Science.gov

Sample records for human engineering considerations

  1. Design Considerations for Human Rating of Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I.Human-rating is specific to each engine; a. Context of program/project must be understood. b. Engine cannot be discussed independently from vehicle and mission. II. Utilize a logical combination of design, manufacturing, and test approaches a. Design 1) It is crucial to know the potential ways a system can fail, and how a failure can propagate; 2) Fault avoidance, fault tolerance, DFMR, caution and warning all have roles to play. b. Manufacturing and Assembly; 1) As-built vs. as-designed; 2) Review procedures for assembly and maintenance periodically; and 3) Keep personnel trained and certified. c. There is no substitute for test: 1) Analytical tools are constantly advancing, but still need test data for anchoring assumptions; 2) Demonstrate robustness and explore sensitivities; 3) Ideally, flight will be encompassed by ground test experience. III. Consistency and repeatability is key in production a. Maintain robust processes and procedures for inspection and quality control based upon development and qualification experience; b. Establish methods to "spot check" quality and consistency in parts: 1) Dedicated ground test engines; 2) Random components pulled from the line/lot to go through "enhanced" testing.

  2. Human engineering design considerations for the use of signal color enhancement in ASW displays

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was requested to examine and define man-machine limits as part of the Office of Naval Technology's High Gain Initiative program (HGI). As an initial investigative area, LLNL's Systems and Human Performance effort focused upon color display interfaces and the use of color enhancement techniques to define human and system interface limits in signal detection and discrimination tasks. The knowledgeable and prudent use of color in different types of display is believed to facilitate human visual detection, discrimination and recognition in complex visual tasks. The consideration and understanding of the complex set of interacting variables associated with the prudent use of color is essential to optimize human performance, especially in the ASW community. The designers of advanced display technology and signal processing algorithms may be eventually called upon to present pre-processed information to ASW operators and researchers using the latest color enhancement techniques. These techniques, however, may be limited if one does not understand the complexity and limits of human information processing which reflects the assessed state of knowledge relevant to the use of color in displays. The initial sections of this report discuss various aspects of color presentation and the problems typically encountered, while the last section deals with a specific research proposal required to further our understanding and proper use of color enhancement methods.

  3. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  4. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  5. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  6. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5 Section 239.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  7. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  8. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  9. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  10. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include a... system. (g) Facilities provided to divert flows exceeding the design flow....

  11. ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS: WATERBORNE DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a disease outbreak investigation involving drinking water, an engineering investigation may be necessary to determine how or why the pathogen of concern was able to get to the consumer. In many of the US outbreaks, the survival of the pathogen was dependent on multiple...

  12. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  13. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  14. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436

  15. Considerations on Educating Engineers in Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of sustainability to engineers will follow similar paths to that of environmental engineering. There is a strong feeling that environmental engineering is a discipline unto itself, requiring knowledge of chemistry, physics, biology, hydrology, toxicology, modelling and law. However, environmental engineering can also be encompassed…

  16. Cell stretching devices as research tools: engineering and biological considerations.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Harshad; Barton, Matthew J; Jun, Myeongjun; Park, Sungsu; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-08-16

    Cells within the human body are subjected to continuous, cyclic mechanical strain caused by various organ functions, movement, and growth. Cells are well known to have the ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. This process is referred to as mechanotransduction. A better understanding of mechanotransduction is of great interest to clinicians and scientists alike to improve clinical diagnosis and understanding of medical pathology. However, the complexity involved in in vivo biological systems creates a need for better in vitro technologies, which can closely mimic the cells' microenvironment using induced mechanical strain. This technology gap motivates the development of cell stretching devices for better understanding of the cell response to mechanical stimuli. This review focuses on the engineering and biological considerations for the development of such cell stretching devices. The paper discusses different types of stretching concepts, major design consideration and biological aspects of cell stretching and provides a perspective for future development in this research area. PMID:27440436

  17. Some considerations relating to aero engine pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, P. J.

    1986-11-01

    With turbine blade optical pyrometry rapidly becoming accepted by the aerospace community as a viable flight control technique, some of the traditional and emerging demands are described, with examples of how they are being addressed. Many of these demands are now being met by skillful application of materials technology, electronic engineering, signal processing and fluid flow techniques, but it is probable that flight conditions will impose a more pragmatic approach than customarily adopted towards test bed installations.

  18. Tissue Engineering Considerations in Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nosrat, Ali; Kim, Jong Ryul; Verma, Prashant; S. Chand, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedure is introduced as a biologically based treatment for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. Successful clinical and radiographic outcomes following regenerative procedures have been reported in landmark case reports. Retrospective studies have shown that this conservative treatment allows for continued root development and increases success and survival rate of the treated teeth compared to other treatment options. Although the goal of treatment is regeneration of a functional pulp tissue, histological analyses show a different outcome. Developing predictable protocols would require the use of key elements for tissue engineering: stem cells, bioactive scaffolds, and growth factors. In this study we will review the evidence based steps and outcomes of regenerative endodontics. PMID:24396373

  19. Engineering Considerations Applied to Starshade Repointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rioux, Norman; Dichmann, Donald; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Roberge, Aki; Starke, Chris; Stoneking, Eric; Willis, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Engineering analysis has been carried out on orbit dynamics that drive the delta-v budget for repointing a free-flying starshade occulter for viewing exoplanets with a space telescope. This analysis has application to the design of starshade spacecraft and yield calculations of observations of exoplanets using a space telescope and a starshade. Analysis was carried out to determine if there may be some advantage for the global delta-v budget if the telescope performs orbit changing delta-v maneuvers as part of the telescope-starshade alignment for observing exoplanets. Analysis of the orbit environmental forces at play found no significant advantage in having the telescope participate in delta-v maneuvers for exoplanet observation repointing. A separate analysis of starshade delta-v for repointing found that the orbit dynamics of the starshade is driven by multiple simultaneous variables that need to be considered together in order to create an effective estimate of delta-v over an exoplanet observation campaign. These include area of the starshade, dry mass of the starshade spacecraft, and propellant mass of the starshade spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure has the potential to play a dominant role in the orbit dynamics and delta-v budget. SRP effects are driven by the differences in the mass, area, and coefficients of reflectivity of the observing telescope and the starshade. The propellant budget cannot be effectively estimated without a conceptual design of a starshade spacecraft including the propulsion system. The varying propellant mass over the mission is a complexity that makes calculating the propellant budget less straightforward.

  20. Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, H.; DAgostino, A.; Erasmia, L.

    2012-01-27

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to illustrate how the issues can support SMR probabilistic risk analyses and their review by identifying potential human failure events for a subset of the issues. As part of addressing the human contribution to plant risk, human reliability analysis practitioners identify and quantify the human failure events that can negatively impact normal or emergency plant operations. The results illustrated here can be generalized to identify additional human failure events for the issues discussed and can be applied to those issues not discussed in this report.

  1. Collegiality and commerce: The culture of consideration amongst engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Paul David

    This study is a participant observation ethnography of engineering relationships at a defense contracting plant that specializes in the design and manufacture of launch control systems for nuclear submarines. "Consideration" is presented as a unique mode of interaction enabling resource exchange and pivotal in developing and strengthening work relationships. Consideration differs from other modes of exchange such as markets, gift-giving, and charity primarily in that the bestowal of the resource involves little sacrifice. The manner in which consideration is enacted by the engineers, the structural and cultural conditions supporting consideration, and the social and economic consequences of consideration are presented. From these findings it is concluded that consideration is a unique form of economic exchange embedded in concrete relationships that forces us to rethink and extend current conceptualizations of trust, networks, social capital, and friendship in the workplace. The data for the analysis were drawn from twenty interviews and fieldnotes collected and transcribed over a twelve month period. Quotations from the interviews and exerpts from the fieldnotes are included to illustrate claims being made in the analysis as well as to familiarize the reader with the culture developed by engineers and managers in a defense contracting plant.

  2. Microenvironmental Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis: Biological and Engineering Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infanger, David W.; Pathi, Siddharth P.; Fischbach, Claudia

    Tumor angiogenesis is fundamental to tumor growth and metastasis, and antiangiogenic therapies have been developed to target this process. However, the clinical success of these treatments has been limited, which may be due, in part, to an incomplete understanding of cell-microenvironment interactions and their role in tumor angiogenesis. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2D) culture approaches have been used to study tumor progression in vitro, but these systems fail to faithfully recreate tumor microenvironmental conditions contributing to tumor angiogenesis in vivo. By integrating cancer biology with tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches, the development of biologically inspired tumor models has emerged. Such 3D model systems allow studying the specific role of soluble factor signaling, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, cell-cell interactions, mechanical cues, and metabolic stress. This chapter discusses specific biological and engineering design considerations for tissue-engineered tumor models and highlights their application for defining the underpinnings of tumor angiogenesis.

  3. Instructional design considerations promoting engineering design self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew M.

    Engineering design activities are frequently included in technology and engineering classrooms. These activities provide an open-ended context for practicing critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation---collectively part of the 21st Century Skills which are increasingly needed for success in the workplace. Self-efficacy is a perceptual belief that impacts learning and behavior. It has been shown to directly impact each of these 21st Century Skills but its relation to engineering design is only recently being studied. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional considerations made when implementing engineering design activities might affect student self-efficacy outcomes in a middle school engineering classroom. Student responses to two self-efficacy inventories related to design, the Engineering Design Self-Efficacy Instrument and Creative Thinking Self-Efficacy Inventory, were collected before and after participation in an engineering design curriculum. Students were also answered questions on specific factors of their experience during the curriculum which teachers may exhibit control over: teamwork and feedback. Results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired and independent t-tests, and structural equation modeling to better understand patterns for self-efficacy beliefs in students. Results suggested that design self-efficacy and creative thinking self-efficacy are significantly correlated, r(1541) = .783, p < .001, and increased following participation in a design curriculum, M diff = 1.32, t(133) = 7.60, p < .001 and Mdiff = 0.79, t(124) = 4.19, p < .001 respectively. Structural models also showed that students perceive team inclusion and feedback as significant contributors to their self-efficacy beliefs, while team diversity was not related to self-efficacy. Separate models for each predictor demonstrated good fit. Recommendations are made based on the corresponding nature of engineering design self

  4. Ethical Considerations in Human Movement Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Highlights ethical issues for human subject research, identifying principles that form the construct of a code of research ethics and evaluating against this construct past human experimentation and current research in human movement studies. The efficacy of legislation and self-regulation is examined. Particular attention is given to the context…

  5. Engineering Considerations of the MRX-CT Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Woolley, R.; Dahlgren, F.; Bonanos, P.

    1997-11-01

    The proposed MRX-CT device is designed to meet high vacuum quality, geometrical compactiveness, and yet with great flexibilities. Flux cores and OH solenoid are central issues in engineering designs in order to generate and maintain plasma current up to 250 kA in a technically sound and reliable way. The design and manufacturing methods proposed for the flux cores are based on experience from the Proto S-1 and S-1 devices to achieve 10-7 to 10-8 Torr vacuum. The surface of each flux core is covered by a thin film (< 0.2 mm) of Inconel-625 liner, which prevents direct interaction of plasma discharges with the epoxy-based core. Each spheromak is formed in between a pair of flux cores by induction, based on a novel scheme developed in MRX. The spheromak grows at the null point in the quadrupole poloidal field with minimum interactions with flux core surfaces. The distances between the cores are adjustable. The second important engineering issue is the OH solenoid assembly which has 0.1 Vs singly-swung flux with one turn loop voltage of 100 V and stored energy up to 1 MJ. A decoupling transformer is provided in the OH-PF circuit to prevent stray poloidal field in the plasma region. Detailed engineering design and other important considerations, such as adjustable conductive shells and NBI compatibility, will be presented.

  6. Software Engineering for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides world-class products, leadership, and technical expertise in software engineering, processes, technology, and systems management for human spaceflight. The branch contributes to major NASA programs (e.g. ISS, MPCV/Orion) with in-house software development and prime contractor oversight, and maintains the JSC Engineering Directorate CMMI rating for flight software development. Software engineering teams work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements. They seek to infuse automation and autonomy into missions, and apply new technologies to flight processor and computational architectures. This presentation will provide an overview of key software-related projects, software methodologies and tools, and technology pursuits of interest to the JSC Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch.

  7. Tissue engineering of bone: material and matrix considerations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yusuf; Yaszemski, Michael J; Mikos, Antonios G; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-02-01

    When the normal physiologic reaction to fracture does not occur, such as in fracture nonunions or large-scale traumatic bone injury, surgical intervention is warranted. Autografts and allografts represent current strategies for surgical intervention and subsequent bone repair, but each possesses limitations, such as donor-site morbidity with the use of autograft and the risk of disease transmission with the use of allograft. Synthetic bone-graft substitutes, developed in an effort to overcome the inherent limitations of autograft and allograft, represent an alternative strategy. These synthetic graft substitutes, or matrices, are formed from a variety of materials, including natural and synthetic polymers, ceramics, and composites, that are designed to mimic the three-dimensional characteristics of autograft tissue while maintaining viable cell populations. Matrices also act as delivery vehicles for factors, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents, depending on the nature of the injury to be repaired. This intersection of matrices, cells, and therapeutic molecules has collectively been termed tissue engineering. Depending on the specific application of the matrix, certain materials may be more or less well suited to the final structure; these include polymers, ceramics, and composites of the two. Each category is represented by matrices that can form either solid preformed structures or injectable forms that harden in situ. This article discusses the myriad design considerations that are relevant to successful bone repair with tissue-engineered matrices and provides an overview of several manufacturing techniques that allow for the actualization of critical design parameters. PMID:18292355

  8. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits. PMID:26195738

  9. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their genes to the environments. Nevertheless, natural selection persists in modern humans, both as differential mortality and as differential fertility, although its intensity may decrease in the future. More than 2,000 human diseases and abnormalities have a genetic causation. Health care and the increasing feasibility of genetic therapy will, although slowly, augment the future incidence of hereditary ailments. Germ-line gene therapy could halt this increase, but at present, it is not technically feasible. The proposal to enhance the human genetic endowment by genetic cloning of eminent individuals is not warranted. Genomes can be cloned; individuals cannot. In the future, therapeutic cloning will bring enhanced possibilities for organ transplantation, nerve cells and tissue healing, and other health benefits. PMID:26195738

  10. Introduction to human factors considerations in system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.

    1983-01-01

    A definition for human factors or ergonomics and its industrial and domestic application is presented. Human factors engineering, which discovers and applies information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe, comfortable, and effective human use, is outlined. The origins of human factors and ergonomics, the philosophy of human factors, goals and objectives, systems development and design, are reviewed.

  11. [When does human life begin? Legal considerations].

    PubMed

    Koch, H G

    1993-11-01

    There have been attempts to define the beginning of life from a legal point of view. The German civil code of 1923 specified that only that entity can have birthright that was alive at the time of succession. Whoever was not alive at the time of succession but was already fertilized would be deemed as born before the succession. The law in this instance does not really define life, rather it regulates the hereditary right of the fetus. Less subject to misunderstanding is Paragraph 1 of the German Law Book, which refers to the legal rights of human beings from the completion of birth, specifying only the live born and not the still-born. The embryo protection law in force as of January 1, 1991, defines the beginning of life in a medical sense, to wit, the embryo is the fertilized egg cell capable of development already from the time of fertilization. Additionally every cell with the potential to divide and develop into an individual is assumed as an embryo. No other law explicitly provides a similar definition of the appearance of early human life. Some foreign legal precepts designate the embryonic conceptus the preembryo, which could be subjected to procedures in reproductive medicine to which more developed embryos could not be. According to the valid Paragraph 219 d of the Penal Code, a procedure is not considered an abortion when its effects occur before the completion of nidation of the fertilized egg cell in the uterus. This does not define the beginning of life, it only says something about the beginning of legal protection of unborn life. In the view of constitutional law Article 2, Section 2 of the German Basic Law, every person has the right to life and bodily integrity, which rights can only be infringed on in accordance with the law. However, personhood and life are not defined. PMID:8303918

  12. Biomechanical considerations of animal models used in tissue engineering of bone.

    PubMed

    Liebschner, Michael A K

    2004-04-01

    Tissue engineering combines the aspects of cell biology, engineering, material science, and surgery to generate new functional tissue, and provides an important approach to the repair of segmental defects and in restoring biomechanical function. The development of tissue-engineering strategies into clinical therapeutic protocols requires extensive, preclinical experimentation in appropriate animal models. The ultimate success of any treatment strategy must be established in these animal models before clinical application. It is clear that the demands of the biological and mechanical environment in the clinical repair of critical size defects with tissue-engineered materials is significantly different from those existing in experimental animals. The major considerations facing any tissue-engineering testing logic include the choice of the defect, the animal, the age of the animal, the anatomic site, the size of the lesion, and most importantly, the micro-mechanical environment. With respect to biomechanical considerations when selecting animals for tissue- engineering of bone, it is evident that no common criteria have been reported. While in smaller animals due to size constraint only structural properties of whole bones can be measured, in larger animals and humans both material properties and structural properties are of interest. Based on reported results, comparison between the tissue-engineered bone across species may be of importance in establishing better model selection criteria. It has already been found that the deformation of long bones is fairly constant across species, and that stress levels during gait are dependent on the weight of the animal and the material properties of the bone tissue. Future research should therefore be geared towards developing better biomechanical testing systems and then finding the right animal model for the existing equipment. PMID:14697871

  13. Design considerations for the CELSS test facility engineering development unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliss, M.; Borchers, B.; Drews, M.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program has the goal of developing life support systems for humans in space based on the use of higher plants. The program has supported research at universities with a primary focus of increasing the productivity of candidate crop plants. To understand the effects of the space environment on plant productivity, the CELSS Test Facility (CTF) has been developed as an instrument that will permit the evaluation of plant productivity on Space Station Freedom. The CFT will maintain specific environmental conditions and collect data on gas exchange rates and biomass accumulation over the growth period of several crop plants grown sequentially from seed to harvest. To better understand the systems needed to support plants and maintain the evironmental conditions required by CTF, an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is being constructed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in the Advanced Life Support Division. The EDU will provide the means of testing and evaluating hardware solutions to CTF requirements. This paper reviews the CTF science and functional requirements, and provides a description of the EDU objectives, design approach, subsystem descriptions, and some of the technology tools employed in accomplishing the design.

  14. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Collins, J.T. )

    1993-01-20

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown.

  15. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. PMID:26466179

  16. Engineering considerations in sensor-based nutrient management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate application of nitrogen using canopy sensors requires integration of systems for sensing, data processing, and application rate control. In this presentation, we discuss these systems from an engineering perspective and compare alternatives. We review commercially available active opti...

  17. Foil Bearing Starting Considerations and Requirements for Rotorcraft Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin C.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Foil gas bearings under development for rotorcraft-sized, hot core engine applications have been susceptible to damage from the slow acceleration and rates typically encountered during the pre-ignition stage in conventional engines. Recent laboratory failures have been assumed to be directly linked to operating foil bearings below their lift-off speed while following conventional startup procedures for the engines. In each instance, the continuous sliding contact between the foils and shaft was believed to thermally overload the bearing and cause the engines to fail. These failures highlight the need to characterize required acceleration rates and minimum operating speeds for these applications. In this report, startup experiments were conducted with a large, rotorcraft engine sized foil bearing under moderate load and acceleration rates to identify the proper start procedures needed to avoid bearing failure. The results showed that a bearing under a 39.4 kPa static load can withstand a modest acceleration rate of 500 rpm/s and excessive loitering below the bearing lift-off speed provided an adequate solid lubricant is present.

  18. TMF design considerations in turbine airfoils of advanced turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, C. G.; Zamrik, S. Y.; Adams, J. H.; Frani, N. E.

    A review of thermal-mechanicalfatigue (TMF) in advanced turbine engines is presented. The review includes examples of typical thermal-mechnical loadings encountered in the design of hot section blades and vanes. Specific issues related to TMF behavior are presented and the associated impact on component life analysis and design is discussed.

  19. Installation drag considerations as related to turboprop and turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the specific areas associated with straight jet and turboprop engine installations are outlined where drag reduction and, thus, improved aircraft system performance is obtained. Specific areas constitute air intake sizing for general aviation aircraft, exhaust duct geometries and cooling system arrangements for propeller powered aircraft.

  20. The importance of cost considerations in the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the question of cost, from the birth of a program to its conclusion, particularly from the point of view of large multi-center programs, and suggests how to avoid some of the traps and pitfalls. Emphasis is given to cost in the systems engineering process, but there is an inevitable overlap with program management. (These terms, systems engineering and program management, have never been clearly defined.) In these days of vast Federal budget deficits and increasing overseas competition, it is imperative that we get more for each research and development dollar. This is the only way we will retain our leadership in high technology and, in the long run, our way of life.

  1. Some design considerations for ceramic components in heat engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1986-01-01

    The design methodology for brittle material structures which is being developed and used at the Lewis Research Center for sizing ceramic components in heat engine applications is reviewed. Theoretical aspects of designing with structural ceramics are discussed, and a general purpose reliability program for predicting fast fracture response due to volume distributed flaws is described. Statistical treatment of brittle behavior, based on the Weibull model, is reviewed and its advantages, as well as drawbacks, are listed. A mechanistic statistical fracture theory, proposed by Batdorf to overcome the Weibull model limitations and based on Griffith fracture mechanics, is summarized. Failure probability predictions are made for rotating annular Si3N4 disks using various fracture models, and the results are compared to actual failure data. The application of these design methods to Government funded ceramics engine demonstration programs is surveyed. The uncertainty in observed component performance emphasizes the need for proof testing and improved nondestructive evaluation to guarantee adequate structural integrity.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  3. Some considerations of the design of displacers for Ringbom Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fauvel, O.R.; Kentfield, J.A.C.; Walker, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Ringbom Stirling engine is a hybrid of the kinematic Stirling engine having shaft output power and variable speed and of the free piston engine in which the components are driven by changes in working space pressure. Experiments with Ringbom Stirling engines have led to the suspicion that the 'weak link' of the engine is the free displacer. This paper examines some of the factors which must be addressed in the design of displacers for these engines with reference to the thermal, pressure, and dynamical considerations.

  4. Engineering considerations for the recovery of cesium from geologic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, C.

    1993-05-18

    Sorption coefficients for cesium in a variety of media have been compiled from a search of the open literature. The sorption coefficient, or K{sub d}, is a description of a dissolved substance`s tendency to attach to a solid substrate. The compilation of K{sub d}S reported here for cesium demonstrate that this element readily sorbs onto-geological material. As a result of this sorption, the mass transport of cesium in the environment will be retarded. This retarded mass transport, characterized by the retardation factor, can be expected to be significant when compared to water velocities through porous-sorbing medium, such as geologic materials. K{sub d}S for cesium are in the range of 100 m{ell}/g up to 10,000 m{ell}/g. K{sub d}S are also an important parameter in the design of engineered systems for the purpose of recovering cesium from soils. The engineering design is based on a material-balance description of the extraction process. The information presented in this report provides a basis to predict the movement of cesium through geologic materials and also to design and predict the performance of extraction processes such as soil washing.

  5. Particle engineering in pharmaceutical solids processing: surface energy considerations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daryl R

    2015-01-01

    During the past 10 years particle engineering in the pharmaceutical industry has become a topic of increasing importance. Engineers and pharmacists need to understand and control a range of key unit manufacturing operations such as milling, granulation, crystallisation, powder mixing and dry powder inhaled drugs which can be very challenging. It has now become very clear that in many of these particle processing operations, the surface energy of the starting, intermediate or final products is a key factor in understanding the processing operation and or the final product performance. This review will consider the surface energy and surface energy heterogeneity of crystalline solids, methods for the measurement of surface energy, effects of milling on powder surface energy, adhesion and cohesion on powder mixtures, crystal habits and surface energy, surface energy and powder granulation processes, performance of DPI systems and finally crystallisation conditions and surface energy. This review will conclude that the importance of surface energy as a significant factor in understanding the performance of many particulate pharmaceutical products and processes has now been clearly established. It is still nevertheless, work in progress both in terms of development of methods and establishing the limits for when surface energy is the key variable of relevance. PMID:25876912

  6. Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions. PMID:26115757

  7. Launch Deployment Assembly Human Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the human engineering analysis performed by the Systems Branch in support of the 6A cargo element design. The human engineering analysis is limited to the extra vehicular activities (EVA) which are involved in removal of various cargo items from the LDA and specific activities concerning deployment of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS).

  8. Human Factors Consideration for the Design of Collaborative Machine Assistants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    Recent improvements in technology have facilitated the use of robots and virtual humans not only in entertainment and engineering but also in the military (Hill et al., 2003), healthcare (Pollack et al., 2002), and education domains (Johnson, Rickel, & Lester, 2000). As active partners of humans, such machine assistants can take the form of a robot or a graphical representation and serve the role of a financial assistant, a health manager, or even a social partner. As a result, interactive technologies are becoming an integral component of people's everyday lives.

  9. Systems Engineering and Technology Considerations of a Mars Ascent Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Kennett, Andrew; Pauken, Mike; Trinidad, Mark; Zabrensky, Ed

    2012-01-01

    A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) systems engineering study is underway to define the driving requirements, system architecture, major risks, and required technology developments to support the launch of a rock core sample to a specified delivery orbit for later retrieval and return to Earth. The proposed MAV would essentially be a small-scale launch vehicle, the first of its kind to be launched autonomously from another planet. The MAV would be a flight element of the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign architecture, which currently assumes a 2018 launch of the sample caching mission and a 2024 (Earth) launch date of the MAV and lander, with arrival on Mars in 2025. After 9 months on the surface the MAV would be erected and launched to a specified delivery orbit. In the delivery orbit it would release its payload, a 5 kg sphere containing the rock core sample. An orbiter would rendezvous and capture the payload, returning it to Earth a year later.

  10. Scaffolding in tissue engineering: general approaches and tissue-specific considerations

    PubMed Central

    Leong, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Scaffolds represent important components for tissue engineering. However, researchers often encounter an enormous variety of choices when selecting scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper aims to review the functions of scaffolds and the major scaffolding approaches as important guidelines for selecting scaffolds and discuss the tissue-specific considerations for scaffolding, using intervertebral disc as an example. PMID:19005702

  11. Engineering and fabrication cost considerations for cryogenic wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, R. M., Jr.; Davenport, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Design and fabrication cost drivers for cryogenic transonic wind tunnel models are defined. The major cost factors for wind tunnel models are model complexity, tolerances, surface finishes, materials, material validation, and model inspection. The cryogenic temperatures require the use of materials with relatively high fracture toughness but at the same time high strength. Some of these materials are very difficult to machine, requiring extensive machine hours which can add significantly to the manufacturing costs. Some additional engineering costs are incurred to certify the materials through mechanical tests and nondestructive evaluation techniques, which are not normally required with conventional models. When instrumentation such as accelerometers and electronically scanned pressure modules is required, temperature control of these devices needs to be incorporated into the design, which requires added effort. Additional thermal analyses and subsystem tests may be necessary, which also adds to the design costs. The largest driver to the design costs is potentially the additional static and dynamic analyses required to insure structural integrity of the model and support system.

  12. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  13. Human Performance Considerations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Hobbs, Alan; Lyall, Beth; Rorie, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Successful integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) into civil airspace will not only require solutions to technical challenges, but will also require that the design and operation of RPAS take into account human limitations and capabilities. Human factors can affect overall system performance whenever the system relies on people to interact with another element of the system. Four types of broad interactions can be described. These are (1) interactions between people and hardware, such as controls and displays; (2) human use of procedures and documentation; (3) impact of the task environment, including lighting, noise and monotony; and lastly, (4) interactions between operational personnel, including communication and coordination. In addition to the human factors that have been identified for conventional aviation, RPAS operations introduce a set of unique human challenges. The purpose of document is to raise human factors issues for consideration by workgroups of the ICAO RPAS panel as they work to develop guidance material and additions to ICAO annexes. It is anticipated that the content of this document will be revised and updated as the work of the panel progresses.

  14. Human Factors Considerations for Performance-Based Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    A transition toward a performance-based navigation system is currently underway in both the United States and around the world. Performance-based navigation incorporates Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) procedures that do not rely on the location of ground-based navigation aids. These procedures offer significant benefits to both operators and air traffic managers. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document human factors issues that have emerged during RNAV and RNP operations and propose areas for further consideration. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for human factors-specific instrument procedure design guidelines. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, procedure design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged.

  15. Some Basic Considerations about the Necessities and Possibilities of Cooperation between Civil Engineers and Engineering Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzenbach, Rolf; Bachmann, Gregor

    The education of civil engineers and engineering geologists is different. While civil engineers are commonly educated and trained in mathematical and mechanical based sciences as statics, geotechnics, structural engineering etc. the education of engineering geologists is mainly based on natural science, added with some engineering courses. Nevertheless, the careers of both have in spite of their different priorities and capabilities - which all are necessary in complex building projects - several points of contact. Especially during the construction of tunnels, the cooperation of civil engineers and engineering geologists is important. For example the inhomogeneous rock and groundwater conditions have decisive importance for the bearing and deformation behaviour of those constructions. Therefore a detailed investigation program and a qualified geotechnical and geological interpretation and modelling is necessary. The typical field of a civil engineer is the examination of the structural stability (Ultimate Limit State - ULS) and the serviceability (Serviceability Limit State - SLS) of the construction due to Euro-Code (especially EC 1 and EC 7) and the corresponding national technical standards (codes, recommendations, guidelines etc.). A main activity of an engineering geologist is the assessment of the natural circumstances. The cooperation of both professions is settled in the valuation of the subsoil conditions before and during the construction process. The cooperation of engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers lies in the assessment of the subsoil conditions before and during the construction process of ambitious projects with special regard to the bearing and deformation behaviour which is highly influenced by the inhomogeneity and the variance of the subsoil conditions.

  16. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  17. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  18. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant licensing.

  19. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  20. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  1. Physiological and biomechanical considerations for a human Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness--ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk. PMID:15852539

  2. Physiological and Biomechanical Considerations for a Human Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkey, A.

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness - ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk.

  3. Human Factors Considerations for Area Navigation Departure and Arrival Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Area navigation (RNAV) procedures are being implemented in the United States and around the world as part of a transition to a performance-based navigation system. These procedures are providing significant benefits and have also caused some human factors issues to emerge. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document RNAV-related human factors issues and propose areas for further consideration. The component focusing on RNAV Departure and Arrival Procedures involved discussions with expert users, a literature review, and a focused review of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for specific instrument procedure design guidelines that consider the effects of human performance. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged. A review of factors contributing to RNAV in-service errors would likely lead to improved system design and operational performance.

  4. Human health and performance considerations for near earth asteroids (NEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2013-11-01

    integrated research and development effort between NASA's Human Research Program (HRP), engineering and human factors groups. Packaging food to extend shelf life and waste management will be important components of vehicle subsystem design.

  5. Engineering humanized mice for improved hematopoietic reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Adam C; Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Jianzhu

    2012-01-01

    Humanized mice are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to various lineages of human blood cells throughout the life of the mouse. This article reviews recent advances in the generation of humanized mice, focusing on practical considerations. We discuss features of different immunodeficient recipient mouse strains, sources of human hematopoietic stem cells, advances in expansion and genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells, and techniques to modulate the cytokine environment of recipient mice, in order to enhance reconstitution of specific human blood lineage cells. We highlight the opportunities created by new technologies and discuss practical considerations on how to make best use of the widening array of basic models for specific research applications. PMID:22425741

  6. The open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine - Some engineering considerations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyk, L. C.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-MW open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 44,200 lb and a specific impulse of 4400 sec. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel) and the waste heat rejection system were considered conceptually and were sized.

  7. Human Microbiome Engineering: The Future and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microbial flora of skin and mucosal surface are vital component of human biology. Current research indicates that this microbial constellation, rather than being inert commensals, has greater implications in health and disease. They play essential role in metabolism, immunity, inflammation, neuro-endocrine regulation and even moderate host response to cancer. Genetic engineering was a major breakthrough in medical research in 1970’s and it opened up newer dimensions in vaccinology, large-scale synthesis of bio-molecule and drug development. Engineering human microbiome is a novel concept. Recombinant DNA technology can be employed to modify the genome of critical components of resident microflora to achieve unprecedented goals. PMID:26500908

  8. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  9. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-04

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  10. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-01

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  11. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin M.

    2011-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  12. Seating Considerations for Spaceflight: The Human to Machine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohmert, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Seating is one of the most critical components to be considered during design of a spacecraft. Since seats are the final interface between the occupant and the vehicle wherein all launch and landing operations are performed, significant effort must be spent to ensure proper integration of the human to the spacecraft. The importance of seating can be divided into two categories: seat layout and seat design. The layout of the seats drives the overall cabin configuration - from displays and controls, to windows, to stowage, to egress paths. Since the layout of the seats is such a critical design parameter within the crew compartment, it is one of the first design challenges that must be completed in the critical path of the spacecraft design. In consideration of seat layout in the vehicle, it is important for the designers to account for often intangible factors such as safety, operability, contingency performance, and crew rescue. Seat layout will lead to definition of the quantity, shape, and posture of the seats. The seats of the craft must restrain and protect the occupant in all seated phases of flight, while allowing for nominal mission performance. In design of a spacecraft seat, the general posture of the occupant and the landing loads to be encountered are the greatest drivers of overall design. Variances, such as upright versus recumbent postures will dictate fit of the seat to the occupant and drive the total envelope of the seat around the occupant. Seat design revolves around applying sound principles of seated occupant protection coupled with the unique environments driven by the seat layout, landing loads, and operational and emergency scenarios.

  13. Genetically Engineered Pig Models for Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Randall S.; Lorson, Monique; Ross, Jason W.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Walters, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are used widely as models of human disease, their utility as models has been enhanced by genetic engineering. Initially, transgenes were added randomly to the genome, but with the application of homologous recombination, zinc finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technologies, now most any genetic change that can be envisioned can be completed. To date these genetic modifications have resulted in animals that have the potential to provide new insights into human diseases for which a good animal model did not exist previously. These new animal models should provide the preclinical data for treatments that are developed for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, retinitis pigmentosa, spinal muscular atrophy, diabetes, and organ failure. These new models will help to uncover aspects and treatments of these diseases that were otherwise unattainable. The focus of this review is to describe genetically engineered pigs that have resulted in models of human diseases. PMID:25387017

  14. Human progenitor cells for bone engineering applications.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, G M; Thomsen, P; Karlsson, C; Strehl, R; Lindahl, A; Hyllner, J

    2013-06-01

    In this report, the authors review the human skeleton and the increasing burden of bone deficiencies, the limitations encountered with the current treatments and the opportunities provided by the emerging field of cell-based bone engineering. Special emphasis is placed on different sources of human progenitor cells, as well as their pros and cons in relation to their utilization for the large-scale construction of functional bone-engineered substitutes for clinical applications. It is concluded that, human pluripotent stem cells represent a valuable source for the derivation of progenitor cells, which combine the advantages of both embryonic and adult stem cells, and indeed display high potential for the construction of functional substitutes for bone replacement therapies. PMID:23642054

  15. Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Warren L.; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Chan, M. Ete; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Wan, Leo Q.; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects, cancer resections, and trauma. We report that clinically sized, anatomically shaped, viable human bone grafts can be engineered by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and a “biomimetic” scaffold-bioreactor system. We selected the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar bone as our tissue model, because of its clinical importance and the challenges associated with its complex shape. Anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from fully decellularized trabecular bone by using digitized clinical images, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured with interstitial flow of culture medium. A bioreactor with a chamber in the exact shape of a human TMJ was designed for controllable perfusion throughout the engineered construct. By 5 weeks of cultivation, tissue growth was evidenced by the formation of confluent layers of lamellar bone (by scanning electron microscopy), markedly increased volume of mineralized matrix (by quantitative microcomputer tomography), and the formation of osteoids (histologically). Within bone grafts of this size and complexity cells were fully viable at a physiologic density, likely an important factor of graft function. Moreover, the density and architecture of bone matrix correlated with the intensity and pattern of the interstitial flow, as determined in experimental and modeling studies. This approach has potential to overcome a critical hurdle—in vitro cultivation of viable bone grafts of complex geometries—to provide patient-specific bone grafts for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions. PMID:19820164

  16. Nursing knowledge and human science: ontological and epistemological considerations.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G J; Cody, W K

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the meaning of human science in relation to extant nursing knowledge. The origins of the human science tradition are traced to the philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey, who challenged the dominance of the positivist perspective for generating knowledge of the human lifeworld. Specific ontological and epistemological criteria for human science are proposed. Four nursing frameworks, Paterson and Zderad's humanistic nursing, Newman's model of health as expanding consciousness, Watson's human science and human care, and Parse's theory of human becoming, are found to have consistencies and inconsistencies with the human science tradition. It is proposed that the human science perspective is present in and will continue to be reflected in the evolution of nursing science. PMID:1584506

  17. Engineering tissue from human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Metallo, CM; Azarin, SM; Ji, L; De Pablo, JJ; Palecek, SP

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) biology now offer an alternative cell source for tissue engineers, as these cells are capable of proliferating indefinitely and differentiating to many clinically relevant cell types. Novel culture methods capable of exerting spatial and temporal control over the stem cell microenvironment allow for more efficient expansion of hESCs, and significant advances have been made toward improving our understanding of the biophysical and biochemical cues that direct stem cell fate choices. Effective production of lineage specific progenitors or terminally differentiated cells enables researchers to incorporate hESC derivatives into engineered tissue constructs. Here, we describe current efforts using hESCs as a cell source for tissue engineering applications, highlighting potential advantages of hESCs over current practices as well as challenges which must be overcome. PMID:18194458

  18. Considerations of Air Flow in Combustion Chambers of High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Moore, C S

    1932-01-01

    The air flow in combustion chambers is divided into three fundamental classes - induced, forced, and residual. A generalized resume is given of the present status of air flow investigations and of the work done at this and other laboratories to determine the direction and velocity of air movement in auxiliary and integral combustion chambers. The effects of air flow on engine performance are mentioned to show that although air flow improves the combustion efficiency, considerable induction, friction, and thermal losses must be guarded against.

  19. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  20. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Collection Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. Subsequently, the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA on April 15, 2010 to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Sample Science Benefits: Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a

  1. The Human Microbiome and Public Health: Social and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Virani, Alice; Wilcox, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid advances in human microbiome research point to an increasing range of health outcomes related to the composition of an individual's microbiome. To date, much research has focused on individual health, with a paucity of attention to public health implications. This is a critical oversight owing to the potentially shared nature of the human microbiome across communities and vertical and horizontal mechanisms for transferring microbiomes among humans. We explored some key ethical and social implications of human microbiome research for public health. We focused on (1) insights from microbiome research about damage to individual and shared microbiomes from prevalent societal practices, and (2) ethical and social implications of novel technologies developed on the basis of emerging microbiome science. PMID:26794165

  2. Systems integrated human engineering on the Navy's rapid acquisition of manufactured parts/test and integration facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaway, Glen R.

    1987-01-01

    Human Engineering in many projects is at best a limited support function. In this Navy project the Human Engineering function is an integral component of the systems design and development process. Human Engineering is a member of the systems design organization. This ensures that people considerations are: (1) identified early in the project; (2) accounted for in the specifications; (3) incorporated into the design; and (4) the tested product meets the needs and expectations of the people while meeting the overall systems requirements. The project exemplifies achievements that can be made by the symbiosis between systems designers, engineers and Human Engineering. This approach increases Human Engineering's effectiveness and value to a project because it becomes an accepted, contributing team member. It is an approach to doing Human Engineering that should be considered for most projects. The functional and organizational issues giving this approach strength are described.

  3. [Legal and philosophical considerations about cloning in human reproduction].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, V

    1999-01-01

    The birth of Dolly the sheep has served to rekindle the debate on the lawfulness of cloning for human reproduction. Although the normative response has been unanimous thus far in sanctioning such use, the matter of the limits to this is widely debated. In this article the author examines the reasons underpinning the limits imposed: is cloning for human reproduction unlawful in itself of does everything depend on the aim pursued? The issue is addressed from the standpoint of the apparent clash in law between the right to reproduce and freedom of research, on the one hand, and--on the other--the right to be conceived in a given manner. Particular attention is paid to the question of the lawfulness of two instances of human embryo division, namely, for in vitro fertilization and for preimplantation diagnosis. PMID:10822640

  4. Regulatory Considerations for NK Cells Used in Human Immunotherapy Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Translating cellular therapy from the laboratory to the clinic is a complicated process that involves scale-up of procedures to generate clinically relevant cell numbers, adaptation to reagents and equipment that are qualified for human use, establishing parameters of safety for reagents and equipment that are not already qualified for human use, codifying these processes into standards of practice and rules of conduct, and obtaining approval from regulatory bodies based on those codified standards and rules. As the laws and regulations that apply to cellular therapy will vary by time and geography, this chapter reviews some common key principles for the manufacturing of NK cells for human use that will need to be considered within the constraints of local policies and regulations. PMID:27177680

  5. Human low vision image warping - Channel matching considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.; Smith, Alan T.; Loshin, David S.

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating the possibility that a video image may productively be warped prior to presentation to a low vision patient. This could form part of a prosthesis for certain field defects. We have done preliminary quantitative studies on some notions that may be valid in calculating the image warpings. We hope the results will help make best use of time to be spent with human subjects, by guiding the selection of parameters and their range to be investigated. We liken a warping optimization to opening the largest number of spatial channels between the pixels of an input imager and resolution cells in the visual system. Some important effects are not quantified that will require human evaluation, such as local 'squashing' of the image, taken as the ratio of eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the transformation. The results indicate that the method shows quantitative promise. These results have identified some geometric transformations to evaluate further with human subjects.

  6. Theoretical considerations for mapping activation in human cardiac fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.

    2013-06-01

    Defining mechanisms for cardiac fibrillation is challenging because, in contrast to other arrhythmias, fibrillation exhibits complex non-repeatability in spatiotemporal activation but paradoxically exhibits conserved spatial gradients in rate, dominant frequency, and electrical propagation. Unlike animal models, in which fibrillation can be mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution using optical dyes or arrays of contact electrodes, mapping of cardiac fibrillation in patients is constrained practically to lower resolutions or smaller fields-of-view. In many animal models, atrial fibrillation is maintained by localized electrical rotors and focal sources. However, until recently, few studies had revealed localized sources in human fibrillation, so that the impact of mapping constraints on the ability to identify rotors or focal sources in humans was not described. Here, we determine the minimum spatial and temporal resolutions theoretically required to detect rigidly rotating spiral waves and focal sources, then extend these requirements for spiral waves in computer simulations. Finally, we apply our results to clinical data acquired during human atrial fibrillation using a novel technique termed focal impulse and rotor mapping (FIRM). Our results provide theoretical justification and clinical demonstration that FIRM meets the spatio-temporal resolution requirements to reliably identify rotors and focal sources for human atrial fibrillation.

  7. Considerations for human-machine interfaces in tele-operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newport, Curt

    1991-01-01

    Numerous factors impact on the efficiency of tele-operative manipulative work. Generally, these are related to the physical environment of the tele-operator and how he interfaces with robotic control consoles. The capabilities of the operator can be influenced by considerations such as temperature, eye strain, body fatigue, and boredom created by repetitive work tasks. In addition, the successful combination of man and machine will, in part, be determined by the configuration of the visual and physical interfaces available to the teleoperator. The design and operation of system components such as full-scale and mini-master manipulator controllers, servo joysticks, and video monitors will have a direct impact on operational efficiency. As a result, the local environment and the interaction of the operator with the robotic control console have a substantial effect on mission productivity.

  8. GN&C Engineering Best Practices For Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  9. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  10. GN&C Engineering Best Practices for Human-Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lebsock, Kenneth; West, John

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recently completed an in-depth assessment to identify a comprehensive set of engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) of safe and reliable human-rated spacecraft systems. Reliability subject matter experts, discipline experts, and systems engineering experts were brought together to synthesize the current "best practices" both at the spacecraft system and subsystems levels. The objective of this paper is to summarize, for the larger Community of Practice, the initial set of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) engineering Best Practices as identified by this NESC assessment process.

