Science.gov

Sample records for human engineering considerations

  1. Design Considerations for Human Rating of Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I.Human-rating is specific to each engine; a. Context of program/project must be understood. b. Engine cannot be discussed independently from vehicle and mission. II. Utilize a logical combination of design, manufacturing, and test approaches a. Design 1) It is crucial to know the potential ways a system can fail, and how a failure can propagate; 2) Fault avoidance, fault tolerance, DFMR, caution and warning all have roles to play. b. Manufacturing and Assembly; 1) As-built vs. as-designed; 2) Review procedures for assembly and maintenance periodically; and 3) Keep personnel trained and certified. c. There is no substitute for test: 1) Analytical tools are constantly advancing, but still need test data for anchoring assumptions; 2) Demonstrate robustness and explore sensitivities; 3) Ideally, flight will be encompassed by ground test experience. III. Consistency and repeatability is key in production a. Maintain robust processes and procedures for inspection and quality control based upon development and qualification experience; b. Establish methods to "spot check" quality and consistency in parts: 1) Dedicated ground test engines; 2) Random components pulled from the line/lot to go through "enhanced" testing.

  2. Human engineering design considerations for the use of signal color enhancement in ASW displays

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was requested to examine and define man-machine limits as part of the Office of Naval Technology's High Gain Initiative program (HGI). As an initial investigative area, LLNL's Systems and Human Performance effort focused upon color display interfaces and the use of color enhancement techniques to define human and system interface limits in signal detection and discrimination tasks. The knowledgeable and prudent use of color in different types of display is believed to facilitate human visual detection, discrimination and recognition in complex visual tasks. The consideration and understanding of the complex set of interacting variables associated with the prudent use of color is essential to optimize human performance, especially in the ASW community. The designers of advanced display technology and signal processing algorithms may be eventually called upon to present pre-processed information to ASW operators and researchers using the latest color enhancement techniques. These techniques, however, may be limited if one does not understand the complexity and limits of human information processing which reflects the assessed state of knowledge relevant to the use of color in displays. The initial sections of this report discuss various aspects of color presentation and the problems typically encountered, while the last section deals with a specific research proposal required to further our understanding and proper use of color enhancement methods.

  3. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  4. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  5. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  6. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  7. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  8. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  9. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  10. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  11. ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS: WATERBORNE DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a disease outbreak investigation involving drinking water, an engineering investigation may be necessary to determine how or why the pathogen of concern was able to get to the consumer. In many of the US outbreaks, the survival of the pathogen was dependent on multiple...

  12. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  13. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  14. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436

  15. Considerations on Educating Engineers in Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of sustainability to engineers will follow similar paths to that of environmental engineering. There is a strong feeling that environmental engineering is a discipline unto itself, requiring knowledge of chemistry, physics, biology, hydrology, toxicology, modelling and law. However, environmental engineering can also be encompassed…

  16. Cell stretching devices as research tools: engineering and biological considerations.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Harshad; Barton, Matthew J; Jun, Myeongjun; Park, Sungsu; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-08-16

    Cells within the human body are subjected to continuous, cyclic mechanical strain caused by various organ functions, movement, and growth. Cells are well known to have the ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. This process is referred to as mechanotransduction. A better understanding of mechanotransduction is of great interest to clinicians and scientists alike to improve clinical diagnosis and understanding of medical pathology. However, the complexity involved in in vivo biological systems creates a need for better in vitro technologies, which can closely mimic the cells' microenvironment using induced mechanical strain. This technology gap motivates the development of cell stretching devices for better understanding of the cell response to mechanical stimuli. This review focuses on the engineering and biological considerations for the development of such cell stretching devices. The paper discusses different types of stretching concepts, major design consideration and biological aspects of cell stretching and provides a perspective for future development in this research area. PMID:27440436

  17. Some considerations relating to aero engine pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, P. J.

    1986-11-01

    With turbine blade optical pyrometry rapidly becoming accepted by the aerospace community as a viable flight control technique, some of the traditional and emerging demands are described, with examples of how they are being addressed. Many of these demands are now being met by skillful application of materials technology, electronic engineering, signal processing and fluid flow techniques, but it is probable that flight conditions will impose a more pragmatic approach than customarily adopted towards test bed installations.

  18. Tissue Engineering Considerations in Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nosrat, Ali; Kim, Jong Ryul; Verma, Prashant; S. Chand, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedure is introduced as a biologically based treatment for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. Successful clinical and radiographic outcomes following regenerative procedures have been reported in landmark case reports. Retrospective studies have shown that this conservative treatment allows for continued root development and increases success and survival rate of the treated teeth compared to other treatment options. Although the goal of treatment is regeneration of a functional pulp tissue, histological analyses show a different outcome. Developing predictable protocols would require the use of key elements for tissue engineering: stem cells, bioactive scaffolds, and growth factors. In this study we will review the evidence based steps and outcomes of regenerative endodontics. PMID:24396373

  19. Engineering Considerations Applied to Starshade Repointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rioux, Norman; Dichmann, Donald; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Roberge, Aki; Starke, Chris; Stoneking, Eric; Willis, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Engineering analysis has been carried out on orbit dynamics that drive the delta-v budget for repointing a free-flying starshade occulter for viewing exoplanets with a space telescope. This analysis has application to the design of starshade spacecraft and yield calculations of observations of exoplanets using a space telescope and a starshade. Analysis was carried out to determine if there may be some advantage for the global delta-v budget if the telescope performs orbit changing delta-v maneuvers as part of the telescope-starshade alignment for observing exoplanets. Analysis of the orbit environmental forces at play found no significant advantage in having the telescope participate in delta-v maneuvers for exoplanet observation repointing. A separate analysis of starshade delta-v for repointing found that the orbit dynamics of the starshade is driven by multiple simultaneous variables that need to be considered together in order to create an effective estimate of delta-v over an exoplanet observation campaign. These include area of the starshade, dry mass of the starshade spacecraft, and propellant mass of the starshade spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure has the potential to play a dominant role in the orbit dynamics and delta-v budget. SRP effects are driven by the differences in the mass, area, and coefficients of reflectivity of the observing telescope and the starshade. The propellant budget cannot be effectively estimated without a conceptual design of a starshade spacecraft including the propulsion system. The varying propellant mass over the mission is a complexity that makes calculating the propellant budget less straightforward.

  20. Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, H.; DAgostino, A.; Erasmia, L.

    2012-01-27

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to illustrate how the issues can support SMR probabilistic risk analyses and their review by identifying potential human failure events for a subset of the issues. As part of addressing the human contribution to plant risk, human reliability analysis practitioners identify and quantify the human failure events that can negatively impact normal or emergency plant operations. The results illustrated here can be generalized to identify additional human failure events for the issues discussed and can be applied to those issues not discussed in this report.

  1. Collegiality and commerce: The culture of consideration amongst engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Paul David

    This study is a participant observation ethnography of engineering relationships at a defense contracting plant that specializes in the design and manufacture of launch control systems for nuclear submarines. "Consideration" is presented as a unique mode of interaction enabling resource exchange and pivotal in developing and strengthening work relationships. Consideration differs from other modes of exchange such as markets, gift-giving, and charity primarily in that the bestowal of the resource involves little sacrifice. The manner in which consideration is enacted by the engineers, the structural and cultural conditions supporting consideration, and the social and economic consequences of consideration are presented. From these findings it is concluded that consideration is a unique form of economic exchange embedded in concrete relationships that forces us to rethink and extend current conceptualizations of trust, networks, social capital, and friendship in the workplace. The data for the analysis were drawn from twenty interviews and fieldnotes collected and transcribed over a twelve month period. Quotations from the interviews and exerpts from the fieldnotes are included to illustrate claims being made in the analysis as well as to familiarize the reader with the culture developed by engineers and managers in a defense contracting plant.

  2. Microenvironmental Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis: Biological and Engineering Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infanger, David W.; Pathi, Siddharth P.; Fischbach, Claudia

    Tumor angiogenesis is fundamental to tumor growth and metastasis, and antiangiogenic therapies have been developed to target this process. However, the clinical success of these treatments has been limited, which may be due, in part, to an incomplete understanding of cell-microenvironment interactions and their role in tumor angiogenesis. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2D) culture approaches have been used to study tumor progression in vitro, but these systems fail to faithfully recreate tumor microenvironmental conditions contributing to tumor angiogenesis in vivo. By integrating cancer biology with tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches, the development of biologically inspired tumor models has emerged. Such 3D model systems allow studying the specific role of soluble factor signaling, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, cell-cell interactions, mechanical cues, and metabolic stress. This chapter discusses specific biological and engineering design considerations for tissue-engineered tumor models and highlights their application for defining the underpinnings of tumor angiogenesis.

  3. Instructional design considerations promoting engineering design self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew M.

    Engineering design activities are frequently included in technology and engineering classrooms. These activities provide an open-ended context for practicing critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation---collectively part of the 21st Century Skills which are increasingly needed for success in the workplace. Self-efficacy is a perceptual belief that impacts learning and behavior. It has been shown to directly impact each of these 21st Century Skills but its relation to engineering design is only recently being studied. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional considerations made when implementing engineering design activities might affect student self-efficacy outcomes in a middle school engineering classroom. Student responses to two self-efficacy inventories related to design, the Engineering Design Self-Efficacy Instrument and Creative Thinking Self-Efficacy Inventory, were collected before and after participation in an engineering design curriculum. Students were also answered questions on specific factors of their experience during the curriculum which teachers may exhibit control over: teamwork and feedback. Results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired and independent t-tests, and structural equation modeling to better understand patterns for self-efficacy beliefs in students. Results suggested that design self-efficacy and creative thinking self-efficacy are significantly correlated, r(1541) = .783, p < .001, and increased following participation in a design curriculum, M diff = 1.32, t(133) = 7.60, p < .001 and Mdiff = 0.79, t(124) = 4.19, p < .001 respectively. Structural models also showed that students perceive team inclusion and feedback as significant contributors to their self-efficacy beliefs, while team diversity was not related to self-efficacy. Separate models for each predictor demonstrated good fit. Recommendations are made based on the corresponding nature of engineering design self

  4. Ethical Considerations in Human Movement Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Highlights ethical issues for human subject research, identifying principles that form the construct of a code of research ethics and evaluating against this construct past human experimentation and current research in human movement studies. The efficacy of legislation and self-regulation is examined. Particular attention is given to the context…

  5. Engineering Considerations of the MRX-CT Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Woolley, R.; Dahlgren, F.; Bonanos, P.

    1997-11-01

    The proposed MRX-CT device is designed to meet high vacuum quality, geometrical compactiveness, and yet with great flexibilities. Flux cores and OH solenoid are central issues in engineering designs in order to generate and maintain plasma current up to 250 kA in a technically sound and reliable way. The design and manufacturing methods proposed for the flux cores are based on experience from the Proto S-1 and S-1 devices to achieve 10-7 to 10-8 Torr vacuum. The surface of each flux core is covered by a thin film (< 0.2 mm) of Inconel-625 liner, which prevents direct interaction of plasma discharges with the epoxy-based core. Each spheromak is formed in between a pair of flux cores by induction, based on a novel scheme developed in MRX. The spheromak grows at the null point in the quadrupole poloidal field with minimum interactions with flux core surfaces. The distances between the cores are adjustable. The second important engineering issue is the OH solenoid assembly which has 0.1 Vs singly-swung flux with one turn loop voltage of 100 V and stored energy up to 1 MJ. A decoupling transformer is provided in the OH-PF circuit to prevent stray poloidal field in the plasma region. Detailed engineering design and other important considerations, such as adjustable conductive shells and NBI compatibility, will be presented.

  6. Software Engineering for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides world-class products, leadership, and technical expertise in software engineering, processes, technology, and systems management for human spaceflight. The branch contributes to major NASA programs (e.g. ISS, MPCV/Orion) with in-house software development and prime contractor oversight, and maintains the JSC Engineering Directorate CMMI rating for flight software development. Software engineering teams work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements. They seek to infuse automation and autonomy into missions, and apply new technologies to flight processor and computational architectures. This presentation will provide an overview of key software-related projects, software methodologies and tools, and technology pursuits of interest to the JSC Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch.

  7. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits. PMID:26195738

  8. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits. PMID:26195738

  9. Tissue engineering of bone: material and matrix considerations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yusuf; Yaszemski, Michael J; Mikos, Antonios G; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-02-01

    When the normal physiologic reaction to fracture does not occur, such as in fracture nonunions or large-scale traumatic bone injury, surgical intervention is warranted. Autografts and allografts represent current strategies for surgical intervention and subsequent bone repair, but each possesses limitations, such as donor-site morbidity with the use of autograft and the risk of disease transmission with the use of allograft. Synthetic bone-graft substitutes, developed in an effort to overcome the inherent limitations of autograft and allograft, represent an alternative strategy. These synthetic graft substitutes, or matrices, are formed from a variety of materials, including natural and synthetic polymers, ceramics, and composites, that are designed to mimic the three-dimensional characteristics of autograft tissue while maintaining viable cell populations. Matrices also act as delivery vehicles for factors, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents, depending on the nature of the injury to be repaired. This intersection of matrices, cells, and therapeutic molecules has collectively been termed tissue engineering. Depending on the specific application of the matrix, certain materials may be more or less well suited to the final structure; these include polymers, ceramics, and composites of the two. Each category is represented by matrices that can form either solid preformed structures or injectable forms that harden in situ. This article discusses the myriad design considerations that are relevant to successful bone repair with tissue-engineered matrices and provides an overview of several manufacturing techniques that allow for the actualization of critical design parameters. PMID:18292355

  10. Introduction to human factors considerations in system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.

    1983-01-01

    A definition for human factors or ergonomics and its industrial and domestic application is presented. Human factors engineering, which discovers and applies information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe, comfortable, and effective human use, is outlined. The origins of human factors and ergonomics, the philosophy of human factors, goals and objectives, systems development and design, are reviewed.

  11. [When does human life begin? Legal considerations].

    PubMed

    Koch, H G

    1993-11-01

    There have been attempts to define the beginning of life from a legal point of view. The German civil code of 1923 specified that only that entity can have birthright that was alive at the time of succession. Whoever was not alive at the time of succession but was already fertilized would be deemed as born before the succession. The law in this instance does not really define life, rather it regulates the hereditary right of the fetus. Less subject to misunderstanding is Paragraph 1 of the German Law Book, which refers to the legal rights of human beings from the completion of birth, specifying only the live born and not the still-born. The embryo protection law in force as of January 1, 1991, defines the beginning of life in a medical sense, to wit, the embryo is the fertilized egg cell capable of development already from the time of fertilization. Additionally every cell with the potential to divide and develop into an individual is assumed as an embryo. No other law explicitly provides a similar definition of the appearance of early human life. Some foreign legal precepts designate the embryonic conceptus the preembryo, which could be subjected to procedures in reproductive medicine to which more developed embryos could not be. According to the valid Paragraph 219 d of the Penal Code, a procedure is not considered an abortion when its effects occur before the completion of nidation of the fertilized egg cell in the uterus. This does not define the beginning of life, it only says something about the beginning of legal protection of unborn life. In the view of constitutional law Article 2, Section 2 of the German Basic Law, every person has the right to life and bodily integrity, which rights can only be infringed on in accordance with the law. However, personhood and life are not defined. PMID:8303918

  12. Biomechanical considerations of animal models used in tissue engineering of bone.

    PubMed

    Liebschner, Michael A K

    2004-04-01

    Tissue engineering combines the aspects of cell biology, engineering, material science, and surgery to generate new functional tissue, and provides an important approach to the repair of segmental defects and in restoring biomechanical function. The development of tissue-engineering strategies into clinical therapeutic protocols requires extensive, preclinical experimentation in appropriate animal models. The ultimate success of any treatment strategy must be established in these animal models before clinical application. It is clear that the demands of the biological and mechanical environment in the clinical repair of critical size defects with tissue-engineered materials is significantly different from those existing in experimental animals. The major considerations facing any tissue-engineering testing logic include the choice of the defect, the animal, the age of the animal, the anatomic site, the size of the lesion, and most importantly, the micro-mechanical environment. With respect to biomechanical considerations when selecting animals for tissue- engineering of bone, it is evident that no common criteria have been reported. While in smaller animals due to size constraint only structural properties of whole bones can be measured, in larger animals and humans both material properties and structural properties are of interest. Based on reported results, comparison between the tissue-engineered bone across species may be of importance in establishing better model selection criteria. It has already been found that the deformation of long bones is fairly constant across species, and that stress levels during gait are dependent on the weight of the animal and the material properties of the bone tissue. Future research should therefore be geared towards developing better biomechanical testing systems and then finding the right animal model for the existing equipment. PMID:14697871

  13. Design considerations for the CELSS test facility engineering development unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliss, M.; Borchers, B.; Drews, M.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program has the goal of developing life support systems for humans in space based on the use of higher plants. The program has supported research at universities with a primary focus of increasing the productivity of candidate crop plants. To understand the effects of the space environment on plant productivity, the CELSS Test Facility (CTF) has been developed as an instrument that will permit the evaluation of plant productivity on Space Station Freedom. The CFT will maintain specific environmental conditions and collect data on gas exchange rates and biomass accumulation over the growth period of several crop plants grown sequentially from seed to harvest. To better understand the systems needed to support plants and maintain the evironmental conditions required by CTF, an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is being constructed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in the Advanced Life Support Division. The EDU will provide the means of testing and evaluating hardware solutions to CTF requirements. This paper reviews the CTF science and functional requirements, and provides a description of the EDU objectives, design approach, subsystem descriptions, and some of the technology tools employed in accomplishing the design.

