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Sample records for human erythrocyte surface

  1. Nanoscale Surface Characterization of Human Erythrocytes by Atomic Force Microscopy: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Rashmi; Saha, Monjoy; Routray, Aurobinda; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2015-09-01

    Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs), the most common type of blood cells in humans are well known for their ability in transporting oxygen to the whole body through hemoglobin. Alterations in their membrane skeletal proteins modify shape and mechanical properties resulting in several diseases. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), a new emerging technique allows non-invasive imaging of cell, its membrane and characterization of surface roughness at micrometer/nanometer resolution with minimal sample preparation. AFM imaging provides direct measurement of single cell morphology, its alteration and quantitative data on surface properties. Hence, AFM studies of human RBCs have picked up pace in the last decade. The aim of this paper is to review the various applications of AFM for characterization of human RBCs topology. AFM has been used for studying surface characteristics like nanostructure of membranes, cytoskeleton, microstructure, fluidity, vascular endothelium, etc., of human RBCs. Various modes of AFM imaging has been used to measure surface properties like stiffness, roughness, and elasticity. Topological alterations of erythrocytes in response to different pathological conditions have also been investigated by AFM. Thus, AFM-based studies and application of image processing techniques can effectively provide detailed insights about the morphology and membrane properties of human erythrocytes at nanoscale. PMID:25935044

  2. The merozoite surface protein 1 complex is a platform for binding to human erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Clara S; Uboldi, Alessandro D; Marapana, Danushka; Czabotar, Peter E; Epp, Christian; Bujard, Hermann; Taylor, Nicole L; Perugini, Matthew A; Hodder, Anthony N; Cowman, Alan F

    2014-09-12

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most severe form of malaria in humans. The merozoite, an extracellular stage of the parasite lifecycle, invades erythrocytes in which they develop. The most abundant protein on the surface of merozoites is merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), which consists of four processed fragments. Studies indicate that MSP1 interacts with other peripheral merozoite surface proteins to form a large complex. Successful invasion of merozoites into host erythrocytes is dependent on this protein complex; however, the identity of all components and its function remain largely unknown. We have shown that the peripheral merozoite surface proteins MSPDBL1 and MSPDBL2 are part of the large MSP1 complex. Using surface plasmon resonance, we determined the binding affinities of MSPDBL1 and MSPDBL2 to MSP1 to be in the range of 2-4 × 10(-7) m. Both proteins bound to three of the four proteolytically cleaved fragments of MSP1 (p42, p38, and p83). In addition, MSPDBL1 and MSPDBL2, but not MSP1, bound directly to human erythrocytes. This demonstrates that the MSP1 complex acts as a platform for display of MSPDBL1 and MSPDBL2 on the merozoite surface for binding to receptors on the erythrocyte and invasion. PMID:25074930

  3. Functional and structural changes in human erythrocyte surface after irradiation by uv waves of various wavelengths. Report 1: expression of ABO and Rhesus system antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Samoylova, K.A.; Klimova, K.N.; Priyezzheva, L.S.; Artsishevskaya, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of shortwave ultraviolet (SUV) radiation ad causes change in the external surface of human erythrocytes, modifying the expression of the ABO and Rh system antigens which are related to the surface of the cells was investigated. Erythrocytes in a structurally prepared erythrocyte mass from 23 donors stabilized by glugicir or heparin were examined. Three series of experiments were performed: (1) isolated erythrocytes, before irradiation thrice washed to remove plasma with isotonic NaC1 0.9%, erythrocytes diluted to 5 x s10 to the 7th power cells per milliliter and erythrocytes on the undiluted erythrocyte mass about 7 x 5 x 109 to the 9th power cells power milliliter. The agglutinating activity of the ABO and Rh antigens was studied. Two to three hours after exposure to 248, 620, 1240 and 2480 J/m2, the degree of hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes increased by 5,10,18 and 28%. Changes were also observed in agglutinating activity of ABO antigens. The agglutinating activity of A and B antigens increased by an average factor of 2 minus H antigens by a factor of 4. The SUV radiation did not cause any activation of the Rh antigen.

  4. Preferential targeting of human erythrocytes infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparumvia hexose transporter surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Heikham, Kajal Devi; Gupta, Ankit; Kumar, Ambrish; Singh, Chandan; Saxena, Juhi; Srivastava, Kumkum; Puri, Sunil K; Dwivedi, Anil K; Habib, Saman; Misra, Amit

    2015-04-10

    Glucose uptake by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes (RBC) is higher compared to uninfected RBC. Glucose is transported across the cell membrane by transporter proteins. Particles of median size 146.3±18.7 nm, containing anti-malarial agents in corn starch were prepared for investigating: (a) whether the glucose moiety in starch targets RBC via hexose transporter(s), (b) whether there are differences in the extent of targeting to uninfected RBC versus infected RBC (iRBC) in view of higher cell surface density of these proteins on iRBC and (c) whether targeting provides enhanced efficacy against P. falciparum in comparison to drugs in solution. Binding of these particles to RBC was target-specific, since it could be blocked by phloretin, an inhibitor of glucose transporters (GLUT), or competed out in a dose-dependent manner with d-glucose in a flow cytometry assay. Significant (P=0.048, t-test) differences in extent of targeting to iRBC versus RBC were observed in flow cytometry. CDRI 97/63 incorporated in particles was 63% more efficacious than its solution at 250 ng/ml, while quinine was 20% more efficacious at 6.25 ng/ml in a SYBR Green incorporation assay. Preferential targeting of iRBC using an inexpensive excipient promises advantages in terms of dose reduction and toxicity alleviation. PMID:25666024

  5. Alteration of human erythrocyte membrane properties by complement fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Durocher, J R; Gockerman, J P; Conrad, M E

    1975-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies of complement-coated radiolabeled erythrocytes have shown rapid removal of these cells from the peripheral blood with a return of these cells into the circulation within a few hours. We studied complement-coated human erythrocytes and measured surface charge and deformability, two parameters believed to be important in erythrocyte survival. Erythrocytes were coated with complement by two in vitro techniques: the addition of (a) low ionic strength sucrose, and (b) IgM cold agglutinins. Erythrocytes obtained from three patients with cold agglutinin disease were used as a source of in vivo complement-coated cells. No difference was found in surface charge as measured by electrophoretic mobility between erythrocytes from normal subjects and complement-coated erythrocytes from any of the three sources. When deformability was measured by filtration through 3-mum polycarbonate sieves, marked decreases in deformability were found in complement-coated erythrocytes. The filtration returned toward control levels by incubating the complement-coated erythrocytes in serum for 1 h and correlated with decreases in immune adherence. Using screen filtration pressure as a measure of deformability, a positive correlation between number of C3 molecules per erythrocyte and decreased deformability was found. C3b appeared responsible for the decreased deformability of the erythrocytes, since conversion of C3b to C3d resulted in a return of deformability toward normal. The data suggested that the sequestration of complement-coated human erythrocytes in the microvasculature can be explained in part by decreased deformability and changes in immune adherence. PMID:1120777

  6. Interaction of Plasmodium vivax Tryptophan-rich Antigen PvTRAg38 with Band 3 on Human Erythrocyte Surface Facilitates Parasite Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohd. Shoeb; Choudhary, Vandana; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Tyagi, Rupesh K.; Rathore, Sumit; Sharma, Yagya D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium tryptophan-rich proteins are involved in host-parasite interaction and thus potential drug/vaccine targets. Recently, we have described several P. vivax tryptophan-rich antigens (PvTRAgs), including merozoite expressed PvTRAg38, from this noncultivable human malaria parasite. PvTRAg38 is highly immunogenic in humans and binds to host erythrocytes, and this binding is inhibited by the patient sera. This binding is also affected if host erythrocytes were pretreated with chymotrypsin. Here, Band 3 has been identified as the chymotrypsin-sensitive erythrocyte receptor for this parasite protein. Interaction of PvTRAg38 with Band 3 has been mapped to its three different ectodomains (loops 1, 3, and 6) exposed at the surface of the erythrocyte. The binding region of PvTRAg38 to Band3 has been mapped to its sequence, KWVQWKNDKIRSWLSSEW, present at amino acid positions 197–214. The recombinant PvTRAg38 was able to inhibit the parasite growth in in vitro Plasmodium falciparum culture probably by competing with the ligand(s) of this heterologous parasite for the erythrocyte Band 3 receptor. In conclusion, the host-parasite interaction at the molecular level is much more complicated than known so far and should be considered during the development of anti-malarial therapeutics. PMID:26149684

  7. [Lysophosphatidic acid and human erythrocyte aggregation].

    PubMed

    Sheremet'ev, Iu A; Popovicheva, A N; Levin, G Ia

    2014-01-01

    The effects of lysophosphatidic acid on the morphology and aggregation of human erythrocytes has been studied. Morphology of erythrocytes and their aggregates were studied by light microscopy. It has been shown that lysophosphatidic acid changes the shape of red blood cells: diskocyte become echinocytes. Aggregation of red blood cells (rouleaux) was significantly reduced in autoplasma. At the same time there is a strong aggregation of echinocytes. This was accompanied by the formation of microvesicles. Adding normal plasma to echinocytes restores shape and aggregation of red blood cells consisting of "rouleaux". A possible mechanism of action of lysophosphatidic acid on erythrocytes is discussed. PMID:25509147

  8. Mechanisms of human erythrocytic bioactivation of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Basu, Swati; Janes, John; Marvel, Madison; Keggi, Christian; Helms, Christine C; Lee, Amber N; Belanger, Andrea M; Diz, Debra I; Laurienti, Paul J; Caudell, David L; Wang, Jun; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial, and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric-oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood. PMID:25471374

  9. Inhibition of erythrocyte invasion and Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 processing by human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Maria; Guevara Patiño, José A; Jennings, Richard M; McIntosh, Richard S; Shi, Jianguo; Howell, Steven; Cullen, Eilish; Jones, Tarran; Adame-Gallegos, Jaime R; Chappel, Jonathan A; McBride, Jana S; Blackman, Michael J; Holder, Anthony A; Pleass, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Antigen-specific antibodies (Abs) to the 19-kDa carboxy-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)) play an important role in protective immunity to malaria. Mouse monoclonal Abs (MAbs) 12.10 and 12.8 recognizing MSP1(19) can inhibit red cell invasion by interfering with MSP1 processing on the merozoite surface. We show here that this ability is dependent on the intact Ab since Fab and F(ab')(2) fragments derived from MAb 12.10, although capable of binding MSP1 with high affinity and competing with the intact antibody for binding to MSP1, were unable to inhibit erythrocyte invasion or MSP1 processing. The DNA sequences of the variable (V) regions of both MAbs 12.8 and 12.10 were obtained, and partial amino acid sequences of the same regions were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Human chimeric Abs constructed by using these sequences, which combine the original mouse V regions with human gamma1 and gamma3 constant regions, retain the ability to bind to both parasites and recombinant MSP1(19), and both chimeric human immunoglobulin G1s (IgG1s) were at least as good at inhibiting erythrocyte invasion as the parental murine MAbs 12.8 and 12.10. Furthermore, the human chimeric Abs of the IgG1 class (but not the corresponding human IgG3), induced significant NADPH-mediated oxidative bursts and degranulation from human neutrophils. These chimeric human Abs will enable investigators to examine the role of human Fcgamma receptors in immunity to malaria using a transgenic parasite and mouse model and may prove useful in humans for neutralizing parasites as an adjunct to antimalarial drug therapy. PMID:19805526

  10. Metabolism of acetylcholine in human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to examine the possible role of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase in the maintenance of membrane phospholipid content and membrane fluidity, experiments were performed to monitor the activity of the enzyme and follow the fate of one of its hydrolytic products, choline. Intact human erythrocytes were incubated with acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C). The incubation resulted in the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to acetate and choline; the reaction was catalyzed by membrane acetylcholinesterase. The studies demonstrate the further metabolism of choline. Experiments were carried out to determine rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholine, uptake of choline, identification of intracellular metabolites of choline, and identification of radiolabeled membrane components. Erythrocytes at a 25% hematocrit were incubated in an isoosmotic bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4, containing glucose, adenosine, streptomycin and penicillin with 0.3 {mu}Ci of acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C), for 24 hours. Aliquots of the erythrocyte suspension were taken throughout for analysis. Erythrocytes were washed free of excess substrate, lysed, and the hemolysate was extracted for choline and its metabolites. Blank samples containing incubation buffer and radiolabeled acetylcholine only, and erythrocyte hemolysate extracts were analyzed for choline content, the difference between blank samples and hemolysate extracts was the amount of choline originating from acetylcholine and attributable to acetylcholinesterase activity. The conversion of choline to {sup 14}C-betaine is noted after several minutes of incubation; at 30 minutes, more than 80% of {sup 14}C-choline is taken up and after several hours, detectable levels of radiolabeled S-adenosylmethionine were present in the hemolysate extract.

  11. Ritonavir-Induced Suicidal Death of Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Sabrina; Bissinger, Rosi; Bouguerra, Ghada; Abbès, Salem; Lang, Florian

    2016-07-01

    The antiviral drug ritonavir has been shown to trigger suicidal death or apoptosis of tumour cells and has thus been considered for the treatment of malignancy. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca(2+) entry with increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+) ]i ), oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored whether and how ritonavir induces eryptosis. To this end, flow cytometry was employed to estimate cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface from Annexin-V binding, [Ca(2+) ]i from Fluo3 fluorescence, abundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. As a result, a 48-hr exposure of human erythrocytes to ritonavir significantly increased the percentage of Annexin-V-binding cells (≥5 μg/ml), significantly decreased forward scatter (≥5 μg/ml), significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (20 μg/ml), slightly, but significantly increased DCFDA fluorescence (20 μg/ml) and slightly, but significantly increased ceramide abundance (20 μg/ml). The effect of ritonavir on Annexin-V binding was significantly blunted, but not fully abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+) . In conclusion, ritonavir triggers erythrocyte shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation at the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part due to the stimulation of Ca(2+) entry, oxidative stress and ceramide. PMID:27264208

  12. Recombinant human erythrocyte cytochrome b5.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, E; Ferrer, J C; Funk, W D; Mauk, M R; Mauk, A G

    1994-09-27

    The gene encoding the human erythrocyte form of cytochrome b5 (97 residues in length) has been prepared by mutagenesis of an expression vector encoding lipase-solubilized bovine liver microsomal cytochrome b5 (93 residues in length) (Funk et al., 1990). Efficient expression of this gene in Escherichia coli has provided the first opportunity to obtain this protein in quantities sufficient for physical and functional characterization. Comparison of the erythrocytic cytochrome with the trypsin-solubilized bovine liver cytochrome b5 by potentiometric titration indicates that the principal electrostatic difference between the two proteins results from two additional His residues present in the human erythrocytic protein. The midpoint reduction potential of this protein determined by direct electrochemistry is -9 +/- 2 mV vs SHE at pH 7.0 (mu = 0.10 M, 25.0 degrees C), and this value varies with pH in a fashion that is consistent with the presence of a single ionizable group that changes pKa from 6.0 +/- 0.1 in the ferricytochrome to 6.3 +/- 0.1 in the ferrocytochrome with delta H degrees = -3.2 +/- 0.1 kcal/mol and delta S degrees = -11.5 +/- 0.3 eu (pH 7.0, mu = 0.10). The 1D 1H NMR spectrum of the erythrocytic ferricytochrome indicates that 90% of the protein binds heme in the "major" orientation and 10% of the protein binds heme in the "minor" orientation (pH 7.0, 25 degrees C) with delta H degrees = -2.9 +/- 0.3 kcal/mol and delta S degrees = -5.4 +/- 0.9 eu for this equilibrium. PMID:7918357

  13. Decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialic acid content is associated with increased erythrocyte aggregation in human diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M E; Williams, D T; Niththyananthan, R; Rampling, M W; Heslop, K E; Johnston, D G

    1992-03-01

    1. Sialic acid moieties of erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins are the principal determinants of the negative charge on the cell surface. The resultant electrostatic repulsion between the cells reduces erythrocyte aggregation and hence the low shear rate viscosity and yield stress of blood. 2. Using g.c.-m.s., a decrease in sialic acid content has been observed in the major erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein, glycophorin A, obtained from nine diabetic patients compared with that from seven normal control subjects [median (range): 3.30 (0.01-11.90) versus 18.60 (3.20-32.60) micrograms/100 micrograms of protein, P less than 0.02]. 3. Erythrocyte aggregation, measured by viscometry as the ratio of suspension viscosity to supernatant viscosity (LS/S) in fibrinogen solution, was increased in ten diabetic patients compared with ten normal control subjects (mean +/- SEM, 37.6 +/- 1.3 versus 33.8 +/- 0.6, P less than 0.02). 4. In the patients in whom both viscometry and carbohydrate analysis were performed, the decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialylation and the increase in erythrocyte aggregation in fibrinogen solution were related statistically (LS/S correlated negatively with glycophorin sialic acid content, r = 0.73, P less than 0.05). 5. Decreased glycophorin sialylation provides an explanation at the molecular level for increased erythrocyte aggregation and it may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:1312416

  14. [AGGREGATION OF METABOLICALLY DEPLETED HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES].

    PubMed

    Sheremet'ev, Yu A; Popovicheva, A N; Rogozin, M M; Levin, G Ya

    2016-01-01

    An aggregation of erythrocytes in autologous plasma after blood storage for 14 days at 4 °C was studied using photometry and light microscopy. The decrease of ATP content, the formation of echinocytes and spheroechinocytes, the decrease of rouleaux form of erythrocyte aggregation were observed during the storage. On the other hand the aggregates of echinocytes were formed in the stored blood. The addition of plasma from the fresh blood didn't restore the normal discocytic shape and aggregation of erythrocytes in the stored blood. The possible mechanisms of erythrocytes and echinocytes aggregation are discussed. PMID:27220249

  15. Site-Specific GlcNAcylation of Human Erythrocyte Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zihao; Park, Kyoungsook; Comer, Frank; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.; Saudek, Christopher D.; Hart, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is upregulated in diabetic tissues and plays a role in insulin resistance and glucose toxicity. Here, we investigated the extent of GlcNAcylation on human erythrocyte proteins and compared site-specific GlcNAcylation on erythrocyte proteins from diabetic and normal individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—GlcNAcylated erythrocyte proteins or GlcNAcylated peptides were tagged and selectively enriched by a chemoenzymatic approach and identified by mass spectrometry. The enrichment approach was combined with solid-phase chemical derivatization and isotopic labeling to detect O-GlcNAc modification sites and to compare site-specific O-GlcNAc occupancy levels between normal and diabetic erythrocyte proteins. RESULTS—The enzymes that catalyze the cycling (addition and removal) of O-GlcNAc were detected in human erythrocytes. Twenty-five GlcNAcylated erythrocyte proteins were identified. Protein expression levels were compared between diabetic and normal erythrocytes. Thirty-five O-GlcNAc sites were reproducibly identified, and their site-specific O-GlcNAc occupancy ratios were calculated. CONCLUSIONS—GlcNAcylation is differentially regulated at individual sites on erythrocyte proteins in response to glycemic status. These data suggest not only that site-specific O-GlcNAc levels reflect the glycemic status of an individual but also that O-GlcNAc site occupancy on erythrocyte proteins may be eventually useful as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of diabetes. PMID:18984734

  16. A Wet Chemical Method for Rendering Scanning Electron Microscopy Samples Conductive and Observations on the Surface Morphology of Human Erythrocytes and Ehrlich Ascites Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Mark A.; Leif, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    An alternate method to the common technique of evaporating a metallic coating on cells to render them conductive for scanning electron microscopy is described. This wet chemical technique is less expensive and easier to use, but is not as widely applicable as the evaporative technique. It should prove invaluable in the identification of artifacts by comparison of micrographs of material prepared in both manners. The first step in our application of this wet chemical method is to use the Centrifugal Cytology bucket to deposit the cells onto conductive polyethylene. After centrifugation and fixation with 4% glutaraldehyde, the sample is placed in a 50% glutaraldehyde solution. After a rinse in distilled water it is treated with ammoniacal silver nitrate. The reduced silver renders the sample conductive and, thus, for erythrocytes, eliminates artifacts due to charging and reduces these artifacts to virtually acceptable levels for larger cells. The surfaces of erythrocytes appear smooth with this technique while those coated by conventional vapor deposition of Au-Pd alloys often appear slightly wrinkled. Ehrlich ascites cells apparently can be divided into two classes by surface morphology. The surface structure of Ehrlich ascites cells rendered conductive by the wet method appears to be finer than conventionally prepared ones. Images PMID:4202847

  17. Sickle erythrocytes inhibit human endothelial cell DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.; Zhou, M.A.; Bartlett-Pandite, A.; Wenc, K. )

    1990-11-15

    Patients with sickle cell anemia experience severe vascular occlusive phenomena including acute pain crisis and cerebral infarction. Obstruction occurs at both the microvascular and the arterial level, and the clinical presentation of vascular events is heterogeneous, suggesting a complex etiology. Interaction between sickle erythrocytes and the endothelium may contribute to vascular occlusion due to alteration of endothelial function. To investigate this hypothesis, human vascular endothelial cells were overlaid with sickle or normal erythrocytes and stimulated to synthesize DNA. The erythrocytes were sedimented onto replicate monolayers by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 17 g to insure contact with the endothelial cells. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine into endothelial cell DNA was markedly inhibited during contact with sickle erythrocytes. This inhibitory effect was enhanced more than twofold when autologous sickle plasma was present during endothelial cell labeling. Normal erythrocytes, with or without autologous plasma, had a modest effect on endothelial cell DNA synthesis. When sickle erythrocytes in autologous sickle plasma were applied to endothelial monolayers for 1 minute, 10 minutes, or 1 hour and then removed, subsequent DNA synthesis by the endothelial cells was inhibited by 30% to 40%. Although adherence of sickle erythrocytes to the endothelial monolayers was observed under these experimental conditions, the effect of sickle erythrocytes on endothelial DNA synthesis occurred in the absence of significant adherence. Hence, human endothelial cell DNA synthesis is partially inhibited by contact with sickle erythrocytes. The inhibitory effect of sickle erythrocytes occurs during a brief (1 minute) contact with the endothelial monolayers, and persists for at least 6 hours of 3H-thymidine labeling.

