Human weight scales as approximately height(2) and tall adults thus have a greater weight than their short counterparts. However, it remains unknown if mass-specific energy requirements are less in tall adults; allometric models linking total energy expenditure (TEE) and weight with height (H) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that mass-specific energy requirements scale inversely to height in adults by evaluating TEE (doubly labeled water) data collected by the National Academy of Sciences. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated from TEE, REE (indirect calorimetry), and estimated diet-induced energy expenditure. Main analyses focused on nonmorbidly obese subjects < or =50 yrs of age with non-negative AEE values (n = 404), although results were directionally similar for all samples. Allometric models, including age as a covariate, revealed significantly (P < 0.05) greater REE, AEE, and TEE as a function of height (range H(1.5-1.7)) in both men and women. TEE/W scaled negatively to height ( approximately H(-0.7), P < 0.01) with predicted mass-specific TEE (kcal/kg/d) at +/-2 SD for US height lower in tall compared with short men (40.3 vs. 46.5) and women (37.7 vs. 42.7). REE/W also scaled negatively to height in men (P < 0.001) and women (P < 0.01). Results were generally robust across several different analytic strategies. These observations reveal previously unforeseen associations between human stature and energy requirements that have implications for modeling efforts and provide new links to mammalian biology as a whole. PMID:19856424

  10. Harvesting energy from the natural vibration of human walking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiqing; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Jin; Bai, Peng; Su, Yuanjie; Jing, Qingsheng; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-12-23

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), a unique technology for harvesting ambient mechanical energy based on the triboelectric effect, has been proven to be a cost-effective, simple, and robust approach for self-powered systems. However, a general challenge is that the output current is usually low. Here, we demonstrated a rationally designed TENG with integrated rhombic gridding, which greatly improved the total current output owing to the structurally multiplied unit cells connected in parallel. With the hybridization of both the contact-separation mode and sliding electrification mode among nanowire arrays and nanopores fabricated onto the surfaces of two contact plates, the newly designed TENG produces an open-circuit voltage up to 428 V, and a short-circuit current of 1.395 mA with the peak power density of 30.7 W/m(2). Relying on the TENG, a self-powered backpack was developed with a vibration-to-electric energy conversion efficiency up to 10.62(±1.19) %. And it was also demonstrated as a direct power source for instantaneously lighting 40 commercial light-emitting diodes by harvesting the vibration energy from natural human walking. The newly designed TENG can be a mobile power source for field engineers, explorers, and disaster-relief workers. PMID:24180642

  11. The Histone Variant MacroH2A1 Regulates Target Gene Expression in Part by Recruiting the Transcriptional Coregulator PELP1

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Kristine M.; Chen, Hongshan; Yang, Christine; Park, Eugene; Hah, Nasun; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Gamble, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    MacroH2A1 is a histone variant harboring an ∼25-kDa carboxyl-terminal macrodomain. Due to its enrichment on the inactive X chromosome, macroH2A1 was thought to play a role in transcriptional repression. However, recent studies have shown that macroH2A1 occupies autosomal chromatin and regulates genes in a context-specific manner. The macrodomain may play a role in the modulation of gene expression outcomes via physical interactions with effector proteins, which may depend on the ability of the macrodomain to bind NAD+ metabolite ligands. Here, we identify proline, glutamic acid, and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1), a chromatin-associated factor and transcriptional coregulator, as a ligand-independent macrodomain-interacting factor. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with tiling microarrays (ChIP-chip) to determine the genomic localization of PELP1 in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We find that PELP1 genomic localization is highly correlated with that of macroH2A1. Additionally, PELP1 positively correlates with heterochromatic chromatin marks and negatively correlates with active transcription marks, much like macroH2A1. MacroH2A1 specifically recruits PELP1 to the promoters of macroH2A1 target genes, but macroH2A1 occupancy occurs independent of PELP1. This recruitment allows macroH2A1 and PELP1 to cooperatively regulate gene expression outcomes. PMID:24752897

  12. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  13. [Preparation of porous ceramic macro-tubes scaffold].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei

    2011-05-01

    In this study, a porous hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) macro-tubes scaffold was fabricated, so that the PU (Polyurethane) can be coated onto the scaffold in order to increase the compressive strength. PMID:21954576

  14. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Cancer.gov

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  15. INVASIVE GRASS ALTERS LITTER DECOMPOSITION BY INFLUENCING MACRO-DETRITIVORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen fertilization experiments have produced results with inconsistent rates of plant litter decomposition, a phenomenon that may be explained if the influence of animal detritivores (macro-detritivores) on litter mass loss is greater than that of microbial decomposers whose ...

  16. Modeling Manganese Silicate Inclusion Composition Changes during Ladle Treatment Using FactSage Macros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piva, Stephano P. T.; Kumar, Deepoo; Pistorius, P. Chris

    2016-07-01

    This work investigated the use of FactSage macros to simulate steel-slag and steel-inclusion reaction kinetics in silicon-manganese killed steels, and predict oxide inclusion composition changes during ladle treatment. These changes were assessed experimentally using an induction furnace to simulate deoxidation and slag addition. The average steel mass transfer coefficient for the experimental setup was calculated from the analyzed aluminum pick-up by steel. Average oxide inclusion composition was measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the physical state (solid or liquid) of oxide inclusions in selected samples. The changes in the chemical compositions of the oxide inclusions and the steel agreed with the FactSage macro simulations.

  17. First results from the MACRO (Monopole, Astophysics, Cosmic Ray Observatory) detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Calicchio, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Nappi, E.; Spinelli, P.; Cecchini, S.; D'Antone, I.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pal, B.; Patrizii, L.; Predieri, F.; Sanzani, G.L.; Serra, P.; Spurio, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ficenec, D.; Hazen, E.; Klein, S.; Levin, D.; Marin, A.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Worstell, W.; Barish, B.; Coutu, S.; Hong, J.T.; Liu, G

    1989-01-01

    The MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, Cosmic Ray Observatory) detector which is being installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) is described in detail. The performance of the detector's first supermodule ({approximately}800 m{sup 2}sr), which had its initial data run from February 27 to May 30, 1989, is reported. About 245,000 muon triggers were recorded during this first run. Preliminary results are presented on: the measured vertical muon flux; the detection features of MACRO as a high energy muon and muon neutrino telescope; the measured lateral spread and multiplicity distributions of muon bundles; a search for GUT magnetic monopoles; a search for electron anti-neutrinos from stellar collapses. In addition, there are results obtained in conjunction with the EAS-TOP detector located on top of the Gran Sasso mountain. 24 refs., 22 figs.

  18. Micro-Macro Analysis of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Marchiori, Massimo; Possamai, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems have attracted considerable interest because of their wide range of applications, and are often studied via a “classic” approach: study a specific system, find a complex network behind it, and analyze the corresponding properties. This simple methodology has produced a great deal of interesting results, but relies on an often implicit underlying assumption: the level of detail on which the system is observed. However, in many situations, physical or abstract, the level of detail can be one out of many, and might also depend on intrinsic limitations in viewing the data with a different level of abstraction or precision. So, a fundamental question arises: do properties of a network depend on its level of observability, or are they invariant? If there is a dependence, then an apparently correct network modeling could in fact just be a bad approximation of the true behavior of a complex system. In order to answer this question, we propose a novel micro-macro analysis of complex systems that quantitatively describes how the structure of complex networks varies as a function of the detail level. To this extent, we have developed a new telescopic algorithm that abstracts from the local properties of a system and reconstructs the original structure according to a fuzziness level. This way we can study what happens when passing from a fine level of detail (“micro”) to a different scale level (“macro”), and analyze the corresponding behavior in this transition, obtaining a deeper spectrum analysis. The obtained results show that many important properties are not universally invariant with respect to the level of detail, but instead strongly depend on the specific level on which a network is observed. Therefore, caution should be taken in every situation where a complex network is considered, if its context allows for different levels of observability. PMID:25635812

  19. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, R; Menossi, M

    2007-05-01

    The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA) is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps). It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA. PMID:17464422

  20. Improving productivity with a CCC tool kit. [Utility macros

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.

    1987-01-01

    A typical utility macro tool set is described. Included are SIMPORT and SEXPORT that provide syntax-directed import and export, EDIT-HOST which permits CCC resident texts to be edited with a host editor, INITIATE-LOGIN which automatically executes a hierarchy of user- and manager-defined login texts, and BATCH whicn permits CCC macros to be executed in batch mode from within CCC.

  1. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  2. Active vertical tail buffeting suppression based on macro fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chengzhe; Li, Bin; Liang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic buffet is unsteady airflow exerting forces onto a surface, which can lead to premature fatigue damage of aircraft vertical tail structures, especially for aircrafts with twin vertical tails at high angles of attack. In this work, Macro Fiber Composite (MFC), which can provide strain actuation, was used as the actuator for the buffet-induced vibration control, and the positioning of the MFC patches was led by the strain energy distribution on the vertical tail. Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm has been widely used for its robustness and simplicity in practice, and consequently it was developed to suppress the buffet responses of first bending and torsional mode of vertical tail. However, its performance is usually attenuated by the phase contributions from non-collocated sensor/actuator configuration and plants. The phase lag between the input and output signals of the control system was identified experimentally, and the phase compensation was considered in the PPF control algorithm. The simulation results of the amplitude frequency of the closed-loop system showed that the buffet response was alleviated notably around the concerned bandwidth. Then the wind tunnel experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of MFC actuators and compensated PPF, and the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the acceleration response was reduced 43.4%, 28.4% and 39.5%, respectively, under three different buffeting conditions.

  3. Resonant bar detector constraints on macro dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, David M.; Weltman, Amanda; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2015-06-01

    The current standard model of cosmology, Λ CDM , requires dark matter to make up around 25% of the total energy budget of the Universe. Yet, quite puzzlingly, there appears to be no candidate particle in the current Standard Model of particle physics. Assuming the validity of the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, dark matter has evaded detection thus far either because it is intrinsically a weakly interacting substance or because its interactions are suppressed by its high constituent mass and low number density. Most approaches to explain dark matter to date assume the former and therefore require beyond-the-Standard-Model particles that have yet to be observed directly or indirectly. Given the dearth of evidence for this class of candidates it is timely to consider the latter possibility, which allows for candidates that may or may not arise from the Standard Model. In this work we extend a recent study of this general class of so-called macro dark matter—candidates with characteristic masses of grams and geometric cross sections of cm2. We consider new bounds that can be set using existing data from the resonant bar gravitational wave detectors NAUTILUS and EXPLORER.

  4. Fundamental constants and cosmic vacuum: The micro and macro connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, Harald; Solà, Joan

    2015-06-01

    The idea that the vacuum energy density ρΛ could be time-dependent is a most reasonable one in the expanding Universe; in fact, much more reasonable than just a rigid cosmological constant for the entire cosmic history. Being ρΛ = ρΛ(t) dynamical, it offers a possibility to tackle the cosmological constant problem in its various facets. Furthermore, for a long time (most prominently since Dirac’s first proposal on a time variable gravitational coupling) the possibility that the fundamental “constants” of Nature are slowly drifting with the cosmic expansion has been continuously investigated. In the last two decades, and specially in recent times, mounting experimental evidence attests that this could be the case. In this paper, we consider the possibility that these two groups of facts might be intimately connected, namely that the observed acceleration of the Universe and the possible time variation of the fundamental constants are two manifestations of the same underlying dynamics. We call it: the “micro and macro connection”, and on its basis we expect that the cosmological term in Einstein’s equations, Newton’s coupling and the masses of all the particles in the Universe, both the dark matter (DM) particles and the ordinary baryons and leptons, should all drift with the cosmic expansion. Here, we discuss specific cosmological models realizing such possibility in a way that preserves the principle of covariance of general relativity (GR).

  5. Polyaniline-Supported Atomic Gold Electrodes: Comparison with Macro Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Ilana; Jonke, Alex P.; Josowicz, Mira A.; Janata, Jiri

    2012-11-01

    Under precisely controlled conditions, atomic gold electrodes with even or odd number of Au atoms per polyaniline repeat unit (Pt/PANI/AuN for 0 macro gold and PANI coated platinum electrodes by testing electrochemical oxidation of n-propanol and iso-propanol. This study allowed us to separate the behavior dominated by that of macroscopic gold in strongly alkaline medium and by that of the quantized odd–even effect of atomic gold. Within this overarching scope, there is a specific oxidation pattern attributable to the structural differences between the two isomers of propanol. The significance of this research lies in the recognition of high specific catalytic activity of atomic gold, which is at least three orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk gold for the oxidation of alcohols. It points to a substantial saving of the precious metal without the loss of catalytic activity, which is important in fuel cells and in other energy conversion device applications.

  6. Human energy - optimal control of disturbance rejection during constrained standing.

    PubMed

    Mihelj, M; Munih, M; Ponikvar, M

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control system that enables a subject to stand without hand support in the sagittal plane was designed. The subject was considered as a double inverted pendulum structure with a voluntarily controlled degree of freedom in the upper trunk and artificially controlled degree of freedom in the ankle joints. The control system design was based on a minimization of cost function that estimated the effort of the ankle joint muscles through observation of the ground reaction force position relative to the ankle joint axis. By maintaining the centre of pressure close to the ankle joint axis the objective of the upright stance is fulfilled with minimal ankle muscle energy cost. The performance of the developed controller was evaluated in a simulation-based study. The results were compared with the responses of an unimpaired subject to different disturbances in the sagittal plane. The proposed cost function was shown to produce a reasonable approximation of human natural behaviour. PMID:12936049

  7. Lemons to Lemonade: How Five Challenges in Teaching Macro Practice Helped to Strengthen Our Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Joe; Sellers, Sherril; Gordon-Hempe, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Teaching macro practice can be challenging. While students have some concepts of what macro practice entails, their knowledge may be limited and sometimes inaccurate. Moreover, students may be reluctant to engage in macro change efforts. Given the scarcity of literature regarding teaching macro practice and the growing importance of it in social…

  8. Value of traditional foods in meeting macro- and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection.

    PubMed

    Grivetti, L E; Ogle, B M

    2000-06-01

    The importance of edible wild plants may be traced to antiquity but systematic studies are recent. Anthropologists, botanists, ecologists, food scientists, geographers, nutritionists, physicians and sociologists have investigated cultural aspects and nutrient composition of edible species. Important contributions to the diet from edible wild plants are well documented and numerous studies reveal roles played by 'lesser-known' species when meeting macro- and micronutrient needs of groups at risk, whether infants and children, pregnant and/or lactating women, or the elderly. The literature is vast and scattered but information on the macro- and micronutrient content of wild plants and their importance to the human diet appear in five kinds of publications: cultural works by social scientists, descriptions and inventories by botanists, dietary assessment studies by nutritionists, intervention programmes managed by epidemiologists and physicians, and composition data generally conducted by food scientists and chemists. Many macro- and micronutrient-dense wild species deserve greater attention but lack of adequate nutrient databases, whether by region or nation, limit educational efforts to improve diets in many Third World areas. Limited and uneven compositional data generally reflect factors of cost and personal interest in key nutrients. Whilst edible wild plants are regularly deprecated by policy makers and considered to be the 'weeds of agriculture', it would be tragic if this led to loss of ability to identify and consume these important available species. PMID:19087432

  9. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. PMID:27437701

  10. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Kanninen, Ohto; Karhula, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. PMID:27437701

  11. MacroH2A1 isoforms are associated with epigenetic markers for activation of lipogenic genes in fat-induced steatosis.

    PubMed

    Podrini, Christine; Koffas, Apostolos; Chokshi, Shilpa; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Lelliott, Christopher J; White, Jacqueline K; Adissu, Hibret A; Williams, Roger; Greco, Azzura

    2015-05-01

    The importance of epigenetic changes in the development of hepatic steatosis is largely unknown. The histone variant macroH2A1 under alternative splicing gives rise to macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. In this study, we show that the macroH2A1 isoforms play an important role in the regulation of lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Hepatoma cell line and immortalized human hepatocytes transiently transfected or knocked down with macroH2A1 isoforms were used as in vitro model of fat-induced steatosis. Gene expressions were analyzed by quantitative PCR array and Western blot. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis was performed to check the association of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) with the promoter of lipogenic genes. Livers from knockout mice that are resistant to lipid deposition despite a high-fat diet were used for histopathology. We found that macroH2A1.2 is regulated by fat uptake and that its overexpression caused an increase in lipid uptake, triglycerides, and lipogenic genes compared with macroH2A1.1. This suggests that macroH2A1.2 is important for lipid uptake, whereas macroH2A1.1 was found to be protective. The result was supported by a high positivity for macroH2A1.1 in knockout mice for genes targeted by macroH2A1 (Atp5a1 and Fam73b), that under a high-fat diet presented minimal lipidosis. Moreover, macroH2A1 isoforms differentially regulate the expression of lipogenic genes by modulating the association of the active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone marks on their promoters. This study underlines the importance of the replacement of noncanonical histones in the regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in the progression of steatosis. PMID:25526730

  12. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm3 a power density of 40 μW cm-3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm-3 for the total device volume of 48 cm3. Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly.

  13. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (<10 MeV/n) secondary particles of high-LET that contribute significantly to overall radiation exposures. Track structure theories suggest that high charge and energy (HZE) particles and low-energy secondary ions of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-energy ions of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular

  14. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  15. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  16. Biological Systems, Energy Sources, and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribe, Michael; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This five-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on biological systems as energy sources and on the teaching of this subject area. Chapter 1 discusses various topics related to energy and ecology, including biomass, photosynthesis and world energy balances, energy flow through ecosystems, and others. Chapter 2…

  17. The macro response Monte Carlo method for electron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Svatos, M M

    1998-09-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to prove the feasibility of basing electron depth dose calculations in a phantom on first-principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is equal to or better than current electron Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that are on the order of conventional electron transport methods such as condensed history, with the potential to be much faster. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to-Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate transport calculations. The first stage is a local, in this case, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the electron's energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or "kugel" A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV - 8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second transport stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the electron's new energy, position and trajectory. The electron is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until transport is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code. It was compared to Peregrine's class II condensed history electron transport package, EGS4, and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. Since the kugels completed in the library were of relatively small size, the zoning of the phantoms was scaled down from a clinical size, so that the energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel could be tested. Most

  18. The macro response Monte Carlo method for electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svatos, Michelle Marie

    1998-10-01

    This thesis proves the feasibility of basing depth dose calculations for electron radiotherapy on first- principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is comparable to or better than current electron Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that have potential to be much faster than conventional electron transport methods such as condensed history. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to- Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate transport calculations. The first stage is a local, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the electron's energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or 'kugel'. A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV-8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second transport stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry, which in this case is a CT (computed tomography) scan of a patient or phantom. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the electron's new energy, position and trajectory. The electron is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until transport is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code against EGS4 and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. The energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel were tested. Most resulting depth dose calculations were within 2-3% of well-benchmarked codes, with one excursion to 4%. This thesis shows that the concept of using single scatter-based physics in clinical radiation

  19. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  20. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Manohara, S R; Hanagodimath, S M; Gerward, L

    2011-01-01

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Z(eff). These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues. With the proper knowledge of buildup factors of human organs and tissues, energy absorption in the human body can be carefully controlled. The present results will help in estimating safe dose levels for radiotherapy patients and also useful in diagnostics and dosimetry. The tissue-equivalent materials for skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, cortical bone, and lung tissue are also discussed. It is observed that water and MS20 are good tissue equivalent materials for skeletal muscle in the extended energy range. PMID:22089011

  1. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  2. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  3. Connection between micro and macro hardness pearlitic-ferritic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duka, Edlira; Oettel, Heinrich; Dilo, Teuta

    2012-09-01

    Many physical and mechanical properties of materials are closely related to their microstructure, technologies to control the microstructure of materials have been well developed to obtain suitable properties. We measured the volume fraction of perlite and ferrite, micro Vickers hardness in pearlite and ferrite and macro hardness using different sample with different carbon content. The volume fraction of pearlite increases by increasing carbon content. By increasing carbon content, micro and macro hardness increase. We can conclude that for those conditional the mixing rule can't be use.

  4. Macro Monte Carlo for dose calculation of proton beams.

    PubMed

    Fix, Michael K; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Born, Ernst J; Aebersold, Daniel M; Manser, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Although the Monte Carlo (MC) method allows accurate dose calculation for proton radiotherapy, its usage is limited due to long computing time. In order to gain efficiency, a new macro MC (MMC) technique for proton dose calculations has been developed. The basic principle of the MMC transport is a local to global MC approach. The local simulations using GEANT4 consist of mono-energetic proton pencil beams impinging perpendicularly on slabs of different thicknesses and different materials (water, air, lung, adipose, muscle, spongiosa, cortical bone). During the local simulation multiple scattering, ionization as well as elastic and inelastic interactions have been taken into account and the physical characteristics such as lateral displacement, direction distributions and energy loss have been scored for primary and secondary particles. The scored data from appropriate slabs is then used for the stepwise transport of the protons in the MMC simulation while calculating the energy loss along the path between entrance and exit position. Additionally, based on local simulations the radiation transport of neutrons and the generated ions are included into the MMC simulations for the dose calculations. In order to validate the MMC transport, calculated dose distributions using the MMC transport and GEANT4 have been compared for different mono-energetic proton pencil beams impinging on different phantoms including homogeneous and inhomogeneous situations as well as on a patient CT scan. The agreement of calculated integral depth dose curves is better than 1% or 1 mm for all pencil beams and phantoms considered. For the dose profiles the agreement is within 1% or 1 mm in all phantoms for all energies and depths. The comparison of the dose distribution calculated using either GEANT4 or MMC in the patient also shows an agreement of within 1% or 1 mm. The efficiency of MMC is up to 200 times higher than for GEANT4. The very good level of agreement in the dose comparisons

  5. Macro Monte Carlo for dose calculation of proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, Michael K.; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Born, Ernst J.; Aebersold, Daniel M.; Manser, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Although the Monte Carlo (MC) method allows accurate dose calculation for proton radiotherapy, its usage is limited due to long computing time. In order to gain efficiency, a new macro MC (MMC) technique for proton dose calculations has been developed. The basic principle of the MMC transport is a local to global MC approach. The local simulations using GEANT4 consist of mono-energetic proton pencil beams impinging perpendicularly on slabs of different thicknesses and different materials (water, air, lung, adipose, muscle, spongiosa, cortical bone). During the local simulation multiple scattering, ionization as well as elastic and inelastic interactions have been taken into account and the physical characteristics such as lateral displacement, direction distributions and energy loss have been scored for primary and secondary particles. The scored data from appropriate slabs is then used for the stepwise transport of the protons in the MMC simulation while calculating the energy loss along the path between entrance and exit position. Additionally, based on local simulations the radiation transport of neutrons and the generated ions are included into the MMC simulations for the dose calculations. In order to validate the MMC transport, calculated dose distributions using the MMC transport and GEANT4 have been compared for different mono-energetic proton pencil beams impinging on different phantoms including homogeneous and inhomogeneous situations as well as on a patient CT scan. The agreement of calculated integral depth dose curves is better than 1% or 1 mm for all pencil beams and phantoms considered. For the dose profiles the agreement is within 1% or 1 mm in all phantoms for all energies and depths. The comparison of the dose distribution calculated using either GEANT4 or MMC in the patient also shows an agreement of within 1% or 1 mm. The efficiency of MMC is up to 200 times higher than for GEANT4. The very good level of agreement in the dose comparisons

  6. Micro and Macro Element Composition of Kalanchoe integra Leaves: An Adjuvant Treatment for Hypertension in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Frimpong-Manso, S.; Asiedu-Gyekye, I. J.; Naadu, J. P.; Magnus-Aryitey, G. T.; Nyarko, A. K.; Boamah, D.; Awan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Two samples, water extract and blended whole leaves, of fresh Kalanchoe integra leaves (Crassulaceae), a traditional antihypertensive medicine used in Ghana, were analyzed with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Analysis revealed 12 macro and 26 micro elements in both extracts. Further quantitative assessment of the results for amounts of elements that are pharmacologically significant revealed that the amounts of calcium, potassium, and magnesium present in the extracts could be correlated to its traditional usage in managing hypertension and arrhythmias. However, heavy metals (lead and inorganic arsenic) detected in the extracts may pose a threat at doses normally used traditionally for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26495138

  7. Sodium and potassium uptake of Ulva - application of marine macro-algae for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Sawaki, Nanase; Notoya, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    The treatment of sodium, Na, and potassium, K, presents a challenge in space agriculture material recycling, as humans require Na and plants cannot grow at high Na concentrations. Hence, we are proposing the use of marine macro-algae to harvest K and other minerals from composted human waste. Ulva was selected for this feasibility study, since it tolerates a wide range of salinity levels. Growth capability of Ulva was examined under various total salinity levels and proportions of Na and K in the incubation medium. A homeostatic feature of Ulva was found in its intra-cellular concentration of Na and K, and in the intra-cellular ratio between Na and K (at 0.58 ± 0.30, lower than that of human metabolic waste). Intracellular concentration of K in Ulva is 20 times higher than seawater. Because of these characteristics, Ulva is a good candidate species for space agriculture.

  8. Sodium and potassium uptake of Ulva - Application of marine macro-algae for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Sawaki, N.; Notoya, M.

    2009-04-01

    The treatment of sodium, Na, and potassium, K, presents a challenge in space agriculture material recycling, as humans require Na and plants cannot grow at high Na concentrations. Hence, we are proposing the use of marine macro-algae to harvest K and other minerals from composted human waste. Ulva was selected for this feasibility study, since it tolerates a wide range of salinity levels. Growth capability of Ulva was examined under various total salinity levels and proportions of Na and K in the incubation medium. A homeostatic feature of Ulva was found in its intra-cellular concentration of Na and K, and in the intra-cellular ratio between Na and K (at 0.58 ± 0.30, lower than that of human metabolic waste). Intracellular concentration of K in Ulva is 20 times higher than seawater. Because of these characteristics, Ulva is a good candidate species for space agriculture.

  9. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  10. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  11. Operationalizing Macro-Scripts in CSCL Technological Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchounikine, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the technological dimensions related to the operationalization of CSCL macro-scripts. CSCL scripts are activity models that aim at enhancing the probability that knowledge generative interactions such as conflict resolution, explanation or mutual regulation occur during the collaboration process. We…

  12. Reclaiming and Reimagining Macro Social Work Education: A Collective Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, F. Ellen; O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Cole, Portia L.; Hopkins, Karen; Jones, Jenny L.; Kim, Youngmi; Leisey, Monica; Mulroy, Elizabeth A.; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Thomas, M. Lori; Weil, Marie O.; Wike, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    The authors focus on a collective biography of 12 women social work educators, all either tenured or in tenure lines, from five different universities at the time of the study. The participants represent several aspects of macro practice including administration, planning, community practice, and policy. Beginning with reflections about coming…

  13. Exploring the Macro-Micro Dynamic in Data Use Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    In their opening comments to this special issue on data use, Coburn and Turner point to "one of the most central questions in social theory: the interrelationship between macro-social structure and micro-level action." Questions about data use--which entail social phenomena that range from federal policy to moment-to-moment interactions among…

  14. A Macro Model of Training and Development: Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khayyat, Ridha M.; Elgamal, Mahmoud A.

    1997-01-01

    A macro model of training and development includes input (training and development climate), process, and output (individual/organizational change) indicators. A test of the model with 387 Kuwaiti bank employees supported these indicators. Managers' perceptions of training and development and the organization's return on investment were…

  15. Exploring the Macro-Micro Dynamic in Data Use Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    In their opening comments to this special issue on data use, Coburn and Turner point to "one of the most central questions in social theory: the interrelationship between macro-social structure and micro-level action." Questions about data use--which entail social phenomena that range from federal policy to moment-to-moment interactions…

  16. Conceptualizing Educational Leadership: Does Exploring Macro-Level Facets Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present review attempts to examine the present status of educational leadership highlighting the role of macro-level facets in Asian Pacific context. The conceptualization of educational leadership among researchers so far had been found to vary according to different contexts and situations. Theoretical perspectives associated with…

  17. A temperature dependent SPICE macro-model for power MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The power MOSFET SPICE Macro-Model has been developed suitable for use over the temperature range {minus}55 to 125 {degrees}C. The model is comprised of a single parameter set with temperature dependence accessed through the SPICE .TEMP card. SPICE parameter extraction techniques for the model and model predictive accuracy are discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The USC macro data-flow simulator. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, N.; Gaudiot, J.L.

    1989-10-11

    As device technology develops to the limit of speed of light, parallel processing comes into play for high performance calculation. Conventional von Neumann computation show difficulty because of its single threadness. Many hybrid models have been proposed; they are reviewed, leading to the macro data-flow model. This macro data-flow is a scheme having a multilevel of model of execution which higher model is a tagged data-flow and lower level is von Neumann. Partitioning should be carefully done. A simple simulator has been developed, executing a macro data-flow graph. Micro instructions within a macro actor can access and process those vector data from higher data-flow level. Architectural description of this simulator and some special actors supporting this hybrid model are discussed. Details of instructions are explained as user reference manual, including sample programs and statistic gathering methods. In addition to the hardware simulator, a graph simulator was developed for simple execution of data-flow graph without resource limit of hardware details.

  19. Portraying Monsters: Framing School Bullying through a Macro Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article critically considers the discourse on school bullying through the conceptual framework of lenses and argues that a macro lens has been utilised by school bullying researchers to bring into focus the characteristics of the individuals involved and the types of actions used. By considering earlier understandings of bullying, the article…

  20. CD SEM metrology macro CD technology: beyond the average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin D.; Michelson, Di K.; Allgair, John A.; Tam, Aviram; Chase-Colin, David; Dajczman, Asaf; Adan, Ofer; Har-Zvi, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Downscaling of semiconductor fabrication technology requires an ever-tighter control of the production process. CD-SEM, being the major image-based critical dimension metrology tool, is constantly being improved in order to fulfill these requirements. One of the methods used for increasing precision is averaging over several or many (ideally identical) features, usually referred to as "Macro CD". In this paper, we show that there is much more to Macro CD technology- metrics characterizing an arbitrary array of similar features within a single SEM image-than just the average. A large amount of data is accumulated from a single scan of a SEM image, providing informative and statistically valid local process characterization. As opposed to other technologies, Macro CD not only provides extremely precise average metrics, but also allows for the reporting of full information on each of the measured features and of various statistics (such as the variability) on all currently reported CD SEM metrics. We present the mathematical background behind Macro CD technology and the opportunity for reducing number of sites for SPC, along with providing enhanced-sensitivity CD metrics.

  1. A survey on human behavior towards energy efficiency for office worker in malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Green environment has become an important topic around the world. This campaign can be realized if everybody understands and shares similar objectives on managing energy in an efficient way. This paper will present and analyse the survey on energy usage by office workers in Malaysia. The survey will focus on the workers in government sector. In social science surveys, it is important to support the tested data for a project. For issues related to human behaviour we must compare with real situations to verify the tested data and the results in energy monitoring system. The energy monitoring system will improve energy usage efficiency for the basic human activities in different situations and environments.

  2. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  3. An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…

  4. Potential of dynamic spectrum allocation in LTE macro networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, H.; Ramachandra, P.; Kovács, I. Z.; Jorguseski, L.; Gunnarsson, F.; Kürner, T.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) worldwide are extensively deploying LTE networks in different spectrum bands and utilising different bandwidth configurations. Initially, the deployment is coverage oriented with macro cells using the lower LTE spectrum bands. As the offered traffic (i.e. the requested traffic from the users) increases the LTE deployment evolves with macro cells expanded with additional capacity boosting LTE carriers in higher frequency bands complemented with micro or small cells in traffic hotspot areas. For MNOs it is crucial to use the LTE spectrum assets, as well as the installed network infrastructure, in the most cost efficient way. The dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) aims at (de)activating the available LTE frequency carriers according to the temporal and spatial traffic variations in order to increase the overall LTE system performance in terms of total network capacity by reducing the interference. This paper evaluates the DSA potential of achieving the envisaged performance improvement and identifying in which system and traffic conditions the DSA should be deployed. A self-optimised network (SON) DSA algorithm is also proposed and evaluated. The evaluations have been carried out in a hexagonal and a realistic site-specific urban macro layout assuming a central traffic hotspot area surrounded with an area of lower traffic with a total size of approximately 8 × 8 km2. The results show that up to 47 % and up to 40 % possible DSA gains are achievable with regards to the carried system load (i.e. used resources) for homogenous traffic distribution with hexagonal layout and for realistic site-specific urban macro layout, respectively. The SON DSA algorithm evaluation in a realistic site-specific urban macro cell deployment scenario including realistic non-uniform spatial traffic distribution shows insignificant cell throughput (i.e. served traffic) performance gains. Nevertheless, in the SON DSA investigations, a gain of up

  5. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  6. Extensive set of macros for structured programing in OS/360 assembly language (STRCMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    Development of consistent assembly language structured programming techniques has been enhanced by use of assembly macros developed for structured programing. Set of macros was written for IBM OS/360 Assembly language.

  7. The Use of Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engineering Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are the use of spreadsheet programs in chemical engineering calculations using Lotus 1-2-3 macros. Discusses the macro commands, subroutine operations, and solution of partial differential equation. Provides examples of the subroutine programs and spreadsheet solution. (YP)

  8. Macro-Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Focus on Programmes and Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This overview identifies some common features of macro-level language planning and briefly summarises the changing approaches to the analysis of macro-planning in the field. It previews six cases of language-in-education planning in response to linguistic diversity presented by the contributors to this issue. The cases show how macro-planning can…

  9. Energy Management for Human Service Agencies. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    Concerned about the effect rising energy costs would have on their local affiliates, building consultants for national social welfare agencies have been advocating the initiation of energy management and conservation programs. This manual, a three-part educational and planning tool, is a key element in a program developed to help local agencies…

  10. Cultural Change and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.

    1999-01-01

    Through the longitudinal study of families over two decades in Chiapas, Mexico, this chapter relates historical changes on the macro level to changes in human development and socialization on the micro level. (Author)

  11. Identification of critical residues in Hepatitis E virus macro domain involved in its interaction with viral methyltransferase and ORF3 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Nair, Vidya P.; Kaul, Sheetal; Kaushik, Nidhi; Sharma, Chandresh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Ranjith-Kumar, CT; Surjit, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of hepatitis in normal and organ transplant individuals. HEV open reading frame-1 encodes a polypeptide comprising of the viral nonstructural proteins as well as domains of unknown function such as the macro domain (X-domain), V, DUF3729 and Y. The macro domain proteins are ubiquitously present from prokaryotes to human and in many positive-strand RNA viruses, playing important roles in multiple cellular processes. Towards understanding the function of the HEV macro domain, we characterized its interaction partners among other HEV encoded proteins. Here, we report that the HEV X-domain directly interacts with the viral methyltransferase and the ORF3 proteins. ORF3 association with the X-domain was mediated through two independent motifs, located within its N-terminal 35aa (amino acids) and C-terminal 63-123aa. Methyltransferase interaction domain was mapped to N-terminal 30-90aa. The X-domain interacted with both ORF3 and methyltransferase through its C-terminal region, involving 66th,67th isoleucine and 101st,102nd leucine, conserved across HEV genotypes. Furthermore, ORF3 and methyltransferase competed with each other for associating with the X-domain. These findings provide molecular understanding of the interaction between the HEV macro domain, methyltransferase and ORF3, suggesting an important role of the macro domain in the life cycle of HEV. PMID:27113483

  12. Identification of critical residues in Hepatitis E virus macro domain involved in its interaction with viral methyltransferase and ORF3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Nair, Vidya P; Kaul, Sheetal; Kaushik, Nidhi; Sharma, Chandresh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Surjit, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of hepatitis in normal and organ transplant individuals. HEV open reading frame-1 encodes a polypeptide comprising of the viral nonstructural proteins as well as domains of unknown function such as the macro domain (X-domain), V, DUF3729 and Y. The macro domain proteins are ubiquitously present from prokaryotes to human and in many positive-strand RNA viruses, playing important roles in multiple cellular processes. Towards understanding the function of the HEV macro domain, we characterized its interaction partners among other HEV encoded proteins. Here, we report that the HEV X-domain directly interacts with the viral methyltransferase and the ORF3 proteins. ORF3 association with the X-domain was mediated through two independent motifs, located within its N-terminal 35aa (amino acids) and C-terminal 63-123aa. Methyltransferase interaction domain was mapped to N-terminal 30-90aa. The X-domain interacted with both ORF3 and methyltransferase through its C-terminal region, involving 66(th),67(th) isoleucine and 101(st),102(nd) leucine, conserved across HEV genotypes. Furthermore, ORF3 and methyltransferase competed with each other for associating with the X-domain. These findings provide molecular understanding of the interaction between the HEV macro domain, methyltransferase and ORF3, suggesting an important role of the macro domain in the life cycle of HEV. PMID:27113483

  13. A SAS macro for residual deviance of ordinal regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Wan, J Y; Wang, W; Bromberg, J

    1994-12-01

    In this paper, a SAS macro is described for calculating the likelihood of the 'saturated' model in the analysis of ordinal regression. The outcome variable is multinomial on an ordinal scale, while the explanatory variables can be nominal or ordinal. Several ordinal regression models may be fitted to the data. One method of testing for the goodness of fit of these regression models is by comparing the residual deviance with the chi 2 distribution. In SAS, PROC LOGISTIC may be used to fit this type of data with proportional odds model. Unfortunately, the residual deviance is not available from the output. Our SAS macro will supplement the SAS output so that the residual deviance test may be carried out. The data from an ongoing HIV study is used as an illustration. PMID:7736732

  14. An Integrated Planning Representation Using Macros, Abstractions, and Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltes, Jacky; MacDonald, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Planning will be an essential part of future autonomous robots and integrated intelligent systems. This paper focuses on learning problem solving knowledge in planning systems. The system is based on a common representation for macros, abstractions, and cases. Therefore, it is able to exploit both classical and case based techniques. The general operators in a successful plan derivation would be assessed for their potential usefulness, and some stored. The feasibility of this approach was studied through the implementation of a learning system for abstraction. New macros are motivated by trying to improve the operatorset. One heuristic used to improve the operator set is generating operators with more general preconditions than existing ones. This heuristic leads naturally to abstraction hierarchies. This investigation showed promising results on the towers of Hanoi problem. The paper concludes by describing methods for learning other problem solving knowledge. This knowledge can be represented by allowing operators at different levels of abstraction in a refinement.