  14. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Collins, J.T. )

    1993-01-20

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown.

  15. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. PMID:26466179

  16. Engineering considerations in sensor-based nutrient management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate application of nitrogen using canopy sensors requires integration of systems for sensing, data processing, and application rate control. In this presentation, we discuss these systems from an engineering perspective and compare alternatives. We review commercially available active opti...

  17. Foil Bearing Starting Considerations and Requirements for Rotorcraft Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin C.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Foil gas bearings under development for rotorcraft-sized, hot core engine applications have been susceptible to damage from the slow acceleration and rates typically encountered during the pre-ignition stage in conventional engines. Recent laboratory failures have been assumed to be directly linked to operating foil bearings below their lift-off speed while following conventional startup procedures for the engines. In each instance, the continuous sliding contact between the foils and shaft was believed to thermally overload the bearing and cause the engines to fail. These failures highlight the need to characterize required acceleration rates and minimum operating speeds for these applications. In this report, startup experiments were conducted with a large, rotorcraft engine sized foil bearing under moderate load and acceleration rates to identify the proper start procedures needed to avoid bearing failure. The results showed that a bearing under a 39.4 kPa static load can withstand a modest acceleration rate of 500 rpm/s and excessive loitering below the bearing lift-off speed provided an adequate solid lubricant is present.

  18. Installation drag considerations as related to turboprop and turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the specific areas associated with straight jet and turboprop engine installations are outlined where drag reduction and, thus, improved aircraft system performance is obtained. Specific areas constitute air intake sizing for general aviation aircraft, exhaust duct geometries and cooling system arrangements for propeller powered aircraft.

  19. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  20. The importance of cost considerations in the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the question of cost, from the birth of a program to its conclusion, particularly from the point of view of large multi-center programs, and suggests how to avoid some of the traps and pitfalls. Emphasis is given to cost in the systems engineering process, but there is an inevitable overlap with program management. (These terms, systems engineering and program management, have never been clearly defined.) In these days of vast Federal budget deficits and increasing overseas competition, it is imperative that we get more for each research and development dollar. This is the only way we will retain our leadership in high technology and, in the long run, our way of life.

  1. Some design considerations for ceramic components in heat engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1986-01-01

    The design methodology for brittle material structures which is being developed and used at the Lewis Research Center for sizing ceramic components in heat engine applications is reviewed. Theoretical aspects of designing with structural ceramics are discussed, and a general purpose reliability program for predicting fast fracture response due to volume distributed flaws is described. Statistical treatment of brittle behavior, based on the Weibull model, is reviewed and its advantages, as well as drawbacks, are listed. A mechanistic statistical fracture theory, proposed by Batdorf to overcome the Weibull model limitations and based on Griffith fracture mechanics, is summarized. Failure probability predictions are made for rotating annular Si3N4 disks using various fracture models, and the results are compared to actual failure data. The application of these design methods to Government funded ceramics engine demonstration programs is surveyed. The uncertainty in observed component performance emphasizes the need for proof testing and improved nondestructive evaluation to guarantee adequate structural integrity.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  3. Some considerations of the design of displacers for Ringbom Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fauvel, O.R.; Kentfield, J.A.C.; Walker, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Ringbom Stirling engine is a hybrid of the kinematic Stirling engine having shaft output power and variable speed and of the free piston engine in which the components are driven by changes in working space pressure. Experiments with Ringbom Stirling engines have led to the suspicion that the 'weak link' of the engine is the free displacer. This paper examines some of the factors which must be addressed in the design of displacers for these engines with reference to the thermal, pressure, and dynamical considerations.

  4. Engineering considerations for the recovery of cesium from geologic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, C.

    1993-05-18

    Sorption coefficients for cesium in a variety of media have been compiled from a search of the open literature. The sorption coefficient, or K{sub d}, is a description of a dissolved substance`s tendency to attach to a solid substrate. The compilation of K{sub d}S reported here for cesium demonstrate that this element readily sorbs onto-geological material. As a result of this sorption, the mass transport of cesium in the environment will be retarded. This retarded mass transport, characterized by the retardation factor, can be expected to be significant when compared to water velocities through porous-sorbing medium, such as geologic materials. K{sub d}S for cesium are in the range of 100 m{ell}/g up to 10,000 m{ell}/g. K{sub d}S are also an important parameter in the design of engineered systems for the purpose of recovering cesium from soils. The engineering design is based on a material-balance description of the extraction process. The information presented in this report provides a basis to predict the movement of cesium through geologic materials and also to design and predict the performance of extraction processes such as soil washing.

  5. Particle engineering in pharmaceutical solids processing: surface energy considerations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daryl R

    2015-01-01

    During the past 10 years particle engineering in the pharmaceutical industry has become a topic of increasing importance. Engineers and pharmacists need to understand and control a range of key unit manufacturing operations such as milling, granulation, crystallisation, powder mixing and dry powder inhaled drugs which can be very challenging. It has now become very clear that in many of these particle processing operations, the surface energy of the starting, intermediate or final products is a key factor in understanding the processing operation and or the final product performance. This review will consider the surface energy and surface energy heterogeneity of crystalline solids, methods for the measurement of surface energy, effects of milling on powder surface energy, adhesion and cohesion on powder mixtures, crystal habits and surface energy, surface energy and powder granulation processes, performance of DPI systems and finally crystallisation conditions and surface energy. This review will conclude that the importance of surface energy as a significant factor in understanding the performance of many particulate pharmaceutical products and processes has now been clearly established. It is still nevertheless, work in progress both in terms of development of methods and establishing the limits for when surface energy is the key variable of relevance. PMID:25876912

  6. Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions. PMID:26115757

  7. Launch Deployment Assembly Human Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the human engineering analysis performed by the Systems Branch in support of the 6A cargo element design. The human engineering analysis is limited to the extra vehicular activities (EVA) which are involved in removal of various cargo items from the LDA and specific activities concerning deployment of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS).

  8. Human Factors Consideration for the Design of Collaborative Machine Assistants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    Recent improvements in technology have facilitated the use of robots and virtual humans not only in entertainment and engineering but also in the military (Hill et al., 2003), healthcare (Pollack et al., 2002), and education domains (Johnson, Rickel, & Lester, 2000). As active partners of humans, such machine assistants can take the form of a robot or a graphical representation and serve the role of a financial assistant, a health manager, or even a social partner. As a result, interactive technologies are becoming an integral component of people's everyday lives.

  9. Systems Engineering and Technology Considerations of a Mars Ascent Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Kennett, Andrew; Pauken, Mike; Trinidad, Mark; Zabrensky, Ed

    2012-01-01

    A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) systems engineering study is underway to define the driving requirements, system architecture, major risks, and required technology developments to support the launch of a rock core sample to a specified delivery orbit for later retrieval and return to Earth. The proposed MAV would essentially be a small-scale launch vehicle, the first of its kind to be launched autonomously from another planet. The MAV would be a flight element of the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign architecture, which currently assumes a 2018 launch of the sample caching mission and a 2024 (Earth) launch date of the MAV and lander, with arrival on Mars in 2025. After 9 months on the surface the MAV would be erected and launched to a specified delivery orbit. In the delivery orbit it would release its payload, a 5 kg sphere containing the rock core sample. An orbiter would rendezvous and capture the payload, returning it to Earth a year later.

  10. Scaffolding in tissue engineering: general approaches and tissue-specific considerations

    PubMed Central

    Leong, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Scaffolds represent important components for tissue engineering. However, researchers often encounter an enormous variety of choices when selecting scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper aims to review the functions of scaffolds and the major scaffolding approaches as important guidelines for selecting scaffolds and discuss the tissue-specific considerations for scaffolding, using intervertebral disc as an example. PMID:19005702

  11. Engineering and fabrication cost considerations for cryogenic wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, R. M., Jr.; Davenport, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Design and fabrication cost drivers for cryogenic transonic wind tunnel models are defined. The major cost factors for wind tunnel models are model complexity, tolerances, surface finishes, materials, material validation, and model inspection. The cryogenic temperatures require the use of materials with relatively high fracture toughness but at the same time high strength. Some of these materials are very difficult to machine, requiring extensive machine hours which can add significantly to the manufacturing costs. Some additional engineering costs are incurred to certify the materials through mechanical tests and nondestructive evaluation techniques, which are not normally required with conventional models. When instrumentation such as accelerometers and electronically scanned pressure modules is required, temperature control of these devices needs to be incorporated into the design, which requires added effort. Additional thermal analyses and subsystem tests may be necessary, which also adds to the design costs. The largest driver to the design costs is potentially the additional static and dynamic analyses required to insure structural integrity of the model and support system.

  12. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  13. Human Performance Considerations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Hobbs, Alan; Lyall, Beth; Rorie, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Successful integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) into civil airspace will not only require solutions to technical challenges, but will also require that the design and operation of RPAS take into account human limitations and capabilities. Human factors can affect overall system performance whenever the system relies on people to interact with another element of the system. Four types of broad interactions can be described. These are (1) interactions between people and hardware, such as controls and displays; (2) human use of procedures and documentation; (3) impact of the task environment, including lighting, noise and monotony; and lastly, (4) interactions between operational personnel, including communication and coordination. In addition to the human factors that have been identified for conventional aviation, RPAS operations introduce a set of unique human challenges. The purpose of document is to raise human factors issues for consideration by workgroups of the ICAO RPAS panel as they work to develop guidance material and additions to ICAO annexes. It is anticipated that the content of this document will be revised and updated as the work of the panel progresses.

  14. Human Factors Considerations for Performance-Based Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    A transition toward a performance-based navigation system is currently underway in both the United States and around the world. Performance-based navigation incorporates Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) procedures that do not rely on the location of ground-based navigation aids. These procedures offer significant benefits to both operators and air traffic managers. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document human factors issues that have emerged during RNAV and RNP operations and propose areas for further consideration. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for human factors-specific instrument procedure design guidelines. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, procedure design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged.

  15. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  16. Some Basic Considerations about the Necessities and Possibilities of Cooperation between Civil Engineers and Engineering Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzenbach, Rolf; Bachmann, Gregor

    The education of civil engineers and engineering geologists is different. While civil engineers are commonly educated and trained in mathematical and mechanical based sciences as statics, geotechnics, structural engineering etc. the education of engineering geologists is mainly based on natural science, added with some engineering courses. Nevertheless, the careers of both have in spite of their different priorities and capabilities - which all are necessary in complex building projects - several points of contact. Especially during the construction of tunnels, the cooperation of civil engineers and engineering geologists is important. For example the inhomogeneous rock and groundwater conditions have decisive importance for the bearing and deformation behaviour of those constructions. Therefore a detailed investigation program and a qualified geotechnical and geological interpretation and modelling is necessary. The typical field of a civil engineer is the examination of the structural stability (Ultimate Limit State - ULS) and the serviceability (Serviceability Limit State - SLS) of the construction due to Euro-Code (especially EC 1 and EC 7) and the corresponding national technical standards (codes, recommendations, guidelines etc.). A main activity of an engineering geologist is the assessment of the natural circumstances. The cooperation of both professions is settled in the valuation of the subsoil conditions before and during the construction process. The cooperation of engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers lies in the assessment of the subsoil conditions before and during the construction process of ambitious projects with special regard to the bearing and deformation behaviour which is highly influenced by the inhomogeneity and the variance of the subsoil conditions.

  17. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  18. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant licensing.

  19. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  20. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  1. Human Factors Considerations for Area Navigation Departure and Arrival Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Area navigation (RNAV) procedures are being implemented in the United States and around the world as part of a transition to a performance-based navigation system. These procedures are providing significant benefits and have also caused some human factors issues to emerge. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document RNAV-related human factors issues and propose areas for further consideration. The component focusing on RNAV Departure and Arrival Procedures involved discussions with expert users, a literature review, and a focused review of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for specific instrument procedure design guidelines that consider the effects of human performance. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged. A review of factors contributing to RNAV in-service errors would likely lead to improved system design and operational performance.

  2. Physiological and biomechanical considerations for a human Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness--ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk. PMID:15852539

  3. Physiological and Biomechanical Considerations for a Human Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkey, A.

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness - ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk.

  4. Human health and performance considerations for near earth asteroids (NEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2013-11-01

    integrated research and development effort between NASA's Human Research Program (HRP), engineering and human factors groups. Packaging food to extend shelf life and waste management will be important components of vehicle subsystem design.

  5. Engineering humanized mice for improved hematopoietic reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Adam C; Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Jianzhu

    2012-01-01

    Humanized mice are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to various lineages of human blood cells throughout the life of the mouse. This article reviews recent advances in the generation of humanized mice, focusing on practical considerations. We discuss features of different immunodeficient recipient mouse strains, sources of human hematopoietic stem cells, advances in expansion and genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells, and techniques to modulate the cytokine environment of recipient mice, in order to enhance reconstitution of specific human blood lineage cells. We highlight the opportunities created by new technologies and discuss practical considerations on how to make best use of the widening array of basic models for specific research applications. PMID:22425741

  6. The open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine - Some engineering considerations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyk, L. C.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-MW open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 44,200 lb and a specific impulse of 4400 sec. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel) and the waste heat rejection system were considered conceptually and were sized.

  7. Human Microbiome Engineering: The Future and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microbial flora of skin and mucosal surface are vital component of human biology. Current research indicates that this microbial constellation, rather than being inert commensals, has greater implications in health and disease. They play essential role in metabolism, immunity, inflammation, neuro-endocrine regulation and even moderate host response to cancer. Genetic engineering was a major breakthrough in medical research in 1970’s and it opened up newer dimensions in vaccinology, large-scale synthesis of bio-molecule and drug development. Engineering human microbiome is a novel concept. Recombinant DNA technology can be employed to modify the genome of critical components of resident microflora to achieve unprecedented goals. PMID:26500908

  8. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  9. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-04

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  10. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-01

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  11. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin M.