  11. Manganese in Human Parenteral Nutrition: Considerations for Toxicity and Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Dinamene; Batoreu, Camila; Mateus, Luisa; dos Santos, AP Marreilha; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risks associated with excessive Mn administration in parenteral nutrition (PN) patients are well documented. Hypermanganesemia and neurotoxicity are associated with the duration of Mn supplementation, Mn dosage, as well as pathological conditions, such as anemia or cholestasis. Recent PN guidelines recommend the biomonitoring of patients if they receive Mn in their PN longer than 30 days. The data in the literature are conflicting about the method for assessing Mn stores in humans as a definitive biomarker of Mn exposure or induced-neurotoxicity has yet to be identified. The biomonitoring of Mn relies on the analysis of whole blood Mn (WB Mn) levels, which are highly variable among human population and are not strictly correlated with Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Alterations in dopaminergic (DAergic) and catecholaminergic metabolism have been studied as predictive biomarkers of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Given these limitations, this review addresses various approaches for biomonitoring Mn exposure and neurotoxic risk. PMID:24184781

  12. Design, recruitment, and microbiological considerations in human challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Darton, Thomas C; Blohmke, Christoph J; Moorthy, Vasee S; Altmann, Daniel M; Hayden, Frederick G; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Levine, Myron M; Hill, Adrian V S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Since the 18th century a wealth of knowledge regarding infectious disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment has been accumulated from findings of infection challenges in human beings. Partly because of improvements to ethical and regulatory guidance, human challenge studies-involving the deliberate exposure of participants to infectious substances-have had a resurgence in popularity in the past few years, in particular for the assessment of vaccines. To provide an overview of the potential use of challenge models, we present historical reports and contemporary views from experts in this type of research. A range of challenge models and practical approaches to generate important data exist and are used to expedite vaccine and therapeutic development and to support public health modelling and interventions. Although human challenge studies provide a unique opportunity to address complex research questions, participant and investigator safety is paramount. To increase the collaborative effort and future success of this area of research, we recommend the development of consensus frameworks and sharing of best practices between investigators. Furthermore, standardisation of challenge procedures and regulatory guidance will help with the feasibility for using challenge models in clinical testing of new disease intervention strategies. PMID:26026195

  13. Medical considerations for extending human presence in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, C. S.; Dietlein, L. F.; Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    The prospects for extending the length of time that humans can safely remain in space depend partly on resolution of a number of medical issues. Physiologic effects of weightlessness that may affect health during flight include loss of body fluid, functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, loss of red blood cells and bone mineral, compromised immune system function, and neurosensory disturbances. Some of the physiologic adaptations to weightlessness contribute to difficulties with readaptation to Earth's gravity. These include cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of body fluids and electrolytes; red blood cell mass; muscle mass, strength, and endurance; and bone mineral. Potentially harmful factors in space flight that are not related to weightlessness include radiation, altered circadian rhythms and rest/work cycles, and the closed, isolated environment of the spacecraft. There is no evidence that space flight has long-term effects on humans, except that bone mass lost during flight may not be replaced, and radiation damage is cumulative. However, the number of people who have spent several months or longer in space is still small. Only carefully-planned experiments in space preceded by thorough ground-based studies can provide the information needed to increase the amount of time humans can safely spend in space.

  14. Measurement of testosterone in human sexuality research: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone (T) and other androgens are incorporated into an increasingly wide array of human sexuality research, but there are a number of issues that can affect or confound research outcomes. This review addresses various methodological issues relevant to research design in human studies with T; unaddressed, these issues may introduce unwanted noise, error, or conceptual barriers to interpreting results. Topics covered are (1) social and demographic factors (gender and sex; sexual orientations and sexual diversity; social/familial connections and processes; social location variables), (2) biological rhythms (diurnal variation; seasonality; menstrual cycles; aging and menopause), (3) sample collection, handling, and storage (saliva vs. blood; sialogogues, saliva, and tubes; sampling frequency, timing, and context; shipping samples), (4) health, medical issues, and the body (hormonal contraceptives; medications and nicotine; health conditions and stress; body composition, weight, and exercise), and (5) incorporating multiple hormones. Detailing a comprehensive set of important issues and relevant empirical evidence, this review provides a starting point for best practices in human sexuality research with T and other androgens that may be especially useful for those new to hormone research. PMID:23807216

  15. Medical considerations for extending human presence in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Dietlein, L. F.; Pool, S. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The prospects for extending the length of time that humans can safely remain in space depend partly on resolution of a number of medical issues. Physiologic effects of weightlessness that may affect health during flight include loss of body fluid, functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, loss of red blood cells and bone mineral, compromised immune system function, and neurosensory disturbances. Some of the physiologic adaptations to weightlessness contribute to difficulties with readaptation to Earth's gravity. These include cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of body fluids and electrolytes; red blood cell mass; muscle mass, strength, and endurance; and bone mineral. Potentially harmful factors in space flight that are not related to weightlessness include radiation, altered circadian rhythms and rest/work cycles, and the closed, isolated environment of the spacecraft. There is no evidence that space flight has long-term effects on humans, except that bone mass lost during flight may not be replaced, and radiation damage is cumulative. However, the number of people who have spent several months or longer in space is still small. Only carefully-planned experiments in space preceded by thorough ground-based studies can provide the information needed to increase the amount of time humans can safely spend in space.

  16. Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT and E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James; Leggett, Jay; Kramer-White, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A team directed by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) collected methodologies for how best to develop safe and reliable human rated systems and how to identify the drivers that provide the basis for assessing safety and reliability. The team also identified techniques, methodologies, and best practices to assure that NASA can develop safe and reliable human rated systems. The results are drawn from a wide variety of resources, from experts involved with the space program since its inception to the best-practices espoused in contemporary engineering doctrine. This report focuses on safety and reliability considerations and does not duplicate or update any existing references. Neither does it intend to replace existing standards and policy.

  17. Plasma levels of human neurotensin: methodological and physiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C F; George, J K; Eastwood, G; Potegal, M; Carraway, R E

    1991-01-01

    The ingestion of a meal high in fat content is known to increase circulating levels of neurotensin (NT) in humans. However, the magnitude of the postprandial rise of NT in the general circulation and its physiological significance have been subject of much debate. The present study examines circulating levels of NT in male volunteers prior to and following each of their three daily meals (ca. 31 g fat/meal). The response observed are also compared to that elicited by the direct instillation of intralipid (ca. 44 g fat) into the duodenum. NT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay of acid/acetone extracted plasma fractionated by high pressure liquid chromatography. Meals caused a significant but modest increase in NT levels, with the largest increment (ca. 4 fmol/ml) occurring after breakfast. In contrast, NT levels increased ca. 20 fmol/ml with intraduodenal instillation of lipid. The meal-stimulated increases in circulating NT measured here are 4- to 5-fold less than those reported by others, the difference most likely reflecting the lesser amount of lipid ingested. Previous studies provided subjects with single meals containing in excess of 120 g of fat; the 30 g of fat ingested by our subjects, ca. 33% of total caloric intake, is near that recommended by the U.S. Senate, Select Committee on Nutritional and Human Needs. These data show that diets with a reasonable fat content have only a modest effect on circulating levels of NT. PMID:2067972

  18. Conducting research with human subjects in international settings: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Sandra L

    2013-09-01

    Biomedical research in international settings is undergoing expansive growth and may potentially result in far-reaching benefits, such as direction of research resources toward solving basic health care needs of world populations. However, key ethical concerns surround this expansion and must be carefully considered by international researchers. International research is impacted by differences in language, culture, regulatory structures, financial resources, and possibly ethical standards. Local community leadership involvement in the planning stages of research is imperative. Especially in resource-poor countries, the research agenda must be designed to address local needs and provide local benefit. Capacity strengthening efforts, aimed at improving institutional support for ethical conduct of human subjects research, must continue to be supported by wealthier nations. PMID:24058306

  19. Neurovestibular Effects of Spaceflight - Considerations for Human Safety and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, E.

    2012-01-01

    From orbital spaceflight we know that astronauts may suffer from sensori-motor problems during the first days in weightlessness, and again upon return to Earth. Symptoms include spatial disorientation, motion illusions, postural imbalance, and motion sickness. Symptoms are typically triggered by head movements, indicating a central role of the vestibular system. TNO research has shown that the same symptoms can be elicited by exposing subjects to hyper-gravity in a human centrifuge. This suggests that not weightlessness itself, but the change in G-load causes vestibular adaptation problems. Suborbital spaceflight will expose participants to a sequence of highly variable G-levels. Hence it can be anticipated that this will affect vestibular functioning, with potential consequences for ride comfort (passengers) and flight safety (crew). We therefore propose to invest in research on the physiological responses to G-load profiles specific for suborbital flights with the purpose to establish comfort and safety guidelines for the commercial spaceflight sector.

  20. Conducting Research with Human Subjects in International Settings: Ethical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical research in international settings is undergoing expansive growth and may potentially result in far-reaching benefits, such as direction of research resources toward solving basic health care needs of world populations. However, key ethical concerns surround this expansion and must be carefully considered by international researchers. International research is impacted by differences in language, culture, regulatory structures, financial resources, and possibly ethical standards. Local community leadership involvement in the planning stages of research is imperative. Especially in resource-poor countries, the research agenda must be designed to address local needs and provide local benefit. Capacity strengthening efforts, aimed at improving institutional support for ethical conduct of human subjects research, must continue to be supported by wealthier nations. PMID:24058306

  1. Ethical considerations of universal vaccination against human papilloma virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From an epidemiological perspective, the practice of universal vaccination of girls and young women in order to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and potential development of cervical cancer is widely accepted even though it may lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer. Discussion It is argued that removing the deterrent effect – the fear of developing cancer – could encourage teenage sex. This paper reflects on the ethical legitimacy of the universal vaccination of girls and young women against HPV infection, especially regarding safety issues, the need to vaccinate people who have opted to abstain from sex, the presumption of early onset of sexual relations, the commercial interests of the companies that manufacture the vaccine, and the recommendation of universal vaccination in males. Summary Based on the aforementioned information, we believe that the universal vaccination against HPV in young women is acceptable from an ethical point of view, given the medical advantages it presents. PMID:24708813

  2. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  3. Human Factors And Safety Considerations Of Night Vision Systems Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verona, Robert W.; Rash, Clarence E.

    1989-03-01

    Military aviation night vision systems greatly enhance the capability to operate during periods of low illumination. After flying with night vision devices, most aviators are apprehensive about returning to unaided night flight. Current night vision imaging devices allow aviators to fly during ambient light conditions which would be extremely dangerous, if not impossible, with unaided vision. However, the visual input afforded with these devices does not approach that experienced using the unencumbered, unaided eye during periods of daylight illumination. Many visual parameters, e,g., acuity, field-of-view, depth perception, etc., are compromised when night vision devices are used. The inherent characteristics of image intensification based sensors introduce new problems associated with the interpretation of visual information based on different spatial and spectral content from that of unaided vision. In addition, the mounting of these devices onto the helmet is accompanied by concerns of fatigue resulting from increased head supported weight and shift in center-of-gravity. All of these concerns have produced numerous human factors and safety issues relating to thb use of night vision systems. These issues are identified and discussed in terms of their possible effects on user performance and safety.

  4. Human Locomotion under Reduced Gravity Conditions: Biomechanical and Neurophysiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced gravity offers unique opportunities to study motor behavior. This paper aims at providing a review on current issues of the known tools and techniques used for hypogravity simulation and their effects on human locomotion. Walking and running rely on the limb oscillatory mechanics, and one way to change its dynamic properties is to modify the level of gravity. Gravity has a strong effect on the optimal rate of limb oscillations, optimal walking speed, and muscle activity patterns, and gait transitions occur smoothly and at slower speeds at lower gravity levels. Altered center of mass movements and interplay between stance and swing leg dynamics may challenge new forms of locomotion in a heterogravity environment. Furthermore, observations in the lack of gravity effects help to reveal the intrinsic properties of locomotor pattern generators and make evident facilitation of nonvoluntary limb stepping. In view of that, space neurosciences research has participated in the development of new technologies that can be used as an effective tool for gait rehabilitation. PMID:25247179

  5. Reverse-engineering human regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Celine; Rieckhof, Gabrielle; Califano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and other omics data is challenging the research community to develop rational models for their organization and interpretation to generate novel biological knowledge. The development and use of gene regulatory networks to mechanistically interpret this data is an important development in molecular biology, usually captured under the banner of systems biology. As a result, the repertoire of methods for the reconstruction of comprehensive and cell-context-specific maps of regulatory interactions, or interactomes, has also exploded in the past few years. In this review, we focus on Network Biology and more specifically on methods for reverse engineering transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational human interaction networks and show how their interrogation is starting to impact our understanding of cellular pathophysiology and one’s ability to predict cellular phenotypes from genome-wide molecular observations. PMID:22246697

  6. Role of Human Factors and Engineering Psychology in Undergraduate and Graduate Engineering Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Jesse Rebol

    2010-12-01

    The engineering discipline is a profession of acquiring and applying technical knowledge, and the focus of engineering psychology is to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency with which human activities are conducted. Having human factors and engineering psychology be a permanent part of the engineering curriculum will make students aware of them, so they can learn from past experiences and avoid making the same mistakes their peers made. (Should be close to 200 words)

  7. The Transition from Spacecraft Development Ot Flight Operation: Human Factor Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of aeronautics and astronautics, a paradigm shift has been witnessed by those in academia, research and development, and private industry. Long development life cycles and the budgets to support such programs and projects has given way to aggressive task schedules and leaner resources to draw from all the while challenging assigned individuals to create and produce improved products of processes. however, this "faster, better, cheaper" concept cannot merely be applied to the design, development, and test of complex systems such as earth-orbiting of interplanetary robotic spacecraft. Full advantage is not possible without due consideration and application to mission operations planning and flight operations, Equally as important as the flight system, the mission operations system consisting of qualified personnel, ground hardware and software tools, and verified and validated operational processes, should also be regarded as a complex system requiring personnel to draw upon formal education, training, related experiences, and heuristic reasoning in engineering an effective and efficient system. Unquestionably, qualified personnel are the most important elements of a mission operations system. This paper examines the experiences of the Deep Space I Project, the first in a series of new technology in-flight validation missions sponsored by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), specifically, in developing a subsystems analysis and technology validation team comprised of former spacecraft development personnel. Human factor considerations are investigated from initial concept/vision formulation; through operational process development; personnel test and training; to initial uplink product development and test support. Emphasis has been placed on challenges and applied or recommended solutions, so as to provide opportunities for future programs and projects to address and disposition potential issues and concerns as early

  8. Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

  9. A systems engineering view of the human in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1987-01-01

    A model of the human as an 'engineered' system provides a starting point for determining human requirements and performance on an equivalent basis with technological systems. The human as an engineered system with performance requirements is defined to consist of four subsystems: cognitive, psychological, biomechanical, and biomedical. It is suggested that the treatment of the psychological subsystem as one that modulates the efficiency and quality of human performance offers a particular approach for examining and characterizing psychological effects.

  10. Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivich, Lorrie

    Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

  11. Engineering Guidance: A Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarponis, Joseph M.; Prien, John D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the role of The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) in providing guidance activities for students. Discusses structional organization, goals, and guidance activities for engineering and technical and professional societies. (MA)

  12. [Technical consideration of setting up a specification for human centrifuge evaluation of anti-G equipment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, C L; Geng, X C; Zhang, W X; Yan, G D; Chu, X

    1999-12-01

    Anti-G equipment needs to be evaluated using human centrifuge before further developed. However, there isn't a general specification for human centrifuge evaluation of anti-G equipment. From related literature and from our over thirty years experience in this area, we sum up to five aspect technical consideration below: human centrifuge, medical specification for using human in +Gz stress experiment, anti-G equipment experimental assembly, principle should be abided by during human centrifuge evaluation of anti-G equipment. We hope that the technical considerations mentioned in the paper should be helpful to the work of setting up a specification for human centrifuge evaluation anti-G equipment. After we have a specification, the research will be conducted orderly and the anti-G [correction of an-G] equipment will be developed sequentially. PMID:12434812

  13. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

  14. Utilization of oxygen-enriched air in diesel engines: Fundamental considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, D.; Mehta, P.S.; Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.

    1997-09-01

    Utilization of oxygen-enriched air in diesel engines holds potential for low exhaust smoke and particulate emissions. The majority of the oxygen-enriched-air combustion-related studies so far are experimental in nature, where the observed results are understood on an overall basis. This paper deals with the fundamental considerations associated with the oxygen-enriched air-fuel combustion process to enhance understanding of the concept. The increase in adiabatic flame temperature, the composition of exhaust gases at equilibrium, and also the changes in thermodynamic and transport properties due to oxygen-enrichment of standard intake air are computed. The effects of oxygen-enrichment on fuel evaporation rate, ignition delay, and premixed burnt fraction are also evaluated. Appropriate changes in the ignition delay correlation to reflect the effects of oxygen-enrichment are proposed. The notion of oxygen-enrichment of standard intake air as being akin to leaning of the fuel-air mixture is refuted on the basis of the fundamentally different requirements for the oxygen-enriched combustion process.

  15. Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Lab Study Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The HEMAP (Human Engineering Modeling and Performance) Lab is a joint effort between the Industrial and Human Engineering group and the KAVE (Kennedy Advanced Visualiations Environment) group. The lab consists of sixteen camera system that is used to capture human motions and operational tasks, through te use of a Velcro suit equipped with sensors, and then simulate these tasks in an ergonomic software package know as Jac, The Jack software is able to identify the potential risk hazards.

  16. Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering. PMID:17516148

  17. Integrating the human element into the systems engineering process and MBSE methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, Michael Samir.

    2013-12-01

    In response to the challenges related to the increasing size and complexity of systems, organizations have recognized the need to integrate human considerations in the beginning stages of systems development. Human Systems Integration (HSI) seeks to accomplish this objective by incorporating human factors within systems engineering (SE) processes and methodologies, which is the focus of this paper. A representative set of HSI methods from multiple sources are organized, analyzed, and mapped to the systems engineering Vee-model. These methods are then consolidated and evaluated against the SE process and Models-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to determine where and how they could integrate within systems development activities in the form of specific enhancements. Overall conclusions based on these evaluations are presented and future research areas are proposed.

  18. Cause and effect considerations in diagnostic pathology and pathology phenotyping of genetically engineered mice (GEM).

    PubMed

    McKerlie, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Over the next several decades, biology is embarking on its most ambitious project yet: to annotate the human genome functionally, prioritizing and focusing on those genes relevant to development and disease. Model systems are fundamental prerequisites for this task, and genetically engineered mice (GEM) are by far the most accessible mammalian system because of their anatomical, physiological, and genetic similarity to humans. The scientific utility of GEM has become commonplace since the technology to produce them was established in the early 1980s. Conceptually, however, an efficiently coordinated high-throughput approach that permits correlation between newly discovered genes, functional properties of their protein products, and biological relevance of these products as drug targets has yet to be established. The discipline of veterinary anatomical pathology (hereafter referred to as pathology) is not immune to this requirement for evolution and adaptation, and to address relationships and tissue consequences between tens of thousands of genes and their cognate proteins, novel interdisciplinary technologies and approaches must emerge. Although many of the techniques of pathology are well established, in the context of pathology's contribution to functional annotation of the genome, several conceptually important and unresolved issues remain to be addressed. While an ever-increasing arsenal of genetic and molecular tool-sets are available to evaluate and understand the function of genes and their pathophysiological mechanisms, pathology will continue to play an essential role in confirming cause and effect relationships of gene function in development and disease. This role will continue to be dependent on keen observation, a systematic but disciplined approach, expert knowledge of strain-dependent anatomical differences and incidental lesions, and relevant tissue-based evidence. Miniaturization and high-throughput adaptation of these methods must also continue

  19. Human Factors Engineering Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane; Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems design standards (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook. At the present time the standards document is in final review with some disagreement on several critical issues. The handbook is progressing with November 2008 as the anticipated completion date.

  20. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    SciTech Connect

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  1. A human factors evaluation using tools for automated knowledge engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, Marie E.; Lind, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    A human factors evaluation of the MH-53J helicopter cockpit is described. This evaluation was an application and futher development of Tools for Automated Knowledge Engineering (TAKE). TAKE is used to acquire and analyze knowledge from domain experts (aircrew members, system designers, maintenance personnel, human factors engineers, or others). TAKE was successfully utilized for the purpose of recommending improvements for the man-machine interfaces (MMI) in the MH-53J cockpit.

  2. Race and Human Rights Violations in the United States: Considerations for Human Rights and Moral Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Garrett Albert

    2000-01-01

    States that moral educators can learn from North Americans who have challenged U.S. human rights violations, especially violations within the United States. Uses race as an analytical tool to illustrate human rights abuses. Concludes by discussing the implications for crossing boundaries between human rights work and moral education. (CMK)

  3. Profile of the Engineer of 2001: The Engineer's Full Human Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kihlman, Tor

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a change in engineering education emphasizing human responsibility for environment, natural resources and reactions concerning technology. Describes the Swedish education system and a change in the curricula at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. (Author/YP)

  4. Arctic Engineering--Through Human Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, W. H. C.

    Adopting technology to people and examining projects through the eyes of those concerned are two ways new technology and engineering can be installed and successfully operated under the adverse conditions of northern Canada and in the face of predicted labor shortages in the 1980's. Adopting a more flexible technology provides the opportunity for…

  5. Considerations for Using an Incremental Scheduler for Human Exploration Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks.

  6. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. Results No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. Conclusions The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user–product–environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products. PMID:24732164

  7. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The…

  8. Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials in Complex Matricies (Environment and Biota): General Considerations and Conceptual Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media...

  9. Considerations on the external combustion system of the Stirling hot gas engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, F.

    1983-01-01

    After an introduction on the Stirling engine the external combustion system as well as the general loss division and efficiencies are described. The requirements for the combustion system and different variants of the combustion system are compared and discussed.

  10. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  11. Some NASA contributions to human factors engineering: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behan, R. A.; Wendhausen, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    This survey presents the NASA contributions to the state of the art of human factors engineering, and indicates that these contributions have a variety of applications to nonaerospace activities. Emphasis is placed on contributions relative to man's sensory, motor, decisionmaking, and cognitive behavior and on applications that advance human factors technology.

  12. Animal welfare and the human-animal bond: considerations for veterinary faculty, students, and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wensley, Sean P

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of the human-animal bond typically focuses on the benefits of companion animals to human health and well-being, but it is essential that in realizing these benefits the welfare needs of the animals, both physical and mental, are also met. Positive emotional relationships with animals are likely to increase recognition of animal sentience and so help create positive attitudes toward animals at the societal level, but, at the individual level, the animals to which humans are bonded should also benefit from the human-animal relationship. A strong human-animal bond may benefit animal welfare (e.g., by motivating an owner to commit time and funds to necessary veterinary medical treatment), but may also be the source of compromised welfare. Highly bonded owners may, for example, be reluctant to permit euthanasia on humane grounds, and the anthropomorphic nature of many human-companion animal bonds can contribute to the development of problem behaviors and obesity. The challenge for the veterinary profession is to ensure that widespread positive sentiment toward animals, which the human-animal bond generates, is translated in to human behavior and actions that are conducive to good animal welfare. This, it is suggested, can be achieved through adequate veterinary education in veterinary and animal welfare science, ethics, and communication. PMID:19228905

  13. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  14. The human side of value engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Wixson, J.; Heydt, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses people, pride and performance and their interrelationship with the Value Engineering (VE) technique. It explores the importance of people for the successful application of the technique. It discusses leadership skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, team member recognition and participation, knowledge of right and left brain characteristics and the part each play in the job plan leading to the successful integration of philosophy and techniques to creat change and improve performance. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  15. In vitro fabrication of engineered human skin.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Alexander; Zhang, Weitian; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2005-01-01

    In vitro fabrication of human epidermal tissues that mimic the biochemical and morphologic properties of human skin, known as skin-equivalent (organotypic) cultures, has opened new avenues in the study of skin biology. In this chapter, methods for the generation of these tissues from their component parts are described. Conditions for culture of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts that allow optimal growth in skin equivalent cultures are delineated. These cell types are then sequentially combined so that keratinocytes are grown at an air-liquid interface on a contracted collagen gel containing dermal fibroblasts. The methods described enable the generation of human epidermal tissues that show in vivo-like tissue architecture and phenotype. PMID:15502170

  16. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  17. Aircraft Design Considerations to Meet One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airlines are obligated to operate such that an aircraft can suffer an engine failure at any point in its mission and terminate the flight without an accident. Only minimal aircraft damage is allowable, such as brake replacement due to very heavy application, or an engine inspection and/or possible removal due to use of an emergency rating. Such performance criteria are often referred to as zero exposure, referring to zero accident exposure to an engine failure. The critical mission segment for meeting one engine inoperative (OEI) criteria is takeoff. For a given weight, wind, and ambient condition, fixed wing aircraft require a balanced field length. This is the longer of the distance to take off if an engine fails at a predetermined critical point in the takeoff profile, or the distance to reject the takeoff and brake to a stop. Rotorcraft have requirements for horizontal takeoff procedures that are equivalent to a balanced field length requirements for fixed wing aircraft. Rotorcraft also perform vertical procedures where no runway or heliport distance is available. These were developed primarily for elevated heliports as found on oil rigs or rooftops. They are also used for ground level operations as might be found at heliports at the end of piers or other confined areas.

  18. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  19. [Advancement and goals of the aviation human engineering].

    PubMed

    Stupakov, G P; Ushakov, I B; Turzin, P S

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed were the efforts of the State Scientific-Research Test Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine to weigh and account the human factor in designing and upgrading avionics and aviation machinery. Described are the policy of human engineering support to the development, evaluation, and operation of aviation machinery, and the benefits from the human factor knowledge to the specifications for aviation machinery and allowance for the psychophysiological aptitudes of human on different phases of development of ergatic aviation systems. Outlined is the mainstream of ergonomic enhancement of the quality and safety, and humanization of the activities of different aviation specialists. PMID:9156675

  20. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016. PMID:26929197

  1. XFP optical engines: design considerations for low cost, high performance and small form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylsma, Richard B.; Hartman, Robert L.; Parayanthal, Padman

    2004-05-01

    The recent activity in transceiver and transponder multi-source agreements has led to smaller, cost efficient modules to enable telecom and datacom systems in many different applications. At data rates of 10Gb/sec these applications can be include transmission distances < 100m or greater than 80km. The transmitter optical engines which go into these products must meet many constraints in terms of performance, cost, size and manufacturability. This paper will identify some of the key design issues engineers must address and potential solutions for those issues.

  2. ENGINEERING FORUM ISSUE: CONSIDERATIONS IN DECIDING TO TREAT CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide assistance in deciding in situ treatment of contaminated soils is a potentially feasible remedial alternative. echnical considerations that affect the decision to treat soils in situ are discussed. eneral factors which influence the sele...

  3. Human factors engineering and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Densmore, Emily M

    2006-12-01

    The pediatric population has features different from those of adults and that are dynamic during the pediatric age range. Pediatric-specific issues result in potential risks for harm during medical care. Basic and applied human factors research has resulted in improvements in the performance of health adults and those adults who have functional limitations. Future work should focus on systematically understanding the human factors needs of children with the goal of redesigning systems of health care to optimize the safety of children and the performance of their care providers. PMID:17126685

  4. ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO THE RELEASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS TO THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of these studies show that GEMs (Genetically Engineered Microorganisms) have the potential to survive, to transfer their novel genetic information, and to affect some microbe-mediated ecological processes in soil. he magnitude of these phenomena in soil in situ, howev...

  5. Introducing Decision Making under Uncertainty and Strategic Considerations in Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmopoulou, Georgia; Jog, Chintamani; Freeman, Margaret; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical Engineering graduates will face challenges at the workplace that even their peers who graduated a few years ago were not expected to face. One such major challenge is the management and operation of companies and plants under conditions of uncertainty and the need to make decisions in competitive situations. Modern developments in…

  6. Thermal Load Considerations for Detonative Combustion-Based Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, H. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to assess methods for, and performance implications of, cooling the passages (tubes) of a pulse detonation-based combustor conceptually installed in the core of a gas turbine engine typical of regional aircraft. Temperature-limited material stress criteria were developed from common-sense engineering practice, and available material properties. Validated, one-dimensional, numerical simulations were then used to explore a variety of cooling methods and establish whether or not they met the established criteria. Simulation output data from successful schemes were averaged and used in a cycle-deck engine simulation in order to assess the impact of the cooling method on overall performance. Results were compared to both a baseline engine equipped with a constant-pressure combustor and to one equipped with an idealized detonative combustor. Major findings indicate that thermal loads in these devices are large, but potentially manageable. However, the impact on performance can be substantial. Nearly one half of the ideally possible specific fuel consumption (SFC) reduction is lost due to cooling of the tubes. Details of the analysis are described, limitations are presented, and implications are discussed.

  7. A Study on Robot-Human System with Consideration of Individual Preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindai, Mitsuru; Shibata, Satoru; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Watanabe, Tomio

    In this study, we propose an object-handing robot system with a multimodal human-machine interface which is composed of speech recognition and image processing units. Using this multimodal human-machine interface, the cooperator can order the object-handing robot system using voice commands and hand gestures. In this robot system, the motion parameters of the robot, which are maximum velocity, velocity profile peak and handing position, can be adjusted by the voice commands or the hand gestures in order to realize the most appropriate motion of the robot. Furthermore, the cooperator can order the handing of objects using voice commands along with hand gestures. In these voice commands, the cooperator can use adverbs. This permits the cooperator to realize efficient adjustments, because the adjustment value of each motion parameters is determined by adverbs. In particular, adjustment values corresponding to adverbs are estimated by fuzzy inference in order to take into consideration the ambiguities of human speech.

  8. Plant-Derived Human Collagen Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Willard, James J.; Drexler, Jason W.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  9. Plant-derived human collagen scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Willard, James J; Drexler, Jason W; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded; Powell, Heather M

    2013-07-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  10. Engineering large animal models of human disease.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Sheets, Timothy P; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of gene editing tools we will see a dramatic increase in animal model resources available for both the study of human disease and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic. Comparative pathology will be central to the productive use of these animal models and the successful translation of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26414877

  11. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  12. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  13. Free-piston Stirling Engine system considerations for various space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dochat, George R.; Dhar, Manmohan

    1991-01-01

    Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (ac, dc, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper reviews potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. This paper briefly outlines the program and recent progress.

  14. Geo-engineering Evaluation with Prime Consideration to Liquefaction Potential for Eskisehir City (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyuncu, N. Pínar; Ulusay, Resat

    In Turkey, cities are growing in importance and urban areas are expanding rapidly. Eskisehir is one of the highly urbanized and industrialized cities of Turkey. In this study, the city is selected for geo-engineering assessments to be considered in future urban planning due to its ground and seismotectonic conditions. Seismic hazard analyses indicated that magnitude of a probable earthquake and PGA associated with the closest fault may be about 6.4 and 300 gal, respectively. Liquefaction assessments suggest that shallow-seated sand layers, particularly near to the meanders of a river flowing through the city have moderate-to-high liquefaction susceptibility. In addition, GIS-aided engineering geological map of the city center are constructed and some recommendations are presented.

  15. Transplantation of a tissue-engineered human vascularized cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Lesman, Ayelet; Habib, Manhal; Caspi, Oren; Gepstein, Amira; Arbel, Gil; Levenberg, Shulamit; Gepstein, Lior

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial regeneration strategies have been hampered by the lack of sources for human cardiomyocytes (CMs) and by the significant donor cell loss following transplantation. We assessed the ability of a three-dimensional tissue-engineered human vascularized cardiac muscle to engraft in the in vivo rat heart and to promote functional vascularization. Human embryonic stem cell-derived CMs alone or with human endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and embryonic fibroblasts (triculture constructs) were seeded onto biodegradable porous scaffolds. The resulting tissue constructs were transplanted to the in vivo rat heart and formed cardiac tissue grafts. Immunostaining studies for human-specific CD31 and alpha-smooth muscle actin demonstrated the formation of both donor (human) and host (rat)-derived vasculature within the engrafted triculture tissue constructs. Intraventricular injection of fluorescent microspheres or lectin resulted in their incorporation by human-derived vessels, confirming their functional integration with host coronary vasculature. Finally, the number of blood vessels was significantly greater in the triculture tissue constructs (60.3 +/- 8/mm(3), p < 0.05) when compared with scaffolds containing only CMs (39.0 +/- 14.4/mm(3)). In conclusion, a tissue-engineered human vascularized cardiac muscle can be established ex vivo and transplanted in vivo to form stable grafts. By utilizing a multicellular preparation we were able to increase biograft vascularization and to show that the preexisting human vessels can become functional and contribute to tissue perfusion. PMID:19642856

  16. Free-piston Stirling engine system considerations for various space power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dochat, G.R.; Dhar, M. )

    1991-01-05

    The U.S. Government is evaluating power requirements for future space applications. As power requirements increase solar or nuclear dynamic systems become increasingly attractive. Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (AC, DC, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper will review potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. Currently free-piston Stirling engine technology for space power applications is being developed under contract with NASA-Lewis Research Center. This paper will also briefly outline the program and recent progress.

  17. Towards a richer debate on tissue engineering: a consideration on the basis of NEST-ethics.

    PubMed

    Oerlemans, A J M; van Hoek, M E C; van Leeuwen, E; van der Burg, S; Dekkers, W J M

    2013-09-01

    In their 2007 paper, Swierstra and Rip identify characteristic tropes and patterns of moral argumentation in the debate about the ethics of new and emerging science and technologies (or "NEST-ethics"). Taking their NEST-ethics structure as a starting point, we considered the debate about tissue engineering (TE), and argue what aspects we think ought to be a part of a rich and high-quality debate of TE. The debate surrounding TE seems to be predominantly a debate among experts. When considering the NEST-ethics arguments that deal directly with technology, we can generally conclude that consequentialist arguments are by far the most prominently featured in discussions of TE. In addition, many papers discuss principles, rights and duties relevant to aspects of TE, both in a positive and in a critical sense. Justice arguments are only sporadically made, some "good life" arguments are used, others less so (such as the explicit articulation of perceived limits, or the technology as a technological fix for a social problem). Missing topics in the discussion, at least from the perspective of NEST-ethics, are second "level" arguments-those referring to techno-moral change connected to tissue engineering. Currently, the discussion about tissue engineering mostly focuses on its so-called "hard impacts"-quantifiable risks and benefits of the technology. Its "soft impacts"-effects that cannot easily be quantified, such as changes to experience, habits and perceptions, should receive more attention. PMID:23229374

  18. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  19. Human factors considerations for the use of color in display systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demars, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Identified and assessed are those human factor considerations impacting an operator's ability to perform when information is displayed in color as contrasted to monochrome (black and white only). The findings provide valuable guidelines for the assessment of the advantages (and disadvantages) of using a color display system. The use of color provides an additional sensory channel (color perception) which is not available with black and white. The degree to which one can exploit the use of this channel is highly dependent on available display technology, mission information display requirements, and acceptable operational modes.

  20. Human factors and safety considerations of night-vision systems flight using thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Verona, Robert W.; Crowley, John S.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  1. Methodological considerations for using umu assay to assess photo-genotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cupi, Denisa; Baun, Anders

    2016-01-15

    In this study we investigated the feasibility of high-throughput (96-well plate) umu assay to test the genotoxic effect of TiO2 engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) under UV light (full spectrum) and visible light (455 nm). Exposure of TiO2 ENPs to up to 60 min of UV light induced a photocatalytic production of ROS. However, UV light itself caused cytotoxic damage to Salmonella typhimurium at exposures >15 min and a genotoxic effect at exposures >0.5 min; and use of UV filters did not lower this effect. No genotoxicity of TiO2 ENPs was observed under visible light conditions at concentrations up to 100 μg mL(-1); or under dark conditions at concentrations up to 667 μg mL(-1), though cytotoxicity was seen at the higher concentrations. Additionally, the growth factor calculation was influenced by a shading effect due to ENPs, and was corrected by considering the pre-incubation OD readings of Plate B. Recommendations provided in this paper, as well as investigation of the effect of the light sources should be considered when using the umu assay to quantify the photo-genotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. PMID:26778507

  2. Human Systems Engineering: A Leadership Model for Collaboration and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Karen L.

    Human systems engineering (HSE) was created to introduce a new way of viewing collaboration. HSE emphasizes the role of leaders who welcome risk, commit to achieving positive change, and help others achieve change. The principles of HSE and its successful application to the collaborative process were illustrated through a case study representing a…

  3. Human Factors and Human-Computer Considerations in Teleradiology and Telepathology

    PubMed Central

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiology and pathology are unique among other clinical specialties that incorporate telemedicine technologies into clinical practice, as, for the most part in traditional practice, there are few or no direct patient encounters. The majority of teleradiology and telepathology involves viewing images, which is exactly what occurs without the “tele” component. The images used are generally quite large, require dedicated displays and software for viewing, and present challenges to the clinician who must navigate through the presented data to render a diagnostic decision or interpretation. This digital viewing environment is very different from the more traditional reading environment (i.e., film and microscopy), necessitating a new look at how to optimize reading environments and address human factors issues. This paper will review some of the key components that need to be optimized for effective and efficient practice of teleradiology and telepathology using traditional workstations as well as some of the newer mobile viewing applications. PMID:27429262

  4. Space nuclear power: technology, policy, and risk considerations in human missions to Mars.

    PubMed

    Friedensen, V P

    1998-01-01

    There is a large discrepancy between potential needs for nuclear propulsion and power systems for the human exploration of Mars and the current status of R&D funding, public opinion, and governmental support for these technologies. Mission planners and spacecraft designers, energized by the recent claims of possible discovery of life on Mars and responding to increased public interest in the human exploration of Mars, frequently propose nuclear reactors and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for interplanetary spacecraft propulsion and for power supply on the surface of Mars. These plans and designs typically assume that reactors will be available "on-the-shelf," and do not take the extensive R&D costs required to develop such reactors into consideration. However, it is likely that current U.S. policies, if unchanged, will prohibit the launch of nuclear reactors and large RTGs in response to a perceived risk by the public. PMID:11541623

  5. Biomechanical forces in the skeleton and their relevance to bone metastasis: biology and engineering considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Maureen; Fischbach, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer related-deaths. However, the effect of skeleton-associated biomechanical signals on the initiation, progression, and therapy response of breast cancer bone metastasis is largely unknown. This review seeks to highlight possible functional connections between skeletal mechanical signals and breast cancer bone metastasis and their contribution to clinical outcome. It provides an introduction to the physical and biological signals underlying bone functional adaptation and discusses the modulatory roles of mechanical loading and breast cancer metastasis in this process. Following a definition of biophysical design criteria, in vitro and in vivo approaches from the fields of bone biomechanics and tissue engineering will be reviewed that may be suitable to investigate breast cancer bone metastasis as a function of varied mechano-signaling. Finally, an outlook of future opportunities and challenges associated with this newly emerging field will be provided. PMID:25174311

  6. Minimizing the potential for nosocomial pneumonia: architectural, engineering, and environmental considerations for the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    du Moulin, G

    1989-01-01

    The development of pneumonia in seriously ill patients remains an important concern of intensive care medicine. The design of the intensive care unit will have a direct effect upon the potential for infection. Persons involved in this design should consider engineering and architectural elements that will ultimately contribute to lower rates of infection. These include components to regulate the atmosphere, such as ventilation systems and temperature and humidity controls. Sources of contaminated water and the amplification mechanisms need to be addressed and minimized in the final designs. Architectural elements such as treatment space and lighting encourage optimal patient management and workable staffing patterns. Personnel who treat seriously ill patients should be part of the planning and design process in the construction and renovation of intensive care facilities. PMID:2495954

  7. HOW DO RADIOLOGISTS USE THE HUMAN SEARCH ENGINE?

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Evans, Karla K; Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avigael; Josephs, Emilie

    2016-06-01

    Radiologists perform many 'visual search tasks' in which they look for one or more instances of one or more types of target item in a medical image (e.g. cancer screening). To understand and improve how radiologists do such tasks, it must be understood how the human 'search engine' works. This article briefly reviews some of the relevant work into this aspect of medical image perception. Questions include how attention and the eyes are guided in radiologic search? How is global (image-wide) information used in search? How might properties of human vision and human cognition lead to errors in radiologic search? PMID:26656078

  8. Engineering Large Animal Species to Model Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are an important resource for studying human diseases. Genetically engineered mice are the most commonly used species and have made significant contributions to our understanding of basic biology, disease mechanisms, and drug development. However, they often fail to recreate important aspects of human diseases and thus can have limited utility as translational research tools. Developing disease models in species more similar to humans may provide a better setting in which to study disease pathogenesis and test new treatments. This unit provides an overview of the history of genetically engineered large animals and the techniques that have made their development possible. Factors to consider when planning a large animal model, including choice of species, type of modification and methodology, characterization, production methods, and regulatory compliance, are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367161

  9. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-01-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. PMID:23915092

  10. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Holden, Patricia A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Klaessig, Fred; Turco, Ronald F; Mortimer, Monika; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Avery, David; Barceló, Damià; Behra, Renata; Cohen, Yoram; Deydier-Stephan, Laurence; Ferguson, P Lee; Fernandes, Teresa F; Herr Harthorn, Barbara; Henderson, W Matthew; Hoke, Robert A; Hristozov, Danail; Johnston, John M; Kane, Agnes B; Kapustka, Larry; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lovell, Wess; Murphy, Catherine J; Nisbet, Roger M; Petersen, Elijah J; Salinas, Edward R; Scheringer, Martin; Sharma, Monita; Speed, David E; Sultan, Yasir; Westerhoff, Paul; White, Jason C; Wiesner, Mark R; Wong, Eva M; Xing, Baoshan; Steele Horan, Meghan; Godwin, Hilary A; Nel, André E

    2016-06-21

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant concentrations-where observing outcomes is difficult-versus higher ENM doses, where responses are observable. What exposure conditions are typically used in assessing ENM hazards to populations? What conditions are used to test ecosystem-scale hazards? What is known regarding actual ENMs in the environment, via measurements or modeling simulations? How should exposure conditions, ENM transformation, dose, and body burden be used in interpreting biological and computational findings for assessing risks? These questions were addressed in the context of this critical review. As a result, three main recommendations emerged. First, researchers should improve ecotoxicology of ENMs by choosing test end points, duration, and study conditions-including ENM test concentrations-that align with realistic exposure scenarios. Second, testing should proceed via tiers with iterative feedback that informs experiments at other levels of biological organization. Finally, environmental realism in ENM hazard assessments should involve greater coordination among ENM quantitative analysts, exposure modelers, and ecotoxicologists, across government, industry, and academia. PMID:27177237

  11. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: Semantic Considerations for an Evolving Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Katari, Ravi; Peloso, Andrea; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine (RM) are rapidly evolving fields that are often obscured by a dense cloud of hype and commercialization potential. We find, in the literature and general commentary, that several of the associated terms are casually referenced in varying contexts that ultimately result in the blurring of the distinguishing boundaries which define them. “TE” and “RM” are often used interchangeably, though some experts vehemently argue that they, in fact, represent different conceptual entities. Nevertheless, contemporary scientists have a general idea of the experiments and milestones that can be classified within either or both categories. Given the groundbreaking achievements reported within the past decade and consequent watershed potential of this field, we feel that it would be useful to properly contextualize these terms semantically and historically. In this concept paper, we explore the various definitions proposed in the literature and emphasize that ambiguous terminology can lead to misplaced apprehension. We assert that the central motifs of both concepts have existed within the surgical sciences long before their appearance as terms in the scientific literature. PMID:25629029

  12. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will describe the human health and performance issues that are anticipated for the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEA). Humans are considered a system in the design of any such deep-space exploration mission, and exploration of NEA presents unique challenges for the human system. Key factors that define the mission are those that are strongly affected by distance and duration. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) restrict mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age and gender of crewmembers and stage of the solar cycle. Factors that affect mission architecture include medical capability; countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; restricted food supplies; and limited habitable volume. The design of a habitat that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from Earth will require an integrated research and development effort by NASA s Human Research Program, engineering, and human factors groups. Limited abort and return options for an NEA mission are anticipated to have important effects on crew psychology as well as influence medical supplies and training requirements of the crew. Other important factors are those related to isolation, confinement, communication delays, autonomous operations, task design, small crew size, and even the unchanging view outside the windows for most of the mission. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in design of mission architecture and

  13. Human Factors Engineering at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is to develop, implement, and maintain systems for space transportation and microgravity research. Factors impacting the MSFC position as a leader in advancing science and technology include: (1) heightened emphasis on safety; (2) increased interest in effective resource utilization; and (3) growing importance of employing systems and procedures that pragmatically support mission science. In light of these factors, MSFC is integrating human factors engineering (HFE) into the systems engineering process. This paper describes the HFE program, applications of HFE in MSFC projects, and the future of HFE at MSFC.