  15. Evaluation of 3D nano-macro porous bioactive glass scaffold for hard tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Falk, M M; Rashad, A; Saad, M M; Marques, A C; Almeida, R M; Marei, M K; Jain, H

    2011-05-01

    Recently, nano-macro dual-porous, three-dimensional (3D) glass structures were developed for use as bioscaffolds for hard tissue regeneration, but there have been concerns regarding the interconnectivity and homogeneity of nanopores in the scaffolds, as well as the cytotoxicity of the environment deep inside due to limited fluid access. Therefore, mercury porosimetry, nitrogen absorption, and TEM have been used to characterize nanopore network of the scaffolds. In parallel, viability of MG 63 human osteosarcoma cells seeded on scaffold surface was investigated by fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy methods. The results show that cells attach, migrate and penetrate inside the glass scaffold with high proliferation and viability rate. Additionally, scaffolds were implanted under the skin of a male New Zealand rabbit for in vivo animal test. Initial observations show the formation of new tissue with blood vessels and collagen fibers deep inside the implanted scaffolds with no obvious inflammatory reaction. Thus, the new nano-macro dual-porous glass structure could be a promising bioscaffold for use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering for bone regeneration. PMID:21445655

  16. Sr, Mg cosubstituted HA porous macro-granules: potentialities as resorbable bone filler with antiosteoporotic functions.

    PubMed

    Landi, Elena; Uggeri, Jacopo; Medri, Valentina; Guizzardi, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Porous macro-granules of nanostructured apatite with Ca ions partially cosubstituted with Mg and Sr ions in different ratios (SrMgHAs), were synthesized at 37°C and compared with Mg and/or Sr free apatites (MgHAs and HA). Strontium improved the Mg substitution extent in the apatite and the chemical-physical and thermal stability of the resulting cosubstituted apatite. Porous macro-granules of 400-600 micron with selected composition were tested for the ionic release in synthetic body fluid and the data were related with the results of preliminary cell investigation in vitro. As compared to the corresponding Sr-free granulate, the SrMgHA could be exploited to prolong the beneficial Mg release during the bone regeneration process. In addition the contemporary in situ supply of Sr, an antiosteoporotic and anticarie ion, could influence the quality of new hard tissues. The ionic multirelease created a more favorable environment for human osteoblasts, demonstrated by a proliferative effect for each dose tested in the range 0.1-10 mg/mL. PMID:23348958

  17. Macro System Model (MSM) User Guide, Version 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.

    2011-09-01

    This user guide describes the macro system model (MSM). The MSM has been designed to allow users to analyze the financial, environmental, transitional, geographical, and R&D issues associated with the transition to a hydrogen economy. Basic end users can use the MSM to answer cross-cutting questions that were previously difficult to answer in a consistent and timely manner due to various assumptions and methodologies among different models.

  18. Effects of dynamic characters of the macro-micro fast coupling system in long stroke system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianwei; Yuan, Yong; Cui, Jiwen

    2015-02-01

    Macro-micro fast coupling system of dual-stage is used for the detachment and coupling of the macro-motion system and the wafer-stage. When the macro-motion system couples with the wafer-stage, the wafer-stage is driven by macro-motor to achieve long stroke motion. In this paper, the bottom air bearings of wafer stage are analyzed when the driving force of macro motor shifts the center of mass of wafer stage in Z direction. The X, Y, Z stiffness of the coupling system are obtained by using ANSYS.

  19. Estrogen-related receptor gamma modulates energy metabolism target genes in human trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Poidatz, D; Dos Santos, E; Brulé, A; De Mazancourt, P; Dieudonné, M N

    2012-09-01

    Placenta growth and functions depend on correct trophoblast migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The placenta has a critical role in gas and nutrient transport. To accomplish these numerous functions, the placenta depends on a highly efficient energy metabolism control. Recent studies showed that the orphan nuclear receptor Estrogen-Related Receptor gamma (ERRγ) is highly expressed in human placentas. As ERRγ has been described as a major energy metabolism regulator, we investigated ERRγ expression and putative roles on energy homeostasis in human trophoblast from first trimester placentas. First, we showed that ERRγ expression level increased during pregnancy and that ERRγ was more abundant in villous than in extravillous trophoblasts. We also observed that ERRγ expression increased during trophoblast differentiation. Second, we demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of some energy metabolism target genes decreased when ERRγ expression was impaired. Altogether, these results suggest that ERRγ could be implicated in the energy metabolism regulation of human trophoblasts. PMID:22763271

  20. Formulation of controlled release gellan gum macro beads of amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    Babu, R Jayachandra; Sathigari, Sateesh; Kumar, M Thilek; Pandit, J K

    2010-01-01

    Gellan gum has been reported to have wide pharmaceutical applications such as tablet binder, disintegrant, gelling agent and as a controlled release polymer. Multiparticulate delivery systems spread out more uniformly in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the local irritation. The purpose of this study is to explore possible applicability of gellan macro beads as an oral controlled release system of a sparingly soluble drug, amoxicillin. Gellan gum beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation with calcium ions. The effect of drug loading, stirring time, polymer concentration, electrolyte (CaCl2) concentration, curing time etc. influencing the preparation of the gellan gum macro beads and the drug release from gellan gum beads were investigated in this study. Optimal preparation conditions allowed very high incorporation efficiency for amoxicillin (91%) The release kinetics of amoxicillin from gellan beads followed the diffusion model for an inert porous matrix in the order: 0.1 N HCl > phosphate buffer > distilled water. Change in curing time did not significantly affect the release rate constant, but drug concentration, polymer concentration and electrolyte concentration significantly affect the release rate of amoxicillin from the beads. The gellan macro beads may be suitable for gastro retentive controlled delivery of amoxicillin. PMID:19863487

  1. Photocatalytic activity of a hierarchically macro/mesoporous titania.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinchen; Yu, Jimmy C; Ho, Chunman; Hou, Yidong; Fu, Xianzhi

    2005-03-15

    Light-harvesting macroporous channels have been successfully incorporated into a mesoporous TiO(2) framework to increase its photocatalytic activity. This bimodal porous material was characterized by X-ray diffractometry in both low-angle and wide-angle ranges, N(2) adsorption-desorption analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Ethylene photodegradation in gas-phase medium was employed as a probe reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic reactivity of the catalysts. The results reveal that sintering temperature significantly affects the structural stability and photocatalytic activity of titania. The catalyst which calcined at 350 degrees C possessed an intact macro/mesoporous structure and showed photocatalytic reactivity about 60% higher than that of commercial P25 titania. When the sample was calcined at 500 degrees C, the macroporous structure was retained but the mesoporous structure was partly destroyed. Further heating at temperatures above 600 degrees C destroyed both macro- and mesoporous structures, accompanied by a loss in photocatalytic activity. The high photocatalytic performance of the intact macro/mesoporous TiO(2) may be explained by the existence of macrochannels that increase photoabsorption efficiency and allow efficient diffusion of gaseous molecules. PMID:15752052

  2. Characterization of and waste acceptance radionuclide to be reported for the 2nd macro-batch of high-level waste sludge being vitrified in the DWPF melter

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T.L.

    2000-01-26

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), at the Savannah River Site (SRS), is currently processing the second million gallon batch (Macro-Batch 2) of radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass for permanent geological disposal. To meet the reporting requirements as specified in the Department of Energy's Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), for the final glass product, the nonradioactive and radioactive compositions must be provided for a Macro-Batch of material. In order to meet this requirement, sludge slurry samples from Macro-Batch 2 were analyzed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). This information is used to complete the necessary Production Records at DWPF so that the final glass product, resulting from Macro Batch 2, may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. This paper describes the results obtained from the analyses of the sludge slurry samples taken from Macro-Batch 2 to meet the reporting requirements of the WAPS. Twenty eight elements were identified for the nonradioactive composition and thirty one for the radioactive composition. The reportable radioisotopes range from C-14 to Cm-246.

  3. Human Genome Program Image Gallery (from genomics.energy.gov)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This collection contains approximately 240 images from the genome programs of DOE's Office of Science. The images are divided into galleries related to biofuels research, systems biology, and basic genomics. Each image has a title, a basic citation, and a credit or source. Most of the images are original graphics created by the Genome Management Information System (GMIS). GMIS images are recognizable by their credit line. Permission to use these graphics is not needed, but please credit the U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs and provide the website http://genomics.energy.gov. Other images were provided by third parties and not created by the U.S. Department of Energy. Users must contact the person listed in the credit line before using those images. The high-resolution images can be downloaded.

  4. Final Report: Human Capacity Building Grant for Renewable Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wil Sando

    2010-01-03

    Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprise (WSPWE), a Corporate Entity of the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Oregon, developed and distributed written materials, held workshops and field trips to educate tribal members on renewable energy projects that are a possibility utilizing resources on reservation. In order to build stronger public and Tribal Council support for the development of renewable energy projects on the reservation, WSPWE conducted a 12 month public education and technical expertise development program. The objectives of this program were to: • To build a knowledge base within the tribal community regarding renewable energy development potential and opportunities on reservation lands. • To educate the tribal community regarding development process, impacts and benefits. • To increase the technical expertise of tribal government and Tribal Council.

  5. Final Report: Human Capacity Building Grant for Renewable Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Sando, Wil

    2010-01-03

    Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprise (WSPWE), a Corporate Entity of the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Oregon, developed and distributed written materials, held workshops and field trips to educate tribal members on renewable energy projects that are a possibility utilizing resources on reservation. In order to build stronger public and Tribal Council support for the development of renewable energy projects on the reservation, WSPWE conducted a 12 month public education and technical expertise development program. The objectives of this program were to: To build a knowledge base within the tribal community regarding renewable energy development potential and opportunities on reservation lands. To educate the tribal community regarding development process, impacts and benefits. To increase the technical expertise of tribal government and Tribal Council.

  6. Energy analysis of human ecosystems in an Appalachian coal county

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary results from a energy analysis of the coal fuel cycle in an Appalachian coal county has provided systematic assessment of hidden energy subsidies in extraction, transport, processing, and combustion. Current results indicate a major loss due to depletion of the coal resource base by use of inefficient mining techniqus. Although of smaller magnitude, reductions in work force and community productivity from occupational accidents and disease and road maintenance requirements for transport also appear to be significant. Further assessment is needed to verify assumptions and characterize additional data bases.

  7. ASHTABULA SUCCESSES--MACRO NOW OR FOREVER HOLD YOUR PIECES!

    SciTech Connect

    Altmayer, S.A.; Forschner, J.A.; Kulpa, J. P.; Spoerner, M.T.

    2003-02-27

    As facility demolition and remediation continued at the DOE Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), a DOE closure site located in Ashtabula, OH, the quantity of mixed waste increased by approximately twenty-fold from the original Site Treatment Plan estimates to over 567 m3 (20,000 cubic feet). Also, a greater variety of low-level mixed waste (MW) was identified that was suitable for alternate debris treatment like macroencapsulation (MACRO) instead of traditional shredding, stabilization, and solidification to improve the overall safety and cost-effectiveness. Macroencapsulation is required for lead and authorized for hazardous debris under the alternate debris treatment standards per 40 CFR 268.45. Several polymer encapsulation processes were being explored, developed, and deployed in the mid-1990's by various groups including the DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area, DOE EM-50 Office of Science and Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, DOE Macro Working Group, DOE-Albuquerque Mixed Waste/Mobile Treatment Unit, and Envirocare of Utah, Inc. As a result, technically-proven macroencapsulation and microencapsulation processes using extruded polyethylene beads were verified as being technically acceptable for waste treatment to RCRA standards. The AEMP had a variety of waste forms where technically-proven systems were needed to perform on-site treatment of challenging mixed wastes (MW) from production operations (i.e. HEPA filters, barium salt contaminated steel) containing high concentrations of enriched uranium, graphite, salts, and RCRA metals. The AEMP continued with a technology development and deployment process to license, permit, install, and safely operate two proven polymer encapsulation systems for both RCRA microencapsulation and RCRA macroencapsulation using surplus DOE equipment from Rocky Flats to establish cost-effective mobile treatment capability. The AEMP treated approximately 16 m3 (= 579 cf) of challenging mixed wastes onsite at

  8. A nephron-based model of the kidneys for macro-to-micro α-particle dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Robert F.; Song, Hong; Huso, David L.; Sundel, Margaret H.; Sgouros, George

    2012-07-01

    Targeted α-particle therapy is a promising treatment modality for cancer. Due to the short path-length of α-particles, the potential efficacy and toxicity of these agents is best evaluated by microscale dosimetry calculations instead of whole-organ, absorbed fraction-based dosimetry. Yet time-integrated activity (TIA), the necessary input for dosimetry, can still only be quantified reliably at the organ or macroscopic level. We describe a nephron- and cellular-based kidney dosimetry model for α-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy, more suited to the short range and high linear energy transfer of α-particle emitters, which takes as input kidney or cortex TIA and through a macro to micro model-based methodology assigns TIA to micro-level kidney substructures. We apply a geometrical model to provide nephron-level S-values for a range of isotopes allowing for pre-clinical and clinical applications according to the medical internal radiation dosimetry (MIRD) schema. We assume that the relationship between whole-organ TIA and TIA apportioned to microscale substructures as measured in an appropriate pre-clinical mammalian model also applies to the human. In both, the pre-clinical and the human model, microscale substructures are described as a collection of simple geometrical shapes akin to those used in the Cristy-Eckerman phantoms for normal organs. Anatomical parameters are taken from the literature for a human model, while murine parameters are measured ex vivo. The murine histological slides also provide the data for volume of occupancy of the different compartments of the nephron in the kidney: glomerulus versus proximal tubule versus distal tubule. Monte Carlo simulations are run with activity placed in the different nephron compartments for several α-particle emitters currently under investigation in radiopharmaceutical therapy. The S-values were calculated for the α-emitters and their descendants between the different nephron compartments for both the

  9. A nephron-based model of the kidneys for macro-to-micro α-particle dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Robert F; Song, Hong; Huso, David L; Sundel, Margaret; Sgouros, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective Targeted α-particle therapy is a promising treatment modality for cancer. Due to the short path-length of α-particles, the potential efficacy and toxicity of these agents is best evaluated by microscale dosimetry calculations instead of whole-organ, absorbed fraction –based dosimetry. Yet time-integrated activity (TIA), the necessary input for dosimetry, can still only be quantified reliably at the organ or macroscopic level. We describe a nephron- and cellular-based kidney dosimetry model for α-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy, more suited to the short range and high linear energy transfer of α-particle emitters, which takes as input kidney or cortex TIA and through a macro to micro model-based methodology assigns TIA to micro-level kidney substructures. We apply the model to provide nephron-level S-values for a range of isotopes allowing for pre-clinical and clinical applications according to the medical internal radiation dosimetry (MIRD) schema. Methods We assume that the relationship between whole-organ TIA and TIA apportioned to microscale substructures as measured in an appropriate pre-clinical mammalian model also applies to the human. In both, the pre-clinical and the human model, microscale substructures are described as a collection of simple geometrical shapes akin go those used in the Cristy-Eckermann phantoms for normal organs. Anatomical parameters are taken from the literature for a human model, while murine parameters are measured, ex vivo. The murine histological slides also provide the data for volume of occupancy of the different compartments of the nephron in the kidney: glomerulus vs. proximal tubule vs. distal tubule. Monte Carlo simulations are run with activity placed in the different nephron compartments for several α-particle emitters currently under investigation in radiopharmaceutical therapy. Results The S-values were calculated for the α-emitters and their descendants between the different nephron compartments

  10. Pedometer and Human Energy Balance Applications for Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.; Smolski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Teachers can use pedometers to facilitate inquiry learning and show students the need for mathematics in scientific investigation. The authors conducted activities with secondary students that investigated intake and expenditure components of the energy balance algorithm, which led to inquiries about pedometers and related data. By investigating…

  11. A survey on human behavior towards energy saving for office worker in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fared

    2015-05-01

    Green environment is a space and energy efficient household, which can offer coziness and healthy living environment to its occupants. Human behavior is focuses to see the impact toward energy and also into green building. This probe can be taken in if everybody reads and share similar objectives in bringing off the energy in an efficient manner. This paper will present and watched over the survey feedback on energy usage by federal agency workers in Malaysia. The study will focus on the proletarians in the government sector since this population is the majority work in place. It is authoritative to present and support the tested data for a project doing, particularly connected to human existence. The matter is referred to discussing about human behavior to compare with the real situation information. Today, there are many researchers thought that the human activity as the primary ingredient for a monitoring arrangement. As a consequence, the energy monitoring system will improve the energy usage efficiency of the basic human actions in different places and surroundings.

  12. Pedometer and Human Energy Balance Applications for Science Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Rye, James A.; Smolski, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Teachers can use pedometers to facilitate inquiry learning and show students the need for mathematics in scientific investigation. The authors conducted activities with secondary students that investigated intake and expenditure components of the energy balance algorithm, which led to inquiries about pedometers and related data. By investigating the accuracy of pedometers and variables that may impact reported step counts, students can better understand experimental design and statistical concepts. Students can also examine other data (distance walked, kilocalories expended) using multifunction pedometers and apply the concepts of correlation and regression. This topic fits well with thematic learning and responds to concerns about excess energy intake and insufficient physical activity in the U.S. population. PMID:19081754

  13. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  14. Mechanical Unloading Promotes Myocardial Energy Recovery in Human Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Anisha A.; Hamilton, Dale J.; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M.; Youker, Keith A.; Yin, Zheng; Estep, Jerry D.; Stevens, Robert D.; Wenner, Brett; Ilkayeva, Olga; Loebe, Matthias; Peterson, Leif E.; Lyon, Christopher J.; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Hsueh, Willa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired bioenergetics is a prominent feature of the failing heart, but the underlying metabolic perturbations are poorly understood. Methods and Results We compared metabolomic, gene transcript, and protein data from six paired failing human left ventricular (LV) tissue samples obtained during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) insertion (heart failure (HF) samples) and at heart transplant (post-LVAD samples). Non-failing left ventricular (NFLV) wall samples procured from explanted hearts of patients with right HF served as novel comparison samples. Metabolomic analyses uncovered a distinct pattern in HF tissue: 2.6 fold increased pyruvate concentrations coupled with reduced Krebs cycle intermediates and short-chain acylcarnitines, suggesting a global reduction in substrate oxidation. These findings were associated with decreased transcript levels for enzymes that catalyze fatty acid oxidation and pyruvate metabolism and for key transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator1α (PGC1A, 1.3 fold) and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRA, 1.2 fold) and γ (ERRG, 2.2 fold). Thus, parallel decreases in key transcription factors and their target metabolic enzyme genes can explain the decreases in associated metabolic intermediates. Mechanical support with LVAD improved all of these metabolic and transcriptional defects. Conclusions These observations underscore an important pathophysiologic role for severely defective metabolism in HF, while the reversibility of these defects by LVAD suggests metabolic resilience of the human heart. PMID:24825877

  15. Metabolomics analysis of Cistus monspeliensis leaf extract on energy metabolism activation in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

  16. Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

  17. Energy landscapes’: Meeting energy demands and human aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Gadocha, Sabine; Schardinger, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy will play a crucial role in the future society of the 21st century. The various renewable energy sources need to be balanced and their use carefully planned since they are characterized by high temporal and spatial variability that will pose challenges to maintaining a well balanced supply and to the stability of the grid. This article examines the ways that future ‘energy landscapes’ can be modelled in time and space. Biomass needs a great deal of space per unit of energy produced but it is an energy carrier that may be strategically useful in circumstances where other renewable energy carriers are likely to deliver less. A critical question considered in this article is whether a massive expansion in the use of biomass will allow us to construct future scenarios while repositioning the ‘energy landscape’ as an object of study. A second important issue is the utilization of heat from biomass energy plants. Biomass energy also has a larger spatial footprint than other carriers such as, for example, solar energy. This article seeks to provide a bridge between energy modelling and spatial planning while integrating research and techniques in energy modelling with Geographic Information Science. This encompasses GIS, remote sensing, spatial disaggregation techniques and geovisualization. Several case studies in Austria and Germany demonstrate a top-down methodology and some results while stepwise calculating potentials from theoretical to technically feasible potentials and setting the scene for the definition of economic potentials based on scenarios and assumptions. PMID:26109751

  18. Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Sangar, Vineet; Eddy, James A.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Price, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based (CB) models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell. PMID:23112774

  19. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy—in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources—is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world’s natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources. PMID:24555053

  20. Variational formulation of macro-particle plasma simulation algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B. A. Stamm, A. B.; Evstatiev, E. G.

    2014-05-15

    A variation formulation of macro-particle kinetic plasma models is discussed. In the electrostatic case, the use of symplectic integrators is investigated and found to offer advantages over typical generic methods. For the electromagnetic case, gauge invariance and momentum conservation are considered in detail. It is shown that, while the symmetries responsible for these conservation laws are broken in the presence of a spatial grid, the conservation laws hold in an average sense. The requirements for exact invariance are explored and it is shown that one viable option is to represent the potentials with a truncated Fourier basis.

  1. Multifractal analysis of macro- and microcerebral circulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Alexey N.; Sindeeva, Olga S.; Sindeev, Sergey S.; Pavlova, Olga N.; Abdurashitov, Arkady S.; Rybalova, Elena V.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.

    2016-04-01

    Application of noninvasive optical coherent-domain methods and advanced data processing tools such as the wavelet-based multifractal formalism allows revealing effective markers of early stages of functional distortions in the dynamics of cerebral vessels. Based on experiments performed in rats we discuss a possibility to diagnose a hidden stage of the development of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We also consider responses of the cerebrovascular dynamics to a pharmacologically induced increase in the peripheral blood pressure. We report distinctions occurring at the levels of macro- and microcerebral circulation.

  2. Macro-actor execution on multilevel data-driven architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudiot, J.L.; Najjar, W.

    1988-12-31

    The data-flow model of computation brings to multiprocessors high programmability at the expense of increased overhead. Applying the model at a higher level leads to better performance but also introduces loss of parallelism. We demonstrate here syntax directed program decomposition methods for the creation of large macro-actors in numerical algorithms. In order to alleviate some of the problems introduced by the lower resolution interpretation, we describe a multi-level of resolution and analyze the requirements for its actual hardware and software integration.

  3. A temperature dependent SPICE macro-model for power MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.G.

    1992-05-01

    A power MOSFET macro-model for use with the circuit simulator SPICE has been developed suitable for use over the temperature range of {minus}55 to 125{degrees}C. The model is comprised of a single parameter set with the temperature dependence accessed through the SPICE TEMP card. This report describes in detail the development of the model and the extraction algorithms used to obtain model parameters. The extraction algorithms are described in sufficient detail to allow for automated measurements which in turn allows for rapid and cost effective development of an accurate SPICE model for any power MOSFET. 22 refs.

  4. Atomic energy as an humane endeavor: Retrospective on its development

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.; Stahlkopf, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a speech delivered in Tokyo, Japan, by the author. It covers the historical aspects of atomic energy, from the pre-fission days until present. Such pioneer experiments conducted by O. Hahn, L. Meitner, and F. Strassmann to describe barium isotopes as the result of bombardment of uranium with neutrons are discussed. The author also discussed in detail the pre-war nuclear research at Berkeley, a leading center of nuclear research. Such important events as the synthesis and identification of cobalt-60, iodine-131, and technetium-99m are also discussed. The author discussed the nuclear power as a source of electricity and the perspective on the future of nuclear power. 32 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Human myoglobin recognition of oxygen: dynamics of the energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhong; Baskin, J Spencer; Xia, Tianbing; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2004-12-28

    Femtosecond to nanosecond dynamics of O(2) rebinding to human WT myoglobin and its mutants, V68F and I107F, have been studied by using transient absorption. The results are compared with NO rebinding. Even though the immediate environment around the heme binding site is changed by the mutations, the picosecond geminate rebinding of oxygen is at most minimally affected. On the other hand, the V68F (E11) mutation causes drastic differences in rebinding on the nanosecond time scale, whereas the effect of the I107F (G8) mutation remains relatively small within our 10-ns time window. Unlike traditional homogeneous kinetics and molecular dynamics collisional simulations, we propose a "bifurcation model" for populations of directed and undirected dynamics on the ultrafast time scale, reflecting the distribution of initial protein conformations. The major mutation effect occurs on the time scale on which global protein conformational change is possible, consistent with transitions between the conformations of directed and undirected population playing a role in the O(2) binding. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the bimolecular function of the protein. PMID:15601759

  6. Wearable thermoelectric generator for harvesting human body heat energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Lee, Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the realization of a wearable thermoelectric generator (TEG) in fabric for use in clothing. A TEG was fabricated by dispenser printing of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 and Bi2Se0.3Te2.7 in a polymer-based fabric. The prototype consisted of 12 thermocouples connected by conductive thread over an area of 6 × 25 mm2. The device generated a power of 224 nW for a temperature difference of 15 K. When the TEG was used on the human body, the measured output power was 224 nW in an ambient temperature of 5 °C. The power of the TEG was affected by the movement of the wearer. A higher voltage was maintained while walking than in a stationary state. In addition, the device did not deform after it was bent and stretched several times. The prospect of using the TEG in clothing applications was confirmed under realistic conditions.

  7. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  8. Water and energy dietary requirements and endocrinology of human space flight.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight. PMID:12361773

  9. Inverse model construction for control implementation of macro fiber composite actuators operating in hysteretic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuebner, Michael; Smith, Ralph C.

    2010-04-01

    Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) actuators utilize PZT fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix for structural actuation. Due to their construction, they are lightweight and provide broadband inputs. Significant advantages of MFC actuators are their high performance, durability, and flexibility when compared to traditional piezoceramic actuators. They are presently being considered for a range of applications including positioning of membrane mirrors and structural control in the aerospace and automotive industry. However, they exhibit varying degrees of hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities throughout their operating range that must be incorporated in models to achieve the full capabilities of the materials. In this paper, hysteresis is modeled using the homogenized energy model. The inverse model is then used to construct an inverse compensator framework suitable for subsequent control design. The performance of the inverse compensator is illustrated through a numerical example.

  10. Topology, structures, and energy landscapes of human chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome conformation capture experiments provide a rich set of data concerning the spatial organization of the genome. We use these data along with a maximum entropy approach to derive a least-biased effective energy landscape for the chromosome. Simulations of the ensemble of chromosome conformations based on the resulting information theoretic landscape not only accurately reproduce experimental contact probabilities, but also provide a picture of chromosome dynamics and topology. The topology of the simulated chromosomes is probed by computing the distribution of their knot invariants. The simulated chromosome structures are largely free of knots. Topologically associating domains are shown to be crucial for establishing these knotless structures. The simulated chromosome conformations exhibit a tendency to form fibril-like structures like those observed via light microscopy. The topologically associating domains of the interphase chromosome exhibit multistability with varying liquid crystalline ordering that may allow discrete unfolding events and the landscape is locally funneled toward “ideal” chromosome structures that represent hierarchical fibrils of fibrils. PMID:25918364

  11. Different macro- and micro-rheological properties of native porcine respiratory and intestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Bokkasam, Harish; Ernst, Matthias; Guenther, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-08-20

    Aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences at macro- and microscale in the viscoelastic properties of mucus that covers the epithelia of the intestinal and respiratory tract. Natural mucus was collected from pulmonary and intestinal regions of healthy pigs. Macro-rheological investigations were carried out through conventional plate-plate rheometry. Microrheology was investigated using optical tweezers. Our data revealed significant differences both in macro- and micro-rheological properties between respiratory and intestinal mucus. PMID:27311353

  12. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  13. Macro-instability: a chaotic flow component in stirred tanks.

    PubMed

    Hasal, Pavel; Jahoda, Milan; Fort, Ivan

    2008-02-13

    Chaotic features of the macro-instability (MI) of flow patterns in stirred tanks are studied in this paper. Datasets obtained by measuring the axial component of the fluid velocity and the tangential force affecting the baffles are used. Two geometrically identical, flat-bottomed cylindrical mixing tanks (diameter of 0.3m) stirred with either pitched blade turbine impellers or Rushton turbine impeller are used in the experiments, and water and aqueous glycerol solutions are used as the working liquids. First, the presence of the MI component in the data is examined by spectral analysis. Then, the MI components are identified in the data using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique. The attractors of the macro-instability are reconstructed using either the POD eigenmodes or a method of delays and finally the attractor invariants are evaluated. The dependence of the correlation dimension and maximum Lyapunov exponent on the vessel operational conditions is determined together with their distribution within the tank. No significant spatial variability of the correlation dimension value is observed. Its value is strongly influenced by impeller speed and by the vessel-impeller geometry. More profound spatial distribution is displayed by the maximum Lyapunov exponent taking distinctly positive values. These two invariants, therefore, can be used to locate distinctive regions with qualitatively different MI dynamics within the stirred tank. PMID:17673415

  14. Anti-phytopathogenic activities of macro-algae extracts.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  15. Macro- to nanoscale wear prevention via molecular adsorption.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seong H.; Asay, David B.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2007-04-01

    As the size of mechanical systems shrinks from macro- to nanoscales, surface phenomena such as adhesion, friction, and wear become increasingly significant. This paper demonstrates the use of alcohol adsorption as a means of continuously replenishing the lubricating layer on the working device surfaces and elucidates the tribochemical reaction products formed in the sliding contact region. Friction and wear of native silicon oxide were studied over a wide range of length scales from macro- to nanoscales using a ball-on-flat tribometer (millimeter scale), sidewall microelectromechanical system (MEMS) tribometer (micrometer scale), and atomic force microscopy (nanometer scale). In all cases, the alcohol vapor adsorption successfully lubricated and prevented wear. Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the sliding contact region revealed that high molecular weight oligomeric species were formed via tribochemical reactions of the adsorbed linear alcohol molecules. These tribochemical products seemed to enhance the lubrication and wear prevention. In the case of sidewall MEMS tests, the lifetime of the MEMS device was radically increased via vapor-phase lubrication with alcohol.

  16. Estimation of macro velocity models by wave field extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Hendricus Lambertus Hubertus

    A method to estimate accurate macro velocity models for prediction of traveltimes of seismic waves in the earth's subsurface is developed. The sensitivity of prestack migration is used to estimate the model and since model errors are expressed in the quality of the migration result, the migration process itself can be used to determine these errors. Using an initial model, shot records are downward extrapolated to grid points (depth points) in the subsurface. The extrapolated data can be reordered into so called common depth point (CDP) gathers, image gathers and focus panels. The deviation from horizontal alignment is used to quantify the errors in the model and to apply update corrections accordingly. The analysis can be done before or after stacking over all shot records (CDP stacking). the previously mentioned focus panels are generated by CDP stacking. The alignment analysis reduces then to a simple focusing analysis. The examples discussed show that horizontal alignment gives accurate macro velocity models for prestack depth migration. Focus panels can be difficult to interpret in complicated situations, where it is impossible to converge to the correct solution with focus panels only. The process should be guided by macrogeologic models of the area. In complicated situations, a layer stripping strategy is preferred.

  17. Legal requirements for human-health based appeals of wind energy projects in ontario.

    PubMed

    Engel, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario's Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario's courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals. PMID:25520946

  18. Legal Requirements for Human-Health Based Appeals of Wind Energy Projects in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Albert M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario’s courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals. PMID:25520946

  19. HEPNet: A Knowledge Base Model of Human Energy Pool Network for Predicting the Energy Availability Status of an Individual.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Abhishek; Grover, Monendra; Chakraborty, Amlan; Saxena, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    HEPNet is an electronic representation of metabolic reactions occurring within human cellular organization focusing on inflow and outflow of the energy currency ATP, GTP and other energy associated moieties. The backbone of HEPNet consists of primary bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats which ultimately constitute the chief source for the synthesis and obliteration of energy currencies in a cell. A series of biochemical pathways and reactions constituting the catabolism and anabolism of various metabolites are portrayed through cellular compartmentalization. The depicted pathways function synchronously toward an overarching goal of producing ATP and other energy associated moieties to bring into play a variety of cellular functions. HEPNet is manually curated with raw data from experiments and is also connected to KEGG and Reactome databases. This model has been validated by simulating it with physiological states like fasting, starvation, exercise and disease conditions like glycaemia, uremia and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency (DLDD). The results clearly indicate that ATP is the master regulator under different metabolic conditions and physiological states. The results also highlight that energy currencies play a minor role. However, the moiety creatine phosphate has a unique character, since it is a ready-made source of phosphoryl groups for the rapid synthesis of ATP from ADP. HEPNet provides a framework for further expanding the network diverse age groups of both the sexes, followed by the understanding of energetics in more complex metabolic pathways that are related to human disorders. PMID:26053019

  20. HEPNet: A Knowledge Base Model of Human Energy Pool Network for Predicting the Energy Availability Status of an Individual

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Abhishek; Grover, Monendra; Chakraborty, Amlan; Saxena, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    HEPNet is an electronic representation of metabolic reactions occurring within human cellular organization focusing on inflow and outflow of the energy currency ATP, GTP and other energy associated moieties. The backbone of HEPNet consists of primary bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats which ultimately constitute the chief source for the synthesis and obliteration of energy currencies in a cell. A series of biochemical pathways and reactions constituting the catabolism and anabolism of various metabolites are portrayed through cellular compartmentalization. The depicted pathways function synchronously toward an overarching goal of producing ATP and other energy associated moieties to bring into play a variety of cellular functions. HEPNet is manually curated with raw data from experiments and is also connected to KEGG and Reactome databases. This model has been validated by simulating it with physiological states like fasting, starvation, exercise and disease conditions like glycaemia, uremia and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency (DLDD). The results clearly indicate that ATP is the master regulator under different metabolic conditions and physiological states. The results also highlight that energy currencies play a minor role. However, the moiety creatine phosphate has a unique character, since it is a ready-made source of phosphoryl groups for the rapid synthesis of ATP from ADP. HEPNet provides a framework for further expanding the network diverse age groups of both the sexes, followed by the understanding of energetics in more complex metabolic pathways that are related to human disorders. PMID:26053019

  1. Characterization of human manure-derived biochar and energy-balance analysis of slow pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yaozhong; Feng, Rui; Mahmood, Ibrahim Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Biochars have received increasing attention in recent years because of their soil improvement potential, contaminant immobilization properties, and ability to function as carbon sinks. This study adopted a pyrolytic process to prepare a series of biochars from dried human manure at varying temperatures. The thermal analysis of human manure and physicochemical properties of the resulting biochars illustrated that human manure can be a favorable feedstock for biochar production. In particular, the porous texture and nutrient-rich properties of biochars produced from human manure and may significantly enhance soil fertility when used as used soil additives. A temperature range of 500-600°C was optimal for human manure biochar production. Significantly, when the moisture content of the feedstock is lower than 57%, the system could not only harvest manure-derived biochar but also have a net energy output, which can be provide heat source for nearby users. PMID:24961565

  2. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  3. Identification of a macro-alkaline phosphatase complex in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Malcolm P; Rawson, Catherine; Lawrence, David; Raney, Barbara S; Jaundrill, Linnet; Miller, Lorna A; Murtinho-Braga, Joseph; Kearney, Edward M

    2012-07-01

    We report the rare finding of a macro-alkaline phosphatase (macroALP) complex in a patient with a previously unexplained raised alkaline phosphatase activity. The clinical symptoms were persistent, daily diarrhoea for two months with blood in the stool. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease, specifically ulcerative colitis, following a rectal biopsy and colonoscopy. Two cases of macroALP associated with ulcerative colitis have been reported before, suggesting there could be an increased prevalence of macroALP in these patients. PMID:22454544

  4. Investigation of human teeth with respect to the photon interaction, energy absorption and buildup factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Topcuoglu, Sinan

    2011-05-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of human teeth have been calculated for total photon interaction (Z, Ne) and photon energy absorption (Z, Z Ne) in the energy region 1 keV-20 MeV. Besides, the energy absorption (EABF) and exposure (EBF) buildup factors have been calculated for these samples by using the geometric progression fitting approximation in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to 40 mfp (mean free path). Wherever possible the results were compared with experiment. Effective atomic numbers ( Z) of human teeth were calculated using different methods. Discrepancies were noted in Z between the direct and interpolation methods in the low and high energy regions where absorption processes dominate while good agreement was observed in intermediate energy region where Compton scattering dominates. Significant variations up to 22% were observed between Z and Z in the energy region 30-150 keV which is the used energy range in dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) X-ray machines. The Zeff values of human teeth were found to relatively vary within 1% if different laser treatments are applied. In this variation, the Er:YAG laser treated samples were found to be less effected than Nd:YAG laser treated ones when compared with control group. Relative differences between EABF and EBF were found to be significantly high in the energy region 60 keV-1 MeV even though they have similar variations with respect to the different parameters viz. photon energy, penetration depth.

  5. Forster resonance energy transfer in the system of human serum albumin-xanthene dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochubey, V. I.; Pravdin, A. B.; Melnikov, A. G.; Konstantinova, I.; Alonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    The processes of interaction of fluorescent probes: eosin and erythrosine with human serum albumin (HSA) were studied by the methods of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Extinction coefficients of probes were determined. Critical transfer radius and the energy transfer efficiency were defined by fluorescence quenching of HSA. Analysis of the excitation spectra of HSA revealed that the energy transfer process is carried out mainly between tryptophanyl and probes.