    2011-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  12. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohmert, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  13. Genetically Engineered Pig Models for Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Randall S.; Lorson, Monique; Ross, Jason W.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Walters, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are used widely as models of human disease, their utility as models has been enhanced by genetic engineering. Initially, transgenes were added randomly to the genome, but with the application of homologous recombination, zinc finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technologies, now most any genetic change that can be envisioned can be completed. To date these genetic modifications have resulted in animals that have the potential to provide new insights into human diseases for which a good animal model did not exist previously. These new animal models should provide the preclinical data for treatments that are developed for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, retinitis pigmentosa, spinal muscular atrophy, diabetes, and organ failure. These new models will help to uncover aspects and treatments of these diseases that were otherwise unattainable. The focus of this review is to describe genetically engineered pigs that have resulted in models of human diseases. PMID:25387017

  14. Human progenitor cells for bone engineering applications.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, G M; Thomsen, P; Karlsson, C; Strehl, R; Lindahl, A; Hyllner, J

    2013-06-01

    In this report, the authors review the human skeleton and the increasing burden of bone deficiencies, the limitations encountered with the current treatments and the opportunities provided by the emerging field of cell-based bone engineering. Special emphasis is placed on different sources of human progenitor cells, as well as their pros and cons in relation to their utilization for the large-scale construction of functional bone-engineered substitutes for clinical applications. It is concluded that, human pluripotent stem cells represent a valuable source for the derivation of progenitor cells, which combine the advantages of both embryonic and adult stem cells, and indeed display high potential for the construction of functional substitutes for bone replacement therapies. PMID:23642054

  15. Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Warren L.; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Chan, M. Ete; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Wan, Leo Q.; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects, cancer resections, and trauma. We report that clinically sized, anatomically shaped, viable human bone grafts can be engineered by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and a “biomimetic” scaffold-bioreactor system. We selected the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar bone as our tissue model, because of its clinical importance and the challenges associated with its complex shape. Anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from fully decellularized trabecular bone by using digitized clinical images, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured with interstitial flow of culture medium. A bioreactor with a chamber in the exact shape of a human TMJ was designed for controllable perfusion throughout the engineered construct. By 5 weeks of cultivation, tissue growth was evidenced by the formation of confluent layers of lamellar bone (by scanning electron microscopy), markedly increased volume of mineralized matrix (by quantitative microcomputer tomography), and the formation of osteoids (histologically). Within bone grafts of this size and complexity cells were fully viable at a physiologic density, likely an important factor of graft function. Moreover, the density and architecture of bone matrix correlated with the intensity and pattern of the interstitial flow, as determined in experimental and modeling studies. This approach has potential to overcome a critical hurdle—in vitro cultivation of viable bone grafts of complex geometries—to provide patient-specific bone grafts for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions. PMID:19820164

  16. Nursing knowledge and human science: ontological and epistemological considerations.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G J; Cody, W K

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the meaning of human science in relation to extant nursing knowledge. The origins of the human science tradition are traced to the philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey, who challenged the dominance of the positivist perspective for generating knowledge of the human lifeworld. Specific ontological and epistemological criteria for human science are proposed. Four nursing frameworks, Paterson and Zderad's humanistic nursing, Newman's model of health as expanding consciousness, Watson's human science and human care, and Parse's theory of human becoming, are found to have consistencies and inconsistencies with the human science tradition. It is proposed that the human science perspective is present in and will continue to be reflected in the evolution of nursing science. PMID:1584506

  17. Engineering tissue from human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Metallo, CM; Azarin, SM; Ji, L; De Pablo, JJ; Palecek, SP

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) biology now offer an alternative cell source for tissue engineers, as these cells are capable of proliferating indefinitely and differentiating to many clinically relevant cell types. Novel culture methods capable of exerting spatial and temporal control over the stem cell microenvironment allow for more efficient expansion of hESCs, and significant advances have been made toward improving our understanding of the biophysical and biochemical cues that direct stem cell fate choices. Effective production of lineage specific progenitors or terminally differentiated cells enables researchers to incorporate hESC derivatives into engineered tissue constructs. Here, we describe current efforts using hESCs as a cell source for tissue engineering applications, highlighting potential advantages of hESCs over current practices as well as challenges which must be overcome. PMID:18194458

  18. Considerations of Air Flow in Combustion Chambers of High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Moore, C S

    1932-01-01

    The air flow in combustion chambers is divided into three fundamental classes - induced, forced, and residual. A generalized resume is given of the present status of air flow investigations and of the work done at this and other laboratories to determine the direction and velocity of air movement in auxiliary and integral combustion chambers. The effects of air flow on engine performance are mentioned to show that although air flow improves the combustion efficiency, considerable induction, friction, and thermal losses must be guarded against.

  19. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  20. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Collection Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. Subsequently, the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA on April 15, 2010 to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Sample Science Benefits: Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a

  1. The Human Microbiome and Public Health: Social and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Virani, Alice; Wilcox, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid advances in human microbiome research point to an increasing range of health outcomes related to the composition of an individual's microbiome. To date, much research has focused on individual health, with a paucity of attention to public health implications. This is a critical oversight owing to the potentially shared nature of the human microbiome across communities and vertical and horizontal mechanisms for transferring microbiomes among humans. We explored some key ethical and social implications of human microbiome research for public health. We focused on (1) insights from microbiome research about damage to individual and shared microbiomes from prevalent societal practices, and (2) ethical and social implications of novel technologies developed on the basis of emerging microbiome science. PMID:26794165

  2. Systems integrated human engineering on the Navy's rapid acquisition of manufactured parts/test and integration facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaway, Glen R.

    1987-01-01

    Human Engineering in many projects is at best a limited support function. In this Navy project the Human Engineering function is an integral component of the systems design and development process. Human Engineering is a member of the systems design organization. This ensures that people considerations are: (1) identified early in the project; (2) accounted for in the specifications; (3) incorporated into the design; and (4) the tested product meets the needs and expectations of the people while meeting the overall systems requirements. The project exemplifies achievements that can be made by the symbiosis between systems designers, engineers and Human Engineering. This approach increases Human Engineering's effectiveness and value to a project because it becomes an accepted, contributing team member. It is an approach to doing Human Engineering that should be considered for most projects. The functional and organizational issues giving this approach strength are described.

  3. [Legal and philosophical considerations about cloning in human reproduction].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, V

    1999-01-01

    The birth of Dolly the sheep has served to rekindle the debate on the lawfulness of cloning for human reproduction. Although the normative response has been unanimous thus far in sanctioning such use, the matter of the limits to this is widely debated. In this article the author examines the reasons underpinning the limits imposed: is cloning for human reproduction unlawful in itself of does everything depend on the aim pursued? The issue is addressed from the standpoint of the apparent clash in law between the right to reproduce and freedom of research, on the one hand, and--on the other--the right to be conceived in a given manner. Particular attention is paid to the question of the lawfulness of two instances of human embryo division, namely, for in vitro fertilization and for preimplantation diagnosis. PMID:10822640

  4. Regulatory Considerations for NK Cells Used in Human Immunotherapy Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Translating cellular therapy from the laboratory to the clinic is a complicated process that involves scale-up of procedures to generate clinically relevant cell numbers, adaptation to reagents and equipment that are qualified for human use, establishing parameters of safety for reagents and equipment that are not already qualified for human use, codifying these processes into standards of practice and rules of conduct, and obtaining approval from regulatory bodies based on those codified standards and rules. As the laws and regulations that apply to cellular therapy will vary by time and geography, this chapter reviews some common key principles for the manufacturing of NK cells for human use that will need to be considered within the constraints of local policies and regulations. PMID:27177680

  5. Human low vision image warping - Channel matching considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.; Smith, Alan T.; Loshin, David S.

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating the possibility that a video image may productively be warped prior to presentation to a low vision patient. This could form part of a prosthesis for certain field defects. We have done preliminary quantitative studies on some notions that may be valid in calculating the image warpings. We hope the results will help make best use of time to be spent with human subjects, by guiding the selection of parameters and their range to be investigated. We liken a warping optimization to opening the largest number of spatial channels between the pixels of an input imager and resolution cells in the visual system. Some important effects are not quantified that will require human evaluation, such as local 'squashing' of the image, taken as the ratio of eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the transformation. The results indicate that the method shows quantitative promise. These results have identified some geometric transformations to evaluate further with human subjects.

  6. Theoretical considerations for mapping activation in human cardiac fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.

    2013-06-01

    Defining mechanisms for cardiac fibrillation is challenging because, in contrast to other arrhythmias, fibrillation exhibits complex non-repeatability in spatiotemporal activation but paradoxically exhibits conserved spatial gradients in rate, dominant frequency, and electrical propagation. Unlike animal models, in which fibrillation can be mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution using optical dyes or arrays of contact electrodes, mapping of cardiac fibrillation in patients is constrained practically to lower resolutions or smaller fields-of-view. In many animal models, atrial fibrillation is maintained by localized electrical rotors and focal sources. However, until recently, few studies had revealed localized sources in human fibrillation, so that the impact of mapping constraints on the ability to identify rotors or focal sources in humans was not described. Here, we determine the minimum spatial and temporal resolutions theoretically required to detect rigidly rotating spiral waves and focal sources, then extend these requirements for spiral waves in computer simulations. Finally, we apply our results to clinical data acquired during human atrial fibrillation using a novel technique termed focal impulse and rotor mapping (FIRM). Our results provide theoretical justification and clinical demonstration that FIRM meets the spatio-temporal resolution requirements to reliably identify rotors and focal sources for human atrial fibrillation.

  7. Considerations for human-machine interfaces in tele-operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newport, Curt

    1991-01-01

    Numerous factors impact on the efficiency of tele-operative manipulative work. Generally, these are related to the physical environment of the tele-operator and how he interfaces with robotic control consoles. The capabilities of the operator can be influenced by considerations such as temperature, eye strain, body fatigue, and boredom created by repetitive work tasks. In addition, the successful combination of man and machine will, in part, be determined by the configuration of the visual and physical interfaces available to the teleoperator. The design and operation of system components such as full-scale and mini-master manipulator controllers, servo joysticks, and video monitors will have a direct impact on operational efficiency. As a result, the local environment and the interaction of the operator with the robotic control console have a substantial effect on mission productivity.

  8. GN&C Engineering Best Practices For Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  9. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  10. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  11. Manganese in Human Parenteral Nutrition: Considerations for Toxicity and Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Dinamene; Batoreu, Camila; Mateus, Luisa; dos Santos, AP Marreilha; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risks associated with excessive Mn administration in parenteral nutrition (PN) patients are well documented. Hypermanganesemia and neurotoxicity are associated with the duration of Mn supplementation, Mn dosage, as well as pathological conditions, such as anemia or cholestasis. Recent PN guidelines recommend the biomonitoring of patients if they receive Mn in their PN longer than 30 days. The data in the literature are conflicting about the method for assessing Mn stores in humans as a definitive biomarker of Mn exposure or induced-neurotoxicity has yet to be identified. The biomonitoring of Mn relies on the analysis of whole blood Mn (WB Mn) levels, which are highly variable among human population and are not strictly correlated with Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Alterations in dopaminergic (DAergic) and catecholaminergic metabolism have been studied as predictive biomarkers of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Given these limitations, this review addresses various approaches for biomonitoring Mn exposure and neurotoxic risk. PMID:24184781

  12. Measurement of testosterone in human sexuality research: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone (T) and other androgens are incorporated into an increasingly wide array of human sexuality research, but there are a number of issues that can affect or confound research outcomes. This review addresses various methodological issues relevant to research design in human studies with T; unaddressed, these issues may introduce unwanted noise, error, or conceptual barriers to interpreting results. Topics covered are (1) social and demographic factors (gender and sex; sexual orientations and sexual diversity; social/familial connections and processes; social location variables), (2) biological rhythms (diurnal variation; seasonality; menstrual cycles; aging and menopause), (3) sample collection, handling, and storage (saliva vs. blood; sialogogues, saliva, and tubes; sampling frequency, timing, and context; shipping samples), (4) health, medical issues, and the body (hormonal contraceptives; medications and nicotine; health conditions and stress; body composition, weight, and exercise), and (5) incorporating multiple hormones. Detailing a comprehensive set of important issues and relevant empirical evidence, this review provides a starting point for best practices in human sexuality research with T and other androgens that may be especially useful for those new to hormone research. PMID:23807216

  13. Medical considerations for extending human presence in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Dietlein, L. F.; Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The prospects for extending the length of time that humans can safely remain in space depend partly on resolution of a number of medical issues. Physiologic effects of weightlessness that may affect health during flight include loss of body fluid, functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, loss of red blood cells and bone mineral, compromised immune system function, and neurosensory disturbances. Some of the physiologic adaptations to weightlessness contribute to difficulties with readaptation to Earth's gravity. These include cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of body fluids and electrolytes; red blood cell mass; muscle mass, strength, and endurance; and bone mineral. Potentially harmful factors in space flight that are not related to weightlessness include radiation, altered circadian rhythms and rest/work cycles, and the closed, isolated environment of the spacecraft. There is no evidence that space flight has long-term effects on humans, except that bone mass lost during flight may not be replaced, and radiation damage is cumulative. However, the number of people who have spent several months or longer in space is still small. Only carefully-planned experiments in space preceded by thorough ground-based studies can provide the information needed to increase the amount of time humans can safely spend in space.

  14. Design, recruitment, and microbiological considerations in human challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Darton, Thomas C; Blohmke, Christoph J; Moorthy, Vasee S; Altmann, Daniel M; Hayden, Frederick G; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Levine, Myron M; Hill, Adrian V S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Since the 18th century a wealth of knowledge regarding infectious disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment has been accumulated from findings of infection challenges in human beings. Partly because of improvements to ethical and regulatory guidance, human challenge studies-involving the deliberate exposure of participants to infectious substances-have had a resurgence in popularity in the past few years, in particular for the assessment of vaccines. To provide an overview of the potential use of challenge models, we present historical reports and contemporary views from experts in this type of research. A range of challenge models and practical approaches to generate important data exist and are used to expedite vaccine and therapeutic development and to support public health modelling and interventions. Although human challenge studies provide a unique opportunity to address complex research questions, participant and investigator safety is paramount. To increase the collaborative effort and future success of this area of research, we recommend the development of consensus frameworks and sharing of best practices between investigators. Furthermore, standardisation of challenge procedures and regulatory guidance will help with the feasibility for using challenge models in clinical testing of new disease intervention strategies. PMID:26026195

  15. Medical considerations for extending human presence in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, C. S.; Dietlein, L. F.; Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    The prospects for extending the length of time that humans can safely remain in space depend partly on resolution of a number of medical issues. Physiologic effects of weightlessness that may affect health during flight include loss of body fluid, functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, loss of red blood cells and bone mineral, compromised immune system function, and neurosensory disturbances. Some of the physiologic adaptations to weightlessness contribute to difficulties with readaptation to Earth's gravity. These include cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of body fluids and electrolytes; red blood cell mass; muscle mass, strength, and endurance; and bone mineral. Potentially harmful factors in space flight that are not related to weightlessness include radiation, altered circadian rhythms and rest/work cycles, and the closed, isolated environment of the spacecraft. There is no evidence that space flight has long-term effects on humans, except that bone mass lost during flight may not be replaced, and radiation damage is cumulative. However, the number of people who have spent several months or longer in space is still small. Only carefully-planned experiments in space preceded by thorough ground-based studies can provide the information needed to increase the amount of time humans can safely spend in space.

  16. Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT and E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James; Leggett, Jay; Kramer-White, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A team directed by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) collected methodologies for how best to develop safe and reliable human rated systems and how to identify the drivers that provide the basis for assessing safety and reliability. The team also identified techniques, methodologies, and best practices to assure that NASA can develop safe and reliable human rated systems. The results are drawn from a wide variety of resources, from experts involved with the space program since its inception to the best-practices espoused in contemporary engineering doctrine. This report focuses on safety and reliability considerations and does not duplicate or update any existing references. Neither does it intend to replace existing standards and policy.