  18. Recognition and invasion of human erythrocytes by malarial parasites: contribution of sialoglycoproteins to attachment and host specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.J.; Blankenberg, T.; Sensabaugh, G.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1984-05-01

    The receptivity of human erythrocytes to invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites can be decreased by neuraminidase or trypsin treatment, an observation that supports a role for the erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins (glycophorins) in invasion. We have found that ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein (AGP), added to in vitro cultures, can restore invasion of enzyme-treated human erythrocytes. AGP is structurally different from the glycophorins although it does carry 12% sialic acid. Its ability to restore receptivity to desialylated cells is dependent on its sialic acid complement, its concentration, and its binding to the erythrocyte surface. We present evidence that AGP forms a bridge between the merozoite and the enzyme-treated erythrocyte that allows the stronger and more complex interactions of invasion to proceed. We suggest that the glycophorins play the same role on the surface of the intact erythrocyte. 31 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC.

  20. Automatic Identification of Human Erythrocytes in Microscopic Fecal Specimens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Lei, Haoting; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Zhenglong; Liu, Juanxiu; Xie, Yu; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Traditional fecal erythrocyte detection is performed via a manual operation that is unsuitable because it depends significantly on the expertise of individual inspectors. To recognize human erythrocytes automatically and precisely, automatic segmentation is very important for extraction of characteristics. In addition, multiple recognition algorithms are also essential. This paper proposes an algorithm based on morphological segmentation and a fuzzy neural network. The morphological segmentation process comprises three operational steps: top-hat transformation, Otsu's method, and image binarization. Following initial screening by area and circularity, fuzzy c-means clustering and the neural network algorithms are used for secondary screening. Subsequently, the erythrocytes are screened by combining the results of five images obtained at different focal lengths. Experimental results show that even when the illumination, noise pollution, and position of the erythrocytes are different, they are all segmented and labeled accurately by the proposed method. Thus, the proposed method is robust even in images with significant amounts of noise. PMID:26349804

  1. Mechanism of erythrocyte death in human population exposed to arsenic through drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Debabrata; Banerjee, Mayukh; Sen, Gargi; Das, Jayanta K.; Banerjee, Apurba; Sau, T.J.; Pandit, Sudipta; Giri, A.K. Biswas, Tuli

    2008-07-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is one of the biggest natural calamities, which has become an imperative threat to human health throughout the world. Abbreviation of erythrocyte lifespan leading to the development of anemia is a common sequel in arsenic exposed population. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanism of cell death in human erythrocytes during chronic arsenic exposure. Results revealed transformation of smooth discoid red cells into evaginated echinocytic form in the exposed individuals. Further distortion converted reversible echinocytes to irreversible spheroechinocytes. Arsenic toxicity increased membrane microviscosity along with an elevation of cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, which hampered the flexibility of red cell membrane and made them less deformable. Significant increase in the binding of merocyanine 540 with erythrocyte membrane due to arsenic exposure indicated disruption of lipid packing in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane resulting from altered transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry. Arsenic induced eryptosis was characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface. Furthermore, metabolic starvation with depletion of cellular ATP triggered apoptotic removal of erythrocytes from circulation. Significant decrease in reduced glutathione content indicating defective antioxidant capacity was coupled with enhancement of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, which pointed to oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane. Arsenic toxicity intervened into red cell membrane integrity eventually leading to membrane destabilization and hemoglobin release. The study depicted the involvement of both erythrophagocytosis and hemolysis in the destruction of human erythrocytes during chronic arsenic exposure.

  2. Immunological identification of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Sogin, D C; Hinkle, P C

    1980-01-01

    A rabbit antibody against the human erythrocyte glucose transporter was purified by affinity chromatography and used to determine the distribution of transporter on polyacrylamide gels after electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Fresh erythrocyte ghosts showed transporter only at the broad 55,000 Mr band, as did the isolated transporter. HeLa cell plasma membranes showed a similar band of crossreacting material at Mr 55,000. The amount of crossreacting material in human erythrocyte ghosts and in plasma membranes from human HeLa cells and mouse L-1210 cells was determined in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which gave results consistent with the extent of glucose-reversible binding of cytochalasin B. PMID:6934506

  3. Specific binding of beta-endorphin to normal human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chenet, B.; Hollis, V. Jr.; Kang, Y.; Simpkins, C.

    1986-03-05

    Beta-endorphin (BE) exhibits peripheral functions which may not be mediated by interactions with receptors in the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated binding of BE to both opioid and non-opioid receptors on lymphocytes and monocytes. Abood has reported specific binding of /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine in erythrocytes. Using 5 x 10/sup -11/M /sup 125/I-beta-endorphin and 10/sup -5/M unlabeled BE, they have detected 50% specific binding to human erythrocytes. This finding is supported by results from immunoelectron microscopy using rabbit anti-BE antibody and biotinylated secondary antibody with avidin-biotin complexes horseradish peroxidase. Binding is clearly observed and is confined to only one side of the cells. Conclusions: (1) BE binding to human erythrocytes was demonstrated by radioreceptor assay and immunoelectron microscopy, and (2) BE binding sites exist on only one side of the cells.

  4. Retention of radiolead by human erythrocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.C.

    1989-06-15

    An in vitro method was developed to assess human erythrocyte lead uptake and release directly, rapidly, and reproducibly; the technique requires small aliquots of blood and uses silicone fluid to separate erythrocytes from their suspending media. Uptake occurred rapidly and was directly related to temperature. Increasing quantities of available elemental lead were associated with increasing absolute quantities but decreasing percentages of uptake. Low values of pH diminished the uptake and enhanced the release of radiolead by erythrocytes, and could be correlated with diminished lead-hemoglobin binding para-Chloromecuribenzoate increased and dithiothreitol inhibited radiolead uptake but neither compound affected lead release, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are important for lead binding to the erythrocyte. Cyanamide and N-ethylmaleimide did not significantly affect the net uptake or release of radiolead. Calcium disodium EDTA, penicillamine, and dimercaprol significantly reduced lead uptake, although only incubation with dimercaprol resulted in a net removal of lead from erythrocytes. Iron and ceruloplasmin significantly decreased radiolead uptake, but inorganic metal cations other than iron, hyperosmolarity, human serum albumin, cholesterol, and transferrin had no significant effect on uptake or release.

  5. Effects of airborne dust collected from Kuwait on human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, S.M.; Khan, S.A.; Ahmad, S.; Beg, M.U.

    1992-01-01

    Air borne dust as deposited on air conditioner's filter was collected from most polluted regions of Kuwait and for comparison also from Dubai. Kuwait dust samples were found to contain high concentrations of Ni, Mn and Pb and a number of organic compounds different from the oil samples collected from the oil pool in the oil fields. Toxicity evaluation against human erythrocytes showed strong hemolytic nature of the dust. Treatment of erythrocytes with the dust exhibited peroxidative damage of the membrane. The dust collected from Dubai was innocuous. The present data suggest that erythrocyte damaging potential of the dust can be used as a marker of toxicity and provide information about the dissipation of toxic factors from airborne dust with time. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity. PMID:26866566

  8. Is Peroxiredoxin II's peroxidase activity strongly inhibited in human erythrocytes?

    PubMed

    Benfeitas, Rui; Selvaggio, Gianluca; Antunes, Fernando; Coelho, Pedro; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    H2O2 elimination in human erythrocytes is mainly carried out by catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and the more recently discovered peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2). However, the contribution of Prx2 to H2O2 consumption is still unclear. Prx2's high reactivity with H2O2 (kPrx2=10×10(7) M(-1)s(-1), kCat =7×10(7) M(-1)s(-1), kGPx1 =4×10(7) M(-1)s(-1)) and high abundance ([Prx2]= 570µM, [Cat]= 32µM, [GPx1]= 1µM) suggest that under low H2O2 supply rates it should consume >99% of the H2O2. However, extensive evidence indicates that in intact erythrocytes Prx2 contributes no more than Cat to H2O2 consumption. In order for this to be attained, Prx2's effective rate constant with H2O2would have to be just ~10(5) M(-1)s(-1), much lower than that determined in multiple experiments with the purified proteins. Nevertheless, nearly all Prx2 is oxidized within 1min of exposing erythrocytes to a H2O2 bolus, which is inconsistent with an irreversible inhibition. A mathematical model of the H2O2 metabolism in human erythrocytes [Benfeitas et al. (2014) Free Radic. Biol. Med.] where Prx2 either has a low kPrx2 or is subject to a strong (>99%) but readily reversible inhibition achieves quantitative agreement with detailed experimental observations of the responses of the redox status of Prx2 in human erythrocytes and suggests functional advantages of this design (see companion abstract). By contrast, a variant where Prx2 is fully active with kPrx2=10(8) M(-1)s(-1) shows important qualitative discrepancies. Altogether, these results suggest that Prx2's peroxidase activity is strongly inhibited in human erythrocytes. We acknowledge fellowship SFRH/BD/51199/2010, grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0612/2013, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0313/2014, and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 (PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010) co-financed by FEDER through the COMPETE program and by FCT. PMID:26461310

  9. Evaluation of the effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on the size and shape of human erythrocytes (in vitro).

    PubMed

    Bors, Milena; Sicińska, Paulina; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Wieteska, Paulina; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Bukowska, Bożena

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we continued our investigations concerning the interaction of Uncaria tomentosa extracts with the human erythrocytes. The analysis of the size and shape of the erythrocytes by means of flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy was performed. We executed our experiments using ethanolic and aqueous extracts from the leaves and bark of U. tomentosa. Disturbances were observed in the size and shape of the erythrocytes incubated with ethanolic and aqueous extracts at the concentrations of 100 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The observed changes were probably related to the entry of polyphenolic compounds contained in U. tomentosa extracts into erythrocyte membrane. Externalization of phosphatidylserine on the erythrocytic surfaces was also noticed during incubation with extracts at concentration of 250 μg/mL. We concluded that all of the extracts examined induced changes in the erythrocyte membrane properties, whereas ethanolic extracts from bark induced the most significant changes. The possible binding of polyphenols to the erythrocyte surface may have accounted for the protective properties of extracts against haemolysis of RBCs, which was observed in our previous study (Bors et al., 2011), but considerable incorporation of polyphenols into cell membranes can result in disturbance of phosphatidylserine transport and changes in erythrocyte shape. Nevertheless the results of the investigations showed that considerable morphological changes appear only as a result of erythrocyte exposure to high concentrations (50 ppm and 100 ppm) of the extracts studied, thus they should not lead to clinical erythrocytic damage if recommended doses of U. tomentosa preparations are administrated. PMID:22217608

  10. A comparison of erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase activity from human foetuses and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Strange, R C; Johnston, J D; Coghill, D R; Hume, R

    1980-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in partially purified haemolysates of erythrocytes from human foetuses and adults. Enzyme activity was present in erythrocytes obtained between 12 and 40 weeks of gestation. The catalytic properties of the enzyme from foetal cells were similar to those of the enzyme from adult erythrocytes, indicating that probably only one form of the erythrocytes enzyme exists throughout foetal and adult life. PMID:7396875

  11. Variability of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in single human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Q.; Yeung, E.S. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA )

    1994-04-01

    Trace amounts of enzymes within single human erythrocytes can be quantified by a combination of on-column reaction and capillary electrophoresis. A detection limit of 1.3 x 10[sup [minus]21] mol of LDH was achieved with laser-induced fluorescence by monitoring the product of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction between lactate and NAD[sup +]. Single erythrocyte analysis clearly isolates the major forms of LDH. The variation of total LDH activity in a population of cells from a single individual is large, but the relative activities of the isoenzymes LDH-1 and LDH-2 are fairly constant. This can be explained by the distribution of cell age in the population. A lower enzyme activity is indicative of senescence. The efficient separation of different LDH forms and the high detection sensitivity opens up the possibility of multiple-enzyme assays with a single mammalian cell. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  12. The Effect of Covalently-Attached ATRP-Synthesized Polymers on Membrane Stability and Cytoprotection in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Clafshenkel, William P.; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill; Creeger, Yehuda; Russell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocytes have been described as advantageous drug delivery vehicles. In order to ensure an adequate circulation half-life, erythrocytes may benefit from protective enhancements that maintain membrane integrity and neutralize oxidative damage of membrane proteins that otherwise facilitate their premature clearance from circulation. Surface modification of erythrocytes using rationally designed polymers, synthesized via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), may further expand the field of membrane-engineered red blood cells. This study describes the fate of ATRP-synthesized polymers that were covalently attached to human erythrocytes as well as the effect of membrane engineering on cell stability under physiological and oxidative conditions in vitro. The biocompatible, membrane-reactive polymers were homogenously retained on the periphery of modified erythrocytes for at least 24 hours. Membrane engineering stabilized the erythrocyte membrane and effectively neutralized oxidative species, even in the absence of free-radical scavenger-containing polymers. The targeted functionalization of Band 3 protein by NHS-pDMAA-Cy3 polymers stabilized its monomeric form preventing aggregation in the presence of the crosslinking reagent, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS3). A free radical scavenging polymer, NHS-pDMAA-TEMPO˙, provided additional protection of surface modified erythrocytes in an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Preserving or augmenting cytoprotective mechanisms that extend circulation half-life is an important consideration for the use of red blood cells for drug delivery in various pathologies, as they are likely to encounter areas of imbalanced oxidative stress as they circuit the vascular system. PMID:27331401

  13. Abscisic Acid Transport in Human Erythrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Guida, Lucrezia; Millo, Enrico; Fresia, Chiara; Turco, Emilia; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in the response to environmental stress. Recently, ABA has been shown to be present and active also in mammals, where it stimulates the functional activity of innate immune cells, of mesenchymal and hemopoietic stem cells, and insulin-releasing pancreatic β-cells. LANCL2, the ABA receptor in mammalian cells, is a peripheral membrane protein that localizes at the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Here we investigated the mechanism enabling ABA transport across the plasmamembrane of human red blood cells (RBC). Both influx and efflux of [3H]ABA occur across intact RBC, as detected by radiometric and chromatographic methods. ABA binds specifically to Band 3 (the RBC anion transporter), as determined by labeling of RBC membranes with biotinylated ABA. Proteoliposomes reconstituted with human purified Band 3 transport [3H]ABA and [35S]sulfate, and ABA transport is sensitive to the specific Band 3 inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid. Once inside RBC, ABA stimulates ATP release through the LANCL2-mediated activation of adenylate cyclase. As ATP released from RBC is known to exert a vasodilator response, these results suggest a role for plasma ABA in the regulation of vascular tone. PMID:25847240

  14. Attempts to validate a possible predictive animal model for human erythrocyte G-6-PD deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, H.M.; Calabrese, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of Dorset sheep erythrocytes as a model for human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes was investigated. Seven pharmaceuticals were examined for oxidant stressor effects using a liver microsomal enzyme system to generate metabolites of the drugs. The pharmaceuticals examined were salicyclic acid, dapsone, naphthalene, B-naphtol, p-aminobenzoic acid, sulfanilamide and sulfapyridine. The test compounds were incubated with Dorset sheep erythrocytes and oxidant stressor effects were measured through reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and methemaglobin formation. The response of the Dorset sheep erythrocytes to the seven agents was compared to previous studies revealing the response of human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes to these agents. The results indicated that metabolites of the pharmaceuticals, B-naphthol, dapsone, and sulfanilamide, are oxidant stressor agents towards sheep G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes. These results agreed with studies on the response of human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes. The metabolized naphthalene and sulfapyridine did not cause oxidant stress in the sheep erythrocytes, despite the fact that these two agents caused oxidizing effects in human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes in previous studies. None of the non-metabolized parent compounds caused oxidant stress in the sheep erythrocytes, which agreed with the responses of human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes.

  15. The free heme concentration in healthy human erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Anupam; Freundlich, Melissa; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Heme, the prosthetic group of hemoglobin, may be released from its host due to an intrinsic instability of hemoglobin and accumulate in the erythrocytes. Free heme is in the form of hematin (Fe3+ protoporphyrin IX OH) and follows several pathways of biochemical toxicity to tissues, cells, and organelles since it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. To determine concentration of soluble free heme in human erythrocytes, we develop a new method. We lyse the red blood cells and isolate free heme from hemoglobin by dialysis. We use the heme to reconstitute horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from an excess of the apoenzyme and determine the HRP reaction rate from the evolution of the emitted luminescence. We find that in a population of five healthy adults the average free heme concentration in the erythrocytes is 21 ± 2 μM, ca. 100× higher than previously determined. Tests suggest that the lower previous value was due to the use of elevated concentrations of NaCl, which drive hematin precipitation and re-association with apoglobin. We show that the found hematin concentration is significantly higher than estimates based on equilibrium release and the known hematin dimerization. The factors that lead to enhanced heme release remain an open question. PMID:26460266

  16. 7Li NMR study of normal human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettegrew, J. W.; Post, J. F. M.; Panchalingam, K.; Withers, G.; Woessner, D. E.

    The biological action of lithium is of great interest because of the therapeutic efficacy of the cation in manic-depressive illness. To investigate possible molecular interactions of lithium, 7Li NMR studies were conducted on normal human erythrocytes which had been incubated with lithium chloride. The uptake of lithium ions was followed by 7Li NMR, using a dysprosium, tripolyphosphate shift reagent. Lithium uptake followed single-exponential kinetics with a time constant of 14.7 h. The intracellular lithium relaxation times were T 1 ⋍ 5 s and T 2 ⋍ 0.15 s, which implies a lengthening of the lithium correlation time. It was found that lithium does not interact significantly with hemoglobin, the erythrocyte membrane, or artificial phospholipid membranes. Based on measurements of lithium T1 and T2 in concentrated agar gels, the large difference between T1 and T2 for intracellular lithium ions may be due to diffusion of the hydrated lithium ion through heterogeneous electrostatic field gradients created by the erythrocyte membrane-associated cytoskeletal network. Lithium binding to the membrane-associated cytoskeleton, however, cannot be ruled out. Because of the large differences between T1 and T2 of intracellular lithium ions, 1Li NMR may be a sensitive and promising noninvasive method to probe the intracellular environment.

  17. Transport of 3-bromopyruvate across the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Soszyński, Mirosław; Ułaszewski, Stanisław; Ko, Young; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    3-Bromopyruvic acid (3-BP) is a promising anticancer compound because it is a strong inhibitor of glycolytic enzymes, especially glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The Warburg effect means that malignant cells are much more dependent on glycolysis than normal cells. Potential complications of anticancer therapy with 3-BP are side effects due to its interaction with normal cells, especially erythrocytes. Transport into cells is critical for 3-BP to have intracellular effects. The aim of our study was the kinetic characterization of 3-BP transport into human erythrocytes. 3-BP uptake by erythrocytes was linear within the first 3 min and pH-dependent. The transport rate decreased with increasing pH in the range of 6.0-8.0. The Km and Vm values for 3-BP transport were 0.89 mM and 0.94 mmol/(l cells x min), respectively. The transport was inhibited competitively by pyruvate and significantly inhibited by DIDS, SITS, and 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Flavonoids also inhibited 3-BP transport: the most potent inhibition was found for luteolin and quercetin. PMID:24715475

  18. Combined Raman and atomic force microscopy study of hemoglobin distribution inside erythrocytes and nanoparticle localization on the erythrocyte surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, E. Yu; Sarycheva, A. S.; Yusipovich, A. I.; Brazhe, N. A.; Goodilin, E. A.; Maksimov, G. V.

    2013-07-01

    The letter describes a combined technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (mRS) to estimate the distribution of cytosolic hemoglobin (Hb) and nanoparticles (NPs) inside and on the erythrocyte surface, respectively. We have shown that cytosolic hemoglobin is distributed uniformly inside the cell while NPs absorb on the cell surface irregularly, forming nanoaggregates. The obtained data provide new insight into the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of living cells.

  19. Evaluation of hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L(-1). The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH. PMID:25759815

  20. Evaluation of Hemagglutination Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L−1. The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH. PMID:25759815

  1. The osmotic response of human erythrocytes and the membrane cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Heubusch, P; Jung, C Y; Green, F A

    1985-02-01

    The volumes of human erythrocytes suspended in solutions of varying concentrations of sodium chloride and sucrose were measured by a Coulter Channelyzer Model H4 with appropriate corrections. The cells showed greatly restricted volume changes at osmolarities between 200-700 mOsm. At osmolarities outside this limit, on the other hand, the cells showed nonrestricted volume changes following essentially the predictions of an ideal osmometer. This unexpected volume response was not spuriously due to changes in shape or to a changing orientation of the cells as they traversed the aperture. The restricted volume change observed was abolished when the cells had previously been treated with diamide or had been heated for 60 minutes at 50 degrees C, conditions that are known to disturb the spectrin-actin network. The possibility must be considered that the osmotic behavior of human erythrocytes may be nonideal and that this nonideal behavior is primarily due to mechanical restriction provided by the spectrin-actin network of the membrane cytoskeleton. PMID:3918046

  2. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  3. In Vitro Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Malondialdehyde Concentration and on Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, and Glutathione Peroxidase in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortíz, Liliana; Morales González, José A.; Hernández-Rodríguez, Sergio; Ramírez-García, Sotero; Núñez-Ramos, Norma R.; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the in vitro effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the specific activity of the major erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes, as well as on the membrane malondialdehyde concentration, as indicators of oxidative stress. For this purpose, human erythrocytes were incubated with NaF (0, 7, 28, 56, and 100 μg/mL) or NaF (100 μg/mL) + vitamin E (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/mL). The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration on the surface of the erythrocytes was determined, as were the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GlPx). Our results demonstrated that erythrocytes incubated with increasing NaF concentrations had an increased MDA concentration, along with decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. The presence of vitamin E partially reversed the toxic effects of NaF on erythrocytes. These findings suggest that NaF induces oxidative stress in erythrocytes in vitro, and this stress is partially reversed by the presence of vitamin E. PMID:24223512

  4. Use of steady-state laurdan fluorescence to detect changes in liquid ordered phases in human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Vest, Rebekah; Wallis, Rachel; Jensen, Lauren B; Haws, Andrea C; Callister, Joseph; Brimhall, Brent; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2006-05-01

    In artificial phospholipid bilayers, dual measurements of laurdan steady-state anisotropy and emission spectra can be used to identify the presence of liquid ordered phases. Human erythrocytes were used as a model to test whether similar measurements could be applied to biological samples. Specifically, laurdan anisotropy and emission spectra were obtained from native erythrocytes before and after treatment with calcium ionophore and from the microvesicles (known to be enriched in liquid ordered domains) shed from the cells during calcium entry. Spectral and anisotropy data were consistent with an increased order and reduced fluidity of erythrocyte membrane lipids upon ionophore treatment. Microvesicle membranes appeared more ordered than native erythrocytes and similar to ionophore-treated cells based on laurdan emission. In contrast, the anisotropy value was lower in microvesicles compared to ionophore-treated cells, suggesting greater probe mobility. Parallel measurements of diphenylhexatriene anisotropy corroborated the laurdan data. These results were consistent with the liquid ordered property of microvesicle membranes based on comparisons to behavior in artificial membranes. Two-photon microscopy was used to examine the distribution of laurdan fluorescence along the surface of erythrocyte membranes before and after ionophore treatment. A dual spatial analysis of laurdan anisotropy, as revealed by the distribution of laurdan emission spectra, and intensity excited by polarized light suggested that the plasma membranes of ionophore-treated erythrocytes may also exhibit elevated numbers of liquid ordered domains. PMID:16988865

  5. Effect of hydration on the water content of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Levin, R L; Cravalho, E G; Huggins, C E

    1976-12-01

    An ideal, hydrated, nondilute pseudobinary salt-protein-water solution model of the RBC intracellular solution has been developed to describe the osmotic behavior of human erythrocytes during freezing and thawing. Because of the hydration of intracellular solutes (mostly cell proteins), our analytical results predict that at least 16.65% of the isotonic cell water content will be retained within RBCs placed in hypertonic solutions. These findings are consistent not only with the experimental measurements of the amount of isotonic cell water retained within RBCs subjected to nonisotonic extracellular solutions (20-32%) but also with the experimental evidence that all of the water within RBCs is solvent water. By modeling the RBC intracellular solution as a hydrated salt-protein-water solution, no anomalous osmotic behavior is apparent. PMID:990394

  6. Surface stress on the erythrocyte under laser irradiation with finite-difference time-domain calculation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Tong; Chen, Ji-Yao; Lin, Zhi-Fang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Pei-Nan; Gu, Min

    2005-01-01

    The surface stress on the real shape (biconcave disklike) of an erythrocyte under laser irradiation is theoretically studied according to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The distribution of the surface stresses depends on the orientation of erythrocytes in the laser beam. Typically when the erythrocyte was irradiated from the side direction (the laser beam was perpendicular to the normal of the erythrocyte plane), the surface stresses were so asymmetrical and nonuniform that the magnitude of the surface stress on the back surface was three times higher than that on the front surface, and the highest-to-lowest ratio of the stress reached 16 times. For comparison, the surface stress was also calculated according to the ray optics (RO) method. The tendency of the stress distribution from the RO calculation was roughly similar to that of the FDTD method. However the RO calculation produced some unphysical results, such as the infinite stress on some surface region and the zero stress on the most parts of the erythrocyte surface, which is due to the neglecting of light diffraction. The results obtained from the FDTD calculation are believed quantitatively reliable, because the FDTD method automatically takes into account of the diffraction and interference effects of the light wave. Thus, the FDTD method is more suitable than the RO method for the stress study of erythrocytes. PMID:16409078

  7. Reduced sodium concentration and increased sodium-potassium pump activity of erythrocytes in human hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.; Engel, C.R.