  6. Reducing the energy cost of human walking using an unpowered exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Collins, Steven H; Wiggin, M Bruce; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2015-06-11

    With efficiencies derived from evolution, growth and learning, humans are very well-tuned for locomotion. Metabolic energy used during walking can be partly replaced by power input from an exoskeleton, but is it possible to reduce metabolic rate without providing an additional energy source? This would require an improvement in the efficiency of the human-machine system as a whole, and would be remarkable given the apparent optimality of human gait. Here we show that the metabolic rate of human walking can be reduced by an unpowered ankle exoskeleton. We built a lightweight elastic device that acts in parallel with the user's calf muscles, off-loading muscle force and thereby reducing the metabolic energy consumed in contractions. The device uses a mechanical clutch to hold a spring as it is stretched and relaxed by ankle movements when the foot is on the ground, helping to fulfil one function of the calf muscles and Achilles tendon. Unlike muscles, however, the clutch sustains force passively. The exoskeleton consumes no chemical or electrical energy and delivers no net positive mechanical work, yet reduces the metabolic cost of walking by 7.2 ± 2.6% for healthy human users under natural conditions, comparable to savings with powered devices. Improving upon walking economy in this way is analogous to altering the structure of the body such that it is more energy-effective at walking. While strong natural pressures have already shaped human locomotion, improvements in efficiency are still possible. Much remains to be learned about this seemingly simple behaviour. PMID:25830889

  7. Macro- and Micronutrients Consumption and the Risk for Colorectal Cancer among Jordanians

    PubMed Central

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab N.; Abu-Mweis, Suhad S.; Agraib, Lana M.; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Heath, Dennis D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diet and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association between total energy and nutrient intake and the risk of developing CRC has not been clearly explained. The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between total energy intake and other nutrients and the development of CRC in the Jordanian population. Research Methods and Procedures: Dietary data was collected from 169 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 248 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). These control subjects were healthy and disease free. Data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between quartiles of total energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes with the risk of developing CRC in our study population. Results: Total energy intake was associated with a higher risk of developing CRC (OR = 2.60 for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake; 95% CI: 1.21–5.56, p-trend = 0.03). Intakes of protein (OR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.63–8.05, p-trend = 0.002), carbohydrates (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.67–2.99, p-trend = 0.043), and percentage of energy from fat (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 0.38–11.70, p-trend = 0.009) significantly increased the risk for the development of CRC. Saturated fat, dietary cholesterol and sodium intake showed a significant association with the risk of developing CRC (OR = 5.23, 95% CI: 2.33–11.76; OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.18–5.21; and OR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.59–7.38, respectively), while vitamin E and caffeine intake were indicative of a protective effect against the development of CRC, OR = 0.002 (95% CI: 0.0003–0.011) and 0.023 (95%CI: 0.008–0.067), respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest an increased risk for the development of CRC in subjects with high dietary intake of energy, protein, saturated fat, cholesterol, and

  8. Genetic variants in human CLOCK associate with total energy intake and cytokine sleep factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food intake measures. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of five CLOCK single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) with food-intake and to explore the p...

  9. The mass-specific energy cost of human walking is set by stature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic and mechanical requirements of walking are considered to be of fundamental importance to the health, physiological function and even the evolution of modern humans. Although walking energy expenditure and gait mechanics are clearly linked, a direct quantitative relationship has not eme...

  10. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  11. Glutamatergic function in the resting awake human brain is supported by uniformly high oxidative energy

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Fulbright, Robert K; Shulman, Robert G; Rothman, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Rodent 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies show that glutamatergic signaling requires high oxidative energy in the awake resting state and allowed calibration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in terms of energy relative to the resting energy. Here, we derived energy used for glutamatergic signaling in the awake resting human. We analyzed human data of electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET) maps of oxygen (CMRO2) and glucose (CMRglc) utilization, and calibrated fMRI from a variety of experimental conditions. CMRglc and EEG in the visual cortex were tightly coupled over several conditions, showing that the oxidative demand for signaling was four times greater than the demand for nonsignaling events in the awake state. Variations of CMRO2 and CMRglc from gray-matter regions and networks were within ±10% of means, suggesting that most areas required similar energy for ubiquitously high resting activity. Human calibrated fMRI results suggest that changes of fMRI signal in cognitive studies contribute at most ±10% CMRO2 changes from rest. The PET data of sleep, vegetative state, and anesthesia show metabolic reductions from rest, uniformly >20% across, indicating no region is selectively reduced when consciousness is lost. Future clinical investigations will benefit from using quantitative metabolic measures. PMID:23299240

  12. A short investigation of the effect of an energy harvesting backpack on the human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papatheou, Evangelos; Green, Peter; Racic, Vitomir; Brownjohn, James M. W.; Sims, Neil D.

    2012-04-01

    Exploiting human motion for the purpose of energy harvesting has been a popular idea for some time. Many of the approaches proposed can be uncomfortable or they impose a significant burden on the person's gait. In the current paper a hardware in-the-loop simulator of an energy harvesting backpack is employed in order to investigate the effect of a suspended-load backpack on the human gait. The idea is based on the energy produced by a suspended-load which moves vertically on a backpack while a person walks. The energy created from such a linear system can be maximised when it resonates with the walking frequency of the person. However, such a configuration can also cause great forces to be applied on the back of the user. The system which is presented here consists of a mass attached on a rucksack, which is controlled by a motor in order to simulate the suspended-load backpack. The advantage of this setup is the ability to test different settings, regarding the spring stiffness or the damping coefficient, of the backpack harvester, and study their effect on the energy harvesting potential, as well as on the human gait. The present contribution describes the preliminary results and analysis of the testing of the system with the help of nine male volunteers who carried it on a treadmill.

  13. Modeling of a honeycomb-shaped pyroelectric energy harvester for human body heat harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Jo, Sung-Eun; Ahn, Hye-Rin; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Pyroelectric conversion can be used for thermal energy harvesting in lieu of thermoelectric conversion. In the case of human body energy harvesting, the general pyroelectric energy harvester (PEH) cannot be applied because the weak body heat can hardly penetrate the protecting layer to reach the pyroelectric material. This paper presents the realization of a honeycomb-shaped PEH (H-PEH) and a modeling method of the electrode and hole areas. The fabricated H-PEH successfully generated electrical energy using human body heat. The H-PEH with a 1:1.5 electrode-and-hole area ratio showed the best performance. To verify the human energy harvesting, we evaluated the characteristics of conventional PEH and H-PEH when body heat was used as a heat source. The maximum power of the H-PEH was 0.06 and 0.16 μW at wind velocities of 2 and 4 m s-1, respectively. These output power values of the H-PEH were 200 and 224% larger than those of the PEH, respectively, according to the wind velocity.

  14. Analysis of dose-LET distribution in the human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Tsuda, S; Sakamoto, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Niita, K

    2003-01-01

    For the purposes of radiological protection, it is important to analyse profiles of the particle field inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons, since they can produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities. Therefore Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate dose distributions in terms of the linear energy transfer of ionising particles (dose-LET distribution) using a newly developed particle transport code (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS) for incidences of neutrons, protons and pions with energies from 100 MeV to 200 GeV. Based on these calculations, it was found that more than 80% and 90% of the total deposition energies are attributed to ionisation by particles with LET below 10 keV microm(-1) for the irradiations of neutrons and the charged particles, respectively. PMID:14653335

  15. Demonstration of Light-Matter Micro-Macro Quantum Correlations.

    PubMed

    Tiranov, Alexey; Lavoie, Jonathan; Strassmann, Peter C; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-13

    Quantum mechanics predicts microscopic phenomena with undeniable success. Nevertheless, current theoretical and experimental efforts still do not yield conclusive evidence that there is or is not a fundamental limitation on the possibility to observe quantum phenomena at the macroscopic scale. This question prompted several experimental efforts producing quantum superpositions of large quantum states in light or matter. We report on the observation of quantum correlations, revealed using an entanglement witness, between a single photon and an atomic ensemble of billions of ions frozen in a crystal. The matter part of the state involves the superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable solid-state components composed of several tens of atomic excitations. Assuming the insignificance of the time ordering our experiment indirectly shows light-matter micro-macro entanglement. Our approach leverages from quantum memory techniques and could be used in other systems to expand the size of quantum superpositions in matter. PMID:27232010

  16. Demonstration of Light-Matter Micro-Macro Quantum Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiranov, Alexey; Lavoie, Jonathan; Strassmann, Peter C.; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts microscopic phenomena with undeniable success. Nevertheless, current theoretical and experimental efforts still do not yield conclusive evidence that there is or is not a fundamental limitation on the possibility to observe quantum phenomena at the macroscopic scale. This question prompted several experimental efforts producing quantum superpositions of large quantum states in light or matter. We report on the observation of quantum correlations, revealed using an entanglement witness, between a single photon and an atomic ensemble of billions of ions frozen in a crystal. The matter part of the state involves the superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable solid-state components composed of several tens of atomic excitations. Assuming the insignificance of the time ordering our experiment indirectly shows light-matter micro-macro entanglement. Our approach leverages from quantum memory techniques and could be used in other systems to expand the size of quantum superpositions in matter.

  17. Search for slowly moving magnetic monopoles with the MACRO detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Bam, B.B.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernandini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Campana, P.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Cormack, R.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Ficenec, D.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giubellino, P.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Klein, S.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Masera, M

    1994-01-31

    A search for slowly moving magnetic monopoles in the cosmic radiation was conducted from October 1989 to November 1991 using the large liquid scintillator detector subsystem of the first supermodule of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The absence of candidates established an upper limit on the monopole flux of 5.6[times]10[sup [minus]15] cm[sup [minus]2] sr[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1] at 90% confidence level in the velocity range of 10[sup [minus]4][approx lt][beta][lt]4[times]10[sup [minus]3]. This result places a new constraint on the abundance of monopoles trapped in our solar system.

  18. Modeling thermal responses in human subjects following extended exposure to radiofrequency energy

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Kenneth R; Adair, Eleanor R

    2004-01-01

    Background This study examines the use of a simple thermoregulatory model for the human body exposed to extended (45 minute) exposures to radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW) energy at different frequencies (100, 450, 2450 MHz) and under different environmental conditions. The exposure levels were comparable to or above present limits for human exposure to RF energy. Methods We adapted a compartmental model for the human thermoregulatory system developed by Hardy and Stolwijk, adding power to the torso skin, fat, and muscle compartments to simulate exposure to RF energy. The model uses values for parameters for "standard man" that were originally determined by Hardy and Stolwijk, with no additional adjustment. The model predicts changes in core and skin temperatures, sweat rate, and changes in skin blood flow as a result of RF energy exposure. Results The model yielded remarkably good quantitative agreement between predicted and measured changes in skin and core temperatures, and qualitative agreement between predicted and measured changes in skin blood flow. The model considerably underpredicted the measured sweat rates. Conclusions The model, with previously determined parameter values, was successful in predicting major aspects of human thermoregulatory response to RF energy exposure over a wide frequency range, and at different environmental temperatures. The model was most successful in predicting changes in skin temperature, and it provides insights into the mechanisms by which the heat added to body by RF energy is dissipated to the environment. Several factors are discussed that may have contributed to the failure to account properly for sweat rate. Some features of the data, in particular heating of the legs and ankles during exposure at 100 MHz, would require a more complex model than that considered here. PMID:14989757

  19. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  20. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  1. Scotts Valley Energy Office and Human Capacity Building that will provide energy-efficiency services and develop sustainable renewable energy projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Temashio

    2013-06-28

    The primary goal of this project is to develop a Scotts Valley Energy Development Office (SVEDO). This office will further support the mission of the Tribe's existing leadership position as the DOE Tribal Multi-County Weatherization Energy Program (TMCWEP) in creating jobs and providing tribal homes and buildings with weatherization assistance to increase energy efficiency, occupant comfort and improved indoor air quality. This office will also spearhead efforts to move the Tribe towards its further strategic energy goals of implementing renewable energy systems through specific training, resource evaluation, feasibility planning, and implementation. Human capacity building and continuing operations are two key elements of the SVEDO objectives. Therefore, the project will 1) train and employ additional Tribal members in energy efficiency, conservation and renewable resource analyses and implementation; 2) purchase materials and equipment required to implement the strategic priorities as developed by the Scotts Valley Tribe which specifically include implementing energy conservation measures and alternative energy strategies to reduce energy costs for the Tribe and its members; and 3) obtain a dedicated office and storage space for ongoing SVEDO operations.

  2. Why Are Macros Not Used? A Brief Review and an Approach for Improving Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yechiam, Eldad

    2006-01-01

    Macros are programming scripts that can be generated by recording users' actions. It appears that despite their potential for reducing monotonous work, they are under-used by non-programmers. The present paper reviews the literature on the use of macros. Included is an original study that examines the effect of adding the "search and replace"…

  3. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  4. Comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode based on different sensing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhishen

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode obtained from distributed macro-strain sensing and high-density point sensing (such as accelerometers) technologies is presented in this paper. Theoretical derivation reveals that displacement mode shape from accelerometers and modal macro-strain from distributed macro-strain sensors can be converted into each other. However, it is realized that displacement mode shape as global behavior of a structure can still be calculated with high-precision from modal macro-strain considering measurement errors in practical monitoring, whereas modal macro-strain can hardly be accurately achieved from displacement mode shape when signals are corrupted with noise in practical monitoring. Simulation and experiment results show that the calculated displacement mode shapes are very close to the actual ones even if the noise level reaches 5%. Meanwhile, damage index using measured modal macro-strain is still effective when the measurements are corrupted with 5% noise which is reliable for damage detection in practical monitoring. Calculating modal macro-strain from noise-polluted displacement mode shape will cause an unacceptable error if the noise level reaches only 0.5%, which has been verified in the simulation.

  5. SPSS Macros for Assessing the Reliability and Agreement of Student Evaluations of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports and demonstrates two SPSS macros for calculating Krippendorff's alpha and intraclass reliability coefficients in repetitive situations where numerous coefficients are needed. Specifically, the reported SPSS macros were used to evaluate the interrater agreement and reliability of student evaluations of teaching in thousands of…

  6. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  7. Engaging Students in Macro Issues through Community-Based Learning: The Policy, Practice, and Research Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sather, Paul; Weitz, Barbara; Carlson, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the revision of a curriculum that was initiated to engage and sustain students' interest in the macro dimension of social work practice. Specifically, we describe how two junior policy courses, a senior macro practice course, and a research methods course were revised to include a service learning approach. This article…

  8. Thermo-mechanical efficiency of the bimetallic strip heat engine at the macro-scale and micro-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, A.; Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Boeuf, F.; Cugat, O.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-10-01

    Bimetallic strip heat engines are energy harvesters that exploit the thermo-mechanical properties of bistable bimetallic membranes to convert heat into mechanical energy. They thus represent a solution to transform low-grade heat into electrical energy if the bimetallic membrane is coupled with an electro-mechanical transducer. The simplicity of these devices allows us to consider their miniaturization using MEMS fabrication techniques. In order to design and optimize these devices at the macro-scale and micro-scale, this article proposes an explanation of the origin of the thermal snap-through by giving the expressions of the constitutive equations of composite beams. This allows us to evaluate the capability of bimetallic strips to convert heat into mechanical energy whatever their size is, and to give the theoretical thermo-mechanical efficiencies which can be obtained with these harvesters.

  9. The capacity of the human iliotibial band to store elastic energy during running.

    PubMed

    Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Lieberman, Daniel E; Biewener, Andrew A

    2015-09-18

    The human iliotibial band (ITB) is a poorly understood fascial structure that may contribute to energy savings during locomotion. This study evaluated the capacity of the ITB to store and release elastic energy during running, at speeds ranging from 2-5m/s, using a model that characterizes the three-dimensional musculoskeletal geometry of the human lower limb and the force-length properties of the ITB, tensor fascia lata (TFL), and gluteus maximus (GMax). The model was based on detailed analyses of muscle architecture, dissections of 3-D anatomy, and measurements of the muscles' moment arms about the hip and knee in five cadaveric specimens. The model was used, in combination with measured joint kinematics and published EMG recordings, to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the ITB during running. We found that forces generated by TFL and GMax during running stretch the ITB substantially, resulting in energy storage. Anterior and posterior regions of the ITB muscle-tendon units (MTUs) show distinct length change patterns, in part due to different moment arms at the hip and knee. The posterior ITB MTU likely stores more energy than the anterior ITB MTU because it transmits larger muscle forces. We estimate that the ITB stores about 1J of energy per stride during slow running and 7J during fast running, which represents approximately 14% of the energy stored in the Achilles tendon at a comparable speed. This previously unrecognized mechanism for storing elastic energy may be an adaptation to increase human locomotor economy. PMID:26162548

  10. U.S. Department of Energy Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD) A model for internal oversight and external transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2012-12-12

    This poster introduces the Department of Energy (DOE) Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD), which contains information on all Department of Energy research projects involving human subjects that: are funded by DOE; are conducted in DOE facilities; are performed by DOE personnel; include current or former DOE or contract personnel.

  11. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Jun; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Shan; Li, Sha; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Fang; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-11-01

    Edible macro-fungi are widely consumed as food sources for their flavors and culinary features. In order to explore the potential of macro-fungi as a natural resource of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant properties and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi from China were evaluated systematically. A positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be main contributors of antioxidant capacities of these macro-fungi. Furthermore, many bioactive compounds such as gallic, homogentisic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified and quantified. The macro-fungi species Thelephora ganbajun Zang, Boletus edulis Bull., Volvariella volvacea Sing, Boletus regius Krombh, and Suillus bovinus Kuntze displayed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, indicating their potential as important dietary sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:22868715

  12. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply. PMID:26151204

  13. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply. PMID:26151204

  14. Liquid-based electrostatic energy harvester with high sensitivity to human physical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Han, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Don; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a new liquid-based electrostatic energy harvester that converts the mechanical energy of human-motion-induced vibrations to electrical energy. The basic design uses a conducting liquid to enhance sensitivity to human motion, the frequency of which is typically as low as several hertz; it also uses a hydrophobic coating to provide a broad frequency bandwidth. As liquid slops in accordance with external motions, proposed energy harvester shows large capacitance variations. The device was tested under various conditions with periodic and nonperiodic movements. The maximum capacitance obtained from the fabricated device was about 10 nF, whereas the minimum capacitance was 5 pF, resulting in an extremely high capacitance ratio of 2000. The hydrophobic treatment enables the fabricated device to work well for periodic motions with a frequency range of 2-5 Hz. The power generated from a human running motion at a speed of 8 km h-1 is theoretically estimated to be 35.3 µW with charge-constrained conversion and an auxiliary voltage of 1 V.

  15. Human radiation experiments associated with the US Department of Energy and its predecessors

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This document contains a listing, description, and selected references for documented human radiation experiments sponsored, supported, or performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors, including the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the Off ice of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). The list represents work completed by DOE`s Off ice of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) through June 1995. The experiment list is available on the Internet via a Home Page on the World Wide Web (http://www.ohre.doe.gov). The Home Page also includes the full text of Human Radiation Experiments. The Department of Energy Roadmap to the Story and the Records (DOE/EH-0445), published in February 1995, to which this publication is a supplement. This list includes experiments released at Secretary O`Leary`s June 1994 press conference, as well as additional studies identified during the 12 months that followed. Cross-references are provided for experiments originally released at the press conference; for experiments released as part of The DOE Roadmap; and for experiments published in the 1986 congressional report entitled American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on US Citizens. An appendix of radiation terms is also provided.

  16. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. Methods We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. Results For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Conclusions Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the

  17. Fuelling Insecurity? Sino-Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Human Security in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botel, Gabriel

    This thesis examines the relationship between energy, development and human security in Sino-Myanmar relations. Rapid economic growth and increased urbanisation have intensified China's industrial and domestic energy consumption, drastically increasing demand and overwhelming national supply capacities. Chinese foreign policy has responded by becoming more active in securing and protecting foreign energy resources and allowing Chinese companies more freedom and opportunities for investment abroad. Consequently, Chinese foreign investment and policies have become increasing sources of scrutiny and debate, typically focusing on their (presumed) intentions and the social, economic, environmental and political impacts they have on the rest of the world. Within this debate, a key issue has been China's engagement with so-called pariah states. China has frequently received substantial international criticism for its unconditional engagement with such countries, often seen as a geopolitical pursuit of strategic national (energy) interests, unconcerned with international opprobrium. In the case of Myanmar, traditional security analyses interpret this as, at best, undermining (Western) international norms and, at worst, posing a direct challenge to international security. However, traditional security analyses rely on state-centric concepts of security, and tend to over-simply Sino-Myanmar relations and the dynamics which inform it. Conversely, implications for human security are overlooked; this is in part because human security remains poorly defined and also because there are questions regarding its utility. However, human security is a critical tool in delineating between state, corporate and 'civilian' interests, and how these cleavages shape the security environment and potential for instability in the region. This thesis takes a closer look at some of the entrenched and changing security dynamics shaping this Sino-Myanmar energy cooperation, drawing on an extensive

  18. Implementation of automated macro after develop inspection in a production lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanof, Arnold W.; Plachecki, Vincent E.; Fischer, Frank W.; Cusacovich, Marcelo; Nelson, Chris; Merrill, Mark A.

    2000-06-01

    Although the subject of frequent concern, criticism, and attention in the modern semiconductor fabrication facility, human after develop inspection (ADI) does not catch the major scrap and yield events early enough, if at all. The overall success of scrap and photo redo reduction programs over past years has resulted in residual problem levels which are difficult to improve upon -- yet still very costly. Detected 'events' are few and far-between, although evidence of their prevalence is frequently seen at subsequent inspections, or finally at probe. In the ASIC fab, they put on-time delivery to customers at risk, because individual wafer lots in an ASIC facility have a designated customer. The sampled area is limited by human throughput to less than 10% of the wafers in a lot. The visual ADI process step is unpopular among manufacturing technicians. It is often a bottleneck in the photo area. Statistically, in a photo area with capacity of 5000 wafer starts per week, only a few wafers processed per day are destined for scrap. Since wafer events occur in sporadic clusters, the photo area experiences only a few significant incidents per month. The typical operator can expect to intercept such an event less than once during several months of otherwise uneventful ADI inspection haystack.' Hence the stubbornness of our residual problem. Going beyond the statistical problem, our current manual macro-inspection equipment is engineered appropriately to ancient IC generations. A collimated, oblique-oriented light was an effective darkfield illumination source, when line widths were much larger than the wavelength of light. When line width is comparable to, or smaller than, the wavelength, the collimated light source produces scintillating diffracted colors on the wafer. Thus diffraction 'noise' significantly buries the defect 'signal' in the typical bright light visual macro inspection. In addition, there is the problem of variability between human inspectors, and the

  19. An energy harvesting system for passively generating power from human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuan; Cheng, Shuo; Arnold, David P.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a complete, self-contained energy harvesting system composed of a magnetic energy harvester, an input-powered interface circuit and a rechargeable battery. The system converts motion from daily human activities such as walking, jogging, and cycling into usable electrical energy. By using an input-powered interface circuit, the system requires no external power supplies and features zero standby power when the input motion is too small for successful energy reclamation. When attached to a person's ankle during walking, the 100 cm3 system prototype is shown to charge a 3.7 V, 65 mAh lithium-ion polymer battery at an average power of 300 µW. The design and testing of the system under other operating conditions are presented herein.

  20. Comparison of mechanical energy expenditure of joint moments and muscle forces during human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Prilutsky, B I; Petrova, L N; Raitsin, L M

    1996-04-01

    The mechanical energy expenditures (MEEs) of two human lower extremity models with different sources of mechanical energy - (1) muscles and (2) joint moments - were compared theoretically. Sources of mechanical energy producing movement of Model 1 were eight muscle, three of which were two-joint muscles. Sources of mechanical energy producing movement of Model 2 were net moments at its joints. These sources of mechanical energy were substituted by 11 one-joint muscles, with the assumption that antagonistic muscles did not produce force. Because of this assumption, summed MEE of all joint moments and all one-joint muscles of Model 2 were the same. It was shown that during the same movement the model with two-joint muscles could spend less mechanical energy than the model without two-joint muscles. This economy of mechanical energy realized by two-joint muscles was possible if (i) signs of the muscle powers which were produced by the two-joint muscle at both joints were opposite, (ii) moments produced by that muscle at each of the two joints had the same direction as the net joint moments at these joints, and (iii) muscles crossing these two joints from the opposite side did not produce force. Realization of these three conditions during human locomotion was checked experimentally. Electrical activity of eight lower extremity muscles of ten subjects was measured during treadmill walking and running. Based on this information, the periods where the muscles produce force were estimated. Moments and their power at joints of the lower extremity of two subjects performing walking and running were calculated using kinematics and ground reaction force measurements, and an inverse dynamics approach. It was shown that MEE of models with different sources of mechanical energy appeared to be different during certain periods of the swing phase. However, the magnitude of this difference was probably relatively small. PMID:8964770

  1. NREL/Habitat for Humanity Zero Energy Home: A Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.; Hancock, E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.

    2008-06-01

    The design of this 1,280-square-foot, three-bedroom Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed with an early version (July 22, 2004) of the BEOpt building optimization software; DOE2 and TRNSYS were used to perform additional analysis. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design toward simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques. A data acquisition system was installed in the completed home to monitor its performance.

  2. Macro-System Model: A Federated Object Model for Cross-Cutting Analysis of Hydrogen Production, Delivery, Consumption and Associated Emissions; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Goldsby, M. E.; Sa, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    It is commonly accepted that the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier for light-duty vehicles involves concomitant technological development of infrastructure elements, such as production, delivery, and consumption, all associated with certain emission levels. To analyze these at a system level, the suite of corresponding models developed by the United States Department of Energy and involving several national laboratories is combined in one macro-system model (MSM). The macro-system model is being developed as a cross-cutting analysis tool that combines a set of hydrogen technology analysis models. Within the MSM, a federated simulation framework is used for consistent data transfer between the component models. The framework is built to suit cross-model as well as cross-platform data exchange and involves features of 'over-the-net' computation.

  3. Bio-templated bioactive glass particles with hierarchical macro-nano porous structure and drug delivery capability.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Bortuzzo, Judith A; Liu, Yufang; Li, Wei; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Roether, Judith; Lu, Miao; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-11-01

    Hierarchically porous bioactive glass particles (BGPs) were synthesized by a facile sol-gel process using pollen grains as the templates. The synthesized pollen-templated bioactive glass particles (PBGPs) exhibited dual macro-nano porous structure. The macro pores (∼ 1 μm) were inherited from the template of pollen grains while the nano pores (∼ 9.5 nm) were induced by the intrinsic mechanism of the sol-gel process. PBGPs possessed a high specific surface area (111.4m(2)/g) and pore volume (0.35 cm(3)/g). Hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on PBGPs was detected within 3 days after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Due to their larger specific surface area and pore volume, PBGPs could be loaded with more tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) than non-templated BGPs and conventional melt-derived 45S5 BGPs. In addition, PBGPs exhibited a low initial burst release (within 10% of the loaded amount) within 18 h and a sustained release with a two-stage release pattern for up to 6 days in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The antibacterial assay confirmed that the TCH-loaded PBGPs could release TCH within 5 days, and the released TCH could reach the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Escherichia coli. MTT assay indicated that PBGPs showed non-cytotoxic effects toward human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2) cells after co-culture for up to 72 h in vitro. These results showed that the biocompatible hierarchically macro-nano porous PBGPs are potential for bone regeneration and local drug delivery applications. PMID:25858191

  4. A look at the strength of micro and macro EEG analysis for distinguishing insomnia within an HIV cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Kristin M.; Kang, Yu Min; Kerr, Matthew S. D.; Sarma, Sridevi V.; Ewen, Joshua; Allen, Richard; Gamaldo, Charlene; Salas, Rachel M. E.

    2016-01-01

    HIV patients are often plagued by sleep disorders and suffer from sleep deprivation. However, there remains a wide gap in our understanding of the relationship between HIV status, poor sleep, overall function and future outcomes; particularly in the case of HIV patients otherwise well controlled on cART (combined anti-retroviral therapy). In this study, we compared two groups: 16 non-HIV subjects (seronegative controls) and 12 seropositive HIV patients with undetectable viral loads. We looked at sleep behavioral (macro-sleep) features and sleep spectral (micro-sleep) features obtained from human-scored overnight EEG recordings to study whether the scored EEG data can be used to distinguish between controls and HIV subjects. Specifically, the macro-sleep features were defined by sleep stages and included sleep transitions, percentage of time spent in each sleep stage, and duration of time spent in each sleep stage. The micro-sleep features were obtained from the power spectrum of the EEG signals by computing the total power across all channels and frequencies, as well as the average power in each sleep stage and across different frequency bands. While the macro features do not distinguish between the two groups, there is a significant difference and a high classification accuracy for the scoring-independent micro features. This spectral separation is interesting because evidence suggests a relationship between sleep complaints and cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients stable on cART. Furthermore, there are currently no biomarkers that predict the early development of cognitive decline in HIV patients. Thus, a micro-sleep architectural approach could serve as a biomarker to identify HIV patients vulnerable to cognitive decline, providing an avenue to explore the utility of early intervention. PMID:26737811

  5. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Energy Human Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    In recent years, expectations for nuclear energy have been increasing in Japan because of its role and responsibility as a key power source, the contribution it can make to a global nuclear renaissance, the need for energy security, and the importance of combating global warming. Ensuring and fostering good human resources is essential if the nuclear industry is to maintain itself and expand its scale. There are obstacles, however, in doing so : a declining birth rate, job-hunting problem, the wave of retirements in 2007, the declining popularity of engineering departments and particularly nuclear-related subjects, a weakening of nuclear education, and deteriorating research facilities and equipment. While nuclear-related academic, industrial and governmental parties share this recognition and are cooperating and collaborating, all organizations are expected similarly to continue their own wholehearted efforts at human resource development.

  6. Efficient Human Action and Gait Analysis Using Multiresolution Motion Energy Histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chih-Chang; Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Cheng, Chien-Hung; Fan, Kuo-Chin

    2010-12-01

    Average Motion Energy (AME) image is a good way to describe human motions. However, it has to face the computation efficiency problem with the increasing number of database templates. In this paper, we propose a histogram-based approach to improve the computation efficiency. We convert the human action/gait recognition problem to a histogram matching problem. In order to speed up the recognition process, we adopt a multiresolution structure on the Motion Energy Histogram (MEH). To utilize the multiresolution structure more efficiently, we propose an automated uneven partitioning method which is achieved by utilizing the quadtree decomposition results of MEH. In that case, the computation time is only relevant to the number of partitioned histogram bins, which is much less than the AME method. Two applications, action recognition and gait classification, are conducted in the experiments to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed approach.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. The majority of the 318 proteins with increased abundance in BAT are associated with mitochondrial metabolism and confirm the increased oxidative capacity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the main functional effector for uncoupled respiration, we also detected the mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1A/B, CKMT2), as effective modulators of ATP synthase coupled respiration, to be exclusively expressed in BAT. The abundant expression and utilization of both energy expenditure pathways in parallel highlights the complex functional involvement of BAT in human physiology. PMID:27418403

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. The majority of the 318 proteins with increased abundance in BAT are associated with mitochondrial metabolism and confirm the increased oxidative capacity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the main functional effector for uncoupled respiration, we also detected the mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1A/B, CKMT2), as effective modulators of ATP synthase coupled respiration, to be exclusively expressed in BAT. The abundant expression and utilization of both energy expenditure pathways in parallel highlights the complex functional involvement of BAT in human physiology. PMID:27418403

  9. Energy-Efficient Crowdsensing of Human Mobility and Signal Levels in Cellular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Foremski, Paweł; Gorawski, Michał; Grochla, Krzysztof; Polys, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a practical application of the crowdsensing idea to measure human mobility and signal coverage in cellular networks. Currently, virtually everyone is carrying a mobile phone, which may be used as a sensor to gather research data by measuring, e.g., human mobility and radio signal levels. However, many users are unwilling to participate in crowdsensing experiments. This work begins with the analysis of the barriers for engaging people in crowdsensing. A survey showed that people who agree to participate in crowdsensing expect a minimum impact on their battery lifetime and phone usage habits. To address these requirements, this paper proposes an application for measuring the location and signal strength data based on energy-efficient GPS tracking, which allows one to perform the measurements of human mobility and radio signal levels with minimum energy utilization and without any engagement of the user. The method described combines measurements from the accelerometer with effective management of the GPS to monitor the user mobility with the decrease in battery lifetime by approximately 20%. To show the applicability of the proposed platform, the sample results of signal level distribution and coverage maps gathered for an LTE network and representing human mobility are shown. PMID:26340633

  10. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment. PMID:12361774

  11. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  12. A comparison of muscle energy models for simulating human walking in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross H

    2014-04-11

    The popular Hill model for muscle activation and contractile dynamics has been extended with several different formulations for predicting the metabolic energy expenditure of human muscle actions. These extended models differ considerably in their approach to computing energy expenditure, particularly in their treatment of active lengthening and eccentric work, but their predictive abilities have never been compared. In this study, we compared the predictions of five different Hill-based muscle energy models in 3D forward dynamics simulations of normal human walking. In a data-tracking simulation that minimized muscle fatigue, the energy models predicted metabolic costs that varied over a three-fold range (2.45-7.15 J/m/kg), with the distinction arising from whether or not eccentric work was subtracted from the net heat rate in the calculation of the muscle metabolic rate. In predictive simulations that optimized neuromuscular control to minimize the metabolic cost, all five models predicted similar speeds, step lengths, and stance phase durations. However, some of the models predicted a hip circumduction strategy to minimize metabolic cost, while others did not, and the accuracy of the predicted knee and ankle angles and ground reaction forces also depended on the energy model used. The results highlights the need to clarify how eccentric work should be treated when calculating muscle energy expenditure, the difficulty in predicting realistic metabolic costs in simulated walking even with a detailed 3D musculoskeletal model, the potential for using such models to predict energetically-optimal gait modifications, and the room for improvement in existing muscle energy models and locomotion simulation frameworks. PMID:24581797

  13. Electronic holographic device based on macro-pixel with local coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Woonchan; Kwon, Jaebeom; Kim, Hwi; Hahn, Joonku

    2015-09-01

    Holography has been regarded as one of the most ideal technique for three-dimensional (3D) display because it records and reconstructs both amplitude and phase of object wave simultaneously. Nevertheless, many people think that this technique is not suitable for commercialization due to some significant problems. In this paper, we propose an electronic holographic 3D display based on macro-pixel with local coherence. Here, the incident wave within each macro-pixel is coherent but the wave in one macro-pixel is not mutually coherent with the wave in the other macro-pixel. This concept provides amazing freedom in distribution of the pixels in modulator. The relative distance between two macro-pixels results in negligible change of interference pattern in observation space. Also it is possible to make the sub-pixels in a macro-pixel in order to enlarge the field of view (FOV). The idea has amazing effects to reduce the data capacity of the holographic display. Moreover, the dimension of the system is can be remarkably downsized by micro-optics. As a result, the holographic display will be designed to have full parallax with large FOV and screen size. We think that the macro-pixel idea is a practical solution in electronic holography since it can provide reasonable FOV and large screen size with relatively small amount of data.

  14. The double capsules in macro-textured breast implants.

    PubMed

    Giot, Jean-Philippe; Paek, Laurence S; Nizard, Nathanael; El-Diwany, Mostafa; Gaboury, Louis A; Nelea, Monica; Bou-Merhi, Joseph S; Harris, Patrick G; Danino, Michel A

    2015-10-01

    Breast implants are amongst the most widely used types of permanent implants in modern medicine and have both aesthetic and reconstructive applications with excellent biocompatibility. The double capsule is a complication associated with textured prostheses that leads to implant displacement; however, its etiology has yet to be elucidated. In this study, 10 double capsules were sampled from breast expander implants for in-depth analysis; histologically, the inner capsular layer demonstrated highly organized collagen in sheets with delamination of fibers. At the prosthesis interface (PI) where the implant shell contacts the inner capsular layer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a thin layer which mirrored the three-dimensional characteristics of the implant texture; the external surface of the inner capsular layer facing the intercapsular space (ICS) was flat. SEM examination of the inner capsule layer revealed both a large bacterial presence as well as biofilm deposition at the PI; a significantly lower quantity of bacteria and biofilm were found at the ICS interface. These findings suggest that the double capsule phenomenon's etiopathogenesis is of mechanical origin. Delamination of the periprosthetic capsule leads to the creation of the ICS; the maintained separation of the 2 layers subsequently alters the biostability of the macro-textured breast implant. PMID:26210173

  15. Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, Dennis J.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Turner, Timothy Shawn; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Walker, Charles A.; Ho, Clifford K..; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Okandan, Murat; Rohde, Steven Barney; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-03-01

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) has proven to be an enabling medium for microsystem technologies, because of its desirable electrical, physical, and chemical properties coupled with its capability for rapid prototyping and scalable manufacturing of components. LTCC is viewed as an extension of hybrid microcircuits, and in that function it enables development, testing, and deployment of silicon microsystems. However, its versatility has allowed it to succeed as a microsystem medium in its own right, with applications in non-microelectronic meso-scale devices and in a range of sensor devices. Applications include silicon microfluidic ''chip-and-wire'' systems and fluid grid array (FGA)/microfluidic multichip modules using embedded channels in LTCC, and cofired electro-mechanical systems with moving parts. Both the microfluidic and mechanical system applications are enabled by sacrificial volume materials (SVM), which serve to create and maintain cavities and separation gaps during the lamination and cofiring process. SVMs consisting of thermally fugitive or partially inert materials are easily incorporated. Recognizing the premium on devices that are cofired rather than assembled, we report on functional-as-released and functional-as-fired moving parts. Additional applications for cofired transparent windows, some as small as an optical fiber, are also described. The applications described help pave the way for widespread application of LTCC to biomedical, control, analysis, characterization, and radio frequency (RF) functions for macro-meso-microsystems.

  16. Granular suspension avalanches. I. Macro-viscous behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancey, Christophe; Andreini, Nicolas; Epely-Chauvin, Gaël

    2013-03-01

    We experimentally studied the flow behavior of a fixed volume of granular suspension, initially contained in a reservoir and released down an inclined flume. Here "granular suspension" refers to a suspension of non-Brownian particles in a viscous fluid. Depending on the solids fraction, density mismatch, and particle size distribution, a wealth of behaviors can be observed. Here we report and interpret results obtained with granular suspensions, which consisted of neutrally buoyant particles with a solids fraction (ϕ = 0.575-0.595) close to the maximum random packing fraction (estimated at ϕm = 0.625). The particles had the same refractive index as the fluid, which made it possible to measure the velocity profiles inside the moving bulk and far from the sidewalls. Additional information such as the front position and the flow depth was also recorded. Three regimes were observed. At early times, the flow features were reminiscent of homogeneous Newtonian fluids (e.g., the same dependence of the front position on time). At later times, the free surface became more and more bumpy as fractures developed within the bulk. This fracture process ultimately gave rise to a stick-slip regime, in which the suspension moved intermittently. In this paper, we focus on the first regime referred to as the macro-viscous regime. Although the bulk flow properties looked like those of Newtonian fluids, the internal dynamics were much richer.

  17. Active stiffness modulation of fins using macro fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kancharala, Ashok K.; Philen, Michael K.

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the role of body flexibility in propulsion suggest that fish have the ability to control or modulate the stiffness of the fin for optimized propulsive performance. Fins with certain stiffness might be efficient for a particular set of operating parameters but may be inefficient for other parameters. Therefore active stiffness modulation of a fin can improve the propulsive performance for a range of operating conditions. This paper discusses the preliminary experimental work on the open loop active deformation control of heaving flexible fins using Macro Fiber Composites (MFCs). The effect of important parameters such as oscillation frequency, flexibility of the fin, applied voltage and the phase difference between applied voltage and heaving on propulsive performance are studied and reported. The results indicate that propulsive performance can be improved by active control of the fins. The mean thrust improved by 30- 38% for the fins used in the experiments. The phase difference of ~90° is found to be optimal for maximized propulsive performance for the parameters considered in the study. Furthermore, there exists an optimal voltage magnitude at which the propulsive performance is a maximum for the range of operating conditions.