  17. Plasma levels of human neurotensin: methodological and physiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C F; George, J K; Eastwood, G; Potegal, M; Carraway, R E

    1991-01-01

    The ingestion of a meal high in fat content is known to increase circulating levels of neurotensin (NT) in humans. However, the magnitude of the postprandial rise of NT in the general circulation and its physiological significance have been subject of much debate. The present study examines circulating levels of NT in male volunteers prior to and following each of their three daily meals (ca. 31 g fat/meal). The response observed are also compared to that elicited by the direct instillation of intralipid (ca. 44 g fat) into the duodenum. NT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay of acid/acetone extracted plasma fractionated by high pressure liquid chromatography. Meals caused a significant but modest increase in NT levels, with the largest increment (ca. 4 fmol/ml) occurring after breakfast. In contrast, NT levels increased ca. 20 fmol/ml with intraduodenal instillation of lipid. The meal-stimulated increases in circulating NT measured here are 4- to 5-fold less than those reported by others, the difference most likely reflecting the lesser amount of lipid ingested. Previous studies provided subjects with single meals containing in excess of 120 g of fat; the 30 g of fat ingested by our subjects, ca. 33% of total caloric intake, is near that recommended by the U.S. Senate, Select Committee on Nutritional and Human Needs. These data show that diets with a reasonable fat content have only a modest effect on circulating levels of NT. PMID:2067972

  18. Conducting research with human subjects in international settings: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Sandra L

    2013-09-01

    Biomedical research in international settings is undergoing expansive growth and may potentially result in far-reaching benefits, such as direction of research resources toward solving basic health care needs of world populations. However, key ethical concerns surround this expansion and must be carefully considered by international researchers. International research is impacted by differences in language, culture, regulatory structures, financial resources, and possibly ethical standards. Local community leadership involvement in the planning stages of research is imperative. Especially in resource-poor countries, the research agenda must be designed to address local needs and provide local benefit. Capacity strengthening efforts, aimed at improving institutional support for ethical conduct of human subjects research, must continue to be supported by wealthier nations. PMID:24058306

  19. Neurovestibular Effects of Spaceflight - Considerations for Human Safety and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, E.

    2012-01-01

    From orbital spaceflight we know that astronauts may suffer from sensori-motor problems during the first days in weightlessness, and again upon return to Earth. Symptoms include spatial disorientation, motion illusions, postural imbalance, and motion sickness. Symptoms are typically triggered by head movements, indicating a central role of the vestibular system. TNO research has shown that the same symptoms can be elicited by exposing subjects to hyper-gravity in a human centrifuge. This suggests that not weightlessness itself, but the change in G-load causes vestibular adaptation problems. Suborbital spaceflight will expose participants to a sequence of highly variable G-levels. Hence it can be anticipated that this will affect vestibular functioning, with potential consequences for ride comfort (passengers) and flight safety (crew). We therefore propose to invest in research on the physiological responses to G-load profiles specific for suborbital flights with the purpose to establish comfort and safety guidelines for the commercial spaceflight sector.

  20. Ethical considerations of universal vaccination against human papilloma virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From an epidemiological perspective, the practice of universal vaccination of girls and young women in order to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and potential development of cervical cancer is widely accepted even though it may lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer. Discussion It is argued that removing the deterrent effect – the fear of developing cancer – could encourage teenage sex. This paper reflects on the ethical legitimacy of the universal vaccination of girls and young women against HPV infection, especially regarding safety issues, the need to vaccinate people who have opted to abstain from sex, the presumption of early onset of sexual relations, the commercial interests of the companies that manufacture the vaccine, and the recommendation of universal vaccination in males. Summary Based on the aforementioned information, we believe that the universal vaccination against HPV in young women is acceptable from an ethical point of view, given the medical advantages it presents. PMID:24708813

  1. Conducting Research with Human Subjects in International Settings: Ethical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical research in international settings is undergoing expansive growth and may potentially result in far-reaching benefits, such as direction of research resources toward solving basic health care needs of world populations. However, key ethical concerns surround this expansion and must be carefully considered by international researchers. International research is impacted by differences in language, culture, regulatory structures, financial resources, and possibly ethical standards. Local community leadership involvement in the planning stages of research is imperative. Especially in resource-poor countries, the research agenda must be designed to address local needs and provide local benefit. Capacity strengthening efforts, aimed at improving institutional support for ethical conduct of human subjects research, must continue to be supported by wealthier nations. PMID:24058306

  2. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  3. Human Factors And Safety Considerations Of Night Vision Systems Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verona, Robert W.; Rash, Clarence E.

    1989-03-01

    Military aviation night vision systems greatly enhance the capability to operate during periods of low illumination. After flying with night vision devices, most aviators are apprehensive about returning to unaided night flight. Current night vision imaging devices allow aviators to fly during ambient light conditions which would be extremely dangerous, if not impossible, with unaided vision. However, the visual input afforded with these devices does not approach that experienced using the unencumbered, unaided eye during periods of daylight illumination. Many visual parameters, e,g., acuity, field-of-view, depth perception, etc., are compromised when night vision devices are used. The inherent characteristics of image intensification based sensors introduce new problems associated with the interpretation of visual information based on different spatial and spectral content from that of unaided vision. In addition, the mounting of these devices onto the helmet is accompanied by concerns of fatigue resulting from increased head supported weight and shift in center-of-gravity. All of these concerns have produced numerous human factors and safety issues relating to thb use of night vision systems. These issues are identified and discussed in terms of their possible effects on user performance and safety.

  4. Human Locomotion under Reduced Gravity Conditions: Biomechanical and Neurophysiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced gravity offers unique opportunities to study motor behavior. This paper aims at providing a review on current issues of the known tools and techniques used for hypogravity simulation and their effects on human locomotion. Walking and running rely on the limb oscillatory mechanics, and one way to change its dynamic properties is to modify the level of gravity. Gravity has a strong effect on the optimal rate of limb oscillations, optimal walking speed, and muscle activity patterns, and gait transitions occur smoothly and at slower speeds at lower gravity levels. Altered center of mass movements and interplay between stance and swing leg dynamics may challenge new forms of locomotion in a heterogravity environment. Furthermore, observations in the lack of gravity effects help to reveal the intrinsic properties of locomotor pattern generators and make evident facilitation of nonvoluntary limb stepping. In view of that, space neurosciences research has participated in the development of new technologies that can be used as an effective tool for gait rehabilitation. PMID:25247179

  5. Reverse-engineering human regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Celine; Rieckhof, Gabrielle; Califano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and other omics data is challenging the research community to develop rational models for their organization and interpretation to generate novel biological knowledge. The development and use of gene regulatory networks to mechanistically interpret this data is an important development in molecular biology, usually captured under the banner of systems biology. As a result, the repertoire of methods for the reconstruction of comprehensive and cell-context-specific maps of regulatory interactions, or interactomes, has also exploded in the past few years. In this review, we focus on Network Biology and more specifically on methods for reverse engineering transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational human interaction networks and show how their interrogation is starting to impact our understanding of cellular pathophysiology and one’s ability to predict cellular phenotypes from genome-wide molecular observations. PMID:22246697

  6. Role of Human Factors and Engineering Psychology in Undergraduate and Graduate Engineering Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Jesse Rebol

    2010-12-01

    The engineering discipline is a profession of acquiring and applying technical knowledge, and the focus of engineering psychology is to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency with which human activities are conducted. Having human factors and engineering psychology be a permanent part of the engineering curriculum will make students aware of them, so they can learn from past experiences and avoid making the same mistakes their peers made. (Should be close to 200 words)

  7. The Transition from Spacecraft Development Ot Flight Operation: Human Factor Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of aeronautics and astronautics, a paradigm shift has been witnessed by those in academia, research and development, and private industry. Long development life cycles and the budgets to support such programs and projects has given way to aggressive task schedules and leaner resources to draw from all the while challenging assigned individuals to create and produce improved products of processes. however, this "faster, better, cheaper" concept cannot merely be applied to the design, development, and test of complex systems such as earth-orbiting of interplanetary robotic spacecraft. Full advantage is not possible without due consideration and application to mission operations planning and flight operations, Equally as important as the flight system, the mission operations system consisting of qualified personnel, ground hardware and software tools, and verified and validated operational processes, should also be regarded as a complex system requiring personnel to draw upon formal education, training, related experiences, and heuristic reasoning in engineering an effective and efficient system. Unquestionably, qualified personnel are the most important elements of a mission operations system. This paper examines the experiences of the Deep Space I Project, the first in a series of new technology in-flight validation missions sponsored by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), specifically, in developing a subsystems analysis and technology validation team comprised of former spacecraft development personnel. Human factor considerations are investigated from initial concept/vision formulation; through operational process development; personnel test and training; to initial uplink product development and test support. Emphasis has been placed on challenges and applied or recommended solutions, so as to provide opportunities for future programs and projects to address and disposition potential issues and concerns as early

  8. Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

  9. A systems engineering view of the human in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1987-01-01

    A model of the human as an 'engineered' system provides a starting point for determining human requirements and performance on an equivalent basis with technological systems. The human as an engineered system with performance requirements is defined to consist of four subsystems: cognitive, psychological, biomechanical, and biomedical. It is suggested that the treatment of the psychological subsystem as one that modulates the efficiency and quality of human performance offers a particular approach for examining and characterizing psychological effects.

  10. Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivich, Lorrie

    Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

  11. [Technical consideration of setting up a specification for human centrifuge evaluation of anti-G equipment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, C L; Geng, X C; Zhang, W X; Yan, G D; Chu, X

    1999-12-01

    Anti-G equipment needs to be evaluated using human centrifuge before further developed. However, there isn't a general specification for human centrifuge evaluation of anti-G equipment. From related literature and from our over thirty years experience in this area, we sum up to five aspect technical consideration below: human centrifuge, medical specification for using human in +Gz stress experiment, anti-G equipment experimental assembly, principle should be abided by during human centrifuge evaluation of anti-G equipment. We hope that the technical considerations mentioned in the paper should be helpful to the work of setting up a specification for human centrifuge evaluation anti-G equipment. After we have a specification, the research will be conducted orderly and the anti-G [correction of an-G] equipment will be developed sequentially. PMID:12434812

  12. Engineering Guidance: A Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarponis, Joseph M.; Prien, John D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the role of The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) in providing guidance activities for students. Discusses structional organization, goals, and guidance activities for engineering and technical and professional societies. (MA)

  13. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

  14. Utilization of oxygen-enriched air in diesel engines: Fundamental considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, D.; Mehta, P.S.; Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.

    1997-09-01

    Utilization of oxygen-enriched air in diesel engines holds potential for low exhaust smoke and particulate emissions. The majority of the oxygen-enriched-air combustion-related studies so far are experimental in nature, where the observed results are understood on an overall basis. This paper deals with the fundamental considerations associated with the oxygen-enriched air-fuel combustion process to enhance understanding of the concept. The increase in adiabatic flame temperature, the composition of exhaust gases at equilibrium, and also the changes in thermodynamic and transport properties due to oxygen-enrichment of standard intake air are computed. The effects of oxygen-enrichment on fuel evaporation rate, ignition delay, and premixed burnt fraction are also evaluated. Appropriate changes in the ignition delay correlation to reflect the effects of oxygen-enrichment are proposed. The notion of oxygen-enrichment of standard intake air as being akin to leaning of the fuel-air mixture is refuted on the basis of the fundamentally different requirements for the oxygen-enriched combustion process.

  15. Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Lab Study Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The HEMAP (Human Engineering Modeling and Performance) Lab is a joint effort between the Industrial and Human Engineering group and the KAVE (Kennedy Advanced Visualiations Environment) group. The lab consists of sixteen camera system that is used to capture human motions and operational tasks, through te use of a Velcro suit equipped with sensors, and then simulate these tasks in an ergonomic software package know as Jac, The Jack software is able to identify the potential risk hazards.

  16. Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering. PMID:17516148

  17. Integrating the human element into the systems engineering process and MBSE methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, Michael Samir.

    2013-12-01

    In response to the challenges related to the increasing size and complexity of systems, organizations have recognized the need to integrate human considerations in the beginning stages of systems development. Human Systems Integration (HSI) seeks to accomplish this objective by incorporating human factors within systems engineering (SE) processes and methodologies, which is the focus of this paper. A representative set of HSI methods from multiple sources are organized, analyzed, and mapped to the systems engineering Vee-model. These methods are then consolidated and evaluated against the SE process and Models-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to determine where and how they could integrate within systems development activities in the form of specific enhancements. Overall conclusions based on these evaluations are presented and future research areas are proposed.

  18. Cause and effect considerations in diagnostic pathology and pathology phenotyping of genetically engineered mice (GEM).

    PubMed

    McKerlie, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Over the next several decades, biology is embarking on its most ambitious project yet: to annotate the human genome functionally, prioritizing and focusing on those genes relevant to development and disease. Model systems are fundamental prerequisites for this task, and genetically engineered mice (GEM) are by far the most accessible mammalian system because of their anatomical, physiological, and genetic similarity to humans. The scientific utility of GEM has become commonplace since the technology to produce them was established in the early 1980s. Conceptually, however, an efficiently coordinated high-throughput approach that permits correlation between newly discovered genes, functional properties of their protein products, and biological relevance of these products as drug targets has yet to be established. The discipline of veterinary anatomical pathology (hereafter referred to as pathology) is not immune to this requirement for evolution and adaptation, and to address relationships and tissue consequences between tens of thousands of genes and their cognate proteins, novel interdisciplinary technologies and approaches must emerge. Although many of the techniques of pathology are well established, in the context of pathology's contribution to functional annotation of the genome, several conceptually important and unresolved issues remain to be addressed. While an ever-increasing arsenal of genetic and molecular tool-sets are available to evaluate and understand the function of genes and their pathophysiological mechanisms, pathology will continue to play an essential role in confirming cause and effect relationships of gene function in development and disease. This role will continue to be dependent on keen observation, a systematic but disciplined approach, expert knowledge of strain-dependent anatomical differences and incidental lesions, and relevant tissue-based evidence. Miniaturization and high-throughput adaptation of these methods must also continue

  19. Human Factors Engineering Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane; Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems design standards (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook. At the present time the standards document is in final review with some disagreement on several critical issues. The handbook is progressing with November 2008 as the anticipated completion date.

  20. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    SciTech Connect

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  1. A human factors evaluation using tools for automated knowledge engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, Marie E.; Lind, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    A human factors evaluation of the MH-53J helicopter cockpit is described. This evaluation was an application and futher development of Tools for Automated Knowledge Engineering (TAKE). TAKE is used to acquire and analyze knowledge from domain experts (aircrew members, system designers, maintenance personnel, human factors engineers, or others). TAKE was successfully utilized for the purpose of recommending improvements for the man-machine interfaces (MMI) in the MH-53J cockpit.

  2. Race and Human Rights Violations in the United States: Considerations for Human Rights and Moral Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Garrett Albert

    2000-01-01

    States that moral educators can learn from North Americans who have challenged U.S. human rights violations, especially violations within the United States. Uses race as an analytical tool to illustrate human rights abuses. Concludes by discussing the implications for crossing boundaries between human rights work and moral education. (CMK)

  3. Profile of the Engineer of 2001: The Engineer's Full Human Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kihlman, Tor

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a change in engineering education emphasizing human responsibility for environment, natural resources and reactions concerning technology. Describes the Swedish education system and a change in the curricula at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. (Author/YP)

  4. Arctic Engineering--Through Human Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, W. H. C.

    Adopting technology to people and examining projects through the eyes of those concerned are two ways new technology and engineering can be installed and successfully operated under the adverse conditions of northern Canada and in the face of predicted labor shortages in the 1980's. Adopting a more flexible technology provides the opportunity for…

  5. Considerations for Using an Incremental Scheduler for Human Exploration Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks.

  6. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. Results No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. Conclusions The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user–product–environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products. PMID:24732164

  7. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The…

  8. Animal welfare and the human-animal bond: considerations for veterinary faculty, students, and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wensley, Sean P

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of the human-animal bond typically focuses on the benefits of companion animals to human health and well-being, but it is essential that in realizing these benefits the welfare needs of the animals, both physical and mental, are also met. Positive emotional relationships with animals are likely to increase recognition of animal sentience and so help create positive attitudes toward animals at the societal level, but, at the individual level, the animals to which humans are bonded should also benefit from the human-animal relationship. A strong human-animal bond may benefit animal welfare (e.g., by motivating an owner to commit time and funds to necessary veterinary medical treatment), but may also be the source of compromised welfare. Highly bonded owners may, for example, be reluctant to permit euthanasia on humane grounds, and the anthropomorphic nature of many human-companion animal bonds can contribute to the development of problem behaviors and obesity. The challenge for the veterinary profession is to ensure that widespread positive sentiment toward animals, which the human-animal bond generates, is translated in to human behavior and actions that are conducive to good animal welfare. This, it is suggested, can be achieved through adequate veterinary education in veterinary and animal welfare science, ethics, and communication. PMID:19228905

  9. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  10. Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials in Complex Matricies (Environment and Biota): General Considerations and Conceptual Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media...