    1987-06-01

    Erythrocyte Nai, Nai/Ki and ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake (K transport) were measured in whole blood of 16 normotensive and 19 hypertensive white male subjects, within seconds or minutes after withdrawal of blood. Erythrocyte Nai and Nai/Ki were reduced (p less than 0.05), and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake was increased (p less than 0.01) in hypertensive subjects. In a separate group of hypertensive white male subjects, an inverse correlation was found between erythrocyte Nai/Ki and ouabain-binding sites per erythrocyte (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01, n = 9). The abnormalities of erythrocyte cation fluxes in hypertensive subjects are similar to those induced by aldosterone in vascular smooth muscle cells and by glucocorticoid administration in the erythrocytes of human subjects, suggesting similarities in pathogenesis.

  8. Method for Determining Erythrocyte Surface Area by Polarization and Nephelometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugeiko, M. M.; Smunev, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a fast method for determining the surface area and volume of erythrocytes in the biconcave-discoid shape, based on establishing regression relations between the parameters to be determined and the angular polarization coefficients P(Θ) and scattering indicatrix σ(Θ). We have shown that using σ(Θ) for angles 6° and 17°, P(Θ) for angles 81° and 119° lets us determine the surface area of the erythrocytes within ≈1% and the volume of the erythrocytes within ≈2%.

  9. Antibodies against a Plasmodium falciparum antigen PfMSPDBL1 inhibit merozoite invasion into human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hirokazu; Takeo, Satoru; Maier, Alexander G; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cowman, Alan F; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2012-03-01

    One approach to develop a malaria blood-stage vaccine is to target proteins that play critical roles in the erythrocyte invasion of merozoites. The merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) and the erythrocyte-binding antigens (EBAs) are considered promising vaccine candidates, for they are known to play important roles in erythrocyte invasion and are exposed to host immune system. Here we focused on a Plasmodium falciparum antigen, PfMSPDBL1 (encoded by PF10_0348 gene) that is a member of the MSP3 family and has both Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain and secreted polymorphic antigen associated with merozoites (SPAM) domain. Therefore, we aimed to characterize PfMSPDBL1 as a vaccine candidate. Recombinant full-length protein (rFL) of PfMSPDBL1 was synthesized by a wheat germ cell-free system, and rabbit antiserum was raised against rFL. We show that rabbit anti-PfMSPDBL1 antibodies inhibited erythrocyte invasion of wild type parasites in vitro in a dose dependent manner, and the specificity of inhibitory activity was confirmed using PfMSPDBL1 knockout parasites. Pre-incubation of the anti-PfMSPDBL1 antibodies with the recombinant SPAM domain had no effect on the inhibitory activity suggesting that antibodies to this region were not involved. In addition, antibodies to rFL were elicited by P. falciparum infection in malaria endemic area, suggesting the PfMSLDBL1 is immunogenic to humans. Our results suggest that PfMSPDBL1 is a novel blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate. PMID:22248820

  10. Morphological Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Solanum crispum (Natre) In Vitro Assayed on Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Ramírez, Patricia; Avello, Marcia; Villena, Fernando; Gallardo, María José; Barriga, Andrés; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of the antioxidant properties of Solanum crispum, aqueous extracts of its leaves were assayed on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane. Phenolics and alkaloids were detected by HPLC-MS. Scanning electron and defocusing microscopy showed that S. crispum changed erythrocytes from the normal shape to echinocytes. These results imply that molecules present in the aqueous extracts were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. X-ray diffraction showed that S. crispum preferentially interacted with DMPC bilayers. Experiments regarding its antioxidant properties showed that S. crispum neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPE bilayers; defocusing microscopy and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of S. crispum against the oxidant effects of HClO on human erythrocytes. PMID:26809653

  11. Binding of rabbit muscle aldolase to band 3, the predominant polypeptide of the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Strapazon, E; Steck, T L

    1976-04-01

    Aldolase is a trace protein in isolated human red cell membrane preparations. Following total elution of the endogenous enzyme by a saline wash, the interaction of this membrane with rabbit muscle aldolase was studied. At saturation, exogenous aldolase constituted over 40% of the repleted membrane protein. Scatchard analysis revealed two classes of sites, each numbering approximately 7 X 10(5) per ghost. Specificity was suggested by the exclusive binding of the enzyme to the membrane's inner (cytoplasmic) surface. Furthermore, milimolar levels of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate eluted the enzyme from ghosts, while fructose 6-phosphate and NADH (a metabolite which elutes human erythrocyte glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD) from its binding site) were ineffectuve. Removing peripheral membrane proteins with EDTA and lithium 3,5-diiodosalicylate did not diminish the binding capacity of the membranes. An aldolase-band 3 complex, dissociable by high ionic strength or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate treatment, was demonstrated in Triton X-100 extracts of repleted membranes by rate zonal sedimentation analysis on sucrose gradients. We conclude that the association of rabbit muscle aldolase with isolated human erythrocyte membranes reflects its specific binding to band 3 at the cytoplasmic surface, as is also true of G3PD. PMID:1259946

  12. Volume-dependent regulation of ion transport and membrane phosphorylation in human and rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Orlov, S N; Pokudin, N I; Kotelevtsev, Y V; Gulak, P V

    1989-02-01

    Osmotic swelling of human and rat erythrocytes does not induce regulatory volume decrease. Regulatory volume increase was observed in shrunken erythrocytes of rats only. This reaction was blocked by the inhibitors of Na+/H+ exchange. Cytoplasmic acidification in erythrocytes of both species increases the amiloride-inhibited component of 22Na influx by five- to eight-fold. Both the osmotic and isosmotic shrinkage of rat erythrocytes results in the 10- to 30-fold increase of amiloride-inhibited 22Na influx and a two-fold increase of furosemide-inhibited 86Rb influx. We failed to indicate any significant changes of these ion transport systems in shrunken human erythrocytes. The shrinking of quin 2-loaded human and rat erythrocytes results in the two- to threefold increase of the rate of 45Ca influx, which is completely blocked by amiloride. The dependence of volume-induced 22Na influx in rat erythrocytes and 45Ca influx in human erythrocytes on amiloride concentration does not differ. The rate of 45Ca influx in resealed ghosts was reduced by one order of magnitude when intravesicular potassium and sodium were replaced by choline. It is assumed that the erythrocyte shrinkage increases the rate of a nonselective Cao2+/(Nai+, Ki+) exchange. Erythrocyte shrinking does not induce significant phosphorylation of membrane protein but increases the 32P incorporation in diphosphoinositides. The effect of shrinkage on the 32P labeling of phosphoinositides is diminished after addition of amiloride. It is assumed that volume-induced phosphoinositide response plays an essential role in the mechanism of the activation of transmembrane ion movements. PMID:2541247

  13. Modifications of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Kyle C.; Zhou, Li; Jordon, Joshua K.; Huang, Yi; Yu, Yanbao; Redler, Rachel L.; Chen, Xian; Caplow, Michael; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2009-01-01

    Over 100 mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) result in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dimer dissociation is the first step in SOD1 aggregation, and studies suggest nearly every amino acid residue in SOD1 is dynamically connected to the dimer interface. Post-translational modifications of SOD1 residues might be expected to have similar effects to mutations, but few modifications have been identified. Here we show, using SOD1 isolated from human erythrocytes, that human SOD1 is phosphorylated at threonine 2 and glutathionylated at cysteine 111. A second SOD1 phosphorylation was observed and mapped to either Thr-58 or Ser-59. Cysteine 111 glutathionylation promotes SOD1 monomer formation, a necessary initiating step in SOD1 aggregation, by causing a 2-fold increase in the Kd. This change in the dimer stability is expected to result in a 67% increase in monomer concentration, 315 nm rather than 212 nm at physiological SOD1 concentrations. Because protein glutathionylation is associated with redox regulation, our finding that glutathionylation promotes SOD1 monomer formation supports a model in which increased oxidative stress promotes SOD1 aggregation. PMID:19299510

  14. Identification of the phorbol ester receptor in human and avian erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.M.; Sando, J.J.; Speizer, L.A.

    1986-05-01

    The ability of phorbol esters to inhibit the uptake of a fluorescent glucose analogue in goose but not human erythrocytes is consistent with earlier reports that the human red blood cell lacks the phorbol ester receptor. However, they have located specific phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding sites in both human and goose erythrocytes. Human and goose red blood cells contain 2 classes of phorbol ester receptors with similar affinities, however the human erythrocyte contains 1/3 as many phorbol ester receptors as does the goose red blood cell. An additional contrast in the binding of phorbol esters to human and goose red blood cells is the temperature-induced enhancement of binding to goose, but not human erythrocytes. Equilibrium phorbol ester binding to goose red blood cells at 37/sup 0/C is enhanced 3.3 +/- 0.4 times that amount bound at 4/sup 0/C. Equilibrium binding of phorbol esters to human erythrocytes is identical at both temperatures. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation profiles of C-kinase substrates also differ between the human and goose erythrocyte.

  15. Human erythrocyte Band 3 functions as a receptor for the sialic acid-independent invasion of Plasmodium falciparum. Role of the RhopH3-MSP1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Michael; Yamodo, Innocent; Ranjan, Ravi; Li, Xuerong; Mines, Gregory; Marinkovic, Marina; Hanada, Toshihiko; Oh, Steven S.; Chishti, Athar H.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum takes advantage of two broadly defined alternate invasion pathways when infecting human erythrocytes: one that depends on and the other that is independent of host sialic acid residues on the erythrocyte surface. Within the sialic acid-dependent (SAD) and sialic acid-independent (SAID) invasion pathways, several alternate host receptors are used by Plasmodium falciparum based on its particular invasion phenotype. Earlier, we reported that two putative extracellular regions of human erythrocyte band 3 termed 5C and 6A function as host invasion receptor segments binding parasite proteins MSP1 and MSP9 via a SAID mechanism. In this study, we developed two mono-specific anti-peptide chicken IgY antibodies to demonstrate that the 5C and 6A regions of band 3 are exposed on the surface of human erythrocytes. These antibodies inhibited erythrocyte invasion by the Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and 7G8 strains (SAID invasion phenotype), and the blocking effect was enhanced in sialic acid-depleted erythrocytes. In contrast, the IgY antibodies had only a marginal inhibitory effect on FCR3 and Dd2 strains (SAD invasion phenotype). A direct biochemical interaction between erythrocyte band 3 epitopes and parasite RhopH3, identified by the yeast two-hybrid screen, was established. RhopH3 formed a complex with MSP119 and 5ABC region of band 3, and a recombinant segment of RhopH3 inhibited parasite invasion in human erythrocytes. Together, these findings provide evidence that erythrocyte band 3 functions as a major host invasion receptor in the SAID invasion pathway by assembling a multi-protein complex composed of parasite ligands RhopH3 and MSP1. PMID:25157665

  16. Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.

    1983-03-30

    The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

  17. Activated and unactivated forms of human erythrocyte aldose reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, S K; Hair, G A; Das, B

    1985-01-01

    Aldose reductase (alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.21) has been partially purified from human erythrocytes by DEAE-cellulose (DE-52) column chromatography. This enzyme is activated severalfold upon incubation with 10 microM each glucose 6-phosphate, NADPH, and glucose. The activation of the enzyme was confirmed by following the oxidation of NADPH as well as the formation of sorbitol with glucose as substrate. The activated form of aldose reductase exhibited monophasic kinetics with both glyceraldehyde and glucose (Km of glucose = 0.68 mM and Km of glyceraldehyde = 0.096 mM), whereas the native (unactivated) enzyme exhibited biphasic kinetics (Km of glucose = 9.0 and 0.9 mM and Km of glyceraldehyde = 1.1 and 0.14 mM). The unactivated enzyme was strongly inhibited by aldose reductase inhibitors such as sorbinil, alrestatin, and quercetrin, and by phosphorylated intermediates such as ADP, glycerate 3-phosphate, glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate, and glycerate 2,3-trisphosphate. The activated form of the enzyme was less susceptible to inhibition by aldose reductase inhibitors and phosphorylated intermediates. PMID:3933003

  18. Diffusion properties of band 3 in human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Jeffrey O.

    The plasma membrane of the human erythrocyte (RBC) is a six fold symmetric network held together at various pinning points by several multi-protein complexes. This unique architecture is what gives the RBC its remarkable material properties and any disruptions to the network can have severe consequences for the cell. Band 3 is a major transmembrane protein that plays the role of linking the fluid lipid bilayer to the cytoskeletal network. To interrogate the structural integrity of the RBC membrane we have tracked individual band 3 molecules in RBCs displaying a variety of pathologies that are all a consequence of membrane or network related defects. These diseases are spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and pyropokilocytosis. We have also investigated the protein related diseases sickle cell, and south east asian ovalocytosis. To assess the impact that the network has on the dynamic organization of the cell we have also studied the mobility of band 3 in RBC progenitor cells. Individual band 3 molecules were imaged at 120 frames/second and their diffusion coefficients and compartment sizes recorded. The distributions of the compartment sizes combined with the information about the short and long time diffusion of band 3 has given us insight into the architecture of the membrane in normal and diseased cells. The observation that different membrane pathologies can be distinguished, even to the point of different molecular origins of the same disease, implies that the mobility of transmembrane proteins may be a useful tool for characterizing the "health" of the membrane.

  19. Membrane flickering of the human erythrocyte: physical and chemical effectors.

    PubMed

    Puckeridge, Max; Chapman, Bogdan E; Conigrave, Arthur D; Kuchel, Philip W

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest a link between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and the amplitude of cell membrane flickering (CMF) in the human erythrocyte (red blood cell; RBC). Potentially, the origin of this phenomenon and the unique discocyte shape could be active processes that account for some of the ATP turnover in the RBC. Active flickering could depend on several factors, including pH, osmolality, enzymatic rates and metabolic fluxes. In the present work, we applied the data analysis described in the previous article to study time courses of flickering RBCs acquired using differential interference contrast light microscopy in the presence of selected effectors. We also recorded images of air bubbles in aqueous detergent solutions and oil droplets in water, both of which showed rapid fluctuations in image intensity, the former showing the same type of spectral envelope (relative frequency composition) to RBCs. We conclude that CMF is not directly an active process, but that ATP affects the elastic properties of the membrane that flickers in response to molecular bombardment in a manner that is described mathematically by a constrained random walk. PMID:24668224

  20. Characterization of Human Erythrocytes as Potential Carrier for Pravastatin: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Harisa, Gamal El-din I.; Ibrahim, Mohamed F.; Alanazi, Fars K.

    2011-01-01

    Drug delivery systems including chemical, physical and biological agents that enhance the bioavailability, improve pharmacokinetics and reduce toxicities of the drugs. Carrier erythrocytes are one of the most promising biological drug delivery systems investigated in recent decades. The bioavailability of statin drugs is low due the effects of P-glycoprotein in the gastro-intestinal tract as well as the first-pass metabolism. Therefore in this work we study the effect of time, temperature as well as concentration on the loading of pravastatin in human erythrocytes to be using them as systemic sustained release delivery system for this drug. After the loading process is performed the carriers' erythrocytes were physically and cellulary characterized. Also, the in vitro release of pravastatin from carrier erythrocytes was studied over time interval. Our results revealed that, human erythrocytes have been successfully loaded with pravastatin using endocytosis method either at 25oC or at 37oC. The loaded amount at 10 mg/ml is 0.32mg/0.1 ml and 0.69 mg/0.1 ml. Entrapment efficiency is 34% and 94% at 25oC and 37oC respectively at drug concentration 4 mg/ml. Moreover the percent of cells recovery is 87-93%. Hematological parameters and osmotic fragility behavior of pravastatin loaded erythrocytes were similar that of native erythrocytes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the pravastatin loaded cells has no change in the morphology. Pravastatin releasing from carrier cell was 83% after 23 hours in phosphate buffer saline and decreased to 72% by treatment of carrier cells with glutaraldehyde. The releasing pattern of the drug from loaded erythrocytes obeyed first order kinetics. It concluded that pravastatin is successfully entrapped into erythrocytes with acceptable loading parameters and moderate morphological changes, this suggesting that erythrocytes can be used as prolonged release for pravastatin. PMID:21448309

  1. Effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on in vitro human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models

    SciTech Connect

    Suwalsky, Mario; Zambrano, Pablo; Mennickent, Sigrid; Villena, Fernando; Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Aguilar, Luis F.; Bolognin, Silvia

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPA is a common ingredient in cough-cold medication and appetite suppressants. {yields} Reports on its effects on human erythrocytes are very scarce. {yields} We found that PPA induced in vitro morphological changes to human erythrocytes. {yields} PPA interacted with isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes. {yields} PPA interacted with class of lipid present in the erythrocyte membrane outer monolayer. -- Abstract: Norephedrine, also called phenylpropanolamine (PPA), is a synthetic form of the ephedrine alkaloid. After reports of the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including several deaths, PPA is no longer sold in USA and Canada. Despite the extensive information about PPA toxicity, reports on its effects on cell membranes are scarce. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of PPA with cell membranes, ranges of concentrations were incubated with intact human erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM), and molecular models of cell membranes. The latter consisted in bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), phospholipid classes present in the outer and inner monolayers of most plasmatic cell membranes, respectively. The capacity of PPA to perturb the bilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was assessed by X-ray diffraction, DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study presents evidence that PPA affects human red cell membranes as follows: (a) in SEM studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that 0.5 mM PPA induced shape changes; (b) in IUM PPA induced a sharp decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy in the lipid bilayer acyl chains in a concentration range lower than 100 {mu}M; (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that PPA in the 0.1-0.5 m

  2. A GBP 130 derived peptide from Plasmodium falciparum binds to human erythrocytes and inhibits merozoite invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suarez, J E; Urquiza, M; Curtidor, H; Rodriguez, L E; Ocampo, M; Torres, E; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-01-01

    The malarial GBP 130 protein binds weakly to intact human erythrocytes; the binding sites seem to be located in the repeat region and this region's antibodies block the merozoite invasion. A peptide from this region (residues from 701 to 720) which binds to human erythrocytes was identified. This peptide named 2220 did not bind to sialic acid; the binding site on human erythrocyte was affected by treatment with trypsin but not by chymotrypsin. The peptide was able to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. The residues F701, K703, L705, T706, E713 (FYKILTNTDPNDEVERDNAD) were found to be critical for peptide binding to erythrocytes. PMID:10904405

  3. Pressure-induced hemolysis of in vivo aged human erythrocytes is enhanced by inhibition of water transport via aquaporin-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takeo; Miyauchi, Shin; Isahara, Yasuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Human erythrocytes are fractionated into young, intermediate, and old cells according to their densities. Pressure-induced hemolysis reflects sensitively membrane perturbations. Therefore, the hemolysis of erythrocytes at 200 MPa was examined using fractionated cells. Pressure-induced hemolysis of old (or in vivo aged) erythrocytes was enhanced, compared with those of young and intermediate cells which showed the same hemolytic values. Flow cytometric analysis showed less fragmentation of old erythrocytes under pressure. Moreover, the water transport through the membrane was suppressed in old erythrocytes than intermediate ones. The low permeability of water in old erythrocytes was confirmed by osmotic hemolysis using a hypotonic buffer. These results suggest that water transport via aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is inhibited in old erythrocytes. As the number of AQP1 molecules remained constant in old erythrocytes, the function of AQP1 may be reduced.