  18. Portable Ultrasonic Guided Wave Inspection with MACRO Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, A.; Mudge, P.; Catton, P.; Balachandran, W.

    2010-02-01

    The development of portable ultrasonic guided wave transducer arrays that utilize Macro Fiber Composite actuators (MFCs) is described. Portable inspection equipment can make use of ultrasonic guided waves to rapidly screen large areas of many types of engineering structures for defects. The defect finding performance combined with the difficulty of application determines how much the engineering industry makes use of this non-destructive, non-disruptive technology. The developments with MFCs have the potential to make considerable improvements in both these aspects. MFCs are highly efficient because they use interdigital electrodes to facilitate the extensional, d33 displacement mode. Their fiber composite design allows them to be thin, lightweight, flexible and durable. The flexibility affords them conformance with curved surfaces, which can facilitate good mechanical coupling. The suitability of a given transducer for Long Range Ultrasonic Testing is governed by the nature and amplitude of the displacement that it excites/senses in the contact area of the target structure. This nature is explored for MFCs through directional sensitivity analysis and empirical testing. Housing methods that facilitate non-permanent coupling techniques are discussed. Finally, arrangements of arrays of MFCs for the guided wave inspection of plates and pipes are considered and some broad design criteria are given.

  19. Applying macro design tools to the design of MEMS accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Rodgers, M.S.; Montague, S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the design of two different surface micromachined (MEMS) accelerometers and the use of design and analysis tools intended for macro sized devices. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronics circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor are first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the wafer substrate. The trench is then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface is then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing. Next, the CMOS electronics are fabricated and the mechanical structures are released. The mechanical structure of each sensor consists of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. One polysilicon plate mass is suspended using compliant springs forming a variable capacitor. The other polysilicon plate mass is suspended using very stiff springs acting as a fixed capacitor. Acceleration is measured by comparing the variable capacitance with the fixed capacitance during acceleration.

  20. Macro Scale Independently Homogenized Subcells for Modeling Braided Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinzler, Brina J.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to analyze the impact response of triaxially braided carbon fiber composites, including the penetration velocity and impact damage patterns. In the analytical model, the triaxial braid architecture is simulated by using four parallel shell elements, each of which is modeled as a laminated composite. Currently, each shell element is considered to be a smeared homogeneous material. The commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA is used to conduct the simulations, and a continuum damage mechanics model internal to LS-DYNA is used as the material constitutive model. To determine the stiffness and strength properties required for the constitutive model, a top-down approach for determining the strength properties is merged with a bottom-up approach for determining the stiffness properties. The top-down portion uses global strengths obtained from macro-scale coupon level testing to characterize the material strengths for each subcell. The bottom-up portion uses micro-scale fiber and matrix stiffness properties to characterize the material stiffness for each subcell. Simulations of quasi-static coupon level tests for several representative composites are conducted along with impact simulations.

  1. Using network metrics in soccer: a macro-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Couceiro, Micael Santos; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2015-03-29

    The aim of this study was to propose a set of network methods to measure the specific properties of a team. These metrics were organised at macro-analysis levels. The interactions between teammates were collected and then processed following the analysis levels herein announced. Overall, 577 offensive plays were analysed from five matches. The network density showed an ambiguous relationship among the team, mainly during the 2nd half. The mean values of density for all matches were 0.48 in the 1st half, 0.32 in the 2nd half and 0.34 for the whole match. The heterogeneity coefficient for the overall matches rounded to 0.47 and it was also observed that this increased in all matches in the 2nd half. The centralisation values showed that there was no 'star topology'. The results suggest that each node (i.e., each player) had nearly the same connectivity, mainly in the 1st half. Nevertheless, the values increased in the 2nd half, showing a decreasing participation of all players at the same level. Briefly, these metrics showed that it is possible to identify how players connect with each other and the kind and strength of the connections between them. In summary, it may be concluded that network metrics can be a powerful tool to help coaches understand team's specific properties and support decision-making to improve the sports training process based on match analysis. PMID:25964816

  2. Using Network Metrics in Soccer: A Macro-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Couceiro, Micael Santos; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a set of network methods to measure the specific properties of a team. These metrics were organised at macro-analysis levels. The interactions between teammates were collected and then processed following the analysis levels herein announced. Overall, 577 offensive plays were analysed from five matches. The network density showed an ambiguous relationship among the team, mainly during the 2nd half. The mean values of density for all matches were 0.48 in the 1st half, 0.32 in the 2nd half and 0.34 for the whole match. The heterogeneity coefficient for the overall matches rounded to 0.47 and it was also observed that this increased in all matches in the 2nd half. The centralisation values showed that there was no ‘star topology’. The results suggest that each node (i.e., each player) had nearly the same connectivity, mainly in the 1st half. Nevertheless, the values increased in the 2nd half, showing a decreasing participation of all players at the same level. Briefly, these metrics showed that it is possible to identify how players connect with each other and the kind and strength of the connections between them. In summary, it may be concluded that network metrics can be a powerful tool to help coaches understand team’s specific properties and support decision-making to improve the sports training process based on match analysis. PMID:25964816

  3. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Binsl, Thomas W.; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible. PMID:21969677

  4. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans. PMID:25347552

  5. Control of human energy expenditure by cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV-2.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Peleli, Maria; Sundqvist, Michaela L; Ekblom, Björn; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Larsen, Filip J

    2016-09-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) in humans shows pronounced individual variations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays a key role in control of metabolic rate, and recent studies of the subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX IV-2) indicate involvement in the cellular response to hypoxia and oxidative stress. We evaluated whether the COX subunit IV isoform composition may explain the pronounced individual variations in resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR was determined in healthy humans by indirect calorimetry and correlated to levels of COX IV-2 and COX IV-1 in vastus lateralis. Overexpression and knock down of the COX IV isoforms were performed in primary myotubes followed by evaluation of the cell respiration and production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that COX IV-2 protein is constitutively expressed in human skeletal muscle and strongly correlated to RMR. Primary human myotubes overexpressing COX IV-2 displayed markedly (>60%) lower respiration, reduced (>50%) cellular H2O2 production, higher resistance toward both oxidative stress, and severe hypoxia compared with control cells. These results suggest an important role of isoform COX IV-2 in the control of energy expenditure, hypoxic tolerance, and mitochondrial ROS homeostasis in humans. PMID:27486093

  6. Spatial-temporal variability in water quality and macro-invertebrate assemblages in the Upper Mara River basin, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilonzo, Fidelis; Masese, Frank O.; Van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy; Obando, Joy; Lens, Piet N. L.

    Tropical rivers display profound temporal and spatial heterogeneity in terms of environmental conditions. This aspect needs to be considered when designing a monitoring program for water quality in rivers. Therefore, the physico-chemical composition and the nutrient loading of the Upper Mara River and its two main tributaries, the Amala and Nyangores were monitored. Initial daily, and later a weekly monitoring schedule for 4 months spanning through the wet and dry seasons was adopted. Benthic macro-invertebrates were also collected during the initial sampling to be used as indicators of water quality. The aim of the current study was to investigate the physico-chemical status and biological integrity of the Upper Mara River basin. This was achieved by examining trends in nutrient concentrations and analyzing the structure, diversity and abundance of benthic macro-invertebrates in relation to varying land use patterns. Sampling sites were selected based on catchment land use and the level of human disturbance, and using historical records of previous water quality studies. River water pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, and turbidity were determined in situ. All investigated parameters except iron and manganese had concentration values within allowable limits according to Kenyan and international standards for drinking water. The Amala tributary is more mineralized and also shows higher levels of pH and EC than water from the Nyangores tributary. The latter, however, has a higher variability in both the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. The variability in TP and TN concentrations increases downstream for both tributaries and is more pronounced for TN than for TP. Macro-invertebrate assemblages responded to the changes in land use and water quality in terms of community composition and diversity. The study recommends detailed continuous monitoring of the water quality at shorter time intervals and to identify

  7. Expected Satiety: Application to Weight Management and Understanding Energy Selection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Ciarán G.; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the approaches used to quantify expectations of satiation and satiety have led to a better understanding of how humans select and consume food, and the associated links to energy intake regulation. When compared calorie for calorie some foods are expected to deliver several times more satiety than others, and multiple studies have demonstrated that people are able to discriminate between similar foods reliably and with considerable sensitivity. These findings have implications for the control of meal size and the design of foods that can be used to lower the energy density of diets. These methods and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for weight management. The current paper also highlights why expected satiety may also play an important role beyond energy selection, in moderating appetite sensations after a meal has been consumed, through memory for recent eating and the selection of foods across future meals. PMID:26627096

  8. Effective atomic numbers for low-energy total photon interactions in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Yang, N C; Leichner, P K; Hawkins, W G

    1987-01-01

    A new method is introduced in which the total photon interaction cross sections per electron of human tissues are used to define effective atomic numbers for blood, bone, brain, fat, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, ovary, pancreas, spleen, and water. These effective atomic numbers are equal within 4% from 10 to 200 keV in each soft tissue, whereas for bones of different chemical compositions the variation ranges from 2.86% to 5.03%. This effective atomic number definition is less energy dependent than a previous definition based on the total photon interaction cross section per atom averaged over all elements in the tissue, from which the computed effective atomic numbers varied by as much as 50% (in bone) as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 10 to 200 keV. PMID:3683305

  9. Departure Energies, Trip Times and Entry Speeds for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Michelle M.

    1999-01-01

    The study examines how the mission design variables departure energy, entry speed, and trip time vary for round-trip conjunction-class Mars missions. These three parameters must be balanced in order to produce a mission that is acceptable in terms of mass, cost, and risk. For the analysis, a simple, massless- planet trajectory program was employed. The premise of this work is that if the trans-Mars and trans-Earth injection stages are designed for the most stringent opportunity in the energy cycle, then there is extra energy capability in the "easier" opportunities which can be used to decrease the planetary entry speed, or shorten the trip time. Both of these effects are desirable for a human exploration program.

  10. Departure Energies, Trip Times and Entry Speeds for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Michelle M.

    1999-01-01

    The study examines how the mission design variables departure energy, entry speed, and trip time vary for round-trip conjunction-class Mars missions. These three parameters must be balanced in order to produce a mission that is acceptable in terms of mass, cost, and risk. For the analysis, a simple, massless-planet trajectory program was employed. The premise of this work is that if the trans-Mars and trans-Earth injection stages are designed for the most stringent opportunity in the energy cycle, then there is extra energy capability in the "easier" opportunities which can be used to decrease the planetary entry speed, or shorten the trip time. Both of these effects are desirable for a human exploration program.

  11. Investigation of Pendulum Structures for Rotational Energy Harvesting from Human Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Energy Harvesting from human motion as a means of powering body-worn devices has been in the focus of research groups for several years now. This work presents a rotational inductive energy harvester that can generate a sufficient amount of energy during normal walking to power small electronic systems. Three pendulum structures and their geometrical parameters are investigated in detail through a system model and system simulations. Based on these results a prototype device is fabricated. The masses and angles between pendulum arms can be changed for the experiments. The device is tested under real-world conditions and generates an average power of up to 23.39 mW across a resistance equal to the coil resistance of the optimal pendulum configuration. A regulated power output of the total system including power management of 3.3 mW is achieved.

  12. Reaction Pathway and Free Energy Barrier for Reactivation of Dimethylphosphoryl-inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjun; Zhang, Yingkai; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2009-01-01

    The dephosphorylation/reactivation mechanism and the corresponding free energy profile of dimethylphosphoryl-inhibited conjugate of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been studied by performing first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy (QM/MM-FE) calculations. Based on the QM/MM-FE results, for the favorable reaction pathway, the entire dephosphorylation/reactivation process consists of three reaction steps, including the nucleophilic water attack on the P atom, the spatial reorganization of the dimethylphosphoryl group, and the dissociation between the dimethylphosphoryl group and Ser203 of AChE. The overall free energy barrier for the entire dephosphorylation/reactivation reaction is found to be the free energy change from the initial reactant to the transition state associated with the spatial reorganization step, and the calculated overall free energy barrier (20.1 to 23.5 kcal/mol) is reasonably close to the experimentally-derived activation free energy of 22.3 kcal/mol. In addition, key amino acid residues and their specific roles in the reaction process have been identified. PMID:19924840

  13. What balance do countries exhibit between the central human resources: water, energy and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossak, Julian; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Sufficient water, food and energy is a precondition for human activities. The water, energy and food nexus states that to some extend, these resources can replace each another: land can be used to produce food or energy crops; water can be used as direct water supply, to produce energy or for irrigation; and energy supports water treatment and agricultural yield. We present an overview of the major components of the trade-off together with a set of indicators and data sources to assess these components. The different indicators of the trade-off are summarized and plotted in a novel way on a triangle, which we discuss in view of the resource availability of different countries. Comparing different countries in view of their balance between water, food and energy will inform the discussion about the transition towards more sustainable societies and highlighting alternative strategies for development. This is important in view of possible synergies between the different sectors and as a tool for better coordinated governance approaches.

  14. Intranasal Insulin Suppresses Food Intake via Enhancement of Brain Energy Levels in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Friedrich, Alexia; Rezmer, Magdalena; Melchert, Uwe H.; G. Scholand-Engler, Harald; Hallschmid, Manfred; Oltmanns, Kerstin M.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral insulin exerts anorexic effects in humans and animals. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not clear. Because insulin physiologically facilitates glucose uptake by most tissues of the body and thereby fosters intracellular energy supply, we hypothesized that intranasal insulin reduces food consumption via enhancement of the neuroenergetic level. In a double-blind, placebo–controlled, within-subject comparison, 15 healthy men (BMI 22.2 ± 0.37 kg/m2) aged 22–28 years were intranasally administered insulin (40 IU) or placebo after an overnight fast. Cerebral energy metabolism was assessed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At 100 min after spray administration, participants consumed ad libitum from a test buffet. Our data show that intranasal insulin increases brain energy (i.e., adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine levels). Cerebral energy content correlates inversely with subsequent calorie intake in the control condition. Moreover, the neuroenergetic rise upon insulin administration correlates with the consecutive reduction in free-choice calorie consumption. Brain energy levels may therefore constitute a predictive value for food intake. Given that the brain synchronizes food intake behavior in dependence of its current energetic status, a future challenge in obesity treatment may be to therapeutically influence cerebral energy homeostasis. Intranasal insulin, after optimizing its application schema, seems a promising option in this regard. PMID:22586589

  15. Influence of macro-fractures and fault gouge on permeability in basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Meredith, Philip; Mitchell, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Fractures are ubiquitous on all scales in crustal rocks. The investigation of fractures and how they influence rock transport properties is therefore important in understanding various many key problems in seismology, volcanology and rock engineering. Nara et al. (Tectonophysics, Vol.503, pp.52-59, 2011) recently reported that the introduction of a macro-fracture into an otherwise crack-free basalt increased permeability significantly. They also showed that, for "mated" macro-fractures, the permeability of the basalt decreased dramatically with increasing hydrostatic pressure. However, under many geological conditions, macro-fractures in rock are commonly "unmated" due to shear offsets; such as in faults. It is therefore also essential to investigate the influence of unmated macro-fractures on rock permeability. Furthermore, shear faults are commonly filled with fault gouge, and we therefore also need to investigate how fluid flow responds to gouge-filled macro-fractures. We have investigated these issues through permeability measurements on samples of Seljadur basalt (SB); a fresh, columnar-jointed, intrusive basalt from Iceland. This rock was chosen because it has a very low initial permeability and no visible pre-existing cracks. Permeability measurements were made in a servo-controlled permeameter using the steady-state flow method on core samples of SB prepared in five different ways. (1) Measurements were first made on intact samples. (2) The Brazil disk technique was then used to introduce a single, dominant, axial macro-fracture across the diameter of previously intact samples. Permeability measurements were then repeated on these samples with mated macro-fractures over a range of effective pressures up to 90 MPa. (3) Using the same samples, we then filled the mated macro-fractures with an artificial fault gouge layer (approximately 0.4 mm thick and prepared from ground basalt particles less than 150 μm in diameter). Permeability was again re-measured on

  16. A comprehensive framework to assess, model, and enhance the human role in conserving energy in commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Elie

    Energy conservation and sustainability are subjects of great interest today, especially in the commercial building sector which is witnessing a very high and growing demand for energy. Traditionally, efforts to reduce energy consumption in this sector consisted of researching and developing energy efficient building technologies and systems. On the other hand, recent studies indicate that human actions are major determinants of building energy performance and can lead to excessive energy use even in advanced low-energy buildings. As a result, it is essential to determine if the approach to future energy reduction initiatives should remain solely technology-focused, or if a human-focused approach is also needed to complement advancements in technology and improve building operation and performance. In practice, while technology-focused solutions have been extensively researched, promoted, and adopted in commercial buildings, research efforts on the role of human actions and energy use behaviors in energy conservation remain very limited. This study fills the missing gap in literature by presenting a comprehensive framework to (1) understand and quantify the influence of human actions on building energy performance, (2) model building occupants' energy use behaviors and account for potential changes in these behaviors over time, and (3) test and optimize different human-focused energy reduction interventions to increase their adoption in commercial buildings. Results are significant and prove that human actions have a major role to play in reducing the energy intensity of the commercial building sector. This sheds the light on the need for a shift in how people currently use and control different buildings systems, as this is crucial to ensure efficient building operation and to maximize the return on investment in energy-efficient technologies. Furthermore, this study proposes methods and tools that can be applied on any individual or groups of commercial buildings

  17. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

    PubMed

    Erb, Peter L; McShea, William J; Guralnick, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  18. Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  19. AGE-RELATED FACTORS AFFECTING THE POST-YIELD ENERGY DISSIPATION OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Tyler, Jerrod H.; Acuna, Rae L.; Gayle, Heather J.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    The risk of bone fracture depends in part on the quality of the tissue, not just the size and mass. This study assessed the post-yield energy dissipation of cortical bone in tension as a function of age and composition. Tensile specimens were prepared from tibiae of human cadavers in which male and female donors were divided into two age groups: middle aged (51 to 56 years old, n = 9) and elderly (72 to 90 years old, n = 8). By loading, unloading, and reloading a specimen with rest period inserted in between, tensile properties at incremental strain levels were assessed. In addition, the post-yield toughness was estimated and partitioned as follows: plastic strain energy related to permanent deformation, released elastic strain energy related to stiffness loss, and hysteresis energy related to viscous behavior. Porosity, mineral and collagen content, and collagen crosslinks of each specimen were also measured to determine the micro and ultrastructural properties of the tissue. It was found that age affected all the energy terms plus strength but not elastic stiffness. The post-yield energy terms were correlated with porosity, pentosidine (a marker of non-enzymatic crosslinks), and collagen content, all of which significantly varied with age. General linear models with the highest possible R2 value suggested that the pentosidine concentration and collagen content provided the best explanation of the age-related decrease in the post-yield energy dissipation of bone. Among them, pentosidine concentration had the greatest contribution to plastic strain energy and was the best explanatory variable of damage accumulation. PMID:17266142

  20. Brown and beige fat in humans: thermogenic adipocytes that control energy and glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sidossis, Labros; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a specialized fat that dissipates energy to produce heat, plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance. Two types of thermogenic adipocytes with distinct developmental and anatomical features exist in rodents and humans: classical brown adipocytes and beige (also referred to as brite) adipocytes. While classical brown adipocytes are located mainly in dedicated BAT depots of rodents and infants, beige adipocytes sporadically reside with white adipocytes and emerge in response to certain environmental cues, such as chronic cold exposure, a process often referred to as “browning” of white adipose tissue. Recent studies indicate the existence of beige adipocytes in adult humans, making this cell type an attractive therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes. This Review aims to cover recent progress in our understanding of the anatomical, developmental, and functional characteristics of brown and beige adipocytes and discuss emerging questions, with a special emphasis on adult human BAT. PMID:25642708

  1. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  2. SIRT1-metabolite binding histone macroH2A1.1 protects hepatocytes against lipid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Pazienza, Valerio; Borghesan, Michela; Mazza, Tommaso; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Panebianco, Concetta; Williams, Roger; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Andriulli, Angelo; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) encompasses conditions associated to fat deposition in the liver, which are generally deteriorated during the aging process. MacroH2A1, a variant of histone H2A, is a key transcriptional regulator involved in tumorigenic processes and cell senescence, and featuring two alternatively splicing isoforms, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. MacroH2A1.1 binds with high affinity O-acetyl ADP ribose, a small metabolite produced by the reaction catalysed by NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, whereas macroH2A1.2 is unable to do so. The functional significance of this binding is unknown. We previously reported that the hepatic levels of macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2 are differentially expressed in mice models of NAFLD. Here we show that over-expression of macroH2A1.1, but not of macroH2A1.2, is able to protect hepatocytes against lipid accumulation. MacroH2A1.1 over-expressing cells display ameliorated glucose metabolism, reduced expression of lipidogenic genes and fatty acids content. SIRT1/macroH2A1.1-dependent epigenetic regulation of lipid metabolism may be relevant to NAFLD development. PMID:24473773

  3. Dual-template synthesis of N-doped macro/mesoporous carbon with an open-pore structure as a metal-free catalyst for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjun; Wang, Chih-Liang; Liao, Jin-Yun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-12-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted world-wide attention due to their low cost, high conversion efficiency, and environmental friendliness. Pt catalyst is usually used as the catalyst in the counter electrode of DSSCs due to its high electrochemical catalytic activity toward tri-iodide reduction. However, the high cost and scarcity of Pt prevent its large-scale application in DSSCs. It is highly desirable to replace Pt with low-cost catalysts made from earth-abundant elements. Here, we report a dual-template synthesis of N-doped macro/mesoporous carbon (macro/meso-NC) with an open-pore structure as the catalyst in the counter electrode of DSSCs. The catalytic activity of macro/meso-NC toward tri-iodide reduction has been tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and photocurrent-voltage (J-V) curves. It is found that the macro/meso-NC possesses excellent electrochemical catalytic activity with higher open-circuit voltage and cell efficiency than Pt. A high energy conversion efficiency of 7.27% has been achieved based on the metal-free macro/meso-NC, demonstrating as a promising catalyst for low-cost DSSCs.

  4. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention Among Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as structural or policy interventions, have the potential to impact the HIV epidemic at a population level, and thus reduce the HIV health disparities that exist among ethnic minority youth and other segments of the U.S. population. This article calls for a paradigm shift to develop, evaluate, and disseminate interventions that target upstream/macro-level factors or that, at a minimum, integrate both a macro and individual level perspective. The article also discusses the challenges in developing and evaluating such interventions. Psychologists and other behavioral scientists can play a critical role in reducing the impact of HIV on ethnic minority youth by integrating macro-level approaches to future HIV prevention strategies. PMID:23688095

  5. IASGA: A SAS MACRO Program for Interrater Agreement Studies of Qualitative Data via a Generalizability Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mao-Neng Fred; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Statistical Analysis System (SAS) MACRO for computing various indices of interrater agreement, including a new generalizability coefficient, for categorical data in a single-facet, crossed design. (Author/SLD)

  6. Micro-Macro Bilateral Control Taking into Account Scaling of Control Gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susa, Shigeru; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In micro-macro bilateral control systems, it is important to use position and force scaling factors that depend on the size of the master and slave system. Moreover, it is vital for control systems to use appropriate control gains depending on the scaling ratio between master and slave response. This paper proposes a micro-macro bilateral control system based on the scaling of control gains. In this system, the control gains of the master and slave system are adjusted to appropriate values by using control gain scaling factors. These scaling factors are obtained by designing a micro-macro bilateral control system to achieve ideal reproducibility. To verify the validity of the proposed system, analytical results for the reproducibility, operationality, and stability of the proposed control system are presented in this paper. Moreover, the proposed system is used in an experimental micro-macro bilateral system, and the results are presented.

  7. The -mdoc macro package: A software tool to support computer documentation standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.E.

    1987-09-16

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory a small staff of writers and word processors in the Computer Documentation Group is responsible for producing computer documentation for the over 8000 users of the Laboratory's computer network. The -mdoc macro package was developed as a software tool to support that effort. The -mdoc macro package is used with the NROFF/TROFF document preparation system on the UNIX operating system. The -mdoc macro package incorporates the standards for computer documentation at Los Alamos that were established by the writers. Use of the -mdoc macro package has freed the staff of programming format details, allowing writers to concentrate on content of documents and word processors to produce documents in a timely manner. It is an easy-to-use software tool that adapts to changing skills, needs, and technology. 5 refs.

  8. The Effect of Gender, Deceit Orientation and Communicator Style on Macro-Assessments of Honesty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hair, Dan; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Asks whether macro-assessment of honesty has utility for detecting deception. Multiple regression analyses indicate that honesty assessments can be only partially predicted from communication style, characterized by the level of friendliness, attentiveness, preciseness, animation, and dramatic style. (JK)

  9. Implementation of monitors with macros: a programming aid for the HEP and other parallel processors

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.L.; Overbeek, R.A.

    1983-12-01

    In a previous paper, the advantages of using monitors when implementing multiprocessing algorithms for the Denelcor HEP were delineated. A detailed presentation is given here of how monitors can be implementd on the HEP using a simple macro processor. The thesis is developed that a small body of general-purpose monitors can be defined to handle most standard synchronization patterns. We include the macro packages required to implement some of the more common synchronization patterns, including the fairly complex logic discussed before. Code produced using these macro packages is portable from one multiprocessing environment to another. Indeed, by recoding the set of basic macros (about 100 lines of code for the Denelcor HEP), most programs that are now being written could be moved to any similar multiprocessing system.

  10. Microscopic energy transfer spectroscopy to determine mitochondrial malfunction in human myotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwend, Michael H.; Strauss, Wolfgang S. L.; Brinkmeier, H.; Ruedel, R.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1996-12-01

    A microscopic equipment is reported for examination of cellular autofluorescence and determination of energy transfer in vitro, which is proposed to be an appropriate tool to investigate mitochondrial malfunction. The method includes fluorescence microscopy combined with time-gated (nanosecond) fluorescence emission spectroscopy and is presently used to study mitochondrial metabolism of human myotube primary cultures Enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain, located at the inner mitochondrial membrane, were inhibited by various drugs, and fluorescence of the mitochondrial coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as well as of the mitochondrial marker rhodamine 123 (R123) was examined. After inhibition of enzyme complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) by rotenone or enzyme complex III (coenzyme QH2-cytochrome c reductase) by antimycin a similar or increased NADH fluorescence was observed. In addition, energy transfer from excited states of NADH (energy donor) to R123 (energy acceptor) was deduced from a decrease of NADH fluorescence after coincubation with these inhibitors and R123. Application of microscopic energy transfer spectroscopy for diagnosis of congenital mitochondrial deficiencies is currently in preparation.

  11. Performance analysis of frequency up-converting energy harvesters for human locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brittany; Wickenheiser, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Energy harvesting from human locomotion is a challenging problem because the low frequencies involved are incompatible with small, light-weight transducers. Furthermore, frequency variations during changing levels of activity greatly reduce the effectiveness of tuned resonant devices. This paper presents the performance analysis and parameter study of energy harvesters utilizing magnetic interactions for frequency up-conversion. Ferrous structures are used to periodically attract a magnetic tip mass during low-frequency oscillations, producing a series of impulses. This technique allows resonant structures to be designed for much higher natural frequencies and reduces the effects of excitation frequency variation. Measured vibrational data from several human activities are used to provide a time-varying, broadband input to the energy harvesting system and are recreated in a laboratory setting for experimental validation. Optimal load resistances are calculated under several assumptions including sinusoidal, white noise, and band-limited noise base excitations. These values are tested using simulations with real-world accelerations and compared to steady-state power optimization results. The optimal load is presented for each input signal, and an estimation of the maximum average power harvested under idealized conditions is given. The frequency up-conversion technique is compared to linear, resonant structures to determine the impact of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, an analysis is performed to study the discrepancies between the simulated results and the predicted performance derived from frequency response functions to determine the importance of transients.

  12. Real World Testing Of A Piezoelectric Rotational Energy Harvester For Human Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillatsch, P.; Yeatman, E. M.; Holmes, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Harvesting energy from human motion is challenging because the frequencies are generally low and random compared to industrial machinery that vibrates at much higher frequencies. One of the most promising and popular strategies to overcome this is frequency up-conversion. The transducing element is actuated at its optimal frequency of operation, higher than the source excitation frequency, through some kind of catch and release mechanism. This is beneficial for efficient power generation. Such devices have now been investigated for a few years and this paper takes a previously introduced piezoelectric rotational harvester, relying on beam plucking for the energy conversion, to the next step by testing the device during a half marathon race. The prototype and data acquisition system are described in detail and the experimental results presented. A comparison of the input excitation, based on an accelerometer readout, and the output voltage of the piezoelectric beam, recorded at the same time, confirm the successful implementation of the system. For a device functional volume of 1.85 cm3, a maximum power output of 7 μW was achieved when the system was worn on the upper arm. However, degradation of the piezoelectric material meant that the performance dropped rapidly from this initial level; this requires further research. Furthermore, the need for intermediate energy storage solutions is discussed, as human motion harvesters only generate power as long as the wearer is actually moving.

  13. Provision of lipid-based nutrient supplements to Honduran children increases their dietary macro- and micronutrient intake without displacing other foods.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Reinhart, Greg A; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Inadequate energy intake and poor diet quality are important causes of chronic child undernutrition. Strategies for improving diet quality using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are currently being tested in several countries. To date, information on children's dietary intakes during LNS use is available only from Africa. In this study, we collected 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on Honduran children (n = 298) participating in a cluster-randomised trial of LNS. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine differences in number of servings of 12 food groups in the LNS and control arms, and multi-level mixed effects models were used to compare macro- and micronutrient intakes. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for child's age, season and breastfeeding status. Mean daily servings of 12 food groups did not differ by study arm at baseline and remained similar throughout the study with the exception of groups that were partially or entirely supplied by LNS (nuts and nut butters, fats, and sweets). Baseline intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrates, protein, folate and vitamin A, but not vitamin B12, iron and zinc were lower in the LNS than control arm. The change in all macro- and micronutrients from baseline to each study visit was larger for the LNS arm than the control, except for carbohydrates from baseline to 9 months. These findings indicate that LNS improved the macro- and micronutrient intakes of young non-malnourished Honduran children without replacing other foods in their diet. PMID:25819697

  14. Limits on D0-macro D0 mixing and CP violation from the ratio of lifetimes for decay to K-pi+, K-K+, and pi- pi+.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Aspinwall, M L; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-09-19

    We present a measurement of D0-macro D0 mixing parameters using the ratios of lifetimes extracted from samples of D0 mesons decaying to K-pi(+), K-K+, and pi(-)pi(+). Using 91 fb(-1) of data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory, we obtain a value Y=[0.8+/-0.4(stat.)(+0.5)(-0.4)(syst.)]%, which, in the limit of CP conservation, corresponds to the mixing parameter y=Delta Gamma/2 Gamma. Using the difference in lifetimes of D0 and macro D0 mesons, we obtain the CP-violation parameter Delta Y=[-0.8+/-0.6(stat.)+/-0.2(syst.)]%. PMID:14525353

  15. Spending on pharmaceuticals in Italy: macro constraints with local autonomy.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Vittorio; Lucioni, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Italy has a national health service (SSN) that is moving toward decentralization and empowerment of local health enterprises (LHEs)-the arms of the regions for delivering health services. Drug policy and spending decisions are both influenced by central government and local authorities. At the "macro" level, the government holds the power to decide the amount of drug expenditure, currently at 13% of total SSN expenditure; the pricing policy, price negotiation, reference price, and price cuts; criteria for reimbursement, inclusion in the positive list, and restrictive notes; and the copayments and exemptions. So far, the government concern has been predominantly on cost containment, and its approach in selecting drugs for reimbursement has been cost minimization. Italy has no centralized office for health technology assessment and this hinders the search for an efficient use of drugs. At the "micro" level, however, the LHEs are showing a great vitality in fostering a better use of drugs by general practitioners. One of the tools employed is local voluntary agreements between LHEs and general practitioners (GPs) that may be supported by economic incentives, in cash or in kind. In 2000 there were 61 agreements in place, 31% of total LHEs, which concerned the respect of drug expenditure ceilings and the local development and implementation of clinical guidelines (47% of LHEs). A traditional and widespread tool for controlling drug expenditure is providing GPs with regular reports on their drug prescriptions (59% of LHEs). Monitoring, moral suasion, and clinical guidelines are the main incentives for efficiency at local level, but focus on health outcomes is limited. The cost-containment mentality still prevails and the use of drug budget for purchasing better health is at its very early stage. PMID:12846924

  16. Geophysical Implications of Macro Variations in Enceladan Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, Terry; Hedman, Matthew M.; Spitale, Joseph N.; Rhoden, Alyssa R.

    2014-05-01

    Models of the evolution of Saturn's E ring have shown that Enceladus is the likely source of its particles [1]. Particles within this ring are quickly destroyed and must be constantly replenished [2,3]. Until recently the Enceladan source for these particles had been debated, but Cassini observations have tied their source to eruptions from a large fracture system in the south polar region. Cassini observations of the south pole of Enceladus revealed large rifts in the crust, informally called “tiger stripes”, which exhibit higher temperatures than the surrounding terrain and are likely sources of the observed plumes [4,5]. Diurnal tides due to Enceladus' orbital eccentricity were predicted to control the timing of eruptions as tidal stress varied across active faults on an orbital timescale [6]. These tidal stresses are periodic, driving motion along the rifts throughout Enceladus' orbit, influencing the timing and location of eruption as well as the formation and evolution of the E ring. Moreover, recent work has shown that Cassini has detected changes in the plume on orbital timescales [7], confirming the prediction of tidal control. Macro variations in eruptive plumes can be used to probe the conditions under which the eruptions occur [8]. We explore further the links between tidal control of eruptions and their geophysical implications.[1] M. Horanyi, et al., Icarus 97, 248 (1992). [2] P. K. Haff, et al., Icarus 56, 426 (1983). [3] S. Jurac, et al., Icarus 149, 384 (2001). [4] J. R. Spencer, et al., Science 311, 1401 (2006).[5] C. C. Porco, et al., Science 311, 1393 (2006).[6] T.A. Hurford, et al., Nature 447, 292 (2007).[7] M. Hedman, et al., Nature 500, 182 (2013).[8] T.A. Hurford, et al., Icarus 203, 541 (2009).

  17. Active control of structures using macro-fiber composite (MFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalovs, A.; Barkanov, E.; Gluhihs, S.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the use of macro-fiber composites (MFC) for vibration reduces of structures. The MFC consist of polyimid films with IDE-electrodes that are glued on the top and the bottom of rectangular piezoceramic fibers. The interdigitated electrodes deliver the electric field required to activate the piezoelectric effect in the fibers and allows to invoke the stronger longitudinal piezoelectric effect along the length of the fibers. When this actuator embedded in a surface or attached to flexible structures, the MFC actuator provides distributed solid-state deflection and vibration control. The major advantages of the piezoelectric fibre composite actuators are their high performance, flexibility, and durability when compared with the traditional piezoceramic (PZT) actuators. In addition, the ability of MFC devices to couple the electrical and mechanical fields is larger than in monolithic PZT. In this study, we showed the experimental results that an MFC could be used as actuator to find modal parameters and reduce vibration for structures such as an aluminium beam and metal music plate. Two MFC actuators were attached to the surfaces of test subjects. First MFC actuator used to supply a signal as exciter of vibration and second MFC show his application for reduction of vibration in the range of resonance frequencies. Experimental results of aluminium beam with MFC actuators compared with finite element model which modelled in ANSYS software. The applied voltage is modelled as a thermal load according to thermal analogy for MFC. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper confirm the potential of MFC for use in the vibration control of structures.

  18. Active vibration control of basic structures using macro fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Guo; Wang, Jinming; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2011-03-01

    In the modern naval battle, as the anti-detection technique developing fleetly, enhancing submarine's hidden ability is becoming more and more important. However, in view of the worse control effect at low-frequency and weak adjustability to external influence, conventional passive vibration control can't satisfy the modern naval rigorous demands. Fortunately, active vibration control technology not only monitors the structure's real-time vibration, but also has more remarkable control effects and superior suitability. At the present time, it has a primary application in the vibration damping of ship engineering. In addition, due to functional materials rapidly developing, with the coming of piezoelectric composite materials, the advanced active control techniques have more applicability, lager damp amplitude and wider applied field, which basing on the piezoelectric-effect and inverse- piezoelectric-effect of piezoelectric materials. Especially, in the end of nineties, NASA had successfully manufactured the excellent macro fiber composite (MFC), which assembles actuating and sensing abilities. Comparing with the conventional piezoelectric ceramic materials, it provides the required durability, excellent flexibility, higher electromechanical coupling factors and stronger longitudinal actuating force by using interdigital electrodes. On the basis of the application of cantilever beam' active vibration control by using MFC actuators, this paper started with the mechanical characteristics of its actuating and sensing equations, and then investigated its piezoelectric feedback scale factor when equipped on the honeycomb aluminous panel. Finally, in order to validate the theoretical analysis method, the vibration control experiment of cantilever beam and honeycomb aluminous panel are built and tested with different activating force. The experimental results verify that MFC used in submarine structures' active vibration control are feasible and effective.

  19. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical hepatocellular cancer.