  11. Considerations on the external combustion system of the Stirling hot gas engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, F.

    1983-01-01

    After an introduction on the Stirling engine the external combustion system as well as the general loss division and efficiencies are described. The requirements for the combustion system and different variants of the combustion system are compared and discussed.

  12. Some NASA contributions to human factors engineering: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behan, R. A.; Wendhausen, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    This survey presents the NASA contributions to the state of the art of human factors engineering, and indicates that these contributions have a variety of applications to nonaerospace activities. Emphasis is placed on contributions relative to man's sensory, motor, decisionmaking, and cognitive behavior and on applications that advance human factors technology.

  13. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  14. The human side of value engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Wixson, J.; Heydt, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses people, pride and performance and their interrelationship with the Value Engineering (VE) technique. It explores the importance of people for the successful application of the technique. It discusses leadership skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, team member recognition and participation, knowledge of right and left brain characteristics and the part each play in the job plan leading to the successful integration of philosophy and techniques to creat change and improve performance. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  15. In vitro fabrication of engineered human skin.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Alexander; Zhang, Weitian; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2005-01-01

    In vitro fabrication of human epidermal tissues that mimic the biochemical and morphologic properties of human skin, known as skin-equivalent (organotypic) cultures, has opened new avenues in the study of skin biology. In this chapter, methods for the generation of these tissues from their component parts are described. Conditions for culture of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts that allow optimal growth in skin equivalent cultures are delineated. These cell types are then sequentially combined so that keratinocytes are grown at an air-liquid interface on a contracted collagen gel containing dermal fibroblasts. The methods described enable the generation of human epidermal tissues that show in vivo-like tissue architecture and phenotype. PMID:15502170

  16. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  17. Aircraft Design Considerations to Meet One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airlines are obligated to operate such that an aircraft can suffer an engine failure at any point in its mission and terminate the flight without an accident. Only minimal aircraft damage is allowable, such as brake replacement due to very heavy application, or an engine inspection and/or possible removal due to use of an emergency rating. Such performance criteria are often referred to as zero exposure, referring to zero accident exposure to an engine failure. The critical mission segment for meeting one engine inoperative (OEI) criteria is takeoff. For a given weight, wind, and ambient condition, fixed wing aircraft require a balanced field length. This is the longer of the distance to take off if an engine fails at a predetermined critical point in the takeoff profile, or the distance to reject the takeoff and brake to a stop. Rotorcraft have requirements for horizontal takeoff procedures that are equivalent to a balanced field length requirements for fixed wing aircraft. Rotorcraft also perform vertical procedures where no runway or heliport distance is available. These were developed primarily for elevated heliports as found on oil rigs or rooftops. They are also used for ground level operations as might be found at heliports at the end of piers or other confined areas.

  18. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  19. [Advancement and goals of the aviation human engineering].

    PubMed

    Stupakov, G P; Ushakov, I B; Turzin, P S

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed were the efforts of the State Scientific-Research Test Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine to weigh and account the human factor in designing and upgrading avionics and aviation machinery. Described are the policy of human engineering support to the development, evaluation, and operation of aviation machinery, and the benefits from the human factor knowledge to the specifications for aviation machinery and allowance for the psychophysiological aptitudes of human on different phases of development of ergatic aviation systems. Outlined is the mainstream of ergonomic enhancement of the quality and safety, and humanization of the activities of different aviation specialists. PMID:9156675

  20. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016. PMID:26929197

  1. XFP optical engines: design considerations for low cost, high performance and small form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylsma, Richard B.; Hartman, Robert L.; Parayanthal, Padman

    2004-05-01

    The recent activity in transceiver and transponder multi-source agreements has led to smaller, cost efficient modules to enable telecom and datacom systems in many different applications. At data rates of 10Gb/sec these applications can be include transmission distances < 100m or greater than 80km. The transmitter optical engines which go into these products must meet many constraints in terms of performance, cost, size and manufacturability. This paper will identify some of the key design issues engineers must address and potential solutions for those issues.

  2. ENGINEERING FORUM ISSUE: CONSIDERATIONS IN DECIDING TO TREAT CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide assistance in deciding in situ treatment of contaminated soils is a potentially feasible remedial alternative. echnical considerations that affect the decision to treat soils in situ are discussed. eneral factors which influence the sele...

  3. Human factors engineering and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Densmore, Emily M

    2006-12-01

    The pediatric population has features different from those of adults and that are dynamic during the pediatric age range. Pediatric-specific issues result in potential risks for harm during medical care. Basic and applied human factors research has resulted in improvements in the performance of health adults and those adults who have functional limitations. Future work should focus on systematically understanding the human factors needs of children with the goal of redesigning systems of health care to optimize the safety of children and the performance of their care providers. PMID:17126685

  4. ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO THE RELEASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS TO THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of these studies show that GEMs (Genetically Engineered Microorganisms) have the potential to survive, to transfer their novel genetic information, and to affect some microbe-mediated ecological processes in soil. he magnitude of these phenomena in soil in situ, howev...

  5. Introducing Decision Making under Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmopoulou, Georgia; Jog, Chintamani; Freeman, Margaret; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical Engineering graduates will face challenges at the workplace that even their peers who graduated a few years ago were not expected to face. One such major challenge is the management and operation of companies and plants under conditions of uncertainty and the need to make decisions in competitive situations. Modern developments in…

  6. Thermal Load Considerations for Detonative Combustion-Based Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, H. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to assess methods for, and performance implications of, cooling the passages (tubes) of a pulse detonation-based combustor conceptually installed in the core of a gas turbine engine typical of regional aircraft. Temperature-limited material stress criteria were developed from common-sense engineering practice, and available material properties. Validated, one-dimensional, numerical simulations were then used to explore a variety of cooling methods and establish whether or not they met the established criteria. Simulation output data from successful schemes were averaged and used in a cycle-deck engine simulation in order to assess the impact of the cooling method on overall performance. Results were compared to both a baseline engine equipped with a constant-pressure combustor and to one equipped with an idealized detonative combustor. Major findings indicate that thermal loads in these devices are large, but potentially manageable. However, the impact on performance can be substantial. Nearly one half of the ideally possible specific fuel consumption (SFC) reduction is lost due to cooling of the tubes. Details of the analysis are described, limitations are presented, and implications are discussed.

  7. A Study on Robot-Human System with Consideration of Individual Preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindai, Mitsuru; Shibata, Satoru; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Watanabe, Tomio

    In this study, we propose an object-handing robot system with a multimodal human-machine interface which is composed of speech recognition and image processing units. Using this multimodal human-machine interface, the cooperator can order the object-handing robot system using voice commands and hand gestures. In this robot system, the motion parameters of the robot, which are maximum velocity, velocity profile peak and handing position, can be adjusted by the voice commands or the hand gestures in order to realize the most appropriate motion of the robot. Furthermore, the cooperator can order the handing of objects using voice commands along with hand gestures. In these voice commands, the cooperator can use adverbs. This permits the cooperator to realize efficient adjustments, because the adjustment value of each motion parameters is determined by adverbs. In particular, adjustment values corresponding to adverbs are estimated by fuzzy inference in order to take into consideration the ambiguities of human speech.

  8. Engineering large animal models of human disease.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Sheets, Timothy P; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of gene editing tools we will see a dramatic increase in animal model resources available for both the study of human disease and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic. Comparative pathology will be central to the productive use of these animal models and the successful translation of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26414877

  9. Plant-derived human collagen scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Willard, James J; Drexler, Jason W; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded; Powell, Heather M

    2013-07-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  10. Plant-Derived Human Collagen Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Willard, James J.; Drexler, Jason W.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  11. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  12. Transplantation of a tissue-engineered human vascularized cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Lesman, Ayelet; Habib, Manhal; Caspi, Oren; Gepstein, Amira; Arbel, Gil; Levenberg, Shulamit; Gepstein, Lior

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial regeneration strategies have been hampered by the lack of sources for human cardiomyocytes (CMs) and by the significant donor cell loss following transplantation. We assessed the ability of a three-dimensional tissue-engineered human vascularized cardiac muscle to engraft in the in vivo rat heart and to promote functional vascularization. Human embryonic stem cell-derived CMs alone or with human endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and embryonic fibroblasts (triculture constructs) were seeded onto biodegradable porous scaffolds. The resulting tissue constructs were transplanted to the in vivo rat heart and formed cardiac tissue grafts. Immunostaining studies for human-specific CD31 and alpha-smooth muscle actin demonstrated the formation of both donor (human) and host (rat)-derived vasculature within the engrafted triculture tissue constructs. Intraventricular injection of fluorescent microspheres or lectin resulted in their incorporation by human-derived vessels, confirming their functional integration with host coronary vasculature. Finally, the number of blood vessels was significantly greater in the triculture tissue constructs (60.3 +/- 8/mm(3), p < 0.05) when compared with scaffolds containing only CMs (39.0 +/- 14.4/mm(3)). In conclusion, a tissue-engineered human vascularized cardiac muscle can be established ex vivo and transplanted in vivo to form stable grafts. By utilizing a multicellular preparation we were able to increase biograft vascularization and to show that the preexisting human vessels can become functional and contribute to tissue perfusion. PMID:19642856

  13. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  14. Free-piston Stirling Engine system considerations for various space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dochat, George R.; Dhar, Manmohan

    1991-01-01

    Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (ac, dc, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper reviews potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. This paper briefly outlines the program and recent progress.

  15. Geo-engineering Evaluation with Prime Consideration to Liquefaction Potential for Eskisehir City (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyuncu, N. Pínar; Ulusay, Resat

    In Turkey, cities are growing in importance and urban areas are expanding rapidly. Eskisehir is one of the highly urbanized and industrialized cities of Turkey. In this study, the city is selected for geo-engineering assessments to be considered in future urban planning due to its ground and seismotectonic conditions. Seismic hazard analyses indicated that magnitude of a probable earthquake and PGA associated with the closest fault may be about 6.4 and 300 gal, respectively. Liquefaction assessments suggest that shallow-seated sand layers, particularly near to the meanders of a river flowing through the city have moderate-to-high liquefaction susceptibility. In addition, GIS-aided engineering geological map of the city center are constructed and some recommendations are presented.

  16. Towards a richer debate on tissue engineering: a consideration on the basis of NEST-ethics.

    PubMed

    Oerlemans, A J M; van Hoek, M E C; van Leeuwen, E; van der Burg, S; Dekkers, W J M

    2013-09-01

    In their 2007 paper, Swierstra and Rip identify characteristic tropes and patterns of moral argumentation in the debate about the ethics of new and emerging science and technologies (or "NEST-ethics"). Taking their NEST-ethics structure as a starting point, we considered the debate about tissue engineering (TE), and argue what aspects we think ought to be a part of a rich and high-quality debate of TE. The debate surrounding TE seems to be predominantly a debate among experts. When considering the NEST-ethics arguments that deal directly with technology, we can generally conclude that consequentialist arguments are by far the most prominently featured in discussions of TE. In addition, many papers discuss principles, rights and duties relevant to aspects of TE, both in a positive and in a critical sense. Justice arguments are only sporadically made, some "good life" arguments are used, others less so (such as the explicit articulation of perceived limits, or the technology as a technological fix for a social problem). Missing topics in the discussion, at least from the perspective of NEST-ethics, are second "level" arguments-those referring to techno-moral change connected to tissue engineering. Currently, the discussion about tissue engineering mostly focuses on its so-called "hard impacts"-quantifiable risks and benefits of the technology. Its "soft impacts"-effects that cannot easily be quantified, such as changes to experience, habits and perceptions, should receive more attention. PMID:23229374

  17. Free-piston Stirling engine system considerations for various space power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dochat, G.R.; Dhar, M. )

    1991-01-05

    The U.S. Government is evaluating power requirements for future space applications. As power requirements increase solar or nuclear dynamic systems become increasingly attractive. Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (AC, DC, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper will review potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. Currently free-piston Stirling engine technology for space power applications is being developed under contract with NASA-Lewis Research Center. This paper will also briefly outline the program and recent progress.

  18. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  19. Human factors considerations for the use of color in display systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demars, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Identified and assessed are those human factor considerations impacting an operator's ability to perform when information is displayed in color as contrasted to monochrome (black and white only). The findings provide valuable guidelines for the assessment of the advantages (and disadvantages) of using a color display system. The use of color provides an additional sensory channel (color perception) which is not available with black and white. The degree to which one can exploit the use of this channel is highly dependent on available display technology, mission information display requirements, and acceptable operational modes.

  20. Human factors and safety considerations of night-vision systems flight using thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Verona, Robert W.; Crowley, John S.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  1. Methodological considerations for using umu assay to assess photo-genotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cupi, Denisa; Baun, Anders

    2016-01-15

    In this study we investigated the feasibility of high-throughput (96-well plate) umu assay to test the genotoxic effect of TiO2 engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) under UV light (full spectrum) and visible light (455 nm). Exposure of TiO2 ENPs to up to 60 min of UV light induced a photocatalytic production of ROS. However, UV light itself caused cytotoxic damage to Salmonella typhimurium at exposures >15 min and a genotoxic effect at exposures >0.5 min; and use of UV filters did not lower this effect. No genotoxicity of TiO2 ENPs was observed under visible light conditions at concentrations up to 100 μg mL(-1); or under dark conditions at concentrations up to 667 μg mL(-1), though cytotoxicity was seen at the higher concentrations. Additionally, the growth factor calculation was influenced by a shading effect due to ENPs, and was corrected by considering the pre-incubation OD readings of Plate B. Recommendations provided in this paper, as well as investigation of the effect of the light sources should be considered when using the umu assay to quantify the photo-genotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. PMID:26778507

  2. Human Factors and Human-Computer Considerations in Teleradiology and Telepathology

    PubMed Central

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiology and pathology are unique among other clinical specialties that incorporate telemedicine technologies into clinical practice, as, for the most part in traditional practice, there are few or no direct patient encounters. The majority of teleradiology and telepathology involves viewing images, which is exactly what occurs without the “tele” component. The images used are generally quite large, require dedicated displays and software for viewing, and present challenges to the clinician who must navigate through the presented data to render a diagnostic decision or interpretation. This digital viewing environment is very different from the more traditional reading environment (i.e., film and microscopy), necessitating a new look at how to optimize reading environments and address human factors issues. This paper will review some of the key components that need to be optimized for effective and efficient practice of teleradiology and telepathology using traditional workstations as well as some of the newer mobile viewing applications. PMID:27429262

  3. Human Systems Engineering: A Leadership Model for Collaboration and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Karen L.