  4. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanar-Escorza, M.A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T.; Navarro, L.; Maldonado, M.; Arevalo, B.; Calderon-Salinas, J.V. . E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2007-04-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

  5. Insulin Inhibits Low Oxygen-Induced ATP Release from Human Erythrocytes: Implication for Vascular Control

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Madelyn S.; Ellsworth, Mary L.; Achilleus, David; Stephenson, Alan H.; Bowles, Elizabeth A.; Sridharan, Meera; Adderley, Shaquria; Sprague, Randy S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective ATP released from human erythrocytes in response to reduced oxygen tension (pO2) participates in the matching of oxygen (O2) supply with need in skeletal muscle by stimulating increases in blood flow to areas with increased O2 demand. Here we investigated the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia inhibits ATP release from erythrocytes and impairs their ability to stimulate dilation of isolated arterioles exposed to decreased extra-luminal pO2. Methods Erythrocyte ATP release was stimulated pharmacologically (mastoparan 7) and physiologically (reduced pO2) in the absence or presence of insulin. We also examined the ability of isolated skeletal muscle arterioles perfused with buffer containing erythrocytes treated with insulin or its vehicle (saline) to dilate in response to decreased extra-luminal pO2. Results Insulin significantly attenuated mastoparan 7– and reduced pO2–induced ATP release. In vessels perfused with untreated erythrocytes, low extra-luminal pO2 resulted in an increase in vessel diameter. In contrast, when erythrocytes were treated with insulin, no vasodilation occurred. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that insulin inhibits ATP release from erythrocytes in response to reduced pO2 and impairs their ability to stimulate dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles. These results suggest that hyperinsulinemia could hinder the matching of O2 supply with need in skeletal muscle. PMID:19412833

  6. Structural Changes of Erythrocyte Surface Glycoconjugates after Treatment with Medicinal Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Vitak, Taras Y; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    Under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia there is dysregulation of ion homeostasis, violation of redox metabolism and functioning of membrane enzymes, as well as changes in the structural and functional states of erythrocyte membranes. As a result, the aggregation ability of erythrocytes increased and their deformability decreased. These changes lead to complications to microcirculation blood flow and provoke the development of vascular complications caused by diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the effect of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on the structure of carbohydrate determinants of surface membrane glycoconjugates of rat peripheral blood erythrocytes under both normal conditions and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The research was carried out using Wistar outbred white rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg for 14 days. The treatment of diabetic rats by submerged culture mycelium powder restored the physiological balance between sialylation and desialylation processes, renewed the membrane surface charge of red blood cells, normalized aggregation properties, and caused the structural recovery of oligosaccharide chains of erythrocyte membrane surface glycoconjugates. The discovered changes show an improvement in the erythrocyte functional state and rejuvenation of their population caused by biologically active compounds of the studied medicinal mushrooms. PMID:26756299

  7. Potassium bromate causes cell lysis and induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Amani, Samreen; Mahmood, Riaz

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we have studied the effect of KBrO3 on human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy nonsmoking volunteers and incubated with different concentrations of KBrO3 at 37°C for 60 min. This resulted in marked hemolysis in a KBrO3 -concentration dependent manner. Lysates were prepared from KBrO3 -treated and control erythrocytes and assayed for various parameters. KBrO3 treatment caused significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels, and decrease in total sulfhydryl content, which indicates induction of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total antioxidant power of lysates was greatly reduced upon KBrO3 treatment. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of erythrocytes to KBrO3 also caused decrease in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase whereas the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased. These results show that KBrO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and alters the cellular antioxidant defense system. PMID:22012894

  8. Chlorella is an effective dietary source of lutein for human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Taiki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Nakashima, Yuya; Maruyama, Isao; Higuchi, Ohki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella contains a high amount of carotenoids, especially lutein, and has received attention as a possible dietary source for improving carotenoid levels in human blood. In the present study, we performed a 2-month single arm human study, and investigated the efficacy of Chlorella supplementation (9 g Chlorella/day; equivalent to 32 mg lutein/day) on lutein and other carotenoid concentrations in plasma as well as erythrocytes of 12 healthy subjects. Following Chlorella supplementation, lutein was the predominant carotenoid in erythrocytes, showing a 4-fold increase (from 14 to 54 pmol/mL packed cells). After the one month without Chlorella ingestion, erythrocyte lutein then decreased to a basal level (17 pmol/mL packed cells). Erythrocyte carotenoid (lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene) levels were proportional to plasma carotenoid levels. The results suggest the transfer of Chlorella carotenoids, especially lutein, from plasma lipoprotein particles to the erythrocyte membrane. Chlorella intake would be effective for improving and maintaining lutein concentrations in human erythrocytes. PMID:24088514

  9. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-04-01

    The uptake of exogenous /sup 32/Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-(/sup 32/P)ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments.

  10. Effect of high glucose concentrations on human erythrocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Viskupicova, Jana; Blaskovic, Dusan; Galiniak, Sabina; Soszyński, Mirosław; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Horakova, Lubica; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high glucose concentrations in vitro is often employed as a model for understanding erythrocyte modifications in diabetes. However, effects of such experiments may be affected by glucose consumption during prolonged incubation and changes of cellular parameters conditioned by impaired energy balance. The aim of this study was to compare alterations in various red cell parameters in this type of experiment to differentiate between those affected by glycoxidation and those affected by energy imbalance. Erythrocytes were incubated with 5, 45 or 100 mM glucose for up to 72 h. High glucose concentrations intensified lipid peroxidation and loss of activities of erythrocyte enzymes (glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase). On the other hand, hemolysis, eryptosis, calcium accumulation, loss of glutathione and increase in the GSSG/GSH ratio were attenuated by high glucose apparently due to maintenance of energy supply to the cells. Loss of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity and decrease in superoxide production were not affected by glucose concentration, being seemingly determined by processes independent of both glycoxidation and energy depletion. These results point to the necessity of careful interpretation of data obtained in experiments, in which erythrocytes are subject to treatment with high glucose concentrations in vitro. PMID:26141922

  11. Human erythrocytes and neuroblastoma cells are affected in vitro by Au(III) ions

    SciTech Connect

    Suwalsky, Mario; Gonzalez, Raquel; Villena, Fernando; Aguilar, Luis F.; Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Bolognin, Silvia; Zatta, Paolo

    2010-06-25

    Gold compounds are well known for their neurological and nephrotoxic implications. However, haematological toxicity is one of the most serious toxic and less studied effects. The lack of information on these aspects of Au(III) prompted us to study the structural effects induced on cell membranes, particularly that of human erythrocytes. AuCl{sub 3} was incubated with intact erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) and molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane. The latter consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. This report presents evidence that Au(III) interacts with red cell membranes as follows: (a) in scanning electron microscopy studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that Au(III) induced shape changes at a concentration as low as 0.01 {mu}M; (b) in isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes Au(III) induced a decrease in the molecular dynamics and/or water content at the glycerol backbone level of the lipid bilayer polar groups in a 5-50 {mu}M concentration range, and (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that Au(III) in the 10 {mu}m-1 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation only to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Additional experiments were performed in human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. A statistically significant decrease of cell viability was observed with Au(III) ranging from 0.1 {mu}M to 100 {mu}M.

  12. Recruitment of human aquaporin 3 to internal membranes in the Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Bietz, Sven; Montilla, Irine; Külzer, Simone; Przyborski, Jude M; Lingelbach, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane in Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes are incompletely understood, and the protein composition of this membrane is still enigmatic. Although the differentiated mammalian erythrocyte lacks the machinery required for endocytosis, some reports have described a localisation of host cell membrane proteins at the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane. Aquaporin 3 is an abundant plasma membrane protein of various cells, including mammalian erythrocytes where it is found in distinct oligomeric states. Here we show that human aquaporin 3 is internalized into infected erythrocytes, presumably during or soon after invasion. It is integrated into the PVM where it is organized in novel oligomeric states which are not found in non-infected cells. PMID:19393693

  13. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of μeff=7.6 μB per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for μeff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  14. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase are equally active in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaetani, G.F.; Galiano, S.; Canepa, L.; Ferraris, A.M.; Kirkman, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    Genetic deficiencies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and NADPH predispose affected erythrocytes to destruction from peroxides. Conversely, genetic deficiencies of catalase do not predispose affected erythrocytes to peroxide-induced destruction. These observations have served to strengthen the assumption that the NADPH/glutathione/glutathione peroxidase pathway is the principal means for disposal of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in human erythrocytes. Recently, however, mammalian catalase was found to have tightly bound NADPH and to require NADPH for the prevention and reversal of inactivation by its toxic substrate (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/). Since both catalase and the glutathione pathway are dependent on NADPH for function, this finding raises the possibility that both mechanisms destroy H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in human erythrocytes. A comparison of normal and acatalasemic erythrocytes in the present study indicated that catalase accounts for more than half of the destruction of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ when H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is generated at a rate comparable to that which leads to hemolysis in G6PD- deficient erythrocytes.

  15. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes as a function of human age

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chandra, Pranjal

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than 300 theories to explain the aging process, oxidative stress theory offers the best mechanism to explain aging and age related disorders. Several studies has shown the importance of oxidative stress during aging. PubMed, Science Direct and Springer online data bases are taken into consideration to write this mini-review. Human erythrocytes are most abundant and specialized cells in the body. Erythrocytes were extensively studied due to their metabolism and gas transport functions. Recent studies on erythrocytes have provided us detailed information of cell membrane and its structural organization that may help in studying the aging and age associated changes. The susceptibility of an organism is associated with the antioxidant potential of the body. Erythrocytes have potent antioxidant protection consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways that counteract with reactive oxygen species, thus maintaining the redox regulation in the body. The non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants and other biomarkers associated with erythrocyte membrane transport functions are the main content of this review. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes and its membrane were taken into the consideration during human aging that will be the main subject of this mini- review. PMID:26713282

  16. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes as a function of human age.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chandra, Pranjal

    2015-12-26

    Despite more than 300 theories to explain the aging process, oxidative stress theory offers the best mechanism to explain aging and age related disorders. Several studies has shown the importance of oxidative stress during aging. PubMed, Science Direct and Springer online data bases are taken into consideration to write this mini-review. Human erythrocytes are most abundant and specialized cells in the body. Erythrocytes were extensively studied due to their metabolism and gas transport functions. Recent studies on erythrocytes have provided us detailed information of cell membrane and its structural organization that may help in studying the aging and age associated changes. The susceptibility of an organism is associated with the antioxidant potential of the body. Erythrocytes have potent antioxidant protection consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways that counteract with reactive oxygen species, thus maintaining the redox regulation in the body. The non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants and other biomarkers associated with erythrocyte membrane transport functions are the main content of this review. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes and its membrane were taken into the consideration during human aging that will be the main subject of this mini- review. PMID:26713282

  17. Effect of Copper on l-Cysteine/l-Cystine Influx in Normal Human Erythrocytes and Erythrocytes of Wilson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Nabarun; Bhattacharjee, Debojyoti; Rout, Jayanta Kumar; Dasgupta, Anindya; Bhattacharya, Gorachand; Sarkar, Chandan; Gangopadhyaya, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Wilson's disease is a disease of abnormal copper metabolism in which free serum copper level is raised. The objective of the study was to determine, whether in Wilson disease, l-cysteine/l-cystine influx into RBC was decreased or not and the specific amino acid transporter affected by copper in normal human RBC. For l-cysteine/l-cystine influx, ten untreated cases, ten treated cases and ten age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited. To study the effect of copper on l-cysteine/l-cystine influx in RBC, 15 healthy subjects were selected. RBC GSH and l-cysteine/l-cystine influx were estimated by Beautler's and Yildiz's method respectively. In untreated cases, l-cysteine/l-cystine influx and erythrocyte GSH level were decreased showing that elevated level of free copper in serum or media decreased l-cysteine/l-cystine influx in human RBC. Copper treatment inhibited L amino acid transporter in normal RBC specifically. PMID:27605746

  18. A modelling study of feedforward activation in human erythrocyte glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Bali, M; Thomas, S R

    2001-03-01

    Though feedforward activation (FA) is a little known principle of control in metabolic networks, there is one well-known example; namely, the activation of pyruvate kinase (PK) by fructose-1,6-biphosphate (FBP) in glycolysis. The effects of this activation on the enzyme's kinetics are well characterised, but its possible role in glycolytic control has not been determined, and, experimentally, there is as yet no direct way of modifying the enzyme to remove just the FBP activation without affecting other aspects of the enzyme's kinetics. Given this limitation, we used a detailed numerical simulation of human erythrocyte glycolysis to simulate the effects of selective removal of the activation of PK by FBP on steady-state metabolite concentrations and on the dynamic response of glycolytic flux to a sudden increase of the cell's demand for ATP. Our modelling results predict that in the absence of FA steady-state levels of metabolites within the activation loop, i.e. from FBP to phosphoenolpyruvate, would be four- to thirteen-fold higher than normal, whereas levels of ATP and metabolites outside the loop, i.e. glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate and pyruvate, would be lower than normal. Existing clinical evidence in a patient with haemolytic anaemia, correlated with a lack of activation of PK by FBP (Paglia D.E., Valentine W.N., Holbrook C.T., Brockway R., Blood (1983) 62 972-979), is consistent with this prediction. In response to changing demand for ATP, the model predicts that the corresponding change of glycolytic flux would entail changes of metabolite concentrations in the absence of FA, but that in its presence the levels of metabolites within the activation loop remain essentially unperturbed. Thus, our results suggest that by stabilising metabolite pools in the face of variable glycolytic flux, FA may serve to avoid perturbations of the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin (sensitive to the levels of 2,3-phosphoglycerate) and of cell osmolality that would

  19. Influence of Cocoa Flavanols and Procyanidins on Free Radical-induced Human Erythrocyte Hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qin Yan; Schramm, Derek D.; Gross, Heidrun B.; Holt, Roberta R.; Kim, Sun H.; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L.; Keen, Carl L.

    2005-01-01

    Cocoa can be a rich source of antioxidants including the flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and catechin, and their oligomers (procyanidins). While these flavonoids have been reported to reduce the rate of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in experimental animal models, little is known about their effect on human erythrocyte hemolysis. The major objective of this work was to study the effect of a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage on the resistance of human erythrocytes to oxidative stress. A second objective was to assess the effects of select purified cocoa flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, the procyanidin Dimer B2 and one of its major metabolites, 3ʹ-O-methyl epicatechin, on free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. Peripheral blood was obtained from 8 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after consuming a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage that provided 0.25 g/kg body weight (BW), 0.375 or 0.50 g/kg BW of cocoa. Plasma flavanol and dimer concentrations were determined for each subject. Erythrocyte hemolysis was evaluated using a controlled peroxidation reaction. Epicatechin, catechin, 3ʹ-O-methyl epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4β > 8)epicatechin (Dimer B2) were detected in the plasma within 1 h after the consumption of the beverage. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to hemolysis was reduced significantly following the consumption of the beverages. The duration of the lag time, which reflects the capacity of cells to buffer free radicals, was increased. Consistent with the above, the purified flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, Dimer B2 and the metabolite 3ʹ-O-methyl epicatechin, exhibited dose-dependent protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 μM. Erythrocytes from subjects consuming flavonoid-rich cocoa show reduced susceptibility to free radical-induced hemolysis (p < 0.05). PMID:15712596

  20. New Insight into Erythrocyte through In Vivo Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brazhe, Nadezda A.; Abdali, Salim; Brazhe, Alexey R.; Luneva, Oksana G.; Bryzgalova, Nadezda Y.; Parshina, Eugenia Y.; Sosnovtseva, Olga V.; Maksimov, Georgy V.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The article presents a noninvasive approach to the study of erythrocyte properties by means of a comparative analysis of signals obtained by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonance Raman spectroscopy (RS). We report step-by-step the procedure for preparing experimental samples containing erythrocytes in their normal physiological environment in a mixture of colloid solution with silver nanoparticles and the procedure for the optimization of SERS conditions to achieve high signal enhancement without affecting the properties of living erythrocytes. By means of three independent techniques, we demonstrate that under the proposed conditions a colloid solution of silver nanoparticles does not affect the properties of erythrocytes. For the first time to our knowledge, we describe how to use the SERS-RS approach to study two populations of hemoglobin molecules inside an intact living erythrocyte: submembrane and cytosolic hemoglobin (Hbsm and Hbc). We show that the conformation of Hbsm differs from the conformation of Hbc. This finding has an important application, as the comparative study of Hbsm and Hbc could be successfully used in biomedical research and diagnostic tests. PMID:20006958

  1. Effects of lead chloride on human erythrocyte membranes and on kinetic anion sulphate and glutathione concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Tiziana; De Luca, Grazia; Romano, Pietro; Rigano, Caterina; Scuteri, Adriana; Romano, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Our study concerns the effects of exposure to lead chloride on the morphology, K(+) efflux, SO(4)(-) influx and GSH levels of the human erythrocyte. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes and washed three times. The cells were suspended at 3% hematocrit and incubated for 1 h at 25°C in a medium containing increasing concentrations of lead chloride (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 μM). After incubation, the suspensions were centrifuged and the erythrocyte pellets were divided into three aliquots for testing. The results show: an increase in the permeability of erythrocytes treated with lead chloride with consequent damage and cellular death, especially in the presence of high concentrations; an increase in potassium ion efflux; alterations in the morphology and membrane structure of the red blood cells; and a decrease in sulphate uptake, due either to the oxidative effect of this compound on the band 3 protein, which loses its biological valence as a carrier of sulphate ions, or to a decrease in the ATP erythrocyte concentration. In conclusion, the exposure of erythrocytes to Pb(2+) ions leads to a reduction in the average lifetime of the erythrocytes and the subsequent development of anemia. These data are discussed in terms of the possible effect of lead on the reduction-oxidation systems of the cell. Oxidant agents, such as lead, are known to cross-link integral membrane proteins, leading to K/Cl-cotransport. The increased K(+) efflux affects the altered redox state. PMID:22941203

  2. Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K.; Das, Mukul

    2008-08-01

    Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

  3. In vitro protective effects of resveratrol against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; F Villena; Gallardo, M J

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (RV) is a potent antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent. Its main target of action is the cell membrane; however, its effect on that of human erythrocytes has been scarcely investigated. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of RV with cell membranes both human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane have been utilized. The latter consisted in bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. Results by X-ray diffraction showed that RV produced a significant structural perturbation on DMPC bilayers, but no effects were observed in DMPE. Scanning electron (SEM) and defocusing microscopy (DM) observations showed that RV induced morphological alterations to the red cells from the normal discoid shape to echinocytes. These results imply that RV was located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Results of its antioxidant properties showed that RV neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPC and DMPE bilayers. On the other hand, SEM and DM observations as well as hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of RV against the deleterious effects of HClO upon human erythrocytes. PMID:25268679

  4. Antioxidant capacity of Ugni molinae fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Avello, Marcia

    2014-08-01

    Ugni molinae is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used as a medicinal plant in Southern Chile-Argentina. Total phenol concentration from its fruit extract was 10.64 ± 0.04 mM gallic acid equivalents. Analysis by means of HPLC/MS indicated the presence of the anthocyanins cyanidin and peonidin, and the flavonol quercitin, all in glycosylated forms. Its antioxidant properties were assessed in human erythrocytes in vitro exposed to HClO oxidative stress. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HClO induced an alteration in erythrocytes from a normal shape to echinocytes; however, this change was highly attenuated in samples containing U. molinae extracts. It also had a tendency in order to reduce the hemolytic effect of HClO. In addition, X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayers, classes of lipids preferentially located in the outer and inner monolayers, respectively, of the human erythrocyte membrane. It was observed that U. molinae only interacted with DMPC. Results by fluorescence spectroscopy on DMPC large unilamellar vesicles and isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes also showed that it interacted with the erythrocyte membrane and DMPC. It is possible that the location of U. molinae components into the membrane outer monolayer might hinder the diffusion of HClO and of free radicals into cell membranes and the consequent decrease of the kinetics of free radical reactions. PMID:24928227

  5. Sequential Processing of Merozoite Surface Proteins during and after Erythrocyte Invasion by Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Michelle J.; Langer, Christine; Chan, Jo-Anne; Hodder, Anthony N.; Coppel, Ross L.; Anders, Robin F.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria disease during the asexual blood stages of infection when merozoites invade erythrocytes and replicate. Merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) are proposed to play a role in the initial binding of merozoites to erythrocytes, but precise roles remain undefined. Based on electron microscopy studies of invading Plasmodium merozoites, it is proposed that the majority of MSPs are cleaved and shed from the surface during invasion, perhaps to release receptor-ligand interactions. In this study, we demonstrate that there is not universal cleavage of MSPs during invasion. Instead, there is sequential and coordinated cleavage and shedding of proteins, indicating a diversity of roles for surface proteins during and after invasion. While MSP1 and peripheral surface proteins such as MSP3, MSP7, serine repeat antigen 4 (SERA4), and SERA5 are cleaved and shed at the tight junction between the invading merozoite and erythrocyte, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins MSP2 and MSP4 are carried into the erythrocyte without detectable processing. Following invasion, MSP2 rapidly degrades within 10 min, whereas MSP4 is maintained for hours. This suggests that while some proteins that are shed upon invasion may have roles in initial contact steps, others function during invasion and are then rapidly degraded, whereas others are internalized for roles during intraerythrocytic development. Interestingly, anti-MSP2 antibodies did not inhibit invasion and instead were carried into erythrocytes and maintained for approximately 20 h without inhibiting parasite development. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of invasion and knowledge to advance the development of new drugs and vaccines against malaria. PMID:24218484

  6. Solubilization of native actin monomers from human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Tilley, L; Dwyer, M; Ralston, G B

    1986-01-01

    Up to 50% of the actin in erythrocyte membranes can be solubilized at low ionic strength in a form capable of inhibiting DNAse I, in the presence of 0.4 mM ATP and 0.05 mM calcium. In the absence of calcium and ATP, actin is released but is apparently rapidly denatured. Solubilization of G-actin increases with temperature up to 37 degrees C. At higher temperatures, actin is released rapidly but quickly loses its ability to inhibit DNAse I. PMID:3789986

  7. Antibody responses to surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte-infected erythrocytes and their relation to gametocytaemia.