  14. 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 17, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (HAB Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design (Task Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk).

  15. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  16. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  17. We Have the Spaceship; But Where's the Start Button: Human Engineering Issues in the Age of Long Duration Space Exploration - Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George; Adams, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses the following considerations for human factors engineering during long duration human space flight: gravitational adaptation, 2-D to 3-D adaptation, handles, exercise posture, and space ergonomics. The presentation argues that there is an urgent need to advance research is these areas in preparation for future manned missions.

  18. Overview of engineering and agricultural design considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, N.E.; Engen, I.A.; Yrene, C.S.

    1982-04-01

    The engineering and agricultural considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment are presented. The experiment is designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of a subsurface pipe network for cooling power-plant condenser effluent, and crop responses to soil warming in an open-field plot. The subsurface soil-warming system is designed to dissipate approximately 100 kW of heat from circulating, 38/sup 0/C geothermal water. Summer operating conditions in the Raft River area, located on the Intermountain Plateau are emphasized. Design is based on the thermal characteristics of the local soil, the climate of the Raft River Valley, management practices for normal agriculture, and the need for an unheated control plot. The resultant design calls for 38-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in a grid composed of parallel loops, for dissipating heat into a 0.8-hectare experimental plot.

  19. Reporting on Strategic Considerations About the Role of Science in Initial Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaty, David; Bass, Deborah; Thronson, Harley; Hays, Lindsay; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, Joe; Craig, Mark; Duggan, Matt; Drake, Bret; Stern, Jennifer; Zucker, Rick

    2016-07-01

    mission prior to a Mars surface mission should be initiated. 3. A well-planned set of science objectives for a future human-landed mission to Mars is essential in order to sustain coordination among the science and human spaceflight communities. In particular, while it is clear how humans on the surface of Mars would significantly accelerate the pace of the search for past life, it is unclear how humans would play a role in (and not serve as a hindrance to) the search for extant life. Further study should be supported. 4. Sustained formal collaboration among Mars scientists, engineers, technologists, and teams developing scenarios for Mars exploration should be supported. The human and robotic sides of the Mars exploration community need to become further engaged with each other, particularly as we enter a potential period of dual-purpose (science + human precursor) missions. Central to this era is generating mutual support for a Mars sample return architecture as a goal that has crucial value to both the human preparatory program and planetary science.

  20. Site-Specific Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Merkert, Sylvia; Martin, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an unprecedented potential of applications in clinical therapy and medical research. Human iPSCs and their differentiated derivatives are tools for diseases modelling, drug discovery, safety pharmacology, and toxicology. Moreover, they allow for the engineering of bioartificial tissue and are promising candidates for cellular therapies. For many of these applications, the ability to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is indispensable, but efficient site-specific and safe technologies for genetic engineering of PSCs were developed only recently. By now, customized engineered nucleases provide excellent tools for targeted genome editing, opening new perspectives for biomedical research and cellular therapies. PMID:27347935

  1. Site-Specific Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Merkert, Sylvia; Martin, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an unprecedented potential of applications in clinical therapy and medical research. Human iPSCs and their differentiated derivatives are tools for diseases modelling, drug discovery, safety pharmacology, and toxicology. Moreover, they allow for the engineering of bioartificial tissue and are promising candidates for cellular therapies. For many of these applications, the ability to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is indispensable, but efficient site-specific and safe technologies for genetic engineering of PSCs were developed only recently. By now, customized engineered nucleases provide excellent tools for targeted genome editing, opening new perspectives for biomedical research and cellular therapies. PMID:27347935

  2. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES IN HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  3. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture: Considerations for Maintenance, Expansion, and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin G.; Mallon, Barbara S.; McKay, Ronald D.G.; Robey, Pamela G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide powerful resources for application in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical development. In the past decade, various methods have been developed for large-scale hPSC culture that rely on combined use of multiple growth components, including media containing various growth factors, extracellular matrices, three-dimensional environmental (3D) cues and modes of multicellular association. In this review, we dissect these growth components by comparing cell culture methods and identifying the benefits and pitfalls associated with each one. We further provide criteria, considerations, and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for hPSC expansion, differentiation, and use in future therapeutic applications. PMID:24388173

  4. Organizational Considerations for Implementing Systems Engineering and Integration in the Ares Projects Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, LeAnn; Doreswamy, Rajiv N.

    2008-01-01

    Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) is a critical discipline in developing new space systems. In 2005, NASA performed an internal study of 24 agency and Department of Defense (DoD) programs to evaluate methods of integrating SE&I practices and determine their effectiveness. The goal of the study was to determine the best SE&I implementation strategy for the Ares Projects Office. The study identified six SE&I organizational structures: 1. Lead systems integrator (LSI) with SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. 2a. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 2b. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3a. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government insight). 3b. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3c. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government/industry partnership). 4a.Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 4b. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 4d.Prime contractors with total system performance responsibility (TSPR). 5. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and integration products through a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). 6. Government/FFRDC in-house development with SE&I responsibility and function. The organizational structure used most often was number 4, using a prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. However, data analyses did not establish a positive relationship between program development costs and specific SE&I organizational types, nor did it positively determine the relationship between successful programs or projects and their SE&I structure. The SE&I study reached the following conclusions: (1) Large, long-duration, technically complex programs or projects reach their technical goals, but rarely meet schedule or cost goals. NASA's recent

  5. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product of a research and development program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design of military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by system designers. The present four volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is Volume 3, containing sections on Human Language Processing, Operator Motion Control, Effects of Environmental Stressors, Display Interfaces, and Control Interfaces (Real/Virtual).

  6. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  7. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. PMID:21913285

  8. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2010-01-01

    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  9. Rapid prototyping and the human factors engineering process.

    PubMed

    Beevis, D; Denis, G S

    1992-06-01

    Rapid prototyping or 'virtual prototyping' of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator 'in the loop' without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the VAPS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping. Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping facilitates an iterative approach to the development of the human-machine interface, and that is most applicable to the early stages of systems development, rather than to detailed design. PMID:15676861

  10. Handbook of human engineering design data for reduced gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marton, T.; Rudek, F. P.; Miller, R. A.; Norman, D. G.

    1971-01-01

    A Handbook is presented for the use of engineers, designers, and human factors specialists during the developmental and detailed design phases of manned spacecraft programs. Detailed and diverse quantified data on man's capabilities and tolerances for survival and productive effort in the extraterrestrial environment are provided. Quantified data and information on the space environment as well as the characteristics of the vehicular or residential environment required to support man in outer space are also given.

  11. Engineering Education Development to Enhance Human Skill in DENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, Emiko; Nuka, Takeji

    Importance of human skills such as communication or instruction capability to their staff members has recently been highlighted in a workplace, due to decreasing opportunity of face-to-face communication between supervisors and their staff, or Instruction capability through OJT (On the Job Training) . Currently, communication skills are being reinforced mainly through OJT at DENSO. Therefore, as part of supplemental support tools, DENSO has established comprehensive engineers training program on off-JT basis for developing human skills, covering from newly employeed enginners up to managerial class since 2003. This paper describes education activities and reports the results.

  12. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of human placental function and pregnancy outcome: considerations for causal inference.

    PubMed

    Januar, Vania; Desoye, Gernot; Novakovic, Boris; Cvitic, Silvija; Saffery, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, often defined as regulating gene activity independently of underlying DNA sequence, are crucial for healthy development. The sum total of epigenetic marks within a cell or tissue (the epigenome) is sensitive to environmental influence, and disruption of the epigenome in utero has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Not surprisingly, given its multifaceted functions and important role in regulating pregnancy outcome, the placenta shows unique epigenetic features. Interestingly however, many of these are only otherwise seen in human malignancy (the pseudomalignant placental epigenome). Epigenetic variation in the placenta is now emerging as a candidate mediator of environmental influence on placental functioning and a key regulator of pregnancy outcome. However, replication of findings is generally lacking, most likely due to small sample sizes and a lack of standardization of analytical approaches. Defining DNA methylation "signatures" in the placenta associated with maternal and fetal outcomes offers tremendous potential to improve pregnancy outcomes, but care must be taken in interpretation of findings. Future placental epigenetic research would do well to address the issues present in epigenetic epidemiology more generally, including careful consideration of sample size, potentially confounding factors, issues of tissue heterogeneity, reverse causation, and the role of genetics in modulating epigenetic profile. The importance of animal or in vitro models in establishing a functional role of epigenetic variation identified in human beings, which is key to establishing causation, should not be underestimated. PMID:26428498

  14. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    SciTech Connect

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  15. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  16. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literary Analysis and Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, James; Conley, Catharine; Siegel, Bette

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literary analysis of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current ‘state of knowledge’. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection. Keywords: planetary protection, human spaceflight requirements, human space exploration, human space operations, systems engineering, literature analysis

  17. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  18. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product an R and D program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design of military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by system designers. The present four volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is Volume 1, which contains sections on Visual Acquisition of Information, Auditory Acquisition of Information, and Acquisition of Information by Other Senses.

  19. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product of a Research and Development program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design of military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by system designers. The present volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is Volume 2, which contains sections on Information Storage and Retrieval, Spatial Awareness, Perceptual Organization, and Attention and Allocation of Resources.

  20. Engineering data compendium. Human perception and performance. User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R. (Editor); Lincoln, Janet E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The concept underlying the Engineering Data Compendium was the product of a research and development program (Integrated Perceptual Information for Designers project) aimed at facilitating the application of basic research findings in human performance to the design and military crew systems. The principal objective was to develop a workable strategy for: (1) identifying and distilling information of potential value to system design from the existing research literature, and (2) presenting this technical information in a way that would aid its accessibility, interpretability, and applicability by systems designers. The present four volumes of the Engineering Data Compendium represent the first implementation of this strategy. This is the first volume, the User's Guide, containing a description of the program and instructions for its use.

  1. Tissue Engineering for Human Urethral Reconstruction: Systematic Review of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    de Kemp, Vincent; de Graaf, Petra; Fledderus, Joost O.; Ruud Bosch, J. L. H.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Techniques to treat urethral stricture and hypospadias are restricted, as substitution of the unhealthy urethra with tissue from other origins (skin, bladder or buccal mucosa) has some limitations. Therefore, alternative sources of tissue for use in urethral reconstructions are considered, such as ex vivo engineered constructs. Purpose To review recent literature on tissue engineering for human urethral reconstruction. Methods A search was made in the PubMed and Embase databases restricted to the last 25 years and the English language. Results A total of 45 articles were selected describing the use of tissue engineering in urethral reconstruction. The results are discussed in four groups: autologous cell cultures, matrices/scaffolds, cell-seeded scaffolds, and clinical results of urethral reconstructions using these materials. Different progenitor cells were used, isolated from either urine or adipose tissue, but slightly better results were obtained with in vitro expansion of urothelial cells from bladder washings, tissue biopsies from the bladder (urothelium) or the oral cavity (buccal mucosa). Compared with a synthetic scaffold, a biological scaffold has the advantage of bioactive extracellular matrix proteins on its surface. When applied clinically, a non-seeded matrix only seems suited for use as an onlay graft. When a tubularized substitution is the aim, a cell-seeded construct seems more beneficial. Conclusions Considerable experience is available with tissue engineering of urethral tissue in vitro, produced with cells of different origin. Clinical and in vivo experiments show promising results. PMID:25689740

  2. Reverse engineering of the multiple launch rocket system. Human factors, manpower, personnel, and training in the weapons system acquisition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabian, J. M.; Hartel, C. R.; Kaplan, J. D.; Marcus, A.; Promisel, D. M.

    1984-06-01

    In a briefing format, this report on the Multiple Launch Rocket System summarizes an examination of human factors, manpower, personnel and training (HMPT) issues during the systems acquisition process. The report is one of four reverse engineering studies prepared at the request of Gen. M. R. Thurman, Army Vice Chief of Staff. The four systems were studied as a representative sample of Army weapons systems. They serve as the basis for drawing conclusions about aspects of the weapons system acquisition process which most affect HMPT considerations. A synthesis of the four system studies appears in the final report of the Reverse Engineering Task Force U.S. Army Research Institute.

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope instrument suite layout: optical system engineering considerations for a large deployable space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Davila, Pamela S.; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul A.; Contreras, James; Whitman, Tony

    2004-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 μm. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the mission requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope"s field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec), a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module. The size and position of each instrument"s field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  4. The James Webb Telescope Instrument Suite Layout: Optical System Engineering Considerations for a Large, Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent; Davila, Pam; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul; Contreras, Jim; Whitman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into an elliptical orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 microns. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the telescope s high-level performance requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope's field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) provided by the University of Arizona; a Near-Mared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) provided by the European Space Agency; a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a European consortium; and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module provided by the Canadian Space Agency. The size and position of each instrument's field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving the key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  5. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  6. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J. ); Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R. )

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  8. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-05-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model`s rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  9. Engineering bone tissue substitutes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marcos-Campos, Iván; Kahler, David John; Alsalman, Dana; Shang, Linshan; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2013-01-01

    Congenital defects, trauma, and disease can compromise the integrity and functionality of the skeletal system to the extent requiring implantation of bone grafts. Engineering of viable bone substitutes that can be personalized to meet specific clinical needs represents a promising therapeutic alternative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for bone tissue engineering. We first induced three hiPSC lines with different tissue and reprogramming backgrounds into the mesenchymal lineages and used a combination of differentiation assays, surface antigen profiling, and global gene expression analysis to identify the lines exhibiting strong osteogenic differentiation potential. We then engineered functional bone substitutes by culturing hiPSC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on osteoconductive scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors and confirmed their phenotype stability in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 wk. Molecular analysis confirmed that the maturation of bone substitutes in perfusion bioreactors results in global repression of cell proliferation and an increased expression of lineage-specific genes. These results pave the way for growing patient-specific bone substitutes for reconstructive treatments of the skeletal system and for constructing qualified experimental models of development and disease. PMID:23653480

  10. Engineered cell-laden human protein-based elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Zorlutuna, Pinar; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Weiss, Anthony S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Elastic tissue equivalence is a vital requirement of synthetic materials proposed for many resilient, soft tissue engineering applications. Here we present a bioelastomer made from tropoelastin, the human protein that naturally facilitates elasticity and cell interactions in all elastic tissues. We combined this protein’s innate versatility with fast non-toxic fabrication techniques to make highly extensible, cell compatible hydrogels. These hydrogels can be produced in less than a minute through photocrosslinking of methacrylated tropoelastin (MeTro) in an aqueous solution. The fabricated MeTro gels exhibit high extensibility (up to 400%) and superior mechanical properties that outperform other photocrosslinkable hydrogels. MeTro gels were used to encapsulate cells within a flexible 3D environment and to manufacture highly elastic 2D films for cell attachment, growth, and proliferation. In addition, the physical properties of this fabricated bioelastomer such as elasticity, stiffness, and pore characteristics were tuned through manipulation of the methacrylation degree and protein concentration. This photocrosslinkable, functional tissue mimetic gel benefits from the innate biological properties of a human elastic protein and opens new opportunities in tissue engineering. PMID:23639533

  11. ENGINES: exploring single nucleotide variation in entire human genomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Next generation ultra-sequencing technologies are starting to produce extensive quantities of data from entire human genome or exome sequences, and therefore new software is needed to present and analyse this vast amount of information. The 1000 Genomes project has recently released raw data for 629 complete genomes representing several human populations through their Phase I interim analysis and, although there are certain public tools available that allow exploration of these genomes, to date there is no tool that permits comprehensive population analysis of the variation catalogued by such data. Description We have developed a genetic variant site explorer able to retrieve data for Single Nucleotide Variation (SNVs), population by population, from entire genomes without compromising future scalability and agility. ENGINES (ENtire Genome INterface for Exploring SNVs) uses data from the 1000 Genomes Phase I to demonstrate its capacity to handle large amounts of genetic variation (>7.3 billion genotypes and 28 million SNVs), as well as deriving summary statistics of interest for medical and population genetics applications. The whole dataset is pre-processed and summarized into a data mart accessible through a web interface. The query system allows the combination and comparison of each available population sample, while searching by rs-number list, chromosome region, or genes of interest. Frequency and FST filters are available to further refine queries, while results can be visually compared with other large-scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) repositories such as HapMap or Perlegen. Conclusions ENGINES is capable of accessing large-scale variation data repositories in a fast and comprehensive manner. It allows quick browsing of whole genome variation, while providing statistical information for each variant site such as allele frequency, heterozygosity or FST values for genetic differentiation. Access to the data mart generating scripts and to

  12. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  13. Methodological considerations for the human platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding kinetic assay.

    PubMed

    Khait, V D; Huang, Y Y; Mann, J J

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of an extensive database of human platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding assays has been conducted in order to identify factors that may affect the assay results. Despite anecdotal reports that storage of frozen platelet pellets may affect 5-HT2A binding affinity and capacity, no quantitative study has been reported in the literature. Analysis of binding data for 373 frozen samples with a storage time up to three years is presented in this paper. It is shown that prolonged storage significantly decreases binding. The loss of binding capacity begins in the first six month of storage. Bmax declines by half after 17 month. The impact of storage time on the binding affinity is much smaller. There is only about 20% increase in the value of affinity K(D) during the half-life of Bmax. Differences in sample storage time may partly explain discrepancies in results between different research groups. Nonspecific binding due to binding to filter material diminishes accuracy and reliability of the binding assays as a result of a decrease in the ratio of specific to nonspecific ratio. A data analysis based on our suggested mathematical model shows that this effect depends on tissue concentration in test tube and becomes pronounced when the concentration is below 0.1 mg protein/ml (at 0.2 nM of ligand). Above 0.1 mg protein/ml, percentage of specific to total binding exceeds 65%, which is an acceptable level for the ratio. The majority of the binding studies reported in the literature employed a tissue concentration more than 0.5 mg/ml, well above the minimal limit sufficient for a reliable assay. However, development of microassays to conserve precious tissue must take the limit into consideration. PMID:10619369

  14. The Application of the Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory for Space Vehicle Ground Processing Tasks at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of United Space Alliance's Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory began in early 2007 in an attempt to address the problematic workspace design issues that the Space Shuttle has imposed on technicians performing maintenance and inspection operations. The Space Shuttle was not expected to require the extensive maintenance it undergoes between flights. As a result, extensive, costly resources have been expended on workarounds and modifications to accommodate ground processing personnel. Consideration of basic human factors principles for design of maintenance is essential during the design phase of future space vehicles, facilities, and equipment. Simulation will be needed to test and validate designs before implementation.

  15. The Humanistic Side of Engineering: Considering Social Science and Humanities Dimensions of Engineering in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Morgan; Swenson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics and science knowledge/skills are most commonly associated with engineering's pre-requisite knowledge. Our goals in this paper are to argue for a more systematic inclusion of social science and humanities knowledge in the introduction of engineering to K-12 students. As part of this argument, we present a construct for framing the…

  16. Human Engineered Heart Tissue: Analysis of Contractile Force.

    PubMed

    Mannhardt, Ingra; Breckwoldt, Kaja; Letuffe-Brenière, David; Schaaf, Sebastian; Schulz, Herbert; Neuber, Christiane; Benzin, Anika; Werner, Tessa; Eder, Alexandra; Schulze, Thomas; Klampe, Birgit; Christ, Torsten; Hirt, Marc N; Huebner, Norbert; Moretti, Alessandra; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Hansen, Arne

    2016-07-12

    Analyzing contractile force, the most important and best understood function of cardiomyocytes in vivo is not established in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM). This study describes the generation of 3D, strip-format, force-generating engineered heart tissues (EHT) from hiPSC-CM and their physiological and pharmacological properties. CM were differentiated from hiPSC by a growth factor-based three-stage protocol. EHTs were generated and analyzed histologically and functionally. HiPSC-CM in EHTs showed well-developed sarcomeric organization and alignment, and frequent mitochondria. Systematic contractility analysis (26 concentration-response curves) reveals that EHTs replicated canonical response to physiological and pharmacological regulators of inotropy, membrane- and calcium-clock mediators of pacemaking, modulators of ion-channel currents, and proarrhythmic compounds with unprecedented precision. The analysis demonstrates a high degree of similarity between hiPSC-CM in EHT format and native human heart tissue, indicating that human EHTs are useful for preclinical drug testing and disease modeling. PMID:27211213

  17. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the Astronaut health and performance issues for a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission. Risks and other considerations are grouped into four categories and they are characterized for criticality.

  18. Where Is the Engineering I Applied For? A Longitudinal Study of Students' Transition into Higher Education Engineering, and Their Considerations of Staying or Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative longitudinal study of students' transition into higher education engineering. The study aims at comparing upper-secondary school students' expectations of engineering with their actual experiences when encountering the engineering programme. It explores how this encounter provides a platform for…

  19. An approach for harmonizing engineering and science education with humaneness.

    PubMed

    Selvan, Krishnasamy T

    2004-07-01

    The world is facing an apparently increasing dose of violence. Obviously, there cannot be a simple solution to this complex problem. But at the same time it may be appreciated that, in the interests of humanity, a solution must be pursued in every possible way by everyone. This article is concerned with what one could possibly do at the academic level. Since lack of openness of thought appears to be a fundamental contributor to this unfortunate problem, attempting to cultivate this quality at all levels can perhaps go a long way towards making our earth a better place to live in. With science and engineering education, how can one possibly blend this concern? History of science and the subject of measurement uncertainty may present the necessary scope to the educator to discuss with the students the desirability and necessity of this quality. PMID:15362711

  20. Cervical Tissue Engineering Using Silk Scaffolds and Human Cervical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Cristina C.; Rice, William L.; Socrate, Simona; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth is a frequent complication of pregnancy and a common cause of morbidity in childhood. Obstetricians suspect abnormalities of the cervix are implicated in a significant number of preterm births. The cervix is composed of fibrous connective tissue and undergoes significant remodeling in preparation for birth. We hypothesized that a tissue engineering strategy could be used to develop three-dimensional cervical-like tissue constructs that would be suitable for investigating cervical remodeling. Cervical cells were isolated from two premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for a benign gynecological condition, and the cells were seeded on porous silk scaffolds in the presence or absence of dynamic culture and with 10% or 20% serum. Morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties were measured during the 8-week culture period. Cervical cells proliferated in three-dimensions and synthesized an extracellular matrix with biochemical constituents and morphology similar to native tissue. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture was associated with significantly increased collagen deposition (p < 0.05), sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis (p < 0.05), and mechanical stiffness (p < 0.05). Serum concentration did not affect measured variables. Relevant human tissue-engineered cervical-like constructs constitute a novel model system for a range of fundamental and applied studies related to cervical remodeling. PMID:20121593

  1. Enhanced Selectivity for Sulfatide by Engineered Human Glycolipid Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Samygina, Valeria R.; Popov, Alexander N.; Cabo-Bilbao, Aintzane; Ochoa-Lizarralde, Borja; Goni-de-Cerio, Felipe; Zhai, Xiuhong; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Malinina, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) fold represents a novel structural motif for lipid binding/transfer and reversible membrane translocation. GLTPs transfer glycosphingolipids (GSLs) which are key regulators of cell growth, division, surface adhesion, and neurodevelopment. Herein, we report structure-guided engineering of the lipid binding features of GLTP. New crystal structures of wild-type GLTP and two mutants (D48V and A47D||D48V), each containing bound N-nervonoyl-sulfatide, reveal the molecular basis for selective anchoring of sulfatide (3-O-sulfo-galactosylceramide) by D48V-GLTP. Directed point mutations of ‘portal entrance’ residues, A47 and D48, reversibly regulate sphingosine access to the hydrophobic pocket via a mechanism that could involve homo-dimerization. ‘Door-opening’ conformational changes by phenylalanines within the hydrophobic pocket are revealed during lipid encapsulation by new crystal structures of bona fide apo-GLTP and GLTP complexed with N-oleoyl-glucosylceramide. The development of ‘engineered GLTPs’ with enhanced specificity for select GSLs provides a potential new therapeutic approach for targeting GSL-mediated pathologies. PMID:22078563

  2. Cervical tissue engineering using silk scaffolds and human cervical cells.

    PubMed

    House, Michael; Sanchez, Cristina C; Rice, William L; Socrate, Simona; Kaplan, David L

    2010-06-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth is a frequent complication of pregnancy and a common cause of morbidity in childhood. Obstetricians suspect abnormalities of the cervix are implicated in a significant number of preterm births. The cervix is composed of fibrous connective tissue and undergoes significant remodeling in preparation for birth. We hypothesized that a tissue engineering strategy could be used to develop three-dimensional cervical-like tissue constructs that would be suitable for investigating cervical remodeling. Cervical cells were isolated from two premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for a benign gynecological condition, and the cells were seeded on porous silk scaffolds in the presence or absence of dynamic culture and with 10% or 20% serum. Morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties were measured during the 8-week culture period. Cervical cells proliferated in three-dimensions and synthesized an extracellular matrix with biochemical constituents and morphology similar to native tissue. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture was associated with significantly increased collagen deposition (p < 0.05), sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis (p < 0.05), and mechanical stiffness (p < 0.05). Serum concentration did not affect measured variables. Relevant human tissue-engineered cervical-like constructs constitute a novel model system for a range of fundamental and applied studies related to cervical remodeling. PMID:20121593

  3. An Integrated Suite of Tools to support Human Factors Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo

    2001-08-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) work for the nuclear industry imposes special demands on the practitioner in terms of the scope, complexity and safety requirements for humans in nuclear installations. Unfortunately HFE lags behind other engineering disciplines in the development and use of modern, powerful tools for the full range of analysis and design processes. HFE does not appear to be an attractive market for software and hardware developers and as a result, HFE practitioners usually have to rely on inefficient general-purpose tools like standard office software, or they have to use expensive special-purpose tools that offer only part of the solution they require and which also do not easily integrate with other tools. There have been attempts to develop generic software tools to support the HFE analyst and also to achieve some order and consistency in format and presentation. However, in spite of many years of development, very few tools have emerged that have achieved these goals. This would suggest the need for special tools, but existing commercial products have been found inadequate and to date not a single tool has been developed that adequately supports the special requirements of HFE work for the nuclear industry. This paper describes an integrated suite of generic as well as purpose-built tools that facilitate information solicitation, issues tracking, work domain analysis, functional requirements analysis, function allocation, operational sequence analysis, task analysis and development of HSI design requirements. In combination, this suite of tools supports the analytical as well as the representational aspects of key HFE activities primarily for new NPPs, including capturing information from subject matter experts and various source documents directly into the appropriate tool and then linking, analyzing and extending that information further to represent detailed functional and task information, and ultimately HSI design requirements. The paper

  4. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-01

    With the technology of reprogramming somatic cells by introducing defined transcription factors that enables the generation of "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it has become possible to use this technology to produce various cells and tissues that have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is bringing forth rapid progress in iPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. More and more studies have demonstrated that phenotypes of adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders could be rather faithfully recapitulated in iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. Moreover, despite the adult-onset nature of the diseases, pathogenic phenotypes and cellular abnormalities often exist in early developmental stages, providing new "windows of opportunity" for understanding mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and for discovering new medicines. The cell reprogramming technology enables a reverse engineering approach for modeling the cellular degenerative phenotypes of a wide range of human disorders. An excellent example is the study of the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using iPSCs. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure. The iPSC approach provides innovative cell culture platforms to serve as ALS patient-derived model systems. Researchers have converted iPSCs derived from ALS patients into MNs and various types of glial cells, all of which are involved in ALS, to study the disease. The iPSC technology could be used to determine the role of specific genetic factors to track down what׳s wrong in the neurodegenerative disease process in the "disease-in-a-dish" model. Meanwhile, parallel experiments of targeting the same specific genes in human ESCs could also be performed to

  5. Engineered human vascularized constructs accelerate diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-I; Cho, Hongkwan; Papa, Arianne E; Burke, Jacqueline A; Chan, Xin Yi; Duh, Elia J; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Stem cell-based therapy is emerging as a promising approach for chronic diabetic wounds, but strategies for optimizing both cellular differentiation and delivery remain as major obstacles. Here, we study bioengineered vascularized constructs as a therapeutic modality for diabetic wound healing. We developed a wound model in immunodeficient rodent and treated it with engineered vascularized constructs from endothelial progenitors or early vascular cells-derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed either from healthy donor or type-1 diabetic patient. We found that all vascularized constructs expedited wound closure and reperfusion, with endothelial progenitor constructs having the earliest maximum closure rate followed closely by healthy and diabetic hiPSC-derivative constructs. This was accompanied by rapid granulation layer formation and regression in all vascularized construct groups. Macrophage infiltration into the hydrogel matrix occurred during early stages of healing, seeming to facilitate rapid neovascularization of the wound that could then better persist in the vascularized constructs. Blood perfusion of the human vasculature could be detected after three days, indicating rapid integration with the host vasculature. Overall, we propose a potential therapeutic strategy using allograft or autologous vascularized constructs to treat type-1 diabetic wounds. This approach highlights the unprecedented prospects of designing patient-specific stem cell therapy. PMID:27328431

  6. Automating the Human Factors Engineering and Evaluation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mastromonico, C.

    2002-05-28

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The tool provides a consistent, cost effective, graded, user-friendly approach for evaluating process control system Human System Interface (HSI) specifications, designs, and existing implementations. The initial set of HFE design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from NUREG- 0700. Each guideline was analyzed and classified according to its significance (general concept vs. supporting detail), the HSI technology (computer based vs. non-computer based), and the HSI safety function (safety vs. non-safety). Approximately 10 percent of the guidelines were determined to be redundant or obsolete and were discarded. The remaining guidelines were arranged in a Microsoft Access relational database, and a Microsoft Visual Basic user interface was provided to facilitate the HFE design review. The tool also provides the capability to add new criteria to accommodate advances in HSI technology and incorporate lessons learned. Summary reports produced by the tool can be easily ported to Microsoft Word and other popular PC office applications. An IBM compatible PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or higher is required to run the application.

  7. The First Development of Human Factors Engineering Requirements for Application to Ground Task Design for a NASA Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Stambolian, Damon B.; Miller, Darcy H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has long applied standards-derived human engineering requirements to the development of hardware and software for use by astronauts while in flight. The most important source of these requirements has been NASA-STD-3000. While there have been several ground systems human engineering requirements documents, none has been applicable to the flight system as handled at NASA's launch facility at Kennedy Space Center. At the time of the development of previous human launch systems, there were other considerations that were deemed more important than developing worksites for ground crews; e.g., hardware development schedule and vehicle performance. However, experience with these systems has shown that failure to design for ground tasks has resulted in launch schedule delays, ground operations that are more costly than they might be, and threats to flight safety. As the Agency begins the development of new systems to return humans to the moon, the new Constellation Program is addressing this issue with a new set of human engineering requirements. Among these requirements is a subset that will apply to the design of the flight components and that is intended to assure ground crew success in vehicle assembly and maintenance tasks. These requirements address worksite design for usability and for ground crew safety.

  8. Ergonomic Considerations for the Human Environment: Color Treatment, Lighting, and Furniture Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Michelle M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ergonomic design considerations for library media centers. Specific design variables, including temperature and humidity, noise, illumination, color, and windows are discussed; and computer workstation design requirements are presented that address furniture and keyboard design, monitor and display features, software issues, and…

  9. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN HUMAN AIR POLLUTION INHALATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exe...

  10. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  11. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  12. Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of

  13. Mate preferences and infectious disease: theoretical considerations and evidence in humans

    PubMed Central

    Tybur, Joshua M.; Gangestad, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Mate preferences may operate in part to mitigate the threats posed by infectious disease. In this paper, we outline various ways in which preferring healthy mates can offer direct benefits in terms of pathogen avoidance and indirect benefits in terms of heritable immunity to offspring, as well as the costs that may constrain mate preferences for health. We then pay special attention to empirical work on mate preferences in humans given the depth and breadth of research on human mating. We review this literature and comment on the degree to which human mate preferences may reflect preferences for health. PMID:22042915

  14. Functional engineered human cardiac patches prepared from nature's platform improve heart function after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingjie; Yang, Hui; Bai, Aobing; Jiang, Wei; Li, Xiuya; Wang, Xinhong; Mao, Yishen; Lu, Chao; Qian, Ruizhe; Guo, Feng; Ding, Tianling; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Sifeng; Zhang, Jianyi; Liu, Chen; Sun, Ning

    2016-10-01

    With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cells and directed differentiation techniques, it is now feasible to derive individual-specific cardiac cells for human heart tissue engineering. Here we report the generation of functional engineered human cardiac patches using human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiac cells and decellularized natural heart ECM as scaffolds. The engineered human cardiac patches can be tailored to any desired size and shape and exhibited normal contractile and electrical physiology in vitro. Further, when patching on the infarct area, these patches improved heart function of rats with acute myocardial infarction in vivo. These engineered human cardiac patches can be of great value for normal and disease-specific heart tissue engineering, drug screening, and meet the demands for individual-specific heart tissues for personalized regenerative therapy of myocardial damages in the future. PMID:27509303

  15. Solubility engineering and crystallization of human apolipoprotein D

    PubMed Central

    Nasreen, Amber; Vogt, Martin; Kim, Hyun Jin; Eichinger, Andreas; Skerra, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a physiologically important member of the lipocalin protein family that was discovered as a peripheral subunit of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) but is also abundant in other body fluids and organs, including neuronal tissue. Although it has been possible to produce functional ApoD in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and to demonstrate its ligand-binding activity for progesterone and arachidonic acid, the recombinant protein suffers from a pronounced tendency to aggregate and to adsorb to vessel surfaces as well as chromatography matrices, thus hampering further structural investigation. Here, we describe a systematic mutagenesis study directed at presumably exposed hydrophobic side chains of the unglycosylated recombinant protein. As a result, one ApoD mutant with just three new amino acid substitutions—W99H, I118S, and L120S—was identified, which exhibits the following features: (1) improved yield upon periplasmic biosynthesis in E. coli, (2) elution as a monomeric protein from a gel permeation chromatography column, and (3) unchanged binding activity for its physiological ligands. In addition, the engineered ApoD was successfully crystallized (space group I4 with unit cell parameters a = 75.1 Å, b = 75.1 Å, c = 166.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°), thus demonstrating its conformationally homogeneous behavior and providing a basis for the future X-ray structural analysis of this functionally still puzzling protein. PMID:16322568

  16. How To Make the Most of Your Human: Design Considerations for Single Pilot Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Reconsidering the function allocation between automation and the pilot in the flight deck is the next step in improving aviation safety. The current allocation, based on who does what best, makes poor use of the pilot's resources and abilities. In some cases it may actually handicap pilots from performing their role. Improving pilot performance first lies in defining the role of the pilot - why a human is needed in the first place. The next step is allocating functions based on the needs of that role (rather than fitness), then using automation to target specific human weaknesses in performing that role. Examples are provided (some of which could be implemented in conventional cockpits now). Along the way, the definition of human error and the idea that eliminating/automating the pilot will reduce instances of human error will be challenged.

  17. Methods and considerations for the analysis and standardization of assessing muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans.

    PubMed

    White, Daniel W; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Raven, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    The technique of microneurography and the assessment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are used in laboratories throughout the world. The variables used to describe MSNA, and the criteria by which these variables are quantified from the integrated neurogram, vary among studies and laboratories and, therefore, can become confusing to those starting to learn the technique. Therefore, the purpose of this educational review is to discuss guidelines and standards for the assessment of sympathetic nervous activity through the collection and analysis of MSNA. This review will reiterate common practices in the collection of MSNA, but will also introduce considerations for the evaluation and physiological inference using MSNA. PMID:26299824

  18. Unifying Human Centered Design and Systems Engineering for Human Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; McGovernNarkevicius, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Despite the holistic approach of systems engineering (SE), systems still fail, and sometimes spectacularly. Requirements, solutions and the world constantly evolve and are very difficult to keep current. SE requires more flexibility and new approaches to SE have to be developed to include creativity as an integral part and where the functions of people and technology are appropriately allocated within our highly interconnected complex organizations. Instead of disregarding complexity because it is too difficult to handle, we should take advantage of it, discovering behavioral attractors and the emerging properties that it generates. Human-centered design (HCD) provides the creativity factor that SE lacks. It promotes modeling and simulation from the early stages of design and throughout the life cycle of a product. Unifying HCD and SE will shape appropriate human-systems integration (HSI) and produce successful systems.

  19. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2006-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  20. Tools to Support Human Factors and Systems Engineering Interactions During Early Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Holden, Kritina; Smith, Danielle Paige

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach and existing software tool support for effective interactions between human factors engineers and systems engineers in early analysis activities during system acquisition. We examine the tasks performed during this stage, emphasizing those tasks where system engineers and human engineers interact. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) document is an important product during this phase, and particular attention is paid to its influences on subsequent acquisition activities. Understanding this influence helps ConOps authors describe a complete system concept that guides subsequent acquisition activities. We identify commonly used system engineering and human engineering tools and examine how they can support the specific tasks associated with system definition. We identify possible gaps in the support of these tasks, the largest of which appears to be creating the ConOps document itself. Finally, we outline the goals of our future empirical investigations of tools to support system concept definition.

  1. Mission Design Considerations for Mars Cargo of the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjauw, Waldy K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in human missions to Mars has led to an Evolvable Mars Campaign by the agency's Human Architecture Team. Delivering the crew return propulsion stages and Mars surface landers, SEP based systems are employed because of their high specific impulse characteristics enabling missions requiring less propellant although with longer transfer times. The Earth departure trajectories start from an SLS launch vehicle delivery orbit and are spiral shaped because of the low SEP thrust. Previous studies have led to interest in assessing the divide in trip time between the Earth departure and interplanetary legs of the mission for a representative SEP cargo vehicle.

  2. NOX REMOVAL IN JET-ENGINE TEST CELL EXHAUST: PROPOSED NON-THERMAL PLASMA SYSTEMS AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incentives for implementing new pollution-control technologies are both regulatory and econimic. Given considerable regulatory pressure, e.g., the promulgation of a NESHAPS (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) for NOx emissions in CY 2000, new de-NOx techno...

  3. Considerations for human exposure standards for fast-rise-time high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J H; Kiel, J L; Hurt, W D

    1995-06-01

    Development of new emitter systems capable of producing high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses with very fast rise times and narrow pulse widths is continuing. Such directed energy weapons systems will be used in the future to defeat electronically vulnerable targets. Human exposures to these pulses can be expected during testing and operations. Development of these technologies for radar and communications purposes has the potential for wider environmental exposure, as well. Current IEEE C95.1-1991 human exposure guidelines do not specifically address these types of pulses, though limits are stated for pulsed emissions. The process for developing standards includes an evaluation of the relevant bioeffects data base. A recommendation has been made that human exposure to ultrashort electromagnetic pulses that engender electromagnetic transients, called precursor waves, should be avoided. Studies that purport to show the potential for tissue damage induced by such pulses were described. The studies cited in support of the recommendation were not relevant to the issues of tissue damage by propagated pulses. A number of investigations are cited in this review that directly address the biological effects of electromagnetic pulses. These studies have not shown evidence of tissue damage as a result of exposure to high-peak-power pulsed microwaves. It is our opinion that the current guidelines are sufficiently protective for human exposure to these pulses. PMID:7646411

  4. Faith-Based Human Services Initiatives: Considerations for Social Work Practice and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangenberg, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Faith-based human services initiatives present numerous challenges to professional social work. This article explores ways a theoretical integration of ecosystems and structuration perspectives may help social workers navigate complex ideological and practical implications of changing service delivery policies. The article highlights diversity…

  5. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  6. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Dental Caries Research Using Human Subjects: Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Joanna

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research are discussed. It is concluded that dentistry must not uncritically accept guidelines meant for a broader class of research, that guidelines can be misapplied, and that researchers must educate themselves on the Commission…

  7. The Effect of Part-simulation of Weightlessness on Human Control of Bilateral Teleoperation: Neuromotor Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of weightlessness on the human operator's performance in force reflecting position control of remote manipulators was investigated. A gravity compensation system was developed to simulate the effect of weightlessness on the operator's arm. A universal force reflecting hand controller (FRHC) and task simulation software were employed. Two experiments were performed because of anticipated disturbances in neuromotor control specification on the human operator in an orbital control environment to investigate: (1) the effect of controller stiffness on the attainment of a learned terminal position in the three dimensional controller space, and (2) the effect of controller stiffness and damping on force tracking of the contour of a simulated three dimensional cube using the part simulation of weightless conditions. The results support the extension of neuromotor control models, which postulate a stiffness balance encoding of terminal position, to three dimensional motion of a multilink system, confirm the existence of a disturbance in human manual control performance under gravity compensated conditions, and suggest techniques for compensation of weightlessness induced performance decrement through appropriate specification of hand controller response characteristics. These techniques are based on the human control model.

  8. Human papillomavirus, anal cancer, and screening considerations among HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Cachay, Edward R; Mathews, William Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Invasive anal cancer has become an important cause of non AIDS-related cancer among HIV-infected individuals. Human papillomavirus is the main etiological agent. This review explains the pathophysiologic role of human papillomavirus in the development of invasive anal cancer, summarizes recent epidemiological trends of invasive anal cancer, and reviews the evidence to address common clinical questions posed when screening for anal cancer in HIV-infected patients. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on human papillomavirus oncogenesis is still unclear, but given the increased clinical burden of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients, many clinics have implemented screening programs for anal cancer and its precursors. Despite the availability of several modalities for treatment of precursors of anal cancer, evidence that current treatment modalities favorably alter the natural history of human papillomavirus oncogenesis in the anal and perianal regions is still inconclusive. However, there is sufficient evidence to state that the accuracy of anal cancer screening procedures (cytology and high-resolution anoscopy directed biopsy) is comparable to the accuracy of those used in screening for cervical cancer precursors. Studies that systematically assess the efficacy of these anal cancer screening programs in reducing the incidence of and morbidity and mortality from invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients are needed. PMID:23681437

  9. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. PMID:26524615

  10. Dynamic Isotope Power System Design Considerations for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) alternatives for the surface mission elements associated with a lunar base and subsequent manned Mars expedition were investigated, emphasizing the issue of how the mission environment affects system design. It was found that radiation shielding for human-rated applications has a greater impact on DIPS than any other factor.