    Human systems engineering (HSE) was created to introduce a new way of viewing collaboration. HSE emphasizes the role of leaders who welcome risk, commit to achieving positive change, and help others achieve change. The principles of HSE and its successful application to the collaborative process were illustrated through a case study representing a…

  4. Space nuclear power: technology, policy, and risk considerations in human missions to Mars.

    PubMed

    Friedensen, V P

    1998-01-01

    There is a large discrepancy between potential needs for nuclear propulsion and power systems for the human exploration of Mars and the current status of R&D funding, public opinion, and governmental support for these technologies. Mission planners and spacecraft designers, energized by the recent claims of possible discovery of life on Mars and responding to increased public interest in the human exploration of Mars, frequently propose nuclear reactors and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for interplanetary spacecraft propulsion and for power supply on the surface of Mars. These plans and designs typically assume that reactors will be available "on-the-shelf," and do not take the extensive R&D costs required to develop such reactors into consideration. However, it is likely that current U.S. policies, if unchanged, will prohibit the launch of nuclear reactors and large RTGs in response to a perceived risk by the public. PMID:11541623

  5. Minimizing the potential for nosocomial pneumonia: architectural, engineering, and environmental considerations for the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    du Moulin, G

    1989-01-01

    The development of pneumonia in seriously ill patients remains an important concern of intensive care medicine. The design of the intensive care unit will have a direct effect upon the potential for infection. Persons involved in this design should consider engineering and architectural elements that will ultimately contribute to lower rates of infection. These include components to regulate the atmosphere, such as ventilation systems and temperature and humidity controls. Sources of contaminated water and the amplification mechanisms need to be addressed and minimized in the final designs. Architectural elements such as treatment space and lighting encourage optimal patient management and workable staffing patterns. Personnel who treat seriously ill patients should be part of the planning and design process in the construction and renovation of intensive care facilities. PMID:2495954

  6. Biomechanical forces in the skeleton and their relevance to bone metastasis: biology and engineering considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Maureen; Fischbach, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer related-deaths. However, the effect of skeleton-associated biomechanical signals on the initiation, progression, and therapy response of breast cancer bone metastasis is largely unknown. This review seeks to highlight possible functional connections between skeletal mechanical signals and breast cancer bone metastasis and their contribution to clinical outcome. It provides an introduction to the physical and biological signals underlying bone functional adaptation and discusses the modulatory roles of mechanical loading and breast cancer metastasis in this process. Following a definition of biophysical design criteria, in vitro and in vivo approaches from the fields of bone biomechanics and tissue engineering will be reviewed that may be suitable to investigate breast cancer bone metastasis as a function of varied mechano-signaling. Finally, an outlook of future opportunities and challenges associated with this newly emerging field will be provided. PMID:25174311

  7. HOW DO RADIOLOGISTS USE THE HUMAN SEARCH ENGINE?

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Evans, Karla K; Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avigael; Josephs, Emilie

    2016-06-01

    Radiologists perform many 'visual search tasks' in which they look for one or more instances of one or more types of target item in a medical image (e.g. cancer screening). To understand and improve how radiologists do such tasks, it must be understood how the human 'search engine' works. This article briefly reviews some of the relevant work into this aspect of medical image perception. Questions include how attention and the eyes are guided in radiologic search? How is global (image-wide) information used in search? How might properties of human vision and human cognition lead to errors in radiologic search? PMID:26656078

  8. Engineering Large Animal Species to Model Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are an important resource for studying human diseases. Genetically engineered mice are the most commonly used species and have made significant contributions to our understanding of basic biology, disease mechanisms, and drug development. However, they often fail to recreate important aspects of human diseases and thus can have limited utility as translational research tools. Developing disease models in species more similar to humans may provide a better setting in which to study disease pathogenesis and test new treatments. This unit provides an overview of the history of genetically engineered large animals and the techniques that have made their development possible. Factors to consider when planning a large animal model, including choice of species, type of modification and methodology, characterization, production methods, and regulatory compliance, are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367161

  9. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Holden, Patricia A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Klaessig, Fred; Turco, Ronald F; Mortimer, Monika; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Avery, David; Barceló, Damià; Behra, Renata; Cohen, Yoram; Deydier-Stephan, Laurence; Ferguson, P Lee; Fernandes, Teresa F; Herr Harthorn, Barbara; Henderson, W Matthew; Hoke, Robert A; Hristozov, Danail; Johnston, John M; Kane, Agnes B; Kapustka, Larry; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lovell, Wess; Murphy, Catherine J; Nisbet, Roger M; Petersen, Elijah J; Salinas, Edward R; Scheringer, Martin; Sharma, Monita; Speed, David E; Sultan, Yasir; Westerhoff, Paul; White, Jason C; Wiesner, Mark R; Wong, Eva M; Xing, Baoshan; Steele Horan, Meghan; Godwin, Hilary A; Nel, André E

    2016-06-21

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant concentrations-where observing outcomes is difficult-versus higher ENM doses, where responses are observable. What exposure conditions are typically used in assessing ENM hazards to populations? What conditions are used to test ecosystem-scale hazards? What is known regarding actual ENMs in the environment, via measurements or modeling simulations? How should exposure conditions, ENM transformation, dose, and body burden be used in interpreting biological and computational findings for assessing risks? These questions were addressed in the context of this critical review. As a result, three main recommendations emerged. First, researchers should improve ecotoxicology of ENMs by choosing test end points, duration, and study conditions-including ENM test concentrations-that align with realistic exposure scenarios. Second, testing should proceed via tiers with iterative feedback that informs experiments at other levels of biological organization. Finally, environmental realism in ENM hazard assessments should involve greater coordination among ENM quantitative analysts, exposure modelers, and ecotoxicologists, across government, industry, and academia. PMID:27177237

  10. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-01-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. PMID:23915092

  11. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: Semantic Considerations for an Evolving Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Katari, Ravi; Peloso, Andrea; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine (RM) are rapidly evolving fields that are often obscured by a dense cloud of hype and commercialization potential. We find, in the literature and general commentary, that several of the associated terms are casually referenced in varying contexts that ultimately result in the blurring of the distinguishing boundaries which define them. “TE” and “RM” are often used interchangeably, though some experts vehemently argue that they, in fact, represent different conceptual entities. Nevertheless, contemporary scientists have a general idea of the experiments and milestones that can be classified within either or both categories. Given the groundbreaking achievements reported within the past decade and consequent watershed potential of this field, we feel that it would be useful to properly contextualize these terms semantically and historically. In this concept paper, we explore the various definitions proposed in the literature and emphasize that ambiguous terminology can lead to misplaced apprehension. We assert that the central motifs of both concepts have existed within the surgical sciences long before their appearance as terms in the scientific literature. PMID:25629029

  12. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will describe the human health and performance issues that are anticipated for the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEA). Humans are considered a system in the design of any such deep-space exploration mission, and exploration of NEA presents unique challenges for the human system. Key factors that define the mission are those that are strongly affected by distance and duration. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) restrict mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age and gender of crewmembers and stage of the solar cycle. Factors that affect mission architecture include medical capability; countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; restricted food supplies; and limited habitable volume. The design of a habitat that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from Earth will require an integrated research and development effort by NASA s Human Research Program, engineering, and human factors groups. Limited abort and return options for an NEA mission are anticipated to have important effects on crew psychology as well as influence medical supplies and training requirements of the crew. Other important factors are those related to isolation, confinement, communication delays, autonomous operations, task design, small crew size, and even the unchanging view outside the windows for most of the mission. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in design of mission architecture and

  13. Human Factors Engineering at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is to develop, implement, and maintain systems for space transportation and microgravity research. Factors impacting the MSFC position as a leader in advancing science and technology include: (1) heightened emphasis on safety; (2) increased interest in effective resource utilization; and (3) growing importance of employing systems and procedures that pragmatically support mission science. In light of these factors, MSFC is integrating human factors engineering (HFE) into the systems engineering process. This paper describes the HFE program, applications of HFE in MSFC projects, and the future of HFE at MSFC.

  14. 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 17, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (HAB Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design (Task Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk).

  15. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  16. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  17. We Have the Spaceship; But Where's the Start Button: Human Engineering Issues in the Age of Long Duration Space Exploration - Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George; Adams, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses the following considerations for human factors engineering during long duration human space flight: gravitational adaptation, 2-D to 3-D adaptation, handles, exercise posture, and space ergonomics. The presentation argues that there is an urgent need to advance research is these areas in preparation for future manned missions.

  18. Reporting on Strategic Considerations About the Role of Science in Initial Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaty, David; Bass, Deborah; Thronson, Harley; Hays, Lindsay; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, Joe; Craig, Mark; Duggan, Matt; Drake, Bret; Stern, Jennifer; Zucker, Rick

    2016-07-01

    mission prior to a Mars surface mission should be initiated. 3. A well-planned set of science objectives for a future human-landed mission to Mars is essential in order to sustain coordination among the science and human spaceflight communities. In particular, while it is clear how humans on the surface of Mars would significantly accelerate the pace of the search for past life, it is unclear how humans would play a role in (and not serve as a hindrance to) the search for extant life. Further study should be supported. 4. Sustained formal collaboration among Mars scientists, engineers, technologists, and teams developing scenarios for Mars exploration should be supported. The human and robotic sides of the Mars exploration community need to become further engaged with each other, particularly as we enter a potential period of dual-purpose (science + human precursor) missions. Central to this era is generating mutual support for a Mars sample return architecture as a goal that has crucial value to both the human preparatory program and planetary science.

  19. Overview of engineering and agricultural design considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, N.E.; Engen, I.A.; Yrene, C.S.

    1982-04-01

    The engineering and agricultural considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment are presented. The experiment is designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of a subsurface pipe network for cooling power-plant condenser effluent, and crop responses to soil warming in an open-field plot. The subsurface soil-warming system is designed to dissipate approximately 100 kW of heat from circulating, 38/sup 0/C geothermal water. Summer operating conditions in the Raft River area, located on the Intermountain Plateau are emphasized. Design is based on the thermal characteristics of the local soil, the climate of the Raft River Valley, management practices for normal agriculture, and the need for an unheated control plot. The resultant design calls for 38-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in a grid composed of parallel loops, for dissipating heat into a 0.8-hectare experimental plot.

  20. Site-Specific Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Merkert, Sylvia; Martin, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an unprecedented potential of applications in clinical therapy and medical research. Human iPSCs and their differentiated derivatives are tools for diseases modelling, drug discovery, safety pharmacology, and toxicology. Moreover, they allow for the engineering of bioartificial tissue and are promising candidates for cellular therapies. For many of these applications, the ability to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is indispensable, but efficient site-specific and safe technologies for genetic engineering of PSCs were developed only recently. By now, customized engineered nucleases provide excellent tools for targeted genome editing, opening new perspectives for biomedical research and cellular therapies. PMID:27347935

  1. Site-Specific Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Merkert, Sylvia; Martin, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an unprecedented potential of applications in clinical therapy and medical research. Human iPSCs and their differentiated derivatives are tools for diseases modelling, drug discovery, safety pharmacology, and toxicology. Moreover, they allow for the engineering of bioartificial tissue and are promising candidates for cellular therapies. For many of these applications, the ability to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is indispensable, but efficient site-specific and safe technologies for genetic engineering of PSCs were developed only recently. By now, customized engineered nucleases provide excellent tools for targeted genome editing, opening new perspectives for biomedical research and cellular therapies. PMID:27347935

  2. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture: Considerations for Maintenance, Expansion, and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin G.; Mallon, Barbara S.; McKay, Ronald D.G.; Robey, Pamela G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide powerful resources for application in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical development. In the past decade, various methods have been developed for large-scale hPSC culture that rely on combined use of multiple growth components, including media containing various growth factors, extracellular matrices, three-dimensional environmental (3D) cues and modes of multicellular association. In this review, we dissect these growth components by comparing cell culture methods and identifying the benefits and pitfalls associated with each one. We further provide criteria, considerations, and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for hPSC expansion, differentiation, and use in future therapeutic applications. PMID:24388173

  3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES IN HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  4. Organizational Considerations for Implementing Systems Engineering and Integration in the Ares Projects Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, LeAnn; Doreswamy, Rajiv N.

    2008-01-01

    Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) is a critical discipline in developing new space systems. In 2005, NASA performed an internal study of 24 agency and Department of Defense (DoD) programs to evaluate methods of integrating SE&I practices and determine their effectiveness. The goal of the study was to determine the best SE&I implementation strategy for the Ares Projects Office. The study identified six SE&I organizational structures: 1. Lead systems integrator (LSI) with SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. 2a. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 2b. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3a. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government insight). 3b. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3c. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government/industry partnership). 4a.Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 4b. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 4d.Prime contractors with total system performance responsibility (TSPR). 5. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and integration products through a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). 6. Government/FFRDC in-house development with SE&I responsibility and function. The organizational structure used most often was number 4, using a prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. However, data analyses did not establish a positive relationship between program development costs and specific SE&I organizational types, nor did it positively determine the relationship between successful programs or projects and their SE&I structure. The SE&I study reached the following conclusions: (1) Large, long-duration, technically complex programs or projects reach their technical goals, but rarely meet schedule or cost goals. NASA's recent

  5. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  6. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product of a research and development program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design of military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by system designers. The present four volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is Volume 3, containing sections on Human Language Processing, Operator Motion Control, Effects of Environmental Stressors, Display Interfaces, and Control Interfaces (Real/Virtual).

  7. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. PMID:21913285

  8. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2010-01-01

    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  9. Rapid prototyping and the human factors engineering process.

    PubMed

    Beevis, D; Denis, G S

    1992-06-01

    Rapid prototyping or 'virtual prototyping' of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator 'in the loop' without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the VAPS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping. Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping facilitates an iterative approach to the development of the human-machine interface, and that is most applicable to the early stages of systems development, rather than to detailed design. PMID:15676861

  10. Handbook of human engineering design data for reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marton, T.; Rudek, F. P.; Miller, R. A.; Norman, D. G.

    1971-01-01

    A Handbook is presented for the use of engineers, designers, and human factors specialists during the developmental and detailed design phases of manned spacecraft programs. Detailed and diverse quantified data on man's capabilities and tolerances for survival and productive effort in the extraterrestrial environment are provided. Quantified data and information on the space environment as well as the characteristics of the vehicular or residential environment required to support man in outer space are also given.

  11. Engineering Education Development to Enhance Human Skill in DENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, Emiko; Nuka, Takeji

    Importance of human skills such as communication or instruction capability to their staff members has recently been highlighted in a workplace, due to decreasing opportunity of face-to-face communication between supervisors and their staff, or Instruction capability through OJT (On the Job Training) . Currently, communication skills are being reinforced mainly through OJT at DENSO. Therefore, as part of supplemental support tools, DENSO has established comprehensive engineers training program on off-JT basis for developing human skills, covering from newly employeed enginners up to managerial class since 2003. This paper describes education activities and reports the results.

  12. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of human placental function and pregnancy outcome: considerations for causal inference.

    PubMed

    Januar, Vania; Desoye, Gernot; Novakovic, Boris; Cvitic, Silvija; Saffery, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, often defined as regulating gene activity independently of underlying DNA sequence, are crucial for healthy development. The sum total of epigenetic marks within a cell or tissue (the epigenome) is sensitive to environmental influence, and disruption of the epigenome in utero has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Not surprisingly, given its multifaceted functions and important role in regulating pregnancy outcome, the placenta shows unique epigenetic features. Interestingly however, many of these are only otherwise seen in human malignancy (the pseudomalignant placental epigenome). Epigenetic variation in the placenta is now emerging as a candidate mediator of environmental influence on placental functioning and a key regulator of pregnancy outcome. However, replication of findings is generally lacking, most likely due to small sample sizes and a lack of standardization of analytical approaches. Defining DNA methylation "signatures" in the placenta associated with maternal and fetal outcomes offers tremendous potential to improve pregnancy outcomes, but care must be taken in interpretation of findings. Future placental epigenetic research would do well to address the issues present in epigenetic epidemiology more generally, including careful consideration of sample size, potentially confounding factors, issues of tissue heterogeneity, reverse causation, and the role of genetics in modulating epigenetic profile. The importance of animal or in vitro models in establishing a functional role of epigenetic variation identified in human beings, which is key to establishing causation, should not be underestimated. PMID:26428498

  14. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    SciTech Connect

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  15. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  16. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literary Analysis and Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, James; Conley, Catharine; Siegel, Bette

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literary analysis of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current ‘state of knowledge’. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection. Keywords: planetary protection, human spaceflight requirements, human space exploration, human space operations, systems engineering, literature analysis

  17. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  18. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product an R and D program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design of military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by system designers. The present four volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is Volume 1, which contains sections on Visual Acquisition of Information, Auditory Acquisition of Information, and Acquisition of Information by Other Senses.

  19. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product of a Research and Development program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design of military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by system designers. The present volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is Volume 2, which contains sections on Information Storage and Retrieval, Spatial Awareness, Perceptual Organization, and Attention and Allocation of Resources.

  20. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance. User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product of a research and development program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design and military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from the existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by systems designers. The present four volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is the first volume, the User's Guide, containing a description of the program and instructions for its use.