    PubMed

    Dinko, B; King, E; Targett, G A T; Sutherland, C J

    2016-06-01

    An essential element for continuing transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is the availability of mature gametocytes in human peripheral circulation for uptake by mosquitoes. Natural immune responses to circulating gametocytes may play a role in reducing transmission from humans to mosquitoes. Here, antibody recognition of the surface of mature intra-erythrocytic gametocytes produced either by a laboratory-adapted parasite, 3D7, or by a recent clinical isolate of Kenyan origin (HL1204), was evaluated longitudinally in a cohort of Ghanaian school children by flow cytometry. This showed that a proportion of children exhibited antibody responses that recognized gametocyte surface antigens on one or both parasite lines. A subset of the children maintained detectable anti-gametocyte surface antigen (GSA) antibody levels during the 5 week study period. There was indicative evidence that children with anti-GSA antibodies present at enrolment were less likely to have patent gametocytaemia at subsequent visits (odds ratio = 0·29, 95% CI 0·06-1·05; P = 0·034). Our data support the existence of antigens on the surface of gametocyte-infected erythrocytes, but further studies are needed to confirm whether antibodies against them reduce gametocyte carriage. The identification of GSA would allow their evaluation as potential anti-gametocyte vaccine candidates and/or biomarkers for gametocyte carriage. PMID:27084060

  8. Effect of safeners on damage of human erythrocytes treated with chloroacetamide herbicides.

    PubMed

    Bernasinska, Joanna; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Koceva-Chyla, Aneta

    2013-09-01

    Chloroacetamides are used as pre-emergent substances for growth control of annual grasses and weeds. Since they can be harmful for crop plants, protective compounds (safeners) are used along with herbicides. So far, their effects on human blood cells have not been evaluated, and this study is the very first one devoted to this subject. We examined the harmful effects of chloroacetamides, their metabolites and safeners, used alone or in combination with herbicides, on human erythrocytes measuring the extent of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Higher impact of herbicides than their metabolites on all of the investigated parameters was found. Safeners alone did not produce any damage to erythrocytes and did not elicit any changes in oxidative stress parameters. Combination of safener with herbicide did not attenuate hemolysis of erythrocytes compared to the herbicide alone. Safeners reduced lipid peroxidation induced by herbicides, which suggest the role of safeners as antioxidants. PMID:23732483

  9. Recognition of Human Erythrocyte Receptors by the Tryptophan-Rich Antigens of Monkey Malaria Parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Kriti; Gupta, Deepali; Saini, Ekta; Choudhary, Shilpa; Jamwal, Abhishek; Alam, Mohd. Shoeb; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Tyagi, Rupesh K.; Sharma, Yagya D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi also infect humans. There is a lack of information on the molecular mechanisms that take place between this simian parasite and its heterologous human host erythrocytes leading to this zoonotic disease. Therefore, we investigated here the binding ability of P. knowlesi tryptophan-rich antigens (PkTRAgs) to the human erythrocytes and sharing of the erythrocyte receptors between them as well as with other commonly occurring human malaria parasites. Methods Six PkTRAgs were cloned and expressed in E.coli as well as in mammalian CHO-K1 cell to determine their human erythrocyte binding activity by cell-ELISA, and in-vitro rosetting assay, respectively. Results Three of six PkTRAgs (PkTRAg38.3, PkTRAg40.1, and PkTRAg67.1) showed binding to human erythrocytes. Two of them (PkTRAg40.1 and PkTRAg38.3) showed cross-competition with each other as well as with the previously described P.vivax tryptophan-rich antigens (PvTRAgs) for human erythrocyte receptors. However, the third protein (PkTRAg67.1) utilized the additional but different human erythrocyte receptor(s) as it did not cross-compete for erythrocyte binding with either of these two PkTRAgs as well as with any of the PvTRAgs. These three PkTRAgs also inhibited the P.falciparum parasite growth in in-vitro culture, further indicating the sharing of human erythrocyte receptors by these parasite species and the biological significance of this receptor-ligand interaction between heterologous host and simian parasite. Conclusions Recognition and sharing of human erythrocyte receptor(s) by PkTRAgs with human parasite ligands could be part of the strategy adopted by the monkey malaria parasite to establish inside the heterologous human host. PMID:26393350

  10. Effect of human plasma on the reactivation of sarin-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Worek, F; Eyer, P; Kiderlen, D; Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L

    2000-03-01

    The reactivation of organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by oximes inevitably results in the formation of highly reactive phosphoryloximes (POX), which are able to re-inhibit the enzyme. In this study, the dependence of POX formation on AChE concentration was investigated with sarin-inhibited human erythrocyte AChE (EryAChE). A marked dependence was found with obidoxime but not with the experimental oxime HI 6, suggesting great differences in the decomposition rates of the respective POXs. At a physiological erythrocyte content the reactivation of EryAChE was markedly affected by POX with obidoxime and pralidoxime (2-PAM) but not with the newer oximes HI 6 and HLö 7. Addition of extensively dialysed, sarin-treated human plasma reduced the reactivation by obidoxime and 2-PAM even more. Obidoxime and 2-PAM were superior to HI 6 and HLö 7 in reactivating butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). This effect was pronounced in diluted plasma, but was obscured in concentrated plasma, probably because of re-inhibition by the generated POX. Addition of native erythrocytes to sarin-treated plasma resulted in marked inhibition of EryAChE in the presence of obidoxime, suggesting a higher affinity of the POX for EryAChE. The results indicate that obidoxime and 2-PAM may reactivate sarin-inhibited AChE insufficiently due to re-inhibition by the POX formed. In addition, the re-inhibition of Ery-AChE may be aggravated by the POX that is produced during BChE reactivation. These reactions must be regarded as therapeutically detrimental and disqualify those oximes which are capable of forming stable POX by reactivation of BChE. PMID:10817663

  11. Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by flavonoids of Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui) leaves.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Vargas, Pedro; Avello, Marcia; Villena, Fernando; Sotomayor, Carlos P

    2008-11-01

    Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (A. chilensis), also known as maqui, is a plant of the Elaeocarpaceae family that grows in central and southern Chile as well as southwestern Argentina. Infusions of its leaves have long been used in the traditional native herbal medicine to treat different ailments. Phytochemical studies of the plant's chemical composition of the plant indicate the presence of indolic alkaloids, flavonoids, cianidine glucosides, delfidine, malvidine, petunidine, cumarines and triterpenes. These compounds, particularly the flavonoids, have antioxidant properties. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of its toxicity and their antioxidant properties, the leaves' aqueous extracts were induced to interact with human red cells, their isolated unsealed membranes (IUM), and molecular models of the human erythrocyte membrane. These consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of DMPC. The capacity of A. chilensis aqueous extracts to perturb the bilayer structure of DMPC and DMPE was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, DMPC LUV and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of the present study indicate that aqueous extracts of A. chilensis induced an alteration of human erythrocyte morphology from the normal discoid shape to an echinocytic form, changes that are explained in terms of the extract interaction with the membrane's outer phospholipid monolayer. PMID:18687390

  12. Effects of temperature on water diffusion in human erythrocytes and ghosts--nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

    PubMed

    Benga, G; Pop, V I; Popescu, O; Hodârnău, A; Borza, V; Presecan, E

    1987-12-11

    The temperature-dependence of water diffusion across human erythrocyte membrane was studied on isolated erythrocytes and resealed ghosts by a doping nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The conclusions are the following: (1) The storage of suspended erythrocytes at 2 degrees C up to 24 h or at 37 degrees C for 30 min did not change the water exchange time significantly, even if Mn2+ was present in the medium. This indicates that no significant penetration of Mn2+ is taking place under such conditions. (2) In case of cells previously incubated at 37 degrees C for longer than 30 min with concentrations of p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS) greater than 0.5 mM, the water-exchange time gradually decreased if the cells were stored in the presence of Mn2+ for more than 10 min at 37 degrees C. (3) When the Arrhenius plot of the water-exchange time was calculated on the basis of measurements performed in such a way as to avoid a prolonged exposure of erythrocytes to Mn2+ no discontinuity occurred, regardless of the treatment with PCMBS. (4) No significant differences between erythrocytes and resealed ghosts regarding their permeability and the activation energy of water diffusion (Ea,d) were noticed. The mean value of Ea,d obtained on erythrocytes from 35 donors was 24.5 kJ/mol. (5) The value of Ea,d increased after treatment with PCMBS, in parallel with the percentage inhibition of water diffusion. A mean value of 41.3 kJ/mol was obtained for Ea,d of erythrocytes incubated with 1 mM PCMBS for 60 min at 37 degrees C and 28.3 kJ/mol for ghosts incubated with 0.1 mM PCMBS for 15 min, the values of inhibition being 46% and 21% respectively. PMID:2825782

  13. Release of PAF by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes stimulated by immune complexes bound to Sepharose particles and human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Virella, G; Lopes-Virella, M F; Shuler, C; Sherwood, T; Espinoza, G A; Winocour, P; Colwell, J A

    1983-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) incubated with surface-bound immune complexes (IC) release a substance that induces platelet aggregation and serotonin-release. This substance was identified as platelet-activating factor (PAF) on the basis of its sensitivity to phospholipase A2 and of its purification by thin-layer chromatography in identical conditions to those used to purify zymosan-induced PAF. We used two types of substrates to absorb our IC:Sepharose particles to which we coupled human serum albumin, and which were later incubated with specific rabbit antiserum to form surface-bound immune complexes, and human erythrocytes, to which soluble IC can be passively adsorbed. Both types of surface-bound IC were found to stimulate the release of PAF by human PMN in the absence of complement. These results suggest that PMN may play a central role in the early stages of IC-induced inflammation: they recognize IC adsorbed to red cells or to any other cell able to adsorb IC, and they induce the activation of platelets and release of vasoactive amines, which leads to the increase of vascular permeability believed to be essential for extravascular IC deposition. PMID:6885111

  14. Effect of blood storage on erythrocyte/wall interactions: implications for surface charge and rigidity.

    PubMed

    Godin, C; Caprani, A

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we study, under flow conditions, the interactions of stored erythrocytes with an artificial surface: a microelectrode whose charge density ranges from -15 to +27 microC/cm2. Interactions consist of red cells slowly circulating on the microelectrode and exerting a real contact with the electrode. Interaction is detected and measured by transient fluctuations of the electrolyte resistance obtained by impedance measurement of the microelectrode. Effects of aging induced by storage of whole blood at 4 degrees C show that the surface charge of erythrocytes rapidly decreases when blood is stored for more than 6 days under our experimental conditions. In comparison with trypsin-treated erythrocytes, an eight day storage induces a 60% decrease in the surface charge of red cells. After two weeks of storage, red cells are no longer negatively charged, presumably because of removal of sialic acid. Cells rigidity is significant after 6 days of storage and influences the electrical contact. Membrane rigidity increase could arise from the surface charge decrease. Finally the surface charge decrease could be importance in the use of stored blood. PMID:9232845

  15. Expression of senescent antigen on erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Winograd, E.; Greenan, J.R.T.; Sherman, I.W.

    1987-04-01

    Erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of Plasmodium falciparum selectively bind IgG autoantibodies in normal human serum. Quantification of membrane-bound IgG, by use of /sup 125/I-labeled protein A, revealed that erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant bound 30 times more protein A than did noninfected erythrocytes; infection with a knobless variant resulted in less than a 2-fold difference compared with noninfected erythrocytes. IgG binding to knobby erythrocytes appeared to be related to parasite development, since binding of /sup 125/I-labeled protein A to cells bearing young trophozoites (less than 20 hr after parasite invasion) was similar to binding to uninfected erythrocytes. By immunoelectron microscopy, the membrane-bound IgG on erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant was found to be preferentially associated with the protuberances (knobs) of the plasma membrane. The removal of aged or senescent erythrocytes from the peripheral circulation is reported to involve the binding of specific antibodies to an antigen (senescent antigen) related to the major erythrocyte membrane protein band 3. Since affinity-purified autoantibodies against band 3 specifically bound to the plasma membrane of erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant of P. falciparum, it is clear that the malaria parasite induces expression of senescent antigen.

  16. Study of the effect of dose-rate on radiation-induced damage to human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokosz, Anita; Koziczak, Renata; Gonciarz, Marta; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    Human erythrocytes suspended in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (hematocrit of 2%) were irradiated with γ-rays at three dose-rates of 66.7, 36.7, 25 Gy min -1 in order to investigate the influence of the dose-rate on radiation-induced membrane damage, hemoglobin oxidation and loss of reduced glutathione. The obtained results showed that such processes as erythrocyte hemolysis, lipid and protein destruction depend on the radiation dose-rate. The parameter values describing these processes showed an inverse dose-rate effect.

  17. Comparative sensitivity of human and bovine erythrocytes to sonolysis by 1-MHz ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Miller, M W; Sherman, T A; Brayman, A A

    2000-10-01

    This project tested the hypothesis that human erythrocytes, being larger than bovine erythrocytes, would be the more sensitive to sonolysis induced by inertial cavitation. The rationale behind this hypothesis was an earlier demonstration that, among sized populations of erythrocytes, an inverse relation existed between erythrocyte volume and mechanically-induced shear forces in the surrounding medium; viz, the larger the cell, the less shear force required to rupture the cell's membrane. At low erythrocyte densities (i.e., approximately 5% hematocrit) the hypothesis was supported; at high cell densities (i.e., approximately 35% hematocrit) it was not supported. The data are consistent with an ultrasound (US)-induced symmetric implosion of affected gas nuclei as causing the effect at low cell densities; under such conditions there is ample spacing among cells for US-induced symmetric growth and collapse of gas nuclei and the concomitant production of radially-expanding shock waves (which lyse the cells); at high cell densities there is not sufficient spacing among cells for US-induced symmetric growth and collapse of bubbles and an alternative mechanism, possibly asymmetric bubble collapse, becomes operational. PMID:11120370

  18. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. PMID:21538919

  19. Structural and Functional Characterization of Bc28.1, Major Erythrocyte-binding Protein from Babesia canis Merozoite Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yin-Shan; Murciano, Brice; Moubri, Karina; Cibrelus, Prisca; Schetters, Theo; Gorenflot, André; Delbecq, Stéphane; Roumestand, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Babesiosis (formerly known as piroplasmosis) is a tick-borne disease caused by the intraerythrocytic development of protozoa parasites from the genus Babesia. Like Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria, or Toxoplasma gondii, responsible for human toxoplasmosis, Babesia belongs to the Apicomplexa family. Babesia canis is the agent of the canine babesiosis in Europe. Clinical manifestations of this disease range from mild to severe and possibly lead to death by multiple organ failure. The identification and characterization of parasite surface proteins represent major goals, both for the understanding of the Apicomplexa invasion process and for the vaccine potential of such antigens. Indeed, we have already shown that Bd37, the major antigenic adhesion protein from Babesia divergens, the agent of bovine babesiosis, was able to induce complete protection against various parasite strains. The major merozoite surface antigens of Babesia canis have been described as a 28-kDa membrane protein family, anchored at the surface of the merozoite. Here, we demonstrate that Bc28.1, a major member of this multigenic family, is expressed at high levels at the surface of the merozoite. This protein is also found in the parasite in vitro culture supernatants, which are the basis of effective vaccines against canine babesiosis. We defined the erythrocyte binding function of Bc28.1 and determined its high resolution solution structure using NMR spectroscopy. Surprisingly, although these proteins are thought to play a similar role in the adhesion process, the structure of Bc28.1 from B. canis appears unrelated to the previously published structure of Bd37 from B. divergens. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments also suggest that the mechanism of the interaction with the erythrocyte membrane could be different for the two proteins. The resolution of the structure of Bc28 represents a milestone for the characterization of the parasite erythrocyte binding and its interaction with

  20. Purification of homologous protein carboxyl methyltransferase isozymes from human and bovine erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.M.; Fowler, A.; Bleibaum, J.; Clarke, S.

    1988-07-12

    The authors have purified the two major isozymes of the L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl protein methyltransferase from both human and bovine erythrocytes. These four enzymes all have polypeptide molecular weights of approximately 26,500 and appear to be monomers in solution. Each of these enzymes cross-reacts with antibodies directed against protein carboxyl methyltransferase I from bovine brain. Their structures also appear to be similar when analyzed by dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis for the large fragments produced by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protease V8 or when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for tryptic peptides. The structural relatedness of these enzymes was confirmed by sequence analysis of a total of 433 residues in 32 tryptic fragments of the human erythrocyte isozymes I and II and of the bovine erythrocyte isozyme II. They found sequence identity or probable identity in 111 out of 112 residues when they compared the human isozymes I and II and identities in 127 out of 134 residues when the human and bovine isozymes II were compared. These results suggest that the erythrocyte isozymes from both organisms may have nearly identical structures and confirm the similarities in the function of these methyltransferases that have been previously demonstrated.

  1. Homology-Based Prediction of Potential Protein–Protein Interactions between Human Erythrocytes and Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Padmapriya, Ponnan; Natarajan, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of malaria, is a well-characterized obligate intracellular parasite known for its ability to remodel host cells, particularly erythrocytes, to successfully persist in the host environment. However, the current levels of understanding from the laboratory experiments on the host–parasite interactions and the strategies pursued by the parasite to remodel host erythrocytes are modest. Several computational means developed in the recent past to predict host–parasite/pathogen interactions have generated testable hypotheses on feasible protein–protein interactions. We demonstrate the utility of protein structure-based protocol in the recognition of potential interacting proteins across P. falciparum and host erythrocytes. In concert with the information on the expression and subcellular localization of host and parasite proteins, we have identified 208 biologically feasible interactions potentially brought about by 59 P. falciparum and 30 host erythrocyte proteins. For selected cases, we have evaluated the physicochemical viability of the predicted interactions in terms of surface complementarity, electrostatic complementarity, and interaction energies at protein interface regions. Such careful inspection of molecular and mechanistic details generates high confidence on the predicted host–parasite protein–protein interactions. The predicted host–parasite interactions generate many experimentally testable hypotheses that can contribute to the understanding of possible mechanisms undertaken by the parasite in host erythrocyte remodeling. Thus, the key protein players recognized in P. falciparum can be explored for their usefulness as targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:26740742

  2. Stoichiometry of compounds bound to human erythrocytes in relation to morphology.

    PubMed

    Lovrien, R; Tisel, W; Pesheck, P

    1975-04-25

    Most work on human erythrocyte interaction with drugs and other compounds has been reported on the basis of total concentrations. Total concentrations alone do not reveal numbers of molecules bound per cell, v. This paper emphasizes determination of v and of binding isotherms, in conjunction with changes in cell morphologies and in hypotonic shock behavior as v is varied. Four drugs and five other compounds were studied, with fresh erythrocytes. The principal findings are: (1) the intact erythrocyte engages in two kinds of binding mechanisms, statistical binding and cooperative binding, depending on the compound. In the case of a detergent, dodecylbenzene sulfonate, the binding is nearly quantitative. (2) The compounds often induce considerable protection against hypotonic hemolysis. However, the binding levels at which maximum protection occurs are rather close to the levels, vL, that occur upon complete conversion to the first distorted morphology. Therefore, the maximally protected erythrocyte may be a distorted erythrocyte. (3) The value n is the apparent total number of sites from Scatchard plotting for compounds which bind in a statistical manner. Levels vp and vw characterize maxima in cooperative binding behavior, also from Scatchard plotting of the data. Despite the wide diversity of over-all levels at which compounds exert their effects, the critical binding levels of and numbers of sites fall into a narrow range:n, vL, vP, and vw are all between 1 and 8 times 10-7 molecules or sites per cell. Most of our data, and that from some other laboratories, indicate that about 2 plus and minus 1 times 10-7 sites per erythrocyte are available for compound binding by the intact cell. Beyond that level, the cell in suspension almost always will be forced into the first obvious morphology change, as seen by phase contrast microscopy. (4) Once stoichiometries are established, the total binding capacity of erythrocytes for such compounds, in blood, can be estimated. An

  3. Dimethyl sulfoxide at high concentrations inhibits non-selective cation channels in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nardid, Oleg A; Schetinskey, Miroslav I; Kucherenko, Yuliya V

    2013-03-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a by-product of the pulping industry, is widely used in biological research, cryobiology and medicine. On cellular level DMSO was shown to suppress NMDA-AMPA channels activation, blocks Na+ channel activation and attenuates Ca2+ influx (Lu and Mattson 2001). In the present study we explored the whole-cell patch-clamp to examine the acute effect of high concentrations of DMSO (0.1-2 mol/l) on cation channels activity in human erythrocytes. Acute application of DMSO (0.1-2 mol/l) dissolved in Cl--containing saline buffer solution significantly inhibited cation conductance in human erythrocytes. Inhibition was concentration-dependent and had an exponential decay profile. DMSO (2 mol/l) induced cation inhibition in Cl-- containing saline solutions of: 40.3 ± 3.9% for K+, 35.4 ± 3.1% for Ca2+ and 47.4 ± 1.9% for NMDG+. Substitution of Cl- with gluconate- increased the inhibitory effect of DMSO on the Na+ current. Inhibitory effect of DMSO was neither due to high permeability of erythrocytes to DMSO nor to an increased tonicity of the bath media since no effect was observed in 2 mol/l glycerol solution. In conclusion, we have shown that high concentrations of DMSO inhibit the non-selective cation channels in human erythrocytes and thus protect the cells against Na+ and Ca2+ overload. Possible mechanisms of DMSO effect on cation conductance are discussed. PMID:23531832

  4. Modulation of human erythrocyte shape and fatty acids by diet.

    PubMed

    Parsons, H G; Hill, R; Pencharz, P; Kuksis, A

    1986-08-21

    A semi-synthetic diet (Vivonex) was administered via nasogastric tube to three cystic fibrosis patients with pancreatic exocrine deficiency for 14 days to gain weight. Dietary essential fatty acids were provided as safflower oil, which constituted 1.3% of total calories. Plasma and red blood cells were analyzed for the content and composition of lipids at the start of the diet and at days 7 and 14 of the dietary period, and the results were correlated with the morphology of the cells. Feeding Vivonex to the patients led to an essential fatty acid deficiency, which was manifested in a 50% decrease in the linoleic acid content of the phosphatidylcholine of plasma and red blood cells at days 7 and 14 and in a 20% decrease in the linoleic acid content of red cell phosphatidylethanolamine at day 14. There was no significant alteration in the levels or composition of the other phospholipid classes and in the free cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. The decrease in the linoleic acid content of the erythrocytes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in the proportion of cells as echinocytes. We conclude that restricted linoleic acid availability in cystic fibrosis patients causes a change in red blood cell shape either directly by decreasing the linoleoylphosphatidylcholine content of the membrane or indirectly by affecting enzyme activity. PMID:3741859

  5. Influence of osmolarity on the optical properties of human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebel, Moritz; Helfmann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina C.

    2010-09-01

    Plasma osmolarity influences the volume and shape of red blood cells (RBCs). The volume change is inversely related to the hemoglobin concentration and as a consequence to the complex refractive index within the cell. These morphological changes can be linked to changes in the optical behavior of the cells. The optical parameters, absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, and effective scattering phase function of red blood cells are investigated in dependence on osmolarity in the spectral range from 250 to 1100 nm. Integrating sphere measurements of light transmittance and reflectance in combination with inverse Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out for osmolarities from 225 to 400 mosmol/L. Osmolarity changes have a significant influence on the optical parameters, which can in part be explained by changes in the complex refractive index, cell shape, and cell volume. Spherical forms of RBCs induced by low osmolarity show reduced scattering effects compared to the normal RBC biconcave disk shape. Spinocytes, which are crenated erythrocytes induced by high osmolarity, show the highest scattering effects. Even only a 10% change in osmolarity has a drastic influence on the optical parameters, which appears to be of the same order as for 10% hematocrit and oxygen saturation changes.