  11. MECHANISTIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR HUMAN RELEVANCE OF CANCER HAZARD OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE

    PubMed Central

    Rusyn, Ivan; Corton, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a peroxisome proliferator agent that is widely used as a plasticizer to soften polyvinylchloride plastics and non-polymers. Both occupational (e.g., by inhalation during its manufacture and use as a plasticizer of polyvinylchloride) and environmental (medical devices, contamination of food, or intake from air, water and soil) routes of exposure to DEHP are of concern for human health. There is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of DEHP in the liver in both rats and mice; however, there is little epidemiological evidence on possible associations between exposure to DEHP and liver cancer in humans. Data are available to suggest that liver is not the only target tissue for DEHP-associated toxicity and carcinogenicity in both humans and rodents. The debate regarding human relevance of the findings in rats or mice has been informed by studies on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of the peroxisome proliferator class of chemicals, including DEHP. Important additional mechanistic information became available in the past decade, including, but not limited to, sub-acute, sub-chronic and chronic studies with DEHP in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α-null mice, as well as experiments utilizing several transgenic mouse lines. Activation of PPARα and the subsequent downstream events mediated by this transcription factor represent an important mechanism of action for DEHP in rats and mice. However, additional data from animal models and studies in humans exposed to DEHP from the environment suggest that multiple molecular signals and pathways in several cell types in the liver, rather than a single molecular event, contribute to the cancer in rats and mice. In addition, the toxic and carcinogenic effects of DEHP are not limited to liver. The International Agency for Research on Cancer working group concluded that the human relevance of the molecular events leading to cancer elicited by DEHP in several target tissues (e

  12. Where is the engineering I applied for? A longitudinal study of students' transition into higher education engineering, and their considerations of staying or leaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette; Møller Madsen, Lene; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative longitudinal study of students' transition into higher education engineering. The study aims at comparing upper-secondary school students' expectations of engineering with their actual experiences when encountering the engineering programme. It explores how this encounter provides a platform for students to become integrated during first year. We find that students' expectations are poorly met by their first-year study programme. In their attempt to bridge the gap between their expectations and their experiences, the students apply three strategies: some endure the gap, some constantly try out different study strategies and some compromised their expectations and identities to become more aligned with the study programme. The findings show that even when students successfully manage to bridge the gap, their strategy may turn out to be counterproductive from a learning point of view. The implications of the study are discussed.

  13. Finite element model creation and stability considerations of complex biological articulation: The human wrist joint.

    PubMed

    Gíslason, Magnús K; Stansfield, Benedict; Nash, David H

    2010-06-01

    The finite element method has been used with considerable success to simulate the behaviour of various joints such as the hip, knee and shoulder. It has had less impact on more complicated joints such as the wrist and the ankle. Previously published finite element studies on these multi-bone joints have needed to introduce un-physiological boundary conditions in order to establish numerical convergence of the model simulation. That is necessary since the stabilizing soft tissue mechanism of these joints is usually too elaborate in order to be fully included both anatomically and with regard to material properties. This paper looks at the methodology of creating a finite element model of such a joint focussing on the wrist and the effects additional constraining has on the solution of the model. The study shows that by investigating the effects each of the constraints, a better understanding on the nature of the stabilizing mechanisms of these joints can be achieved. PMID:20303315

  14. Design and measurement considerations for exercise protocols in human air-pollution inhalation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exercise period, and the timing of the exercise during exposure. It was also apparent that ventilation during rest and exercise was not always determined; in many instances ventilation was estimated based on other criteria, such as heart rate. The influence of ambient temperature conditions was frequently not considered. Determinations of pulmonary functions were also made at various time intervals following exercise or subsequent rest periods. All of these factors could result in some degree of misinterpretation of the consequences of pollutant exposure.

  15. Changing human landscapes under a changing climate: considerations for climate assessments.

    PubMed

    Perdinan; Winkler, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a fundamental aspect of the Anthropocene. Climate assessments are frequently undertaken to evaluate climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptive capacity. Assessments are complex endeavors with numerous challenges. Five aspects of a climate assessment that can be particularly challenging are highlighted: choice of assessment strategy, incorporation of spatial linkages and interactions, the constraints of climate observations, interpretation of a climate projection ensemble, uncertainty associated with weather/climate dependency models, and consideration of landscape-climate influences. In addition, a climate assessment strategy that incorporates both traditional "top-down" and "bottom-up" methods is proposed for assessments of adaptation options at the local/regional scale. Uncertainties associated with climate observations and projections and with weather/climate dependency (i.e., response) models are incorporated into the assessment through the "top-down" component, and stakeholder knowledge and experience are included through the "bottom-up" component. Considerable further research is required to improve assessment strategies and the usefulness and usability of assessment findings. In particular, new methods are needed which better incorporate spatial linkages and interactions, yet maintain the fine grain detail needed for decision making at the local and regional scales. Also, new methods are needed which go beyond sensitivity analyses of the relative contribution of land use and land cover changes on local/regional climate to more explicitly consider landscape-climate interactions in the context of uncertain future climates. Assessment teams must clearly communicate the choices made when designing an assessment and recognize the implications of these choices on the interpretation and application of the assessment findings. PMID:23884355

  16. Enhancing Human Spermine Synthase Activity by Engineered Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Yueli; Petukh, Margo; Pegg, Anthony; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Alexov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Spermine synthase (SMS) is an enzyme which function is to convert spermidine into spermine. It was shown that gene defects resulting in amino acid changes of the wild type SMS cause Snyder-Robinson syndrome, which is a mild-to-moderate mental disability associated with osteoporosis, facial asymmetry, thin habitus, hypotonia, and a nonspecific movement disorder. These disease-causing missense mutations were demonstrated, both in silico and in vitro, to affect the wild type function of SMS by either destabilizing the SMS dimer/monomer or directly affecting the hydrogen bond network of the active site of SMS. In contrast to these studies, here we report an artificial engineering of a more efficient SMS variant by transferring sequence information from another organism. It is confirmed experimentally that the variant, bearing four amino acid substitutions, is catalytically more active than the wild type. The increased functionality is attributed to enhanced monomer stability, lowering the pKa of proton donor catalytic residue, optimized spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential around the SMS with respect to substrates, and increase of the frequency of mechanical vibration of the clefts presumed to be the gates toward the active sites. The study demonstrates that wild type SMS is not particularly evolutionarily optimized with respect to the reaction spermidine → spermine. Having in mind that currently there are no variations (non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, nsSNP) detected in healthy individuals, it can be speculated that the human SMS function is precisely tuned toward its wild type and any deviation is unwanted and disease-causing. PMID:23468611

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) derived vectors: safety considerations and controversy over therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Romano, Gaetano; Claudio, Pier Paolo; Tonini, Tiziana; Giordano, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The latest generation of lentiviral vectors based on HIV-1 is one of the most efficient tools for gene transduction of mammalian cells. However, the possible employment of HIV-based vectors in clinical trials is a very controversial issue, mainly due to safety and ethical concerns. HIV-1 is a lethal pathogenic agent, which induces AIDS. Genetic vectors must derive either from viruses that are not pathogenic in humans, or that eventually just cause mild illnesses. Patients exposed to HIV-based vectors will test seropositive to certain components of HIV-1. In addition, there might be other possible adverse effects in patients that cannot be predicted, as many aspects of the pathogenesis of AIDS have not been completely understood yet. On these grounds, it seems necessary to improve the design of other lentiviral vectors, which derive from viruses that are not pathogenic in humans and are distantly related to primate retroviridae. PMID:14693483

  18. Endpoint matrix: a conceptual tool to promote consideration of the multiple dimensions of humane endpoints.

    PubMed

    Ashall, Vanessa; Millar, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to support appropriate application of endpoints in animal experiments. It is recommended that unpredicted endpoints should be explicitly considered alongside scientific endpoints and justifiable endpoints as the three types of endpoint which comprise the "humane." We suggest there is a need for clear identification of each type of endpoint and an understanding of the interactions between these types. The use of an "endpoint matrix" during study planning is proposed to promote methodically sound and consistent definition, determination, and detection of unpredicted, scientific, and justifiable endpoints in animal experiments. It is claimed that the further development and use of this tool will support a more effective and harmonized practical application of humane endpoints for all animal use in line with best practice recommendations. PMID:24794004

  19. Vibrations transmitted to human subjects through passenger seats and considerations of passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the vertical and lateral vibration-transmission characteristics of several types of transport vehicle seats (two aircraft and one bus) to obtain preliminary estimates and comparisons of the ride acceptability of the various seat types. Results of this investigation indicate that from the standpoint of human comfort the seats exhibit undesirable dynamic response characteristics. Amplification of floor vibrations occurred at the frequencies known to be most critical for human comfort in both vertical and lateral axes. An average transmissibility function for aircraft seats was tabulated together with the associated variability for use by designers who incorporate similar types of seats in their vehicles. The acceptability of vibrations resulting from floor inputs of 0.10g and 0.15g was low over a broad range of frequencies for both axes and all seat types, and was especially low at frequencies where the input was being amplified.

  20. Human error considerations and annunciator effects in determining optimal test intervals for periodically inspected standby systems

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, T.P.; Martz, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper incorporates the effects of four types of human error in a model for determining the optimal time between periodic inspections which maximizes the steady state availability for standby safety systems. Such safety systems are characteristic of nuclear power plant operations. The system is modeled by means of an infinite state-space Markov chain. Purpose of the paper is to demonstrate techniques for computing steady-state availability A and the optimal periodic inspection interval tau* for the system. The model can be used to investigate the effects of human error probabilities on optimal availability, study the benefits of annunciating the standby-system, and to determine optimal inspection intervals. Several examples which are representative of nuclear power plant applications are presented.

  1. The Structure of Human Prions: From Biology to Structural Models — Considerations and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Morantes, Claudia Y.; Wille, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are a family of transmissible, progressive, and uniformly fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. Although cross-species transmissions of prions are usually limited by an apparent “species barrier”, the spread of a prion disease to humans by ingestion of contaminated food, or via other routes of exposure, indicates that animal prions can pose a significant public health risk. The infectious agent responsible for the transmission of prion diseases is a misfolded conformer of the prion protein, PrPSc, a pathogenic isoform of the host-encoded, cellular prion protein, PrPC. The detailed mechanisms of prion conversion and replication, as well as the high-resolution structure of PrPSc, are unknown. This review will discuss the general background related to prion biology and assess the structural models proposed to date, while highlighting the experimental challenges of elucidating the structure of PrPSc. PMID:25333467

  2. Use of human in vitro skin models for accurate and ethical risk assessment: metabolic considerations.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Nicola J; Edwards, Robert J; Fritsche, Ellen; Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre; Scheel, Julia; Reisinger, Kerstin; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Duche, Daniel; Eilstein, Joan; Latil, Alain; Kenny, Julia; Moore, Claire; Kuehnl, Jochen; Barroso, Joao; Fautz, Rolf; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Several human skin models employing primary cells and immortalized cell lines used as monocultures or combined to produce reconstituted 3D skin constructs have been developed. Furthermore, these models have been included in European genotoxicity and sensitization/irritation assay validation projects. In order to help interpret data, Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) facilitated research projects that measured a variety of defined phase I and II enzyme activities and created a complete proteomic profile of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in native human skin and compared them with data obtained from a number of in vitro models of human skin. Here, we have summarized our findings on the current knowledge of the metabolic capacity of native human skin and in vitro models and made an overall assessment of the metabolic capacity from gene expression, proteomic expression, and substrate metabolism data. The known low expression and function of phase I enzymes in native whole skin were reflected in the in vitro models. Some XMEs in whole skin were not detected in in vitro models and vice versa, and some major hepatic XMEs such as cytochrome P450-monooxygenases were absent or measured only at very low levels in the skin. Conversely, despite varying mRNA and protein levels of phase II enzymes, functional activity of glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyltransferase 1, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases were all readily measurable in whole skin and in vitro skin models at activity levels similar to those measured in the liver. These projects have enabled a better understanding of the contribution of XMEs to toxicity endpoints. PMID:23539547

  3. Work, Productivity, and Human Performance: Practical Case Studies in Ergonomics, Human Factors and Human Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, T. M.; Pityn, P. J.

    This book contains 12 case histories, each based on a real-life problem, that show how a manager can use common sense, knowledge, and interpersonal skills to solve problems in human performance at work. Each case study describes a worker's problem and provides background information and an assignment; solutions are suggested. The following cases…

  4. Human Motion Tracking at Marshall Space Flight Center's Collaborative Engineering Center ANVIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Steven J.; Hamilton, George S.

    2004-01-01

    The installation and use of electromagnetic human motion trackers requires a specially designed and metal-free environment for optimal performance. Such an area is not readily available at the Marshall Space Flight Center Collaborative Engineering Center ANVIL. Our paper details a systems engineering approach to installing and operating Ascension Technologies Ethernet MotionStar tracking system in a sub-optimal environment, used with the JACK human computer model's motion capture capabilities. We also discuss how this system is integrated into the Marshall Space Flight Center's Human Engineering process.

  5. Human rights and ethical considerations for a tobacco-free generation

    PubMed Central

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Porter, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a new tobacco ‘endgame’ has been proposed: the denial of tobacco sale to any citizen born after a certain year, thus creating new tobacco-free generations. The proposal would not directly affect current smokers, but would impose a restriction on potential future generations of smokers. This paper examines some key legal and ethical issues raised by this proposal, critically assessing how an obligation to protect human rights might limit or support a state's ability to phase out tobacco. PMID:24114564

  6. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  7. Ethical considerations of industry-sponsored research: the use of human subjects.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J D

    1996-10-01

    This paper reviews the history and character of these research requirements, with special emphasis on questions concerning the role of industry in sponsored research. This discussion is becoming more vigorous with each passing year as private investment in research assumes greater importance in the scientific enterprise. I concentrate on issues of industry-supported human use that are on the "cutting edge" of contemporary biomedical ethics. Of special interest are questions about the disclosure of financial arrangements between industry and investigators, such as the nature and amount of capitated remuneration. PMID:8892182

  8. Oxygen utilization of the human left ventricle - An indirect method for its evaluation and clinical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical method is presented for determining the oxygen consumption rate of the intact heart working (as opposed to empty but beating) human left ventricle. Use is made of experimental recordings obtained for the chamber pressure and the associated dimensions of the LV. LV dimensions are determined by cineangiocardiography, and the chamber pressure is obtained by means of fluid-filled catheters during retrograde or transeptal catheterization. An analytical method incorporating these data is then employed for the evaluation of the LV coronary oxygen consumption in five subjects. Oxygen consumption for these subjects was also obtained by the conventional clinical method in order to evaluate the reliability of the proposed method.

  9. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  10. Measuring human locomotor control using EMG and EEG: Current knowledge, limitations and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Enders, Hendrik; Nigg, Benno M

    2016-06-01

    Electrical signals encoding different forms of information can be observed at multiple levels of the human nervous system. Typically, these signals have been recorded in a rather isolated fashion with little overlap between the static recordings of electroencephalography (EEG) commonly used in neuroscience and the typical surface electromyography (EMG) recordings used in biomechanics. However, within the last decade, there has been an emerging need to link the electrical activation patterns of brain areas during movement to the behavior of the musculoskeletal system. This review discusses some of the most recent studies using the EEG and/or EMG to study the neural control of movement and human locomotion as well as studies quantifying the connectivity between brain and muscles. The focus is on rhythmic locomotor-type activities; however, results are discussed within the framework of initial work that has been done in upper and lower limbs during static and dynamic contractions. Limitations and current challenges as well as the possibility and functional interpretation of studying the connectivity between the cortex and skeletal muscles using a measure of coherence are discussed. The manuscript is geared toward scientists interested in the application of EEG in the field of locomotion, sports and exercise. PMID:26238032

  11. Human Factors Considerations for Safe Recovery from Faults In Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy; Belcastro, C. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    It is now possible - and important - to develop systems to help resolve Flight Control System (FCS) faults. From a human factors viewpoint, it is imperative that these systems take on roles, and provide functions, that are the most supportive to the pilot, given the stress, time pressure and workload they may experience following a FCS fault. FCS fault recovery systems may provide several different functions, including alerting, control assistance, and decision aiding. The biggest human factors questions are in the role suitable for the technology, and its specific functioning to achieve that role. Specifically, for these systems to be effective, they must meet the fundamental requirements that (1) they alert pilots to problems early enough that the pilot can reasonably resolve the fault and regain control of the aircraft and that (2) if the aircraft s handling qualities are severely degraded the HMS provide the appropriate stability augmentation to help the pilot stabilize and control the aircraft. This project undertook several research steps to develop such systems, focusing on the capabilities of pilots and on realistically attainable technologies. The ability to estimate which functions are the most valuable will help steer system development in the directions that can establish the highest safety levels.

  12. Considerations for Comprehensive Analyses of Sporozoite-Based Controlled Human Malaria Infection Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lover, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been renewed interest in the use of sporozoite-based approaches for controlled human malaria infections (CHMIs), and several sets of human challenge studies have recently completed. A study undertaken in Tanzania and published in 2014 found dose dependence between 10,000 and 25,000 sporozoite doses, as well as divergent times-to-parasitemia relative to earlier studies in European volunteers, with important implications for planning future studies. Analysis of time-to-event data has had extensive development in recent years, but these methods have had limited exposure outside biostatistics. Expansion of the published analyses to include recent methodological approaches optimized for the types of data used could provide a richer analysis of these studies and may result in alternative findings. Specifically, in a re-analysis of these data using survival analysis techniques, the differences recorded in prepatent periods between the two dosing regimens do not reach statistical significance, and there is no evidence for statistically significant differences in prepatent periods between the Dutch and Tanzanian study sites. Although these findings do not impact the reported safety and tolerability of challange with cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ), or invalidate the authors' hypotheses regarding naturally acquired immunity and its effect on parasite growth rates and prepatent periods, they highlight important opportunities to more fully use datasets from these trials and related CHMI experiments in the planning of future challenge studies. PMID:26392161

  13. A Novel Human Adipocyte-derived Basement Membrane for Tissue Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, Aaron

    Tissue engineering strategies have traditionally focused on the use of synthetic polymers as support scaffolds for cell growth. Recently, strategies have shifted towards a natural biologically derived scaffold, with the main focus on decellularized organs. Here, we report the development and engineering of a scaffold naturally secreted by human preadipocytes during differentiation. During this differentiation process, the preadipocytes remodel the extracellular matrix by releasing new extracellular proteins. Finally, we investigated the viability of the new basement membrane as a scaffold for tissue engineering using human pancreatic islets, and as a scaffold for soft tissue repair. After identifying the original scaffold material, we sought to improve the yield of material, treating the cell as a bioreactor, through various nutritional and cytokine stimuli. The results suggest that adipocytes can be used as bioreactors to produce a designer-specified engineered human extracellular matrix scaffold for specific tissue engineering applications.

  14. Ideas in Practice: The Mississippi River: Humanities and Civil Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonalt, Larry; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course offered for the freshman civil engineering major at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The rationale of developing the course which focuses on the symbolic, social, and technological aspects of the Mississippi River is included. (HM)

  15. Allostasis and the developing human brain: explicit consideration of implicit models.

    PubMed

    Ganzel, Barbara L; Morris, Pamela A

    2011-11-01

    We previously used the theory of allostasis as the foundation for a model of the current stress process. This work highlighted the core emotional systems of the brain as the central mediator of the relationship between stress and health. In this paper, we extend this theoretical approach to consider the role of developmental timing. In doing so, we note that there are strong implicit models that underlie current developmental stress research in the social and life sciences. We endeavor to illustrate these models explicitly as we review the evidence behind each one and discuss their implications. We then extend these models to reflect recent findings from research in life span human neuroscience. The result is a new set of developmental allostatic models that provide fodder for future empirical research, as well as novel perspectives on intervention. PMID:22018076

  16. New insights into in vitro amyloidogenic properties of human serum albumin suggest considerations for therapeutic precautions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neetu; Sivalingam, Vishwanath; Maurya, Sonalika; Prasad, Archana; Khandelwal, Puneet; Yadav, Subhash Chandra; Patel, Basant K

    2015-12-21

    Amyloid aggregates display striking features of detergent stability and self-seeding. Human serum albumin (HSA), a preferred drug-carrier molecule, can also aggregate in vitro. So far, key amyloid properties of stability against ionic detergents and self-seeding, are unclear for HSA aggregates. Precautions against amyloid contamination would be required if HSA aggregates were self-seeding. Here, we show that HSA aggregates display detergent sarkosyl stability and have self-seeding potential. HSA dimer is preferable for clinical applications due to its longer retention in circulation and lesser oedema owing to its larger molecular size. Here, HSA was homodimerized via free cysteine-34, without any potentially immunogenic cross-linkers that are usually pre-requisite for homodimerization. Alike the monomer, HSA dimers also aggregated as amyloid, necessitating precautions while using for therapeutics. PMID:26554815

  17. Appropriate uses and considerations for online surveying in human dimensions research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Miller, Holly M.; Dietsch, Alia M.

    2011-01-01

    Online surveying has gained attention in recent years for its applicability to human dimensions research as an efficient and inexpensive data-collection method; however, online surveying is not a panacea. In this article, we provide some guidelines for alleviating or avoiding the criticisms and pitfalls suggested of online survey methods and explore two case studies demonstrating different approaches to online surveying. The first was a mixed-mode study of visitors to 52 participating National Wildlife Refuges. The response rate was 72%, with over half of respondents completing the survey online, resulting in cost-savings and efficiencies that would not have otherwise been realized. The second highlighted an online-only approach targeting specialized users of satellite imagery. Through branching and skipping, the online mode allowed flexibilities in administration impractical in a mail survey. The response rate of 53% was higher than typical for online surveys. Both case studies provide examples of appropriate uses of online surveying.

  18. Current Issues and Considerations Regarding Trichomoniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shafir, Shira C.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Smith, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis has long been recognized as one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections. However, it is only in recent years that it has been appreciated that Trichomonas may play a critical role in amplifying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Given the evidence that T. vaginalis likely promotes HIV infection, the apparent high level of Trichomonas infection in the African-American community is cause for concern. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small or modest amount, it translates into a sizable population effect since Trichomonas is so common in this community. Therefore, control of trichomoniasis may represent an important avenue of control for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly among African-Americans. PMID:19136432

  19. [Practical considerations for high resolution anoscopy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Iribarren-Díaz, Mauricio; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio; González-Carreró Fojón, Joaquín; Alonso-Parada, María; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon in the general population, however its incidence is increasing significantly in certain risk groups, mainly in men who have sex with men, and particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. High resolution anoscopy technique is currently considered the standard in the diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but at present there is no agreed standard method between health areas. High resolution anoscopy is an affordable technique that can be critical in the screening of anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, but is not without difficulties. We are currently studying the most effective strategy for managing premalignant anal lesions, and with this article we attempt to encourage other groups interested in reducing the incidence of an increasing neoplasia. PMID:24182418

  20. Human Factors and Technical Considerations for a Computerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Thomas Anthony; Lew, Roger Thomas; Medema, Heather Dawne; Boring, Ronald Laurids; Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-09-01

    A prototype computerized operator support system (COSS) has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment. A COSS demonstration scenario has been developed for the prototype involving the Chemical & Volume Control System (CVCS) of the PWR simulator. It involves a primary coolant leak outside of containment that would require tripping the reactor if not mitigated in a very short timeframe. The COSS prototype presents a series of operator screens that provide the needed information and soft controls to successfully mitigate the event.

  1. Human factors considerations of IR sensors for the Canadian Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frim, John; Bossi, Linda; Tack, Dave

    2009-05-01

    The Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP) is the cornerstone of Canada's future soldier modernization effort, which seeks to "significantly enhance tactical level individual and team Lethality, Mobility and C4I performance in the complex, network-enabled, command-centric, effects-based digitized battlespace." This capital acquisition project is supported by a number of R&D Technology Demonstration Projects within Defence R&D Canada. Several of these projects focus on the human factors aspects of future technologies, such as IR sensors. The Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration (SIREQ TD) project examined the performance impact of NVGs, LWIR imaging systems, and fused systems (both optical and digital fusion) on target detection, recognition and identification. NVGs were shown to provide good identification performance while LWIR systems excelled in detection tasks. Fused systems show promise of augmenting the respective stand alone capabilities of each sensor type, but more work is required to optimize fusion algorithms. The Soldier Integrated Headwear Technology Demonstration (SIHS TD) project is looking at the human factors aspects of mounting a range of vision enhancement sensors on a helmet, including optimal placement of both sensors and displays with respect to center of mass, total head borne weight, and visual offset and parallax issues. Overall headwear system weight should be less than 2.5 kg, and if an offset from the eye is required then a horizontal offset (vice vertical or oblique) of the sensor appears most acceptable. These findings have implications on the design of future IR and fused sensor systems for dismounted soldiers.

  2. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  3. Profiles--Mechanical Engineering: Human Resources and Funding. Special Report. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Melissa J.

    This report was developed by the National Science Foundation to focus attention on a particular field of engineering. It addresses the human resources and funding for mechanical engineering programs through several perspectives. The first major section, "Personnel," discusses employment levels and trends, salaries, sectors of employment, jobs in…

  4. Viral Engineering of Chimeric Antigen Receptor Expression on Murine and Human T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hammill, Joanne A; Afsahi, Arya; Bramson, Jonathan L; Helsen, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of a bolus of tumor-specific T lymphocytes into cancer patients is a promising therapeutic strategy. In one approach, tumor specificity is conferred upon T cells via engineering expression of exogenous receptors, such as chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). Here, we describe the generation and production of both murine and human CAR-engineered T lymphocytes using retroviruses. PMID:27581020

  5. CE: Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Review of Nursing Considerations.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Janet; Thom, Bridgette

    2016-08-01

    : The overall incidence of head and neck cancer-which includes laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, nasopharyngeal, oral, oropharyngeal, and salivary gland cancers-has declined in the United States over the past 30 years with the concomitant reduction in tobacco use. Over that same period, however, the worldwide incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has escalated significantly, most notably among men and women under age 60 who live in developed countries. This epidemic rise in oropharyngeal cancer is largely attributed to certain genotypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV). In the United States, HPV prevalence in oropharyngeal tumors increased dramatically, from roughly 16% between 1984 and 1989 to nearly 73% between 2000 and 2004, and the annual incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is expected to surpass that of HPV-related cervical cancer by 2020.This article provides an overview of head and neck cancer-its incidence, risk factors, treatment, and posttreatment sequelae-with a focus on HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Unlike other forms of head and neck cancer, HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer tends to affect younger patients with few or none of the traditional risk factors and has a distinctive presentation, histology, and natural course. In order to provide appropriate patient education and to help these patients monitor and manage late and long-term treatment effects, it is important for nurses to be aware of this disease and its treatment, and of the unique survivorship issues that arise for affected patients. PMID:27428508

  6. Significant effects of mild endogenous hormonal changes in humans: considerations for low-dose testing.

    PubMed Central

    Brucker-Davis, F; Thayer, K; Colborn, T

    2001-01-01

    We review the significant and adverse health effects that can occur with relatively small endogenous hormonal changes in pubertal and adult humans. We discuss the effects of hormonal changes that occur within normal physiologic ranges--such as the rising levels of estrogen in peripuberty, which cause growth spurts at low levels and then the fusion of epiphyses at higher levels--and the hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle and their relation to genital phenotypic changes and intercurrent disease evolution. We turn next to adaptive changes in gonadal and other functions during aging, exercise, stress, starvation, and chronic diseases, which can serve as models for the effects of exogenous, hormonally active compounds. Then we review the states of borderline hormonal imbalances such as subclinical (having few or very mild symptoms, if any) hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, glucose intolerance, and other endocrine conditions. Finally, we review the deleterious systemic effects of gonadal imbalance. Information stemming from clinical observations leads to the concept of "no threshold" within the endocrine system and thus illustrates the importance of considering low-dose testing for chemicals that interfere with hormonal activity. We also urge attention to more sensitive, less visible end points such as osteoporosis, increased risk for cardiovascular disease, or cognitive changes. PMID:11250802

  7. Human papillomavirus infection in the oromaxillofacial area: Clinical anatomy and histological considerations.

    PubMed

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; MiclĂuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; BĂbţan, Anida Maria; CÂmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2015-11-01

    Clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck can range from benign lesions, which are the most frequent, to malignant lesions. The prevalence of head and neck cancer is increasing, despite currently decreasing trends in known risk factors such as smoking and alcohol use. A new patient profile has appeared in recent practice: most frequently a middle-aged male patient who does not smoke or drink alcohol, is sexually active (possibly having multiple partners), and presents with oral or cervicofacial lesions requiring diagnosis and treatment. Another risk factor that should be considered in these patients is HPV infection. The association of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with HPV is a challenge for the medical practitioner. The gold standard for diagnosis is histopathological examination, which can also yield evidence suggesting HPV infection. Determination of the viral genotype provides additional data for assessing the oncological risk of an HPV infection. Treatment of these patients is aimed at removing the lesions, in association or not with antiviral treatment and recurrence control. PMID:26331491

  8. Pertuzumab in human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: clinical and economic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lamond, Nathan WD; Younis, Tallal

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of specific therapy, the 15%–20% of breast cancers demonstrating human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein overexpression and/or gene amplification are characterized by a more aggressive phenotype and poorer prognosis compared to their HER2-negative counterparts. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), the first anti-HER2-targeted therapy, has been associated with improved survival outcomes in HER2-positive breast cancer. However, many patients with early stage disease continue to relapse, and metastatic disease remains incurable. In order to further improve these outcomes, several novel HER2-targeted agents have recently been developed. Pertuzumab (Perjeta), a monoclonal antibody against the HER2 dimerization domain, has also been associated with improved patient outcomes in clinical trials, and has recently been approved in combination with chemotherapy and trastuzumab for neoadjuvant therapy of early stage, HER2-positive breast cancer and first-line treatment of metastatic disease. This review briefly summarizes pertuzumab’s clinical development as well as the published evidence supporting its use, and highlights some of the currently unanswered questions that will influence pertuzumab’s incorporation into clinical practice. PMID:24876795

  9. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  10. The Application of Resilience Engineering to Human Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Herd, A.; Wolff, M.

    2010-09-01

    There is a concern that mishap reporting systems track information about previous anomalies but do little to protect against future failures. In contrast, the term ‘resilience engineering’ has been coined to describe techniques that identify the thousands of everyday positive actions that prevent accidents from occurring. This change of perspective poses significant theoretical and pragmatic challenges. Just as it can be difficult to identify the causes of previous failures, it is equally difficult to determine what went right and why. We cannot always be sure how close our successes came to failure. Resilience engineering has not previously been applied in any sustained way to space missions. This paper, therefore, uses resilience engineering concepts to analyse the many different ways in which successive crews responded to engineering challenges on the International Space Station(ISS).

  11. Some key considerations in evolving a computer system and software engineering support environment for the space station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. W.; Bown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The space station data management system involves networks of computing resources that must work cooperatively and reliably over an indefinite life span. This program requires a long schedule of modular growth and an even longer period of maintenance and operation. The development and operation of space station computing resources will involve a spectrum of systems and software life cycle activities distributed across a variety of hosts, an integration, verification, and validation host with test bed, and distributed targets. The requirement for the early establishment and use of an apporopriate Computer Systems and Software Engineering Support Environment is identified. This environment will support the Research and Development Productivity challenges presented by the space station computing system.

  12. Space Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.

  13. Ethical and legal considerations regarding the ownership and commercial use of human biological materials and their derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This article considers some of the ethical and legal issues relating to the ownership and use – including for commercial purposes – of biological material and products derived from humans. The discussion is divided into three parts: after first examining the general notion of ownership, it moves to the particular case of possible commercial use, and finally reflects on the case in point in the light of the preceding considerations. Units of cord blood donated altruistically for transplantation and which are found unsuitable for storage and transplantation, or which become unsuitable while stored in biobanks, are taken as an example. These cord-blood units can be discarded together with other biological waste, or they can be used for research or the development of blood-derived products such as platelet gel. Several ethical questions (eg, informed consent, property, distribution of profits, and others) arise from these circumstances. In this regard, some criteria and limits to use are proposed. PMID:22977316

  14. Musculoskeletal tissue engineering with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Ott, Lindsey; Seshareddy, Kiran; Weiss, Mark L; Detamore, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold tremendous promise for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, yet with so many sources of MSCs, what are the primary criteria for selecting leading candidates? Ideally, the cells will be multipotent, inexpensive, lack donor site morbidity, donor materials should be readily available in large numbers, immunocompatible, politically benign and expandable in vitro for several passages. Bone marrow MSCs do not meet all of these criteria and neither do embryonic stem cells. However, a promising new cell source is emerging in tissue engineering that appears to meet these criteria: MSCs derived from Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cord MSCs. Exposed to appropriate conditions, umbilical cord MSCs can differentiate in vitro along several cell lineages such as the chondrocyte, osteoblast, adipocyte, myocyte, neuronal, pancreatic or hepatocyte lineages. In animal models, umbilical cord MSCs have demonstrated in vivo differentiation ability and promising immunocompatibility with host organs/tissues, even in xenotransplantation. In this article, we address their cellular characteristics, multipotent differentiation ability and potential for tissue engineering with an emphasis on musculoskeletal tissue engineering. PMID:21175290

  15. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  16. Metallurgical considerations of the high yield to ultimate ratio in high strength steels for use in offshore engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.; Billingham, J.

    1995-12-31

    High strength steels are increasingly being specified for offshore applications primarily on topsides, but also more recently in jackets themselves. Compared with conventional structural steels, modem high strength steels possess higher yield ratios (YR). This has caused some concern and debate on their work hardening capacity and moreover, current material specification and design codes severely penalize their use by placing limits on YR and on allowable design stress. Many changes have occurred in steel processing and alloying methods over the past 15 years or so, to produce higher strength steels with increased toughness yet utilizing leaner chemistries to enhance weldability. High strength steels in the range 355--550MPa are likely to be increasingly used in future offshore applications and the current paper, although concerned with studies aimed specifically to assess the importance of variations in YR, also presents an overview of typical mechanical properties possessed by such steels. In general, the actual yield strength of steel plates exceeds the SMYS by a significant margin, sometimes by as much as 100MPa, which has important implications for material selection, design procedures and welding considerations. In general, as the yield strength increases, so also does the YR. However, despite possessing high YR values, modem steels maintain high levels of combined toughness, ductility and weldability. Variability in mechanical properties can be correlated with parameters such as particular steel manufacturer and production route, composition, and plate thickness. It has been demonstrated that some manufacturers can exert closer control on variability in properties, thereby consistently satisfying current offshore requirements.

  17. Is Law a Humanity: (Or Is It More like Engineering)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, David

    2004-01-01

    Law often appears to be in a limbo between the Social Sciences and the Humanities. Movements within legal scholarship itself, the law and economics movement and the law and literature movement, represent efforts to portray law as a social science or as a humanity. But if one looks at what lawyers do, one finds that law is more like…

  18. Engineering the Human Thymic Microenvironment to Support Thymopoiesis in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Brile; Montel-Hagen, Amélie; Ge, Shundi; Blumberg, Garrett; Kim, Kenneth; Klein, Sam; Zhu, Yuhua; Parekh, Chintan; Balamurugan, Arumugam; Yang, Otto O.; Crooks, Gay M.

    2014-01-01

    A system that allows manipulation of the human thymic microenvironment is needed both to elucidate the extrinsic mechanisms that control human thymopoiesis, and to develop potential cell therapies for thymic insufficiency. In this report, we developed an implantable thymic microenvironment composed of two human thymic stroma populations critical for thymopoiesis; thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and thymic mesenchyme (TM). TECs and TM from postnatal human thymi were cultured in specific conditions, allowing cell expansion and manipulation of gene expression, prior to re-aggregation into a functional thymic unit. Human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) differentiated into T cells in the aggregates in vitro and in vivo following inguinal implantation of aggregates in immune deficient mice. Cord blood HSPC previously engrafted into murine bone marrow, migrated to implants and differentiated into human T cells with a broad T cell receptor repertoire. Furthermore, lentiviral-mediated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in TM enhanced implant size and function, and significantly increased thymocyte production. These results demonstrate an in vivo system for the generation of T cells from human HSPC, and represent the first model to allow manipulation of gene expression and cell composition in the microenvironment of the human thymus. PMID:24801626

  19. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-09

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ‘delay and decay’, ‘concentrate and contain’ and ‘dilute and disperse’. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case.

  20. Design, Development, Testing, and Evaluation: Human Factors Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard; Hobbs, Alan; OHara, John; Null, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    While human-system interaction occurs in all phases of system development and operation, this chapter on Human Factors in the DDT&E for Reliable Spacecraft Systems is restricted to the elements that involve "direct contact" with spacecraft systems. Such interactions will encompass all phases of human activity during the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and maintenance phases of the spacecraft lifespan. This section will therefore consider practices that would accommodate and promote effective, safe, reliable, and robust human interaction with spacecraft systems. By restricting this chapter to what the team terms "direct contact" with the spacecraft, "remote" factors not directly involved in the development and operation of the vehicle, such as management and organizational issues, have been purposely excluded. However, the design of vehicle elements that enable and promote ground control activities such as monitoring, feedback, correction and reversal (override) of on-board human and automation process are considered as per NPR8705.2A, Section 3.3.

  1. Explore the Human-Based Teaching for the Professional Course of Materials Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yiping; Chen, Li; Zhang, Yufeng

    2008-01-01

    As viewed from two sides such as teacher and student, in this article, we explore the human-based teaching reform for the college professional course of materials Science and Engineering, point out the qualities and conditions that professional teacher should possess in the process of human-based teaching reform of professional course and the…

  2. Antenna modeling considerations for accurate SAR calculations in human phantoms in close proximity to GSM cellular base station antennas.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Marnus J; Bingle, Marianne; Meyer, Frans J C

    2005-09-01

    International bodies such as International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) make provision for human exposure assessment based on SAR calculations (or measurements) and basic restrictions. In the case of base station exposure this is mostly applicable to occupational exposure scenarios in the very near field of these antennas where the conservative reference level criteria could be unnecessarily restrictive. This study presents a variety of critical aspects that need to be considered when calculating SAR in a human body close to a mobile phone base station antenna. A hybrid FEM/MoM technique is proposed as a suitable numerical method to obtain accurate results. The verification of the FEM/MoM implementation has been presented in a previous publication; the focus of this study is an investigation into the detail that must be included in a numerical model of the antenna, to accurately represent the real-world scenario. This is accomplished by comparing numerical results to measurements for a generic GSM base station antenna and appropriate, representative canonical and human phantoms. The results show that it is critical to take the disturbance effect of the human phantom (a large conductive body) on the base station antenna into account when the antenna-phantom spacing is less than 300 mm. For these small spacings, the antenna structure must be modeled in detail. The conclusion is that it is feasible to calculate, using the proposed techniques and methodology, accurate occupational compliance zones around base station antennas based on a SAR profile and basic restriction guidelines. PMID:15931680

  3. [Tissue engineering and construction of human skin in vitro].

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Tissue engineering is the new science that has come to make possible the growth of new organ tissue from small fragments of healthy tissue, thus partially or totally restoring the lost functions of ill tissues or organs, as shown by the achievements made with the culture of skin, cornea or cartilage. Thus far, this new science is able to ensure the recovery of lost functions and, doubtlessly, in a near future will be capable of developing tissues and organs not unlike natural ones. In our laboratory we have began the development of tissue engineering techniques for the successful construction of in vitro skin with the aim at mid term of producing cornea and cartilage. In a first clinical trial, these techniques were applied in the treatment of chronic skin lesions and the advantages and reach of these new tools were demonstrated for the effective solution of problems with would otherwise not be easily solved through the use of conventional treatments. PMID:17853796

  4. NASA's Man-Systems Integration Standards: A Human Factors Engineering Standard for Everyone in the Nineties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booher, Cletis R.; Goldsberry, Betty S.

    1994-01-01

    During the second half of the 1980s, a document was created by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to aid in the application of good human factors engineering and human interface practices to the design and development of hardware and systems for use in all United States manned space flight programs. This comprehensive document, known as NASA-STD-3000, the Man-Systems Integration Standards (MSIS), attempts to address, from a human factors engineering/human interface standpoint, all of the various types of equipment with which manned space flight crew members must deal. Basically, all of the human interface situations addressed in the MSIS are present in terrestrially based systems also. The premise of this paper is that, starting with this already created standard, comprehensive documents addressing human factors engineering and human interface concerns could be developed to aid in the design of almost any type of equipment or system which humans interface with in any terrestrial environment. Utilizing the systems and processes currently in place in the MSIS Development Facility at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, any number of MSIS volumes addressing the human factors / human interface needs of any terrestrially based (or, for that matter, airborne) system could be created.

  5. Using human factors engineering to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Judith; Gosbee, Laura Lin; Bessesen, Mary; Williams, Linda

    2010-08-01

    Human factors engineering is a discipline that studies the capabilities and limitations of humans and the design of devices and systems for improved performance. The principles of human factors engineering can be applied to infection prevention and control to study the interaction between the healthcare worker and the system that he or she is working with, including the use of devices, the built environment, and the demands and complexities of patient care. Some key challenges in infection prevention, such as delayed feedback to healthcare workers, high cognitive workload, and poor ergonomic design, are explained, as is how human factors engineering can be used for improvement and increased compliance with practices to prevent hospital-acquired infections. PMID:20647784

  6. Human-factors engineering-control-room design review: Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. Draft audit report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.R.; Preston-Smith, J.; Savage, J.W.; Rousseau, W.F.

    1981-04-24

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Shoreham control room was performed at the site on March 30 through April 3, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The presented sections are numbered to conform to the guidelines of the draft version of NUREG-0700. They summarize the teams's observations of the control room design and layout, and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment.

  7. Strategies for improving the physiological relevance of human engineered tissues

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    This review examines important robust methods for sustained, steady state, in vitro culture. To achieve ‘physiologically relevant’ tissues in vitro additional complexity must be introduced to provide suitable transport, cell signaling, and matrix support for cells in 3D environments to achieve stable readouts of tissue function. Most tissue engineering systems draw conclusions on tissue functions such as responses to toxins, nutrition or drugs based on short term outcomes with in vitro cultures (2–14 days). However, short term cultures limit insight with physiological relevance, as the cells and tissues have not reached a steady state. PMID:25937289

  8. Using Transom Jack in the Human Engineering Analysis of the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Alves, Jeffrey R.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the human engineering analysis performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert (MSRR-1/QMI) using Transom Jack (Jack) software. The Jack software was used to model a virtual environment consisting of the MSRR-1/QMI hardware configuration and human figures representing the 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female. The purpose of the simulation was to assess the human interfaces in the design for their ability to meet the requirements of the Pressurized Payloads Interface Requirements Document - International Space Program, Revision C (SSP 57000). Jack was used in the evaluation because of its ability to correctly model anthropometric body measurements and the physical behavior of astronauts working in microgravity, which is referred to as the neutral body posture. The Jack model allows evaluation of crewmember interaction with hardware through task simulation including but not limited to collision avoidance behaviors, hand/eye coordination, reach path planning, and automatic grasping to part contours. Specifically, this virtual simulation depicts the human figures performing the QMI installation and check-out, sample cartridge insertion and removal, and gas bottle drawer removal. These tasks were evaluated in terms of adequate clearance in reach envelopes, adequate accessibility in work envelopes, appropriate line of sight in visual envelopes, and accommodation of full size range for male and female stature maneuverability. The results of the human engineering analysis virtual simulation indicate that most of the associated requirements of SSP 57000 were met. However, some hardware design considerations and crew procedures modifications are recommended to improve accessibility, provide an adequate work envelope, reduce awkward body posture, and eliminate permanent protrusions.

  9. Human Factors Vehicle Displacement Analysis: Engineering In Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David; Robertson, Clay

    2010-01-01

    While positioned on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, tall stacked launch vehicles are exposed to the natural environment. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding causes the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. The Human Factors team recognizes that vehicle sway may hinder ground crew operation, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability . The objective of this study is to physically simulate predicted oscillation envelopes identified by analysis. and conduct a Human Factors Analysis to assess the ability to carry out essential Upper Stage (US) ground operator tasks based on predicted vehicle motion.

  10. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  11. Engineering targeted chromosomal amplifications in human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Springer, Simeon; Yi, Kyung H; Park, Jeenah; Rajpurohit, Anandita; Price, Amanda J; Lauring, Josh

    2015-07-01

    Chromosomal amplifications are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. However, experimental systems to study the processes that lead to specific, recurrent amplification events in human cancers are lacking. Moreover, some common amplifications, such as that at 8p11-12 in breast cancer, harbor multiple driver oncogenes, which are poorly modeled by conventional overexpression approaches. We sought to develop an experimental system to model recurrent chromosomal amplification events in human cell lines. Our strategy is to use homologous-recombination-mediated gene targeting to deliver a dominantly selectable, amplifiable marker to a specified chromosomal location. We used adeno-associated virus vectors to target human MCF-7 breast cancer cells at the ZNF703 locus, in the recurrent 8p11-12 amplicon, using the E. coli inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme as a marker. We applied selective pressure using IMPDH inhibitors. Surviving clones were found to have increased copy number of ZNF703 (average 2.5-fold increase) by droplet digital PCR and FISH. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed that amplifications had occurred on the short arm of chromosome 8, without changes on 8q or other chromosomes. Patterns of amplification were variable and similar to those seen in primary human breast cancers, including "sawtooth" patterns, distal copy number loss, and large continuous regions of copy number gain. This system will allow study of the cis- and trans-acting factors that are permissive for chromosomal amplification and provide a model to analyze oncogene cooperativity in amplifications harboring multiple candidate driver genes. PMID:26099605

  12. Enhancing the Human Factors Engineering Role in an Austere Fiscal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Jack W.