    PubMed

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I

    2014-04-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm x n (S) and 22 cm x n (L), P<10(-14). The means of survival distribution (not available previously) for this new cohort were also significantly different (S was 12 months, L was 7 months, P<10(-5)). We characterized nine unique reference patterns of interactions between tumor and clinical environment factors, identifying four subtypes for S and five subtypes for L phenotypes, respectively. In L phenotype, all reference patterns were portal vein thrombosis (PVT)-positive, all platelet/alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were high, and all were chronic alcohol consumers. L had phenotype landmarks with worst survival. S phenotype interaction patterns were PVT-negative, with low platelet/AFP levels. We demonstrated that tumor-clinical environment interaction patterns explained how a given parameter level can have a different significance within a different overall context. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, prothrombin time, and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. PMID:24787292

  20. Tensegrity-Based Mechanosensing from Macro to Micro

    PubMed Central

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article is a summary of a lecture on cellular mechanotransduction that was presented at a symposium on “Cardiac Mechano-Electric Feedback and Arrhythmias” that convened at Oxford, England in April 2007. Although critical mechanosensitive molecules and cellular components, such as integrins, stretch-activated ion channels, and cytoskeletal filaments, have been shown to contribute to the response by which cells convert mechanical signals into a biochemical response, little is known about how they function in the structural context of living cells, tissues and organs to produce orchestrated changes in cell behavior in response to stress. Here, studies are reviewed that suggest our bodies use structural hierarchies (systems within systems) composed of interconnected extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal networks that span from the macroscale to the nanoscale to focus stresses on specific mechanotransducer molecules. A key feature of these networks is that they are in a state of isometric tension (i.e., experience a tensile prestress), which ensures that various molecular-scale mechanochemical transduction mechanisms proceed simultaneously and produce a concerted response. These features of living architecture are the same principles that govern tensegrity (tensional integrity) architecture, and mathematical models based on tensegrity are beginning to provide new and useful descriptions of living materials, including mammalian cells. This article reviews how the use of tensegrity at multiple size scales in our bodies guides mechanical force transfer from the macro to the micro, as well as how it facilitates conversion of mechanical signals into changes in ion flux, molecular binding kinetics, signal transduction, gene transcription, cell fate switching and developmental patterning. PMID:18406455

  1. A philosophical theory on human communication and modern physics: e(,2)c(,2)H('2)T energy-exchange and consciousness-change toward humanism, healing, and transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins-Tate, Marnishia Laverne

    This dissertation addresses the need for a body of human communication theory that can be useful toward advancing personal and social transformation. Of the humanistic genre, it suggests that there is a need to promote humanism, healing, and personal transformation in the non-clinical settings of everyday living. Three questions guide the effort. First, it asks: what kind of human communication theory might describe some of the underlying dynamics of human interaction, while also suggesting ways to improve the quality of interactions of any related philosophical theory be grounded by some scientific discipline? Then finally, it asks: how might these proposed concepts be captured in a manner that can be useful to human beings in everyday human interaction? Extending the work of modern physics to the realm of human communication, the theory integrates conceptual aspects of quantum theory, relativity theory, communication accommodation theory, and various nonverbal communication theory. Then, it proposes the philosophical framework for a new body of theory which it calls the energy-exchange theory of human communication. Treating human beings as living forms of matter, it suggests that ``energy'' is the life-force that sustains all human beings, and that ``consciousness'' is that qualitative level of development at which energy manifests itself in the human experience. It proposes that human beings have the capacity to exchange energy and influence consciousness during the human communication process, and that these interactions can advance humanism, healing, and transformation-which it proposes are the higher states and levels of human consciousness. Thus, this research effort sought to know and to describe a phenomenon that is the interactive human being; and to suggest useful ways that this volitional being can know and transform itself through human interaction. With verisimilitude as a driving factor in describing human beings as communicators, the research is

  2. SPICE macro model of a spryton with MOSFETs in the avalanche mode

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, C.W.

    1994-08-01

    A SPICE macro model for a triggered vacuum gap, a sprytron, intended for use in rapid discharge circuits such as Exploding Bridge Wire (EBW) applications, is presented. Power MOSFETs in the avalanche mode are utilized as the active switching elements in the model. The macro model is compared for accuracy in predicting the time dependent switching current, switch resistance and voltage drop across the switch using several test circuits. Techniques for extracting model parameters are discussed.

  3. Method of Fabricating NASA-Standard Macro-Fiber Composite Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    High, James W.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Macro-Fiber Composite actuator is a flexible piezoelectric composite device designed for controlling vibrations and shape deformations in high performance aerospace structures. A complete method for fabricating the standard NASA Macro-Fiber Composite actuator is presented in this document. When followed precisely, these procedures will yield devices with electromechanical properties identical to the standard actuator manufactured by NASA Langley Research Center.

  4. Investigation of structural properties associated with alkali-silica reaction by means of macro- and micro-structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Xiangyin . E-mail: moxiangyin@njnu.edu.cn; Fournier, Benoit

    2007-02-15

    Structural properties associated with alkali-silica reaction were systematically investigated by means of macro-structural accelerated mortar prism expansion levels testing, combined with micro-structural analysis. One part of this study is to determine the reactivity of the aggregate by means of accelerated mortar bar tests, and also to evaluate perlite aggregate constituents, especially the presence of deleterious components and find main causes of the alkali-silica reaction, which was based on the petrographic studies by optical microscope and the implication of X-ray diffraction on the aggregate. Results implied that the aggregate was highly alkali-silica reactive and the main micro-crystalline quartz-intermediate character and matrix that is mainly composed of chalcedony are potentially suitable for alkali-silica reaction. The other part is to study the long-term effect of lithium salts against alkali-silica reaction by testing accelerated mortar prism expansion levels. The macro-structural results were also consistent with the micro-structural mechanisms of alkali-silica reaction of mortar prisms containing this aggregate and the effect of chemical admixtures by means of the methods of scanning electron microscope-X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was indicated by these techniques that lithium salts, which were introduced into concrete containing reactive aggregate at the mixing stage, suppressed the alkali-silica reaction by producing non-expansive crystalline materials.

  5. Three-dimensional network macro-porous cobalt oxide as catalyst for Li-O2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chuan-tao; Huang, Bo-wen; Liao, Xiao-zhen; Liu, Xiao-min; Yang, Hui; Ma, Zi-feng

    2015-09-01

    Li-O2 cell is considered as an ideal choice for the electric vehicles due to its high energy density, but is now suffering from the large charge polarization and low practical capacity. In this context, three-dimensional network macro-porous CoO synthesized via a sol-gel method is applied as an efficient catalyst in Li-O2 cells to alleviate this situation. Compared to KB (Ketjen black EC600JD) based cells, the CoO/KB based cell exhibits much improved electrochemical performance at various current densities, including flatter discharge/charge plateau, lower polarization and higher specific capacity. In addition, the CoO/KB based cell maintains the discharge capacity up to 4500 mAh g-1CoO/KB after being cycled at 0.1 mA cm-2 for 16 days under O2 atmosphere. This excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high catalytic activity and abundant macro-pores of our home-made CoO. This strategy of designing CoO might be a feasible way to obtain the Li-O2 cell with low polarization and high capacity.

  6. MULTIDISCIPLINARY ACUTE CARE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (MACRO): IF YOU BUILD IT THEY WILL COME

    PubMed Central

    Early, Barbara J.; Huang, David T.; Callaway, Clifton; Zenati, Mazen; Angus, Derek C.; Gunn, Scott; Yealy, Donald M.; Unikel, Daniel; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical research will increasingly play a core role in the evolution and growth of acute care surgery (ACS) program development across the country. What constitutes an efficient and effective clinical research infrastructure in the current fiscal and academic environment remains obscure. We sought to characterize the effects of implementation of a multidisciplinary acute care research organization (MACRO) at a busy tertiary referral university setting. Methods In 2008, to minimize redundancy, cost, and maximize existing resources promoting acute care research, MACRO was created unifying clinical research infrastructure between the Departments of Critical Care Medicine, Emergency Medicine and Surgery. Over the time periods 2008–2012 we performed a retrospective analysis and determined volume of clinical studies, patient enrollment for both observational (OBS) and interventional (INTV) trials, and staff growth since MACROs origination and characterized changes over time. Results From 2008 to 2011, the volume of patients enrolled in clinical studies which MACRO facilitates has significantly increased over 300%. The % of INTV/OBS trials has remained stable over the same time period (50–60%). Staff has increased from 6 coordinators to 10 with an additional 15 research associates allowing 24/7 service. With this significant growth, MACRO has become financially self-sufficient and additional outside departments now seek MACROs services. Conclusions Appropriate organization of acute care clinical research infrastructure minimizes redundancy and can promote sustainable, efficient growth in the current academic environment. Further studies are required to determine if similar models can be successful at other ACS programs. PMID:23778448

  7. Performance study of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid optical fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahran, O.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical study of a (macro-bending EDFA)/Raman hybrid optical amplifier. The bending radius is 4 mm with EDFA length 10 m with forward pump power in the range (100-500 mW) and Raman amplifier length (12-55 km) with backward pump power variations (80-200 mW) is considered in our model. Due to bending loss in EDFA, the gain of hybrid amplifier is increased to ~7 dB more than the normal EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier and the noise figure is decreased by ~2 dB rather than without macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier. The signal to noise ratio (OSNR) calculations shows a better performance of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier than without macro-bending one. A flat gain is obtained in the signal wavelength region (1560-1600 nm), which is the L-band. The calculated results for macro-bending case are compared with experimental results of normal case by Lee et al., in the L-band showing an increase in the gain, reduction in the noise figure and more gain flatness at the input signal -20 dBm for macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier.

  8. Electroanalytical sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) utilising gold screen printed macro electrodes.

    PubMed

    Metters, Jonathan P; Kadara, Rashid O; Banks, Craig E

    2012-02-21

    We report the fabrication of gold screen printed macro electrodes which are electrochemically characterised and contrasted to polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes with their potential analytical application towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) critically explored. It is found that while these gold screen printed macro electrodes have electrode kinetics typically one order of magnitude lower than polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes as is measured via a standard redox probe, in terms of analytical sensing, these gold screen printed macro electrodes mimic polycrystalline gold in terms of their analytical performance towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI), whilst boasting additional advantages over the macro electrode due to their disposable one-shot nature and the ease of mass production. An additional advantage of these gold screen printed macro electrodes compared to polycrystalline gold is the alleviation of the requirement to potential cycle the latter to form the required gold oxide which aids in the simplification of the analytical protocol. We demonstrate that gold screen printed macro electrodes allow the low micro-molar sensing of chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions over the range 10 to 1600 μM with a limit of detection (3σ) of 4.4 μM. The feasibility of the analytical protocol is also tested through chromium(VI) detection in environmental samples. PMID:22228309

  9. Influence of halophytes and metal contamination on salt marsh macro-benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Caçador, I.

    2008-03-01

    Since an important fraction of the organic matter produced by salt marshes is decomposed in situ, macro-benthic communities are particularly exposed to the trace metals retained by these systems. Yet, few studies have investigated the macro-benthic communities using the between-root sediment habitat of the salt marsh halophytes (salt-tolerant plants), or the effect of trace metal pollution on its population dynamics. In the present study, samples were collected in vegetated and unvegetated sediment, in three salt marshes in the Tagus estuary, for trace metal concentration determination in the sediment and in the halophytes roots, grain size determination and macro-benthic organism identification. Data analysis revealed that the distribution of macro-benthic organisms is mainly determined by metal contamination, metal type and by the presence/absence of halophytes, not by the halophyte species. Five different associations were identified: resistant organisms were associated with the highest concentrations of lead (sediment); tolerant organisms with zinc, copper (sediment and roots) and lead (roots); cadmium in the sediment with a lack of macro-benthic life; sensitive organisms with low levels of metals except for cadmium in the roots; and macro-benthos typical of intertidal mudflats with unvegetated areas with low metal contamination.

  10. Interactions between macro-algal mats and invertebrates in the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelli, D.

    2000-07-01

    Blooms of opportunistic green macro-algae are a common feature of coastal areas and their effects on mudflat invertebrates can be dramatic. On the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, we have carried out a number of manipulative field experiments designed to evaluate the effects on invertebrates of different species of macro-algae with contrasting ecologies, and the effects of invertebrates on the development of the blooms. Macro-algal mats were found to have dramatic nega- tive effects on the density of the amphipod Corophium volutator, with higher algal biomasses having greater impact. The mechanism for this interaction seems to be interference by the algal filaments with the feeding behaviour of the amphipod. In contrast, the polychaete Capitella spp. increases in abundance under macro-algal mats due to enrichment of the sediment with organic material. These two interactions are seen at all scales, in areas of less than 1 m2 to the scale of the entire estuary, irrespective of the species composition of the macro- algal mats. Bioturbation by Corophium and grazing by the snail Hydrobia ulvae had little effect on macro-algal biomass, but there were less algae when the polychaete Nereis diversicolor was present. The most significant interaction in this system is the pronounced negative impact of algal mats on the abundance of Corophium, probably the most important invertebrate species in the diets of the estuary's shorebirds, fish and epibenthic crustaceans.

  11. A solid with a hierarchical tetramodal micro-meso-macro pore size distribution

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yu; Ma, Zhen; Morris, Russell E.; Liu, Zheng; Jiao, Feng; Dai, Sheng; Bruce, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous solids have an important role in addressing some of the major energy-related problems facing society. Here we describe a porous solid, α-MnO2, with a hierarchical tetramodal pore size distribution spanning the micro-, meso- and macro pore range, centred at 0.48, 4.0, 18 and 70 nm. The hierarchical tetramodal structure is generated by the presence of potassium ions in the precursor solution within the channels of the porous silica template; the size of the potassium ion templates the microporosity of α-MnO2, whereas their reactivity with silica leads to larger mesopores and macroporosity, without destroying the mesostructure of the template. The hierarchical tetramodal pore size distribution influences the properties of α-MnO2 as a cathode in lithium batteries and as a catalyst, changing the behaviour, compared with its counterparts with only micropores or bimodal micro/mesopores. The approach has been extended to the preparation of LiMn2O4 with a hierarchical pore structure. PMID:23764887

  12. Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring of composite bonded joints using macro fiber composite transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Howard; Bartoli, Ivan; Coccia, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Oliver, Joseph; Kosmatka, John; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles

    2006-03-01

    The monitoring of adhesively-bonded joints through the use of ultrasonic guided waves is the general topic of this paper. Specifically, composite-to-composite joints representative of the wing skin-to-spar bonds of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are examined. This research is the first step towards the development of an on-board structural health monitoring system for UAV wings based on integrated ultrasonic sensors. The study investigates two different lay-ups for the wing skin and two different types of bond defects, namely poorly-cured adhesive and disbonded interfaces. The guided wave propagation problem is studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method that accounts for viscoelastic damping, and experimentally by utilizing macro fiber composite (MFC) transducers which are inexpensive, flexible, highly robust, and viable candidates for application in on-board monitoring systems. Based upon change in energy transmission, the presence of damage is successfully identified through features extracted in both the time domain and discrete wavelet transform domain. A unique "passive" version of the diagnostic system is also demonstrated experimentally, whereby MFC sensors are utilized for detecting and locating simulated active damage in an aluminum plate. By exploiting the directivity behavior of MFC sensors, a damage location algorithm which is independent of wave speed is developed. Application of this approach in CFRP components may alleviate difficulties associated with damage location in highly anisotropic systems.

  13. Desiccation induces accumulations of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin in intertidal macro-alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiujun; Gao, Shan; Gu, Wenhui; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2013-01-01

    For plants and algae, exposure to high light levels is deleterious to their photosynthetic machineries. It also can accelerate water evaporation and thus potentially lead to drought stress. Most photosynthetic organisms protect themselves against high light caused photodamages by xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy dissipation. It is generally accepted that high light activates xanthophyll cycle. However, the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and drought stress remains ambiguous. Herein, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), a representative perennial intertidal macro-algae species with high drought-tolerant capabilities and simple structures, was used to investigate the operation of xanthophyll cycle during desiccation in air. The results indicate that desiccation under dim light induced accumulation of antheraxanthin (Ax) and zeaxanthin (Zx) at the expense of violaxanthin (Vx). This accumulation could be arrested by dithiothreitol completely and by uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) partially, implying the participation of Vx de-epoxidase in conversion of Vx to Ax and Zx. Treatment with inhibitors of electron transport along thylakoid membrane, e.g. DCMU, PG and DBMIB, did not significantly arrest desiccation-induced accumulation of Ax and Zx. We propose that for U. pertusa, besides excess light, desiccation itself could also induce accumulation of Ax and Zx. This accumulation could proceed without electron transport along thylakoid membrane, and is possibly resulting from the reduction of thylakoid lumen volume during desiccation. Considering the pleiotropic effects of Ax and Zx, accumulated Ax and Zx may function in protecting thylakoid membrane and enhancing thermal quenching during emersion in air. PMID:24039824

  14. Solid waste initiative Macro Material Flow Modeling conceptual description and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach that are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability that can be used as the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. This capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. The results of this increased understanding will eventually have an impact on a variety of US federal government activities, as well as on the activities of other entities. This increased understanding will also help provide the basis for subsequent activities under the Solid Waste Initiative. The report describes current solid waste management practices and their context, defines questions of interest relating to these practices, and proposes an approach that could be employed to analyze these practices and possible alternatives to them. A preliminary review, analysis, and summary of available data to support this approach are also provided.

  15. Analytical development of single crystal Macro Fiber Composite actuators for active twist rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Sang; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2005-08-01

    A Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) is a piezoelectric fiber composite which has an interdigitated electrode, rectangular cross-section and unidirectional polycrystalline piezoceramic (PZT) fibers embedded in the polymer matrix. A MFC actuator has much higher actuation performance and flexibility than a monolithic piezoceramic actuator. Moreover, the single crystal piezoelectric material exhibits much higher induced strain levels, energy density and coupling than those of polycrystalline piezoceramic materials. Thus, the performance of an MFC can be improved by using single crystal piezoelectric fiber instead of polycrystalline piezoceramic fiber. This study investigates the analytical modeling, material properties and actuation performance of an MFC using single crystal piezoelectric material (single crystal MFC). For single crystal MFC, the mechanical properties are calculated by the classical lamination theory, and the uniform fields model (UFM) is adopted to predict piezoelectric strain constants. In addition, the actuation performance of the single crystal MFC with the active twist rotor blade is studied. The material properties and actuation performance of single crystal MFC are compared with those of standard MFC.

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Manatee County Habitat for Humanity, Ellenton, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this 18-home community, all homes are LEED Platinum and meet ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3 requirements, HERS 23–53. Half way through the project, Habitat for Humanity heard about the DOE Challenge Home program and signed on, committing to build the next home, a three-bedroom, two-bath, 1,143 ft2 duplex, to Challenge Home criteria. The home is the first DOE Challenge Home in Manatee County, and was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the affordable builder category.

  17. Influence of trace elements in human tissue in low-energy photon brachytherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; van Gils, Francis; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the dosimetric impact of trace elements in human tissues for low-energy photon sources used in brachytherapy. Monte Carlo dose calculations were used to investigate the dosimetric effect of trace elements present in normal or cancerous human tissues. The effect of individual traces (atomic number Z = 11-30) was studied in soft tissue irradiated by low-energy brachytherapy sources. Three other tissue types (prostate, adipose and mammary gland) were also simulated with varying trace concentrations to quantify the contribution of each trace to the dose distribution. The dose differences between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues were calculated in single- and multi-source geometries. The presence of traces in a tissue produces a difference in the dose distribution that is dependent on Z and the concentration of the trace. Low-Z traces (Na) have a negligible effect (<0.3%) in all tissues, while higher Z (K) had a larger effect (>3%). There is a potentially significant difference in the dose distribution between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues (4%) and even larger if compared to the trace-free composition (15%) in both single- and multi-sourced geometries. Trace elements have a non-negligible (up to 8% in prostate D90) effect on the dose in tissues irradiated with low-energy photon sources. This study underlines the need for further investigation into accurate determination of the trace composition of tissues associated with low-energy brachytherapy. Alternatively, trace elements could be incorporated as a source of uncertainty in dose calculations. This work was part of an invited presentation at the ‘International Workshop on Recent Advances in Monte Carlo Techniques for Radiation Therapy’, held in Montreal, June 8-10, 2011.

  18. Long-working-distance fluorescence microscope with high-numerical-aperture objectives for variable-magnification imaging in live mice from macro- to subcellular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Momiyama, Masashi; Tomita, Katsuro; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the development of a long-working-distance fluorescence microscope with high-numerical-aperture objectives for variable-magnification imaging in live mice from macro- to subcellular. To observe cytoplasmic and nuclear dynamics of cancer cells in the living mouse, 143B human osteosarcoma cells are labeled with green fluorescent protein in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein in the cytoplasm. These dual-color cells are injected by a vascular route in an abdominal skin flap in nude mice. The mice are then imaged with the Olympus MVX10 macroview fluorescence microscope. With the MVX10, the nuclear and cytoplasmic behavior of cancer cells trafficking in blood vessels of live mice is observed. We also image lung metastases in live mice from the macro- to the subcellular level by opening the chest wall and imaging the exposed lung in live mice. Injected splenocytes, expressing cyan fluorescent protein, could also be imaged on the lung of live mice. We demonstrate that the MVX10 microscope offers the possibility of full-range in vivo fluorescence imaging from macro- to subcellular and should enable widespread use of powerful imaging technologies enabled by genetic reporters and other fluorophores.

  19. Human risky choice under temporal constraints: tests of an energy-budget model.

    PubMed Central

    Pietras, Cynthia J; Locey, Matthew L; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2003-01-01

    Risk-sensitive foraging models predict that choice between fixed and variable food delays should be influenced by an organism's energy budget. To investigate whether the predictions of these models could be extended to choice in humans, risk sensitivity in 4 adults was investigated under laboratory conditions designed to model positive and negative energy budgets. Subjects chose between fixed and variable trial durations with the same mean value. An energy requirement was modeled by requiring that five trials be completed within a limited time period for points delivered at the end of the period (block of trials) to be exchanged later for money. Manipulating the duration of this time period generated positive and negative earnings budgets (or, alternatively, "time budgets"). Choices were consistent with the predictions of energy-budget models: The fixed-delay option was strongly preferred under positive earnings-budget conditions and the variable-delay option was strongly preferred under negative earnings-budget conditions. Within-block (or trial-by-trial) choices were also frequently consistent with the predictions of a dynamic optimization model, indicating that choice was simultaneously sensitive to the temporal requirements, delays associated with fixed and variable choices on the upcoming trial, cumulative delays within the block of trials, and trial position within a block. PMID:13677609

  20. The perceptual significance of high-frequency energy in the human voice

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Brian B.; Hunter, Eric J.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Story, Brad H.

    2014-01-01

    While human vocalizations generate acoustical energy at frequencies up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy at frequencies above about 5 kHz has traditionally been neglected in speech perception research. The intent of this paper is to review (1) the historical reasons for this research trend and (2) the work that continues to elucidate the perceptual significance of high-frequency energy (HFE) in speech and singing. The historical and physical factors reveal that, while HFE was believed to be unnecessary and/or impractical for applications of interest, it was never shown to be perceptually insignificant. Rather, the main causes for focus on low-frequency energy appear to be because the low-frequency portion of the speech spectrum was seen to be sufficient (from a perceptual standpoint), or the difficulty of HFE research was too great to be justifiable (from a technological standpoint). The advancement of technology continues to overcome concerns stemming from the latter reason. Likewise, advances in our understanding of the perceptual effects of HFE now cast doubt on the first cause. Emerging evidence indicates that HFE plays a more significant role than previously believed, and should thus be considered in speech and voice perception research, especially in research involving children and the hearing impaired. PMID:24982643

  1. The perceptual significance of high-frequency energy in the human voice.

    PubMed

    Monson, Brian B; Hunter, Eric J; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2014-01-01

    While human vocalizations generate acoustical energy at frequencies up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy at frequencies above about 5 kHz has traditionally been neglected in speech perception research. The intent of this paper is to review (1) the historical reasons for this research trend and (2) the work that continues to elucidate the perceptual significance of high-frequency energy (HFE) in speech and singing. The historical and physical factors reveal that, while HFE was believed to be unnecessary and/or impractical for applications of interest, it was never shown to be perceptually insignificant. Rather, the main causes for focus on low-frequency energy appear to be because the low-frequency portion of the speech spectrum was seen to be sufficient (from a perceptual standpoint), or the difficulty of HFE research was too great to be justifiable (from a technological standpoint). The advancement of technology continues to overcome concerns stemming from the latter reason. Likewise, advances in our understanding of the perceptual effects of HFE now cast doubt on the first cause. Emerging evidence indicates that HFE plays a more significant role than previously believed, and should thus be considered in speech and voice perception research, especially in research involving children and the hearing impaired. PMID:24982643

  2. Energy-aware topology control strategy for human-centric wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Meseguer, Roc; Molina, Carlos; Ochoa, Sergio F; Santos, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mobile and ubiquitous solutions that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing increases every day. This situation has highlighted the relevance of optimizing the energy consumption of these solutions, because their operation depends on the devices' battery lifetimes. This article presents a study that intends to understand how the prediction of topology control messages in human-centric wireless sensor networks can be used to help reduce the energy consumption of the participating devices. In order to do that, five research questions have been defined and a study based on simulations was conducted to answer these questions. The obtained results help identify suitable mobile computing scenarios where the prediction of topology control messages can be used to save energy of the network nodes. These results also allow estimating the percentage of energy saving that can be expected, according to the features of the work scenario and the participants behavior. Designers of mobile collaborative applications that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing, can take advantage of these findings to increase the autonomy of their solutions. PMID:24514884

  3. Energy-Aware Topology Control Strategy for Human-Centric Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Meseguer, Roc; Molina, Carlos; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Santos, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mobile and ubiquitous solutions that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing increases every day. This situation has highlighted the relevance of optimizing the energy consumption of these solutions, because their operation depends on the devices' battery lifetimes. This article presents a study that intends to understand how the prediction of topology control messages in human-centric wireless sensor networks can be used to help reduce the energy consumption of the participating devices. In order to do that, five research questions have been defined and a study based on simulations was conducted to answer these questions. The obtained results help identify suitable mobile computing scenarios where the prediction of topology control messages can be used to save energy of the network nodes. These results also allow estimating the percentage of energy saving that can be expected, according to the features of the work scenario and the participants behavior. Designers of mobile collaborative applications that involve participatory or opportunistic sensing, can take advantage of these findings to increase the autonomy of their solutions. PMID:24514884

  4. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    PubMed

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature. PMID:27138818

  5. The Doubly Labeled Water Method for Measuring Human Energy Expenditure: Adaptations for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Leslie O.

    1991-01-01

    It is essential to determine human energy requirements in space, and the doubly labeled water method has been identified as the most appropriate means of indirect calorimetry to meet this need. The method employs naturally occurring, stable isotopes of hydrogen (H-2, deuterium) and oxygen (O-18) which, after dosing, mix with body water. The deuterium is lost from the body as water while the O-18 is eliminated as both water and CO2. The difference between the two isotope elimination rates is therefore a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Spaceflight will present a unique challenge to the application of the doubly labeled water method. Specifically, interpretation of doubly labeled water results assumes that the natural abundance or 'background' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. To address this issue, an equilibration model will be developed in an ongoing ground-based study. As energy requirements of women matched to counterparts in the Astronauts Corps are being determined by doubly labeled water, the baseline isotope concentration will be changed by consumption of 'simulated Shuttle water' which is artificially enriched. One group of subjects will be equilibrated on simulated Shuttle water prior to energy determinations by doubly labeled water while the others will consume simulated Shuttle water after dosing. This process will allow us to derive a prediction equation to mathematically model the effect of changing background isotope concentrations.

  6. EDITORIAL: MacroScale 2011: Recent Developments in Traceable Dimensional Measurements MacroScale 2011: Recent Developments in Traceable Dimensional Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schödel, R.; Thalmann, R.

    2012-09-01

    The MacroScale 2011 conference was held at the Swiss Federal Office of Metrology METAS from 4-6 October 2011, and was jointly organized by METAS and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB. The conference subtitle 'Recent Developments in Traceable Dimensional Measurements' is reminiscent of a conference series which most recently took place in San Diego in 2005. It is intended that the MacroScale conference be held every three years at different locations worldwide. As the conference was organized under the auspices of CCL, the Consultative Committee for Length within the Metre Convention, it brought together 70 participants, mainly researchers from national metrology institutes, but also from academia and industry, representing 32 countries all together. It provided a forum for experts and scientists in the area of dimensional metrology for an exchange of information, for discussions and for the transfer of new results to the scientific community. The participants were encouraged to submit their papers to Measurement Science and Technology, and as a result we are delighted to present a selection in this special issue of MacroScale 2011. As in the previous conferences on 'Recent Developments in Traceable Dimensional Measurements' the focus of the MacroScale is on the highest level length measurements of objects ranging from µm to km in size and on their traceability to the SI unit of length. At the MacroScale 2011 the following fields were addressed: interferometry, calibration of length standards, coordinate metrology, form measurements, surface texture measurements, tactile, optical and electronic sensors for surface or structure localization, temperature and force measurements and angle metrology. A total of 31 oral and 17 poster presentations were given during the conference, demonstrating the progress in the development of instruments, in methods and algorithms, in the determination of measurement uncertainty as well as on results of international

  7. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Angela L.; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$136\\pm 38~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$\\end{document}136±38kcal⋅BWkg0.75 or two times the calculated resting energy requirement (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{RER}=70~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$\\end{document}RER=70kcal⋅BWkg0.75). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study’s population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council’s (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt

  8. Controlling Particle Morphologies at Fluid Interfaces: Macro- and Micro- approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa Naidu

    The controlled generation of varying shaped particles is important for many applications: consumer goods, biomedical diagnostics, food processing, adsorbents and pharmaceuticals which can benefit from the availability of geometrically complex and chemically inhomogeneous particles. This thesis presents two approaches to spherical and non-spherical particle synthesis using macro and microfluidics. In the first approach, a droplet microfluidic technique is explored to fabricate spherical conducting polymer, polyaniline, particles with precise control over morphology and functionality. Microfluidics has recently emerged as an important alternate to the synthesis of complex particles. The conducting polymer, polyaniline, is widely used and known for its stability, high conductivity, and favorable redox properties. In this approach, monodisperse micron-sized polyaniline spherical particles were synthesized using two-phase droplet microfluidics from Aniline and Ammonium persulfate oxidative polymerization in an oil-based continuous phase. The morphology of the polymerized particles is porous in nature which can be used for encapsulation as well as controlled release applications. Encapsulation of an enzyme, glucose oxidase, was also performed using the technique to synthesize microspheres for glucose sensing. The polymer microspheres were characterized using SEM, UV-Vis and EDX to understand the relationship between their microstructure and stability. In the second approach, molten drop impact in a cooling aqueous medium to generate non-spherical particles was explored. Viscoelastic wax based materials are widely used in many applications and their performance and application depends on the particle morphology and size. The deformation of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface was investigated. Spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath, then deformed and as a result of solidification were arrested into various

  9. Tolerance of the human spinal cord to high energy p(66)Be(49) neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.; Ten Haken, R.K.; Mansell, J.; Yalavarthi, S.D.; Hendrickson, F.R.; Awschalom, M.

    1985-04-01

    The risk of post irradiation myelopathy was evaluated in 76 patients followed for 1-5 years after neutron irradiation of the cervical and thoracic regions. No overt myelopathy was observed. Forty-six patients received doses (central cord dose) in excess of 10 Gy, 9 received doses in excess of 12 Gy, and 5 received doses between 13 and 17 Gy, all without any evidence of spinal cord injury. A review of available literature revealed a total of 14 patients with myelopathy, 13 of whom received doses in excess of 13 Gy delivered with relatively low energy neutrons generated by the deuteron + beryllium reaction. It is concluded from these studies that the tolerance limit for the human spinal cord irradiated with high energy (p(66)Be(49)) neutrons is close to 15 Gy, above which the risk of cord injury becomes significant. Central cord doses of 13 Gy or less appear to be well tolerated with little, if any, risk of myelopathy. These conclusions are valid for a treatment time of 4 weeks or more with two or more fractions per week (9 or more fractions). The RBE for the human spinal cord irradiated under the above conditions compared with conventionally fractionated photon therapy does not exceed 4.0.

  10. Effects of intranasal insulin on hepatic fat accumulation and energy metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Gancheva, Sofiya; Koliaki, Chrysi; Bierwagen, Alessandra; Nowotny, Peter; Heni, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Szendroedi, Julia; Roden, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Studies in rodents suggest that insulin controls hepatic glucose metabolism through brain-liver crosstalk, but human studies using intranasal insulin to mimic central insulin delivery have provided conflicting results. In this randomized controlled crossover trial, we investigated the effects of intranasal insulin on hepatic insulin sensitivity (HIS) and energy metabolism in 10 patients with type 2 diabetes and 10 lean healthy participants (CON). Endogenous glucose production was monitored with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose, hepatocellular lipids (HCLs), ATP, and inorganic phosphate concentrations with (1)H/(31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Intranasal insulin transiently increased serum insulin levels followed by a gradual lowering of blood glucose in CON only. Fasting HIS index was not affected by intranasal insulin in CON and patients. HCLs decreased by 35% in CON only, whereas absolute hepatic ATP concentration increased by 18% after 3 h. A subgroup of CON received intravenous insulin to mimic the changes in serum insulin and blood glucose levels observed after intranasal insulin. This resulted in a 34% increase in HCLs without altering hepatic ATP concentrations. In conclusion, intranasal insulin does not affect HIS but rapidly improves hepatic energy metabolism in healthy humans, which is independent of peripheral insulinemia. These effects are blunted in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25576060

  11. Human radiation experiments: The Department of Energy roadmap to the story and the records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The role of the US Government in conducting or sponsoring human radiation experiments has become the subject of public debate. Questions have been raised about the purpose, extent, and health consequences of these studies, and about how subjects were selected. The extent to which subjects provided informed consent is also under scrutiny. To respond to these questions, the Clinton administration has directed the US Department of Energy (DOE), along with other Federal agencies, to retrieve and inventory all records that document human radiation experiments. Many such records are now publicly available and will permit an open accounting and understanding of what took place. This report summarizes the Department`s ongoing search for records about human radiation experiments. It is also a roadmap to the large universe of pertinent DOE information. DOE is working to instill greater openness--consistent with national security and other appropriate considerations--throughout its operations. A key aspect of this effort is opening DOE`s historical records to independent research and analysis.

  12. Effects of macro-pores on water flow in coastal subsurface drainage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Yu, Xiayang; Lu, Chunhui; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Leaching through subsurface drainage systems has been widely adopted to ameliorate saline soils. The application of this method to remove salt from reclaimed lands in the coastal zone, however, may be impacted by macro-pores such as crab burrows, which are commonly distributed in the soils. We developed a three-dimensional model to investigate water flow in subsurface drainage systems affected by macro-pores distributed deterministically and randomly through Monte Carlo simulations. The results showed that, for subsurface drainage systems under the condition of continuous surface ponding, macro-pores increased the hydraulic head in the deep soil, which in turn reduced the hydraulic gradient between the surface and deep soil. As a consequence, water infiltration across the soil surface was inhibited. Since salt transport in the soil is dominated by advection, the flow simulation results indicated that macro-pores decreased the efficiency of salt leaching by one order of magnitude, in terms of both the elapsed time and the amount of water required to remove salt over the designed soil leaching depth (0.6 m). The reduction of the leaching efficiency was even greater in drainage systems with a layered soil stratigraphy. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that with an increased penetration depth or density of macro-pores, the leaching efficiency decreased further. The revealed impact of macro-pores on water flow represents a significant shortcoming of the salt leaching technique when applied to coastal saline soils. Future designs of soil amelioration schemes in the coastal zone should consider and aim to minimize the bypassing effect caused by macro-pores.

  13. Near-infrared photonic energy penetration: can infrared phototherapy effectively reach the human brain?

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Theodore A; Morries, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern effecting civilians and military personnel. Research has yielded a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TBI, but effective treatments have not been forthcoming. Near-infrared light (NIR) has shown promise in animal models of both TBI and stroke. Yet, it remains unclear if sufficient photonic energy can be delivered to the human brain to yield a beneficial effect. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of TBI and elaborates the physiological effects of NIR in the context of this pathophysiology. Pertinent aspects of the physical properties of NIR, particularly in regards to its interactions with tissue, provide the background for understanding this critical issue of light penetration through tissue. Our recent tissue studies demonstrate no penetration of low level NIR energy through 2 mm of skin or 3 cm of skull and brain. However, at 10–15 W, 0.45%–2.90% of 810 nm light penetrated 3 cm of tissue. A 15 W 810 nm device (continuous or non-pulsed) NIR delivered 2.9% of the surface power density. Pulsing at 10 Hz reduced the dose of light delivered to the surface by 50%, but 2.4% of the surface energy reached the depth of 3 cm. Approximately 1.22% of the energy of 980 nm light at 10–15 W penetrated to 3 cm. These data are reviewed in the context of the literature on low-power NIR penetration, wherein less than half of 1% of the surface energy could reach a depth of 1 cm. NIR in the power range of 10–15 W at 810 and 980 nm can provide fluence within the range shown to be biologically beneficial at 3 cm depth. A companion paper reviews the clinical data on the treatment of patients with chronic TBI in the context of the current literature. PMID:26346298

  14. Shifting priorities at the Department of Energy's bomb factories: protecting human and ecological health.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Leschine, Thomas M; Greenberg, Michael; Karr, James R; Gochfeld, Michael; Powers, Charles W

    2003-02-01

    More than 50 years of research, development, manufacture, and testing of nuclear weapons at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has left a legacy of on-site contamination that often spreads to surrounding areas. Despite substantial cleanup budgets in the last decade, the DOE's top-to-bottom review team concluded that relatively little actual cleanup has been accomplished, although milestones have been met and work packages completed. Rather than solely use regulatory constraints to direct cleanup, many people have suggested that human and ecological health should guide long-term stewardship goals of DOE-managed sites. The main questions are how ecological and human health considerations should be applied in deciding the extent of cleanup that contaminated sites should receive and how near-term and longer run considerations of costs and benefits should be balanced as cleanup decisions are made. One effort to protect ecological integrity is the designation of the largest sites as National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs). Recently, the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) suggested isolating and conserving DOE sites as a policy priority because of their rich ecological diversity. A more effective long-term stewardship approach for former nuclear weapons complex sites may emerge if the guiding principles are to (1) reduce risks to human and ecological health, (2) protect cultural traditions, and (3) lower short- and long-term cleanup and remediation costs. A "net benefits" perspective that takes both near- and longer-term costs and consequences into account can help illuminate the trade-offs between expensive cleanup in the near term and the need to assure long-term protection of human health, cultural values, and high levels of biodiversity and ecological integrity that currently exist at many DOE sites. PMID:12520373

  15. UCP2 regulates energy metabolism and differentiation potential of human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Khvorostov, Ivan; Hong, Jason S; Oktay, Yavuz; Vergnes, Laurent; Nuebel, Esther; Wahjudi, Paulin N; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Wang, Geng; Do, Anna; Jung, Hea-Jin; McCaffery, J Michael; Kurland, Irwin J; Reue, Karen; Lee, Wai-Nang P; Koehler, Carla M; Teitell, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    It has been assumed, based largely on morphologic evidence, that human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) contain underdeveloped, bioenergetically inactive mitochondria. In contrast, differentiated cells harbour a branched mitochondrial network with oxidative phosphorylation as the main energy source. A role for mitochondria in hPSC bioenergetics and in cell differentiation therefore remains uncertain. Here, we show that hPSCs have functional respiratory complexes that are able to consume O2 at maximal capacity. Despite this, ATP generation in hPSCs is mainly by glycolysis and ATP is consumed by the F1F0 ATP synthase to partially maintain hPSC mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) plays a regulating role in hPSC energy metabolism by preventing mitochondrial glucose oxidation and facilitating glycolysis via a substrate shunting mechanism. With early differentiation, hPSC proliferation slows, energy metabolism decreases, and UCP2 is repressed, resulting in decreased glycolysis and maintained or increased mitochondrial glucose oxidation. Ectopic UCP2 expression perturbs this metabolic transition and impairs hPSC differentiation. Overall, hPSCs contain active mitochondria and require UCP2 repression for full differentiation potential. PMID:22085932

  16. Measuring energy metabolism in cultured cells, including human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Nuebel, Esther; Wisidagama, Dona R R; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Hong, Jason S; Van Horn, Christine M; Imam, Sarah S; Vergnes, Laurent; Malone, Cindy S; Koehler, Carla M; Teitell, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of glycolysis and mitochondrial function are required to quantify energy metabolism in a wide variety of cellular contexts. In human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their differentiated progeny, this analysis can be challenging because of the unique cell properties, growth conditions and expense required to maintain these cell types. Here we provide protocols for analyzing energy metabolism in hPSCs and their early differentiated progenies that are generally applicable to mature cell types as well. Our approach has revealed distinct energy metabolism profiles used by hPSCs, differentiated cells, a variety of cancer cells and Rho-null cells. The protocols measure or estimate glycolysis on the basis of the extracellular acidification rate, and they measure or estimate oxidative phosphorylation on the basis of the oxygen consumption rate. Assays typically require 3 h after overnight sample preparation. Companion methods are also discussed and provided to aid researchers in developing more sophisticated experimental regimens for extended analyses of cellular bioenergetics. PMID:22576106

  17. Two EXCEL macros for tracing deviated boreholes using cubic splines and calculation of formation depth and thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkaya, Sait Ismail

    1995-08-01

    Two short EXCEL function macros are presented for calculation of borehole deviation, true vertical thickness, and true stratigraphic thickness. The function macros can be used as regular EXCEL functions. The calling formula, arguments, and their type are described and application is demonstrated on an example data set. The borehole bearing and drift between any two observation points are estimated by fitting a cubic spline curve to three adjacent observation points at a time. The macro can cope with horizontal wells. The macro expects dip; dip direction at formation tops; and x, y, and z components of the distance from point P 1 to point P 2 where P 1 and P 2 are the intersections of the borehole with the top and bottom of a formation, respectively. The macro returns true stratigraphic thickness of formations. Coordinates of points P 1 and P 2 are obtained from the results returned by the macro.