  6. Identification of high affinity folate binding proteins in human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Antony, A C; Kincade, R S; Verma, R S; Krishnan, S R

    1987-09-01

    Mature human erythrocyte membranes contained specific, high affinity (Kd 3.3 X 10(-11) M) folate binding moieties. Folate binding was pH, time- and temperature-dependent, saturable, and was much greater for pteroylmonoglutamate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate than 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and amethopterin. On detergent solubilization of membranes, two peaks of specific folate binding with Mr greater than or equal to 200,000 and 160,000 were identified on Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography in Triton X-100, and this corresponded to two similar peaks of immunoprecipitated material when solubilized iodinated membranes were probed with anti-human placental folate receptor antiserum. Age-dependent separation of erythrocytes by Stractan density gradients revealed a sevenfold greater folate binding capacity in membranes purified from younger compared with aged erythrocytes. Since this difference was not reflected in proportionately higher immunoreactive folate binding protein, (as determined by a specific radioimmunoassay for these proteins), or differences in affinity in younger than aged cells, these findings indicate that erythrocyte folate binding proteins become progressively nonfunctional at the onset of red cell aging. PMID:3624486

  7. Derivativation of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter using a novel forskolin photoaffinity label

    SciTech Connect

    Wadzinski, B.; Shanahan, M.; Ruoho, A.

    1987-05-01

    An iodinated photoaffinity label for the glucose transporter, 3-iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-0-succinyldeacetyl-forskolin (IAPS-Fsk), has been synthesized, purified, and characterized. The K/sub i/ for inhibition of 3-0-methylglucose transport by TAPS-Fsk in human erythrocytes was found to be 0.1 uM. The carrier-free radioiodinated label has been shown to be a highly specific photoaffinity label for the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. Photolysis of erythrocyte membranes with 1-10 nM (I-125)IAPS-Fsk and analysis by SDS-PAGE showed specific derivatization of a broad band with an apparent molecular weight of 40-70 kDa. Photoincorporation using 2 nM (I-125)IAPS-Fsk was protected with D-glucose, cytochalasin B, and forskolin. No protection was observed with L-glucose. Endo-B-galactosidase digestion and trypsinization of (I-125)IAPS-Fsk labelled erythrocytes reduced the specifically radiolabelled transporter to 40 kDa and 18 kDa respectively. (I-125)-IAPS-Fsk will be used to study the structural aspects of the glucose transporter.

  8. [Effects of disinfectants on erythrocytes and isolated hepatocytes from rats and surface tension].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, T; Tsuji, M; Nakayama, S; Oguchi, K

    1993-05-01

    The effects of formaldehyde (F), m-cresol (C), guaiacol (G), ethanol (E) and their mixture (FC, FCE, FG, FGE) on erythrocytes and isolated hepatocytes from rats and surface tension in water were examined. Hypotonic hemolysis of erythrocytes was inhibited by m-cresol, while guaiacol, formaldehyde and ethanol accelerated the hemolysis. Lower concentrations of the mixture inhibited hypotonic hemolysis, but higher concentrations accelerated hemolysis. Formaldehyde caused a decrease of transaminase (GOT, GPT) in the medium and hepatocytes. GOT and GPT in the medium were increased by m-cresol, but those in the hepatocyte were decreased by this agent. FC and FCE at 10 mM increased GOT in the medium, but FG and FGE decreased GOT. All mixtures decreased GOT and GPT in hepatocytes and GPT in the medium. All mixtures and formaldehyde inhibited GOT and GPT activity. Formaldehyde and m-cresol decreased hepatocyte viability. In the all mixtures-added hepatocytes, the viability was markedly lowered. Formaldehyde, m-cresol, guaiacol and ethanol caused a depression of surface tension, but the depressive effects of FG and FGE were weaker than that of guaiacol. These results suggest that the observed effects of the drug mixtures on erythrocytes and hepatocytes were the additive effects of the component drugs. PMID:8330803

  9. Effect of anionic amphophiles on erythrocyte properties.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D E; Utterback, N G; Wujek, J J

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary study describes effects of two pharmacologic agents on erythrocyte behavior. Increased erythrocyte aggregation has been proposed as important in the pathogenesis of a number of disorders, but the exact mechanism by which it plays a role in disease production remains unclear. Several anionic amphophiles have been reported to benefit diabetic vascular disease and atherosclerosis. If anionic amphophiles enter the erythrocyte plasma membrane they can increase its negative charge, reducing the energy of attraction between red blood cells and diminishing erythrocyte aggregation. Erythrocytes were studied after suspension in phosphate-buffered saline containing dextran as an aggregation-promoting agent. A marginal reduction of the suspension's viscosity was found at low shear rate when 2,5- dihydroxybenzene sulfonate was added. Additionally, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was marginally influenced. Both dihydroxybenzene sulfonate and acetylsalicylate protected human erythrocytes from hemolysis at concentrations from 10(-3) to 10(-5) M. The removal of erythrocyte sialic acid using neuraminidase to reduce surface negative charge led to unequivocal interference with aggregation (MAI technique of CHIEN et al., J. Gen. Physiol., 1973) by both anionic amphophiles were studied. Dihydroxybenzene sulfonate and actylsalicylate reduced the aggregation propensity of sialic-free erythrocytes, suggesting that the effect on the low shear rate viscosity of sialic acid-containing erythrocytes, though modest, is real. PMID:6587820

  10. ATP11C is a major flippase in human erythrocytes and its defect causes congenital hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Arashiki, Nobuto; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Mohandas, Narla; Hale, John; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogura, Hiromi; Utsugisawa, Taiju; Ohga, Shouichi; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Kojima, Seiji; Kanno, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatidylserine is localized exclusively to the inner leaflet of the membrane lipid bilayer of most cells, including erythrocytes. This asymmetric distribution is critical for the survival of erythrocytes in circulation since externalized phosphatidylserine is a phagocytic signal for splenic macrophages. Flippases are P-IV ATPase family proteins that actively transport phosphatidylserine from the outer to inner leaflet. It has not yet been determined which of the 14 members of this family of proteins is the flippase in human erythrocytes. Herein, we report that ATP11C encodes a major flippase in human erythrocytes, and a genetic mutation identified in a male patient caused congenital hemolytic anemia inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. Phosphatidylserine internalization in erythrocytes with the mutant ATP11C was decreased 10-fold compared to that of the control, functionally establishing that ATP11C is a major flippase in human erythrocytes. Contrary to our expectations phosphatidylserine was retained in the inner leaflet of the majority of mature erythrocytes from both controls and the patient, suggesting that phosphatidylserine cannot be externalized as long as scramblase is inactive. Phosphatidylserine-exposing cells were found only in the densest senescent cells (0.1% of total) in which scramblase was activated by increased Ca(2+) concentration: the percentage of these phosphatidylserine-exposing cells was increased in the patient's senescent cells accounting for his mild anemia. Furthermore, the finding of similar extents of phosphatidylserine exposure by exogenous Ca(2+)-activated scrambling in both control erythrocytes and the patient's erythrocytes implies that suppressed scramblase activity rather than flippase activity contributes to the maintenance of phosphatidylserine in the inner leaflet of human erythrocytes. PMID:26944472

  11. ATP11C is a major flippase in human erythrocytes and its defect causes congenital hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Arashiki, Nobuto; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Mohandas, Narla; Hale, John; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogura, Hiromi; Utsugisawa, Taiju; Ohga, Shouichi; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Kojima, Seiji; Kanno, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine is localized exclusively to the inner leaflet of the membrane lipid bilayer of most cells, including erythrocytes. This asymmetric distribution is critical for the survival of erythrocytes in circulation since externalized phosphatidylserine is a phagocytic signal for splenic macrophages. Flippases are P-IV ATPase family proteins that actively transport phosphatidylserine from the outer to inner leaflet. It has not yet been determined which of the 14 members of this family of proteins is the flippase in human erythrocytes. Herein, we report that ATP11C encodes a major flippase in human erythrocytes, and a genetic mutation identified in a male patient caused congenital hemolytic anemia inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. Phosphatidylserine internalization in erythrocytes with the mutant ATP11C was decreased 10-fold compared to that of the control, functionally establishing that ATP11C is a major flippase in human erythrocytes. Contrary to our expectations phosphatidylserine was retained in the inner leaflet of the majority of mature erythrocytes from both controls and the patient, suggesting that phosphatidylserine cannot be externalized as long as scramblase is inactive. Phosphatidylserine-exposing cells were found only in the densest senescent cells (0.1% of total) in which scramblase was activated by increased Ca2+ concentration: the percentage of these phosphatidylserine-exposing cells was increased in the patient’s senescent cells accounting for his mild anemia. Furthermore, the finding of similar extents of phosphatidylserine exposure by exogenous Ca2+-activated scrambling in both control erythrocytes and the patient’s erythrocytes implies that suppressed scramblase activity rather than flippase activity contributes to the maintenance of phosphatidylserine in the inner leaflet of human erythrocytes. PMID:26944472

  12. Cytochrome P{sub 450}-dependent toxic effects of primaquine on human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, Shobana; Tekwani, Babu L.; Sahu, Rajnish; Tripathi, Lalit M.; Walker, Larry A.

    2009-11-15

    Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is the drug of choice for radical cure of relapsing malaria. Use of primaquine is limited due to its hemotoxicity, particularly in populations with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency [G6PD(-)]. Biotransformation appears to be central to the anti-infective and hematological toxicities of primaquine, but the mechanisms are still not well understood. Metabolic studies with primaquine have been hampered due to the reactive nature of potential hemotoxic metabolites. An in vitro metabolism-linked hemotoxicity assay has been developed. Co-incubation of the drug with normal or G6PD(-) erythrocytes, microsomes or recombinant cytochrome P{sub 450} (CYP) isoforms has allowed in situ generation of potential hemotoxic metabolite(s), which interact with the erythrocytes to generate hemotoxicity. Methemoglobin formation, real-time generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and depletion of reactive thiols were monitored as multiple biochemical end points for hemotoxicity. Primaquine alone did not produce any hemotoxicity, while a robust increase was observed in methemoglobin formation and generation of ROIs by primaquine in the presence of human or mouse liver microsomes. Multiple CYP isoforms (CYP2E1, CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) variably contributed to the hemotoxicity of primaquine. This was further confirmed by significant inhibition of primaquine hemotoxicity by the selective CYP inhibitors, namely thiotepa (CYP2B6), fluoxetine (CYP2D6) and troleandomycin (CYP3A4). Primaquine caused similar methemoglobin formation in G6PD(-) and normal human erythrocytes. However, G6PD(-) erythrocytes suffered higher oxidative stress and depletion of thiols than normal erythrocytes due to primaquine toxicity. The results provide significant insights regarding CYP isoforms contributing to hemotoxicity and may be useful in controlling toxicity of primaquine to increase its therapeutic utility.

  13. H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects SO4= Transport in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Romano, Orazio; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to verify the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein, responsible for Cl-/HCO3- as well as for cell membrane deformability, due to its cross link with cytoskeletal proteins. The role of cytoplasmic proteins binding to Band 3 protein has been also considered by assaying H2O2 effects on hemoglobin-free resealed ghosts of erythrocytes. Oxidative conditions were induced by 30 min exposure of human erythrocytes to different H2O2 concentrations (10 to 300 μM), with or without GSH (glutathione, 2 mM) or curcumin (10 μM), compounds with proved antioxidant properties. Since SO4= influx through Band 3 protein is slower and better controllable than Cl- or HCO3- exchange, the rate constant for SO4= uptake was measured to prove anion transport efficiency, while MDA (malondialdehyde) levels and -SH groups were estimated to quantify the effect of oxidative stress. H2O2 induced a significant decrease in rate constant for SO4= uptake at both 100 and 300 μM H2O2. This reduction, observed in erythrocytes but not in resealed ghosts and associated to increase in neither MDA levels nor in -SH groups, was impaired by both curcumin and GSH, whereas only curcumin effectively restored H2O2-induced changes in erythrocytes shape. Our results show that: i) 30 min exposure to 300 μM H2O2 reduced SO4= uptake in human erythrocytes; ii) oxidative damage was revealed by the reduction in rate constant for SO4= uptake, but not by MDA or -SH groups levels; iii) the damage was produced via cytoplasmic components which cross link with Band 3 protein; iv) the natural antioxidant curcumin may be useful in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative injury; v) SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein may be reasonably suggested as a tool to monitor erythrocytes function under oxidative conditions possibly deriving from alcohol consumption, use of drugs, radiographic contrast media administration, hyperglicemia or neurodegenerative

  14. H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects SO4= Transport in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, Rossana; Romano, Orazio; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to verify the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein, responsible for Cl-/HCO3- as well as for cell membrane deformability, due to its cross link with cytoskeletal proteins. The role of cytoplasmic proteins binding to Band 3 protein has been also considered by assaying H2O2 effects on hemoglobin-free resealed ghosts of erythrocytes. Oxidative conditions were induced by 30 min exposure of human erythrocytes to different H2O2 concentrations (10 to 300 μM), with or without GSH (glutathione, 2 mM) or curcumin (10 μM), compounds with proved antioxidant properties. Since SO4= influx through Band 3 protein is slower and better controllable than Cl- or HCO3- exchange, the rate constant for SO4= uptake was measured to prove anion transport efficiency, while MDA (malondialdehyde) levels and –SH groups were estimated to quantify the effect of oxidative stress. H2O2 induced a significant decrease in rate constant for SO4= uptake at both 100 and 300 μM H2O2. This reduction, observed in erythrocytes but not in resealed ghosts and associated to increase in neither MDA levels nor in –SH groups, was impaired by both curcumin and GSH, whereas only curcumin effectively restored H2O2-induced changes in erythrocytes shape. Our results show that: i) 30 min exposure to 300 μM H2O2 reduced SO4= uptake in human erythrocytes; ii) oxidative damage was revealed by the reduction in rate constant for SO4= uptake, but not by MDA or –SH groups levels; iii) the damage was produced via cytoplasmic components which cross link with Band 3 protein; iv) the natural antioxidant curcumin may be useful in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative injury; v) SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein may be reasonably suggested as a tool to monitor erythrocytes function under oxidative conditions possibly deriving from alcohol consumption, use of drugs, radiographic contrast media administration, hyperglicemia or

  15. Facilitated uptake of a bioactive metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) into human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurlbaum, Max; Mülek, Melanie; Högger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other than plasma. We analysed the binding of constituents and the metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-γ-valerolactone (M1), that had been previously detected in plasma samples of human consumers of pine bark extract Pycnogenol, to human erythrocytes. We found that caffeic acid, taxifolin, and ferulic acid passively bind to red blood cells, but only the bioactive metabolite M1 revealed pronounced accumulation. The partitioning of M1 into erythrocytes was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of M1 and in the presence of glucose, suggesting a facilitated transport of M1 via GLUT-1 transporter. This concept was further supported by structural similarities between the natural substrate α-D-glucose and the S-isomer of M1. After cellular uptake, M1 underwent further metabolism by conjugation with glutathione. We present strong indication for a transporter-mediated accumulation of a flavonoid metabolite in human erythrocytes and subsequent formation of a novel glutathione adduct. The physiologic role of the adduct remains to be elucidated. PMID:23646194

  16. The Cell Adhesion Molecule “CAR” and Sialic Acid on Human Erythrocytes Influence Adenovirus In Vivo Biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Wodrich, Harald; Billet, Olivier; Perreau, Matthieu; Hippert, Claire; Mennechet, Franck; Schoehn, Guy; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Dreja, Hanna; Ibanes, Sandy; Kalatzis, Vasiliki; Wang, Jennifer P.; Finberg, Robert W.; Cusack, Stephen; Kremer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it has been known for 50 years that adenoviruses (Ads) interact with erythrocytes ex vivo, the molecular and structural basis for this interaction, which has been serendipitously exploited for diagnostic tests, is unknown. In this study, we characterized the interaction between erythrocytes and unrelated Ad serotypes, human 5 (HAd5) and 37 (HAd37), and canine 2 (CAV-2). While these serotypes agglutinate human erythrocytes, they use different receptors, have different tropisms and/or infect different species. Using molecular, biochemical, structural and transgenic animal-based analyses, we found that the primary erythrocyte interaction domain for HAd37 is its sialic acid binding site, while CAV-2 binding depends on at least three factors: electrostatic interactions, sialic acid binding and, unexpectedly, binding to the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on human erythrocytes. We show that the presence of CAR on erythrocytes leads to prolonged in vivo blood half-life and significantly reduced liver infection when a CAR-tropic Ad is injected intravenously. This study provides i) a molecular and structural rationale for Ad–erythrocyte interactions, ii) a basis to improve vector-mediated gene transfer and iii) a mechanism that may explain the biodistribution and pathogenic inconsistencies found between human and animal models. PMID:19119424

  17. [A structure-activity study of a catalytic antiidiotypic antibody to the human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, E S; Koralevski, F; Titov, M I; Demin, A V; Kozyr', A V; Kolesnikov, A V; Tramontano, A; Paul, S; Thomas, D; Gabibov, A G; Gnuchev, N V; Friboulet, A

    2002-01-01

    The catalytic monoclonal antibody 9A8 (MA 9A8), antiidiotypic to the antibody AE-2 (MA AE2) produced to the active site of acetyl cholinesterase from human erythrocytes, was subjected to a structure-function study. The specific binding of MA 9A8 to MA AE2 (K 2.26 x 10(9) M-1) was shown by the method of surface plasmon resonance, and the functional activity of MA 9A8 was demonstrated. Unlike acetyl cholinesterase, this antibody specifically reacted with the irreversible phosphonate inhibitors of esterases. A peptide map of MA 9A8 was analyzed by MALDI mass spectrometry. The Ser99 residue of its heavy chain was shown to be within the active site of the catalytic antibody. A computer modeling of the MA 9A8 active site suggested the existence of a catalytic dyad formed by Ser99 and His35. A comparison of the tertiary structures of the MA 9A8 and the 17E8 monoclonal antibody, which also exhibited an esterase activity and was produced to the stable analogue of the reaction transition state, indicated a practically complete coincidence of the structures of their presumed active sites. PMID:11962233

  18. Proteomic Profiling of Nonenzymatically Glycated Proteins in Human Plasma and Erythrocyte Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. In this report, a thorough proteomic profiling of glycated proteins was attempted by using phenylboronate affinity chromatography to enrich glycated proteins and glycated, tryptic peptides from human plasma and erythrocyte membranes. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, and 76 and 31 proteins were confidently identified as glycated from human plasma and erythrocyte membrane, respectively. It was observed that most of the glycated proteins can be identified in samples from individuals with normal glucose tolerance, although samples from individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus have slightly higher numbers of glycated proteins and more glycation sites identified.

  19. A critical evaluation of the proposal that serum apolipoproteins are the major constituents of the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Carey, C; Wang, C S; Alaupovic, P

    1975-08-01

    1. The EDTA and Triton X-100 extracts of human erythrocyte ghosts gave no precipitin lines in double diffusion analyses with antibodies to either lipoprotein A, lipoprotein B, lipoprotein C, lipoprotein D, Lp(a) lipoprotein or arginine-rich apolipoprotein of normal human serum (for nomenclature for serum lipoprotein families and apolipoptoteins, see Alaupovic, P., Kostner, G., Lee, D. M., McConathy, W.J. and Magnani, HN. (1972) Expo. Annu. Biochem. Med. 31, 145-160 and Alaupovic, P., Lee, D.M. and McConathy, W.J., (1972) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 260, 689-707.) These membrane preparations also reacted negatively with commercially available antisera to alpha- and beta-lipoproteins. 2. The normal serum very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins formed no precipitin lines with antibodies to either intact or EDTA-extracted ghosts. 3. The serum apolipoproteins and their constitutive polypeptides (A-I, A-II, B, C-I, C-II, C-III, D and arginine-rich apolipoprotein) reacted negatively with antibodies to intact or EDTA-extracted ghosts. The EDTA and Triton X-100 extracts of erythrocyte ghosts gave no reaction with monospecific antibodies to serum apolipoproteins and their constitutive polypeptides. 4. Ghosts dissolved 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate gave positive immunoprecipitin lines with antisera to alpha- and beta-lipoproteins. However, the sodium dodecyl sulfate solution in concentrations greater than 0.1% also formed precipitin lines with antisera to the same lipoproteins. 5. These results do not support the suggestion (Langdon, R.G. (1974) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 342, 213-228) that serum apolipoptoteins are integral protein constituents of human erythrocyte ghosts. The immunoprecipitin lines observed in the latter study might have been due to the presence of trace amounts of serum lipoproteins loosely attached to the cellular surfaces or, more probably, resulted from nonspecific interactions between the proteins and the sodium dodecyl sulfate used as the

  20. Some relationships between membrane phospholipid domains, conformational order, and cell shape in intact human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Gioioso, S; Sills, R H; Mendelsohn, R

    1999-01-01

    A novel method developed in this laboratory [D.J. Moore et al., Biochemistry 35 (1996) 229-235; D.J. Moore et al., Biochemistry 36 (1997) 660-664] to study the conformational order and the propensity for domain formation of specific phospholipids in intact human erythrocytes is extended to two additional species. Acyl chain perdeuterated 1,2-dilauroylphosphatidylethanolamine (diC12PE-d46) was incorporated preferentially (in separate experiments) into the inner leaflet of stomatocytic erythrocytes and into the outer leaflet of echinocytic erythrocytes, while acyl chain perdeuterated 1,2-dipentadecanoylphosphatidylcholine (diC15PC-d58) was incorporated into the outer leaflet of echinocytic erythrocytes. The conformational order and phase behavior of the incorporated molecules were monitored through FT-IR studies of the temperature dependence of the CD2 stretching vibrations. For both diC12PE-d46 and diC15PC-d58, the gel-->liquid crystal phase transition persisted when these lipids were located in the outer leaflet of echinocytic cells, a result indicative of the persistence of phospholipid domains. In each case, the transition widths were broadened compared to the pure lipids, suggestive of either small domains or the presence of additional molecular components within the domains. The conformational order of diC12PE-d46 differed markedly depending on its location and the morphology of the cells. When located predominantly in the inner membrane of stomatocytes, the phase transition of this species was abolished and the conformational order compared with pure lipid vesicles at the same temperature was much lower. The current results along with our previous studies provide a sufficient experimental basis to deduce some general principles of phospholipid conformational order and organization in both normal and shape-altered erythrocytes. PMID:9889394

  1. Relationship of hyperthermia-induced hemolysis of human erythrocytes to the thermal denaturation of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lepock, J R; Frey, H E; Bayne, H; Markus, J

    1989-04-14

    Hemolysis of human erythrocytes as a function of time of exposure to 47.4-54.5 degrees C was measured and correlated to thermal transitions in the membranes of intact erythrocytes as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Curves of hemoglobin leakage (a measure of hemolysis) as a function of time have a shoulder region exhibiting no leakage, indicative of the ability to accumulate sublethal damage (i.e., damage not sufficient to cause lysis), followed by a region of leakage approximating pseudo-first-order kinetics. Inverse leakage rates (Do) of 330-21 min were obtained from 47.4-54.5 degrees C, respectively. A relatively high activation energy of 304 +/- 22 kJ/mol was obtained for leakage, eliminating the involvement of metabolic processes but implicating a transition as the rate-limiting step. Membrane protein involvement was suggested by the very low rate (10(-2) of the rate from erythrocytes) and low activation energy (50 +/- 49 kJ/mol) of hemoglobin leakage from liposomes containing no membrane protein. A model was developed that predicts a transition temperature (Tm) for the critical target (rate-limiting step) of 60 degrees C when measured at a scan rate of 1 K/min. DSC scans were obtained from intact erythrocytes and a procedure developed to fit and remove the transition for hemoglobin denaturation which dominated the scan. Three transitions remained (transitions A, B, and C) with Tm values of 50.0, 56.8, and 63.8 degrees C, respectively. These correspond to, but occur at slightly different temperatures than, the A, B, and C transitions of isolated erythrocyte membranes in the same salt solution (Tm = 49.5, 53-58, and 65.5 degrees C, respectively). In addition, the relative enthalpies of the three transitions differ between isolated membranes and erythrocytes, suggestive of membrane alterations occurring during isolation. Thus, all analyses were conducted on DSC scans of intact erythrocytes. The B transition is very broad and probably

  2. Facilitated transport of amino acids across organic phases and the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Hider, R C; McCormack, W

    1980-01-01

    1. An artificial facilitated amino-acid-transfer process operating across a chloroform phase is reported. 2. This process utilizes a family of bis(salicylamidato)copper(II) complexes. 3. A mechanism is proposed for this process and for its sensitivity towards cyanide and bathophenanthroline sulphonate. 4. Facilitated transfer of L-leucine in human erythrocytes has been shown to be inhibited by bathophenanthroline sulphonate. PMID:7396879

  3. Glycophorin and the concanavalin A receptor of human erythrocytes: their receptor function in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Sharom, F J; Barratt, D G; Grant, C W

    1977-01-01

    Two integral glycoproteins from the human erythrocyte have been studied after their incorporation into lipid bilayer systems. Glycophorin (which is the M/N blood group determinant) and the concanavalin A receptor were isolated and purified prior to incorporation into model membranes by dialytic removal of detergent from lipid/protein solutions. Under the conditions described, glycoprotein receptors maintain their function in that they bind external agents specific for them, such as concanavalin A and immunoglobulins. So-called intramembranous particles are a feature of freeze-fractured preparations of lipid bilayers containing either (or both) glycoprotein(s), and to some extent each has a characteristic particle appearance. Liposomes containing the concanavalin A receptor (with or without glycophorin) are agglutinable by concanavalin A, whereas human erythrocytes are normally considered to be nonagglutinable by this lectin. Liposomes containing glycophorin alone are readily agglutinable by the appropriate glycophorin-directed M/N antiserum, as are human erythrocytes. The added presence of concanavalin A receptor in the liposomes can markedly inhibit agglutination by M/N antiserum without preventing immunoglobulin binding. Images PMID:268624

  4. Diffractomery analysis of human and rat erythrocytes deformability under ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugovtsov, Andrei E.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Nikitin, Sergei Y.; Koshelev, Vladimir B.