    2003-01-01

    An austere fiscal environment in the aerospace community creates pressures to reduce program costs, often minimizing or sometimes even deleting the human interface requirements from the design process. With an assumption that the flight crew can recover real time from a poorly human factored space vehicle design, the classical crew interface requirements have been either not included in the design or not properly funded, though carried as requirements. Cost cuts have also affected quality of retained human factors engineering personnel. In response to this concern, planning is ongoing to correct the acting issues. Herein are techniques for ensuring that human interface requirements are integrated into a flight design, from proposal through verification and launch activation. This includes human factors requirements refinement and consolidation across flight programs; keyword phrases in the proposals; closer ties with systems engineering and other classical disciplines; early planning for crew-interface verification; and an Agency integrated human factors verification program, under the One NASA theme. Importance is given to communication within the aerospace human factors discipline, and utilizing the strengths of all government, industry, and academic human factors organizations in an unified research and engineering approach. A list of recommendations and concerns are provided in closing.

  13. Development of a novel engineered antibody targeting human CD123.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi; Golkar, Majid; Behdani, Mahdi; Rezaei, Gashin; Ghazizadeh, Leila; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2016-10-15

    Antibody engineering involves a range of custom modifications of immunoglobulins to improve their affinity, valency, and pharmacokinetics, ensuring a better target therapy achievement. A number of therapeutic antibodies have been used for cell surface receptor blockage, interfering with the ligand binding and inhibiting receptor-driven activation of cells. Here we describe the construction and characterization of a recombinant bivalent single-chain Fv (biscFv) that targets CD123. On conversion of anti-CD123 scFv to biscFv format, the recognition of the cognate ligand is not altered. Moreover, the increased overall efficacy of the anti-CD123 biscFv in binding and inhibition of CD123/IL-3 (interleukin-3) interactions in TF-1 cells is demonstrated. PMID:27156812

  14. Engineered human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) are produced in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) with microcarriers by coculturing mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (BTC) and bronchial epithelium cells (BEC). These TLAs display structural characteristics and express markers of in vivo respiratory epithelia. TLAs are useful for screening compounds active in lung tissues such as antiviral compounds, cystic fibrosis treatments, allergens, and cytotoxic compounds.

  15. Quantification of human growth hormone in serum with a labeled protein as an internal standard: essential considerations.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Caroline; Groves, Kate J; Biesenbruch, Sabine; O'Connor, Gavin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Arsene, Cristian; Schulze, Dirk; Quaglia, Milena

    2014-07-01

    To manage and inform diagnostic or therapeutic decisions, measurement results which are accurate, specific, and comparable between laboratories are required. Two challenges associated with this are the definition of the measurand and the commutability of the reference standard used. Once the measurand is defined, the next step in improving standardization is developing traceable quantification methods for proteins in biological fluids. A novel reference method for the quantification of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in serum has been developed using multistep sample cleanup at the protein level, tryptic digestion, and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Critical considerations for using isotopically labeled rhGH as the internal standard are described. A bulk serum sample was prepared at the clinically relevant level of 10 ng/g and quantified using the method described to give results traceable to the International System of Units (SI) with a total measurement uncertainty of <20%. Results compared favorably with an orthogonal traceable method using total tryptic digestion, peptide separation, and isotope dilution mass spectrometry. PMID:24856175

  16. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  17. Survey Result of the Engineering Undergraduate Student's “Human Performance”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Minoru; Takahashi, Hideaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa; Mizutani, Nobuyasu

    Development of engineer's “Human Performance” is being required to respond to various changes. “Human Performace” is defined as an ability of putting own knowledge and skill to a practical issue. Current engineering undergraduate education promotes to learn this ability. To examine effectiveness of the educational program, a questionnaire consisting of 66 items was developed and the survey was conducted across eight universities. As results, most students recognize importance of the ability, but their achievement is lower for English communication skill and adaptation of cultural difference. They learned the ability on laboratory experience for their thesis, experiment class, club activities, part-time jobs and other activities.

  18. Off-the-shelf human decellularized tissue-engineered heart valves in a non-human primate model.

    PubMed

    Weber, Benedikt; Dijkman, Petra E; Scherman, Jacques; Sanders, Bart; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Grünenfelder, Jürg; Verbeek, Renier; Bracher, Mona; Black, Melanie; Franz, Thomas; Kortsmit, Jeroen; Modregger, Peter; Peter, Silvia; Stampanoni, Marco; Robert, Jérôme; Kehl, Debora; van Doeselaar, Marina; Schweiger, Martin; Brokopp, Chad E; Wälchli, Thomas; Falk, Volkmar; Zilla, Peter; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Baaijens, Frank P T; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2013-10-01

    Heart valve tissue engineering based on decellularized xenogenic or allogenic starter matrices has shown promising first clinical results. However, the availability of healthy homologous donor valves is limited and xenogenic materials are associated with infectious and immunologic risks. To address such limitations, biodegradable synthetic materials have been successfully used for the creation of living autologous tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) in vitro. Since these classical tissue engineering technologies necessitate substantial infrastructure and logistics, we recently introduced decellularized TEHVs (dTEHVs), based on biodegradable synthetic materials and vascular-derived cells, and successfully created a potential off-the-shelf starter matrix for guided tissue regeneration. Here, we investigate the host repopulation capacity of such dTEHVs in a non-human primate model with up to 8 weeks follow-up. After minimally invasive delivery into the orthotopic pulmonary position, dTEHVs revealed mobile and thin leaflets after 8 weeks of follow-up. Furthermore, mild-moderate valvular insufficiency and relative leaflet shortening were detected. However, in comparison to the decellularized human native heart valve control - representing currently used homografts - dTEHVs showed remarkable rapid cellular repopulation. Given this substantial in situ remodeling capacity, these results suggest that human cell-derived bioengineered decellularized materials represent a promising and clinically relevant starter matrix for heart valve tissue engineering. These biomaterials may ultimately overcome the limitations of currently used valve replacements by providing homologous, non-immunogenic, off-the-shelf replacement constructs. PMID:23810254

  19. Human Systems Engineering for Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Gena; Stambolian, Damon B.; Stelges, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is primarily accomplished by human users of expensive and specialized equipment. In order to reduce the likelihood of human error, to reduce personal injuries, damage to hardware, and loss of mission the design process for the hardware needs to include the human's relationship with the hardware. Just as there is electrical, mechanical, and fluids, the human aspect is just as important. The focus of this presentation is to illustrate how KSC accomplishes the inclusion of the human aspect in the design using human centered hardware modeling and engineering. The presentations also explain the current and future plans for research and development for improving our human factors analysis tools and processes.

  20. Decellularization of human stromal refractive lenticules for corneal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Yusoff, Nur Zahirah Binte M; Goh, Tze-Wei; Setiawan, Melina; Lee, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chi; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2016-01-01

    Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) becomes a procedure to correct myopia. The extracted lenticule can be used for other clinical scenarios. To prepare for allogeneic implantation, lenticule decellularization with preserved optical property, stromal architecture and chemistry would be necessary. We evaluated different methods to decellularize thin human corneal stromal lenticules created by femtosecond laser. Treatment with 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) followed by extensive washes was the most efficient protocol to remove cellular and nuclear materials. Empty cell space was found inside the stroma, which displayed aligned collagen fibril architecture similar to native stroma. The SDS-based method was superior to other treatments with hyperosmotic 1.5 M sodium chloride, 0.1% Triton X-100 and nucleases (from 2 to 10 U/ml DNase and RNase) in preserving extracellular matrix content (collagens, glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans). The stromal transparency and light transmittance was indifferent to untreated lenticules. In vitro recellularization showed that the SDS-treated lenticules supported corneal stromal fibroblast growth. In vivo re-implantation into a rabbit stromal pocket further revealed the safety and biocompatibility of SDS-decellularized lenticules without short- and long-term rejection risk. Our results concluded that femtosecond laser-derived human stromal lenticules decellularized by 0.1% SDS could generate a transplantable bioscaffold with native-like stromal architecture and chemistry. PMID:27210519

  1. Decellularization of human stromal refractive lenticules for corneal tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Yusoff, Nur Zahirah Binte M.; Goh, Tze-Wei; Setiawan, Melina; Lee, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chi; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2016-01-01

    Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) becomes a procedure to correct myopia. The extracted lenticule can be used for other clinical scenarios. To prepare for allogeneic implantation, lenticule decellularization with preserved optical property, stromal architecture and chemistry would be necessary. We evaluated different methods to decellularize thin human corneal stromal lenticules created by femtosecond laser. Treatment with 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) followed by extensive washes was the most efficient protocol to remove cellular and nuclear materials. Empty cell space was found inside the stroma, which displayed aligned collagen fibril architecture similar to native stroma. The SDS-based method was superior to other treatments with hyperosmotic 1.5 M sodium chloride, 0.1% Triton X-100 and nucleases (from 2 to 10 U/ml DNase and RNase) in preserving extracellular matrix content (collagens, glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans). The stromal transparency and light transmittance was indifferent to untreated lenticules. In vitro recellularization showed that the SDS-treated lenticules supported corneal stromal fibroblast growth. In vivo re-implantation into a rabbit stromal pocket further revealed the safety and biocompatibility of SDS-decellularized lenticules without short- and long-term rejection risk. Our results concluded that femtosecond laser-derived human stromal lenticules decellularized by 0.1% SDS could generate a transplantable bioscaffold with native-like stromal architecture and chemistry. PMID:27210519

  2. Optimal Configuration of Human Motion Tracking Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Human motion tracking systems represent a crucial technology in the area of modeling and simulation. These systems, which allow engineers to capture human motion for study or replication in virtual environments, have broad applications in several research disciplines including human engineering, robotics, and psychology. These systems are based on several sensing paradigms, including electro-magnetic, infrared, and visual recognition. Each of these paradigms requires specialized environments and hardware configurations to optimize performance of the human motion tracking system. Ideally, these systems are used in a laboratory or other facility that was designed to accommodate the particular sensing technology. For example, electromagnetic systems are highly vulnerable to interference from metallic objects, and should be used in a specialized lab free of metal components.

  3. [Obtention of human skin sheets by means of tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Pérez, Pedro; Cotte, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this "in vitro" study was to develop a new system for keratinocyte culture on a dermal equivalent that enables treatment of different skin injuries. The keratinocyte where obtained from primary cell cultures derived from skin biopsies, seeded over a fibrin matrix enhanced with live human fibroblast. Cells growing over the dermal equivalent, rapidly confluences and a stratified epithelium was obtained within 20-25 days culture. Detachment of composite culture from flask is a simple and quick procedure with no need for chemical or enzyme treatments. The method described provides a number of advantages which include the large expansion of keratinocyte from the primary cell cultures without the need of a feeder layer, the availability of plasma from blood banks, and the versatile and safe manipulation of composite obtained "in vitro". All these facts allow to assure that this system could result very efficient for the treatment of all type of skin injuries. PMID:15916167

  4. Conversion of human choriogonadotropin into a follitropin by protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R K; Dean-Emig, D M; Moyle, W R

    1991-02-01

    Human reproduction is dependent upon the actions of follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH), luteinizing hormone (hLH), and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). While the alpha subunits of these heterodimeric proteins can be interchanged without effect on receptor-binding specificity, their beta subunits differ and direct hormone binding to either LH/CG or FSH receptors. Previous studies employing chemical modifications of the hormones, monoclonal antibodies, or synthetic peptides have implicated hCG beta-subunit residues between Cys-38 and Cys-57 and corresponding regions of hLH beta and hFSH beta in receptor recognition and activation. Since the beta subunits of hCG or hLH and hFSH exhibit very little sequence similarity in this region, we postulated that these residues might contribute to hormone specificity. To test this hypothesis we constructed chimeric hCG/hFSH beta subunits, coexpressed them with the human alpha subunit, and examined their ability to interact with LH and FSH receptors and hormone-specific monoclonal antibodies. Surprisingly, substitution of hFSH beta residues 33-52 for hCG beta residues 39-58 had no effect on receptor binding or stimulation. However, substitution of hFSH beta residues 88-108 in place of the carboxyl terminus of hCG beta (residues 94-145) resulted in a hormone analog identical to hFSH in its ability to bind and stimulate FSH receptors. The altered binding specificity displayed by this analog is not attributable solely to the replacement of hCG beta residues 108-145 or substitution of residues in the "determinant loop" located between hCG beta residues 93 and 100. PMID:1899483

  5. Conversion of human choriogonadotropin into a follitropin by protein engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.; Dean-Emig, D.M.; Moyle, W.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Human reproduction is dependent upon the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH), luteinizing hormone (hLH), and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). While the {alpha} subunits of these heterodimeric proteins can be interchanged without effect on receptor-binding specificity, their {beta} subunits differ and direct hormone binding to either LH/CG or FSH receptors. Previous studies employing chemical modifications of the hormones, monoclonal antibodies, or synthetic peptides have implicated hCG {beta}-subunit residues between Cys-38 and Cys-57 and corresponding regions of hLH{beta} and hFSH{beta} in receptor recognition and activation. Since the {beta} subunits of hCG or hLH and hFSH exhibit very little sequence similarity in this region, the authors postulated that these residues might contribute to hormone specificity. To test this hypothesis the authors constructed chimeric hCG/hFSH {beta} subunits, coexpressed them with the human {alpha} subunit, and examined their ability to interact with LH and FSH receptors and hormone-specific monoclonal antibodies. Surprisingly, substitution of hFSH{beta} residues 33-52 for hCG{beta} residues 39-58 had no effect on receptor binding or stimulation. However, substitution of hFSH{beta} residues 88-108 in place of the carboxyl terminus of hCG{beta} (residues 94-145) resulted in a hormone analog identical to hFSH in its ability to bind and stimulate FSH receptors. The altered binding specificity displayed by this analog is not attributable solely to the replacement of hCG{beta} residues 108-145 or substitution of residues in the determinant loop located between hCD{beta} residues 93 and 100.

  6. Conversion of human choriogonadotropin into a follitropin by protein engineering.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, R K; Dean-Emig, D M; Moyle, W R

    1991-01-01

    Human reproduction is dependent upon the actions of follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH), luteinizing hormone (hLH), and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). While the alpha subunits of these heterodimeric proteins can be interchanged without effect on receptor-binding specificity, their beta subunits differ and direct hormone binding to either LH/CG or FSH receptors. Previous studies employing chemical modifications of the hormones, monoclonal antibodies, or synthetic peptides have implicated hCG beta-subunit residues between Cys-38 and Cys-57 and corresponding regions of hLH beta and hFSH beta in receptor recognition and activation. Since the beta subunits of hCG or hLH and hFSH exhibit very little sequence similarity in this region, we postulated that these residues might contribute to hormone specificity. To test this hypothesis we constructed chimeric hCG/hFSH beta subunits, coexpressed them with the human alpha subunit, and examined their ability to interact with LH and FSH receptors and hormone-specific monoclonal antibodies. Surprisingly, substitution of hFSH beta residues 33-52 for hCG beta residues 39-58 had no effect on receptor binding or stimulation. However, substitution of hFSH beta residues 88-108 in place of the carboxyl terminus of hCG beta (residues 94-145) resulted in a hormone analog identical to hFSH in its ability to bind and stimulate FSH receptors. The altered binding specificity displayed by this analog is not attributable solely to the replacement of hCG beta residues 108-145 or substitution of residues in the "determinant loop" located between hCG beta residues 93 and 100. PMID:1899483

  7. Draft audit report, human factors engineering control room design review: Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.R.; Lappa, D.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1981-09-03

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Saint Lucie Unit 2 control room was performed at the site on August 3 through August 7, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The review team included human factors consultants from BioTechnology, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  8. Human Systems Engineering: A Learning Model Designed To Converge Education, Business, and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.

    The Human Systems Engineering (HSE) Model was created to facilitate collaboration among education, business, and industry. It emphasized the role of leaders who converge with others to accomplish their goals while paying attention to the key elements that create successful partnerships. The partnership of XXsys Technologies, Inc., University of…

  9. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Comparative DNA damage and transcriptomic effects of engineered nanoparticles in human lung cells in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide engineered nanomaterials were assessed for their ability to induce cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), various types of DNA damage, and transcriptional changes in human respiratory BEAS-2B cells exposed in vitro at se...

  11. Overcoming non-specific adsorption issues for AZD9164 in human urine samples: consideration of bioanalytical and metabolite identification procedures.

    PubMed

    Silvester, Steve; Zang, Frank

    2012-04-15

    A key challenge in the development of robust bioanalytical methods, for the determination of drug analyte in human urine samples, is the elimination of potential analyte losses as a result of non-specific adsorption to container surfaces in which the samples are collected, stored or processed. A common approach to address adsorption issues is to treat the urine samples with additives that serve to increase analyte solubility and/or minimise interaction with the container surfaces. A series of adsorption experiments were performed on human urine samples containing an adsorption-prone in-house development compound (AZD9164). A roller-mixing methodology was employed to maximise sample interaction with container surfaces and quantification of analyte was performed by LC-MS/MS following minimal sample preparation. In the absence of any urine additive, adsorptive losses averaged 35% but were highly variable between different lots of urine. In the presence of a range of additives, including the surfactants Tween 80, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulphonate (CHAPS) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDBS), analyte adsorption was shown to be eliminated. Of particular academic interest was the finding that adsorptive losses could also be reduced upon the addition of phospholipid. The presence of additive generally had no marked impact on the analyte MS response but the use of an isotopically labelled internal standard satisfactorily compensated for instances in which ion suppression was observed, e.g. in the presence of Tween 80. Since metabolite profiling/identification investigations are often performed on urine samples originating from early clinical pharmacology studies, the elution of selected additives was also monitored by MS. CHAPS, dimethylacetamide (DMA) and HP-β-cyclodextrin eluted as single chromatographic peaks in, or just after, the column void volume whilst polymeric Tween 80, and to a lesser extent SDBS, eluted over a wide retention time

  12. Molecular isotopic engineering (MIE): industrial manufacture of naproxen of predetermined stable carbon-isotopic compositions for authenticity and security protection and intellectual property considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, J. P.; Farina, P.; Pearson, A.; Mezes, P. S.; Sabatelli, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular Isotopic Engineering (MIE) is the directed stable-isotopic synthesis of chemical products for reasons of product identification and of product security, and also for intellectual property considerations. We report here a generally excellent correspondence between the observed and predicted stable carbon-isotopic (δ13C) results for a successful directed synthesis of racemic mixture from its immediate precursors. The observed results are readily explained by the laws of mass balance and isotope mass balance. Oxygen- and hydrogen isotopic results which require an additional assessment of the effects of O and H exchange, presumably due to interaction with water in the reaction solution, are addressed elsewhere. A previous, cooperative study with the US FDA-DPA showed that individual manufacturers of naproxen could readily be differentiated by their stable-isotopic provenance (δ13C, δ18O, and δD ref. 1). We suggest that MIE can be readily employed in the bio/pharmaceutical industry without alteration of present manufacturing processes other than isotopically selecting and/or monitoring reactants and products.

  13. Experimental therapy of human glioma by means of a genetically engineered virus mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Martuza, R.L.; Malick, A.; Markert, J.M.; Ruffner, K.L.; Coen, D.M. )

    1991-05-10

    Malignant gliomas are the most common malignant brain tumors and are almost always fatal. A thymidine kinase-negative mutant of herpes simplex virus-1 (dlsptk) that is attenuated for neurovirulence was tested as a possible treatment for gliomas. In cell culture, dlsptk killed two long-term human glioma lines and three short-term human glioma cell populations. In nude mice with implanted subcutaneous and subrenal U87 human gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk caused growth inhibition. In nude mice with intracranial U87 gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk prolonged survival. Genetically engineered viruses such as dlsptk merit further evaluation as novel antineoplastic agents.

  14. Molecular basis of engineered meganuclease targeting of the endogenous human RAG1 locus

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Inés G.; Prieto, Jesús; Subramanian, Sunita; Coloma, Javier; Redondo, Pilar; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Marenchino, Marco; D'Abramo, Marco; Gervasio, Francesco L.; Grizot, Sylvestre; Daboussi, Fayza; Smith, Julianne; Chion-Sotinel, Isabelle; Pâques, Frédéric; Duchateau, Philippe; Alibés, Andreu; Stricher, François; Serrano, Luis; Blanco, Francisco J.; Montoya, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Homing endonucleases recognize long target DNA sequences generating an accurate double-strand break that promotes gene targeting through homologous recombination. We have modified the homodimeric I-CreI endonuclease through protein engineering to target a specific DNA sequence within the human RAG1 gene. Mutations in RAG1 produce severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a monogenic disease leading to defective immune response in the individuals, leaving them vulnerable to infectious diseases. The structures of two engineered heterodimeric variants and one single-chain variant of I-CreI, in complex with a 24-bp oligonucleotide of the human RAG1 gene sequence, show how the DNA binding is achieved through interactions in the major groove. In addition, the introduction of the G19S mutation in the neighborhood of the catalytic site lowers the reaction energy barrier for DNA cleavage without compromising DNA recognition. Gene-targeting experiments in human cell lines show that the designed single-chain molecule preserves its in vivo activity with higher specificity, further enhanced by the G19S mutation. This is the first time that an engineered meganuclease variant targets the human RAG1 locus by stimulating homologous recombination in human cell lines up to 265 bp away from the cleavage site. Our analysis illustrates the key features for à la carte procedure in protein–DNA recognition design, opening new possibilities for SCID patients whose illness can be treated ex vivo. PMID:20846960

  15. Engineering physiologically stiff and stratified human cartilage by fusing condensed mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, clinically sized and mechanically functional cartilage could be engineered from young animal chondrocytes, but not from adult human mesenchymal stem cells that are of primary clinical interest. The approaches developed for primary chondrocytes were not successful when used with human mesenchymal cells. The method discussed here was designed to employ a mechanism similar to pre-cartilaginous condensation and fusion of mesenchymal stem cells at a precisely defined time. The formation of cartilage was initiated by press-molding the mesenchymal bodies onto the surface of a bone substrate. By image-guided fabrication of the bone substrate and the molds, the osteochondral constructs were engineered in anatomically precise shapes and sizes. After 5 weeks of cultivation, the cartilage layer assumed physiologically stratified histomorphology, and contained lubricin at the surface, proteoglycans and type II collagen in the bulk phase, collagen type X at the interface with the bone substrate, and collagen type I within the bone phase. For the first time, the Young’s modulus and the friction coefficient of human cartilage engineered from mesenchymal stem cells reached physiological levels for adult human cartilage. We propose that this method can be effective for generating human osteochondral tissue constructs. PMID:25828645

  16. Human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets accelerate liver regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Itaba, Noriko; Matsumi, Yoshiaki; Okinaka, Kaori; Ashla, An Afida; Kono, Yohei; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Morimoto, Minoru; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Kazuo; Okano, Teruo; Shiota, Goshi

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cell therapy. Based on our hypothesis that suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signal enhances hepatic differentiation of human MSCs, we developed human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets by a small molecule compound. Screening of 10 small molecule compounds was performed by WST assay, TCF reporter assay, and albumin mRNA expression. Consequently, hexachlorophene suppressed TCF reporter activity in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Hexachlorophene rapidly induced hepatic differentiation of human MSCs judging from expression of liver-specific genes and proteins, PAS staining, and urea production. The effect of orthotopic transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets against acute liver injury was examined in one-layered to three-layered cell sheets system. Transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets enhanced liver regeneration and suppressed liver injury. The survival rates of the mice were significantly improved. High expression of complement C3 and its downstream signals including C5a, NF-κB, and IL-6/STAT-3 pathway was observed in hepatic cell sheets-grafted tissues. Expression of phosphorylated EGFR and thioredoxin is enhanced, resulting in reduction of oxidative stress. These findings suggest that orthotopic transplantation of hepatic cell sheets manufactured from MSCs accelerates liver regeneration through complement C3, EGFR and thioredoxin. PMID:26553591

  17. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  18. [The application progress of human urine derived stem cells in bone tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Jiang, Dapeng; Li, Zhaozhu

    2016-04-01

    The research of bone tissue engineering bases on three basic directions of seed cells, scaffold materials and growth information. Stem cells have been widely studied as seed cells. Human urine-derived stem cell (hUSC) is extracted from urine and described to be adhesion growth, cloning, expression of the majority of mesenchymal stem cell markers and peripheral cell markers, multi-potential and no tumor but stable karyotype with passaging many times. Some researches proposed that hUSC might be a new source of seed cells in tissue engineering because of their invasive and convenient obtention, stable culture and multiple differentiation potential. PMID:27029208

  19. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H.; Deatly, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesenchymal tissue-like assemblies (3D hLEM TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infection with the virus. Therefore, we assert TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host s immune system.

  20. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  1. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2015-04-15

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells. PMID:25573173

  2. Vascularized subcutaneous human liver tissue from engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yusuke; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Ohashi, Kazuo; Koike, Makiko; Utoh, Rie; Hasegawa, Hideko; Muraoka, Izumi; Suematsu, Takashi; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    Subcutaneous liver tissue engineering is an attractive and minimally invasive approach used to curative treat hepatic failure and inherited liver diseases. However, graft failure occurs frequently due to insufficient infiltration of blood vessels (neoangiogenesis), while the maintenance of hepatocyte phenotype and function requires in vivo development of the complex cellular organization of the hepatic lobule. Here we describe a subcutaneous human liver construction allowing for rapidly vascularized grafts by transplanting engineered cellular sheets consisting of human primary hepatocytes adhered onto a fibroblast layer. The engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets (EHFSs) showed superior expression levels of vascularization-associated growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 1, and hepatocyte growth factor) in vitro. EHFSs developed into vascularized subcutaneous human liver tissues contained glycogen stores, synthesized coagulation factor IX, and showed significantly higher synthesis rates of liver-specific proteins (albumin and alpha 1 anti-trypsin) in vivo than tissues from hepatocyte-only sheets. The present study describes a new approach for vascularized human liver organogenesis under mouse skin. This approach could prove valuable for establishing novel cell therapies for liver diseases. PMID:26142777

  3. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    SciTech Connect

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  4. Operator role definition: An initial step in the human factors engineering design of the advanced neutron source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Spelt, P.F.; Houser, M.M.; Hill, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy that is proposed for construction. It will provide neutron beams for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The facility will provide a useful neutron beam flux that is at least five times more than is available at the world`s best existing facilities. It will also provide world-class facilities for isotopes production, materials irradiation testing, materials analysis, and the production of positrons. ANS will be unique in the United States in the extent to which human factors engineering (HFE) principles will be included in its design and construction. Initial HFE accomplishments include the development of a functional analysis, an operating philosophy, and a program plan. In fiscal year 1994, HFE activities are focusing on the role of the ANS control room reactor operator (RO). An operator-centered control room model was used in conjunction with information gathered from existing ANS system design descriptions and other literature to define RO responsibilities. From this list, a survey instrument was developed and administered to ANS design engineers, operations management personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and HFIR ROs to detail the nature of the RO position. Initial results indicated that the RO should function as a high-level system supervisor with considerable monitoring, verification, and communication responsibilities. The relatively high level of control automation has resulted in a reshaping of the RO`s traditional safety and investment protection roles.

  5. Fibronectin-Alginate microcapsules improve cell viability and protein secretion of encapsulated Factor IX-engineered human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Sayyar, Bahareh; Dodd, Megan; Marquez-Curtis, Leah; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; Hortelano, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Continuous delivery of proteins by engineered cells encapsu-lated in biocompatible polymeric microcapsules is of considerable therapeutic potential. However, this technology has not lived up to expectations due to inadequate cell--matrix interactions and subsequent cell death. In this study we hypoth-esize that the presence of fibronectin in an alginate matrix may enhance the viability and functionality of encapsulated human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) expressing the human Factor IX (FIX) gene. MSCs were encapsulated in alginate-PLL microcapsules containing 10, 100, or 500 μg/ml fibronectin to ameliorate cell survival. MSCs in microcapsules with 100 and 500 μg/ml fibronectin demonstrated improved cell viability and proliferation and higher FIX secretion compared to MSCs in non-supplemented microcapsules. In contrast, 10 μg/ml fibronectin did not significantly affect the viability and protein secretion from the encapsulated cells. Differentiation studies demonstrated osteogenic (but not chondrogenic or adipogenic) differentiation capability and efficient FIX secretion of the enclosed MSCs in the fibronectin-alginate suspension culture. Thus, the use of recombinant MSCs encapsulated in fibronectin-alginate microcapsules in basal or osteogenic cultures may be of practical use in the treatment of hemophilia B. PMID:24564349

  6. Initial In Vitro Investigation of the Human Immune Response to Corneal Cells from Genetically Engineered Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Naoko; Long, Cassandra; Piluek, Jordan; Roh, Danny S.; SundarRaj, Nirmala; Funderburgh, James L.; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Isse, Kumiko; Phelps, Carol J.; Ball, Suyapa F.; Ayares, David L.; Cooper, David K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the in vitro human humoral and cellular immune responses to wild-type (WT) pig corneal endothelial cells (pCECs) with those to pig aortic endothelial cells (pAECs). These responses were further compared with CECs from genetically engineered pigs (α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout [GTKO] pigs and pigs expressing a human complement-regulatory protein [CD46]) and human donors. Methods. The expression of Galα1,3Gal (Gal), swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I and class II on pCECs and pAECs, with or without activation by porcine IFN-γ, was tested by flow cytometry. Pooled human serum was used to measure IgM/IgG binding to and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) to cells from WT, GTKO, and GTKO/CD46 pigs. The human CD4+ T-cell response to cells from WT, GTKO, GTKO/CD46 pigs and human was tested by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Results. There was a lower level of expression of the Gal antigen and of SLA class I and II on the WT pCECs than on the WT pAECs, resulting in less antibody binding and reduced human CD4+ T-cell proliferation. However, lysis of the WT pCECs was equivalent to that of the pAECs, suggesting more susceptibility to injury. There were significantly weaker humoral and cellular responses to the pCECs from GTKO/CD46 pigs compared with the WT pCECs, although the cellular response to the GTKO/CD46 pCECs was greater than to the human CECs. Conclusions. These data provide the first report of in vitro investigations of CECs from genetically engineered pigs and suggest that pig corneas may provide an acceptable alternative to human corneas for clinical transplantation. PMID:21596821

  7. Tissue-Engineered Vascular Rings from Human iPSC-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Dash, Biraja C; Levi, Karen; Schwan, Jonas; Luo, Jiesi; Bartulos, Oscar; Wu, Hongwei; Qiu, Caihong; Yi, Ting; Ren, Yongming; Campbell, Stuart; Rolle, Marsha W; Qyang, Yibing

    2016-07-12

    There is an urgent need for an efficient approach to obtain a large-scale and renewable source of functional human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to establish robust, patient-specific tissue model systems for studying the pathogenesis of vascular disease, and for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Here, we have derived a large quantity of highly enriched functional VSMCs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-VSMCs). Furthermore, we have engineered 3D tissue rings from hiPSC-VSMCs using a facile one-step cellular self-assembly approach. The tissue rings are mechanically robust and can be used for vascular tissue engineering and disease modeling of supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome. Our method may serve as a model system, extendable to study other vascular proliferative diseases for drug screening. Thus, this report describes an exciting platform technology with broad utility for manufacturing cell-based tissues and materials for various biomedical applications. PMID:27411102

  8. Recommendations to the NRC on human engineering guidelines for nuclear power plant maintainability

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.V.; Fecht, B.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eklund, J.D.; Hartley, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document contains human engineering guidelines which can enhance the maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines have been derived from general human engineering design principles, criteria, and data. The guidelines may be applied to existing plants as well as to plants under construction. They apply to nuclear power plant systems, equipment and facilities, as well as to maintenance tools and equipment. The guidelines are grouped into seven categories: accessibility and workspace, physical environment, loads and forces, maintenance facilities, maintenance tools and equipment, operating equipment design, and information needs. Each chapter of the document details specific maintainability problems encountered at nuclear power plants, the safety impact of these problems, and the specific maintainability design guidelines whose application can serve to avoid these problems in new or existing plants.

  9. Human Engineering Operations and Habitability Assessment: A Process for Advanced Life Support Ground Facility Testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis H.; Arch, M.; Elfezouaty, Eileen Schultz; Novak, Jennifer Blume; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Design and Human Engineering (HE) processes strive to ensure that the human-machine interface is designed for optimal performance throughout the system life cycle. Each component can be tested and assessed independently to assure optimal performance, but it is not until full integration that the system and the inherent interactions between the system components can be assessed as a whole. HE processes (which are defining/app lying requirements for human interaction with missions/systems) are included in space flight activities, but also need to be included in ground activities and specifically, ground facility testbeds such as Bio-Plex. A unique aspect of the Bio-Plex Facility is the integral issue of Habitability which includes qualities of the environment that allow humans to work and live. HE is a process by which Habitability and system performance can be assessed.

  10. Expression and purification of an engineered human endothelin receptor B in a monomeric form.

    PubMed

    Mishin, A V; Luginina, A P; Potapenko, A P; Borshchevskiy, V I; Katritch, V; Edelweiss, E; Okhrimenko, I S; Gordeliy, V I; Cherezov, V G

    2016-03-01

    In humans, two endothelin receptors, ETa and ETb, are activated by three endogenous 21-mer cyclic peptides, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3, which control various physiological processes, including vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and stimulation of cell proliferation. The first stage of this study it to produce a stable solubilized and purified receptor in a monodisperse state. This article is focused on the engineering, expression, purification, and characterization of the endothelin receptor B for subsequent structural and functional studies. PMID:27193723

  11. Meganucleases Revolutionize the Production of Genetically Engineered Pigs for the Study of Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Redel, Bethany K; Prather, Randall S

    2016-04-01

    Animal models of human diseases are critically necessary for developing an in-depth knowledge of disease development and progression. In addition, animal models are vital to the development of potential treatments or even cures for human diseases. Pigs are exceptional models as their size, physiology, and genetics are closer to that of humans than rodents. In this review, we discuss the use of pigs in human translational research and the evolving technology that has increased the efficiency of genetically engineering pigs. With the emergence of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system technology, the cost and time it takes to genetically engineer pigs has markedly decreased. We will also discuss the use of another meganuclease, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases , to produce pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency by developing targeted modifications of the recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2).RAG2mutant pigs may become excellent animals to facilitate the development of xenotransplantation, regenerative medicine, and tumor biology. The use of pig biomedical models is vital for furthering the knowledge of, and for treating human, diseases. PMID:26516165

  12. Engineering and commercialization of human-device interfaces, from bone to brain.

    PubMed

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L; Detamore, Michael; Capadona, Jeffrey R; Woolley, Andrew; Knothe, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Cutting edge developments in engineering of tissues, implants and devices allow for guidance and control of specific physiological structure-function relationships. Yet the engineering of functionally appropriate human-device interfaces represents an intractable challenge in the field. This leading opinion review outlines a set of current approaches as well as hurdles to design of interfaces that modulate transfer of information, i.a. forces, electrical potentials, chemical gradients and haptotactic paths, between endogenous and engineered body parts or tissues. The compendium is designed to bridge across currently separated disciplines by highlighting specific commonalities between seemingly disparate systems, e.g. musculoskeletal and nervous systems. We focus on specific examples from our own laboratories, demonstrating that the seemingly disparate musculoskeletal and nervous systems share common paradigms which can be harnessed to inspire innovative interface design solutions. Functional barrier interfaces that control molecular and biophysical traffic between tissue compartments of joints are addressed in an example of the knee. Furthermore, we describe the engineering of gradients for interfaces between endogenous and engineered tissues as well as between electrodes that physically and electrochemically couple the nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Finally, to promote translation of newly developed technologies into products, protocols, and treatments that benefit the patients who need them most, regulatory and technical challenges and opportunities are addressed on hand from an example of an implant cum delivery device that can be used to heal soft and hard tissues, from brain to bone. PMID:27108404

  13. Advancing functional engineered cardiac tissues toward a preclinical model of human myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Irene C.; Karakikes, Ioannis; Serrao, Gregory W.; Backeris, Peter; Lee, Jia-Jye; Xie, Chaoqin; Senyei, Grant; Gordon, Ronald E.; Li, Ronald A.; Akar, Fadi G.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Costa, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac experimental biology and translational research would benefit from an in vitro surrogate for human heart muscle. This study investigated structural and functional properties and interventional responses of human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs) compared to human myocardium. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs, >90% troponin-positive) were mixed with collagen and cultured on force-sensing elastomer devices. hECTs resembled trabecular muscle and beat spontaneously (1.18±0.48 Hz). Microstructural features and mRNA expression of cardiac-specific genes (α-MHC, SERCA2a, and ACTC1) were comparable to human myocardium. Optical mapping revealed cardiac refractoriness with loss of 1:1 capture above 3 Hz, and cycle length dependence of the action potential duration, recapitulating key features of cardiac electrophysiology. hECTs reconstituted the Frank-Starling mechanism, generating an average maximum twitch stress of 660 μN/mm2 at Lmax, approaching values in newborn human myocardium. Dose-response curves followed exponential pharmacodynamics models for calcium chloride (EC50 1.8 mM) and verapamil (IC50 0.61 μM); isoproterenol elicited a positive chronotropic but negligible inotropic response, suggesting sarcoplasmic reticulum immaturity. hECTs were amenable to gene transfer, demonstrated by successful transduction with Ad.GFP. Such 3-D hECTs recapitulate an early developmental stage of human myocardium and promise to offer an alternative preclinical model for cardiology research.—Turnbull, I. C., Karakikes, I., Serrao, G. W., Backeris, P., Lee, J.-J., Xie, C., Senyei, G., Gordon, R. E., Li, R. A., Akar, F. G., Hajjar, R. J., Hulot, J.-S., Costa, K. D. Advancing functional engineered cardiac tissues toward a preclinical model of human myocardium. PMID:24174427

  14. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2008-05-01

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

  15. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Based Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kime, Cody; Mandegar, Mohammad A; Srivastava, Deepak; Yamanaka, Shinya; Conklin, Bruce R; Rand, Tim A

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPS cells) are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool for biomedical discovery. The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells) with human embryonic stem (hES)-cell-like properties has led to hPS cells with disease-specific genetic backgrounds for in vitro disease modeling and drug discovery as well as mechanistic and developmental studies. To fully realize this potential, it will be necessary to modify the genome of hPS cells with precision and flexibility. Pioneering experiments utilizing site-specific double-strand break (DSB)-mediated genome engineering tools, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have paved the way to genome engineering in previously recalcitrant systems such as hPS cells. However, these methods are technically cumbersome and require significant expertise, which has limited adoption. A major recent advance involving the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) endonuclease has dramatically simplified the effort required for genome engineering and will likely be adopted widely as the most rapid and flexible system for genome editing in hPS cells. In this unit, we describe commonly practiced methods for CRISPR endonuclease genomic editing of hPS cells into cell lines containing genomes altered by insertion/deletion (indel) mutagenesis or insertion of recombinant genomic DNA. PMID:26724721

  16. Species-Specific Chromosome Engineering Greatly Improves Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production Profile in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sano, Akiko; Wu, Hua; Wang, Zhongde; Jiao, Jin-An; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale production of fully human IgG (hIgG) or human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) by transgenic animals could be useful for human therapy. However, production level of hpAbs in transgenic animals is generally very low, probably due to the fact that evolutionarily unique interspecies-incompatible genomic sequences between human and non-human host species may impede high production of fully hIgG in the non-human environment. To address this issue, we performed species-specific human artificial chromosome (HAC) engineering and tested these engineered HAC in cattle. Our previous study has demonstrated that site-specific genomic chimerization of pre-B cell receptor/B cell receptor (pre-BCR/BCR) components on HAC vectors significantly improves human IgG expression in cattle where the endogenous bovine immunoglobulin genes were knocked out. In this report, hIgG1 class switch regulatory elements were subjected to site-specific genomic chimerization on HAC vectors to further enhance hIgG expression and improve hIgG subclass distribution in cattle. These species-specific modifications in a chromosome scale resulted in much higher production levels of fully hIgG of up to 15 g/L in sera or plasma, the highest ever reported for a transgenic animal system. Transchromosomic (Tc) cattle containing engineered HAC vectors generated hpAbs with high titers against human-origin antigens following immunization. This study clearly demonstrates that species-specific sequence differences in pre-BCR/BCR components and IgG1 class switch regulatory elements between human and bovine are indeed functionally distinct across the two species, and therefore, are responsible for low production of fully hIgG in our early versions of Tc cattle. The high production levels of fully hIgG with hIgG1 subclass dominancy in a large farm animal species achieved here is an important milestone towards broad therapeutic applications of hpAbs. PMID:26107496

  17. Species-Specific Chromosome Engineering Greatly Improves Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production Profile in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua; Wang, Zhongde; Jiao, Jin-an; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J.; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale production of fully human IgG (hIgG) or human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) by transgenic animals could be useful for human therapy. However, production level of hpAbs in transgenic animals is generally very low, probably due to the fact that evolutionarily unique interspecies-incompatible genomic sequences between human and non-human host species may impede high production of fully hIgG in the non-human environment. To address this issue, we performed species-specific human artificial chromosome (HAC) engineering and tested these engineered HAC in cattle. Our previous study has demonstrated that site-specific genomic chimerization of pre-B cell receptor/B cell receptor (pre-BCR/BCR) components on HAC vectors significantly improves human IgG expression in cattle where the endogenous bovine immunoglobulin genes were knocked out. In this report, hIgG1 class switch regulatory elements were subjected to site-specific genomic chimerization on HAC vectors to further enhance hIgG expression and improve hIgG subclass distribution in cattle. These species-specific modifications in a chromosome scale resulted in much higher production levels of fully hIgG of up to 15 g/L in sera or plasma, the highest ever reported for a transgenic animal system. Transchromosomic (Tc) cattle containing engineered HAC vectors generated hpAbs with high titers against human-origin antigens following immunization. This study clearly demonstrates that species-specific sequence differences in pre-BCR/BCR components and IgG1 class switch regulatory elements between human and bovine are indeed functionally distinct across the two species, and therefore, are responsible for low production of fully hIgG in our early versions of Tc cattle. The high production levels of fully hIgG with hIgG1 subclass dominancy in a large farm animal species achieved here is an important milestone towards broad therapeutic applications of hpAbs. PMID:26107496

  18. The significance of using pooled human serum in human articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Azmi, B; Aminuddin, B S; Sharaf, I; Samsudin, O C; Munirah, S; Chua, K H; Ruszymah, B H I

    2004-05-01

    Animal serum is commonly used in chondrocytes culture expansion to promote cell proliferation and shorten the time lag before new tissue reconstruction is possible. However, animal serum is not suitable for regeneration of clinical tissue because it has potential risk of viral and prion related disease transmission particularly mad cow disease and foreign protein contamination that can stimulate immune reaction leading to graft rejection. In this context, human serum as homologous supplement has a greater potential as growth promoting agents for human chondrocytes culture. PMID:15468795

  19. HUMAN MILK SURVEILLANCE AND RESEARCH OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS: CONCEPTS FOR CONSIDERATION IN INTERPRETING AND PRESENTING STUDY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes issues related to the interpretation, presentation, and use of data from human milk surveillance and research studies. It is hoped that researchers conducting human milk studies in the future will consider these concepts when formulating study conclusions a...