  18. A 4-kbit low-cost antifuse one-time programmable memory macro for embedded applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Li; Huicai, Zhong; Cheng, Jia; Xin, Li

    2014-05-01

    A 4-kbit low-cost one-time programmable (OTP) memory macro for embedded applications is designed and implemented in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS process. The area of the proposed 1.5 transistor (1.5T) OTP cell is 2.13 μm2, which is a 49.3% size reduction compared to the previously reported cells. The 1.5T cell is fabricated and measured and shows a large programming window without any disturbance. A novel high voltage switch (HVSW) circuit is also proposed to make sure the OTP macro, implemented in a standard CMOS process, works reliably with the high program voltage. The OTP macro is embedded in negative radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The full chip size, including the analog front-end, digital controller and the 4-kbit OTP macro, is 600 × 600 μm2. The 4-kbit OTP macro only consumes 200 × 260 μm2. The measurement shows a 100% program yield by adjusting the program time and has obvious advantages in the core area and power consumption compared to the reported 3T and 2T OTP cores.

  19. Non-supervised macro segmentation of large-scale TV videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hongliang; Dong, Chengyu; Wang, Lezi; Qin, Gang; Tao, Kun; Chang, Xiaofu; Dong, Yuan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a novel non-supervised macro segmentation algorithm is presented by detecting duplicate sequences of large-scale TV videos. Motivated by the fact that "Inter-Programs" are repeatedly inserted into the TV videos, the macro structure of the videos can be effectively and automatically generated by identifying the special sequences. There are four sections in the algorithm, namely, keyframe extraction, discrete cosine transformbased feature generation(a fixed-size 64D signature), Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH)-based frame retrieval and macro segmentation through the duplicated sequence detection and the dynamic programming. The main contributions are: (1) supply one effective and efficient algorithm for the macro segmentation in the large-scale TV videos, (2) LSH can quickly query the similar frames, and (3) the non-supervised learned duplicate sequence models are used to find the lost duplicate sequences by the dynamic programming. The algorithm has been tested in 15-day different-type TV streams. The F-measure of the system is greater than 96%. The experiments show that it is efficient and effective for the macro segmentation.

  20. Allele-specific deposition of macroH2A1 in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, J H; Kim, J D; Chung, J H; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-01-13

    In the current study, we analyzed the deposition patterns of macroH2A1 at a number of different genomic loci located in X chromosome and autosomes. MacroH2A1 is preferentially deposited at methylated CpG CpG-rich regions located close to promoters. The macroH2A1 deposition patterns at the methylated CpG islands of several imprinted domains, including the Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) of Xist, Peg3, H19/Igf2 Igf2, Gtl2/Dlk1, and Gnas domains, show consistent allele-specificity towards inactive, methylated alleles. The macroH2A1 deposition levels at the ICRs and other Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) of these domains are also either higher or comparable to those observed at the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. Overall, our results indicate that besides DNA methylation macroH2A1 is another epigenetic component in the chromatin of ICRs displaying differential association with two parental alleles.

  1. Laws of non-symmetric optimal flow structures, from the macro to the micro scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, A. Heitor

    2012-05-01

    Many natural systems and engineering processes occur in which a fluid invades a territory from one entry point (invasion), or conversely is expelled from the territory through an outlet (drainage). In any such situation an evolutionary flow structure develops that bridges the gap between the micro-scale (diffusion dominant) and the macro-scale (convection dominant). The respiratory and circulatory systems of animals are clear examples of complex flow trees in which both the invasion and drainage processes occur. These flow trees display successive bifurcations (almost always non-symmetric) which allow them to cover and serve the entire territory to be bathed. Although they are complex, it is possible to understand its internal structuring in the light of Constructal Law. A scaling law for optimal diameters of symmetric bifurcations was proposed by Murray (1926), while Bejan and co-workers (2000-2006) added a new scaling law for channel lengths, and based scaling laws of tree shaped structures on theoretical grounds. In this work we use the Constructal Law to study the internal structure and scaling laws of non-symmetric flow structures, and show how the results might help understand some flow patterns found in Nature. We show that the global flow resistances depend on the parameter ξ = D2/D1 = L2/L1 defining the degree of asymmetry between branches 1 and 2 in a bifurcation. We also present a more accurate and general form, of Murray's law, as a result of the application of the Constructal law to branching flow structures. We end with a brief analysis of the use of these results in the analysis of flow structures of the human respiratory and circulatory systems.

  2. Energy landscapes of human acetylcholinesterase and its Huperzine A-inhibited counterpart.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Marcus; Trovaslet, Marie; Nachon, Florian; Koza, Marek M; van Eijck, Lambert; Hill, Flynn; Weik, Martin; Masson, Patrick; Tehei, Moeava; Peters, Judith

    2012-12-27

    Enzymes are animated by a hierarchy of motions occurring on time scales that span more than 15 orders of magnitude from femtoseconds (10(-15) s) to several minutes. As a consequence, an enzyme is characterized by a large number of conformations, so-called conformational substates that interconvert via molecular motions. The energy landscapes of these macromolecules are very complex, and many conformations are separated by only small energy barriers. Movements at this level are fast thermal atomic motions occurring on a time scale between 10(-7) and 10(-12) s, which are experimentally accessible by incoherent neutron scattering techniques. They correspond to local fluctuations within the molecule and are believed to act as coupling links for larger, conformational changes. Several questions related to this hierarchy of motions are a matter of very active research: which of the motions are involved in the biological functions of the macromolecule and are motions of different energy (and thus time) scale correlated? How does the distribution of motions change when an enzyme is inhibited? We report here on investigations of the enzyme human acetylcholinesterase, unliganded and in complex with the noncovalent inhibitor Huperzine A, by incoherent neutron scattering. Different time scales are explored to shed light on the interplay of enzyme activity, dynamics, and inhibition. Surprisingly the average molecular dynamics do not seem to be altered by the presence of the inhibitor used in this study within the considered time scales. The activation energy for the free and the inhibited form of the enzyme is moreover found to be almost identical despite changes of interactions inside the gorge, which leads to the active site of the enzyme. PMID:23186408

  3. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    PubMed

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment. PMID:9203740

  4. [Dynamics of parameters of energy metabolism at adaptation to diving in human].

    PubMed

    Baranova, T I; Kovalenko, R I; Mitrofanova, A V; Ianvareva, I N

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the diving reaction in the comparative-evolutionary aspect have shown that a complex of reactions providing the oxygen-saving effect during diving is inherent in human like in the secondary-aquatic mammals. This is confirmed by results of study of peculiarities of energy metabolism during imitation of diving (hold-up of respiration with immersion of face into the cold water--the cold-hypoxic-hypercapnic action) (CHHA). Data of gas analysis have shown that during the diving imitation the oxygen consumption rate is statistically significantly lower than during the usual hold-up of respiration (Genche's test). As shown by the study, this is due to the greater degree to vasoconstriction of peripheral vessels and selective redistribution of blood flow than to slowing down of the blood flow caused by reflex bradycardia during diving. It has been revealed that under effect of adaptation to CHHA, on the background of a decrease of the total energy consumption by the organism there occurs some increase of contribution of aerobic processes to its energy provision. Adaptation to CHHA has been shown to be accompanied by a decrease of reactivity of the parasympathetic chain of regulation of the heart chronotropic function and by an increase of duration of apnea. The duration of apnea is directly correlated with level of insulin--the hormone stimulating the anaerobic pathway of energy provision. Under effect of adaptation to CHHA there has been established an increase of the organism resistance to stress actions, which is confirmed by the lower levels of cortisol and thyroid hormones in representatives of the experimental group as compared with the control one. PMID:21061652

  5. Mechanotransduction in primary human osteoarthritic chondrocytes is mediated by metabolism of energy, lipids, and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zignego, Donald L; Hilmer, Jonathan K; June, Ronald K

    2015-12-16

    Chondrocytes are the sole cell type found in articular cartilage and are repeatedly subjected to mechanical loading in vivo. We hypothesized that physiological dynamic compression results in changes in energy metabolism to produce proteins for maintenance of the pericellular and extracellular matrices. The objective of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding for the short term (<30min) chondrocyte response to sub-injurious, physiological compression by analyzing metabolomic profiles for human chondrocytes harvested from femoral heads of osteoarthritic donors. Cell-seeded agarose constructs were randomly assigned to experimental groups, and dynamic compression was applied for 0, 15, or 30min. Following dynamic compression, metabolites were extracted and detected by HPLC-MS. Untargeted analyzes examined changes in global metabolomics profiles and targeted analysis examined the expression of specific metabolites related to central energy metabolism. We identified hundreds of metabolites that were regulated by applied compression, and we report the detection of 16 molecules not found in existing metabolite databases. We observed patient-specific mechanotransduction with aging dependence. Targeted studies found a transient increase in the ratio of NADP+ to NADPH and an initial decrease in the ratio of GDP to GTP, suggesting a flux of energy into the TCA cycle. By characterizing metabolomics profiles of primary chondrocytes in response to applied dynamic compression, this study provides insight into how OA chondrocytes respond to mechanical load. These results are consistent with increases in glycolytic energy utilization by mechanically induced signaling, and add substantial new data to a complex picture of how chondrocytes transduce mechanical loads. PMID:26573901

  6. Development of the Macro Command Editing Executive System for Factory Workers-Oriented Programless Visual Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anezaki, Takashi; Wakitani, Kouichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Kubo, Hiroyasu

    Because visual inspection systems are difficult to tune, they create many problems for the kaizen process. This results in increased development costs and time to assure that the inspection systems function properly. In order to improve inspection system development, we designed an easy-tuning system called a “Program-less” visual inspection system. The ROI macro command which consisted of eight kinds of shape recognition macro commands and decision, operation, control commands was built. Furthermore, the macro command editing executive system was developed by the operation of only the GUI without editing source program. The validity of the ROI macro command was proved by the application of 488 places.

  7. Induction of Micronuclei in Human Fibroblasts from the Los Alamos High Energy Neutron Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The space radiation field includes a broad spectrum of high energy neutrons. Interactions between these neutrons and a spacecraft, or other material, significantly contribute to the dose equivalent for astronauts. The 15 degree beam line in the Weapons Neutron Research beam at Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center generates a neutron spectrum relatively similar to that seen in space. Human foreskin fibroblast (AG1522) samples were irradiated behind 0 to 20 cm of water equivalent shielding. The cells were exposed to either a 0.05 or 0.2 Gy entrance dose. Following irradiation, micronuclei were counted to see how the water shield affects the beam and its damage to cell nuclei. Micronuclei induction was then compared with dose equivalent data provided from a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

  8. Accurate human tissue characterization for energy-efficient wireless on-body communications.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín; del Valle, Pablo García; Ayala, José L

    2013-01-01

    The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, where losses are mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. This paper shows the effects of the dielectric properties of biological tissues in the signal strength and, for the first time, relates these effects with the human body composition. After a careful analysis of results, this work proposes a reactive algorithm for power transmission to alleviate the effect of body movement and body type. This policy achieves up to 40.8% energy savings in a realistic scenario with no performance overhead. PMID:23752565

  9. Accurate Human Tissue Characterization for Energy-Efficient Wireless On-Body Communications

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín; del Valle, Pablo García; Ayala, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, where losses are mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. This paper shows the effects of the dielectric properties of biological tissues in the signal strength and, for the first time, relates these effects with the human body composition. After a careful analysis of results, this work proposes a reactive algorithm for power transmission to alleviate the effect of body movement and body type. This policy achieves up to 40.8% energy savings in a realistic scenario with no performance overhead. PMID:23752565

  10. Detection of Human Impacts by an Adaptive Energy-Based Anisotropic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Velasco, Manuel; Ortiz Marín, Rafael; del Rio Cidoncha, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Boosted by health consequences and the cost of falls in the elderly, this work develops and tests a novel algorithm and methodology to detect human impacts that will act as triggers of a two-layer fall monitor. The two main requirements demanded by socio-healthcare providers—unobtrusiveness and reliability—defined the objectives of the research. We have demonstrated that a very agile, adaptive, and energy-based anisotropic algorithm can provide 100% sensitivity and 78% specificity, in the task of detecting impacts under demanding laboratory conditions. The algorithm works together with an unsupervised real-time learning technique that addresses the adaptive capability, and this is also presented. The work demonstrates the robustness and reliability of our new algorithm, which will be the basis of a smart falling monitor. This is shown in this work to underline the relevance of the results. PMID:24157505

  11. Critique of Macro Flow/Damage Surface Representations for Metal Matrix Composites Using Micromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidance for the formulation of robust, multiaxial, constitutive models for advanced materials is provided by addressing theoretical and experimental issues using micromechanics. The multiaxial response of metal matrix composites, depicted in terms of macro flow/damage surfaces, is predicted at room and elevated temperatures using an analytical micromechanical model that includes viscoplastic matrix response as well as fiber-matrix debonding. Macro flow/damage surfaces (i.e., debonding envelopes, matrix threshold surfaces, macro 'yield' surfaces, surfaces of constant inelastic strain rate, and surfaces of constant dissipation rate) are determined for silicon carbide/titanium in three stress spaces. Residual stresses are shown to offset the centers of the flow/damage surfaces from the origin and their shape is significantly altered by debonding. The results indicate which type of flow/damage surfaces should be characterized and what loadings applied to provide the most meaningful experimental data for guiding theoretical model development and verification.

  12. Structural vibration control of micro/macro-manipulator using feedforward and feedback approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Cannon, D.W.; Magee, D.P.; Book, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PDL) researchers investigated the combined use of two control approaches to minimize micro/macro-manipulator structural vibration: (1) modified input shaping and (2) inertial force active damping control. Modified input shaping (MIS) is used as a feedforward controller to modify reference input by canceling the vibratory motion. Inertial force active damping (IFAD) is applied as a feedback controller to increase the system damping and robustness to unexpected disturbances. Researchers implemented both control schemes in the PNL micro/macro flexible-link manipulator testbed collaborating with Georgia Institute of Technology. The experiments successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of two control approaches in reducing structural vibration. Based on the results of the experiments, the combined use of two controllers is recommended for a micro/macro manipulator to achieve the fastest response to commands while canceling disturbances from unexpected forces.

  13. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  14. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidder, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis. ?? 1994.

  15. Calculation of DWPF Canister Decay Heat for Sludge Macro-Batches 1B to 9

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.

    1999-04-27

    The rates of heat generation of DWPF glass canisters due to radioactive decay have been estimated for the remaining nine macro-batches of sludge feed. The estimated decay heat ranged from 177.5 Watts for each Macro-batch 1B canister to 498.4 Watts for each Macro-batch 8 canister. These projections are based on the HLW radionuclide inventory data available as of 4/1/98, and do not reflect further decay since then. It was assumed that each DWPF glass canister would also contain a nominal quantity of salt waste based on the reference coupled feed flowsheet. Issue of this report successfully closes a recent technical assistance request (HLW/DWPF-TAR-990003).

  16. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein. PMID:25725151

  17. Hydraulic permeability and activation energy of human keratinocytes at subzero temperatures.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, S J; Diller, K R; Baxter, C R

    1988-06-01

    Studies on isolated human keratinocytes provide a model for design of optimal freeze-thaw protocols for skin cryopreservation and banking. Nucleated keratinocytes from the basal layer of split thickness human cadaveric skin were separated by a combined trypsin and DNAse digestion and suspended in Dulbecco's minimal essential medium with fetal calf serum. A small volume of suspension was frozen on a microprocessor controlled cryostage. Extracellular ice was nucleated at predetermined subzero temperatures, and the temperature was held constant for the duration of the experiment. The osmotic response of the cells to the formation of extracellular ice was recorded on 35-mm photographic film. Selected serial frames were digitized for automated computer evaluation of metric parameters of specific cells. Changes in the apparent cell volume were quantified over a period of several minutes to obtain dehydration curves associated with exposure to concentrated extracellular electrolytes. The Kedem-Katchalsky coupled flow transport model was statistically fit to the data using a personal computer. Values for the permeability coefficients were adjusted to optimize the correlation between the theory and the data. An activation energy of 44.8 kJ/mol and a water permeability of 0.035 micron (atm.min) at 0 degrees C were derived from the data measured over a temperature range from -2 to -9 degrees C. PMID:2456182

  18. Micronuclei induction in human fibroblasts exposed in vitro to Los Alamos high-energy neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersey, Brad; Sodolak, John; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Prem; Wilkins, Richard; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    High-energy secondary neutrons, produced by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the atmosphere, spacecraft structure and planetary surfaces, contribute to a significant fraction to the dose equivalent in crew members and passengers during commercial aviation travel, and astronauts in space missions. The Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center (LANSCE) neutron facility's ICE House 30L beamline is known to generate neutrons that simulate the secondary neutron spectra of earth's atmosphere. The neutron spectrum is also similar to that measured onboard spacecraft like the MIR and International Space Station (ISS). To evaluate the biological damage, we exposed human fibroblasts in vitro to the LANSCE neutron beams without degrader at an entrance dose rate of 25 mGy/h and analyzed the micronuclei (MN) induction. The cells were also placed behind a 9.9 cm water column to study the effect of shielding in the protection of neutron induced damages. It was found that the dose response in the MN frequency was linear for the samples with and without shielding and the slope of the MN yield behind the shielding was reduced by a factor of 3.5. Compared to the MN induction in human fibroblasts exposed to a γ source at a similar low dose rate, the RBE was found to be 16.7 and 10.0 for the neutrons without and with the 9.9 cm water shielding, respectively.

  19. Micronuclei Induction in Human Fibroblasts Exposed In Vitro to Los Alamos High-Energy Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersey, Brad; Sodolak, John; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Prem; Wilkins, Richard; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    High-energy secondary neutrons, produced by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the atmosphere, spacecraft structure and planetary surfaces, contribute to a significant fraction to the dose equivalent in crew members and passengers during commercial aviation travel, and astronauts in space missions. The Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center (LANSCE) neutron facility#s ICE House 30L beamline is known to generate neutrons that simulate the secondary neutron spectra of earth#s atmosphere. The neutron spectrum is also similar to that measured onboard spacecraft like the MIR and International Space Station (ISS). To evaluate the biological damage, we exposed human fibroblasts in vitro to the LANSCE neutron beams without degrader at an entrance dose rate of 25 mGy/hr and analyzed the micronuclei (MN) induction. The cells were also placed behind a 9.9 cm water column to study effect of shielding in the protection of neutron induced damages. It was found that the dose response in the MN frequency was linear for the samples with and without shielding and the slope of the MN yield behind the shielding was reduced by a factor of 3.5. Compared to the MN induction in human fibroblasts exposed to a gamma source at a low dose rate, the RBE was found to be 16.7 and 10.0 for the neutrons without and with 9.9 cm water shielding, respectively.

  20. Gait recognition based on Gabor wavelets and modified gait energy image for human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Deng-Yuan; Lin, Ta-Wei; Hu, Wu-Chih; Cheng, Chih-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a method for recognizing human identity using gait features based on Gabor wavelets and modified gait energy images (GEIs). Identity recognition by gait generally involves gait representation, extraction, and classification. In this work, a modified GEI convolved with an ensemble of Gabor wavelets is proposed as a gait feature. Principal component analysis is then used to project the Gabor-wavelet-based gait features into a lower-dimension feature space for subsequent classification. Finally, support vector machine classifiers based on a radial basis function kernel are trained and utilized to recognize human identity. The major contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) the consideration of the shadow effect to yield a more complete segmentation of gait silhouettes; (2) the utilization of motion estimation to track people when walkers overlap; and (3) the derivation of modified GEIs to extract more useful gait information. Extensive performance evaluation shows a great improvement of recognition accuracy due to the use of shadow removal, motion estimation, and gait representation using the modified GEIs and Gabor wavelets.

  1. Health sensor for human body by using infrared, acoustic energy and magnetic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jerry

    2013-05-01

    There is a general chain of events that applies to infections. Human body infection could causes by many different types of bacteria and virus in different areas or organ systems. In general, doctor can't find out the right solution/treatment for infections unless some certain types of bacteria or virus are detected. These detecting processes, usually, take few days to one week to accomplish. However, some infections of the body may not be able to detect at first round and the patient may lose the timing to receive the proper treatment. In this works, we base on Chi's theory which is an invisible circulation system existed inside the body and propose a novel health sensor which summarizes human's infrared, acoustic energy and magnetic signature and find out, in minutes, the most possible area or organ system that cause the infection just like what Chi-Kung master can accomplish. Therefore, the detection process by doctor will be shortened and it raises the possibility to give the proper treatment to the patient in the earliest timing.

  2. Gravity destabilized non-wetting phase invasion in macro-heterogeneous porous media: Near pore scale macro modified invasion percolation simulation of experiments

    SciTech Connect

    GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; CONRAD,STEPHEN H.; YARRINGTON,LANE

    2000-03-08

    The authors reconceptualize macro modified invasion percolation (MMIP) at the near pore (NP) scale and apply it to simulate the non-wetting phase invasion experiments of Glass et al [in review] conducted in macro-heterogeneous porous media. For experiments where viscous forces were non-negligible, they redefine the total pore filling pressure to include viscous losses within the invading phase as well as the viscous influence to decrease randomness imposed by capillary forces at the front. NP-MMIP exhibits the complex invasion order seen experimentally with characteristic alternations between periods of gravity stabilized and destabilized invasion growth controlled by capillary barriers. The breaching of these barriers and subsequent pore scale fingering of the non-wetting phase is represented extremely well as is the saturation field evolution, and total volume invaded.

  3. Macro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, G.; Guilbaud, M.; Onillon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Different mass formulae derived from the liquid drop model and the pairing and shell energies of the Thomas-Fermi model have been studied and compared. They include or not the diffuseness correction to the Coulomb energy, the charge exchange correction term, the curvature energy, different forms of the Wigner term and powers of the relative neutron excess I=(N-Z)/A. Their coefficients have been determined by a least square fitting procedure to 2027 experimental atomic masses (G. Audi et al. (2003) [1]). The Coulomb diffuseness correction Z/A term or the charge exchange correction Z/A term plays the main role to improve the accuracy of the mass formula. The Wigner term and the curvature energy can also be used separately but their coefficients are very unstable. The different fits lead to a surface energy coefficient of around 17-18 MeV. A large equivalent rms radius ( r=1.22-1.24 fm) or a shorter central radius may be used. An rms deviation of 0.54 MeV can be reached between the experimental and theoretical masses. The remaining differences come probably mainly from the determination of the shell and pairing energies. Mass predictions of selected expressions have been compared to 161 new experimental masses and the correct agreement allows to provide extrapolations to masses of 656 selected exotic nuclei.

  4. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05). The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05). The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP) (r=0.37, p < 0.05) and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry. PMID:25653772

  5. Ecological relevance of biomarkers in monitoring studies of macro-invertebrates and fish in Mediterranean rivers.

    PubMed

    Colin, Nicole; Porte, Cinta; Fernandes, Denise; Barata, Carlos; Padrós, Francesc; Carrassón, Maite; Monroy, Mario; Cano-Rocabayera, Oriol; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Piña, Benjamín; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are probably one of the most singular and endangered ecosystems worldwide due to the presence of many endemic species and a long history of anthropogenic impacts. Besides a conservation value per se, biodiversity is related to the services that ecosystems provide to society and the ability of these to cope with stressors, including climate change. Using macro-invertebrates and fish as sentinel organisms, this overview presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the application of biomarkers (stress and enzymatic responses, endocrine disruptors, trophic tracers, energy and bile metabolites, genotoxic indicators, histopathological and behavioural alterations, and genetic and cutting edge omic markers) to determine the causes and effects of anthropogenic stressors on the biodiversity of European Mediterranean rivers. We also discuss how a careful selection of sentinel species according to their ecological traits and the food-web structure of Mediterranean rivers could increase the ecological relevance of biomarker responses. Further, we provide suggestions to better harmonise ecological realism with experimental design in biomarker studies, including statistical analyses, which may also deliver a more comprehensible message to managers and policy makers. By keeping on the safe side the health status of populations of multiple-species in a community, we advocate to increase the resilience of fluvial ecosystems to face present and forecasted stressors. In conclusion, this review provides evidence that multi-biomarker approaches detect early signs of impairment in populations, and supports their incorporation in the standardised procedures of the Water Frame Work Directive to better appraise the status of European water bodies. PMID:26148426

  6. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  7. Adipose tissue and adipokines--energy regulation from the human perspective.

    PubMed

    Trayhurn, Paul; Bing, Chen; Wood, I Stuart

    2006-07-01

    There has been a rapid rise in the incidence of obesity, primarily as a result of changes in lifestyle (diet and activity levels). Obesity has provided considerable impetus for the investigation of the fundamental mechanisms involved in the regulation of energy balance. Important developments include the identification of novel factors involved in the control of appetite, such as ghrelin, orexin A, and the endogenous cannabinoids, and the emergence of the concept of "nonexercise activity thermogenesis" (NEAT) provided new perspectives on energy expenditure. Studies on white adipose tissue have led to the recognition that it is an important endocrine organ, communicating with the brain and peripheral tissues through the secretion of leptin and other adipokines. There is a rapidly expanding list of protein factors released by white adipose tissue, including the key hormone, adiponectin. Of particular note is the range of cytokines, chemokines, and other inflammation-related proteins secreted by white fat as tissue mass rises; indeed, obesity is characterized by chronic mild inflammation. The adipokines provide an extensive network of communication both within adipose tissue and with other organs, and some are implicated directly in the pathologies associated with obesity, particularly the metabolic syndrome. Although the focus remains very much on obesity in humans, the disorder and its sequelae are also a growing concern in companion animals. PMID:16772463

  8. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception. PMID:25163855

  9. Macro-ripple phase formation in bilayers composed of galactosylceramide and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Anderson, W H; Kulkarni, V S

    1995-01-01

    As determined by freeze fracture electron microscopy, increasing levels of bovine brain galactosylceramide (GalCer) altered the surface structure of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers by inducing a striking "macro-ripple" phase in the larger, multilamellar lipid vesicles at GalCer mole fractions between 0.4 and 0.8. The term "macro-ripple" phase was used to distinguish it from the P beta' ripple phase observed in saturated, symmetric-chain length phosphatidylcholines. Whereas the P beta' ripple phase displays two types of corrugations, one with a wavelength of 12-15 nm and the other with a wavelength of 25-35 nm, the macro-ripple phase occurring in GalCer/POPC dispersions was of one type with a wavelength of 100-110 nm. Also, in contrast to the extended linear arrays of adjacent ripples observed in the P beta' ripple phase, the macro-ripple phase of GalCer/POPC dispersions was interrupted frequently by packing defects resulting from double dislocations and various disclinations and, thus, appeared to be continuously twisting and turning. Control experiments verified that the macro-ripple phase was not an artifact of incomplete lipid mixing or demixing during preparation. Three different methods of lipid mixing were compared: a spray method of rapid solvent evaporation, a sublimation method of solvent removal, and solvent removal using a rotary evaporation apparatus. Control experiments also revealed that the macro-ripple phase was observed regardless of whether lipid specimens were prepared by either ultra-rapid or manual plunge freezing methods as well as either in the presence or absence of the cryo-protectant glycerol. The macro-ripple phase was always observed in mixtures that were fully annealed by incubation above the main thermal transition of both POPC and bovine brain GalCer before rapid freezing. If the GalCer mixed with POPC contained only nonhydroxy acyl chains or only 2-hydroxy acyl chains, then the occurrence of macro

  10. WOGEN. Work Order Generation Macros for Word Perfect 6.X for Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Grenz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Included are three general WP macros (two independent and one multiple) and a template used at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) for the generation of the Work Orders (WO`s) used to perform corrective and preventative maintenance, as well as modifications of existing systems and installation of new systems. They incorporate facility specific requirements as well as selected federal/state orders. These macros are used to generate a WP document which is then converted into ASCII text for import to the maintenance software. Currently we are using MCRS but should be compatible with other platforms such as Passport. Reference the included file Wogen.txt for installation and usage instructions.

  11. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  12. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  13. Motor unit size in muscular dystrophy, a macro EMG and scanning EMG study.

    PubMed Central

    Hilton-Brown, P; Stålberg, E

    1983-01-01

    Patients with muscular dystrophy were investigated with Macro EMG to study activity from whole individual motor units, and with Scanning EMG to study the distribution of activity within the motor unit. Macro motor unit potentials were normal or only slightly reduced in amplitude. In Scanning EMG the units had unchanged mean length compared with normal, but an uneven distribution of the activity. This was also seen in severely weak muscles. The findings are interpreted to be the result of degenerative and regenerative processes, giving rise to remodelling of the motor unit. Images PMID:6655485

  14. The relative influence of urban climates on outdoor human energy budgets and skin temperature I. Modeling considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, J. E.; O'Rourke, P. A.; Terjung, W. H.

    1982-03-01

    An attempt is made to provide a tool for systematically analyzing variations of outdoor human energy budgets and skin temperatures as a result of different urban street canyon geometries and vegetative properties. To this end, three previously developed numerical models were combined. The interaction of the models and the derivation of the necessary human-urban view-factors is discussed. Some sample results are given for non-urban macadam and park plains, to be used later as standards in the comparison of the impact of urban morphology on human comfort.

  15. Implications of Modern Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics for Georgescu-Roegen's Macro-Economics: lessons from a comprehensive historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    In the early 1970s, mathematician and economist Nicolas Georgescu-Roegen developed an alternative framework to macro-economics (his hourglass model) based on two principles of classical thermodynamics applied to the earth-system as a whole. The new model led him to the radical conclusion that "not only growth, but also a zero-growth state, nay, even a declining state which does not converge toward annihilation, cannot exist forever in a finite environment" (Georgescu-Roegen 1976, p.23). Georgescu-Roegen's novel approach long served as a devastating critique of standard neoclassical growth theories. It also helped establish the foundations for the new trans-disciplinary field of ecological economics. In recent decades however, it has remained unclear whether revolutionary developments in "modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics" (Kondepudi and Prigogine 1998) refute some of Georgescu-Roegen's initial conclusions and provide fundamentally new lessons for very long-term macro-economic analysis. Based on a broad historical review of literature from many fields (thermodynamics, cosmology, ecosystems ecology and economics), I argue that Georgescu-Roegen's hourglass model is largely based on old misconceptions and assumptions from 19th century thermodynamics (including an out-dated cosmology) which make it very misleading. Ironically, these assumptions (path independence and linearity of the entropy function in particular) replicate the non-evolutionary thinking he seemed to despise in his colleagues. In light of modern NET, I propose a different model. Contrary to Georgescu-Roegen's hourglass, I do not assume the path independence of the entropy function. In the new model, achieving critical free energy rate density thresholds can abruptly increase the level of complexity and maximum remaining lifespan of stock-based civilizations.

  16. Food/Hunger Macro-Analysis Seminar. A Do-It-Yourself Manual for College Courses and Action Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, William; Thorne, Erika

    This guide describes a fifteen-week macro-analysis seminar about food production, distribution, and consumption on international, national, and local levels. The macro-analysis approach emphasizes the interrelatedness of all parts of the food/hunger issue; therefore the seminar also addresses escalating military expenditures, widening poverty, and…

  17. macroH2A1 Histone Variants Are Depleted on Active Genes but Concentrated on the Inactive X Chromosome†

    PubMed Central

    Changolkar, Lakshmi N.; Pehrson, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Using a novel thiol affinity chromatography approach to purify macroH2A1-containing chromatin fragments, we examined the distribution of macroH2A1 histone variants in mouse liver chromatin. We found that macroH2A1 was depleted on the transcribed regions of active genes. This depletion was observed on all of the 20 active genes that we probed, with only one site showing a small amount of enrichment. In contrast, macroH2A1 was concentrated on the inactive X chromosome, consistent with our previous immunofluorescence studies. This preferential localization was seen on genes that are active in liver, genes that are inactive in liver, and intergenic regions but was absent from four regions that escape X inactivation. These results support the hypothesis that macroH2As function as transcriptional repressors. Also consistent with this hypothesis is our finding that the heterochromatin protein HP1β copurifies with the macroH2A1-containing chromatin fragments. This study presents the first detailed examination of the distribution of macroH2A1 variants on specific sequences. Our results indicate that macroH2As have complex distribution patterns that are influenced by both local factors and long-range mechanisms. PMID:16738309

  18. High-resolution simulations of the thermophysiological effects of human exposure to 100 MHz RF energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David A.; Curran, Allen R.; Nyberg, Hans A.; Marttila, Eric A.; Mason, Patrick A.; Ziriax, John M.

    2013-03-01

    Human exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic energy is known to result in tissue heating and can raise temperatures substantially in some situations. Standards for safe exposure to RF do not reflect bio-heat transfer considerations however. Thermoregulatory function (vasodilation, sweating) may mitigate RF heating effects in some environments and exposure scenarios. Conversely, a combination of an extreme environment (high temperature, high humidity), high activity levels and thermally insulating garments may exacerbate RF exposure and pose a risk of unsafe temperature elevation, even for power densities which might be acceptable in a normothermic environment. A high-resolution thermophysiological model, incorporating a heterogeneous tissue model of a seated adult has been developed and used to replicate a series of whole-body exposures at a frequency (100 MHz) which approximates that of human whole-body resonance. Exposures were simulated at three power densities (4, 6 and 8 mW cm-2) plus a sham exposure and at three different ambient temperatures (24, 28 and 31 °C). The maximum hypothalamic temperature increase over the course of a 45 min exposure was 0.28 °C and occurred in the most extreme conditions (Tamb = 31 °C, PD = 8 mW cm-2). Skin temperature increases attributable to RF exposure were modest, with the exception of a ‘hot spot’ in the vicinity of the ankle where skin temperatures exceeded 39 °C. Temperature increases in internal organs and tissues were small, except for connective tissue and bone in the lower leg and foot. Temperature elevation also was noted in the spinal cord, consistent with a hot spot previously identified in the literature.

  19. Macro-loading Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasma Etched Mercury Cadmium Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, Palash; Rybnicek, Kimon; Stoltz, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of macro-loading on mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1-x Cd x Te) and Photoresist (PR) etched in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). A significant macro-loading effect is observed, which affects the etch rates of both PR and Hg1-x Cd x Te. It is observed that the exposed silicon area has a significant effect on the PR etch rate, but not on the Hg1-x Cd x Te etch rate. It is also observed that the exposed Hg1-x Cd x Te area has a significant effect on the etch rate of the PR, but the exposed PR area does not seem to have an effect on the Hg1-x Cd x Te etch rate. Further, the exposed Hg1-x Cd x Te area is shown to affect the etch rate of the Hg1-x Cd x Te, but there does not seem to be a similar effect for the exposed PR area on the etch rate of the PR. Since the macro-loading affects the selectivity significantly, this effect can cause significant problems in the etching of deep trenches. A few techniques to reduce the effect of macro-loading on the etch rates of the PR and Hg1-x Cd x Te are listed, herein.

  20. Tonal Interface to MacroMolecules (TIMMol): A Textual and Tonal Tool for Molecular Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Timothy J.; Carlson, C. Britt; Forest, Katrina T.