  1. Tissue Engineering for Human Urethral Reconstruction: Systematic Review of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    de Kemp, Vincent; de Graaf, Petra; Fledderus, Joost O.; Ruud Bosch, J. L. H.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Techniques to treat urethral stricture and hypospadias are restricted, as substitution of the unhealthy urethra with tissue from other origins (skin, bladder or buccal mucosa) has some limitations. Therefore, alternative sources of tissue for use in urethral reconstructions are considered, such as ex vivo engineered constructs. Purpose To review recent literature on tissue engineering for human urethral reconstruction. Methods A search was made in the PubMed and Embase databases restricted to the last 25 years and the English language. Results A total of 45 articles were selected describing the use of tissue engineering in urethral reconstruction. The results are discussed in four groups: autologous cell cultures, matrices/scaffolds, cell-seeded scaffolds, and clinical results of urethral reconstructions using these materials. Different progenitor cells were used, isolated from either urine or adipose tissue, but slightly better results were obtained with in vitro expansion of urothelial cells from bladder washings, tissue biopsies from the bladder (urothelium) or the oral cavity (buccal mucosa). Compared with a synthetic scaffold, a biological scaffold has the advantage of bioactive extracellular matrix proteins on its surface. When applied clinically, a non-seeded matrix only seems suited for use as an onlay graft. When a tubularized substitution is the aim, a cell-seeded construct seems more beneficial. Conclusions Considerable experience is available with tissue engineering of urethral tissue in vitro, produced with cells of different origin. Clinical and in vivo experiments show promising results. PMID:25689740

  2. Reverse engineering of the multiple launch rocket system. Human factors, manpower, personnel, and training in the weapons system acquisition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabian, J. M.; Hartel, C. R.; Kaplan, J. D.; Marcus, A.; Promisel, D. M.

    1984-06-01

    In a briefing format, this report on the Multiple Launch Rocket System summarizes an examination of human factors, manpower, personnel and training (HMPT) issues during the systems acquisition process. The report is one of four reverse engineering studies prepared at the request of Gen. M. R. Thurman, Army Vice Chief of Staff. The four systems were studied as a representative sample of Army weapons systems. They serve as the basis for drawing conclusions about aspects of the weapons system acquisition process which most affect HMPT considerations. A synthesis of the four system studies appears in the final report of the Reverse Engineering Task Force U.S. Army Research Institute.

  3. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope instrument suite layout: optical system engineering considerations for a large deployable space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Davila, Pamela S.; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul A.; Contreras, James; Whitman, Tony

    2004-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 μm. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the mission requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope"s field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec), a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module. The size and position of each instrument"s field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  5. The James Webb Telescope Instrument Suite Layout: Optical System Engineering Considerations for a Large, Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent; Davila, Pam; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul; Contreras, Jim; Whitman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into an elliptical orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 microns. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the telescope s high-level performance requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope's field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) provided by the University of Arizona; a Near-Mared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) provided by the European Space Agency; a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a European consortium; and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module provided by the Canadian Space Agency. The size and position of each instrument's field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving the key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  6. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J. ); Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R. )

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  7. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-05-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model`s rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  8. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Engineering bone tissue substitutes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marcos-Campos, Iván; Kahler, David John; Alsalman, Dana; Shang, Linshan; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2013-01-01

    Congenital defects, trauma, and disease can compromise the integrity and functionality of the skeletal system to the extent requiring implantation of bone grafts. Engineering of viable bone substitutes that can be personalized to meet specific clinical needs represents a promising therapeutic alternative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for bone tissue engineering. We first induced three hiPSC lines with different tissue and reprogramming backgrounds into the mesenchymal lineages and used a combination of differentiation assays, surface antigen profiling, and global gene expression analysis to identify the lines exhibiting strong osteogenic differentiation potential. We then engineered functional bone substitutes by culturing hiPSC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on osteoconductive scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors and confirmed their phenotype stability in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 wk. Molecular analysis confirmed that the maturation of bone substitutes in perfusion bioreactors results in global repression of cell proliferation and an increased expression of lineage-specific genes. These results pave the way for growing patient-specific bone substitutes for reconstructive treatments of the skeletal system and for constructing qualified experimental models of development and disease. PMID:23653480

  10. Engineered cell-laden human protein-based elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Weiss, Anthony S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Elastic tissue equivalence is a vital requirement of synthetic materials proposed for many resilient, soft tissue engineering applications. Here we present a bioelastomer made from tropoelastin, the human protein that naturally facilitates elasticity and cell interactions in all elastic tissues. We combined this protein’s innate versatility with fast non-toxic fabrication techniques to make highly extensible, cell compatible hydrogels. These hydrogels can be produced in less than a minute through photocrosslinking of methacrylated tropoelastin (MeTro) in an aqueous solution. The fabricated MeTro gels exhibit high extensibility (up to 400%) and superior mechanical properties that outperform other photocrosslinkable hydrogels. MeTro gels were used to encapsulate cells within a flexible 3D environment and to manufacture highly elastic 2D films for cell attachment, growth, and proliferation. In addition, the physical properties of this fabricated bioelastomer such as elasticity, stiffness, and pore characteristics were tuned through manipulation of the methacrylation degree and protein concentration. This photocrosslinkable, functional tissue mimetic gel benefits from the innate biological properties of a human elastic protein and opens new opportunities in tissue engineering. PMID:23639533

  11. ENGINES: exploring single nucleotide variation in entire human genomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Next generation ultra-sequencing technologies are starting to produce extensive quantities of data from entire human genome or exome sequences, and therefore new software is needed to present and analyse this vast amount of information. The 1000 Genomes project has recently released raw data for 629 complete genomes representing several human populations through their Phase I interim analysis and, although there are certain public tools available that allow exploration of these genomes, to date there is no tool that permits comprehensive population analysis of the variation catalogued by such data. Description We have developed a genetic variant site explorer able to retrieve data for Single Nucleotide Variation (SNVs), population by population, from entire genomes without compromising future scalability and agility. ENGINES (ENtire Genome INterface for Exploring SNVs) uses data from the 1000 Genomes Phase I to demonstrate its capacity to handle large amounts of genetic variation (>7.3 billion genotypes and 28 million SNVs), as well as deriving summary statistics of interest for medical and population genetics applications. The whole dataset is pre-processed and summarized into a data mart accessible through a web interface. The query system allows the combination and comparison of each available population sample, while searching by rs-number list, chromosome region, or genes of interest. Frequency and FST filters are available to further refine queries, while results can be visually compared with other large-scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) repositories such as HapMap or Perlegen. Conclusions ENGINES is capable of accessing large-scale variation data repositories in a fast and comprehensive manner. It allows quick browsing of whole genome variation, while providing statistical information for each variant site such as allele frequency, heterozygosity or FST values for genetic differentiation. Access to the data mart generating scripts and to

  12. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  13. Methodological considerations for the human platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding kinetic assay.

    PubMed

    Khait, V D; Huang, Y Y; Mann, J J

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of an extensive database of human platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding assays has been conducted in order to identify factors that may affect the assay results. Despite anecdotal reports that storage of frozen platelet pellets may affect 5-HT2A binding affinity and capacity, no quantitative study has been reported in the literature. Analysis of binding data for 373 frozen samples with a storage time up to three years is presented in this paper. It is shown that prolonged storage significantly decreases binding. The loss of binding capacity begins in the first six month of storage. Bmax declines by half after 17 month. The impact of storage time on the binding affinity is much smaller. There is only about 20% increase in the value of affinity K(D) during the half-life of Bmax. Differences in sample storage time may partly explain discrepancies in results between different research groups. Nonspecific binding due to binding to filter material diminishes accuracy and reliability of the binding assays as a result of a decrease in the ratio of specific to nonspecific ratio. A data analysis based on our suggested mathematical model shows that this effect depends on tissue concentration in test tube and becomes pronounced when the concentration is below 0.1 mg protein/ml (at 0.2 nM of ligand). Above 0.1 mg protein/ml, percentage of specific to total binding exceeds 65%, which is an acceptable level for the ratio. The majority of the binding studies reported in the literature employed a tissue concentration more than 0.5 mg/ml, well above the minimal limit sufficient for a reliable assay. However, development of microassays to conserve precious tissue must take the limit into consideration. PMID:10619369

  14. The Application of the Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory for Space Vehicle Ground Processing Tasks at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of United Space Alliance's Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory began in early 2007 in an attempt to address the problematic workspace design issues that the Space Shuttle has imposed on technicians performing maintenance and inspection operations. The Space Shuttle was not expected to require the extensive maintenance it undergoes between flights. As a result, extensive, costly resources have been expended on workarounds and modifications to accommodate ground processing personnel. Consideration of basic human factors principles for design of maintenance is essential during the design phase of future space vehicles, facilities, and equipment. Simulation will be needed to test and validate designs before implementation.

  15. The Humanistic Side of Engineering: Considering Social Science and Humanities Dimensions of Engineering in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Morgan; Swenson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics and science knowledge/skills are most commonly associated with engineering's pre-requisite knowledge. Our goals in this paper are to argue for a more systematic inclusion of social science and humanities knowledge in the introduction of engineering to K-12 students. As part of this argument, we present a construct for framing the…

  16. Human Engineered Heart Tissue: Analysis of Contractile Force.

    PubMed

    Mannhardt, Ingra; Breckwoldt, Kaja; Letuffe-Brenière, David; Schaaf, Sebastian; Schulz, Herbert; Neuber, Christiane; Benzin, Anika; Werner, Tessa; Eder, Alexandra; Schulze, Thomas; Klampe, Birgit; Christ, Torsten; Hirt, Marc N; Huebner, Norbert; Moretti, Alessandra; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Hansen, Arne

    2016-07-12

    Analyzing contractile force, the most important and best understood function of cardiomyocytes in vivo is not established in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM). This study describes the generation of 3D, strip-format, force-generating engineered heart tissues (EHT) from hiPSC-CM and their physiological and pharmacological properties. CM were differentiated from hiPSC by a growth factor-based three-stage protocol. EHTs were generated and analyzed histologically and functionally. HiPSC-CM in EHTs showed well-developed sarcomeric organization and alignment, and frequent mitochondria. Systematic contractility analysis (26 concentration-response curves) reveals that EHTs replicated canonical response to physiological and pharmacological regulators of inotropy, membrane- and calcium-clock mediators of pacemaking, modulators of ion-channel currents, and proarrhythmic compounds with unprecedented precision. The analysis demonstrates a high degree of similarity between hiPSC-CM in EHT format and native human heart tissue, indicating that human EHTs are useful for preclinical drug testing and disease modeling. PMID:27211213

  17. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the Astronaut health and performance issues for a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission. Risks and other considerations are grouped into four categories and they are characterized for criticality.

  18. Where Is the Engineering I Applied For? A Longitudinal Study of Students' Transition into Higher Education Engineering, and Their Considerations of Staying or Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative longitudinal study of students' transition into higher education engineering. The study aims at comparing upper-secondary school students' expectations of engineering with their actual experiences when encountering the engineering programme. It explores how this encounter provides a platform for…

  19. An approach for harmonizing engineering and science education with humaneness.

    PubMed

    Selvan, Krishnasamy T

    2004-07-01

    The world is facing an apparently increasing dose of violence. Obviously, there cannot be a simple solution to this complex problem. But at the same time it may be appreciated that, in the interests of humanity, a solution must be pursued in every possible way by everyone. This article is concerned with what one could possibly do at the academic level. Since lack of openness of thought appears to be a fundamental contributor to this unfortunate problem, attempting to cultivate this quality at all levels can perhaps go a long way towards making our earth a better place to live in. With science and engineering education, how can one possibly blend this concern? History of science and the subject of measurement uncertainty may present the necessary scope to the educator to discuss with the students the desirability and necessity of this quality. PMID:15362711

  20. Enhanced Selectivity for Sulfatide by Engineered Human Glycolipid Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Samygina, Valeria R.; Popov, Alexander N.; Cabo-Bilbao, Aintzane; Ochoa-Lizarralde, Borja; Goni-de-Cerio, Felipe; Zhai, Xiuhong; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Malinina, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) fold represents a novel structural motif for lipid binding/transfer and reversible membrane translocation. GLTPs transfer glycosphingolipids (GSLs) which are key regulators of cell growth, division, surface adhesion, and neurodevelopment. Herein, we report structure-guided engineering of the lipid binding features of GLTP. New crystal structures of wild-type GLTP and two mutants (D48V and A47D||D48V), each containing bound N-nervonoyl-sulfatide, reveal the molecular basis for selective anchoring of sulfatide (3-O-sulfo-galactosylceramide) by D48V-GLTP. Directed point mutations of ‘portal entrance’ residues, A47 and D48, reversibly regulate sphingosine access to the hydrophobic pocket via a mechanism that could involve homo-dimerization. ‘Door-opening’ conformational changes by phenylalanines within the hydrophobic pocket are revealed during lipid encapsulation by new crystal structures of bona fide apo-GLTP and GLTP complexed with N-oleoyl-glucosylceramide. The development of ‘engineered GLTPs’ with enhanced specificity for select GSLs provides a potential new therapeutic approach for targeting GSL-mediated pathologies. PMID:22078563

  1. Cervical tissue engineering using silk scaffolds and human cervical cells.

    PubMed

    House, Michael; Sanchez, Cristina C; Rice, William L; Socrate, Simona; Kaplan, David L

    2010-06-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth is a frequent complication of pregnancy and a common cause of morbidity in childhood. Obstetricians suspect abnormalities of the cervix are implicated in a significant number of preterm births. The cervix is composed of fibrous connective tissue and undergoes significant remodeling in preparation for birth. We hypothesized that a tissue engineering strategy could be used to develop three-dimensional cervical-like tissue constructs that would be suitable for investigating cervical remodeling. Cervical cells were isolated from two premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for a benign gynecological condition, and the cells were seeded on porous silk scaffolds in the presence or absence of dynamic culture and with 10% or 20% serum. Morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties were measured during the 8-week culture period. Cervical cells proliferated in three-dimensions and synthesized an extracellular matrix with biochemical constituents and morphology similar to native tissue. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture was associated with significantly increased collagen deposition (p < 0.05), sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis (p < 0.05), and mechanical stiffness (p < 0.05). Serum concentration did not affect measured variables. Relevant human tissue-engineered cervical-like constructs constitute a novel model system for a range of fundamental and applied studies related to cervical remodeling. PMID:20121593

  2. Cervical Tissue Engineering Using Silk Scaffolds and Human Cervical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Cristina C.; Rice, William L.; Socrate, Simona; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth is a frequent complication of pregnancy and a common cause of morbidity in childhood. Obstetricians suspect abnormalities of the cervix are implicated in a significant number of preterm births. The cervix is composed of fibrous connective tissue and undergoes significant remodeling in preparation for birth. We hypothesized that a tissue engineering strategy could be used to develop three-dimensional cervical-like tissue constructs that would be suitable for investigating cervical remodeling. Cervical cells were isolated from two premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for a benign gynecological condition, and the cells were seeded on porous silk scaffolds in the presence or absence of dynamic culture and with 10% or 20% serum. Morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties were measured during the 8-week culture period. Cervical cells proliferated in three-dimensions and synthesized an extracellular matrix with biochemical constituents and morphology similar to native tissue. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture was associated with significantly increased collagen deposition (p < 0.05), sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis (p < 0.05), and mechanical stiffness (p < 0.05). Serum concentration did not affect measured variables. Relevant human tissue-engineered cervical-like constructs constitute a novel model system for a range of fundamental and applied studies related to cervical remodeling. PMID:20121593