  20. Human Factors Engineering Requirements for the International Space Station - Successes and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, M.; Blume, J.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced technology coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer human space missions. Indeed, any exploration mission outside of Earth's neighborhood, in other words, beyond the moon, will necessarily be several months or even years. The International Space Station (ISS) serves as an important advancement toward executing a successful human space mission that is longer than a standard trip around the world or to the moon. The ISS, which is a permanently occupied microgravity research facility orbiting the earth, will support missions four to six months in duration. In planning for the ISS, the NASA developed an agency-wide set of human factors standards for the first time in a space exploration program. The Man-Systems Integration Standard (MSIS), NASA-STD-3000, a multi-volume set of guidelines for human-centered design in microgravity, was developed with the cooperation of human factors experts from various NASA centers, industry, academia, and other government agencies. The ISS program formed a human factors team analogous to any major engineering subsystem. This team develops and maintains the human factors requirements regarding end-to-end architecture design and performance, hardware and software design requirements, and test and verification requirements. It is also responsible for providing program integration across all of the larger scale elements, smaller scale hardware, and international partners.

  1. In Genes We Trust: Germline Engineering, Eugenics, and the Future of the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being. In this article, I argue that germline intervention will be necessary merely to sustain the levels of genetic health that we presently enjoy for future generations-a goal that should appeal to bioliberals and bioconservatives alike. This is due to the population-genetic consequences of relaxed selection pressures in human populations caused by the increasing efficacy and availability of conventional medicine. This heterodox conclusion, which I present as a problem of intergenerational justice, has been overlooked in medicine and bioethics due to certain misconceptions about human evolution, which I attempt to rectify, as well as the sordid history of Darwinian approaches to medicine and social policy, which I distinguish from the present argument. PMID:26475170

  2. Integrated Human Test Facilities at NASA and the Role of Human Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated human test facilities are a key component of NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALSP). Over the past several years, the ALSP has been developing such facilities to serve as a large-scale advanced life support and habitability test bed capable of supporting long-duration evaluations of integrated bioregenerative life support systems with human test crews. These facilities-targeted for evaluation of hypogravity compatible life support and habitability systems to be developed for use on planetary surfaces-are currently in the development stage at the Johnson Space Center. These major test facilities are comprised of a set of interconnected chambers with a sealed internal environment, which will be outfitted with systems capable of supporting test crews of four individuals for periods exceeding one year. The advanced technology systems to be tested will consist of both biological and physicochemical components and will perform all required crew life support and habitability functions. This presentation provides a description of the proposed test "missions" to be supported by these integrated human test facilities, the overall system architecture of the facilities, the current development status of the facilities, and the role that human design has played in the development of the facilities.

  3. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  4. The relative influence of urban climates on outdoor human energy budgets and skin temperature I. Modeling considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, J. E.; O'Rourke, P. A.; Terjung, W. H.

    1982-03-01

    An attempt is made to provide a tool for systematically analyzing variations of outdoor human energy budgets and skin temperatures as a result of different urban street canyon geometries and vegetative properties. To this end, three previously developed numerical models were combined. The interaction of the models and the derivation of the necessary human-urban view-factors is discussed. Some sample results are given for non-urban macadam and park plains, to be used later as standards in the comparison of the impact of urban morphology on human comfort.

  5. People or systems? To blame is human. The fix is to engineer

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Person-centered safety theories that place the burden of causality on human traits and actions have been largely dismissed in favor of systems-centered theories. Students and practitioners are now taught that accidents are caused by multiple factors and occur due to the complex interactions of numerous work system elements, human and non-human. Nevertheless, person-centered approaches to safety management still prevail. This paper explores the notion that attributing causality and blame to people persists because it is both a fundamental psychological tendency as well as an industry norm that remains strong in aviation, health care, and other industries. Consequences of that possibility are discussed and a case is made for continuing to invest in whole-system design and engineering solutions. PMID:21694753

  6. Advanced Imaging and Tissue Engineering of the Human Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc; Kureshi, Alvena; Levis, Hannah J.; Morgan, Louise; Neale, Michael; Sheth, Radhika; Tovell, Victoria E.; Vernon, Amanda J.; Funderburgh, James L.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    The limbal epithelial stem cell niche provides a unique, physically protective environment in which limbal epithelial stem cells reside in close proximity with accessory cell types and their secreted factors. The use of advanced imaging techniques is described to visualize the niche in three dimensions in native human corneal tissue. In addition, a protocol is provided for the isolation and culture of three different cell types, including human limbal epithelial stem cells from the limbal niche of human donor tissue. Finally, the process of incorporating these cells within plastic compressed collagen constructs to form a tissue-engineered corneal limbus is described and how immunohistochemical techniques may be applied to characterize cell phenotype therein. PMID:25388395

  7. Metabolic Engineering of Salmonella Vaccine Bacteria to Boost Human Vγ2Vδ2 T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Workalemahu, Grefachew; Wang, Hong; Puan, Kia-Joo; Nada, Mohanad H.; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Jones, Bradley D.; Jin, Chenggang; Morita, Craig T.

    2014-01-01

    Human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells monitor isoprenoid metabolism by recognizing foreign (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), a metabolite in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway used by most eubacteria and apicomplexan parasites, and self isopentenyl pyrophosphate, a metabolite in the mevalonate pathway used by humans. Whereas microbial infections elicit prolonged expansion of memory Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, immunization with prenyl pyrophosphates or aminobisphosphonates elicit short-term Vγ2Vδ2 expansion with rapid anergy and deletion upon subsequent immunizations. We hypothesized that a live, attenuated bacterial vaccine that overproduces HMBPP would elicit long lasting Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity by mimicking a natural infection. Therefore, we metabolically engineered the avirulent aroA− Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 strain by deleting the gene for LytB (the downstream enzyme from HMBPP) and functionally complementing for this loss with genes encoding mevalonate pathway enzymes. LytB− Salmonella SL7207 had high HMBPP levels, infected human cells as efficiently as the wild-type bacteria, and stimulated large ex vivo expansions of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from human donors. Importantly, vaccination of a rhesus monkey with live lytB− Salmonella SL7207 stimulated a prolonged expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells without significant side effects or anergy induction. These studies provide proof-of-principle that metabolic engineering can be used to derive live bacterial vaccines that boost Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity. Similar engineering of metabolic pathways to produce lipid Ags or B vitamin metabolite Ags could be used to derive live bacterial vaccine for other unconventional T cells that recognize nonpeptide Ags. PMID:24943221

  8. Metabolic engineering of Salmonella vaccine bacteria to boost human Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Workalemahu, Grefachew; Wang, Hong; Puan, Kia-Joo; Nada, Mohanad H; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Jones, Bradley D; Jin, Chenggang; Morita, Craig T

    2014-07-15

    Human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells monitor isoprenoid metabolism by recognizing foreign (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), a metabolite in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway used by most eubacteria and apicomplexan parasites, and self isopentenyl pyrophosphate, a metabolite in the mevalonate pathway used by humans. Whereas microbial infections elicit prolonged expansion of memory Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, immunization with prenyl pyrophosphates or aminobisphosphonates elicit short-term Vγ2Vδ2 expansion with rapid anergy and deletion upon subsequent immunizations. We hypothesized that a live, attenuated bacterial vaccine that overproduces HMBPP would elicit long-lasting Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity by mimicking a natural infection. Therefore, we metabolically engineered the avirulent aroA(-) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 strain by deleting the gene for LytB (the downstream enzyme from HMBPP) and functionally complementing for this loss with genes encoding mevalonate pathway enzymes. LytB(-) Salmonella SL7207 had high HMBPP levels, infected human cells as efficiently as did the wild-type bacteria, and stimulated large ex vivo expansions of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from human donors. Importantly, vaccination of a rhesus monkey with live lytB(-) Salmonella SL7207 stimulated a prolonged expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells without significant side effects or anergy induction. These studies provide proof-of-principle that metabolic engineering can be used to derive live bacterial vaccines that boost Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity. Similar engineering of metabolic pathways to produce lipid Ags or B vitamin metabolite Ags could be used to derive live bacterial vaccine for other unconventional T cells that recognize nonpeptide Ags. PMID:24943221

  9. Effect of Initial Seeding Density on Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Fibrocartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Seshareddy, Kiran; Weiss, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Cells derived from Wharton's jelly from human umbilical cords (called umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells herein) are a novel cell source for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. In this study, we examined the effects of different seeding densities on seeding efficiency, cell proliferation, biosynthesis, mechanical integrity, and chondrogenic differentiation. Cells were seeded on non-woven polyglycolic acid (PGA) meshes in an orbital shaker at densities of 5, 25, or 50 million cells/mL and then statically cultured for 4 weeks in chondrogenic medium. At week 0, initial seeding density did not affect seeding efficiency. Throughout the 4-week culture period, absolute cell numbers of the 25 and 50 million-cells/mL (higher density) groups were significantly larger than in the 5 million-cells/mL (lower density) group. The presence of collagen types I and II and aggrecan was confirmed using immunohistochemical staining. Glycosaminoglycan and collagen contents per construct in the higher-density groups were significantly greater than in the lower-density group. Constructs in the high-density groups maintained their mechanical integrity, which was confirmed using unconfined compression testing. In conclusion, human umbilical cord cells demonstrated the potential for chondrogenic differentiation in three-dimensional tissue engineering, and higher seeding densities better promoted biosynthesis and mechanical integrity, and thus a seeding density of at least 25 million cells/mL is recommended for fibrocartilage tissue engineering with umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells. PMID:18759671

  10. Assessment of therapeutic efficacy and fate of engineered human mesenchymal stem cells for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sasportas, Laura S.; Kasmieh, Randa; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Hingtgen, Shawn; van de Water, Jeroen A. J. M.; Mohapatra, Gayatry; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Martuza, Robert L.; Weissleder, Ralph; Shah, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    The poor prognosis of patients with aggressive and invasive cancers combined with toxic effects and short half-life of currently available treatments necessitate development of more effective tumor selective therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as novel cell-based delivery agents; however, a thorough investigation addressing their therapeutic potential and fate in different cancer models is lacking. In this study, we explored the engineering potential, fate, and therapeutic efficacy of human MSCs in a highly malignant and invasive model of glioblastoma. We show that engineered MSC retain their “stem-like” properties, survive longer in mice with gliomas than in the normal brain, and migrate extensively toward gliomas. We also show that MSCs are resistant to the cytokine tumor necrosis factor apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) and, when engineered to express secreted recombinant TRAIL, induce caspase-mediated apoptosis in established glioma cell lines as well as CD133-positive primary glioma cells in vitro. Using highly malignant and invasive human glioma models and employing real-time imaging with correlative neuropathology, we demonstrate that MSC-delivered recombinant TRAIL has profound anti-tumor effects in vivo. This study demonstrates the efficacy of diagnostic and therapeutic MSC in preclinical glioma models and forms the basis for developing stem cell-based therapies for different cancers. PMID:19264968

  11. Cardiovascular research in space - Considerations for the design of the human research facility of the United States Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    The design of the Space Station's Human Research Facility for the collection of information on the long-time physiological adjustments of humans to space is described. The Space Life Sciences-1 mission will carry a rack-mounted echocardiograph for cardiac imaging, a mass spectrometer for cardiac output and respiratory function assessments at rest and during exercise, and a device to stimulate the carotid sinus baroreceptors and measure the resulting changes in heart rate.

  12. Natural and genetically engineered viral agents for oncolysis and gene therapy of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G; Horvath, Joseph C

    2008-12-01

    Based on personal acquaintances and experience dating back to the early 1950s, the senior author reviews the history of viral therapy of cancer. He points out the difficulties encountered in the treatment of human cancers, as opposed by the highly successful viral therapy of experimentally maintained tumors in laboratory animals, especially that of ascites carcinomas in mice. A detailed account of viral therapy of human tumors with naturally oncolytic viruses follows, emphasizing the first clinical trials with viral oncolysates. The discrepancy between the high success rates, culminating in cures, in the treatment of tumors of laboratory animals, and the moderate results, such as stabilizations of disease, partial responses, very rare complete remissions, and frequent relapses with virally treated human tumors is recognized. The preclinical laboratory testing against established human tumor cell lines that were maintained in tissue cultures for decades, and against human tumors extricated from their natural habitat and grown in xenografts, may not yield valid results predictive of the viral therapy applied against human tumors growing in their natural environment, the human host. Since the recent discovery of the oncosuppressive efficacy of bacteriophages, the colon could be regarded as the battlefield, where incipient tumor cells and bacteriophages vie for dominance. The inner environment of the colon will be the teaching ground providing new knowledge on the value of the anti-tumor efficacy of phage-induced innate anti-tumor immune reactions. Genetically engineered oncolytic viruses are reviewed next. The molecular biology of viral oncolysis is explained in details. Elaborate efforts are presented to elucidate how gene product proteins of oncolytic viruses switch off the oncogenic cascades of cancer cells. The facts strongly support the conclusion that viral therapy of human cancers will remain in the front lines of modern cancer therapeutics. It may be a

  13. INCORPORATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ANALYSES AND TOOLS INTO THE DESIGN PROCESS FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA,J.M.; BROWN,W.

    2004-09-19

    Many nuclear power plants are modernizing with digital instrumentation and control systems and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the human factors engineering (HFE) activities that can help to ensure that the design meets personnel needs. HFE activities should be integrated into the design process as a regular part of the engineering effort of a plant modification. The HFE activities will help ensure that human performance issues are addressed, that new technology supports task performance, and that the HSIs are designed in a manner that is compatible with human physiological, cognitive and social characteristics.

  14. Towards breaking the silence between the two cultures: Engineering and the other humanities

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, I have attended numerous meetings like this one at the Center for the Study of Higher Education. I have noticed that most of the attendees, and certainly the speakers, tend to come from the social sciences or humanities. Only rarely do I see anyone here from Berkeley's College of Chemistry or College of Engineering. I come from the College of Chemistry that includes Berkeley's Department of Chemical Engineering. I mention this background to indicate that my remarks here are necessarily less abstract, less theoretical and less philosophical than those of most previous seminar speakers. My remarks are probably somewhat simplistic because, as a result of my engineering background, I tend to focus less on generalities and principles, giving more attention to possible solutions of limited practical problems. About seven weeks ago, I was invited to attend a conference sponsored by the Berlin Academy of Sciences where ''Sciences'' is not confined to natural sciences but includes also humanities and social sciences. The topic of the Conference was ''Sprachlosigkeit'', a German word that roughly translated means inability to speak. The subtitle was ''Silence Between the Disciplines''. The German universities are worried about the increasing gulf between what is often called ''the two cultures''. This gulf is a problem everywhere, including Berkeley, but it is my impression that it is much worse in Europe than in America. The International Conference in Berlin was attended by some big names including the presidents of the Humboldt University in Berlin, the University of Uppsala in Sweden and the Central European University of Budapest, as well as some distinguished academics from a variety of institutions including Harvard and Stanford, and the presidents of three major funding organizations: The Volkswagen Foundation, The German National Science Foundation and the Max Planck Society. The speakers were primarily from the humanities and social sciences but

  15. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Its Application in Human Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Conrad P.; Gomez, José A.; Mirotsou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration and repair is advancing both at the bench and bedside. Stem cells isolated from bone marrow are currently being tested for their therapeutic potential in a variety of clinical conditions including cardiovascular injury, kidney failure, cancer, and neurological and bone disorders. Despite the advantages, stem cell therapy is still limited by low survival, engraftment, and homing to damage area as well as inefficiencies in differentiating into fully functional tissues. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells is being explored as a means to circumvent some of these problems. This review presents the current understanding of the use of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells in human disease therapy with emphasis on genetic modifications aimed to improve survival, homing, angiogenesis, and heart function after myocardial infarction. Advancements in other disease areas are also discussed. PMID:20825283

  16. Virtual Environment Computer Simulations to Support Human Factors Engineering and Operations Analysis for the RLV Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Myrtis Leigh

    1998-01-01

    The Army-NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) was recently created to provide virtual reality tools for performing Human Engineering and operations analysis for both NASA and the Army. The author's summer research project consisted of developing and refining these tools for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. Several general simulations were developed for use by the ANVIL for the evaluation of the X34 Engine Changeout procedure. These simulations were developed with the software tool dVISE 4.0.0 produced by Division Inc. All software was run on an SGI Indigo2 High Impact. This paper describes the simulations, various problems encountered with the simulations, other summer activities, and possible work for the future. We first begin with a brief description of virtual reality systems.

  17. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  18. The realistic consideration of human factors in model based simulation tools for the air traffic control domain.

    PubMed

    Duca, Gabriella; Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts related to automation, airspace organization and operational procedures are driven by the overall goal to increase ATM system performance. Independently on the nature and/or impact of envisaged changes (e.g. from a short term procedure adjustment to a very long term operational concept or aid tools completion), the preliminary assessment of possible gains in airspace/airport capacity, safety and cost-effectiveness is done by running Model Based Simulations (MBSs, also known as Fast Time Simulations - FTS). Being a not human-in-the-loop technique, the reliability of a MBS results depend on the accuracy and significance of modeled human factors. Despite that, it can be observed in the practice that modeling tools commonly assume a generalized standardization of human behaviors and tasks and consider a very few range of work environment factors that, in the reality, affect the actual human-system performance. The present paper is aimed at opening a discussion about the possibility to keep task description and related weight at a high/general level, suitable for an efficient use of MBSs and, at the same time, increasing simulations reliability adopting some adjustment coming from the elaboration of further variables related to the human aspects of controllers workload. PMID:22316714

  19. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs.

  20. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-13

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility human factors engineering (HFE) analysis: Results and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-07-17

    This report presents the background, methodology, and findings of a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis performed in May, 1998, of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), to support its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), in responding to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE 1992a) and drafted to DOE-STD-3009-94 format. This HFE analysis focused on general environment, physical and computer workstations, and handling devices involved in or directly supporting the technical operations of the facility. This report makes no attempt to interpret or evaluate the safety significance of the HFE analysis findings. The HFE findings presented in this report, along with the results of the CVDF PSAR Chapter 3, Hazards and Accident Analyses, provide the technical basis for preparing the CVDF PSAR Chapter 13, Human Factors Engineering, including interpretation and disposition of findings. The findings presented in this report allow the PSAR Chapter 13 to fully respond to HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23. DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, Section 8b(3)(n) and Attachment 1, Section-M, require that HFE be analyzed in the PSAR for the adequacy of the current design and planned construction for internal and external communications, operational aids, instrumentation and controls, environmental factors such as heat, light, and noise and that an assessment of human performance under abnormal and emergency conditions be performed (DOE 1992a).

  2. Stromal Cells in Dense Collagen Promote Cardiomyocyte and Microvascular Patterning in Engineered Human Heart Tissue.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Meredith A; Tran, Dominic; Coulombe, Kareen L K; Razumova, Maria; Regnier, Michael; Murry, Charles E; Zheng, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a strategy to replace damaged contractile tissue and model cardiac diseases to discover therapies. Current cardiac and vascular engineering approaches independently create aligned contractile tissue or perfusable vasculature, but a combined vascularized cardiac tissue remains to be achieved. Here, we sought to incorporate a patterned microvasculature into engineered heart tissue, which balances the competing demands from cardiomyocytes to contract the matrix versus the vascular lumens that need structural support. Low-density collagen hydrogels (1.25 mg/mL) permit human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) to form a dense contractile tissue but cannot support a patterned microvasculature. Conversely, high collagen concentrations (density ≥6 mg/mL) support a patterned microvasculature, but the hESC-CMs lack cell-cell contact, limiting their electrical communication, structural maturation, and tissue-level contractile function. When cocultured with matrix remodeling stromal cells, however, hESC-CMs structurally mature and form anisotropic constructs in high-density collagen. Remodeling requires the stromal cells to be in proximity with hESC-CMs. In addition, cocultured cardiac constructs in dense collagen generate measurable active contractions (on the order of 0.1 mN/mm(2)) and can be paced up to 2 Hz. Patterned microvascular networks in these high-density cocultured cardiac constructs remain patent through 2 weeks of culture, and hESC-CMs show electrical synchronization. The ability to maintain microstructural control within engineered heart tissue enables generation of more complex features, such as cellular alignment and a vasculature. Successful incorporation of these features paves the way for the use of large scale engineered tissues for myocardial regeneration and cardiac disease modeling. PMID:26955856

  3. Enhanced Electrical Integration of Engineered Human Myocardium via Intramyocardial versus Epicardial Delivery in Infarcted Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gerbin, Kaytlyn A.; Yang, Xiulan; Murry, Charles E.; Coulombe, Kareen L. K.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising approach to provide large-scale tissues for transplantation to regenerate the heart after ischemic injury, however, integration with the host myocardium will be required to achieve electromechanical benefits. To test the ability of engineered heart tissues to electrically integrate with the host, 10 million human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes were used to form either scaffold-free tissue patches implanted on the epicardium or micro-tissue particles (~1000 cells/particle) delivered by intramyocardial injection into the left ventricular wall of the ischemia/reperfusion injured athymic rat heart. Results were compared to intramyocardial injection of 10 million dispersed hESC-cardiomyocytes. Graft size was not significantly different between treatment groups and correlated inversely with infarct size. After implantation on the epicardial surface, hESC-cardiac tissue patches were electromechanically active, but they beat slowly and were not electrically coupled to the host at 4 weeks based on ex vivo fluorescent imaging of their graft-autonomous GCaMP3 calcium reporter. Histologically, scar tissue physically separated the patch graft and host myocardium. In contrast, following intramyocardial injection of micro-tissue particles and suspended cardiomyocytes, 100% of the grafts detected by fluorescent GCaMP3 imaging were electrically coupled to the host heart at spontaneous rate and could follow host pacing up to a maximum of 300–390 beats per minute (5–6.5 Hz). Gap junctions between intramyocardial graft and host tissue were identified histologically. The extensive coupling and rapid response rate of the human myocardial grafts after intramyocardial delivery suggest electrophysiological adaptation of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to the rat heart’s pacemaking activity. These data support the use of the rat model for studying electromechanical integration of human cardiomyocytes, and they identify lack of

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  5. Considerations for the Use of Human Participants in Vector Biology Research: A Tool for Investigators and Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Youngblood, Laura; Bangs, Michael J.; Lavery, James V.; James, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A thorough search of the existing literature has revealed that there are currently no published recommendations or guidelines for the interpretation of US regulations on the use of human participants in vector biology research (VBR). An informal survey of vector biologists has indicated that issues related to human participation in vector research have been largely debated by academic, national, and local Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) in the countries where the research is being conducted, and that interpretations and subsequent requirements made by these IRBs have varied widely. This document is intended to provide investigators and corresponding scientific and ethical review committee members an introduction to VBR methods involving human participation and the legal and ethical framework in which such studies are conducted with a focus on US Federal Regulations. It is also intended to provide a common perspective for guiding researchers, IRB members, and other interested parties (i.e., public health officials conducting routine entomological surveillance) in the interpretation of human subjects regulations pertaining to VBR. PMID:25700039

  6. Organizations as Social Inventions: Some Considerations for Those Who Would Design Schools To Serve Human Ends. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, T. Barr

    In searching for a concept of organization which recognizes its base in human action rather than in objective structure, the author draws on a European tradition stemming from the works of Max Weber. This tradition, combined with examples of organizational life in schools, serves to identify implications for those who attempt to design better…

  7. Human engineered heart tissue as a versatile tool in basic research and preclinical toxicology.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Sebastian; Shibamiya, Aya; Mewe, Marco; Eder, Alexandra; Stöhr, Andrea; Hirt, Marc N; Rau, Thomas; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Conradi, Lenard; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Hansen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) progenies hold great promise as surrogates for human primary cells, particularly if the latter are not available as in the case of cardiomyocytes. However, high content experimental platforms are lacking that allow the function of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to be studied under relatively physiological and standardized conditions. Here we describe a simple and robust protocol for the generation of fibrin-based human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) in a 24-well format using an unselected population of differentiated human embryonic stem cells containing 30-40% α-actinin-positive cardiac myocytes. Human EHTs started to show coherent contractions 5-10 days after casting, reached regular (mean 0.5 Hz) and strong (mean 100 µN) contractions for up to 8 weeks. They displayed a dense network of longitudinally oriented, interconnected and cross-striated cardiomyocytes. Spontaneous hEHT contractions were analyzed by automated video-optical recording and showed chronotropic responses to calcium and the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. The proarrhythmic compounds E-4031, quinidine, procainamide, cisapride, and sertindole exerted robust, concentration-dependent and reversible decreases in relaxation velocity and irregular beating at concentrations that recapitulate findings in hERG channel assays. In conclusion this study establishes hEHT as a simple in vitro model for heart research. PMID:22028871

  8. Stem-cell Based Engineered Immunity Against HIV Infection in the Humanized Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Anjie; Rezek, Valerie; Youn, Cindy; Rick, Jonathan; Lam, Brianna; Chang, Nelson; Zack, Jerome; Kamata, Masakazu; Kitchen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of stem cell-based gene therapies against HIV, there is pressing requirement for an animal model to study the hematopoietic differentiation and immune function of the genetically modified cells. The humanized Bone-marrow/Liver/Thymus (BLT) mouse model allows for full reconstitution of a human immune system in the periphery, which includes T cells, B cells, NK cells and monocytes. The human thymic implant also allows for thymic selection of T cells in autologous thymic tissue. In addition to the study of HIV infection, the model stands as a powerful tool to study differentiation, development and functionality of cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here we outline the construction of humanized non-obese diabetic (NOD)-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-common gamma chain knockout (cγ(-/-))-Bone-marrow/Liver/Thymus (NSG-BLT) mice with HSCs transduced with CD4 chimeric antigen receptor (CD4CAR) lentivirus vector. We show that the CD4CAR HSCs can successfully differentiate into multiple lineages and have anti-HIV activity. The goal of the study is to demonstrate the use of NSG-BLT mouse model as an in vivo model for engineered immunity against HIV. It is worth noting that, because lentivirus and human tissue is used, experiments and surgeries should be performed in a Class II biosafety cabinet in a Biosafety Level 2 (BSL2) with special precautions (BSL2+) facility. PMID:27404517

  9. Human Engineered Heart Tissue as a Versatile Tool in Basic Research and Preclinical Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Schaaf, Sebastian; Shibamiya, Aya; Mewe, Marco; Eder, Alexandra; Stöhr, Andrea; Hirt, Marc N.; Rau, Thomas; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Conradi, Lenard

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) progenies hold great promise as surrogates for human primary cells, particularly if the latter are not available as in the case of cardiomyocytes. However, high content experimental platforms are lacking that allow the function of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to be studied under relatively physiological and standardized conditions. Here we describe a simple and robust protocol for the generation of fibrin-based human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) in a 24-well format using an unselected population of differentiated human embryonic stem cells containing 30–40% α-actinin-positive cardiac myocytes. Human EHTs started to show coherent contractions 5–10 days after casting, reached regular (mean 0.5 Hz) and strong (mean 100 µN) contractions for up to 8 weeks. They displayed a dense network of longitudinally oriented, interconnected and cross-striated cardiomyocytes. Spontaneous hEHT contractions were analyzed by automated video-optical recording and showed chronotropic responses to calcium and the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. The proarrhythmic compounds E-4031, quinidine, procainamide, cisapride, and sertindole exerted robust, concentration-dependent and reversible decreases in relaxation velocity and irregular beating at concentrations that recapitulate findings in hERG channel assays. In conclusion this study establishes hEHT as a simple in vitro model for heart research. PMID:22028871

  10. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids. PMID:26573460

  11. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids. PMID:26573460

  12. Plant cell wall engineering: applications in biofuel production and improved human health.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2014-04-01

    Plant cell walls consist largely of cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. Concerted attempts are underway to convert wall polysaccharides from crop plant residues into renewable transport fuels and other valuable products, and to exploit the dietary benefits of cereal grain wall polysaccharides in human health. Attempts to improve plant performance for these applications have involved the manipulation of the levels and structures of wall components. Some successes in altering non-cellulosic polysaccharides has been achieved, but it would appear that drastic changes in cellulose are more difficult to engineer. Nevertheless, future prospects for both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM technologies to modify plant cell wall composition and structure remain bright, and will undoubtedly find applications beyond the current focus on human health and biofuel production. PMID:24679262

  13. Patents and the obligation to protect health: examining the significance of human rights considerations in the protection of pharmaceutical patents.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the human right to health in the context of patent protection and access to medicines. It considers the limitations in international human rights law, especially in relation to socioeconomic rights, that make it difficult for the right to health to be a potent justification for derogation from trade or intellectual property agreements. It concludes by taking the view that while the right to health may be somewhat unenforceable in international law, its close association with enforceable rights such as the right to life can be a legitimate basis for making maximum use of the flexibilities in the international intellectual property regime to protect public health. The article takes the view that trade and intellectual property agreements must be interpreted in a way that endeavours as much as possible to resolve any seeming inconsistency with the right to health. PMID:25087369

  14. Managing commingled remains from mass graves: considerations, implications and recommendations from a human rights case in Chile.

    PubMed

    Garrido Varas, Claudia; Intriago Leiva, Marisol

    2012-06-10

    This paper focuses on a little discussed part of Chilean history and the efforts to resolve Human Rights cases from the period 1973 to 1990. A case file is presented to illustrate the different stages, problems and solutions found in one particularly challenging case studied by the Special Unit of Identification of Detained and Missing (UEIDDDD) of the Human Rights Program of the Forensic Service, Chile, during the period 2006-2009. A major complication found in this example was the fact that the remains studied were commingled, and in addition, were mixed with remains that were not of medico-legal interest - deposited prior to and after the case in question, but within the same common grave. Multiple burials and the consequences of commingled skeletal human remains are reviewed, paying special attention to the roles that different agents related to these types of cases play, how they influence the decision making process and the outcomes that can be expected in commingled cases due to the complexities and challenges they present. Effective communication between prosecutors and forensic practitioners is vital to optimize the resources. Equally important is the relationship that is built between the practitioners and the victims' families regarding communication, information and expectations that both parties may have. PMID:22192578

  15. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  16. Environmental parameters influence non-viral transfection of human mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    King, William J; Kouris, Nicholas A; Choi, Siyoung; Ogle, Brenda M; Murphy, William L

    2012-03-01

    Non-viral transfection is a promising technique that could be used to increase the therapeutic potential of stem cells. The purpose of this study was to explore practical culture parameters of relevance in potential human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) clinical and tissue engineering applications, including type of polycationic transfection reagent, N/P ratio and dose of polycation/pDNA polyplexes, cell passage number, cell density and cell proliferation. The non-viral transfection efficiency was significantly influenced by N/P ratio, polyplex dose, cell density and cell passage number. hMSC culture conditions that inhibited cell division also decreased transfection efficiency, suggesting that strategies to promote hMSC proliferation may be useful to enhance transfection efficiency in future tissue engineering studies. Non-viral transfection treatments influenced hMSC phenotype, including the expression level of the hMSC marker CD105 and the ability of hMSCs to differentiate down the osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The parameters found here to promote hMSC transfection efficiency, minimize toxicity and influence hMSC phenotype may be instructive in future non-viral transfection studies and tissue engineering applications. PMID:22277991

  17. Environmental parameters influence non-viral transfection of human mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    King, William J.; Kouris, Nicholas A.; Choi, Siyoung; Ogle, Brenda M.; Murphy, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Non-viral transfection is a promising technique which could be used to increase the therapeutic potential of stem cells. The purpose of this study was to explore practical culture parameters of relevance in potential human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) clinical and tissue engineering applications, including type of polycationic transfection reagent, N/P ratio and dose of polycation/pDNA polyplexes, cell passage number, cell density, and cell proliferation. The non-viral transfection efficiency was significantly influenced by N/P ratio, polyplex dose, cell density, and cell passage number. hMSC culture conditions that inhibited cell division also decreased transfection efficiency, suggesting that strategies to promote hMSC proliferation may be useful to enhance transfection efficiency in future tissue engineering studies. Non-viral transfection treatments influenced hMSC phenotype, including the expression level of the hMSC marker CD105, and the ability of hMSCs to differentiate down the osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The parameters found here to promote hMSC transfection efficiency, minimize toxicity, and influence hMSC phenotype may be instructive in future non-viral transfection studies and tissue engineering applications. PMID:22277991

  18. Innovations in preclinical biology: ex vivo engineering of a human kidney tissue microperfusion system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Kidney disease is a public health problem that affects more than 20 million people in the US adult population, yet little is understood about the impact of kidney disease on drug disposition. Consequently there is a critical need to be able to model the human kidney and other organ systems, to improve our understanding of drug efficacy, safety, and toxicity, especially during drug development. The kidneys in general, and the proximal tubule specifically, play a central role in the elimination of xenobiotics. With recent advances in molecular investigation, considerable information has been gathered regarding the substrate profiles of the individual transporters expressed in the proximal tubule. However, we have little knowledge of how these transporters coupled with intracellular enzymes and influenced by metabolic pathways form an efficient secretory and reabsorptive mechanism in the renal tubule. Proximal tubular secretion and reabsorption of xenobiotics is critically dependent on interactions with peritubular capillaries and the interstitium. We plan to robustly model the human kidney tubule interstitium, utilizing an ex vivo three-dimensional modular microphysiological system with human kidney-derived cells. The microphysiological system should accurately reflect human physiology, be usable to predict renal handling of xenobiotics, and should assess mechanisms of kidney injury, and the biological response to injury, from endogenous and exogenous intoxicants. PMID:24564863

  19. Human Factors Engineering as a System in the Vision for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Smith, Danielle; Holden, Kritina

    2006-01-01

    In order to accomplish NASA's Vision for Exploration, while assuring crew safety and productivity, human performance issues must be well integrated into system design from mission conception. To that end, a two-year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to develop a systematic method for including the human as a system in NASA's Vision for Exploration. The specific goals of this project are to review current Human Systems Integration (HSI) standards (i.e., industry, military, NASA) and tailor them to selected NASA Exploration activities. Once the methods are proven in the selected domains, a plan will be developed to expand the effort to a wider scope of Exploration activities. The methods will be documented for inclusion in NASA-specific documents (such as the Human Systems Integration Standards, NASA-STD-3000) to be used in future space systems. The current project builds on a previous TDP dealing with Human Factors Engineering processes. That project identified the key phases of the current NASA design lifecycle, and outlined the recommended HFE activities that should be incorporated at each phase. The project also resulted in a prototype of a webbased HFE process tool that could be used to support an ideal HFE development process at NASA. This will help to augment the limited human factors resources available by providing a web-based tool that explains the importance of human factors, teaches a recommended process, and then provides the instructions, templates and examples to carry out the process steps. The HFE activities identified by the previous TDP are being tested in situ for the current effort through support to a specific NASA Exploration activity. Currently, HFE personnel are working with systems engineering personnel to identify HSI impacts for lunar exploration by facilitating the generation of systemlevel Concepts of Operations (ConOps). For example, medical operations scenarios have been generated for lunar habitation

  20. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  1. 3D Bioprinting Human Chondrocytes with Nanocellulose-Alginate Bioink for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Markstedt, Kajsa; Mantas, Athanasios; Tournier, Ivan; Martínez Ávila, Héctor; Hägg, Daniel; Gatenholm, Paul

    2015-05-11

    The introduction of 3D bioprinting is expected to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The 3D bioprinter is able to dispense materials while moving in X, Y, and Z directions, which enables the engineering of complex structures from the bottom up. In this study, a bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate was formulated for the 3D bioprinting of living soft tissue with cells. Printability was evaluated with concern to printer parameters and shape fidelity. The shear thinning behavior of the tested bioinks enabled printing of both 2D gridlike structures as well as 3D constructs. Furthermore, anatomically shaped cartilage structures, such as a human ear and sheep meniscus, were 3D printed using MRI and CT images as blueprints. Human chondrocytes bioprinted in the noncytotoxic, nanocellulose-based bioink exhibited a cell viability of 73% and 86% after 1 and 7 days of 3D culture, respectively. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the nanocellulose-based bioink is a suitable hydrogel for 3D bioprinting with living cells. This study demonstrates the potential use of nanocellulose for 3D bioprinting of living tissues and organs. PMID:25806996

  2. Identification of a bioactive core sequence from human laminin and its applicability to tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yeo, In-Sung; Min, Seung-Ki; Kang, Hyun Ki; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Jung, Sung Youn; Min, Byung-Moo

    2015-12-01

    Finding bioactive short peptides derived from proteins is a critical step to the advancement of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, because the former maintains the functions of the latter without immunogenicity in biological systems. Here, we discovered a bioactive core nonapeptide sequence, PPFEGCIWN (residues 2678-2686; Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3), from the human laminin α2 chain, and investigated the role of this peptide in binding to transmembrane proteins to promote intracellular events leading to cell functions. This minimum bioactive sequence had neither secondary nor tertiary structures in a computational structure prediction. Nonetheless, Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3 bound to various cell types as actively as laminin in cell adhesion assays. The in vivo healing tests using rats revealed that Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3 promoted bone formation without any recognizable antigenic activity. Ln2-LG3-P2-DN3-treated titanium (Ti) discs and Ti implant surfaces caused the enhancement of bone cell functions in vitro and induced faster osseointegration in vivo, respectively. These findings established a minimum bioactive sequence within human laminin, and its potential application value for regenerative medicine, especially for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26406450

  3. HUMAN CARDIAC PROGENITOR CELLS ENGINEERED WITH PIM-1 KINASE ENHANCE MYOCARDIAL REPAIR

    PubMed Central

    Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Mohsin; Toko, Haruhiro; Bailey, Brandi; Cottage, Christopher T.; Wallach, Kathleen; Nag, Divya; Lee, Andrew; Siddiqi, Sailay; Lan, Feng; Fischer, Kimberlee M.; Gude, Natalie; Quijada, Pearl; Avitabile, Daniele; Truffa, Silvia; Collins, Brett; Dembitsky, Walter; Wu, Joseph C; Sussman, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Enhancement of human cardiac progenitor cell (hCPC) reparative and regenerative potential by genetic modification for treatment of myocardial infarction. Background Regenerative potential of stem cells to repair acute infarction is limited. Improved hCPC survival, proliferation and differentiation into functional myocardium will increase efficacy and advance translational implementation of cardiac regeneration. Methods hCPCs isolated from myocardium of heart failure patients undergoing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation are engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP; hCPCe) or Pim-1-GFP (hCPCeP). Functional tests of hCPC regenerative potential are performed with immunocompromised mice by intramyocardial adoptive transfer injection after infarction. Myocardial structure and function is monitored by echocardiographic and hemodynamic assessment for 20 weeks following delivery. hCPCe and hCPCeP expressing luciferase are followed by bioluminesence imaging (BLI) to non-invasively track persistence. Results hCPCeP exhibit augmentation of reparative potential relative to hCPCe control cells as demonstrated by significantly increased proliferation coupled with amelioration of infarction injury and increased hemodynamic performance at 20 weeks post-transplantation. Concurrent with enhanced cardiac structure and function, hCPCeP demonstrate increased cellular engraftment and differentiation with improved vasculature and reduced infarct size. Enhanced persistence of hCPCeP versus hCPCe is revealed by BLI at up to 8 weeks post delivery. Conclusion Genetic engineering of hCPCs with Pim-1 enhances repair of damaged myocardium. Ex vivo gene delivery to modify stem cells has emerged as a viable option addressing current limitations in the field. This study demonstrates that efficacy of human CPCs from the failing myocardium can be safely and significantly enhanced through expression of Pim-1 kinase, setting the stage for use of engineered cells

  4. A Human Factors and Systems Engineering Evaluation of Readmission Following Complex Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Acher, Alexandra W.; LeCaire, Tamara J.; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Greenberg, Caprice; Carayon, Pascale; Kind, Amy J.; Weber, Sharon M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To utilize a human factors and systems engineering approach to understand contributors to surgical readmissions from a patient and provider perspective. BACKGROUND Prior studies on readmission neglect the patient perspective. To address this gap and to better inform intervention design, we evaluated how transitions of care relate to and influence readmission from the patient and clinician perspective using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model. METHODS Patients readmitted within 30 days of discharge following complex abdominal surgery were interviewed. A focus group of inpatient clinician providers was conducted. Questions were guided by the SEIPS framework and content analyzed. Data were collected concurrently from the medical record for a mixed-methods approach. RESULTS Readmission occurred at a median 8 days (range, 1–25) following discharge. All patients had follow-up scheduled with their surgeon, but readmission occurred prior to this in 72% of patients. Primary readmission diagnoses included infection, gastrointestinal complications, and dehydration. Patients (n=18) and clinician providers (n=6) identified a number of factors during the transition of care that may have contributed to readmission, including poor patient and caregiver understanding; inadequate discharge preparation for home care; insufficient educational process and materials, negatively impacted by electronic health record design; and inadequate care team communication. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to utilize a human factors and systems engineering approach to evaluate the impact of the quality of the transition of care and its influence on readmission from the patient and clinician perspective. Important targets for future interventions include enhancing the discharge process, improving education materials, and increasing care team coordination, with the overarching theme that improved patient and caregiver understanding and engagement are

  5. The Blood Transcriptome of Experimental Melioidosis Reflects Disease Severity and Shows Considerable Similarity with the Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Laura; Potempa, Krzysztof; Graham, Christine M; Spink, Natasha; Blankley, Simon; Salguero, Francisco J; Pankla-Sranujit, Rungnapa; Khaenam, Prasong; Banchereau, Jacques F; Pascual, Virginia; Chaussabel, Damien; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; O'Garra, Anne; Bancroft, Gregory J

    2015-10-01

    Melioidosis, a severe human disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from acute septicemia to chronic localized illness or latent infection. Murine models have been widely used to study the pathogenesis of infection and to evaluate novel therapies or vaccines, but how faithfully they recapitulate the biology of human melioidosis at a molecular level is not known. In this study, mice were intranasally infected with either high or low doses of B. pseudomallei to generate either acute, chronic, or latent infection and host blood and tissue transcriptional profiles were generated. Acute infection was accompanied by a homogeneous signature associated with induction of multiple innate immune response pathways, such as IL-10, TREM1, and IFN signaling, largely found in both blood and tissue. The transcriptional profile in blood reflected the heterogeneity of chronic infection and quantitatively reflected the severity of disease. Genes associated with fibrosis and tissue remodeling, including matrix metalloproteases and collagen, were upregulated in chronically infected mice with severe disease. Transcriptional signatures of both acute and chronic melioidosis revealed upregulation of iNOS in tissue, consistent with the expression of IFN-γ, but also Arginase-1, a functional antagonist of the iNOS pathway, and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Comparison of these mouse blood datasets by pathway and modular analysis with the blood transcriptional signature of patients with melioidosis showed that many genes were similarly perturbed, including Arginase-1, IL-10, TREM1, and IFN signaling, revealing the common immune response occurring in both mice and humans. PMID:26311902

  6. The Blood Transcriptome of Experimental Melioidosis Reflects Disease Severity and Shows Considerable Similarity with the Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Spink, Natasha; Blankley, Simon; Salguero, Francisco J.; Pankla-Sranujit, Rungnapa; Khaenam, Prasong; Banchereau, Jacques F.; Pascual, Virginia; Chaussabel, Damien; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis, a severe human disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from acute septicaemia to chronic localized illness or latent infection. Murine models have been widely used to study the pathogenesis of infection and to evaluate novel therapies or vaccines, but how faithfully they recapitulate the biology of human melioidosis at a molecular level is not known. Here, mice were intranasally infected with either high or low doses of B. pseudomallei to generate either acute, chronic or latent infection and host blood and tissue transcriptional profiles were generated. Acute infection was accompanied by a homogeneous signature associated with induction of multiple innate immune response pathways, such as IL10, TREM1 and IFN-signaling, largely found in both blood and tissue. The transcriptional profile in blood reflected the heterogeneity of chronic infection and quantitatively reflected the severity of disease. Genes associated with fibrosis and tissue remodelling, including MMPs and collagen, were upregulated in chronically infected mice with severe disease. Transcriptional signatures of both acute and chronic melioidosis revealed upregulation of iNOS in tissue, consistent with the expression of IFN-γ, but also Arginase-1, a functional antagonist of the iNOS pathway, and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Comparison of these mouse blood datasets by pathway and modular analysis with the blood transcriptional signature of patients with melioidosis showed that many genes were similarly perturbed, including Arginase-1, IL10, TREM1 and IFN-signaling, revealing the common immune response occurring in both mice and humans. PMID:26311902

  7. Understanding the Role of ECM Protein Composition and Geometric Micropatterning for Engineering Human Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Sun, Yan; Feinberg, Adam W

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscle lost through trauma or disease has proven difficult to regenerate due to the challenge of differentiating human myoblasts into aligned, contractile tissue. To address this, we investigated microenvironmental cues that drive myoblast differentiation into aligned myotubes for potential applications in skeletal muscle repair, organ-on-chip disease models and actuators for soft robotics. We used a 2D in vitro system to systematically evaluate the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition and geometric patterning for controlling the formation of highly aligned myotubes. Specifically, we analyzed myotubes differentiated from murine C2C12 cells and human skeletal muscle derived cells (SkMDCs) on micropatterned lines of laminin compared to fibronectin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV. Results showed that laminin supported significantly greater myotube formation from both cells types, resulting in greater than twofold increase in myotube area on these surfaces compared to the other ECM proteins. Species specific differences revealed that human SkMDCs uniaxially aligned over a wide range of micropatterned line dimensions, while C2C12s required specific line widths and spacings to do the same. Future work will incorporate these results to engineer aligned human skeletal muscle tissue in 2D for in vitro applications in disease modeling, drug discovery and toxicity screening. PMID:26983843

  8. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    PubMed

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontén, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing. PMID:23856366

  9. Chondroprotective supplementation promotes the mechanical properties of injectable scaffold for human nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Foss, Berit L; Maxwell, Thomas W; Deng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A result of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the nucleus pulposus (NP) is no longer able to withstand applied load leading to pain and disability. The objective of this study is to fabricate a tissue-engineered injectable scaffold with chondroprotective supplementation in vitro to improve the mechanical properties of a degenerative NP. Tissue-engineered scaffolds were fabricated using different concentrations of alginate and calcium chloride and mechanically evaluated. Fabrication conditions were based on structural and mechanical resemblance to the native NP. Chondroprotective supplementation, glucosamine (GCSN) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), were added to scaffolds at concentrations of 0:0µg/mL (0:0-S), 125:100µg/mL (125:100-S), 250:200µg/mL (250:200-S), and 500:400µg/mL (500:400-S), GCSN and CS, respectively. Scaffolds were used to fabricate tissue-engineered constructs through encapsulation of human nucleus pulposus cells (HNPCs). The tissue-engineered constructs were collected at days 1, 14, and 28 for biochemical and biomechanical evaluations. Confocal microscopy showed HNPC viability and rounded morphology over the 28 day period. MTT analysis resulted in significant increases in cell proliferation for each group. Collagen type II ELISA quantification and compressive aggregate moduli (HA) showed increasing trends for both 250:200-S and the 500:400-S groups on Day 28 with significantly greater HA compared to 0:0-S group. Glycosaminoglycan and water content decreased for all groups. Results indicate the increased mechanical properties of the 250:200-S and the 500:400-S was due to production of a functional matrix. This study demonstrated potential for a chondroprotective supplemented injectable scaffold to restore biomechanical function of a degenerative disc through the production of a mechanically functional matrix. PMID:24055794

  10. Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

  11. Derivation of human health-based ambient water quality criteria: a consideration of conservatism and protectiveness goals.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Vickie; Wiegand, Paul; Stratton, Steve; Louch, Jeffrey; Ebert, Ellen; Anderson, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Under the terms of the Clean Water Act, criteria for the protection of human health (Human Health Ambient Water Quality Criteria [HHWQC]) are traditionally derived using equations recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) that include parameters for exposure assessment. To derive "adequately protective" HHWQC, USEPA proposes the use of default values for these parameters that are a combination of medians, means, and percentile estimates targeting the high end (90th percentile) of the general population. However, in practice, in nearly all cases, USEPA's recommended default assumptions represent upper percentiles. This article considers the adequacy of the exposure assessment component of USEPA-recommended equations to yield criteria that are consistent with corresponding health protection targets established in USEPA recommendations or state policies, and concludes that conservative selections for exposure parameters can result in criteria that are substantially more protective than the health protection goals for HHWQC recommended by USEPA, due in large part to the compounding effect that occurs when multiple conservative factors are combined. This situation may be mitigated by thoughtful selection of exposure parameter values when using a deterministic approach, or by using a probabilistic approach based on data distributions for many of these parameters. PMID:25345861

  12. Consideration of soil properties in assessment of human health risk from exposure to arsenic-enriched soils.

    PubMed

    Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2005-01-01

    Encroachment of residential development on agricultural lands in the United States where arsenical pesticides were extensively used prior to the 1990s has increased the potential for human exposure to arsenic (As), a group A carcinogen. Soil ingestion by children is a critical issue in assessing health risks from exposure to As-enriched soils. In the absence of a universal "soil model" on As bioavailability, many baseline risk assessment studies use the assumption that all (100%) As present in soil is bioavailable. However, As exists in many geochemical forms as dictated by soil chemical properties. Because As bioavailability is a function of soil speciation, using total soil arsenic values potentially overestimates human health risk, thereby increasing site cleanup expenses. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to estimate in vitro As bioavailability as a function of soil properties in four chemically variant soil types contaminated with sodium arsenite pesticide. Results demonstrate that As speciation in certain soils translates to significant lowering of As bioavailability and hence potential cancer risk. PMID:16637147

  13. A Practical Method ‘Discussion using Matrix Diagram’ , ConnectingHuman Base-Liberal-and Engineering Base-Professional-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Wataru

    In order to bring up talented people, it is a most important subject how to awake ‘Emotional Human Power’ , which is the origin of Autonomy and Creativity. A Practical Method ‘Discussion using Matrix Diagram’ developed for improving ‘Emotional Human Power’ including ‘Communication Skill’ , is confirmed to be useful for connecting Human Base-Liberal-and Engineering Base-Professional-.