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the analysis of human and rat red blood cells (RBC) deformability, internal viscosity and yield stress of RBC in norm and ischemia was performed by means of laser diffractometry - a modern technique allowing for measuring the flexibility of RBC, which determines the blood flow parameters in vessels. Ischemic diseases of people and animals are accompanied with deterioration of microrheologic properties of their blood, in particular, with impairing the RBC deformability. Human RBCs were obtained from the blood of healthy individuals and from patients suffering from ischemic diseases. The RBC deformability indices from both groups of individuals were measured. Rat RBCs were obtained from a control group of animals and from a group with experimentally induced ischemia (EII). This animal model is frequently used for studying the response of an organism to ischemia. The effect of semax, a medication that is frequently used for therapeutic treatments of human brain diseases in clinical practice, on RBC deformability was studied with its application in vitro and in vivo. It is shown that in human ischemic patients, the deformability index of RBC was lower than that from healthy individuals. Both in vivo and in vitro applied semax positively influences the impaired deformability properties of RBCs of ischemic rats.

  5. Erythrocyte Sialic Acid Content during Aging in Humans: Correlation with Markers of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Mohammad Murtaza; Singh, Prabhakar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids are substituted neuraminic acid derivatives which are typically found at the outermost end of glycan chains on the membrane in all cell types. The role of erythrocyte membrane sialic acids during aging has been established however the relationship between sialic acid and oxidative stress is not fully understood. The present work was undertaken to analyze the relationship between erythrocyte membrane sialic acid with its plasma level, membrane and plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels and plasma total antioxidant capacity. Results show that sialic acid content decreases significantly (P < 0.001) in RBC membrane (r = −0.901) and increases in plasma (r = 0.860) as a function of age in humans. Lipid peroxidation measured in the form of hydroperoxides increases significantly (P < 0.001) in plasma (r = 0.830) and RBC membranes (r = 0.875) with age in humans. The Trolox Equivalent Total Antioxidant Capacity (TETAC) of plasma was found to be significantly decreased (P < 0.001, r = −0.844). We observe significant correlations between decrease of erythrocyte membrane sialic acid and plasma lipid hydroperoxide and TETAC. Based on the observed correlations, we hypothesize that increase in oxidative stress during aging may influence the sialic acid decomposition from membrane thereby altering the membrane configuration affecting many enzymatic and transporter activities. Considering the importance of plasma sialic acid as a diagnostic parameter, it is important to establish age-dependent reference. PMID:22377734

  6. Morphological and Molecular Descriptors of the Developmental Cycle of Babesia divergens Parasites in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, Ingrid; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Niemand, Jandeli; van Biljon, Riette; Smit, Annel; Olivier, Nicholas A.; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Human babesiosis, especially caused by the cattle derived Babesia divergens parasite, is on the increase, resulting in renewed attentiveness to this potentially life threatening emerging zoonotic disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. This impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents. By applying sensitive cell biological and molecular functional genomics tools, we describe the intra-erythrocytic development cycle of B. divergens parasites from immature, mono-nucleated ring forms to bi-nucleated paired piriforms and ultimately multi-nucleated tetrads that characterizes zoonotic Babesia spp. This is further correlated for the first time to nuclear content increases during intra-erythrocytic development progression, providing insight into the part of the life cycle that occurs during human infection. High-content temporal evaluation elucidated the contribution of the different stages to life cycle progression. Moreover, molecular descriptors indicate that B. divergens parasites employ physiological adaptation to in vitro cultivation. Additionally, differential expression is observed as the parasite equilibrates its developmental stages during its life cycle. Together, this information provides the first temporal evaluation of the functional transcriptome of B. divergens parasites, information that could be useful in identifying biological processes essential to parasite survival for future anti-babesiacidal discoveries. PMID:25955414

  7. Morphological and Molecular Descriptors of the Developmental Cycle of Babesia divergens Parasites in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, Ingrid; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Niemand, Jandeli; van Biljon, Riette; Smit, Annel; Olivier, Nicholas A; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2015-05-01

    Human babesiosis, especially caused by the cattle derived Babesia divergens parasite, is on the increase, resulting in renewed attentiveness to this potentially life threatening emerging zoonotic disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. This impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents. By applying sensitive cell biological and molecular functional genomics tools, we describe the intra-erythrocytic development cycle of B. divergens parasites from immature, mono-nucleated ring forms to bi-nucleated paired piriforms and ultimately multi-nucleated tetrads that characterizes zoonotic Babesia spp. This is further correlated for the first time to nuclear content increases during intra-erythrocytic development progression, providing insight into the part of the life cycle that occurs during human infection. High-content temporal evaluation elucidated the contribution of the different stages to life cycle progression. Moreover, molecular descriptors indicate that B. divergens parasites employ physiological adaptation to in vitro cultivation. Additionally, differential expression is observed as the parasite equilibrates its developmental stages during its life cycle. Together, this information provides the first temporal evaluation of the functional transcriptome of B. divergens parasites, information that could be useful in identifying biological processes essential to parasite survival for future anti-babesiacidal discoveries. PMID:25955414

  8. Acetylcholinesterase from Human Erythrocytes as a Surrogate Biomarker of Lead Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pal, Rajnish; Siddiqi, Nikhat Jamal; Sharma, Bechan

    2015-01-01

    Lead induced neurotoxicity in the people engaged in different occupations has received wide attention but very little studies have been carried out to monitor occupational neurotoxicity directly due to lead exposure using biochemical methods. In the present paper an endeavour has been made in order to assess the lead mediated neurotoxicity by in vitro assay of the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from human erythrocytes in presence of different concentrations of lead. The results suggested that the activity of this enzyme was localized in membrane bound fraction and it was found to be highly stable up to 30 days when stored at -20°C in phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.4) containing 0.2% Triton X-100. The erythrocyte's AChE exhibited K m for acetylcholinesterase to be 0.1 mM. Lead caused sharp inhibition of the enzyme and its IC50 value was computed to be 1.34 mM. The inhibition of the enzyme by lead was found to be of uncompetitive type (K i value, 3.6 mM) which negatively influenced both the V max and the enzyme-substrate binding affinity. Taken together, these results indicate that AChE from human erythrocytes could be exploited as a surrogate biomarker of lead induced neurotoxicity particularly in the people occupationally exposed to lead. PMID:26600946

  9. Tyrosine phosphorylation of band 3 protein in Ca2+/A23187-treated human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Minetti, G; Piccinini, G; Balduini, C; Seppi, C; Brovelli, A

    1996-01-01

    Human erythrocytes were induced to release membrane vesicles by treatment with Ca2+ and ionophore A23187. In addition to the biochemical changes already known to accompany loading of human erythrocytes with Ca2+, the present study reveals that tyrosine phosphorylation of the anion exchanger band 3 protein also occurs. The relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation of band 3 and membrane vesiculation was analysed using quinine (a non-specific inhibitor of the Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel, and the only known inhibitor of Ca(2+)-induced vesiculation) and charybdotoxin, a specific inhibitor of the apamin-insensitive K(+)-channel. Both inhibitors suppressed tyrosine phosphorylation of band 3. In the presence of quinine, membrane vesiculation was also suppressed. In contrast, at the concentration of charybdotoxin required to suppress tyrosine phosphorylation of band 3, membrane vesiculation was only mildly inhibited (16-23% inhibition), suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation of band 3 is not necessary for membrane vesiculation. Phosphorylation of band 3 was in fact observed when erythrocytes were induced to shrink in a Ca(2+)-independent manner, e.g. by treatment with the K+ ionophore valinomycin or with hypertonic solutions. These observations suggest that band 3 tyrosine phosphorylation occurs when cell volume regulation is required. PMID:8973551

  10. Acetylcholinesterase from Human Erythrocytes as a Surrogate Biomarker of Lead Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pal, Rajnish; Siddiqi, Nikhat Jamal; Sharma, Bechan

    2015-01-01

    Lead induced neurotoxicity in the people engaged in different occupations has received wide attention but very little studies have been carried out to monitor occupational neurotoxicity directly due to lead exposure using biochemical methods. In the present paper an endeavour has been made in order to assess the lead mediated neurotoxicity by in vitro assay of the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from human erythrocytes in presence of different concentrations of lead. The results suggested that the activity of this enzyme was localized in membrane bound fraction and it was found to be highly stable up to 30 days when stored at −20°C in phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.4) containing 0.2% Triton X-100. The erythrocyte's AChE exhibited Km for acetylcholinesterase to be 0.1 mM. Lead caused sharp inhibition of the enzyme and its IC50 value was computed to be 1.34 mM. The inhibition of the enzyme by lead was found to be of uncompetitive type (Ki value, 3.6 mM) which negatively influenced both the Vmax and the enzyme-substrate binding affinity. Taken together, these results indicate that AChE from human erythrocytes could be exploited as a surrogate biomarker of lead induced neurotoxicity particularly in the people occupationally exposed to lead. PMID:26600946

  11. Influence of magnesium sulfate on HCO3/Cl transmembrane exchange rate in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chernyshova, Ekaterina S; Zaikina, Yulia S; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A; Strokotov, Dmitry I; Yurkin, Maxim A; Serebrennikova, Elena S; Volkov, Leonid; Maltsev, Valeri P; Chernyshev, Andrei V

    2016-03-21

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is widely used in medicine but molecular mechanisms of its protection through influence on erythrocytes are not fully understood and are considerably controversial. Using scanning flow cytometry, in this work for the first time we observed experimentally (both in situ and in vitro) a significant increase of HCO3(-)/Cl(-) transmembrane exchange rate of human erythrocytes in the presence of MgSO4 in blood. For a quantitative analysis of the obtained experimental data, we introduced and verified a molecular kinetic model, which describes activation of major anion exchanger Band 3 (or AE1) by its complexation with free intracellular Mg(2+) (taking into account Mg(2+) membrane transport and intracellular buffering). Fitting the model to our in vitro experimental data, we observed a good correspondence between theoretical and experimental kinetic curves that allowed us to evaluate the model parameters and to estimate for the first time the association constant of Mg(2+) with Band 3 as KB~0.07mM, which is in agreement with known values of the apparent Mg(2+) dissociation constant (from 0.01 to 0.1mM) that reflects experiments on enrichment of Mg(2+) at the inner erythrocyte membrane (Gunther, 2007). Results of this work partly clarify the molecular mechanisms of MgSO4 action in human erythrocytes. The method developed allows one to estimate quantitatively a perspective of MgSO4 treatment for a patient. It should be particularly helpful in prenatal medicine for early detection of pathologies associated with the risk of fetal hypoxia. PMID:26780645

  12. Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli are protected from leukocyte phagocytosis by binding to erythrocyte complement receptor 1 in human blood.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Ole-Lars; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Christiansen, Dorte; Fure, Hilde; Castellheim, Albert; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Pharo, Anne; Lindstad, Julie Katrine; Bergseth, Grethe; Leslie, Graham; Lambris, John D; Brandtzaeg, Petter; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2011-09-01

    The initial interaction of Gram-negative bacteria with erythrocytes and its implications on leukocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst in human whole blood were examined. Alexa-labeled Escherichia coli, wild-type H44/76 N. meningitidis and the H44/76lpxA lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient mutant were incubated with whole blood using lepirudin as anticoagulant which has no adverse effects on complement. Bacteria free in plasma, bound to erythrocytes or phagocytized by granulocytes and monocytes were quantified using flow cytometry. The effects of the C3 inhibitor compstatin, a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRa) and a complement receptor 1 (CR1)-blocking antibody (3D9) were examined. Most bacteria (80%) immediately bound to erythrocytes. The binding gradually declined over time, with a parallel increase in phagocytosis. Complement inhibition with compstatin reduced erythrocyte binding and bacterial C3 opsonization. In contrast, the C5aRa efficiently reduced phagocytosis, but did not affect the binding of bacteria to erythrocytes. The anti-CR1 blocking mAb dose-dependently reduced bacterial binding to erythrocytes to nil, with subsequent increased phagocytosis and oxidative burst. LPS had no effect on these processes since similar results were obtained using an LPS-deficient N. meningitidis mutant. In vivo experiments in a pig model of sepsis showed limited binding of bacteria to erythrocytes, consistent with the facts that erythrocyte CR1 receptors are absent in non-primates and that the bacteria were mainly found in the lungs. In conclusion, complement-dependent binding of Gram-negative bacteria to erythrocyte CR1 decreases phagocytosis and oxidative burst by leukocytes in human whole blood. PMID:21839519

  13. Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by extracts of Ugni molinae leaves.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Orellana, P; Avello, M; Villena, F; Sotomayor, C P

    2006-08-01

    Ugni molinae Turcz, also known as "Murtilla", is a plant that grows in the south of Chile. Infusions of their leaves have long been used in traditional native herbal medicine. The chemical composition of the leaves indicates the presence of polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of their antioxidant properties and the toxicity of the aqueous extracts of leaves, the extracts were induced to interact with human red cells, their isolated unsealed membranes (IUM) and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of dimyristoylphosphatidyltidylcholine (DMPC), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the extracts achieved a significant alteration in the shape of the erythrocytes as they changed their discoid shape to echinocytes. According to the bilayer couple hypothesis, the shape change indicates that the polyphenols were located in the outer moiety of the red cell membrane. This conclusion was confirmed by the fluorescence experiments performed in IUM and DMPC LUV. In fact, the extracts produced slight initial increases followed by sharp decreases at higher concentrations in the anisotropy and general polarization parameters. These results imply that the extracts induced structural perturbations in the acyl chain and polar group packing arrangements of the erythrocyte IUM and DMPC LUV lipid bilayers: first ordering and afterwards disordering them as the extract concentration increased. PMID:16716480

  14. Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Wai-Hong; Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Weiss, Greta E.; Lopaticki, Sash; Ansell, Brendan R. E.; Bird, Megan; Lucet, Isabelle; Dorin-Semblat, Dominique; Doerig, Christian; Gilson, Paul R.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Cowman, Alan F.

    2015-01-01

    The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The invasive form of malaria parasites is termed a merozoite and it employs an array of parasite proteins that bind to the host cell to mediate invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) and reticulocyte binding-like (Rh) protein families are responsible for binding to specific erythrocyte receptors for invasion and mediating signalling events that initiate active entry of the malaria parasite. Here we have addressed the role of the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins in activating merozoite invasion after receptor engagement. We show that the cytoplasmic domains of these type 1 membrane proteins are phosphorylated in vitro. Depletion of PfCK2, a kinase implicated to phosphorylate these cytoplasmic tails, blocks P. falciparum invasion of red blood cells. We identify the crucial residues within the PfRh4 cytoplasmic domain that are required for successful parasite invasion. Live cell imaging of merozoites from these transgenic mutants show they attach but do not penetrate erythrocytes implying the PfRh4 cytoplasmic tail conveys signals important for the successful completion of the invasion process. PMID:26694741

  15. Conjugated Bilirubin Triggers Anemia by Inducing Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Föller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca2+ influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Conclusion: Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2015;61:275–284) PMID:25065608

  16. Geometry of the human erythrocyte. I. Effect of albumin on cell geometry.

    PubMed Central

    Jay, A W

    1975-01-01

    The effects of albumin on the geometry of human erythrocytes have been studied. Individual red cells, hanging on edge from coverslips were photographed. Enlarged cell profiles were digitized using a Gradicon digitizer (Instronics Ltd., Stittsville, Ontario). Geometric parameters including diameter, area, volume, minimum cylindrical diameter, sphericity index, swelling index, maximum and minimum cell thickness, were calculated for each cell using a CDC 6400 computer. Maximum effect of human serum albumin was reached at about 1 g/liter. Studies of cell populations showed decreases in mean cell diameter of up to 6%, area 6%, and volume 15%, varying from sample to sample. The thickness of the rim was increased while that at the dimple was decreased. Studies of single cells showed that area and volume changes do not occur equally in all cells. Cells with lower sphericity indices showed larger effects. In the presence of albumin, up to 50% of the cells assumed cup-shapes (stomatocytes). These cells had smaller volumes but the same area as biconcave cells. Mechanical agitation could reversibly induce biconcave cells to assume cup shapes without area or volume changes. Experiments with de-fatted human albumins showed that the presence of bound fatty acids in varying concentrations does not alter the observed effects. Bovine serum albumin has similar effects on human erythrocytes as human serum albumin. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 9 PMID:1122337

  17. An in vitro study on the antioxidant capacity of usnic acid on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Jemiola-Rzeminska, M; Astudillo, C; Gallardo, M J; Staforelli, J P; Villena, F; Strzalka, K

    2015-11-01

    Usnic acid (UA) has been associated with chronic diseases through its antioxidant action. Its main target is the cell membrane; however, its effect on that of human erythrocytes has been scarcely investigated. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between UA and cell membranes human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane have been utilized. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. Results by X-ray diffraction showed that UA produced structural perturbations on DMPC and DMPE bilayers. DSC studies have indicated that thermotropic behavior of DMPE was most strongly distorted by UA than DMPC, whereas the latter is mainly affected on the pretransition. Scanning electron (SEM) and defocusing microscopy (DM) showed that UA induced alterations to erythrocytes from the normal discoid shape to echinocytes. These results imply that UA molecules were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Results of its antioxidant properties showed that UA neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPC and DMPE bilayers; SEM, DM and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of UA against the deleterious oxidant effects of HClO upon human erythrocytes. PMID:26299817

  18. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Cantharidin

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Egler, Jasmin; Briglia, Marilena; Fazio, Antonella; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The natural phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin, primarily used for topical treatment of warts, has later been shown to trigger tumor cell apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. Similar to apoptosis of tumor cells, erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and translocation of cell membrane phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling of eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i), ceramide, oxidative stress and dysregulation of several kinases. Phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface was quantified utilizing annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide from antibody binding, and reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with cantharidin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥10 μg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (≥25 μg/mL), significantly increased [Ca2+]i (≥25 μg/mL), but did not significantly modify ceramide abundance or ROS. The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following cantharidin treatment was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+ but was abolished by kinase inhibitor staurosporine (1 μM) and slightly decreased by p38 inhibitor skepinone (2 μM). Exposure of erythrocytes to cantharidin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death with erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling, an effect sensitive to kinase inhibitors staurosporine and skepinone. PMID:26226001

  19. Effects of aggregation and solvent on the toxicity of amphotericin B to human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, P; Romero, E A; Cohen, B E; Bolard, J

    1992-01-01

    In aqueous suspensions of amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antibiotic and antifungal agent, three forms of AmB coexist: monomers, water-soluble oligomers, and non-water-soluble aggregates. The toxicity of the water-soluble self-associated form of AmB compared with that of the non-water-soluble self-associated form was tested by measuring induction of K+ leakage from human erythrocytes, using different suspensions containing the antibiotic and phosphate-buffered saline. These suspensions were obtained from various stock solutions of the antibiotic in dimethyl formamide or dimethyl sulfoxide. Their circular dichroism spectra around 340 nm, indicative of the degree of AmB self-association, were strongly dependent on the concentration of organic solvent in the suspensions. The nonsoluble self-associated form was separated from the water-soluble form by centrifugation. The nonsoluble form was favored by a high concentration of AmB of the stock solution. The kinetics of AmB-induced K+ leakage from human erythrocytes also appeared to be strongly dependent on the AmB concentration of the stock solution being much weaker with concentrated stock solutions. It was concluded that the only form of AmB toxic to human erythrocytes is the water-soluble self-associated form (in contrast with fungal cells on which the monomeric form is also active). This result may be important in the design of new less toxic AmB derivatives and in the understanding of the mechanism of action of liposomal AmB. PMID:1489196

  20. Human erythrocytes as a system for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of vegetable extracts.

    PubMed

    Arbos, Kettelin A; Claro, Ligia M; Borges, Lucielly; Santos, Cid A M; Weffort-Santos, Almeriane M

    2008-07-01

    Free radicals are fairly unstable and highly reactive substances, able of causing oxidation and sometimes-irreversible damage to cells, compromising their function. The Brassicaceae family has many important species for the regular human diet as they provide several antioxidant constituents. In this study, the antioxidant potential of the hydroethanolic extracts prepared from the edible parts of kale, broccoli, and radish was investigated in vitro using human erythrocytes under oxidative stress imposed by phenylhydrazine as an experimental model, in which the methemoglobin levels were measured. When the results were compared with the antioxidant capacity shown by the traditional 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate free radical and phosphomolybdenum complex methods, the extracts tested showed significant and correspondent antioxidant activity. Broccoli extract presented the highest antioxidant activity, followed closely by the kale, whereas the radish extract occupied the lowest position. The results derived from the human erythrocyte system have shown it as an alternative method for evaluating the antioxidant properties of vegetable extracts. PMID:19083446

  1. Physical modeling of human skin optical properties using milk and erythrocytes mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdin, Alexander B.; Utz, Sergei R.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    1995-12-01

    We offer a two-layer dermis-like model phantom with controlled concentration of absorbers and scatterers; namely, the mixture of whole milk diluted with isotonic solution and suspension of washed human erythrocytes - as one layer, and teflon base - as another. The optimum milk dilution was determined, and wavelength dependencies of phantom remittance (R) over the range 480 - 680 nm were obtained. We use the mixtures with physiological concentrations of erythrocytes which corresponded to 2 - 18% per volume blood content in human papillary dermis and upper blood plexus. Phantom remittance spectra for the cases of 2% and 4% blood content virtually coincide with remittance spectra of normal and erythema human skin. Collimated transmittance (T) of blood-milk layer was also measured. At 500 nm we estimated the range of linearity of D and D' (D equals $min1gT, D' equals -1gR) dependence on blood content: offset from linearity was observed near 5 - 6% and 10% of blood, respectively.