    2008-01-01

    We developed the three-dimensional visualization software, Tonal Interface to MacroMolecules or TIMMol, for studying atomic coordinates of protein structures. Key features include audio tones indicating x, y, z location, identification of the cursor location in one-dimensional and three-dimensional space, textual output that can be easily linked…

  1. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  2. Japanese Communication Research: The Emphasis on Macro Theories of Media in an "Information-Based" Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Most mass media research in Japan focuses on the influence of mass communication on society as a whole; these "macro" theories typically employ traditional social science techniques. Reasons for this situation are examined, as well as how media researchers outside of Japan might learn from the Japanese perspectives about the role and function of…

  3. Line-scan macro-scale Raman chemical imaging for authentication of powdered foods and ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adulteration and fraud for powdered foods and ingredients are rising food safety risks that threaten consumers’ health. In this study, a newly developed line-scan macro-scale Raman imaging system using a 5 W 785 nm line laser as excitation source was used to authenticate the food powders. The system...

  4. Simple and Inexpensive Method of Wood Pellets Macro-porosity Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    C. Igathinathane; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; X. Bi; C. J. Lim; S. Melin; E. Mohammad

    2010-08-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0±2.5% and 35.5±2.7%, mean bulk density as and , and classified as “Class-3:Medium” and “Class-3&4:Medium to Low” for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr’s compressibility index classify wood pellets as “freely flowing.” The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  5. Simple and inexpensive method of wood pellets macro-porosity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Lim, C. Jim; Melin, Staffan; Mohammad, E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0 2.5% and 35.5 2.7%, mean bulk density as and, and classified as Class-3:Medium and Class-3&4:Medium to Low for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr s compressibility index classify wood pellets as freely flowing. The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  6. Education and Violence: The Schools' Micro-Politics and the Macro-Politics in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshabangu, Icarbord

    2008-01-01

    This study examined forms of violence in Zimbabwean schools and sought to draw an analogy with the country's macro-politics. Key interrelationships emerged which painted an endemic culture of violence. Over three hundred (300) students and eighty, (80) teachers submitted 2-3 page-written accounts on their schools' micro-politics. Thirty, (30)…

  7. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  8. When the Macro Facilitates the Micro: A Study of Regimentation and Emergence in Spoken Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warriner, Doris S.

    2012-01-01

    In moments of "dispersion, diaspora, and reterritorialization" (Amy Shuman 2006), the personal, the interactional, and the improvised (the "micro") cannot be separated analytically from circulating ideologies, institutional norms, or cultural flows (the "macro"). With a focus on the emergence of identities within social interaction, specifically…

  9. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and...

  10. Macro-loading Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasma Etched Mercury Cadmium Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, Palash; Rybnicek, Kimon; Stoltz, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the effect of macro-loading on mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1- x Cd x Te) and Photoresist (PR) etched in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). A significant macro-loading effect is observed, which affects the etch rates of both PR and Hg1- x Cd x Te. It is observed that the exposed silicon area has a significant effect on the PR etch rate, but not on the Hg1- x Cd x Te etch rate. It is also observed that the exposed Hg1- x Cd x Te area has a significant effect on the etch rate of the PR, but the exposed PR area does not seem to have an effect on the Hg1- x Cd x Te etch rate. Further, the exposed Hg1- x Cd x Te area is shown to affect the etch rate of the Hg1- x Cd x Te, but there does not seem to be a similar effect for the exposed PR area on the etch rate of the PR. Since the macro-loading affects the selectivity significantly, this effect can cause significant problems in the etching of deep trenches. A few techniques to reduce the effect of macro-loading on the etch rates of the PR and Hg1- x Cd x Te are listed, herein.

  11. Modal macro-strain vector based damage detection methodology with long-gauge FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Liu, Chongwu W.; Masri, Sami F.

    2009-07-01

    Advances in optic fiber sensing technology provide easy and reliable way for the vibration-based strain measurement of engineering structures. As a typical optic fiber sensing techniques with high accuracy and resolution, long-gauge Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been widely employed in health monitoring of civil engineering structures. Therefore, the development of macro strain-based identification methods is crucial for damage detection and structural condition evaluation. In the previous study by the authors, a damage detection algorithm for a beam structure with the direct use of vibration-based macro-strain measurement time history with neural networks had been proposed and validated with experimental measurements. In this paper, a damage locating and quantifying method was proposed using modal macrostrain vectors (MMSVs) which can be extracted from vibration induced macro-strain response measurement time series from long-gage FBG sensors. The performance of the proposed methodology for damage detection of a beam with different damage scenario was studied with numerical simulation firstly. Then, dynamic tests on a simply-supported steel beam with different damage scenarios were carried out and macro-strain measurements were employed to detect the damage severity. Results show that the proposed MMSV based structural identification and damage detection methodology can locate and identify the structural damage severity with acceptable accuracy.

  12. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  13. A Theoretical Cybernetic Macro-Script to Articulate Collaborative Interactions of Cyber Entities in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellas, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the dissemination and exploitation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds in higher education have been disclosed from their widespread acceptance as candidate learning platforms. However, it is still lacking a theoretical cybernetic macro-script to elaborate the coordination of multiple complex interactions among…

  14. Balancing Macro- and Micro-Sociolinguistic Perspectives in Language Management: The Case of Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Eddie C. Y.; Jernudd, Bjorn H.

    1993-01-01

    Shows how both macro- and microsociolinguistic perspectives are necessary to explain national language management. Macrolevel language planning is motivated by tasks of national consolidation by the state, notably in Singapore's case tasks of socio-ethnic integration and economic development. Microlevel language management pertains to individuals'…

  15. Ontario Universities Statistical Compendium, 1970-71 to 1979-80. Part A, Macro-Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Macro-indicators concerning finances of Ontario universities for 1970-71 to 1979-80 are considered, along with supporting data that might be used to generate such indicators, and complementary analyses that might be used to enhance understanding of both indicators and data. Operating revenue in constant dollars has been identified per…

  16. An Alternative to the Problematic Macro-Micro Structure of Introductory Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinari, Frank D.

    The paper explains an alternative structure to teaching micro and macroeconomic theory and describes the characteristics that make it an effective framework for introductory and principles courses. The teaching of economics principles typically proceeds by separating macroeconomic theory and microeconomic theory. But the use of the macro-micro…

  17. Recontextualizing YouTube: From Macro-Micro to Mass-Mediated Communicative Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymes, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I deconstruct the macro-micro dichotomy by arguing that the very same mass-media messages that appear culturally homogenizing (like catchy tunes and phrases) also invite creative recontextualizations (Bauman and Briggs 1990). Moreover, "the more widely circulated and mass-produced a message is, the more highly diverse the…

  18. TEAM (Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing) macro planner requirements guide: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-28

    The Macro Planner will provide required resource identities, bill of material list, routing sequences and identities of all supporting information to the Shop Floor Control System to enable the actual manufacturing activities. The Macro Planner must also collect manufacturing performance data from the shop floor to effectively measure the plan`s performance. The critical feedback will be evaluated during closure of the business cycle and provide the metrics on cost and quality to the planning function. This document is intended to describe the requirements for a Macro Planner system which supports the above environment. The Macro planner should progress to a logically, rule driven processor to automate major portions of the planning cycle. It should do the following: support concurrent product/process design; define a globally optimized manufacturing plan for realization of product; compile a complete manufacturing plan script (routing and operational detail documentation); be based on 3-D CAD models imported via STEP standards; and define an Enterprise Resource Base that maps manufacturing capabilities to component features.

  19. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  20. Simple and inexpensive method of wood pellets macro-porosity measurement.

    PubMed

    Igathinathane, C; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Sokhansanj, S; Bi, X; Lim, C J; Melin, S; Mohammad, E

    2010-08-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0+/-2.5% and 35.5+/-2.7%, mean bulk density as 670+/-29 kg m(-3) and 731+/-31 kg m(-3), and classified as "Class-3:Medium" and "Class-3&4:Medium to Low" for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr's compressibility index classify wood pellets as "freely flowing." The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials. PMID:20371174

  1. Service Learning and Community-Based Partnerships: A Model for Teaching Macro Practice Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandan, Monica; Scott, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an innovative project that combined service learning and community-based partnerships to teach macro practice skills to social work students and citizenship skills to primary school students. The partners, a small social work program, several primary schools, and an internationally recognized civic engagement program,…

  2. The Efficacy of Ecological Macro-Models in Preservice Teacher Education: Transforming States of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stibbards, Adam; Puk, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe and evaluate a transformative, embodied, emergent learning approach to acquiring ecological literacy through higher education. A class of teacher candidates in a bachelor of education program filled out a survey, which had them rate their level of agreement with 15 items related to ecological macro-models.…

  3. Finite Macro-Element Mesh Deformation in a Structured Multi-Block Navier-Stokes Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    A mesh deformation scheme is developed for a structured multi-block Navier-Stokes code consisting of two steps. The first step is a finite element solution of either user defined or automatically generated macro-elements. Macro-elements are hexagonal finite elements created from a subset of points from the full mesh. When assembled, the finite element system spans the complete flow domain. Macro-element moduli vary according to the distance to the nearest surface, resulting in extremely stiff elements near a moving surface and very pliable elements away from boundaries. Solution of the finite element system for the imposed boundary deflections generally produces smoothly varying nodal deflections. The manner in which distance to the nearest surface has been found to critically influence the quality of the element deformation. The second step is a transfinite interpolation which distributes the macro-element nodal deflections to the remaining fluid mesh points. The scheme is demonstrated for several two-dimensional applications.

  4. Effects of changes in micro- and macro-environmental factors on the supply of hospitals services.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, W W; Tseng, K C

    1990-01-01

    The failures, marketing difficulties and financial hardships hospitals have experienced raises a question as to whether they have been responsive to the changes in the micro and macro-environmental factors. To determine how responsive hospitals have been to these changes, we investigate the impact of a number of selected factors on the supply of hospital services during 1972 through 1978. The findings indicate that despite the fact that the economy went through recessionary periods, and the demographic distribution exhibited both a shift and a change in the aging and birth rates of the nation, the changes in hospitals' responsiveness have been less than satisfactory. It appears that hospitals readily respond to the changes in the micro-environment than to the changes in macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment may be characterized as an effort to create a higher level of production whose goal is to create a still higher level of needs and wants. PMID:10105855

  5. Constraints on genes shape long-term conservation of macro-synteny in metazoan genomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many metazoan genomes conserve chromosome-scale gene linkage relationships (“macro-synteny”) from the common ancestor of multicellular animal life [1-4], but the biological explanation for this conservation is still unknown. Double cut and join (DCJ) is a simple, well-studied model of neutral genome evolution amenable to both simulation and mathematical analysis [5], but as we show here, it is not sufficent to explain long-term macro-synteny conservation. Results We examine a family of simple (one-parameter) extensions of DCJ to identify models and choices of parameters consistent with the levels of macro- and micro-synteny conservation observed among animal genomes. Our software implements a flexible strategy for incorporating genomic context into the DCJ model to incorporate various types of genomic context (“DCJ-[C]”), and is available as open source software from http://github.com/putnamlab/dcj-c. Conclusions A simple model of genome evolution, in which DCJ moves are allowed only if they maintain chromosomal linkage among a set of constrained genes, can simultaneously account for the level of macro-synteny conservation and for correlated conservation among multiple pairs of species. Simulations under this model indicate that a constraint on approximately 7% of metazoan genes is sufficient to constrain genome rearrangement to an average rate of 25 inversions and 1.7 translocations per million years. PMID:22151646

  6. Nano- and Macro-wear of Bio-carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 Steel Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Emmanuel Kwesi; Ampaw, Edward; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Adetunji, A. R.; Olusunle, S. O. O.; Adewoye, O. O.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of nano- and macro-scale wear in a carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 steel. Carbo-nitriding is carried out using a novel method that involves the use of dried, cyanide-containing cassava leaves, as sources of carbon and nitrogen. These are used in a pack cementation that is used to diffuse carbon and nitrogen into case layers at intermediate temperatures [673.15 K, 723.15 K, 773.15 K, and 823.15 K (400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C)]. Nano- and macro-scale wear properties are studied in the case-hardened surfaces, using a combination of nano-scratch and pin-on-disk experiments. The measured wear volumes (at both nano- and macro-length scales) are shown to increase with decreasing pack cyaniding temperature. The nano- and macro-wear resistances are also shown to be enhanced by the in situ diffusion of carbon and nitrogen from cyanide-containing bio-processed waste. The underlying wear mechanisms are also elucidated via atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations of the wear tracks. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of hardened carbo-nitrided steel surfaces with improved wear resistance.

  7. Ontario Universities Statistical Compendium, 1970-71 to 1978-79. Part A, Macro-Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Macro-indicators on the conditions of Ontario universities and supporting data that might be used to generate such indicators were developed, and analyses of both indicators and data were undertaken. Overall objectives were as follows: (1) to measure the real resources available to the Ontario university system as a function of the volume of…

  8. Ontario Universities Statistical Compendium, 1970-71 to 1980-81. Part A, Macro-Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Macro-indicators pertaining to higher education in Ontario, Canada, universities during 1970-71 to 1980-81 are examined based on statistical data. The indicators are designed to measure resources available to the Ontario university system as a function of the volume of activity over time and to compare trends in available resources, along with…

  9. Ontario Universities Statistical Compendium, 1970-71 to 1983-84. Part A, Macro-Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Macro-indicators pertaining to higher education in Ontario, Canada, universities during 1970-1971 to 1983-1984 are examined. The indicators are designed to measure resources available to the Ontario university system as a function of the volume of activity over time and to compare trends in available resources, along with changes in resource…

  10. Ontario Universities Statistical Compendium, 1970-71 to 1984-85. Part A, Macro-Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Macro-indicators pertaining to higher education in Ontario, Canada, universities during 1970-1971 to 1984-1985 are examined. The indicators are designed to measure resources available to the Ontario university system as a function of the volume of activity over time and to compare trends in available resources, along with changes in resource…

  11. Two macros for producing graphs to assess agreement between two variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is intended for those familiar with PROC GPLOT from SAS/GRAPH®1 and PROC UNIVARIATE and PROC CORR from base SAS®. Via macro procedures, two graphs are developed to aid in the assessment of agreement between two variables. The first is a variant on a mean-difference plot, the second is a...

  12. Identifying Student Competencies in Macro Practice: Articulating the Practice Wisdom of Field Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Donovan, Kirsten; Lim, April; Anstice, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing literature examines competencies in clinical practice, competencies of students in macro social work practice have received comparatively little attention. A grounded-theory methodology was used to elicit field instructor views of student competencies in community, organization, and policy contexts. Competencies described by…

  13. Output power fluctuations due to different weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell simulations of Cerenkov devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Rong; Wang, Hongguang; Li, Yongdong; Liu, Chunliang

    2016-07-01

    The output power fluctuations caused by weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a backward wave oscillator and a travelling wave tube are statistically analyzed. It is found that the velocities of electrons passed a specific slow-wave structure form a specific electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution obtained in PIC simulation with a relative small weight of macro particles is considered as an initial distribution. By analyzing this initial distribution with a statistical method, the estimations of the output power fluctuations caused by different weights of macro particles are obtained. The statistical method is verified by comparing the estimations with the simulation results. The fluctuations become stronger with increasing weight of macro particles, which can also be determined reversely from estimations of the output power fluctuations. With the weights of macro particles optimized by the statistical method, the output power fluctuations in PIC simulations are relatively small and acceptable.

  14. The relative influence of urban climates on outdoor human energy budgets and skin temperature II. Man in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, J. E.; O'Rourke, P. A.; Terjung, W. H.

    1982-03-01

    Four typical urban neighborhoods or street canyon settings (including street parks) were simulated. These urban morphologies were exposed to typical summer and winter climatic scenarios for latitudes 10‡, 34‡, and 50‡N. The changes induced in the components of the human energy budget were examined. Resultant skin temperatures were compared with non-urban, unobstructed environments.

  15. Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Willerslev, Eske [University of Copenhagen

    2013-01-15

    Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  16. Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Willerslev, Eske

    2012-03-21

    Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  17. Naringin does not alter caffeine pharmacokinetics, energy expenditure, or cardiovascular haemodynamics in humans following caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Tasha L P; Halaweish, Fathi T; Stevermer, Cheryl L; Agrawal, Puja; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2006-04-01

    1. Naringin, a grapefruit constituent interacts with many medications including caffeine, a popular weight loss supplement. The purpose of the current study was to identify changes in caffeine pharmacokinetics, resting energy expenditure (REE), oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) after an acute dosage of caffeine and naringin. 2. Using a double-blinded, counterbalanced design, REE, VO(2), and RER were measured before and systematically for 8 h after a single dosage of caffeine (CAF, 200 mg) with and without naringin (100 mg (CN100) or 200 mg (CN200)) in 10 apparently healthy individuals. A standardized meal was provided following 240-minute measurements (400 kcals; 35 g carbohydrate; 27 g protein; 7 g fat). 3. Caffeine, CN100, CN200 did not alter VO(2) or VO(2) area under the curve (137 301 +/- 8318, 139 729 +/- 9300, 134 297 +/- 8318, mL/480 min). Resting energy expenditure (k/cals) was 10.0 +/- 1.4% higher with CAF versus CN200 (6.0 +/- 1.4%) and CN100 (6 +/- 1.5%) at 240 min (P = 0.07) which was then negated following a standardized meal. Percent change in RER from pre to 240 min and pre to 480 min was not different between the CAF, CN100, or CN200 (-0.2 +/- 1.7%, 1.7 +/- 1.7%, -2.8 +/- 1.9%). 4. Although caffeine alone suggests a trend of increased REE, the results of the present study indicate that concurrent consumption of caffeine with naringin in acute dosages does not affect RER, VO(2), and prevents the increase of REE in adult humans. The results suggest that the interaction of grapefruit juice and caffeine may be due to constituents of grapefruit juice other than naringin or in addition to naringin. PMID:16620293

  18. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water: validation in humans and proposed calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Ravussin, E.; Schutz, Y.; Acheson, K.J.; Baertschi, P.; Jequier, E.

    1986-05-01

    To further validate the doubly labeled water method for measurement of CO/sub 2/ production and energy expenditure in humans, we compared it with near-continuous respiratory gas exchange in nine healthy young adult males. Subjects were housed in a respiratory chamber for 4 days. Each received /sup 2/H/sub 2/(18)O at either a low (n = 6) or a moderate (n = 3) isotope dose. Low and moderate doses produced initial /sup 2/H enrichments of 5 and 10 X 10(-3) atom percent excess, respectively, and initial 18O enrichments of 2 and 2.5 X 10(-2) atom percent excess, respectively. Total body water was calculated from isotope dilution in saliva collected at 4 and 5 h after the dose. CO/sub 2/ production was calculated by the two-point method using the isotopic enrichments of urines collected just before each subject entered and left the chamber. Isotope enrichments relative to predose samples were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. At low isotope dose, doubly labeled water overestimated average daily energy expenditure by 8 +/- 9% (SD) (range -7 to 22%). At moderate dose the difference was reduced to +4 +/- 5% (range 0-9%). The isotope elimination curves for /sup 2/H and 18O from serial urines collected from one of the subjects showed expected diurnal variations but were otherwise quite smooth. The overestimate may be due to approximations in the corrections for isotope fractionation and isotope dilution. An alternative approach to the corrections is presented that reduces the overestimate to 1%.

  19. Charged-particle mutagenesis 2. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 sq micrometer and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(exp -3) sq micrometer respectively. The maximum values were obtained by Fe-56 with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(exp -5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  20. Early and delayed reproductive death in human cells exposed to high energy iron-ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettega, D.; Calzolari, P.; Doneda, L.; Durante, M.; Tallone, L.

    For radiation protection of the astronauts it is important to know both the acute and the late effects of charged particles. Iron is the most abundant high charge and energy (HZE) specie in galactic cosmic radiation. (HZE) ions are considered to be the major contributors to equivalent dose in space, but the Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE particles has large uncertainties, expecially for late effects. We have determined early and delayed reproductive death in human fibroblast cells (AG1522) exposed to iron ion beams of energies between 0.2 and 1 GeV/n. The cells were irradiated at the HIMAC accelerator in Chiba (0.2 and 0.5 GeV/n) and at the AGS accelerator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory in Brookhaven (1 GeV/n). For each beam the dose--effect curves were measured at least twice in the dose range between 0.5 and 2 Gy. 60 Co gamma rays were used as reference radiation. The following results were obtained: 1) the 1 GeV/n beam effectiveness for inactivation of the AG1522 cells is higher than that of any other beam. 2) the progeny of the irradiated cells show the presence of delayed damage in the form of reproductive death for all the beams with the 1 GeV/n being the most effective. 3) the relative biological effectiveness of the iron beams is higher for delayed compared to early reproductive death. A comparison with preliminary results obtained with 970 MeV/n Ti and 490 MeV/n Si ions will be also reported .

  1. Macro-step Monte Carlo Methods and their Applications in Proton Radiotherapy and Optical Photon Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacqmin, Dustin J.

    Monte Carlo modeling of radiation transport is considered the gold standard for radiotherapy dose calculations. However, highly accurate Monte Carlo calculations are very time consuming and the use of Monte Carlo dose calculation methods is often not practical in clinical settings. With this in mind, a variation on the Monte Carlo method called macro Monte Carlo (MMC) was developed in the 1990's for electron beam radiotherapy dose calculations. To accelerate the simulation process, the electron MMC method used larger steps-sizes in regions of the simulation geometry where the size of the region was large relative to the size of a typical Monte Carlo step. These large steps were pre-computed using conventional Monte Carlo simulations and stored in a database featuring many step-sizes and materials. The database was loaded into memory by a custom electron MMC code and used to transport electrons quickly through a heterogeneous absorbing geometry. The purpose of this thesis work was to apply the same techniques to proton radiotherapy dose calculation and light propagation Monte Carlo simulations. First, the MMC method was implemented for proton radiotherapy dose calculations. A database composed of pre-computed steps was created using MCNPX for many materials and beam energies. The database was used by a custom proton MMC code called PMMC to transport protons through a heterogeneous absorbing geometry. The PMMC code was tested against MCNPX for a number of different proton beam energies and geometries and proved to be accurate and much more efficient. The MMC method was also implemented for light propagation Monte Carlo simulations. The widely accepted Monte Carlo for multilayered media (MCML) was modified to incorporate the MMC method. The original MCML uses basic scattering and absorption physics to transport optical photons through multilayered geometries. The MMC version of MCML was tested against the original MCML code using a number of different geometries and

  2. Pipeline Structural Health Monitoring Using Macro-fiber Composite Active Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    A.B. Thien

    2006-03-01

    The United States economy is heavily dependent upon a vast network of pipeline systems to transport and distribute the nation's energy resources. As this network of pipelines continues to age, monitoring and maintaining its structural integrity remains essential to the nation's energy interests. Numerous pipeline accidents over the past several years have resulted in hundreds of fatalities and billions of dollars in property damages. These accidents show that the current monitoring methods are not sufficient and leave a considerable margin for improvement. To avoid such catastrophes, more thorough methods are needed. As a solution, the research of this thesis proposes a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for pipeline networks. By implementing a SHM system with pipelines, their structural integrity can be continuously monitored, reducing the overall risks and costs associated with current methods. The proposed SHM system relies upon the deployment of macro-fiber composite (MFC) patches for the sensor array. Because MFC patches are flexible and resilient, they can be permanently mounted to the curved surface of a pipeline's main body. From this location, the MFC patches are used to monitor the structural integrity of the entire pipeline. Two damage detection techniques, guided wave and impedance methods, were implemented as part of the proposed SHM system. However, both techniques utilize the same MFC patches. This dual use of the MFC patches enables the proposed SHM system to require only a single sensor array. The presented Lamb wave methods demonstrated the ability to correctly identify and locate the presence of damage in the main body of the pipeline system, including simulated cracks and actual corrosion damage. The presented impedance methods demonstrated the ability to correctly identify and locate the presence of damage in the flanged joints of the pipeline system, including the loosening of bolts on the flanges. In addition to damage to the actual

  3. Climate Change and Macro-Economic Cycles in Pre-Industrial Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Lee, Harry F.; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales. PMID:24516601

  4. A macro-micromechanics analysis of a notched metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.; Naik, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    A macro-micromechanics analysis was formulated to determine the matrix and fiber behavior near the notch tip in a center-notched metal matrix composite. Results are presented for a boron/aluminum monolayer. The macro-level analysis models the entire notched specimen using a three dimensional finite element program which uses the vanishing-fiber-diameter model to model the elastic-plastic behavior of the matrix and the elastic behavior of the fiber. The micro-behavior is analyzed using a Discrete Fiber-Matrix (DFM) model containing one fabric and the surrounding matrix. The dimensions of the DFM model were determined by the ply thickness and the fiber volume fraction and corresponded to the size of the notch-tip element in the macro-level analysis. The boundary conditions applied to the DFM model were determined from the macro-level analysis. Stress components within the DFM model were calculated and stress distributions are presented along selected planes and surfaces within the DFM model, including the fiber-matrix interface. Yielding in the matrix was examined at the notch tip in both the macro- and micro-level analyses. The DFM model predicted higher stresses (24 percent) in the fiber compared to the global analysis. In the notch-tip element, the interface stresses indicated that a multi-axial criterion may be required to predict interfacial failure. The DFM analysis predicted yielding to initiate in the notch-tip element at a stress level 28 percent lower than predicted by the global analysis.

  5. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    PubMed

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales. PMID:24516601

  6. Tendon elastic strain energy in the human ankle plantar-flexors and its role with increased running speed.

    PubMed

    Lai, Adrian; Schache, Anthony G; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-09-01

    The human ankle plantar-flexors, the soleus and gastrocnemius, utilize tendon elastic strain energy to reduce muscle fiber work and optimize contractile conditions during running. However, studies to date have considered only slow to moderate running speeds up to 5 m s(-1). Little is known about how the human ankle plantar-flexors utilize tendon elastic strain energy as running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting. We used data obtained from gait experiments in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques to calculate muscle-tendon unit (MTU) work, tendon elastic strain energy and muscle fiber work for the ankle plantar-flexors as participants ran at five discrete steady-state speeds ranging from jogging (~2 m s(-1)) to sprinting (≥8 m s(-1)). As running speed progressed from jogging to sprinting, the contribution of tendon elastic strain energy to the positive work generated by the MTU increased from 53% to 74% for the soleus and from 62% to 75% for the gastrocnemius. This increase was facilitated by greater muscle activation and the relatively isometric behavior of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. Both of these characteristics enhanced tendon stretch and recoil, which contributed to the bulk of the change in MTU length. Our results suggest that as steady-state running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting, the human ankle plantar-flexors continue to prioritize the storage and recovery of tendon elastic strain energy over muscle fiber work. PMID:24948642

  7. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    PubMed

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. PMID:27012174

  8. Molecular interaction and energy transfer between human serum albumin and bioactive component Aloe dihydrocoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Li, Lin; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Aloe dihydrocoumarin is an antioxidant and a candidate of immunomodulatory drug on the immune system and can balance physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which may be useful to maintain homeostasis. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydrocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. A Förster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism is involved in this quenching of Trp fluorescence by Aloe dihydrocoumarin. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the loss of α-helix stability and the gain of β-sheet and β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FT-IR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydrocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  9. A joint-space numerical model of metabolic energy expenditure for human multibody dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo H; Roberts, Dustyn

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic energy expenditure (MEE) is a critical performance measure of human motion. In this study, a general joint-space numerical model of MEE is derived by integrating the laws of thermodynamics and principles of multibody system dynamics, which can evaluate MEE without the limitations inherent in experimental measurements (phase delays, steady state and task restrictions, and limited range of motion) or muscle-space models (complexities and indeterminacies from excessive DOFs, contacts and wrapping interactions, and reliance on in vitro parameters). Muscle energetic components are mapped to the joint space, in which the MEE model is formulated. A constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm is established to estimate the model parameters from experimental walking data also used for initial validation. The joint-space parameters estimated directly from active subjects provide reliable MEE estimates with a mean absolute error of 3.6 ± 3.6% relative to validation values, which can be used to evaluate MEE for complex non-periodic tasks that may not be experimentally verifiable. This model also enables real-time calculations of instantaneous MEE rate as a function of time for transient evaluations. Although experimental measurements may not be completely replaced by model evaluations, predicted quantities can be used as strong complements to increase reliability of the results and yield unique insights for various applications. PMID:25914404

  10. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael T.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposure to space radiation is believed to be one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. In a previous study, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT, were exposed to gamma rays and high energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones induced by low- and high-LET radiation. In this research, we analyzed chromosome aberrations in these selected clones for genomic instability using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. In most of the clones, we found chromosomal aberrations involving translocations between different chromosomes, with several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed clones and the parental HBEC cells regardless of the exposure condition. Our results indicated that the chromosomal aberrations in low- and high radiation-induced transformed clones are inadequately different from spontaneous soft agar growth. Further analysis is underway to reveal the genomic instability in more transformed clones

  11. A nonlinear MEMS electrostatic kinetic energy harvester for human-powered biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Boisseau, S.; Marty, F.; Galayko, D.; Basset, P.

    2015-12-01

    This article proposes a silicon-based electrostatic kinetic energy harvester with an ultra-wide operating frequency bandwidth from 1 Hz to 160 Hz. This large bandwidth is obtained, thanks to a miniature tungsten ball impacting with a movable proof mass of silicon. The motion of the silicon proof mass is confined by nonlinear elastic stoppers on the fixed part standing against two protrusions of the proof mass. The electrostatic transducer is made of interdigited-combs with a gap-closing variable capacitance that includes vertical electrets obtained by corona discharge. Below 10 Hz, the e-KEH offers 30.6 nJ per mechanical oscillation at 2 grms, which makes it suitable for powering biomedical devices from human motion. Above 10 Hz and up to 162 Hz, the harvested power is more than 0.5 μW with a maximum of 4.5 μW at 160 Hz. The highest power of 6.6 μW is obtained without the ball at 432 Hz, in accordance with a power density of 142 μW/cm3. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47-μF capacitor to 3.5 V used to power a battery-less wireless temperature sensor node.

  12. Modeling energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in human exposure models: accounting for fatigue and EPOC.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kristin; Glen, Graham; Mccurdy, Thomas; Smith, Luther

    2008-05-01

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized values of metabolic equivalents of work (METS) for the activity being performed and converted into activity-specific oxygen consumption estimates. However, oxygen consumption remains elevated after a moderate- or high-intensity activity is completed. This effect, which is termed excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), requires upward adjustment of the METS estimates that follow high-energy expenditure events, to model subsequent increased ventilation and intake dose rates. In addition, since an individual's capacity for work decreases during extended activity, methods are also required to adjust downward those METS estimates that exceed physiologically realistic limits over time. A unified method for simultaneously performing these adjustments is developed. The method simulates a cumulative oxygen deficit for each individual and uses it to impose appropriate time-dependent reductions in the METS time series and additions for EPOC. The relationships between the oxygen deficit and METS limits are nonlinear and are derived from published data on work capacity and oxygen consumption. These modifications result in improved modeling of ventilation patterns, and should improve intake dose estimates associated with exposure to airborne environmental contaminants. PMID:17805234

  13. A nonlinear MEMS electrostatic kinetic energy harvester for human-powered biomedical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Marty, F.; Basset, P.; Galayko, D.

    2015-12-21

    This article proposes a silicon-based electrostatic kinetic energy harvester with an ultra-wide operating frequency bandwidth from 1 Hz to 160 Hz. This large bandwidth is obtained, thanks to a miniature tungsten ball impacting with a movable proof mass of silicon. The motion of the silicon proof mass is confined by nonlinear elastic stoppers on the fixed part standing against two protrusions of the proof mass. The electrostatic transducer is made of interdigited-combs with a gap-closing variable capacitance that includes vertical electrets obtained by corona discharge. Below 10 Hz, the e-KEH offers 30.6 nJ per mechanical oscillation at 2 g{sub rms}, which makes it suitable for powering biomedical devices from human motion. Above 10 Hz and up to 162 Hz, the harvested power is more than 0.5 μW with a maximum of 4.5 μW at 160 Hz. The highest power of 6.6 μW is obtained without the ball at 432 Hz, in accordance with a power density of 142 μW/cm{sup 3}. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47-μF capacitor to 3.5 V used to power a battery-less wireless temperature sensor node.

  14. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  15. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases whole-body energy expenditure in humans: roles of brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Mami; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Sugie, Hiroki; Saito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora extract (KP) has been reported to have a preventive effect on obesity in mice, probably by increasing energy expenditure (EE). The aims of the current study were to examine the acute effects of KP ingestion on whole-body EE in humans and to analyze its relation to the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site of non-shivering thermogenesis. After an oral ingestion of an ethanol extract of KP, EE increased significantly, showing a maximal increase of 229±69 kJ/d at 60 min, while it did not change after placebo ingestion. To evaluate BAT activity, the subjects underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, and divided into two groups with high- and low-BAT activities. A similar and greater response of EE to KP ingestion was observed in the high-BAT group (351±50 kJ/d at 60 min), but not in the low activity group. Placebo ingestion did not cause any significant EE change in either group. These results indicate that a single oral ingestion of the KP extract can potentially increase whole-body EE probably through the activation of BAT in healthy men, and may be useful as an anti-obesity regimen. PMID:25994142

  16. Human motion energy harvesting: numerical analysis of electromagnetic swing-excited structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Energy harvesting from human motion has constantly attracted scientific interest over recent years. A location where a harvesting device can easily and unobtrusively be integrated is the shoe sole, which also protects the device from exterior influences. In this work a numerical system model is developed, which can be used to simulate different inductive harvester geometries and predict their power output. Real world acceleration data is used as a model input. The model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink and subdivided into a mechanical and an electromagnetic model. The key features including the motion model and the calculation of the electromagnetic coupling coefficient are explained in detail and the model is briefly evaluated experimentally. A total of six inductive architectures, i.e. different cylindrical and rectangular magnet-coil arrangements, are then investigated in detail. The geometrical parameters are optimized for each architecture to find the best geometry within the size of 71 mm × 37.5 mm × 12.5 mm, which can be integrated into the sole. With the best overall design an average power output of 42.7 mW is simulated across an ohmic load of 41 Ohms. In addition to the respective best designs, the (dis-)advantages of each architecture are explained.

  17. A scalable piezoelectric impulse-excited energy harvester for human body excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillatsch, P.; Yeatman, E. M.; Holmes, A. S.

    2012-11-01

    Harvesting energy from low-frequency and non-harmonic excitations typical of human motion presents specific challenges. While resonant devices do have an advantage in environments where the excitation frequency is constant, and while they can make use of the entire proof mass travel range in the case of excitation amplitudes that are smaller than the internal displacement limit, they are not suitable for body applications since the frequencies are random and the amplitudes tend to be larger than the device size. In this paper a piezoelectric, impulse-excited approach is presented. A cylindrical proof mass actuates an array of piezoelectric bi-morph beams through magnetic attraction. After the initial excitation these transducers are left to vibrate at their natural frequency. This increases the operational frequency range as well as the electromechanical coupling. The principle of impulse excitation is discussed and a centimetre-scale functional model is introduced as a proof of concept. The obtained data show the influence of varying the frequency, acceleration and proof mass. Finally, a commercially available integrated circuit for voltage regulation is tested. At a frequency of 2 Hz and an acceleration of 2.7 m s-2 a maximal power output of 2.1 mW was achieved.

  18. Improved energy coupling of human P-glycoprotein by the glycine 185 to valine mutation.

    PubMed

    Omote, Hiroshi; Figler, Robert A; Polar, Mark K; Al-Shawi, Marwan K

    2004-04-01

    A glycine 185 to valine mutation of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) has been previously isolated from high colchicine resistance cell lines. We have employed purified and reconstituted P-glycoproteins expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Figler et al. (2000) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 376, 34-46] and devised a set of thermodynamic analyses to reveal the mechanism of improved resistance. Purified G185V enzyme shows altered basal ATPase activity but a strong stimulation of colchicine- and etoposide-dependent activities, suggesting a tight regulation of ATPase activity by these drugs. The mutant enzyme has a higher apparent K(m) for colchicine and a lower K(m) for etoposide than that of wild type. Kinetic constants for other transported drugs were not significantly modified by this mutation. Systematic thermodynamic analyses indicate that the G185V enzyme has modified thermodynamic properties of colchicine- and etoposide-dependent activities. To improve the rate of colchicine or etoposide transport, the G185V enzyme has lowered the Arrhenius activation energy of the transport rate-limiting step. The high transition state energies of wild-type P-glycoprotein, when transporting etoposide or colchicine, increase the probability of nonproductive degradation of the transition state without transport. G185V P-glycoprotein transports etoposide or colchicine in an energetically more efficient way with decreased enthalpic and entropic components of the activation energy. Our new data fully reconcile the apparently conflicting results of previous studies. EPR analysis of the spin-labeled G185C enzyme in a cysteine-less background and kinetic parameters of the G185C enzyme indicate that position 185 is surrounded by other residues and is volume sensitive. These results and atomic detail structural modeling suggest that residue 185 is a pivotal point in transmitting conformational changes between the catalytic sites and the colchicine drug binding domain. Replacement of this

  19. Molecular Imaging of Apoptosis: From Micro to Macro

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Gang; Eden, Henry S.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is involved in numerous human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer, and is often confused with other types of cell death. Therefore strategies that enable visualized detection of apoptosis would be of enormous benefit in the clinic for diagnosis, patient management, and development of new therapies. In recent years, improved understanding of the apoptotic machinery and progress in imaging modalities have provided opportunities for researchers to formulate microscopic and macroscopic imaging strategies based on well-defined molecular markers and/or physiological features. Correspondingly, a large collection of apoptosis imaging probes and approaches have been documented in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we mainly discuss microscopic imaging assays and macroscopic imaging probes, ranging in complexity from simple attachments of reporter moieties to proteins that interact with apoptotic biomarkers, to rationally designed probes that target biochemical changes. Their clinical translation will also be our focus. PMID:25825597

  20. Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets1234

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Janet A; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The energy content of foods is primarily determined by the Atwater factors, which may not be accurate for certain food groups. Nuts are a food group for which substantial evidence suggests that the Atwater factors may be poorly predictive. Objective: A study was conducted to determine the energy value of almonds in the human diet and to compare the measured energy value with the value calculated from the Atwater factors. Design: Eighteen healthy adults consumed a controlled diet or an almond-containing diet for 18 d. Three treatments were administered to subjects in a crossover design, and diets contained 1 of 3 almond doses: 0, 42, or 84 g/d. During the final 9 d of the treatment period, volunteers collected all urine and feces, and samples of diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for macronutrient and energy contents. The metabolizable energy content of the almonds was determined. Results: The energy content of almonds in the human diet was found to be 4.6 ± 0.8 kcal/g, which is equivalent to 129 kcal/28-g serving. This is significantly less than the energy density of 6.0–6.1 kcal/g as determined by the Atwater factors, which is equivalent to an energy content of 168–170 kcal/serving. The Atwater factors, when applied to almonds, resulted in a 32% overestimation of their measured energy content. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the inaccuracies of the Atwater factors for certain applications and provides a rigorous method for determining empirically the energy value of individual foods within the context of a mixed diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01007188. PMID:22760558

  1. Sensitivity of low energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Murrer, Lars; Lutgens, Ludy; Bloemen-Van Gurp, Esther; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to assess the sensitivity of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition for a range of low photon energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, {sup 131}Cs, and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS). The low energy photons emitted by these sources make the dosimetry sensitive to variations in tissue atomic number due to the dominance of the photoelectric effect. This work reports dose to a small mass of water in medium D{sub w,m} as opposed to dose to a small mass of medium in medium D{sub m,m}. Methods: Mean adipose, mammary gland, and breast tissues (as uniform mixture of the aforementioned tissues) are investigated as well as compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean. Prostate mean compositions from three different literature sources are also investigated. Three sets of MC simulations are performed with the GEANT4 code: (1) Dose calculations for idealized TG-43-like spherical geometries using point sources. Radial dose profiles obtained in different media are compared to assess the influence of compositional uncertainties. (2) Dose calculations for four clinical prostate LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 125}I seeds (Model 2301, Best Medical, Springfield, VA). The effect of varying the prostate composition in the planning target volume (PTV) is investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. (3) Dose calculations for four clinical breast LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 103}Pd seeds (Model 2335, Best Medical). The effects of varying the adipose/gland ratio in the PTV and of varying the elemental composition of adipose and gland within one standard deviation of the assumed mean composition are investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. For (2) and (3), the influence of using the mass density from CT scans instead of unit mass density is also assessed. Results: Results from simulation (1) show that variations

  2. Solar Wind Variability: from Macro to Micro Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, R.

    2015-12-01

    Several decades of in-situ observations by spacecraft unraveled the complex nature of the variability of solar wind magnetic field and plasma parameters. These fluctuations range from scales of the order of the solar rotation period to the smallest scales of the order of the ion and electron characteristic scale lengths. Some of these fluctuations belong to coronal transients, others to propagating modes and others are simply due to inhomogeneities and structures advected by the wind across the observer. In this talk I'll provide a short overview of the state of art of our current interpretation of the complex phenomenology observed so far, also in view of the next solar missions Solar Orbiter and SPP. I will start describing the solar wind large scale structure and its connection to the low corona. I will continue through the MHD regime, where turbulence energy is nonlinearly transferred to smaller and smaller scales, to end up at kinetic scales where this energy eventually is dissipated.