  14. Human factors engineering control-room-design review/audit report: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona Public Service Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.; Lappa, D.A.

    1981-10-09

    A human factors engineering design review of the Palo Verde control room simulator was performed at the site on September 15 through September 17, 1981. Observed human factors design discrepancies were given priority ratings. This report summarizes the team's observations of the control room design and layout and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment. A list of the human factors strengths observed in the Palo Verde control room simulator is given.

  15. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-03-10

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  16. Biomechanical characterisation of the human nasal cartilages; implications for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M F; Premakumar, Y; Seifalian, A M; Szarko, M; Butler, P E M

    2016-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction is currently performed using autologous grafts provides but is limited by donor site morbidity, tissue availability and potentially graft failure. Additionally, current alternative alloplastic materials are limited by their high extrusion and infection rates. Matching mechanical properties of synthetic materials to the native tissue they are replacing has shown to be important in the biocompatibility of implants. To date the mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilages has not been studied in depth to be able to create tissue-engineered replacements with similar mechanical properties to native tissue. The young's modulus was characterized in compression on fresh-frozen human cadaveric septal, alar, and lateral cartilage. Due to the functional differences experienced by the various aspects of the septal cartilage, 16 regions were evaluated with an average elastic modulus of 2.72 ± 0.63 MPa. Furthermore, the posterior septum was found to be significantly stiffer than the anterior septum (p < 0.01). The medial and lateral alar cartilages were tested at four points with an elastic modulus ranging from 2.09 ± 0.81 MPa, with no significant difference between the cartilages (p < 0.78). The lateral cartilage was tested once in all cadavers with an average elastic modulus of 0.98 ± 0.29 MPa. In conclusion, this study provides new information on the compressive mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilage, allowing surgeons to have a better understanding of the difference between the mechanical properties of the individual nasal cartilages. This study has provided a reference, by which tissue-engineered should be developed for effective cartilage replacements for nasal reconstruction. PMID:26676857

  17. Cryogenic propellant thermal control system design considerations, analyses, and concepts applied to a Mars human exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Tucker, Stephen; Hoffman, David J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes, defines, and sizes cryogenic storage thermal control systems that meet the requirements of future NASA Mars human exploration missions. The design issues of this system include the projection of the existing Multilayer Insulation data base for cryogenic storage to much thicker (10 cm or more) insulation systems, the unknown heat leak from mechanical interfaces, and the thermal and structural performance effects of the large tank sizes required for a Mars mission. Acknowledging these unknown effects, heat loss projections are made based on extrapolation of the existing data base. The results indicate that hydrogen, methane, and oxygen are feasible propellants, and that the best suited thermal control sytems are 'thick' MLI, thermodynamic vent sytems, cryocoolers, and vacuum jackets.

  18. Optimization and performance improvement of an electromagnetic-type energy harvester with consideration of human walking vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jongho; Kim, Jin-Su; Jeong, Un-Chang; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Young-Cheol; Lee, Hanmin; Oh, Jae-Eung

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we derived an equation of motion for an electromechanical system in view of the components and working mechanism of an electromagnetic-type energy harvester (ETEH). An electromechanical transduction factor (ETF) was calculated using a finite-element analysis (FEA) based on Maxwell's theory. The experimental ETF of the ETEH measured by means of sine wave excitation was compared with and FEA data. Design parameters for the stationary part of the energy harvester were optimized in terms of the power performance by using a response surface method (RSM). With optimized design parameters, the ETEH showed an improvement in performance. We experimented with the optimized ETEH (OETEH) with respect to changes in the external excitation frequency and the load resistance by taking human body vibration in to account. The OETEH achieved a performance improvement of about 30% compared to the initial model.

  19. A Consideration on the Future Direction of Japanese Educational System About Fostering Human Resources for the Global Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shusuke; Shimura, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji

    The lectures are taken, making use of the textbook of the same contents, for high school students in Japan, students at Yamagata University and at Korea Maritime University in Korea. I’ ll find the similarity and difference, by comparing vertical and horizontal relations among three groups. As a result, I can find the directionality of cultivating human resources of doing well in the global society. I think there is “Matrix Thinking Frame” as one of the effective countermeasures for fostering men of ability. It is possible to part from conventional passiveness type education, according to planning and practicing one’ s “Life Management Plan” by using this system. The case where one’ s capability has been extended appears in students, as above mentioned.

  20. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid. PMID:19117321

  1. Ethical considerations for a better collaboration between architects and structural engineers: design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems in earthquake zones.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-06-01

    Architects design building structures, although structural design is the profession of structural engineers. Thus, it is better for architects and structural engineers to collaborate starting from the initial phases of the architectural design. However, this is not very common because of the contradictory design processes and value systems held within the two professions. This article provides a platform upon which architects and structural engineers can resolve the value conflicts between them by analysing phases of the structural design of reinforced concrete frame systems in architecture, the criteria of the structural design for each phase and determining the conflicting values for each criterion. The results shown in the article demonstrate that the architectural design of structures is a complex process, which is based on contradictory values and value systems. Finally, the article suggests to architects and structural engineers to use Value Sensitive Design and to choose an appropriate team leader in order to resolve the unethical conflict between them and to avoid any unreasonable decision making. PMID:23700122

  2. Bioethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  3. DNA-based prediction of human externally visible characteristics in forensics: motivations, scientific challenges, and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Manfred; Schneider, Peter M

    2009-06-01

    There will always be criminal cases, where the evidence DNA sample will not match either a suspect's DNA profile, or any in a criminal DNA database. In the absence of DNA-based mass intelligence screenings, including familial searching (both of which may be restricted by legislation), there is only one option to potentially avoid or retrospectively solve "cold cases": the DNA-based prediction of human externally visible characteristics of an unknown person based on the crime scene sample left behind. Predictive DNA markers are expected to be available for some group-specific appearance traits in the near future; although it is unlikely that we will soon be able to understand the biological complexity of individual-specific appearance. In suspect-less cases reliable DNA-based prediction of broader externally visible characteristics from crime scene samples are expected to reduce the potential pool of suspects by allowing police investigations to concentrate on specific groups of people. Here, we aim to describe the forensic motivations for DNA-based prediction of human externally visible traits as well as the scientific challenges of finding predictive DNA markers, and will discuss examples with promising (e.g. sex, eye color and hair color), as well as less promising expectations (e.g. adult body height), in the foreseen future. Despite the complex ethical and legal implications arising from DNA-based prediction of externally visible characteristics, we argue that their use does not lead to a violation of privacy. We suggest that likelihood-based results, rather than DNA data itself, should be provided to the police for investigative purposes avoiding data protection issues. Furthermore, we note that the risk of exacerbating social pressure on minority groups due to DNA-based prediction of externally visible traits in crime cases may be reduced rather than increased compared to a conventional eyewitness testimony. A firm legal basis will need to be established for

  4. Ex Vivo Propagation of Human Corneal Stromal "Activated Keratocytes" for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Yusoff, Nur Zahirah Binte M; Kadaba, Aishwarya; Tian, Dechao; Myint, Htoon Hla; Beuerman, Roger W; Zhou, Lei; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-01-01

    transformation to stromal fibroblasts. Thus, human CSKs can be ex vivo propagated as transient "activated keratocytes." This could provide sufficient number of genuine CSKs for corneal tissue engineering. PMID:25291523

  5. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties. PMID:27621708

  6. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties. PMID:27621708

  7. Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. III: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, D C; Allen, S L; Byczkowski, J Z; Claudio, L; Fisher, J E; Fisher, J W; Harry, G J; Li, A A; Makris, S L; Padilla, S; Sultatos, L G; Mileson, B E

    2001-01-01

    We review pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors that should be considered in the design and interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity studies. Toxicologic effects on the developing nervous system depend on the delivered dose, exposure duration, and developmental stage at which exposure occurred. Several pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) govern chemical disposition within the dam and the nervous system of the offspring. In addition, unique physical features such as the presence or absence of a placental barrier and the gradual development of the blood--brain barrier influence chemical disposition and thus modulate developmental neurotoxicity. Neonatal exposure may depend on maternal pharmacokinetic processes and transfer of the xenobiotic through the milk, although direct exposure may occur through other routes (e.g., inhalation). Measurement of the xenobiotic in milk and evaluation of biomarkers of exposure or effect following exposure can confirm or characterize neonatal exposure. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models that incorporate these and other determinants can estimate tissue dose and biologic response following in utero or neonatal exposure. These models can characterize dose--response relationships and improve extrapolation of results from animal studies to humans. In addition, pharmacologic data allow an experimenter to determine whether exposure to the test chemical is adequate, whether exposure occurs during critical periods of nervous system development, whether route and duration of exposure are appropriate, and whether developmental neurotoxicity can be differentiated from direct actions of the xenobiotic. PMID:11250810

  8. Effects of organochlorine chemicals on the reproductive outcome of humans who consumed contaminated Great Lakes fish: An epidemiologic consideration

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, W.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Three sets of studies of the impacts of human exposure to PCB contaminated fish from the Great Lakes basin--the Michigan Sports Fisherman Cohort, the Michigan Maternal/Infant Cohort, and the Wisconsin Maternal/Infant Cohort-were evaluated using the epidemiologic criteria of Susser (1986). The studies were compared against each other, and against comparable data from other geographic locales. A total of seven major categories of exposure sequelae were evaluated. These ranged from the effects of primary exposure to contaminants upon maternal health status, to effects from secondary intrauterine fetal exposure, including alterations in birth size and gestational age, changes in neonatal health status, and effects persisting into early infancy. Results of the evaluations suggest that the causal hypothesis may be strongly affirmed for the relationship between PCB exposure and alterations in both neonatal health status and in health status in early infancy may be affirmed with reasonable certainty. While the evidence from the Michigan Maternal/Infant Cohort related to maternal exposure to PCB and infant size at birth and gestational age affirms the causal hypothesis, studies from other geographic locales tend only to be supportive. Analytic differences are likely responsible for this variation, but epidemiologically, the composite rating must be regarded as indeterminate. The relationship with observed alterations in maternal health status, composite activity ranking, and McCarthy Memory Scale deficits were also classified as indeterminate. No evidences of obvious negation were seen, although one portion of a study was disqualified because of incoherence. 89 references.

  9. Sucrose dependence of solute retention on human serum albumin stationary phase: hydrophobic effect and surface tension considerations.

    PubMed

    Peyrin, E; Guillaume, Y C; Morin, N; Guinchard, C

    1998-07-15

    In a chromatographic system using human serum albumin (HSA) as a stationary phase, D,L dansyl amino acids as solutes, and sucrose as a mobile-phase modifier, a study on the surface tension effect of sugar on compound retention was carried out by varying the salting-out agent concentration c and the column temperature T. The thermodynamic parameters for solute transfer from the mobile to the stationary phase were determined from linear van't Hoff plots. An enthalpy-entropy compensation study revealed that the type of interaction between solute and HSA was independent of the molecular structure of the dansyl amino acids and the mobile-phase composition. An analysis of the experimental variations in the retention factor and the enantioselectivity values with c was performed using a theoretical model. It was shown that the decrease in solute retention accompanying the sucrose concentration increase was principally governed by a structural rearrangement of the binding cavity due to the increased surface tension effects. The cavity apolar residues were assumed to fold out of contact with the medium in order to reduce the surface area accessible to sucrose molecules, thus implying a restriction of the curvature radius of the cavity. Such behavior caused a decrease in the hydrophobic interaction for ligand binding on HSA explaining the observed thermodynamic parameter trends over the sucrose concentration range. PMID:9684542

  10. Human developmental chondrogenesis as a basis for engineering chondrocytes from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Bluguermann, Carolina; Kyupelyan, Levon; Latour, Brooke; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Shah, Saumya; Galic, Zoran; Ge, Sundi; Zhu, Yuhua; Petrigliano, Frank A; Nsair, Ali; Miriuka, Santiago G; Li, Xinmin; Lyons, Karen M; Crooks, Gay M; McAllister, David R; Van Handel, Ben; Adams, John S; Evseenko, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Joint injury and osteoarthritis affect millions of people worldwide, but attempts to generate articular cartilage using adult stem/progenitor cells have been unsuccessful. We hypothesized that recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may represent a superior approach for cartilage restoration. Using laser-capture microdissection followed by microarray analysis, we first defined a surface phenotype (CD166(low/neg)CD146(low/neg)CD73(+)CD44(low)BMPR1B(+)) distinguishing the earliest cartilage committed cells (prechondrocytes) at 5-6 weeks of development. Functional studies confirmed these cells are chondrocyte progenitors. From 12 weeks, only the superficial layers of articular cartilage were enriched in cells with this progenitor phenotype. Isolation of cells with a similar immunophenotype from differentiating human PSCs revealed a population of CD166(low/neg)BMPR1B(+) putative cartilage-committed progenitors. Taken as a whole, these data define a developmental approach for the generation of highly purified functional human chondrocytes from PSCs that could enable substantial progress in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:24371811

  11. Human Developmental Chondrogenesis as a Basis for Engineering Chondrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ling; Bluguermann, Carolina; Kyupelyan, Levon; Latour, Brooke; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Shah, Saumya; Galic, Zoran; Ge, Sundi; Zhu, Yuhua; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Nsair, Ali; Miriuka, Santiago G.; Li, Xinmin; Lyons, Karen M.; Crooks, Gay M.; McAllister, David R.; Van Handel, Ben; Adams, John S.; Evseenko, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Joint injury and osteoarthritis affect millions of people worldwide, but attempts to generate articular cartilage using adult stem/progenitor cells have been unsuccessful. We hypothesized that recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may represent a superior approach for cartilage restoration. Using laser-capture microdissection followed by microarray analysis, we first defined a surface phenotype (CD166low/negCD146low/negCD73+CD44lowBMPR1B+) distinguishing the earliest cartilage committed cells (prechondrocytes) at 5–6 weeks of development. Functional studies confirmed these cells are chondrocyte progenitors. From 12 weeks, only the superficial layers of articular cartilage were enriched in cells with this progenitor phenotype. Isolation of cells with a similar immunophenotype from differentiating human PSCs revealed a population of CD166low/negBMPR1B+ putative cartilage-committed progenitors. Taken as a whole, these data define a developmental approach for the generation of highly purified functional human chondrocytes from PSCs that could enable substantial progress in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:24371811

  12. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711)Revision 3: Update Methodology and Key Revisions

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, S.

    2012-07-22

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. NUREG-0711 is the first document to be addressed. We present the methodology used to update NUREG-0711 and summarize the main changes made. Finally, we discuss the current status of the update program and the future plans.

  13. Tissue engineering of feline corneal endothelium using a devitalized human cornea as carrier.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Stéphanie; Audet, Caroline; Uwamaliya, Jeanne d'Arc; Deschambeault, Alexandre; Carrier, Patrick; Giasson, Claude J; Brunette, Isabelle; Germain, Lucie

    2009-07-01

    The difficulties in obtaining good quality tissue for the replacement of corneas of patients suffering from endothelial dysfunctions have prompted us to evaluate the feasibility of producing a tissue-engineered (TE) corneal endothelium using devitalized human stromal carriers. Thus, corneal substitutes were produced by seeding cultured feline corneal endothelial cells on top of previously frozen human corneal stromas. After two weeks of culture to allow attachment and spreading of the seeded cells, the TE corneal endothelium was stained with alizarin red for endothelial cell count and fixed for histology, immunofluorescence labeling, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Histology and Hoechst staining showed that there were no remaining cells in the devitalized stroma. After seeding, histology and transmission electron microscopy showed that the TE corneal endothelium formed a monolayer of tightly packed cells that were well adhered to Descemet's membrane. Scanning electron microscopy corroborated that the cells covered the entire posterior corneal surface and had an endothelial morphology. Alizarin staining showed that mean cell counts were 2272 +/- 344 cells/mm(2), indicating that the cell density was appropriate for grafting. The TE feline corneal endothelium also expressed the function-related proteins Na(+)/HCO(3)(-), ZO-1, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1, and could easily be marked with a fluorescent tracker. This study demonstrates the feasibility of reconstructing a highly cellular and healthy corneal endothelium on devitalized human corneal stromas. PMID:19125643

  14. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units. PMID:22900432

  15. Looking Ahead to Engineering Epimorphic Regeneration of a Human Digit or Limb.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Lina M; Lynch, Kristen M; Allan, Christopher H; Badylak, Stephen F; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 million people have had limb amputations in the United States due to disease or injury, with more than 185,000 new amputations every year. The ability to promote epimorphic regeneration, or the regrowth of a biologically based digit or limb, would radically change the prognosis for amputees. This ambitious goal includes the regrowth of a large number of tissues that need to be properly assembled and patterned to create a fully functional structure. We have yet to even identify, let alone address, all the obstacles along the extended progression that limit epimorphic regeneration in humans. This review aims to present introductory fundamentals in epimorphic regeneration to facilitate design and conduct of research from a tissue engineering and regenerative medicine perspective. We describe the clinical scenario of human digit healing, featuring published reports of regenerative potential. We then broadly delineate the processes of epimorphic regeneration in nonmammalian systems and describe a few mammalian regeneration models. We give particular focus to the murine digit tip, which allows for comparative studies of regeneration-competent and regeneration-incompetent outcomes in the same animal. Finally, we describe a few forward-thinking opportunities for promoting epimorphic regeneration in humans. PMID:26603349

  16. Engineering of a Novel Simplified Human Insulin-Like Peptide 5 Agonist.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nitin A; Hughes, Richard A; Rosengren, K Johan; Kocan, Martina; Ang, Sheng Yu; Tailhades, Julien; Separovic, Frances; Summers, Roger J; Grosse, Johannes; Wade, John D; Bathgate, Ross A D; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter

    2016-03-10

    Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) has recently been discovered as only the second orexigenic gut hormone after ghrelin. As we have previously reported, INSL5 is extremely difficult to assemble and oxidize into its two-chain three-disulfide structure. The focus of this study was to generate structure-activity relationships (SARs) of INSL5 and use it to develop a potent and simpler INSL5 mimetic with RXFP4 agonist activity. A series of human and mouse INSL5 (hINSL5/mINSL5) analogues were designed and chemically synthesized, resulting in a chimeric INSL5 analogue exhibiting more than 10-fold higher potency (0.35 nM) at human RXFP4 compared with native hINSL5 (4.57 nM). The SAR study also identified a key residue (K(A15)) in the A-chain of mINSL5 that contributes to improved RXFP4 affinity and potency of mINSL5 compared with hINSL5. This knowledge ultimately led us to engineer a minimized hINSL5 mimetic agonist that retains native hINSL5-like RXFP4 affinity and potency at human RXFP4. This minimized analogue was synthesized in 17.5-fold higher yield and in less time compared with hINSL5. PMID:26824523

  17. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  18. Engineered cystine knot miniproteins as potent inhibitors of human mast cell tryptase beta.

    PubMed

    Sommerhoff, Christian P; Avrutina, Olga; Schmoldt, Hans-Ulrich; Gabrijelcic-Geiger, Dusica; Diederichsen, Ulf; Kolmar, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the design, chemical and recombinant synthesis, and functional properties of a series of novel inhibitors of human mast cell tryptase beta, a protease of considerable interest as a therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic asthma and inflammatory disorders. These inhibitors are derived from a linear variant of the cyclic cystine knot miniprotein MCoTI-II, originally isolated from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis. A synthetic cyclic miniprotein that bears additional positive charge in the loop connecting the N- and C-termini inhibits all monomers of the tryptase beta tetramer with an overall equilibrium dissociation constant K(i) of 1 nM and thus is one of the most potent proteinaceous inhibitors of tryptase beta described to date. These cystine knot miniproteins may therefore become valuable scaffolds for the design of a new generation of tryptase inhibitors. PMID:19852971

  19. Evaluation of human engineering design standard (MSFC-STD-267A) in the design of manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The major conclusion of the detailed examination of the human factors engineering design standard is that it is unsuitable for future spacecraft design. The standard, published in 1966, was not intended to be a zero or reduced gravity standard and was directed primarily toward ground support equipment and technology. Futhermore, ambiguities, conflicts, and unenforceable requirements contribute to the difficulty. The role of man in future space missions and its impact on human engineering standards are also discussed, and it is concluded that greater standardization is vital to the success of future missions. A survey of NASA/MSFC contractors was made, and it was found that MSFC-STD-267A is largely ignored and the most significant problems are inaccessibility and nonspecificity of the data. The resistance of contract management and designer and of program managers is a primary reason for poor human engineering design. Specific recommendations for improvement of format and organization, including an interim solution, are given.

  20. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Kirkham, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.

    2002-09-26

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  1. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Techology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Kirkham, Robert John; Losinski, Sylvester John

    2001-09-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates.

  2. Creation of a Large Adipose Tissue Construct in Humans Using a Tissue-engineering Chamber: A Step Forward in the Clinical Application of Soft Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Wayne A; Marre, Diego; Grinsell, Damien; Batty, Andrew; Trost, Nicholas; O'Connor, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Tissue engineering is currently exploring new and exciting avenues for the repair of soft tissue and organ defects. Adipose tissue engineering using the tissue engineering chamber (TEC) model has yielded promising results in animals; however, to date, there have been no reports on the use of this device in humans. Five female post mastectomy patients ranging from 35 to 49years old were recruited and a pedicled thoracodorsal artery perforator fat flap ranging from 6 to 50ml was harvested, transposed onto the chest wall and covered by an acrylic perforated dome-shaped chamber ranging from 140 to 350cm(3). Magnetic resonance evaluation was performed at three and six months after chamber implantation. Chambers were removed at six months and samples were obtained for histological analysis. In one patient, newly formed tissue to a volume of 210ml was generated inside the chamber. One patient was unable to complete the trial and the other three failed to develop significant enlargement of the original fat flap, which, at the time of chamber explantation, was encased in a thick fibrous capsule. Our study provides evidence that generation of large well-vascularized tissue engineered constructs using the TEC is feasible in humans. PMID:27211566

  3. Natural Scaffolds for Renal Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Kidney Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Cynthia A.; Martinez, Michele L.; Tarantal, Alice F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the enthusiasm for bioengineering of functional renal tissues for transplantation, many obstacles remain before the potential of this technology can be realized in a clinical setting. Viable tissue engineering strategies for the kidney require identification of the necessary cell populations, efficient scaffolds, and the 3D culture conditions to develop and support the unique architecture and physiological function of this vital organ. Our studies have previously demonstrated that decellularized sections of rhesus monkey kidneys of all age groups provide a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) with sufficient structural properties with spatial and organizational influences on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) migration and differentiation. To further explore the use of decellularized natural kidney scaffolds for renal tissue engineering, pluripotent hESC were seeded in whole- or on sections of kidney ECM and cell migration and phenotype compared with the established differentiation assays for hESC. Results of qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated upregulation of renal lineage markers when hESC were cultured in decellularized scaffolds without cytokine or growth factor stimulation, suggesting a role for the ECM in directing renal lineage differentiation. hESC were also differentiated with growth factors and compared when seeded on renal ECM or a new biologically inert polysaccharide scaffold for further maturation. Renal lineage markers were progressively upregulated over time on both scaffolds and hESC were shown to express signature genes of renal progenitor, proximal tubule, endothelial, and collecting duct populations. These findings suggest that natural scaffolds enhance expression of renal lineage markers particularly when compared to embryoid body culture. The results of these studies show the capabilities of a novel polysaccharide scaffold to aid in defining a protocol for renal progenitor differentiation from hESC, and advance the promise

  4. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation, in the process of storing, diverting, transporting, applying, consuming, and returning water, impacts the environment. These impacts are both positive and negative. The largest positive impact is the production of food and fiber for human use. Sixty percent of the crop value in the U....

  6. Change Fatigue in Health Care Professionals--An Issue of Workload or Human Factors Engineering?

    PubMed

    Ead, Heather

    2015-12-01

    In the demanding and fast-paced world of health care, it is not uncommon for nurses and other health care professionals to have days where they are pushed to their limits. Despite these pressures, each year, new initiatives and practice recommendations are shared within organizations that the nurses must learn, embrace, and include in their practice. Each new initiative can be additive to the nurse's workload; most changes are not time neutral but require staff to expend an allotment of time from their day to complete. In our efforts to adopt new recommendations, is it realistic or possible to add on to workload and stretched resources in an ongoing manner? The following article provides an overview of how issues such as change fatigue and increased workload need to be addressed. Through use of workload measurement tools and guidance by the principles of human factors engineering, we can better support the provision of optimal patient care in a demanding environment. PMID:26596386

  7. Engineering Human Microbiota: Influencing Cellular and Community Dynamics for Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Woloszynek, S; Pastor, S; Mell, J C; Nandi, N; Sokhansanj, B; Rosen, G L

    2016-01-01

    The complex relationship between microbiota, human physiology, and environmental perturbations has become a major research focus, particularly with the arrival of culture-free and high-throughput approaches for studying the microbiome. Early enthusiasm has come from results that are largely correlative, but the correlative phase of microbiome research has assisted in defining the key questions of how these microbiota interact with their host. An emerging repertoire for engineering the microbiome places current research on a more experimentally grounded footing. We present a detailed look at the interplay between microbiota and host and how these interactions can be exploited. A particular emphasis is placed on unstable microbial communities, or dysbiosis, and strategies to reestablish stability in these microbial ecosystems. These include manipulation of intermicrobial communication, development of designer probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and synthetic biology. PMID:27017007

  8. Using ethnographic methods to carry out human factors research in software engineering.

    PubMed

    Karn, J S; Cowling, A J

    2006-08-01

    This article describes how ethnographic methods were used to observe and analyze student teams working on software engineering (SE) projects. The aim of this research was to uncover the effects of the interplay of different personality types, as measured by a test based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), on the workings of an SE team. Using ethnographic methods allowed the researchers to record the effects of personality type on behavior toward teammates and how this related to the amount of disruption and positive ideas brought forward from each member, also examined in detail were issues that were either dogged by disruption or that did not have sufficient discussion devoted to them and the impact that they had on the outcomes of the project. Initial findings indicate that ethnographic methods are a valuable weapon to have in one's arsenal when carrying out research into human factors of SE. PMID:17186760

  9. Rational Engineering of a Human Anti-Dengue Antibody through Experimentally Validated Computational Docking

    PubMed Central

    Beltramello, Martina; Livoti, Elsa; Calzolai, Luigi; Sallusto, Federica; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Varani, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies play an increasing pivotal role in both basic research and the biopharmaceutical sector, therefore technology for characterizing and improving their properties through rational engineering is desirable. This is a difficult task thought to require high-resolution x-ray structures, which are not always available. We, instead, use a combination of solution NMR epitope mapping and computational docking to investigate the structure of a human antibody in complex with the four Dengue virus serotypes. Analysis of the resulting models allows us to design several antibody mutants altering its properties in a predictable manner, changing its binding selectivity and ultimately improving its ability to neutralize the virus by up to 40 fold. The successful rational design of antibody mutants is a testament to the accuracy achievable by combining experimental NMR epitope mapping with computational docking and to the possibility of applying it to study antibody/pathogen interactions. PMID:23405171

  10. Human engineering analysis for the high speed civil transport flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regal, David M.; Alter, Keith W.

    1993-01-01

    The Boeing Company is investigating the feasibility of building a second generation supersonic transport. If current studies support its viability, this airplane, known as the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), could be launched early in the next century. The HSCT will cruise at Mach 2.4, be over 300 feet long, have an initial range of between 5000 and 6000 NM, and carry approximately 300 passengers. We are presently involved in developing an advanced flight deck for the HSCT. As part of this effort we are undertaking a human engineering analysis that involves a top-down, mission driven approach that will allow a systematic determination of flight deck functional and information requirements. The present paper describes this work.

  11. Pluripotency of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Vinicius; Dubey, Nileshkumar; Islam, Intekhab; Min, Kyung-San; Nör, Jacques E.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are highly proliferative pluripotent cells that can be retrieved from primary teeth. Although SHED are isolated from the dental pulp, their differentiation potential is not limited to odontoblasts only. In fact, SHED can differentiate into several cell types including neurons, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. The high plasticity makes SHED an interesting stem cell model for research in several biomedical areas. This review will discuss key findings about the characterization and differentiation of SHED into odontoblasts, neurons, and hormone secreting cells (e.g., hepatocytes and islet-like cell aggregates). The outcomes of the studies presented here support the multipotency of SHED and their potential to be used for tissue engineering-based therapies. PMID:27313627

  12. Pluripotency of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Vinicius; Dubey, Nileshkumar; Islam, Intekhab; Min, Kyung-San; Nör, Jacques E

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are highly proliferative pluripotent cells that can be retrieved from primary teeth. Although SHED are isolated from the dental pulp, their differentiation potential is not limited to odontoblasts only. In fact, SHED can differentiate into several cell types including neurons, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. The high plasticity makes SHED an interesting stem cell model for research in several biomedical areas. This review will discuss key findings about the characterization and differentiation of SHED into odontoblasts, neurons, and hormone secreting cells (e.g., hepatocytes and islet-like cell aggregates). The outcomes of the studies presented here support the multipotency of SHED and their potential to be used for tissue engineering-based therapies. PMID:27313627

  13. Characterization of the human plasma phosphoproteome using linear ion trap mass spectrometry and multiple search engines.

    PubMed

    Carrascal, Montserrat; Gay, Marina; Ovelleiro, David; Casas, Vanessa; Gelpí, Emilio; Abian, Joaquin

    2010-02-01

    Major plasma protein families play different roles in blood physiology and hemostasis and in immunodefense. Other proteins in plasma can be involved in signaling as chemical messengers or constitute biological markers of the status of distant tissues. In this respect, the plasma phosphoproteome holds potentially relevant information on the mechanisms modulating these processes through the regulation of protein activity. In this work we describe for the first time a collection of phosphopeptides identified in human plasma using immunoaffinity separation of the seven major serum protein families from other plasma proteins, SCX fractionation, and TiO(2) purification prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. One-hundred and twenty-seven phosphosites in 138 phosphopeptides mapping 70 phosphoproteins were identified with FDR < 1%. A high-confidence collection of phosphosites was obtained using a combined search with the OMSSA, SEQUEST, and Phenyx search engines. PMID:19941383

  14. Engineered aggregation inhibitor fusion for production of highly amyloidogenic human islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Mirecka, Ewa Agnieszka; Gremer, Lothar; Schiefer, Stephanie; Oesterhelt, Filipp; Stoldt, Matthias; Willbold, Dieter; Hoyer, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is the major component of pancreatic amyloid deposits in type 2 diabetes. The structural conversion of IAPP from a monomeric state into amyloid assemblies is the subject of intense research. Recombinant production of IAPP is, however, difficult due to its extreme aggregation propensity. Here we describe a novel strategy for expression of IAPP in Escherichia coli, based on an engineered protein tag, which sequesters IAPP monomers and prevents IAPP aggregation. The IAPP-binding protein HI18 was selected by phage display from a β-wrapin library. Fusion of HI18 to IAPP enabled the soluble expression of the construct. IAPP was cleaved from the fusion construct and purified to homogeneity with a yield of 3mg of isotopically labeled peptide per liter of culture. In the monomeric state, IAPP was largely disordered as evidenced by far-UV CD and liquid-state NMR spectroscopy but competent to form amyloid fibrils according to atomic force microscopy. These results demonstrate the ability of the engineered β-wrapin HI18 for shielding the hydrophobic sequence of IAPP during expression and purification. Fusion of aggregation-inhibiting β-wrapins is a suitable approach for the recombinant production of aggregation-prone proteins. PMID:24928165

  15. Development of bone and cartilage in tissue-engineered human middle phalanx models.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yoshitaka; Enjo, Mitsuhiro; Isogai, Noritaka; Jacquet, Robin; Lowder, Elizabeth; Landis, William J

    2009-12-01

    Human middle phalanges were tissue-engineered with midshaft scaffolds of poly(L-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) [P(LA-CL)], hydroxyapatite-P(LA-CL), or beta-tricalcium phosphate-P(LA-CL) and end plate scaffolds of bovine chondrocyte-seeded polyglycolic acid. Midshafts were either wrapped with bovine periosteum or left uncovered. Constructs implanted in nude mice for up to 20 weeks were examined for cartilage and bone development as well as gene expression and protein secretion, which are important in extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and mineralization. Harvested 10- and 20-week constructs without periosteum maintained end plate cartilage but no growth plate formation. They also consisted of chondrocytes secreting type II collagen and proteoglycan, and they were composed of midshaft regions devoid of bone. In all periosteum-wrapped constructs at like times, end plate scaffolds held chondrocytes elaborating type II collagen and proteoglycan and cartilage growth plates resembling normal tissue. Chondrocyte gene expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, and bone sialoprotein varied depending on midshaft composition, presence of periosteum, and length of implantation time. Periosteum produced additional cells, ECM, and mineral formation within the different midshaft scaffolds. Periosteum thus induces midshaft development and mediates chondrocyte gene expression and growth plate formation in cartilage regions of phalanges. This work is important for understanding developmental principles of tissue-engineered phalanges and by extension those of normal growth plate cartilage and bone. PMID:19527181

  16. Development of Bone and Cartilage in Tissue-Engineered Human Middle Phalanx Models

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Yoshitaka; Enjo, Mitsuhiro; Isogai, Noritaka; Jacquet, Robin; Lowder, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Human middle phalanges were tissue-engineered with midshaft scaffolds of poly(L-lactide-ɛ-caprolactone) [P(LA-CL)], hydroxyapatite-P(LA-CL), or β-tricalcium phosphate-P(LA-CL) and end plate scaffolds of bovine chondrocyte-seeded polyglycolic acid. Midshafts were either wrapped with bovine periosteum or left uncovered. Constructs implanted in nude mice for up to 20 weeks were examined for cartilage and bone development as well as gene expression and protein secretion, which are important in extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and mineralization. Harvested 10- and 20-week constructs without periosteum maintained end plate cartilage but no growth plate formation. They also consisted of chondrocytes secreting type II collagen and proteoglycan, and they were composed of midshaft regions devoid of bone. In all periosteum-wrapped constructs at like times, end plate scaffolds held chondrocytes elaborating type II collagen and proteoglycan and cartilage growth plates resembling normal tissue. Chondrocyte gene expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, and bone sialoprotein varied depending on midshaft composition, presence of periosteum, and length of implantation time. Periosteum produced additional cells, ECM, and mineral formation within the different midshaft scaffolds. Periosteum thus induces midshaft development and mediates chondrocyte gene expression and growth plate formation in cartilage regions of phalanges. This work is important for understanding developmental principles of tissue-engineered phalanges and by extension those of normal growth plate cartilage and bone. PMID:19527181

  17. Inhibition of Human Telomerase Activity by an Engineered Zinc Finger Protein that Binds G-Quadruplexes†

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sachin D.; Isalan, Mark; Gavory, Gérald; Ladame, Sylvain; Choo, Yen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    The G-quadruplex nucleic acid structural motif is a target for designing molecules that could potentially modulate telomere length or have anticancer properties. We have recently described an engineered zinc finger protein (Gq1) that binds with specificity to the intramolecular G-quadruplex formed by the human telomeric sequence 5′-(GGTTAG)5-3′ (Isalan et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 830-836). Here, we report that Gq1 is able to arrest the action of a DNA polymerase on a template-containing telomeric sequence. Inhibition occurs in a concentration-dependent manner, probably by forming a stabilized G-quadruplex·protein complex. Furthermore, Gq1 inhibits the apparent activity of the enzyme telomerase in vitro, with an IC50 value of 74.3 ± 11.1 nM. Possible molecular mechanisms of inhibition are discussed, together with the potential for using engineered zinc fingers to interfere with the cellular processes associated with telomere function. PMID:15491152

  18. Engineering the human pluripotent stem cell microenvironment to direct cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Hazeltine, Laurie B.; Selekman, Joshua A.; Palecek, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, offer a potential cell source for research, drug screening, and regenerative medicine applications due to their unique ability to self-renew or differentiate to any somatic cell type. Before the full potential of hPSCs can be realized, robust protocols must be developed to direct their fate. Cell fate decisions are based on components of the surrounding microenvironment, including soluble factors, substrate or extracellular matrix, cell-cell interactions, mechanical forces, and 2D or 3D architecture. Depending on their spatio-temporal context, these components can signal hPSCs to either self-renew or differentiate to cell types of the ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm. Researchers working at the interface of engineering and biology have identified various factors which can affect hPSC fate, often based on lessons from embryonic development, and they have utilized this information to design in vitro niches which can reproducibly direct hPSC fate. This review highlights culture systems that have been engineered to promote self-renewal or differentiation of hPSCs, with a focus on studies that have elucidated the contributions of specific microenvironmental cues in the context of those culture systems. We propose the use of microsystems technologies for high-throughput screening of spatial-temporal presentation of cues, as this has been demonstrated to be a powerful approach for differentiating hPSCs to desired cell types. PMID:23510904

  19. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Freeman, Jennifer J; Wieck, Minna M; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Spence, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. PMID:26459240

  20. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Freeman, Jennifer J.; Wieck, Minna M.; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S.; Grikscheit, Tracy C.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Spence, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. PMID:26459240

  1. Cognitive engineering models: A prerequisite to the design of human-computer interaction in complex dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter examines a class of human-computer interaction applications, specifically the design of human-computer interaction for the operators of complex systems. Such systems include space systems (e.g., manned systems such as the Shuttle or space station, and unmanned systems such as NASA scientific satellites), aviation systems (e.g., the flight deck of 'glass cockpit' airplanes or air traffic control) and industrial systems (e.g., power plants, telephone networks, and sophisticated, e.g., 'lights out,' manufacturing facilities). The main body of human-computer interaction (HCI) research complements but does not directly address the primary issues involved in human-computer interaction design for operators of complex systems. Interfaces to complex systems are somewhat special. The 'user' in such systems - i.e., the human operator responsible for safe and effective system operation - is highly skilled, someone who in human-machine systems engineering is sometimes characterized as 'well trained, well motivated'. The 'job' or task context is paramount and, thus, human-computer interaction is subordinate to human job interaction. The design of human interaction with complex systems, i.e., the design of human job interaction, is sometimes called cognitive engineering.