  3. An Integrated Suite of Tools to support Human Factors Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo

    2001-08-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) work for the nuclear industry imposes special demands on the practitioner in terms of the scope, complexity and safety requirements for humans in nuclear installations. Unfortunately HFE lags behind other engineering disciplines in the development and use of modern, powerful tools for the full range of analysis and design processes. HFE does not appear to be an attractive market for software and hardware developers and as a result, HFE practitioners usually have to rely on inefficient general-purpose tools like standard office software, or they have to use expensive special-purpose tools that offer only part of the solution they require and which also do not easily integrate with other tools. There have been attempts to develop generic software tools to support the HFE analyst and also to achieve some order and consistency in format and presentation. However, in spite of many years of development, very few tools have emerged that have achieved these goals. This would suggest the need for special tools, but existing commercial products have been found inadequate and to date not a single tool has been developed that adequately supports the special requirements of HFE work for the nuclear industry. This paper describes an integrated suite of generic as well as purpose-built tools that facilitate information solicitation, issues tracking, work domain analysis, functional requirements analysis, function allocation, operational sequence analysis, task analysis and development of HSI design requirements. In combination, this suite of tools supports the analytical as well as the representational aspects of key HFE activities primarily for new NPPs, including capturing information from subject matter experts and various source documents directly into the appropriate tool and then linking, analyzing and extending that information further to represent detailed functional and task information, and ultimately HSI design requirements. The paper

  4. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-01

    With the technology of reprogramming somatic cells by introducing defined transcription factors that enables the generation of "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it has become possible to use this technology to produce various cells and tissues that have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is bringing forth rapid progress in iPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. More and more studies have demonstrated that phenotypes of adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders could be rather faithfully recapitulated in iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. Moreover, despite the adult-onset nature of the diseases, pathogenic phenotypes and cellular abnormalities often exist in early developmental stages, providing new "windows of opportunity" for understanding mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and for discovering new medicines. The cell reprogramming technology enables a reverse engineering approach for modeling the cellular degenerative phenotypes of a wide range of human disorders. An excellent example is the study of the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using iPSCs. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure. The iPSC approach provides innovative cell culture platforms to serve as ALS patient-derived model systems. Researchers have converted iPSCs derived from ALS patients into MNs and various types of glial cells, all of which are involved in ALS, to study the disease. The iPSC technology could be used to determine the role of specific genetic factors to track down what׳s wrong in the neurodegenerative disease process in the "disease-in-a-dish" model. Meanwhile, parallel experiments of targeting the same specific genes in human ESCs could also be performed to

  5. The First Development of Human Factors Engineering Requirements for Application to Ground Task Design for a NASA Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Stambolian, Damon B.; Miller, Darcy H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has long applied standards-derived human engineering requirements to the development of hardware and software for use by astronauts while in flight. The most important source of these requirements has been NASA-STD-3000. While there have been several ground systems human engineering requirements documents, none has been applicable to the flight system as handled at NASA's launch facility at Kennedy Space Center. At the time of the development of previous human launch systems, there were other considerations that were deemed more important than developing worksites for ground crews; e.g., hardware development schedule and vehicle performance. However, experience with these systems has shown that failure to design for ground tasks has resulted in launch schedule delays, ground operations that are more costly than they might be, and threats to flight safety. As the Agency begins the development of new systems to return humans to the moon, the new Constellation Program is addressing this issue with a new set of human engineering requirements. Among these requirements is a subset that will apply to the design of the flight components and that is intended to assure ground crew success in vehicle assembly and maintenance tasks. These requirements address worksite design for usability and for ground crew safety.

  6. Engineered human vascularized constructs accelerate diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-I; Cho, Hongkwan; Papa, Arianne E; Burke, Jacqueline A; Chan, Xin Yi; Duh, Elia J; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Stem cell-based therapy is emerging as a promising approach for chronic diabetic wounds, but strategies for optimizing both cellular differentiation and delivery remain as major obstacles. Here, we study bioengineered vascularized constructs as a therapeutic modality for diabetic wound healing. We developed a wound model in immunodeficient rodent and treated it with engineered vascularized constructs from endothelial progenitors or early vascular cells-derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed either from healthy donor or type-1 diabetic patient. We found that all vascularized constructs expedited wound closure and reperfusion, with endothelial progenitor constructs having the earliest maximum closure rate followed closely by healthy and diabetic hiPSC-derivative constructs. This was accompanied by rapid granulation layer formation and regression in all vascularized construct groups. Macrophage infiltration into the hydrogel matrix occurred during early stages of healing, seeming to facilitate rapid neovascularization of the wound that could then better persist in the vascularized constructs. Blood perfusion of the human vasculature could be detected after three days, indicating rapid integration with the host vasculature. Overall, we propose a potential therapeutic strategy using allograft or autologous vascularized constructs to treat type-1 diabetic wounds. This approach highlights the unprecedented prospects of designing patient-specific stem cell therapy. PMID:27328431

  7. Automating the Human Factors Engineering and Evaluation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mastromonico, C.

    2002-05-28

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The tool provides a consistent, cost effective, graded, user-friendly approach for evaluating process control system Human System Interface (HSI) specifications, designs, and existing implementations. The initial set of HFE design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from NUREG- 0700. Each guideline was analyzed and classified according to its significance (general concept vs. supporting detail), the HSI technology (computer based vs. non-computer based), and the HSI safety function (safety vs. non-safety). Approximately 10 percent of the guidelines were determined to be redundant or obsolete and were discarded. The remaining guidelines were arranged in a Microsoft Access relational database, and a Microsoft Visual Basic user interface was provided to facilitate the HFE design review. The tool also provides the capability to add new criteria to accommodate advances in HSI technology and incorporate lessons learned. Summary reports produced by the tool can be easily ported to Microsoft Word and other popular PC office applications. An IBM compatible PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or higher is required to run the application.

  8. Ergonomic Considerations for the Human Environment: Color Treatment, Lighting, and Furniture Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Michelle M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ergonomic design considerations for library media centers. Specific design variables, including temperature and humidity, noise, illumination, color, and windows are discussed; and computer workstation design requirements are presented that address furniture and keyboard design, monitor and display features, software issues, and…

  9. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN HUMAN AIR POLLUTION INHALATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exe...

  10. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  11. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  12. Mate preferences and infectious disease: theoretical considerations and evidence in humans

    PubMed Central

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Gangestad, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Mate preferences may operate in part to mitigate the threats posed by infectious disease. In this paper, we outline various ways in which preferring healthy mates can offer direct benefits in terms of pathogen avoidance and indirect benefits in terms of heritable immunity to offspring, as well as the costs that may constrain mate preferences for health. We then pay special attention to empirical work on mate preferences in humans given the depth and breadth of research on human mating. We review this literature and comment on the degree to which human mate preferences may reflect preferences for health. PMID:22042915

  13. Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of

  14. Functional engineered human cardiac patches prepared from nature's platform improve heart function after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingjie; Yang, Hui; Bai, Aobing; Jiang, Wei; Li, Xiuya; Wang, Xinhong; Mao, Yishen; Lu, Chao; Qian, Ruizhe; Guo, Feng; Ding, Tianling; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Sifeng; Zhang, Jianyi; Liu, Chen; Sun, Ning

    2016-10-01

    With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cells and directed differentiation techniques, it is now feasible to derive individual-specific cardiac cells for human heart tissue engineering. Here we report the generation of functional engineered human cardiac patches using human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiac cells and decellularized natural heart ECM as scaffolds. The engineered human cardiac patches can be tailored to any desired size and shape and exhibited normal contractile and electrical physiology in vitro. Further, when patching on the infarct area, these patches improved heart function of rats with acute myocardial infarction in vivo. These engineered human cardiac patches can be of great value for normal and disease-specific heart tissue engineering, drug screening, and meet the demands for individual-specific heart tissues for personalized regenerative therapy of myocardial damages in the future. PMID:27509303

  15. How To Make the Most of Your Human: Design Considerations for Single Pilot Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Reconsidering the function allocation between automation and the pilot in the flight deck is the next step in improving aviation safety. The current allocation, based on who does what best, makes poor use of the pilot's resources and abilities. In some cases it may actually handicap pilots from performing their role. Improving pilot performance first lies in defining the role of the pilot - why a human is needed in the first place. The next step is allocating functions based on the needs of that role (rather than fitness), then using automation to target specific human weaknesses in performing that role. Examples are provided (some of which could be implemented in conventional cockpits now). Along the way, the definition of human error and the idea that eliminating/automating the pilot will reduce instances of human error will be challenged.

  16. Solubility engineering and crystallization of human apolipoprotein D

    PubMed Central

    Nasreen, Amber; Vogt, Martin; Kim, Hyun Jin; Eichinger, Andreas; Skerra, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a physiologically important member of the lipocalin protein family that was discovered as a peripheral subunit of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) but is also abundant in other body fluids and organs, including neuronal tissue. Although it has been possible to produce functional ApoD in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and to demonstrate its ligand-binding activity for progesterone and arachidonic acid, the recombinant protein suffers from a pronounced tendency to aggregate and to adsorb to vessel surfaces as well as chromatography matrices, thus hampering further structural investigation. Here, we describe a systematic mutagenesis study directed at presumably exposed hydrophobic side chains of the unglycosylated recombinant protein. As a result, one ApoD mutant with just three new amino acid substitutions—W99H, I118S, and L120S—was identified, which exhibits the following features: (1) improved yield upon periplasmic biosynthesis in E. coli, (2) elution as a monomeric protein from a gel permeation chromatography column, and (3) unchanged binding activity for its physiological ligands. In addition, the engineered ApoD was successfully crystallized (space group I4 with unit cell parameters a = 75.1 Å, b = 75.1 Å, c = 166.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°), thus demonstrating its conformationally homogeneous behavior and providing a basis for the future X-ray structural analysis of this functionally still puzzling protein. PMID:16322568

  17. Methods and considerations for the analysis and standardization of assessing muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans.

    PubMed

    White, Daniel W; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Raven, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    The technique of microneurography and the assessment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are used in laboratories throughout the world. The variables used to describe MSNA, and the criteria by which these variables are quantified from the integrated neurogram, vary among studies and laboratories and, therefore, can become confusing to those starting to learn the technique. Therefore, the purpose of this educational review is to discuss guidelines and standards for the assessment of sympathetic nervous activity through the collection and analysis of MSNA. This review will reiterate common practices in the collection of MSNA, but will also introduce considerations for the evaluation and physiological inference using MSNA. PMID:26299824

  18. Unifying Human Centered Design and Systems Engineering for Human Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; McGovernNarkevicius, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Despite the holistic approach of systems engineering (SE), systems still fail, and sometimes spectacularly. Requirements, solutions and the world constantly evolve and are very difficult to keep current. SE requires more flexibility and new approaches to SE have to be developed to include creativity as an integral part and where the functions of people and technology are appropriately allocated within our highly interconnected complex organizations. Instead of disregarding complexity because it is too difficult to handle, we should take advantage of it, discovering behavioral attractors and the emerging properties that it generates. Human-centered design (HCD) provides the creativity factor that SE lacks. It promotes modeling and simulation from the early stages of design and throughout the life cycle of a product. Unifying HCD and SE will shape appropriate human-systems integration (HSI) and produce successful systems.

  19. Mission Design Considerations for Mars Cargo of the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjauw, Waldy K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in human missions to Mars has led to an Evolvable Mars Campaign by the agency's Human Architecture Team. Delivering the crew return propulsion stages and Mars surface landers, SEP based systems are employed because of their high specific impulse characteristics enabling missions requiring less propellant although with longer transfer times. The Earth departure trajectories start from an SLS launch vehicle delivery orbit and are spiral shaped because of the low SEP thrust. Previous studies have led to interest in assessing the divide in trip time between the Earth departure and interplanetary legs of the mission for a representative SEP cargo vehicle.

  20. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2006-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  1. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  2. NOX REMOVAL IN JET-ENGINE TEST CELL EXHAUST: PROPOSED NON-THERMAL PLASMA SYSTEMS AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incentives for implementing new pollution-control technologies are both regulatory and econimic. Given considerable regulatory pressure, e.g., the promulgation of a NESHAPS (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) for NOx emissions in CY 2000, new de-NOx techno...

  3. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  4. The Effect of Part-simulation of Weightlessness on Human Control of Bilateral Teleoperation: Neuromotor Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of weightlessness on the human operator's performance in force reflecting position control of remote manipulators was investigated. A gravity compensation system was developed to simulate the effect of weightlessness on the operator's arm. A universal force reflecting hand controller (FRHC) and task simulation software were employed. Two experiments were performed because of anticipated disturbances in neuromotor control specification on the human operator in an orbital control environment to investigate: (1) the effect of controller stiffness on the attainment of a learned terminal position in the three dimensional controller space, and (2) the effect of controller stiffness and damping on force tracking of the contour of a simulated three dimensional cube using the part simulation of weightless conditions. The results support the extension of neuromotor control models, which postulate a stiffness balance encoding of terminal position, to three dimensional motion of a multilink system, confirm the existence of a disturbance in human manual control performance under gravity compensated conditions, and suggest techniques for compensation of weightlessness induced performance decrement through appropriate specification of hand controller response characteristics. These techniques are based on the human control model.

  5. Considerations for human exposure standards for fast-rise-time high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J H; Kiel, J L; Hurt, W D

    1995-06-01

    Development of new emitter systems capable of producing high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses with very fast rise times and narrow pulse widths is continuing. Such directed energy weapons systems will be used in the future to defeat electronically vulnerable targets. Human exposures to these pulses can be expected during testing and operations. Development of these technologies for radar and communications purposes has the potential for wider environmental exposure, as well. Current IEEE C95.1-1991 human exposure guidelines do not specifically address these types of pulses, though limits are stated for pulsed emissions. The process for developing standards includes an evaluation of the relevant bioeffects data base. A recommendation has been made that human exposure to ultrashort electromagnetic pulses that engender electromagnetic transients, called precursor waves, should be avoided. Studies that purport to show the potential for tissue damage induced by such pulses were described. The studies cited in support of the recommendation were not relevant to the issues of tissue damage by propagated pulses. A number of investigations are cited in this review that directly address the biological effects of electromagnetic pulses. These studies have not shown evidence of tissue damage as a result of exposure to high-peak-power pulsed microwaves. It is our opinion that the current guidelines are sufficiently protective for human exposure to these pulses. PMID:7646411

  6. Faith-Based Human Services Initiatives: Considerations for Social Work Practice and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangenberg, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Faith-based human services initiatives present numerous challenges to professional social work. This article explores ways a theoretical integration of ecosystems and structuration perspectives may help social workers navigate complex ideological and practical implications of changing service delivery policies. The article highlights diversity…

  7. Human papillomavirus, anal cancer, and screening considerations among HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Cachay, Edward R; Mathews, William Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Invasive anal cancer has become an important cause of non AIDS-related cancer among HIV-infected individuals. Human papillomavirus is the main etiological agent. This review explains the pathophysiologic role of human papillomavirus in the development of invasive anal cancer, summarizes recent epidemiological trends of invasive anal cancer, and reviews the evidence to address common clinical questions posed when screening for anal cancer in HIV-infected patients. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on human papillomavirus oncogenesis is still unclear, but given the increased clinical burden of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients, many clinics have implemented screening programs for anal cancer and its precursors. Despite the availability of several modalities for treatment of precursors of anal cancer, evidence that current treatment modalities favorably alter the natural history of human papillomavirus oncogenesis in the anal and perianal regions is still inconclusive. However, there is sufficient evidence to state that the accuracy of anal cancer screening procedures (cytology and high-resolution anoscopy directed biopsy) is comparable to the accuracy of those used in screening for cervical cancer precursors. Studies that systematically assess the efficacy of these anal cancer screening programs in reducing the incidence of and morbidity and mortality from invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients are needed. PMID:23681437

  8. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. PMID:26524615

  9. Dynamic Isotope Power System Design Considerations for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) alternatives for the surface mission elements associated with a lunar base and subsequent manned Mars expedition were investigated, emphasizing the issue of how the mission environment affects system design. It was found that radiation shielding for human-rated applications has a greater impact on DIPS than any other factor.

  10. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Dental Caries Research Using Human Subjects: Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Joanna

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research are discussed. It is concluded that dentistry must not uncritically accept guidelines meant for a broader class of research, that guidelines can be misapplied, and that researchers must educate themselves on the Commission…