  3. Ubiquitous geospatial concept in evolution of the macro and micro spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, S.; Ludin, A. N. M.; Majid, M. R.

    2014-02-01

    There are many examples of GIS application in planning such as urban land-use planning, cultural heritage conservation, coastal zone management, and the design of structure plans for sustainable economic development. All these applications are dealing with systems in which natural and human factors are interconnected. But an issue that should be addressed is to what extent the current information technology is able to connect all these parts together? Contemporary improvement in information technology made the computer so imbedded in our everyday practices that we use it without having to think about it. Thus, computing is becoming truly ubiquitous and is available anywhere anytime. Advances in the internet facilities and devices, such as high speed wireless networks, mobile middleware, and smart technologies, has pushed the concept of ubiquitous computing to the forefront of GIS research and development. There are developments in this regards, these are such as GeoWeb 2.0, voluntarily geographic Information (VGI), and Mashups, whereby the application of cloud computing was possible in visualizing urban air pollution and emergency responses to ensure the safety and security. These advancements therefore, have changed the conventional facet of macro and micro spatial planning. Every possible information system such as residential, medical, business, environmental, governmental, and the like can be linked through ubiquitous computing technologies and acts as a virtually one system which works for society. However, the journey to achieve a true ubiquitous GIS is not without challenges. Despite the current potentials there are many issues and obstacles need to be addressed before GIS can to be truly ubiquitous in planning context. Perhaps four criteria as explained by Goodchild et al (1997) can be applied to ubiquitous GIS in planning very well: the system must be distributed (data storage, processing and user interaction can occur at locations that are potentially

  4. Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 9: Human Comfort and Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

    This module is the ninth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 10, and 11). The objective of this module is to…

  5. Macro- and microphase separation in multifunctional supramolecular polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mester, Zoltan; Mohan, Aruna; Fredrickson, Glenn

    2011-03-01

    We develop a field-based model for a binary melt of multifunctional polymers that can reversibly bond to form copolymer networks. The mean-field phase separation behavior of several model networks with heterogeneous bonding is calculated via the random phase approximation (RPA). The extent of bonding between polymers is controlled by specified bond energies. The phase boundary calculated via RPA is the stability limit of the homogeneous disordered phase to coexisting homogeneous macrophases, for low bond strengths, and to microphases, for high bond strengths. An isotropic Lifshitz point separates these two regions along the spindodal boundary. It is demonstrated that higher functionality and higher bond strength suppresses macrophase separation due to greater connectivity between unlike species. Gelation first occurs at a bond strength higher than the Lifshitz point for tri- or higher functional polymer components.

  6. Evolution Under Environmental Stress at Macro- and Microscales

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    Environmental stress has played a major role in the evolution of living organisms (Hoffman AA, Parsons PA. 1991. Evolutionary genetics and environmental stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Parsons PA. 2005. Environments and evolution: interactions between stress, resource inadequacy, and energetic efficiency. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80:589–610). This is reflected by the massive and background extinctions in evolutionary time (Nevo E. 1995a. Evolution and extinction. Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology. New York: Academic Press, Inc. 1:717–745). The interaction between organism and environment is central in evolution. Extinction ensues when organisms fail to change and adapt to the constantly altering abiotic and biotic stressful environmental changes as documented in the fossil record. Extreme environmental stress causes extinction but also leads to evolutionary change and the origination of new species adapted to new environments. I will discuss a few of these global, regional, and local stresses based primarily on my own research programs. These examples will include the 1) global regional and local experiment of subterranean mammals; 2) regional experiment of fungal life in the Dead Sea; 3) evolution of wild cereals; 4) “Evolution Canyon”; 5) human brain evolution, and 6) global warming. PMID:21979157

  7. Energy expenditure during level human walking: seeking a simple and accurate predictive solution.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Lindsay W; Weyand, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Accurate prediction of the metabolic energy that walking requires can inform numerous health, bodily status, and fitness outcomes. We adopted a two-step approach to identifying a concise, generalized equation for predicting level human walking metabolism. Using literature-aggregated values we compared 1) the predictive accuracy of three literature equations: American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), Pandolf et al., and Height-Weight-Speed (HWS); and 2) the goodness-of-fit possible from one- vs. two-component descriptions of walking metabolism. Literature metabolic rate values (n = 127; speed range = 0.4 to 1.9 m/s) were aggregated from 25 subject populations (n = 5-42) whose means spanned a 1.8-fold range of heights and a 4.2-fold range of weights. Population-specific resting metabolic rates (V̇o2 rest) were determined using standardized equations. Our first finding was that the ACSM and Pandolf et al. equations underpredicted nearly all 127 literature-aggregated values. Consequently, their standard errors of estimate (SEE) were nearly four times greater than those of the HWS equation (4.51 and 4.39 vs. 1.13 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively). For our second comparison, empirical best-fit relationships for walking metabolism were derived from the data set in one- and two-component forms for three V̇o2-speed model types: linear (∝V(1.0)), exponential (∝V(2.0)), and exponential/height (∝V(2.0)/Ht). We found that the proportion of variance (R(2)) accounted for, when averaged across the three model types, was substantially lower for one- vs. two-component versions (0.63 ± 0.1 vs. 0.90 ± 0.03) and the predictive errors were nearly twice as great (SEE = 2.22 vs. 1.21 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Our final analysis identified the following concise, generalized equation for predicting level human walking metabolism: V̇o2 total = V̇o2 rest + 3.85 + 5.97·V(2)/Ht (where V is measured in m/s, Ht in meters, and V̇o2 in ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). PMID:26679617

  8. Micro/macro solidification modeling of columnar eutectic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, Ward Michael

    2000-11-01

    A general multidimensional model of alloy solidification is presented in which a velocity-dependent freezing temperature is coupled with the macroscale energy equation. The velocity dependence of the freezing temperature ( Tf˜v ) results from the microscale species diffusion for microstructures with coupled eutectic growth. At solidification rates ( ˜ 1--10 mm/s) that are representative of gravity permanent mold and die casting processes, consideration of the nonequilibrium conditions at the interface affects the prediction of the macroscale thermal field. Near-eutectic alloys freeze with a macroscopically discrete solid-liquid interface at a temperature below the equilibrium eutectic temperature. The model is illustrated with unidirectional solidification of a near-eutectic alloy in a finite domain and solved numerically with a fixed-grid Galerkin finite element method. The numerical algorithm includes inexpensive steps to compute the interface speed explicitly. By nondimensionalizing the governing equations the effect of coupled eutectic growth on heat transport is clearly identified so that the model's sensitivity to important parameters can be investigated. Additionally, the average eutectic spacing can be determined with the temperature field, rather than post-determination from a standard, uncoupled solution of the energy equation. The eutectic coupling results indicate that the predicted solid-liquid interface location lags behind the uncoupled solution; therefore, decreasing the amount of solid formed, increasing the total solidification time, and increasing the average eutectic spacing. A procedure is also illustrated for computing mechanical properties using experimental correlations and the computed interface velocity history. The effect of the eutectic undercooling is then studied in a square domain and a realistic three-dimensional production casting geometry. In order to address the multidimensional cases, a phase-field formulation is developed

  9. Validation and Comparison of Two Methods to Assess Human Energy Expenditure during Free-Living Activities

    PubMed Central

    Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Tubic, Mirnes; Schmidt, Steffen; Neumann, Rainer; Woll, Alexander; Härtel, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Background The measurement of activity energy expenditure (AEE) via accelerometry is the most commonly used objective method for assessing human daily physical activity and has gained increasing importance in the medical, sports and psychological science research in recent years. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine which of the following procedures is more accurate to determine the energy cost during the most common everyday life activities; a single regression or an activity based approach. For this we used a device that utilizes single regression models (GT3X, ActiGraph Manufacturing Technology Inc., FL., USA) and a device using activity-dependent calculation models (move II, movisens GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany). Material and Methods Nineteen adults (11 male, 8 female; 30.4±9.0 years) wore the activity monitors attached to the waist and a portable indirect calorimeter (IC) as reference measure for AEE while performing several typical daily activities. The accuracy of the two devices for estimating AEE was assessed as the mean differences between their output and the reference and evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. Results The GT3X overestimated the AEE of walking (GT3X minus reference, 1.26 kcal/min), walking fast (1.72 kcal/min), walking up−/downhill (1.45 kcal/min) and walking upstairs (1.92 kcal/min) and underestimated the AEE of jogging (−1.30 kcal/min) and walking upstairs (−2.46 kcal/min). The errors for move II were smaller than those for GT3X for all activities. The move II overestimated AEE of walking (move II minus reference, 0.21 kcal/min), walking up−/downhill (0.06 kcal/min) and stair walking (upstairs: 0.13 kcal/min; downstairs: 0.29 kcal/min) and underestimated AEE of walking fast (−0.11 kcal/min) and jogging (−0.93 kcal/min). Conclusions Our data suggest that the activity monitor using activity-dependent calculation models is more appropriate for predicting AEE in daily life than the activity monitor using a single

  10. Bridging scales with thermodynamics: from nano to macro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjelstrup, Signe; Schnell, Sondre K.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Simon, Jean-Marc; Bardow, Andre; Bedeaux, Dick; Trinh, Thuat

    2014-06-01

    We have recently developed a method to calculate thermodynamic properties of macroscopic systems by extrapolating properties of systems of molecular dimensions. Appropriate scaling laws for small systems were derived using the method for small systems thermodynamics of Hill, considering surface and nook energies in small systems of varying sizes. Given certain conditions, Hill's method provides the same systematic basis for small systems as conventional thermodynamics does for large systems. We show how the method can be used to compute thermodynamic data for the macroscopic limit from knowledge of fluctuations in the small system. The rapid and precise method offers an alternative to current more difficult computations of thermodynamic factors from Kirkwood-Buff integrals. When multiplied with computed Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, agreement is found between computed predictions and experiments of the Fick diffusion coefficients for several binary systems. Diffusion coefficients were obtained by linking the Green-Kubo formulae to the Onsager coefficients. The formulae were used to improve/disprove empirical formulae for diffusion coefficients.

  11. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-10-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/μm to 975 KeV/gmm with particle energy (on the cells) between 94 - 603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/μm. The inactivation cross-section (αi) and the action-section for mutant induction (αm) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 μm2 and 0.09 to 5.56 × 10-3 μm2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/μm. The mutagenicity (αm/αi) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 × 10-5 with the maximum value at 150 keV/μm. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  12. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 micrometer2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(-3) micrometer2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(-5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  13. Glucagon increases energy expenditure independently of brown adipose tissue activation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Salem, V; Izzi-Engbeaya, C; Coello, C; Thomas, D B; Chambers, E S; Comninos, A N; Buckley, A; Win, Z; Al-Nahhas, A; Rabiner, E A; Gunn, R N; Budge, H; Symonds, M E; Bloom, S R; Tan, T M; Dhillo, W S

    2016-01-01

    Aims To investigate, for a given energy expenditure (EE) rise, the differential effects of glucagon infusion and cold exposure on brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation in humans. Methods Indirect calorimetry and supraclavicular thermography was performed in 11 healthy male volunteers before and after: cold exposure; glucagon infusion (at 23 °C); and vehicle infusion (at 23 °C). All volunteers underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanning with cold exposure. Subjects with cold-induced BAT activation on 18F-FDG PET/CT (n = 8) underwent a randomly allocated second 18F-FDG PET/CT scan (at 23 °C), either with glucagon infusion (n = 4) or vehicle infusion (n = 4). Results We observed that EE increased by 14% after cold exposure and by 15% after glucagon infusion (50 ng/kg/min; p < 0.05 vs control for both). Cold exposure produced an increase in neck temperature (+0.44 °C; p < 0.001 vs control), but glucagon infusion did not alter neck temperature. In subjects with a cold-induced increase in the metabolic activity of supraclavicular BAT on 18F-FDG PET/CT, a significant rise in the metabolic activity of BAT after glucagon infusion was not detected. Cold exposure increased sympathetic activation, as measured by circulating norepinephrine levels, but glucagon infusion did not. Conclusions Glucagon increases EE by a similar magnitude compared with cold activation, but independently of BAT thermogenesis. This finding is of importance for the development of safe treatments for obesity through upregulation of EE. PMID:26434748

  14. Dependence of mutation induction on fast-neutron energy in a human epithelial teratocarcinoma cell line (P3).

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Hill, C K

    1996-03-01

    To date, few studies have evaluated the magnitude of the risks of somatic effects in humans from low-dose or protracted radiation exposure to neutrons using in vitro or in vivo techniques (A. Kronenberg, Radiat. Res. 128, S87-S93, 1991). In earlier study a strong energy dependence was shown for neutron-induced mutations at both the hprt and the tk loci in a rodent fibroblast cell line (Zhu and Hill, Radiat. Res. 139, 300-306, 1994). Using fast neutrons produced by impinging protons on a beryllium target at the UCLA/VA cyclotron, we have been examining the energy dependence of mutation induction at the HPRT locus in a human epithelial cell line derived from solid tumor tissue. In the present study, human epithelial teratocarcinoma cells were exposed to neutron beams produced from protons with 46, 30, 20 and 14 MeV energy. We found that cytotoxicity increased by 50% as the neutron beams produced from 46 MeV to 14 MeV, confirming many earlier reports. But as with the Chinese hamster cells, the mutation frequency at the HPRT locus increased 2.5-4-fold with decreasing neutron energy. Additionally, although there was a strong energy dependence for mutation induction, we noted that the shape of the induction curves was curvilinear for the human cells compared to the linearity of the curves obtained for the Chinese hamster cells and some other non-solid tissue human cell lines. Calculations of the RBE, using gamma rays as the standard reflected these differences. The RBE for mutation at the HPRT locus was dependent not only upon energy but also on dose, giving rise to RBEs that were in some cases distinctly different from those found in the Chinese hamster cell line. In the low-dose region (doses below 75 cGy) the maximum RBE of about 5 resulted from irradiation by the lowest-energy neutron beam (14 MeV protons on beryllium). PMID:8927701

  15. The Setting for the Crack Era: Macro Forces, Micro Consequences (1960-1992)†

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the social history leading up to the crack era, especially 1960 to the present. The central theme holds that several major macro social forces (e.g., economic decline, job loss, ghettoization, housing abandonment, homelessness) have disproportionately impacted on the inner-city economy. These forces have created micro consequences that have impacted directly on many inner-city residents and have increased levels of distress experienced by households, families, and individuals. Economic marginality has generated high levels of alcohol and other drug abuse as well as criminality, which are exemplified in this article by one inner-city household having an extensive family history exhibiting the chronic impacts of these macro forces and their micro consequences. PMID:1491281

  16. Macro-Behaviour of Agents' Opinion under Influence of an External Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yun-Feng; Cai, Xu

    2007-08-01

    We propose a model to study the evolution of opinion under the influence of an external field on small world network. The macro-behaviour of agents' opinion and the relative change rate as time elapses are studied. The external field is found to play an important role in making the opinion s(t) balance or increase, and without the influence of the external field, the relative change rate γ(t) shows nonlinear increasing behaviour as time runs. What is more, this nonlinear increasing behaviour is independent of the initial condition, the strength of the external field and the time that we cancel the external field. The results may reflect some phenomena in our society, such as the function of the macro-control in China or the mass media in our society.

  17. Laser speckle contrast imaging of cerebral autoregulation in rats at a macro- and microcirculation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Abdurashitov, A. S.; Sindeev, S. S.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Using the method of laser speckle imaging for the simultaneous study of macro- and microcirculation in cerebral vessels of healthy rats, we show that the mechanisms underlying cerebral autoregulation depend on the initial condition of the organism and the sex of individual animals. The pharmacological dose-dependent stimulation of the peripheral arterial pressure increase is not accompanied by the cerebral circulation responses of analogous intensity, but manifests itself as 'compensating' reactions, namely, the redistribution of the blood flow at the level of macro- (in females) and microcirculation (in females and males). The obtained results extend our understanding of the capabilities of laser speckle imaging technique in neurophysiological studies of reserve abilities of cerebral circulation autoregulation under the conditions of hypertensive status formation.

  18. Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis in Manufacturing Metal/Polymer Macro-Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Baesso, R.; Lucchetta, G.

    2007-05-17

    Polymer Injection Forming (PIF) is a new manufacturing technology for sheet metal-polymer macro-composites, which results from the combination of injection moulding and sheet metal forming. This process consists on forming the sheet metal according to the boundary of the mould cavity by means of the injected polymer. After cooling, the polymer bonds permanently to the metal resulting in a sheet metal-polymer macro-composite product. Comparing this process to traditional ones (where the polymeric and metal parts are joined together after separate forming) the main advantages are both reduction of production costs and increase of part quality. This paper presents a multi-physics numerical simulation of the process performed in the Ansys/CFX environment.

  19. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wenbin

    2015-02-05

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  20. Studies of network organization and dynamics of e-beam crosslinked PVPs: From macro to nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dispenza, C.; Grimaldi, N.; Sabatino, M.-A.; Todaro, S.; Bulone, D.; Giacomazza, D.; Przybytniak, G.; Alessi, S.; Spadaro, G.

    2012-09-01

    In this work the influence of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) concentration in water on the organization and dynamics of the corresponding macro-/nanogel networks has been systematically investigated. Irradiation has been performed at the same irradiation dose (within the sterilization dose range) and dose rate. In the selected irradiation conditions, the transition between macroscopic gelation and micro-/nanogels formation is observed just below the critical overlap concentration (˜1 wt%), whereas the net prevalence of intra-molecular over inter-molecular crosslinking occurs at a lower polymer concentration (below 0.25 wt%). Dynamic-mechanical spectroscopy has been applied as a classical methodology to estimate the network mesh size for macrogels in their swollen state, while 13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation spectroscopy has been applied on both the macrogel and nanogel freeze dried residues to withdraw interesting information of the network spatial organization in the passage of scale from macro to nano.

  1. Macro-conditions and immigrants' happiness: Is moving to a wealthy country all that matters?

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Martijn; Bartram, David

    2016-03-01

    Migrants look for a better life. In what kind of country will they live happiest? Many migrants aspire to move to wealthy countries, but non-economic factors might be important as well in making a country livable for migrants. This issue is addressed here by examining the impact of macroeconomic conditions and non-economic macro-conditions (good governance and a pleasant social climate) on immigrants' happiness in twenty European nations. We find that immigrants' happiness depends both on economic and non-economic macro-conditions. The social climate is especially important, particularly in terms of a positive attitude in society towards migrants. Our findings imply that the choice of destination country matters for migrants' happiness and that the discrepancy between migration motives and migration outcomes may constrain immigrants from maximizing subjective gains via migration. PMID:26857174

  2. Cell Proliferation on Macro/Nano Surface Structure and Collagen Immobilization of 3D Polycaprolactone Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Ouk; Myung, Sung-Woon; Kook, Min-Suk; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    In this study, 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technique. The macro/nano morphology of, 3D PCL scaffolds surface was etched with oxygen plasma. Acrylic acid (AA) plasma-polymerization was performed to functionalize the macro/nano surface with carboxyl groups and then collagen was immobilized with plasma-polymerized 3D PCL scaffolds. After O2 plasma and AA plasma-polymerization, contact angles were decreased. The FE-SEM and AFM results showed that O2 plasma is increased the surface roughness. The MTT assay results showed that proliferation of the M3CT3-E1 cells increased on the oxygen plasma treated and collagen immobilized 3D PCL scaffolds. PMID:27433597

  3. Physical Properties of Polyester Fabrics Treated with Nano, Micro and Macro Emulsion Silicones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvinzadeh, M.; Hajiraissi, R.

    2007-08-01

    The processing of textile to achieve a particular handle is one of the most important aspects of finishing technology. Fabrics softeners are liquid composition added to washing machines during the rinse cycle to make clothes feel better to the touch. The first fabric softeners were developed by the textile industry during the early twentieth century. In this research polyester fabrics were treated with nano, micro and macro emulsion silicone softeners. Some of the physical properties of the treated fabric samples are discussed. The drapeability of treated samples was improved after treatment with nano silicone softeners. The colorimetric measurement of softener-treated fabrics is evaluated with a reflectance spectrophotometer. Moisture regain of treated samples is increased due to coating of silicone softeners. There is some increase in the weight of softener-treated samples. Samples treated with nano emulsion silicones gave better results compared to micro- and macro-emulsion treated ones.

  4. Work Order Generation Macros for Word Perfect 6.X for Windows

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-09-02

    Included are three general WP macros (two independent and one multiple) and a template used at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) for the generation of the Work Orders (WO's) used to perform corrective and preventative maintenance, as well as modifications of existing systems and installation of new systems. They incorporate facility specific requirements as well as selected federal/state orders. These macros are used to generate a WP document which is then converted into ASCII textmore » for import to the maintenance software. Currently we are using MCRS but should be compatible with other platforms such as Passport. Reference the included file Wogen.txt for installation and usage instructions.« less

  5. Relationship between macro-fracture density, P-wave velocity, and permeability of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haichao; Pan, Jienan; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Haitao

    2015-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the quantitative relationship between macro-fracture density, P-wave velocity, porosity and permeability of different coal rank samples from mining areas in North China. The coal sample permeability shows an exponential growth with increasing fracture density. The relation between P-wave velocity and porosity is power function and P-wave velocity decreases with the increasing porosity. P-wave velocity linearly or nonlinearly decreases with the increase of fracture density in the selected coal samples (0.73-3.59% Ro). However, the overall trend is that P-wave velocity decreases with an increase in macro-fracture density. The permeability of coal samples linearly decreases with the increase of P-wave velocity. The quantitative relationship between P-wave velocity and permeability could provide reference for the further study of permeability predicting.

  6. Procedure for quality inspection of welds based on macro-photogrammetric three-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Martín, M.; Lagüela, S.; González-Aguilera, D.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.

    2015-10-01

    The results of visual inspection of welds depend on the visual ability of inspector. With the optical macro-photogrammetric low-cost procedure proposed in this paper only a digital single lens reflex camera with a macro-lens and a photogrammetric reconstruction software developed by the authors are needed for the generation of accurate and scaled 3D models of welds directly from images taken by a non-expert operator. This result eliminates the need of an in-situ assessment by the inspector, since it can be done directly using the 3D models generated, which the inspector can consult for the performance of all the measurements required by international standards.

  7. Fluorescence energy transfer monitoring of protein-protein interaction in human cells: the Cyclin T1-HIV1 Tat case.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Aldo; Cinelli, Riccardo A. G.; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Beltram, Fabio; Marcello, Alessandro; Tyagi, Mudit; Giacca, Mauro

    2001-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein promotes transcriptional elongation of viral RNAs. Here we show that human Cyclin T1 directly binds Tat in cultured cells. By mapping fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in different cellular compartments we shall present a quantitative analysis of this interaction. The matched tagging pair consists of two optically matched variants of the green fluorescent protein: the enhanced GFP and the blue fluorescent protein. Strong energy transfer was observed between Cyclin T1 and Tat both in the cytoplasm and in specific subnuclear regions. We shall argue that such high-resolution optical studies can provide significant new insight in molecular processes and demonstrate that, for the specific case-study presented, they lead to a model by which Tat recruits Cyclin T1 out of the nuclear compartments where the protein resides to promote transcriptional activation.

  8. Comparison of model and human observer performance for detection and discrimination tasks using dual-energy x-ray images.

    PubMed

    Richard, Samuel; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2008-11-01

    Model observer performance, computed theoretically using cascaded systems analysis (CSA), was compared to the performance of human observers in detection and discrimination tasks. Dual-energy (DE) imaging provided a wide range of acquisition and decomposition parameters for which observer performance could be predicted and measured. This work combined previously derived observer models (e.g., Fisher-Hotelling and non-prewhitening) with CSA modeling of the DE image noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ) and imaging task (e.g., sphere detection, shape discrimination, and texture discrimination) to yield theoretical predictions of detectability index (d') and area under the receiver operating characteristic (Az). Theoretical predictions were compared to human observer performance assessed using 9-alternative forced-choice tests to yield measurement of Az as a function of DE image acquisition parameters (viz., allocation of dose between the low- and high-energy images) and decomposition technique [viz., three DE image decomposition algorithms: standard log subtraction (SLS), simple-smoothing of the high-energy image (SSH), and anti-correlated noise reduction (ACNR)]. Results showed good agreement between theory and measurements over a broad range of imaging conditions. The incorporation of an eye filter and internal noise in the observer models demonstrated improved correspondence with human observer performance. Optimal acquisition and decomposition parameters were shown to depend on the imaging task; for example, ACNR and SSH yielded the greatest performance in the detection of soft-tissue and bony lesions, respectively. This study provides encouraging evidence that Fourier-based modeling of NEQ computed via CSA and imaging task provides a good approximation to human observer performance for simple imaging tasks, helping to bridge the gap between Fourier metrics of detector performance (e.g., NEQ) and human observer performance. PMID:19070238

  9. Comparison of model and human observer performance for detection and discrimination tasks using dual-energy x-ray images

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, Samuel; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2008-11-15

    Model observer performance, computed theoretically using cascaded systems analysis (CSA), was compared to the performance of human observers in detection and discrimination tasks. Dual-energy (DE) imaging provided a wide range of acquisition and decomposition parameters for which observer performance could be predicted and measured. This work combined previously derived observer models (e.g., Fisher-Hotelling and non-prewhitening) with CSA modeling of the DE image noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ) and imaging task (e.g., sphere detection, shape discrimination, and texture discrimination) to yield theoretical predictions of detectability index (d{sup '}) and area under the receiver operating characteristic (A{sub Z}). Theoretical predictions were compared to human observer performance assessed using 9-alternative forced-choice tests to yield measurement of A{sub Z} as a function of DE image acquisition parameters (viz., allocation of dose between the low- and high-energy images) and decomposition technique [viz., three DE image decomposition algorithms: standard log subtraction (SLS), simple-smoothing of the high-energy image (SSH), and anti-correlated noise reduction (ACNR)]. Results showed good agreement between theory and measurements over a broad range of imaging conditions. The incorporation of an eye filter and internal noise in the observer models demonstrated improved correspondence with human observer performance. Optimal acquisition and decomposition parameters were shown to depend on the imaging task; for example, ACNR and SSH yielded the greatest performance in the detection of soft-tissue and bony lesions, respectively. This study provides encouraging evidence that Fourier-based modeling of NEQ computed via CSA and imaging task provides a good approximation to human observer performance for simple imaging tasks, helping to bridge the gap between Fourier metrics of detector performance (e.g., NEQ) and human observer performance.

  10. Testing MACRO (version 5.1) for pesticide leaching in a Dutch clay soil.

    PubMed

    Scorza Júnior, Rômulo P; Jarvis, Nicholas J; Boesten, Jos Jti; van der Zee, Sjoerd Eatm; Roulier, Stéphanie

    2007-10-01

    Testing of pesticide leaching models against comprehensive field-scale measurements is necessary to increase confidence in their predictive ability when used as regulatory tools. Version 5.1 of the MACRO model was tested against measurements of water flow and the behaviour of bromide, bentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one-2,2-dioxide] and imidacloprid [1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-nitroimidazolidin-2-ylideneamine] in a cracked clay soil. In keeping with EU (FOCUS) procedures, the model was first calibrated against the measured moisture profiles and bromide concentrations in soil and in drain water. Uncalibrated pesticide simulations based on laboratory measurements of sorption and degradation were then compared with field data on the leaching of bentazone and imidacloprid. Calibrated parameter values indicated that a high degree of physical non-equilibrium (i.e. strong macropore flow) was necessary to describe solute transport in this soil. Comparison of measured and simulated bentazone concentration profiles revealed that the bulk of the bentazone movement in this soil was underestimated by MACRO. Nevertheless, the model simulated the dynamics of the bentazone breakthrough in drain water rather well and, in particular, accurately simulated the timing and the concentration level of the early bentazone breakthrough in drain water. The imidacloprid concentration profiles and its persistence in soil were simulated well. Moreover, the timing of the early imidacloprid breakthrough in the drain water was simulated well, although the simulated concentrations were about 2-3 times larger than measured. Deep groundwater concentrations for all substances were underestimated by MACRO, although it simulated concentrations in the shallow groundwater reasonably well. It is concluded that, in the context of ecotoxicological risk assessments for surface water, MACRO can give reasonably good simulations of pesticide concentrations in water draining from

  11. Measurement of the decoherence function with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Campana, P.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiera, C.; Cobis, A.; Cormack, R.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; Dekhussi, H.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Ficenec, D.; Forti, C.; Foti, L.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giubellino, P.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Klein, S.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Matteuzzi, P.; Michae

    1992-12-01

    A measurement of the underground muon decoherence function has been performed using the multiple muon events collected by the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. A detector-independent analysis is presented for different zenith regions and rock depths; this allows direct comparison with any model of hadronic interactions. The measured decoherence function is compared with the predictions of a Monte Carlo simulation based on data taken by recent collider experiments.

  12. Inverse Calibration of the Dual-Permeability Model MACRO: Theoretical Analysis and Application to Microlysimeter Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulier, S.; Jarvis, N.

    2003-12-01

    Macropore flow is a key factor for determining chemical transport in unsaturated soils, but the description of the complex processes involved in macropore flow requires several parameters that cannot be easily measured. Inverse modeling procedures are increasingly used for model calibration, because they are objective and reproducible. But this is only true when the problem is well-posed: an ill-posed problem leads to parameter nonuniqueness, and thus contributes to poor model performance, like error and/or uncertainty in model predictions. Factors linked to nonuniqueness are most often related to sensitivity issues and/or correlation among two or several parameters. This study focused on the use of inverse techniques to estimate parameters controlling macropore flow, transport, and transformation processes in the dual porosity/dual-permeability model of water flow and solute transport MACRO. MACRO was used together with the inverse modeling package SUFI. The Bayesian (global) approach followed by SUFI is stable, converging, and robust. Moreover, the procedure also predicts a posterior uncertainty domain for the estimated parameters. A theoretical study was carried out to test the inverse modeling tool SUFI/MACRO. Generated "dummy" data set were used for this purpose, representing transient leaching experiment for tracers and reactive solutes in small soil columns (20 cm height). General issues related to inverse modeling such as internal correlation and sensitivity were investigated, with the help of response surface analysis, as well as the influence of the choice of the goal function used in the inverse procedure. Attention was also focused on the most appropriate experimental design necessary for a reliable parameter estimation. The procedure was then applied to real data, obtained from tracer leaching experiments carried out on microlysimeters. Based on calculated model efficiencies, MACRO/SUFI gave good predictions of water movement and tracer transport. This

  13. Use of the National Driver Register in the U.S. Department of Energy Human Reliability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip M. Kannan, Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The National Driver Register (NDR) is a complex information network established and maintained by the Secretary of the Department of Transportation (DOT) under the National Driver Register Act of 1982. This report analyzes the question of whether information from the NDR is available to officials making Human Reliability Program (HRP) certification and recertification decisions and to Department of Energy (DOE) personnel security specialists making access authorization determinations.

  14. A direct link between microstructure and acoustical macro-behavior of real double porosity foams.

    PubMed

    Chevillotte, Fabien; Perrot, Camille; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    The acoustical macro-behavior of mineral open-cell foam samples is modeled from microstructure morphology using a three-dimensional idealized periodic unit-cell (3D-PUC). The 3D-PUC is based on a regular arrangement of spheres allowed to interpenetrate during the foaming process. Identification and sizing of the 3D-PUC is made from x-ray computed microtomography and manufacturing process information. In addition, the 3D-PUC used allows to account for two scales of porosity: The interconnected network of bubbles (meso-porosity) and the inter-crystalline porosity of a gypsum matrix (micro-porosity). Transport properties of the micro- and the meso-scales are calculated from first principles, and a hybrid micro-macro method is used to determine the frequency-dependent visco-thermal dissipation properties. Olny and Boutin found that the double porosity theory provides the visco-thermal coupling between the meso- and micro-scales [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 73-89 (2003)]. Finally, the results are successfully compared with experiments for two different mineral foam samples. The main originality of this work is to maintain a direct link between the microstructure morphology and the acoustical macro-behavior all along the multi-scale modeling process, without any adjusted parameter. PMID:25669280

  15. Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

    2013-07-01

    How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

  16. Micro and MACRO Fractals Generated by Multi-Valued Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banakh, T.; Novosad, N.

    2014-08-01

    Given a multi-valued function Φ : X \\mumap X on a topological space X we study the properties of its fixed fractal \\malteseΦ, which is defined as the closure of the orbit Φω(*Φ) = ⋃n∈ωΦn(*Φ) of the set *Φ = {x ∈ X : x ∈ Φ(x)} of fixed points of Φ. A special attention is paid to the duality between micro-fractals and macro-fractals, which are fixed fractals \\maltese Φ and \\maltese {Φ -1} for a contracting compact-valued function Φ : X \\mumap X on a complete metric space X. With help of algorithms (described in this paper) we generate various images of macro-fractals which are dual to some well-known micro-fractals like the fractal cross, the Sierpiński triangle, Sierpiński carpet, the Koch curve, or the fractal snowflakes. The obtained images show that macro-fractals have a large-scale fractal structure, which becomes clearly visible after a suitable zooming.

  17. The Macro Model of the Inequality Process and the Surging Relative Frequency of Large Wage Incomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angle, John

    2008-03-01

    Particles are randomly paired in the Inequality Process (IP), a particle system scattering a positive quantity, wealth. Each particle has a parameter, φ, the fraction of wealth lost in a loss whose probability is 0.5. The stationary distribution of the wealth of particles with φψ is approximated by a γ pdf, the IP's macro model, with shape and scale parameters expressed in terms of φψ. The model's dynamics are driven by the product, φtμt, where φt is the harmonic mean of the φ's in the population at time t and μt, the population mean of wealth at time t. This γ pdf model fits the annual distribution of annual wage income in the U.S. 1961-2003. These data also confirm that the time-series of scalar statistics of wage income that labor economists think are produced by the U.S. distribution of wage income being ``hollowed out'' (bimodal), the increasing dispersion of wage income and the surging relative frequency of large wage incomes, are produced by the distribution being stretched over larger wage incomes, as implied by the IP's macro model when φtμt increases. The IP's macro model includes wage income distribution dynamics into statistical mechanics. To appear in The Econophysics of Markets and Business Networks.

  18. Skp2-MacroH2A1-CDK8 axis orchestrates G2/M transition, polyploidy and tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dazhi; Li, Chien-Feng; Zhang, Xian; Gong, Zhaohui; Chan, Chia-Hsin; Lee, Szu-Wei; Jin, Guoxiang; Rezaeian, Abdol-Hossein; Han, Fei; Wang, Jing; Yang, Wei-Lei; Feng, Zi-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Wu, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Ying-Jan; Chow, Lu-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Lin, Hui-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism by which cell growth, migration, polyploidy, and tumourigenesis are regulated may provide important therapeutic strategies for cancer therapy. Here we identify the Skp2-macroH2A1 (mH2A1)-CDK8 axis as a critical pathway for these processes, and deregulation of this pathway is associated with human breast cancer progression and patient survival outcome. We showed that mH2A1 is a new substrate of Skp2 SCF complex whose degradation by Skp2 promotes CDK8 gene and protein expression. Strikingly, breast tumour suppression upon Skp2 deficiency can be rescued by mH2A1 knockdown or CDK8 restoration using mouse tumour models. We further show that CDK8 regulates p27 protein expression by facilitating Skp2-mediated p27 ubiquitination and degradation. Our study establishes a critical role of Skp2-mH2A1-CDK8 axis in breast cancer development and targeting this pathway offers a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25818643

  19. The Human Dimension of Energy Conservation and Sustainability: A Case Study of the University of Michigan's Energy Conservation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marans, Robert W.; Edelstein, Jack Y.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the behaviors, attitudes, and levels of understanding among faculty, staff, and students in efforts to design programs aimed at reducing energy use in University of Michigan (UM) buildings. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-method approach is used in five diverse pilot buildings including focus…

  20. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work…