  2. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:23140062

  3. Learning from biotechnology: milestones in the prenatal engineering of an intelligent optical sensor--the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    2001-10-01

    The analysis of the prenatal engineering of the human brain and more specifically that of the human eye may encourage new interpretations and better understanding of cortical processors and lead to better ideas about how to build optical sensors. What human vision at its first processing stages realizes is an adaptive transformation of physical parameters from an outer 4D-spatiotemporal into an inner psychological world or its reciprocal projection and construction of an illusionary (inner or outer) world. The description of some of the most remarkable steps in the development of the human eye before birth, very critical for the optical functionalities in vision, will illustrate the new interpretations.

  4. Human Participants in Engineering Research: Notes from a Fledgling Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2015-08-01

    For the past half-century, issues relating to the ethical conduct of human research have focused largely on the domain of medical, and more recently social-psychological research. The modern regime of applied ethics, emerging as it has from the Nuremberg trials and certain other historical antecedents, applies the key principles of: autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to human beings who enter trials of experimental drugs and devices (Martensen in J Hist Med Allied Sci 56(2):168-175, 2001). Institutions such as Institutional Review Boards (in the U.S.) and Ethics Committees (in Europe and elsewhere) oversee most governmentally-funded medical research around the world, in more than a hundred nations that are signers of the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association 2008). Increasingly, research outside of medicine has been recognized to pose potential risks to human subjects of experiments. Ethics committees now operate in the US, Canada, the U.K. and Australia to oversee all governmental-funded research, and in other jurisdictions, the range of research covered by such committees is expanding. Social science, anthropology, and other fields are falling under more clear directives to conduct a formal ethical review for basic research involving human participants (Federman et al. in Responsible research: a systems approach to protecting research participants. National Academies Press, Washington, 2003, p. 36). The legal and institutional response for protecting human subjects in the course of developing non-medical technologies, engineering, and design is currently vague, but some universities are establishing ethics committees to oversee their human subjects research even where the experiments involved are non-medical and not technically covered by the Declaration of Helsinki. In The Netherlands, as in most of Europe, Asia, Latin America, or Africa, no laws mandate an ethical review of non-medical research. Yet, nearly 2

  5. Small-diameter human vessel wall engineered from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhaodi; Niklason, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    Using biodegradable scaffold and a biomimetic perfusion system, our lab has successfully engineered small-diameter vessel grafts using endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obtained from vessels in various species. However, translating this technique into humans has presented tremendous obstacles due to species and age differences. SMCs from elderly persons have limited proliferative capacity and a reduction in collagen production, which impair the mechanical strength of engineered vessels. As an alternative cell source, adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were studied for their ability to differentiate into SMCs in culture plates as well as in a bioreactor system. In the former setting, immunofluorescence staining showed that MSCs, after induction for 14 days, expressed smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) and calponin, early and mid-SMC phenotypic markers, respectively. In the latter setting, vessel walls were constructed with MSC-derived SMCs. Various factors (i.e., matrix proteins, soluble factors, and cyclic strain) in the engineering system were further investigated for their effects on hMSC cell proliferation and differentiation into SMCs. Based on a screening of multiple factors, the engineering system was optimized by dividing the vessel culture into proliferation and differentiation phases. The vessel walls engineered under the optimized conditions were examined histologically and molecularly, and found to be substantially similar to native vessels. In conclusion, bone marrow-derived hMSCs can serve as a new cell source of SMCs in vessel engineering. Optimization of the culture conditions to drive SMC differentiation and matrix production significantly improved the quality of the hMSC-derived engineered vessel wall.—Gong, Z., Niklason, L. E. Small-diameter human vessel wall engineered from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PMID:18199698

  6. Knowledge-based personalized search engine for the Web-based Human Musculoskeletal System Resources (HMSR) in biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Dao, Tien Tuan; Hoang, Tuan Nha; Ta, Xuan Hien; Tho, Marie Christine Ho Ba

    2013-02-01

    Human musculoskeletal system resources of the human body are valuable for the learning and medical purposes. Internet-based information from conventional search engines such as Google or Yahoo cannot response to the need of useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality human musculoskeletal resources related to medical processes, pathological knowledge and practical expertise. In this present work, an advanced knowledge-based personalized search engine was developed. Our search engine was based on a client-server multi-layer multi-agent architecture and the principle of semantic web services to acquire dynamically accurate and reliable HMSR information by a semantic processing and visualization approach. A security-enhanced mechanism was applied to protect the medical information. A multi-agent crawler was implemented to develop a content-based database of HMSR information. A new semantic-based PageRank score with related mathematical formulas were also defined and implemented. As the results, semantic web service descriptions were presented in OWL, WSDL and OWL-S formats. Operational scenarios with related web-based interfaces for personal computers and mobile devices were presented and analyzed. Functional comparison between our knowledge-based search engine, a conventional search engine and a semantic search engine showed the originality and the robustness of our knowledge-based personalized search engine. In fact, our knowledge-based personalized search engine allows different users such as orthopedic patient and experts or healthcare system managers or medical students to access remotely into useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality HMSR information for their learning and medical purposes. PMID:23149160

  7. Rapid manufacturing techniques for the tissue engineering of human heart valves.

    PubMed

    Lueders, Cora; Jastram, Ben; Hetzer, Roland; Schwandt, Hartmut

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies have reached a level of quality that justifies considering rapid manufacturing for medical applications. Herein, we introduce a new approach using 3D printing to simplify and improve the fabrication of human heart valve scaffolds by tissue engineering (TE). Custom-made human heart valve scaffolds are to be fabricated on a selective laser-sintering 3D printer for subsequent seeding with vascular cells from human umbilical cords. The scaffolds will be produced from resorbable polymers that must feature a number of specific properties: the structure, i.e. particle granularity and shape, and thermic properties must be feasible for the printing process. They must be suitable for the cell-seeding process and at the same time should be resorbable. They must be applicable for implementation in the human body and flexible enough to support the full functionality of the valve. The research focuses mainly on the search for a suitable scaffold material that allows the implementation of both the printing process to produce the scaffolds and the cell-seeding process, while meeting all of the above requirements. Computer tomographic data from patients were transformed into a 3D data model suitable for the 3D printer. Our current activities involve various aspects of the printing process, material research and the implementation of the cell-seeding process. Different resorbable polymeric materials have been examined and used to fabricate heart valve scaffolds by rapid manufacturing. Human vascular cells attached to the scaffold surface should migrate additionally into the inner structure of the polymeric samples. The ultimate intention of our approach is to establish a heart valve fabrication process based on 3D rapid manufacturing and TE. Based on the computer tomographic data of a patient, a custom-made scaffold for a valve will be produced on a 3D printer and populated preferably by autologous cells. The long-term goal is to support

  8. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri

    2010-09-01

    The design of the passengers’ cabin or cockpit of commercial suborbital spaceplane is a new and exciting frontier in human factors engineering, which emphasizes on comfort and safety. There is a program to develop small piloted 3 seats commercial suborbital spaceplane by a group of Malaysians with their foreign partners, and being relatively small and due to its design philosophy, the spaceplane does not require a cabin, but only a cockpit for its 2 passengers. In designing the cockpit, human factors engineering and safety principles are given priority. The cockpit is designed with the intention to provide comfort and satisfaction to the passengers without compromising the safety, in such a way that there are passenger-view wide angled video camera to observe the passengers at all time in flight, “rear-view”, “under-the-floor-view” and “fuselage-view” video cameras for the passengers, personalized gauges and LCDs on the dashboard to provide vital and useful information during the flight to the passengers, and biomedical engineered products which not only entertain the passengers, but also provide important information on the passengers to the ground crews who are responsible in the comfort and safety of the passengers. The passenger-view video-camera, which record the passengers with Earth visible through the glass canopy as the background, not only provides live visual of the passengers for safety reason, but also provide the most preferred memorable video collection for the passengers, while other video cameras provide the opportunity to view at various angles from unique positions to both the passengers and the ground observers. The gauges and LCDs on the dashboard provide access to the passengers to information such as the gravity, orientation, rate of climb and flight profile of the spaceplane, graphical presentation of the spaceplane in flight, and live video from the onboard video cameras. There is also a control stick for each passenger to

  9. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human-horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human-horse interactions. Whilst most-if not all-horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events. PMID:27164148

  10. Genetically engineered mouse models of human B-cell precursor leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, Julia; Borkhardt, Arndt; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Cobaleda, César

    2014-01-01

    B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias (pB-ALLs) are the most frequent type of malignancies of the childhood, and also affect an important proportion of adult patients. In spite of their apparent homogeneity, pB-ALL comprises a group of diseases very different both clinically and pathologically, and with very diverse outcomes as a consequence of their biology, and underlying molecular alterations. Their understanding (as a prerequisite for their cure) will require a sustained multidisciplinary effort from professionals coming from many different fields. Among all the available tools for pB-ALL research, the use of animal models stands, as of today, as the most powerful approach, not only for the understanding of the origin and evolution of the disease, but also for the development of new therapies. In this review we go over the most relevant (historically, technically or biologically) genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of human pB-ALLs that have been generated over the last 20 years. Our final aim is to outline the most relevant guidelines that should be followed to generate an “ideal” animal model that could become a standard for the study of human pB-ALL leukemia, and which could be shared among research groups and drug development companies in order to unify criteria for studies like drug testing, analysis of the influence of environmental risk factors, or studying the role of both low-penetrance mutations and cancer susceptibility alterations. PMID:25486471

  11. A human factors engineering evaluation of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoo, D.T.; Sarver, T.L.

    1995-06-05

    This report documents the methods and results of a human factors engineering (HFE) review conducted on the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Project 236A, to be constructed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility at Hanford, Washington. This HFE analysis of the MWTF was initiated by WHC to assess how well the current facility and equipment design satisfies the needs of its operations and maintenance staff and other potential occupants, and to identify areas of the design that could benefit from improving the human interfaces at the facility. Safe and effective operations, including maintenance, is a primary goal for the MWTF. Realization of this goal requires that the MWTF facility, equipment, and operations be designed in a manner that is consistent with the abilities and limitations of its operating personnel. As a consequence, HFE principles should be applied to the MWTF design, construction, its operating procedures, and its training. The HFE review was focused on the 200-West Area facility as the design is further along than that of the 200-East Area. The review captured, to the greatest extent feasible at this stage of design, all aspects of the facility activities and included the major topics generally associated with HFE (e.g., communication, working environment). Lessons learned from the review of the 200 West facility will be extrapolated to the 200-East Area, as well as generalized to the Hanford Site.

  12. Surface-engineered substrates for improved human pluripotent stem cell culture under fully defined conditions.

    PubMed

    Saha, Krishanu; Mei, Ying; Reisterer, Colin M; Pyzocha, Neena Kenton; Yang, Jing; Muffat, Julien; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-11-15

    The current gold standard for the culture of human pluripotent stem cells requires the use of a feeder layer of cells. Here, we develop a spatially defined culture system based on UV/ozone radiation modification of typical cell culture plastics to define a favorable surface environment for human pluripotent stem cell culture. Chemical and geometrical optimization of the surfaces enables control of early cell aggregation from fully dissociated cells, as predicted from a numerical model of cell migration, and results in significant increases in cell growth of undifferentiated cells. These chemically defined xeno-free substrates generate more than three times the number of cells than feeder-containing substrates per surface area. Further, reprogramming and typical gene-targeting protocols can be readily performed on these engineered surfaces. These substrates provide an attractive cell culture platform for the production of clinically relevant factor-free reprogrammed cells from patient tissue samples and facilitate the definition of standardized scale-up friendly methods for disease modeling and cell therapeutic applications. PMID:22065768

  13. Differentiation of human ESCs to retinal ganglion cells using a CRISPR engineered reporter cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sluch, Valentin M.; Davis, Chung-ha O.; Ranganathan, Vinod; Kerr, Justin M.; Krick, Kellin; Martin, Russ; Berlinicke, Cynthia A.; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Diamond, Jeffrey S.; Mao, Hai-Quan; Zack, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) injury and cell death from glaucoma and other forms of optic nerve disease is a major cause of irreversible vision loss and blindness. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived RGCs could provide a source of cells for the development of novel therapeutic molecules as well as for potential cell-based therapies. In addition, such cells could provide insights into human RGC development, gene regulation, and neuronal biology. Here, we report a simple, adherent cell culture protocol for differentiation of hPSCs to RGCs using a CRISPR-engineered RGC fluorescent reporter stem cell line. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of the differentiated cultures yields a highly purified population of cells that express a range of RGC-enriched markers and exhibit morphological and physiological properties typical of RGCs. Additionally, we demonstrate that aligned nanofiber matrices can be used to guide the axonal outgrowth of hPSC-derived RGCs for in vitro optic nerve-like modeling. Lastly, using this protocol we identified forskolin as a potent promoter of RGC differentiation. PMID:26563826

  14. Scaffold-free, Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngmee; Ji, HaYeun; Chen, Zaozao; Fai Chan, Hon; Atchison, Leigh; Klitzman, Bruce; Truskey, George; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBV) can serve as vascular grafts and may also play an important role in the development of organs-on-a-chip. Most TEBV construction involves scaffolding with biomaterials such as collagen gel or electrospun fibrous mesh. Hypothesizing that a scaffold-free TEBV may be advantageous, we constructed a tubular structure (1 mm i.d.) from aligned human mesenchymal cell sheets (hMSC) as the wall and human endothelial progenitor cell (hEPC) coating as the lumen. The burst pressure of the scaffold-free TEBV was above 200 mmHg after three weeks of sequential culture in a rotating wall bioreactor and perfusion at 6.8 dynes/cm2. The interwoven organization of the cell layers and extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of the hMSC-based TEBV resembled that of native blood vessels. The TEBV exhibited flow-mediated vasodilation, vasoconstriction after exposure to 1 μM phenylephrine and released nitric oxide in a manner similar to that of porcine femoral vein. HL-60 cells attached to the TEBV lumen after TNF-α activation to suggest a functional endothelium. This study demonstrates the potential of a hEPC endothelialized hMSC-based TEBV for drug screening. PMID:26456074

  15. Strategies for Optimizing the Serum Persistence of Engineered Human Arginase I for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Everett; Chantranupong, Lynne; Gonzalez, Candice; O'Neal, Jamye; Rani, Mridula; VanDenBerg, Carla; Georgiou, George

    2011-01-01

    Systemic l-Arginine depletion following intravenous administration of l-Arginine hydrolyzing enzymes has been shown to selectively impact tumors displaying urea-cycle defects including a large fraction of hepatocellular carcinomas, metastatic melanomas and small cell lung carcinomas. However, the human arginases display poor serum stability (t1/2 =4.8 hrs) whereas a bacterial arginine deiminase evaluated in phase II clinical trials was reported to be immunogenic, eliciting strong neutralizing antibody responses. Recently, we showed that substitution of the Mn2+ metal center in human Arginase I with Co2+ (Co-hArgI) results in an enzyme that displays 10-fold higher catalytic efficiency for l-Arg hydrolysis, 12–15 fold reduction in the IC50 towards a variety of malignant cell lines and, importantly a t1/2= 22 hrs in serum. To investigate the utility of Co-hArgI for l-Arg depletion therapy in cancer we systematically investigated three strategies for enhancing the persistence of the enzyme in circulation: (i) site specific conjugation of Co-hArgI engineered with an accessible N-terminal Cys residue to 20 KDa PEG-maleimide (Co-hArgI-CPEG-20K); (ii) engineering of the homotrimeric Co-hArgI into a linked, monomeric 110 KDa polypeptide (Co-hArgI ×3) and (iii) lysyl conjugation of 5 KDa PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester (Co-hArgI-KPEG-5K). Surprisingly, even though all three formulations resulted in proteins with a predicted hydrodynamic radius larger than the cut-off for renal filtration, only CohArgI amine conjugated to 5 KDa PEG remained in circulation for sufficiently long durations. Using CohArgI-KPEG-5K labeled with an end-terminal fluorescein for easy detection, we demonstrated that following intraperitoneal administration at 6 mg/kg weight, a well tolerated dose, the circulation t1/2 of the protein in Balb/c mice is 63 ± 10 hrs. Very low levels of serum l-Arg (<5 μM) could be sustained for over 75 hrs after injection, representing a 9-fold increase in

  16. Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, Laurel E.; Sohn, Michael D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2008-03-01

    We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of PCB 153 in women, and predict its transfer via lactation to infants. The model is the first human, population-scale lactational model for PCB 153. Data in the literature provided estimates for model development and for performance assessment. Physiological parameters were taken from a cohort in Taiwan and from reference values in the literature. We estimated partition coefficients based on chemical structure and the lipid content in various body tissues. Using exposure data in Japan, we predicted acquired body burden of PCB 153 at an average childbearing age of 25 years and compare predictions to measurements from studies in multiple countries. Forward-model predictions agree well with human biomonitoring measurements, as represented by summary statistics and uncertainty estimates. The model successfully describes the range of possible PCB 153 dispositions in maternal milk, suggesting a promising option for back estimating doses for various populations. One example of reverse dosimetry modeling was attempted using our PBPK model for possible exposure scenarios in Canadian Inuits who had the highest level of PCB 153 in their milk in the world.

  17. The Design of Transportation Equipment in Terms of Human Capabilities. The Role of Engineering Psychology in Transport Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ross A.

    Human factors engineering is considered with regard to the design of safety factors for aviation and highway transportation equipment. Current trends and problem areas are identified for jet air transportation and for highway transportation. Suggested solutions to transportation safety problems are developed by applying the techniques of human…

  18. We Have the Spaceship; But Where's the Start Button: Human Engineering Issues in the Age of Long Duration Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George S.; Adams, Christopher W.

    2005-01-01

    As long duration space exploration and habitation becomes more commonplace, a number of Human Engineering factors (Gravitational Adaptation, 2-D to 3-D Movement Adaptation, Design Form/Function, and Space Ergonomics to name a few) will become more pronounced. More research and development is needed in these areas or the explorers may find themselves in painful or dangerous situations.

  19. PhD Topic Arrangement in "D"iscourse Communities of Engineers and Social Sciences/Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Street, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This article is the result of a grounded theory investigation into the ways PhD topics are assigned by supervisors in engineering and selected by students in the social sciences/humanities in UK universities, broadly referred to as "topic arrangement", which can be regarded as one aspect of academic socialisation into academic Discourse…

  20. Engineering hyperactive variants of human deoxyribonuclease I by altering its functional mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pan, C Q; Lazarus, R A

    1997-06-01

    Human deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), an enzyme used to treat cystic fibrosis patients, has been engineered to more effectively degrade double-stranded DNA to lower molecular weight fragments by altering its functional mechanism from the native single-stranded nicking pathway to a much more efficient one which results in increased double-stranded scission. By introducing positively charged amino acids at DNase I positions that can interact favorably with the proximal negatively charged phosphate groups of the DNA, we have created a hyperactive variant with approximately 35-fold higher DNA-degrading activity relative to wild type. This enhancement can be attributed to both a decrease in Km and an increase in Vmax. Furthermore, unlike wild-type DNase I, the hyperactive variants are no longer inhibited by physiological saline. Replacement of the same positions with negatively charged amino acids greatly reduced DNA cleavage activity, consistent with a repulsive effect with the neighboring DNA phosphates. In addition, these variants displayed similar activities toward a small synthetic substrate, p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonate, suggesting that the difference in DNA cleavage activity is due to the interaction of the engineered charged residues with the DNA phosphate backbone rather than any change in catalytic machinery. Finally, experiments involving the repair of DNase I digested DNA with T4 DNA ligase and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I suggest that single-stranded gaps are introduced by the hyperactive variants. Thus, the increased functional activity of the hyperactive variants may be explained in part by a shift toward a processive DNA nicking mechanism, which leads to a higher frequency of double-stranded breaks. PMID:9184142

  1. Concise review: humanized models of tumor immunology in the 21st century: convergence of cancer research and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Wagner, Ferdinand; Thibaudeau, Laure; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2015-06-01

    Despite positive testing in animal studies, more than 80% of novel drug candidates fail to proof their efficacy when tested in humans. This is primarily due to the use of preclinical models that are not able to recapitulate the physiological or pathological processes in humans. Hence, one of the key challenges in the field of translational medicine is to "make the model organism mouse more human." To get answers to questions that would be prognostic of outcomes in human medicine, the mouse's genome can be altered in order to create a more permissive host that allows the engraftment of human cell systems. It has been shown in the past that these strategies can improve our understanding of tumor immunology. However, the translational benefits of these platforms have still to be proven. In the 21st century, several research groups and consortia around the world take up the challenge to improve our understanding of how to humanize the animal's genetic code, its cells and, based on tissue engineering principles, its extracellular microenvironment, its tissues, or entire organs with the ultimate goal to foster the translation of new therapeutic strategies from bench to bedside. This article provides an overview of the state of the art of humanized models of tumor immunology and highlights future developments in the field such as the application of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies to further enhance humanized murine model systems. PMID:25694194

  2. Human umbilical cord stem cell encapsulation in novel macroporous and injectable fibrin for muscle tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Hockin H K; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D; Chen, Qianming; Trotman, Carroll Ann

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the seeding of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were: (i) to seed hUCMSCs in a fibrin hydrogel containing fast-degradable microbeads (dMBs) to create macropores to enhance cell viability; and (ii) to investigate the encapsulated cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation for muscle tissue engineering. Mass fractions of 0-80% of dMBs were tested, and 35% of dMBs in fibrin was shown to avoid fibrin shrinkage while creating macropores and promoting cell viability. This construct was referred to as "dMB35". Fibrin without dMBs was termed "dMB0". Microbead degradation created macropores in fibrin and improved cell viability. The percentage of live cells in dMB35 reached 91% at 16 days, higher than the 81% in dMB0 (p<0.05). Live cell density in dMB35 was 1.6-fold that of dMB0 (p<0.05). The encapsulated hUCMSCs proliferated, increasing the cell density by 2.6 times in dMB35 from 1 to 16 days. MTT activity for dMB35 was substantially higher than that for dMB0 at 16 days (p<0.05). hUCMSCs in dMB35 had high gene expressions of myotube markers of myosin heavy chain 1 (MYH1) and alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3). Elongated, multinucleated cells were formed with positive staining of myogenic specific proteins including myogenin, MYH, ACTN and actin alpha 1. Moreover, a significant increase in cell fusion was detected with myogenic induction. In conclusion, hUCMSCs were encapsulated in fibrin with degradable microbeads for the first time, achieving greatly enhanced cell viability and successful myogenic differentiation with formation of multinucleated myotubes. The injectable and macroporous fibrin-dMB-hUCMSC construct may be promising for muscle tissue engineering applications. PMID:22902812

  3. Engineering Human TMJ Discs with Protein-Releasing 3D-Printed Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Legemate, K; Tarafder, S; Jun, Y; Lee, C H

    2016-07-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is a heterogeneous fibrocartilaginous tissue positioned between the mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa of the temporal bone, with important roles in TMJ functions. Tissue engineering TMJ discs has emerged as an alternative approach to overcoming limitations of current treatments for TMJ disorders. However, the anisotropic collagen orientation and inhomogeneous fibrocartilaginous matrix distribution present challenges in the tissue engineering of functional TMJ discs. Here, we developed 3-dimensional (3D)-printed anatomically correct scaffolds with region-variant microstrand alignment, mimicking anisotropic collagen alignment in the TMJ disc and corresponding mechanical properties. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) were then delivered in the scaffolds by spatially embedding CTGF- or TGFβ3-encapsulated microspheres (µS) to reconstruct the regionally variant fibrocartilaginous matrix in the native TMJ disc. When cultured with human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) for 6 wk, 3D-printed scaffolds with CTGF/TGFβ3-µS resulted in a heterogeneous fibrocartilaginous matrix with overall distribution of collagen-rich fibrous structure in the anterior/posterior (AP) bands and fibrocartilaginous matrix in the intermediate zone, reminiscent of the native TMJ disc. High dose of CTGF/TGFβ3-µS (100 mg µS/g of scaffold) showed significantly more collagen II and aggrecan in the intermediate zone than a low dose (50 mg µS/g of scaffold). Similarly, a high dose of CTGF/TGFβ3-µS yielded significantly higher collagen I expression in the AP bands compared with the low-dose and empty µS. From stress relaxation tests, the ratio of relaxation modulus to instantaneous modulus was significantly smaller with CTGF/TGFβ3-µS than empty µS. Similarly, a significantly higher coefficient of viscosity was achieved with the high dose of CTGF/TGFβ3-µS compared with the low-dose and empty

  4. Biomolecular interactions and responses of human epithelial and macrophage cells to engineered nanomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Brozik, Susan Marie; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Greene, Adrienne Celeste; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Bachand, George David; Bachand, Marlene; Aaron, Jesse S.; Allen, Amy; Seagrave, Jean-Clare

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly being used in commercial products, particularly in the biomedical, cosmetic, and clothing industries. For example, pants and shirts are routinely manufactured with silver nanoparticles to render them 'wrinkle-free.' Despite the growing applications, the associated environmental health and safety (EHS) impacts are completely unknown. The significance of this problem became pervasive within the general public when Prince Charles authored an article in 2004 warning of the potential social, ethical, health, and environmental issues connected to nanotechnology. The EHS concerns, however, continued to receive relatively little consideration from federal agencies as compared with large investments in basic nanoscience R&D. The mounting literature regarding the toxicology of ENMs (e.g., the ability of inhaled nanoparticles to cross the blood-brain barrier; Kwon et al., 2008, J. Occup. Health 50, 1) has spurred a recent realization within the NNI and other federal agencies that the EHS impacts related to nanotechnology must be addressed now. In our study we proposed to address critical aspects of this problem by developing primary correlations between nanoparticle properties and their effects on cell health and toxicity. A critical challenge embodied within this problem arises from the ability to synthesize nanoparticles with a wide array of physical properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, surface chemistry, etc.), which in turn creates an immense, multidimensional problem in assessing toxicological effects. In this work we first investigated varying sizes of quantum dots (Qdots) and their ability to cross cell membranes based on their aspect ratio utilizing hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy. We then studied toxicity of epithelial cell lines that were exposed to different sized gold and silver nanoparticles using advanced imaging techniques, biochemical analyses, and optical and mass spectrometry methods

  5. The Use of Human Modeling of EVA Tasks as a Systems Engineering Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Schmidt, Henry J.; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer-generated human models have been used in aerospace design for a decade. They have come to be highly reliable for worksite analysis of certain types of EVA tasks. In many design environments, this analysis comes after the structural design is largely complete. However, the use of these models as a development tool is gaining acceptance within organizations that practice good systems engineering processes. The design of the United States Propulsion Module for the International Space Station provides an example of this application. The Propulsion Module will provide augmentation to the propulsion capability supplied by the Russian Service Module Zvezda. It is a late addition to the set of modules provided by the United States to the ISS Program, and as a result, faces design challenges that result from the level of immaturity of its integration into the Station. Among these are heat dissipation and physical envelopes. Since the rest of the Station was designed to maximize the use of the cooling system, little margin is available for the addition of another module. The Propulsion Module will attach at the forward end of the Station, and will be between the Orbiter and the rest of ISS. Since cargo must be removed from the Payload Bay and transferred to Station by the Canadarm, there is a potential for protrusions from the module, such as thruster booms, to interfere with robotic operations. These and similar engineering issues must be addressed as part of the development. In the implementation of good system design, all design solutions should be analyzed for compatibility with all affected subsystems. Human modeling has been used in this project to provide rapid input to system trades of design concepts. For example, the placement of radiators and avionics components for optimization of heat dissipation had to be examined for feasibility of EVA translation paths and worksite development. Likewise, the location of and mechanism for the retraction of thruster

  6. Biomechanical effects of environmental and engineered particles on human airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, P.; Park, C. Y.; Rothen-Rutishauser, B.; Tsuda, A.; Sager, T. M.; Molina, R. M.; Donaghey, T. C.; Alencar, A. M.; Kasahara, D. I.; Ericsson, T.; Millet, E. J.; Swenson, J.; Tschumperlin, D. J.; Butler, J. P.; Brain, J. D.; Fredberg, J. J.; Gehr, P.; Zhou, E. H.

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen significant increases in combustion-generated ambient particles, which contain a nanosized fraction (less than 100 nm), and even greater increases have occurred in engineered nanoparticles (NPs) propelled by the booming nanotechnology industry. Although inhalation of these particulates has become a public health concern, human health effects and mechanisms of action for NPs are not well understood. Focusing on the human airway smooth muscle cell, here we show that the cellular mechanical function is altered by particulate exposure in a manner that is dependent upon particle material, size and dose. We used Alamar Blue assay to measure cell viability and optical magnetic twisting cytometry to measure cell stiffness and agonist-induced contractility. The eight particle species fell into four categories, based on their respective effect on cell viability and on mechanical function. Cell viability was impaired and cell contractility was decreased by (i) zinc oxide (40–100 nm and less than 44 μm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 50 nm); cell contractility was decreased by (ii) fluorescent polystyrene spheres (40 nm), increased by (iii) welding fumes and unchanged by (iv) diesel exhaust particles, titanium dioxide (25 nm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 5 μm), although in none of these cases was cell viability impaired. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide up to 500 μM did not alter viability or cell mechanics, suggesting that the particle effects are unlikely to be mediated by particle-generated reactive oxygen species. Our results highlight the susceptibility of cellular mechanical function to particulate exposures and suggest that direct exposure of the airway smooth muscle cells to particulates may initiate or aggravate respiratory diseases. PMID:20356875

  7. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance.

    PubMed

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  8. Collagen in Human Tissues: Structure, Function, and Biomedical Implications from a Tissue Engineering Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Preethi; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Sireesha, Merum; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    The extracellular matrix is a complex biological structure encoded with various proteins, among which the collagen family is the most significant and abundant of all, contributing 30-35% of the whole-body protein. "Collagen" is a generic term for proteins that forms a triple-helical structure with three polypeptide chains, and around 29 types of collagen have been identified up to now. Although most of the members of the collagen family form such supramolecular structures, extensive diversity exists between each type of collagen. The diversity is not only based on the molecular assembly and supramolecular structures of collagen types but is also observed within its tissue distribution, function, and pathology. Collagens possess complex hierarchical structures and are present in various forms such as collagen fibrils (1.5-3.5 nm wide), collagen fibers (50-70 nm wide), and collagen bundles (150-250 nm wide), with distinct properties characteristic of each tissue providing elasticity to skin, softness of the cartilage, stiffness of the bone and tendon, transparency of the cornea, opaqueness of the sclera, etc. There exists an exclusive relation between the structural features of collagen in human tissues (such as the collagen composition, collagen fibril length and diameter, collagen distribution, and collagen fiber orientation) and its tissue-specific mechanical properties. In bone, a transverse collagen fiber orientation prevails in regions of higher compressive stress whereas longitudinally oriented collagen fibers correlate to higher tensile stress. The immense versatility of collagen compels a thorough understanding of the collagen types and this review discusses the major types of collagen found in different human tissues, highlighting their tissue-specific uniqueness based on their structure and mechanical function. The changes in collagen during a specific tissue damage or injury are discussed further, focusing on the many tissue engineering applications for

  9. Biomechanical effects of environmental and engineered particles on human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, P; Park, C Y; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Tsuda, A; Sager, T M; Molina, R M; Donaghey, T C; Alencar, A M; Kasahara, D I; Ericsson, T; Millet, E J; Swenson, J; Tschumperlin, D J; Butler, J P; Brain, J D; Fredberg, J J; Gehr, P; Zhou, E H

    2010-06-01

    The past decade has seen significant increases in combustion-generated ambient particles, which contain a nanosized fraction (less than 100 nm), and even greater increases have occurred in engineered nanoparticles (NPs) propelled by the booming nanotechnology industry. Although inhalation of these particulates has become a public health concern, human health effects and mechanisms of action for NPs are not well understood. Focusing on the human airway smooth muscle cell, here we show that the cellular mechanical function is altered by particulate exposure in a manner that is dependent upon particle material, size and dose. We used Alamar Blue assay to measure cell viability and optical magnetic twisting cytometry to measure cell stiffness and agonist-induced contractility. The eight particle species fell into four categories, based on their respective effect on cell viability and on mechanical function. Cell viability was impaired and cell contractility was decreased by (i) zinc oxide (40-100 nm and less than 44 microm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 50 nm); cell contractility was decreased by (ii) fluorescent polystyrene spheres (40 nm), increased by (iii) welding fumes and unchanged by (iv) diesel exhaust particles, titanium dioxide (25 nm) and copper(II) oxide (less than 5 microm), although in none of these cases was cell viability impaired. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide up to 500 microM did not alter viability or cell mechanics, suggesting that the particle effects are unlikely to be mediated by particle-generated reactive oxygen species. Our results highlight the susceptibility of cellular mechanical function to particulate exposures and suggest that direct exposure of the airway smooth muscle cells to particulates may initiate or aggravate respiratory diseases. PMID:20356875

  10. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A.; Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Oreffo, Richard OC

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p < 0.01). This human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering. PMID:27577960

  11. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A; Janeczek, Agnieszka A; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M; Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p < 0.01). This human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering. PMID:27577960

  12. In vitro evaluation of textile chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering using human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Christiane; Heinemann, Sascha; Lode, Anja; Bernhardt, Anne; Worch, Hartmut; Hanke, Thomas

    2009-05-11

    Textile chitosan fiber scaffolds were developed and tested in terms of biocompatibility for human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). A part of the scaffolds was further modified by coating with fibrillar collagen type I in order to biologize the surface. hBMSCs of two donors were used for cell culture experiments in vitro. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed fast attachment and morphological adaptation of the cells on both the raw chitosan fibers and the collagen-coated scaffolds. Cells were osteogenically induced after 3 days and cultivated for up to 28 days on the scaffolds. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was analyzed to evaluate proliferation as well as osteogenic differentiation. We found a 3.5-6-fold increase in the cell number, whereas the collagen coating did not noticeably influence these factors. Osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the course of ALP activity and immunostaining of osteocalcin. The feature of the collagen-coated as well as the raw chitosan fiber scaffolds to support attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of hBMSCs suggests a potential application of chitosan fibers and textile chitosan scaffolds for the tissue engineering of bone. PMID:19344120

  13. Pathway-Specific Engineered Mouse Allograft Models Functionally Recapitulate Human Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabova, Ludmila; Bupp, Sujata; Kamal, Muhaymin; Householder, Deborah B.; Hernandez, Lidia; Schlomer, Jerome J.; Baran, Maureen L.; Yi, Ming; Stephens, Robert M.; Annunziata, Christina M.; Martin, Philip L.; Van Dyke, Terry A.

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate from ovarian cancers can be attributed to late-stage diagnosis and lack of effective treatment. Despite enormous effort to develop better targeted therapies, platinum-based chemotherapy still remains the standard of care for ovarian cancer patients, and resistance occurs at a high rate. One of the rate limiting factors for translation of new drug discoveries into clinical treatments has been the lack of suitable preclinical cancer models with high predictive value. We previously generated genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models based on perturbation of Tp53 and Rb with or without Brca1 or Brca2 that develop serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) closely resembling the human disease on histologic and molecular levels. Here, we describe an adaptation of these GEM models to orthotopic allografts that uniformly develop tumors with short latency and are ideally suited for routine preclinical studies. Ovarian tumors deficient in Brca1 respond to treatment with cisplatin and olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, whereas Brca1-wild type tumors are non-responsive to treatment, recapitulating the relative sensitivities observed in patients. These mouse models provide the opportunity for evaluation of effective therapeutics, including prediction of differential responses in Brca1-wild type and Brca1–deficient tumors and development of relevant biomarkers. PMID:24748377

  14. Management of human factors engineering-associated hemochromatosis: A 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Menaka; Powell, Lawrie W

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the management of iron metabolism and iron overload experienced in the hereditary condition, human factors engineering (HFE)-associated hemochromatosis. Hemochromatosis refers to a group of genetic diseases that result in iron overload; the major one globally is HFE-associated hemochromatosis. The evolution in understanding of the most common form of hereditary hemochromatosis, being the substation of cysteine to a tyrosine at position 282 in the HFE gene, has been extensively studied Novel mutations in both HFE and non-HFE genes have been indicated in this disease which hold significance in its application for the Asia-Pacific region. In conditions with iron overload, the storage of excess iron in various body tissues leads to complications and toxic damage. The most common presenting complaint for this disease is malaise, lethargy and other non-specific symptoms. In order to diagnose hereditary hemochromatosis, there are biochemical, imaging and genetic testing options. Currently, cascade screening of affected families is preferred over population-level screening. The mainstay of treatment is venesection and the appropriate approach to treatment has been consolidated over the years. Recently, the indications for venesection therapy of hemochromatosis have been challenged and are the subject of ongoing research. PMID:27004087

  15. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells by high-performance engineered factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Jiekai; Hu, Jia-Lei; Wei, Xi-Xiao; Qin, Dajiang; Gao, Juan; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Jing; Li, Jin-Song; Liu, Jing; Lai, Ke-Yu; Kuang, Xia; Zhang, Jian; Pei, Duanqing; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Reprogramming somatic cells to become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using defined factors represents an important breakthrough in biology and medicine, yet remains inefficient and poorly understood. We therefore devised synthetic factors by fusing the VP16 transactivation domain to OCT4 (also known as Pou5f1), NANOG and SOX2, respectively. These synthetic factors could reprogramme both mouse and human fibroblasts with enhanced efficiency and accelerated kinetics. Remarkably, Oct4–VP16 alone could efficiently reprogramme mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into germline-competent iPSCs. Furthermore, episomally delivered synthetic factors could reproducibly generate integration-free iPSCs from MEFs with enhanced efficiency. Our results not only demonstrate the feasibility of engineering more potent reprogramming factors, but also suggest that transcriptional reactivation of OCT4 target genes might be a rate-limiting step in the conversion of somatic cells to pluripotent cells. Synthetic factor-based reprogramming might lead to a paradigm shift in reprogramming research. PMID:21399616

  16. Human factors engineering and design validation for the redesigned follitropin alfa pen injection device

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Mary C; Patterson, Patricia; Hayward, Brooke; North, Robert; Green, Dawne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate, using human factors engineering (HFE), that a redesigned, pre-filled, ready-to-use, pre-asembled follitropin alfa pen can be used to administer prescribed follitropin alfa doses safely and accurately. Methods: A failure modes and effects analysis identified hazards and harms potentially caused by use errors; risk-control measures were implemented to ensure acceptable device use risk management. Participants were women with infertility, their significant others, and fertility nurse (FN) professionals. Preliminary testing included ‘Instructions for Use’ (IFU) and pre-validation studies. Validation studies used simulated injections in a representative use environment; participants received prior training on pen use. Results: User performance in preliminary testing led to IFU revisions and a change to outer needle cap design to mitigate needle stick potential. In the first validation study (49 users, 343 simulated injections), in the FN group, one observed critical use error resulted in a device design modification and another in an IFU change. A second validation study tested the mitigation strategies; previously reported use errors were not repeated. Conclusions: Through an iterative process involving a series of studies, modifications were made to the pen design and IFU. Simulated-use testing demonstrated that the redesigned pen can be used to administer follitropin alfa effectively and safely. PMID:25895897

  17. Mechanical loading regulates human MSC differentiation in a multi-layer hydrogel for osteochondral tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Neven J; Aisenbrey, Elizabeth A; Westbrook, Kristofer K; Qi, H Jerry; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2015-07-01

    A bioinspired multi-layer hydrogel was developed for the encapsulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a platform for osteochondral tissue engineering. The spatial presentation of biochemical cues, via incorporation of extracellular matrix analogs, and mechanical cues, via both hydrogel crosslink density and externally applied mechanical loads, were characterized in each layer. A simple sequential photopolymerization method was employed to form stable poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels with a soft cartilage-like layer of chondroitin sulfate and low RGD concentrations, a stiff bone-like layer with high RGD concentrations, and an intermediate interfacial layer. Under a compressive load, the variation in hydrogel stiffness within each layer produced high strains in the soft cartilage-like layer, low strains in the stiff bone-like layer, and moderate strains in the interfacial layer. When hMSC-laden hydrogels were cultured statically in osteochondral differentiation media, the local biochemical and matrix stiffness cues were not sufficient to spatially guide hMSC differentiation after 21 days. However dynamic mechanical stimulation led to differentially high expression of collagens with collagen II in the cartilage-like layer, collagen X in the interfacial layer and collagen I in the bone-like layer and mineral deposits localized to the bone layer. Overall, these findings point to external mechanical stimulation as a potent regulator of hMSC differentiation toward osteochondral cellular phenotypes. PMID:25900444

  18. Genetic Engineering Activates Biosynthesis of Aromatic Fumaric Acid Amides in the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Lackner, Gerald; Scharf, Daniel H.; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus fumigatus nonribosomal peptide synthetase FtpA is among the few of this species whose natural product has remained unknown. Both FtpA adenylation domains were characterized in vitro. Fumaric acid was identified as preferred substrate of the first and both l-tyrosine and l-phenylalanine as preferred substrates of the second adenylation domain. Genetically engineered A. fumigatus strains expressed either ftpA or the regulator gene ftpR, encoded in the same cluster of genes, under the control of the doxycycline-inducible tetracycline-induced transcriptional activation (tet-on) cassette. These strains produced fumaryl-l-tyrosine and fumaryl-l-phenylalanine which were identified by liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Modeling of the first adenylation domain in silico provided insight into the structural requirements to bind fumaric acid as peptide synthetase substrate. This work adds aromatic fumaric acid amides to the secondary metabolome of the important human pathogen A. fumigatus which was previously not known as a producer of these compounds. PMID:25527545

  19. Engineered Microenvironments for the Maturation and Observation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salick, Max R.

    The human heart is a dynamic system that undergoes substantial changes as it develops and adapts to the body's growing needs. To better understand the physiology of the heart, researchers have begun to produce immature heart muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes, from pluripotent stem cell sources with remarkable efficiency. These stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes hold great potential in the understanding and treatment of heart disease; however, even after prolonged culture, these cells continue to exhibit an immature phenotype, as indicated by poor sarcomere organization and calcium handling, among other features. The lack of maturation that is observed in these cardiomyocytes greatly limits their applicability towards drug screening, disease modeling, and cell therapy applications. The mechanical environment surrounding a cell has been repeatedly shown to have a large impact on that cell's behavior. For this reason, we have implemented micropatterning methods to mimic the level of alignment that occurs in the heart in vivo in order to study how this alignment may help the cells to produce a more mature sarcomere phenotype. It was discovered that the level of sarcomere organization of a cardiomyocyte can be strongly influenced by the micropattern lane geometry on which it adheres. Steps were taken to optimize this micropattern platform, and studies of protein organization, gene expression, and myofibrillogenesis were conducted. Additionally, a set of programs was developed to provide quantitative analysis of the level of sarcomere organization, as well as to assist with several other tissue engineering applications.

  20. Management of human factors engineering-associated hemochromatosis: A 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Menaka; Powell, Lawrie W

    2016-03-18

    This review focuses on the management of iron metabolism and iron overload experienced in the hereditary condition, human factors engineering (HFE)-associated hemochromatosis. Hemochromatosis refers to a group of genetic diseases that result in iron overload; the major one globally is HFE-associated hemochromatosis. The evolution in understanding of the most common form of hereditary hemochromatosis, being the substation of cysteine to a tyrosine at position 282 in the HFE gene, has been extensively studied Novel mutations in both HFE and non-HFE genes have been indicated in this disease which hold significance in its application for the Asia-Pacific region. In conditions with iron overload, the storage of excess iron in various body tissues leads to complications and toxic damage. The most common presenting complaint for this disease is malaise, lethargy and other non-specific symptoms. In order to diagnose hereditary hemochromatosis, there are biochemical, imaging and genetic testing options. Currently, cascade screening of affected families is preferred over population-level screening. The mainstay of treatment is venesection and the appropriate approach to treatment has been consolidated over the years. Recently, the indications for venesection therapy of hemochromatosis have been challenged and are the subject of ongoing research. PMID:27004087