  2. Physicochemical characterization of C3b receptors isolated from human erythrocytes by immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, J; Stein, H

    1980-01-01

    A high yield of active C3b receptors was obtained by solubilizing human erythrocyte membranes with 2 M KBr, whereas other solubilization agents yielded no, or significantly less activity. Gel filtration of the KBr lysates revealed that the apparent molecular wieght of biologically active C3b receptor molecules was greater than 1 x 10(6). Immunoprecipitates prepared with radio-iodinated KBr lysates and anti-C3 receptor sera (AC3RS) were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or sodium dodecyl gel filtration. Unreduced SDS-PAGE and gel filtration profiles showed three predominant peaks with apparent mol. wts of 1--1.3 x 10(6), 80,000 and 60,000. Whereas the high mol. wt component decreased only slightly after reduction, the 80,000 and 60,000 mol. wt components disappeared and two new peaks with apparent mol. wts of 38,000 and 18,000 appeared in SDS-PAGE profiles. Although the high mol. wt component present in reduced SDS-PAGE profiles was detectable in some of the control experiments, none of the other peaks could be precipitated with control sera, and these components could be demonstrated only when KBr lysates of C3b receptor-positive erythrocytes and AC3RS that were able to inhibit ligand binding of the C3b receptors were used for precipitation. These findings suggest that (a) the C3b receptor of human erythrocytes in its biologically active state is a macromolecule with an apparent mol. wt higher than 1 x 10(6) and (b) the protein moiety consists predominantly of non-covalently linked protein molecules with apparent mol wts of 80,000 and 60,000. These protein molecules are composed of disulphide-bridged polypeptide chains with apparent mol. wts of 38,000 and 18,000. PMID:7461716

  3. Membrane permeation characteristics of abacavir in human erythrocytes and human T-lymphoblastoid CD4+ CEM cells: comparison with (-)-carbovir.

    PubMed

    Mahony, William B; Domin, Barbara A; Daluge, Susan M; Zimmerman, Thomas P

    2004-11-01

    Abacavir, (-)-(1S,4R)-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-cyclopentene-1-methanol, is a novel purine carbocyclic nucleoside analogue that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of HIV (as Ziagen trade mark [abacavir sulfate]). Chemically, abacavir and (-)-carbovir (CBV) differ only at the 6-position of the purine ring; abacavir contains a cyclopropylamino moiety in place of the 6-lactam functionality of CBV. Intracellularly both are ultimately metabolized to CBV triphosphate. We compared the membrane permeation characteristics of these two compounds at 20 degrees C in human erythrocytes and in human T-lymphoblastoid CD4+ CEM cells, using a "papaverine-stop" assay. In erythrocytes, abacavir influx was rapid, nonsaturable (rate constant=200 pmol/s/mM/microl cell water), and unaffected by inhibitors of nucleoside or nucleobase transport. CBV influx was slow, saturable, strongly inhibited by adenine or hypoxanthine, and occurred via both the nucleobase carrier (Vmax=0.67 pmol/s/microl cell water; Km=50 microM) and the nucleoside carrier (Vmax=0.47 pmol/s/microl cell water; Km=440 microM). Similar qualitative results were obtained with CD4+ CEM cells, although CBV influx rates were somewhat higher and abacavir influx rates lower, compared to the corresponding rates in erythrocytes. Equilibrium studies further revealed that both compounds are concentrated intracellularly, but nonmetabolically, in both cell types, apparently due to cytosolic protein binding (absent in erythrocyte ghosts). We conclude that, in both cell types, while CBV influx is slow and carrier-dependent, abacavir influx occurs rapidly by nonfacilitated diffusion. The membrane permeation characteristics of abacavir are consistent with its superior oral bioavailability and its impressive ability to penetrate the central nervous system. PMID:15450945

  4. Is the Peroxiredoxin 2/Thioredoxin/Thioredoxin Reductase system in human erythrocytes designed for redox signaling?

    PubMed

    Benfeitas, Rui; Selvaggio, Gianluca; Antunes, Fernando; Coelho, Pedro; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    In human erythrocytes H2O2 is mainly consumed by glutathione peroxidase, catalase and peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2). Our previous analyses indicate that Prx2's peroxidase activity is subjected to a strong but quickly reversible inhibition (see companion abstract). If this activity is inhibited then the main role of Prx2 cannot be to eliminate H2O2. What functional advantages could then such an inhibition confer?We set up and validated a kinetic model of H2O2 metabolism human erythrocytes that shows quantitative agreement with extensive experimental observations. We then applied it to analyze the behavior of Prx2 and Trx under the H2O2 exposure dynamics that erythrocytes face in circulation. The significance of Prx2 inhibition was assessed by comparing the behavior of this model with that of an otherwise identical model lacking inhibition.Our analysis shows that Prx2 inhibition leads to 25-40% lower NADPH consumption under low to moderately high H2O2 supply (<0.8µM H2O2/s). Further, the inhibition extends the range where the concentrations of potential redox signaling readouts - H2O2, Prx2 sulfenic acid, Prx2 disulfide and Trx disulfide- show a proportional response to changes in H2O2 supply, covering practically the whole physiological range of the latter. This is desirable for analogic signal transduction and allows the Prx2/Trx/TrxR system to reliably transduce changes in H2O2 supply as changes in thiol oxidation. Finally, the inhibition allows other less abundant peroxiredoxins in the erythrocyte to be oxidized by H2O2 at physiological H2O2 supplies.Altogether, these results suggest that the postulated reversible inhibition of Prx2's peroxidase facilitates signal transduction by the peroxiredoxins and spares NADPH.We acknowledge: fellowship SFRH/BD/51199/2010, grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0612/2013, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0313/2014, and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 co-financed by FEDER through the COMPETE program and by FCT (project PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657

  5. Nitrosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Human Venous Erythrocytes Correlate with Vascular Endothelial Function Measured by Digital Reactive Hyperemia

    PubMed Central

    Lobysheva, Irina I.; Biller, Pauline; Gallez, Bernard; Beauloye, Christophe; Balligand, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Impaired nitric oxide (NO)–dependent endothelial function is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that erythrocyte levels of nitrosylated hemoglobin (HbNO-heme) may reflect vascular endothelial function in vivo. We developed a modified subtraction method using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to identify the 5-coordinate α-HbNO (HbNO) concentration in human erythrocytes and examined its correlation with endothelial function assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). Changes in digital pulse amplitude were measured by PAT during reactive hyperemia following brachial arterial occlusion in a group of healthy volunteers (50 subjects). Erythrocyte HbNO levels were measured at baseline and at the peak of hyperemia. We digitally subtracted an individual model EPR signal of erythrocyte free radicals from the whole EPR spectrum to unmask and quantitate the HbNO EPR signals. Results Mean erythrocyte HbNO concentration at baseline was 219+/−12 nmol/L (n = 50). HbNO levels and reactive hyperemia (RH) indexes were higher in female (free of contraceptive pills) than male subjects. We observed a dynamic increase of HbNO levels in erythrocytes isolated at 1–2 min of post-occlusion hyperemia (120+/−8% of basal levels); post-occlusion HbNO levels were correlated with basal levels. Both basal and post-occlusion HbNO levels were significantly correlated with reactive hyperemia (RH) indexes (r = 0.58; P<0.0001 for basal HbNO). Conclusion The study demonstrates quantitative measurements of 5-coordinate α-HbNO in human venous erythrocytes, its dynamic physiologic regulation and correlation with endothelial function measured by tonometry during hyperemia. This opens the way to further understanding of in vivo determinants of NO bioavailability in human circulation. PMID:24130774

  6. Adaptive Optics-Assisted Identification of Preferential Erythrocyte Aggregate Pathways in the Human Retinal Microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Arichika, Shigeta; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To characterize human parafoveal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). Methods In 5 normal subjects, erythrocyte aggregate distributions were analyzed on 3 different days. Erythrocyte aggregates were described as a “dark tail” in AO-SLO. The characteristics of the pathways with dark tail flow in the parafovea were measured. Additionally, the tendency for dark tail flow before and after bifurcations was analyzed to study the blood flow in detail. Results Average velocity in parent vessels with dark tail flow was 1.30±0.27 mm/s. Average velocity in daughter vessels with dark tail flow was 1.12±0.25 mm/s, and the average velocity of plasma gaps in daughter vessels without dark tail flow was 0.64±0.11 mm/s. Downstream from the bifurcations, the velocity in vessels with dark tail flow was higher than that in those without it (p<0.001), and the branching angles of vessels with dark tail flow were smaller than those of vessels without it (p<0.001). Conclusions Images from the AO-SLO noninvasively revealed pathways with and without dark tail flow in the human parafovea. Pathways with dark tail flow in the daughter vessels generally had faster flow and smaller bifurcation angles than daughter vessels without dark tail flow. Thus, AO-SLO is an instructive tool for analyzing retinal microcirculatory hemodynamics. PMID:24586959

  7. Effects of some analgesic anaesthetic drugs on human erythrocyte glutathione reductase: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Murat; Irfan Kufrevioglu, O; Ciftci, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    Inhibitory effects of some analgesic and anaesthetic drugs on human erythrocyte glutathione reductase were investigated. For this purpose, human erythrocyte glutathione reductase was initially purified 2139-fold in a yield of 29% by using 2', 5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity gel and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis confirmed the purity of the enzyme by sharing a single band. A constant temperature (+4 degrees C) was maintained during the purification process. Diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, tenoxicam, etomidate, morphine and propofol exhibited inhibitory effects on the enzyme in vitro using the Beutler assay method. K(i) constants and IC(50) values for drugs were determined from Lineweaver-Burk graphs and plotting activity % versus [I] graphs, respectively. The IC(50) values of diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, propofol, tenoxicam, etomidate and morphine were 7.265, 6.278, 0.3, 0.242, 0.082, 0.0523 and 0.0128 mM and the K(i) constants were 23.97 +/- 2.1, 22.14 +/- 7.6, 0.42 +/- 0.18, 0.418 +/- 0.056, 0.13 +/- 0.025, 0.0725 +/- 0.0029 and 0.0165 +/- 0.0013 mM, respectively. While diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, tenoxicam etomidate and morphine showed competitive inhibition, propofol displayed noncompetitive inhibition. PMID:18608753

  8. Damascenine induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice and in vitro assessed human erythrocyte toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Khettal, Bachra; Tir, Lydia; Boudrioua, Souad

    2015-01-01

    Nigella damascena seed is characterized by the presence of the major alkaloid, damascenine and its related metabolites. To our knowledge, no detailed subchronic toxicological assessment of damascenine (DA) has been reported. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of DA in vivo after sub-chronic intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in mice and in vitro following human erythrocyte hemolysis. In vivo, a total of 48 adult male and female Swiss albino mice were used in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mice received intraperitoneally two doses of DA (20 and 100 mg/kg) for 28 days. Food intake, body weight and central body temperature were measured during the experiment. After completion of drug treatment, biochemical and histological analyses were performed. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups of mice, showing no toxic effects during the study. Neither were biochemical parameters altered; no significant differences were observed concerning glucose, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine parameters. No histopathological alterations were found in kidney and liver structures. In vitro, we focused on the human erythrocyte hemolytic process in the presence of several concentrations of DA. High level concentration of 1 000 μg/ml of DA revealed normal cell shapes and absence of hemolysis and deformation. PMID:27486370

  9. Direct visualization and characterization of erythrocyte flow in human retinal capillaries

    PubMed Central

    Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the retinal vasculature offers a surrogate view of systemic vascular health, allowing noninvasive and longitudinal assessment of vascular pathology. The earliest anomalies in vascular disease arise in the microvasculature, however current imaging methods lack the spatiotemporal resolution to track blood flow at the capillary level. We report here on novel imaging technology that allows direct, noninvasive optical imaging of erythrocyte flow in human retinal capillaries. This was made possible using adaptive optics for high spatial resolution (1.5 μm), sCMOS camera technology for high temporal resolution (460 fps), and tunable wavebands from a broadband laser for maximal erythrocyte contrast. Particle image velocimetry on our data sequences was used to quantify flow. We observed marked spatiotemporal variability in velocity, which ranged from 0.3 to 3.3 mm/s, and changed by up to a factor of 4 in a given capillary during the 130 ms imaging period. Both mean and standard deviation across the imaged capillary network varied markedly with time, yet their ratio remained a relatively constant parameter (0.50 ± 0.056). Our observations concur with previous work using less direct methods, validating this as an investigative tool for the study of microvascular disease in humans. PMID:23243576

  10. Effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on membrane band 3 in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Cristina; Bordin, Luciana; Pellati, Donatella; Armanini, Decio; Clari, Giulio

    2008-11-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is a hydrolytic product of the triterpene glycoside of glycyrrhizic acid, one of the main constituents of licorice root, which has long been studied, due to its several biological and endocrine properties. In this paper, GA was tested on human erythrocytes, and GA-induced alterations were compared with those caused by diamide, a mild oxidant inducing well-characterized cell/membrane alterations, and n-ethylmaleimide (NEM), as alkylating agent. In order to verify the biochemical steps underlying the action of GA, band 3 Tyr-phosphorylation level, enzyme recruitment and band 3 clustering in cells pre-incubated with GA before diamide treatment were all examined. Results show that GA, in a dose-dependent manner, prevents both diamide and NEM-induced band 3 Tyr-phosphorylation, but not GSH decrease caused by both compounds. In addition, diamide-induced band 3 clustering and IgG binding to altered cells were also completely reversed by GA pre-treatment. Also, when membrane sensitivity toward proteolytic digestion was tested, GA-treated cells showed high resistance to proteolysis. In conclusion, in human erythrocytes, GA is proposed to strengthen membrane integrity against both oxidative and proteolytic damage. PMID:18778682

  11. Damascenine induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice and in vitro assessed human erythrocyte toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bouguezza, Yacine; Khettal, Bachra; Tir, Lydia; Boudrioua, Souad

    2015-09-01

    Nigella damascena seed is characterized by the presence of the major alkaloid, damascenine and its related metabolites. To our knowledge, no detailed subchronic toxicological assessment of damascenine (DA) has been reported. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of DA in vivo after sub-chronic intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in mice and in vitro following human erythrocyte hemolysis. In vivo, a total of 48 adult male and female Swiss albino mice were used in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mice received intraperitoneally two doses of DA (20 and 100 mg/kg) for 28 days. Food intake, body weight and central body temperature were measured during the experiment. After completion of drug treatment, biochemical and histological analyses were performed. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups of mice, showing no toxic effects during the study. Neither were biochemical parameters altered; no significant differences were observed concerning glucose, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine parameters. No histopathological alterations were found in kidney and liver structures. In vitro, we focused on the human erythrocyte hemolytic process in the presence of several concentrations of DA. High level concentration of 1 000 μg/ml of DA revealed normal cell shapes and absence of hemolysis and deformation. PMID:27486370

  12. Effect of ethanol on nitrite- and 1-naphthol-induced oxidant stress in human and sheep erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Yang, J.H.; Horton, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The enhancement by ethanol of nitrite- and 1-naphthol-induced oxidant stress was assessed in vitro in human and Dorset sheep erythrocytes as measured by changes in methemoglobin (MetHb) and glutathione (GSH) levels. The human and sheep erythrocytes treated with nitrite (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM), 1-naphthol (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mM) or ethanol (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0%) alone revealed significant increases in MetHb and no significant decreases in GSH except for sheep erythrocytes exposed to 1-naphthol and ethanol. The combined nitrite-ethanol treatment resulted in greater than additive increases in MetHb levels in both species; however, a protective effect occurred in sheep erythrocytes at the lowest combined treatment levels. The joint naphthol-ethanol treatment also resulted in synergistic increases in MetHb levels in both species. No synergistic decreases in GSH levels were detected for either of the combined treatments. These results suggest that ethanol combined with nitrite or 1-naphthol exposure in vitro synergistically increases MetHb levels of human and sheep erythrocytes.

  13. Extraction of Phospholipids from Human Erythrocyte Membranes by Hemoglobin Oxidation Products.

    PubMed

    Brunauer, Linda S; Chen, James Y; Koontz, M Zachary; Davis, Kathryn K; O'Brien, Laura E; Wright, Emily M; Huestis, Wray H

    2016-06-01

    This investigation examines oxidation conditions under which hemoglobin extracts membrane phospholipid from erythrocytes and model membranes. In erythrocytes made echinocytic with exogenous phospholipid, addition of hemoglobin oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or Vitamin C (conditions that result in the formation of significant quantities of choleglobin), but not ferricyanide (which produces predominantly methemoglobin), induced dose-dependent shape reversion to less echinocytic forms, consistent with extraction of phospholipids from the exofacial side of the membrane. Erythrocytes preloaded with radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine or NBD-labeled phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid, exhibited greatest extraction of radiolabel or fluorescence signal with exogenous hemoglobin oxidized via H2O2 or Vitamin C, but not ferricyanide. However, with NBD-phosphatidylserine (a preferential inner monolayer intercalator), significantly less extraction of labeled lipid occurred with oxidized hemoglobin prepared under all three oxidizing conditions. In dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes containing radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine, subsequent addition of hemoglobin oxidized with H2O2 or Vitamin C extracted radiolabeled lipid with significantly greater efficiency than ferricyanide-treated hemoglobin, with enhanced extraction detectable at levels approaching physiological plasma oxidant concentrations. Radiolabeled lipid extraction was comparable for phospholipids containing saturated acyl chains between 12 and 18 carbons but diminished significantly for oleoyl-containing phospholipids. Hemoglobin dimerization occurred at very low levels with H2O2 treatment, and even lower levels with Vitamin C treatment, and thus did not correlate to the high efficiency and consistent levels of lipid extraction observed with these treatments. These findings indicate that choleglobin extracts lipids from cell

  14. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase specific to human C3b from human erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Charriaut, C.; Krikorian, L.; Barel, M.; Frade, R.

    1986-03-05

    In a previous report, they have shown that human C3b bound through CR1 to human erythrocytes is cleaved by a membrane proteinase activity. Following the molecular analysis of this proteinase activity, they have purified it by a four step procedure: ammonium sulfate precipitation, biogel filtration, fluid phase electrophoresis and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The highly purified proteinase was labeled by /sup 125/I iodine or /sup 3/H-DFP and analyzed by gel electrophoresis: a single band membrane component was characterized by its apparent molecular weight of 57 K or 60 K, under non reducing or reducing conditions respectively and was called p 57. Its reactivity with /sup 3/H-DFP and the inhibition by PMSF of the proteinase activity indicate that p 57 is a serine proteinase. Moreover, it is sensitive to aprotinin and ..gamma..1-antitrypsin. This membrane proteinase presents a higher activity in the presence of detergent and cleaves both alpha and beta chains of human C3b. Polyclonal antibody prepared against this purified proteinase inhibits its activity. On the basis of its structure and its functions, i.e. molecular weight, antigenic properties, proteinase properties and proteinases inhibitors sensitivity, p57 is not related to CR1 or DAF, two others membrane components which react with human C3b and identified by others on human erythrocytes. These specific antibodies allow to analyze the presence of p57 on human cells.

  15. Location of brown recluse venom attachment sites on human erythrocytes by the firritin-labeled antibody technique.

    PubMed Central

    Futrell, J. M.; Morgan, P. N.; Su, S. P.; Roth, S. I.

    1979-01-01

    Brown recluse spider (loxosceles reclusa) venom has been demonstrated by a ferritin-labeled antibody technique to attach to human erythrocyte cell membranes. The number of individual attachment sites per cell is proportional to the concentration of the venom used to sensitize the erythrocytes. Structural changes in the red cell membrane are associated with the venom attachment. These sites may be related to the red cell hemolysis which sometimes occurs in the human as a result of the spider bite. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:377995

  16. [Research advances on directional induction and differentiation in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells into erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sen-Quan; Zhang, Li-Fei; Wang, Ye-Bo; Huang, He

    2014-02-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is an effective method to treat acute hemorrhage and severe anemia. However, blood source from donors is very limited, and transfusion-transmitted diseases occurred frequently, thus threatening human health. Therefore, the safe, abundant and functional blood source is needed. Generation of blood cells from human pluripotent stem cells(hPSC) will offer alternative approach. Lots of studies have been focused on erythroid cell differentiation in vitro, including how to enhance efficiency and improve their function. In this review, the research advances on differentiation methods and the regulatory mechanism are summarized. In addition, the progress in PSC differentiation into erythrocytes and the problems to be solved are discussed briefly. PMID:24598681

  17. Microviscosity of human erythrocytes studied using hypophosphite two-spin order relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Price, W S; Perng, B C; Tsai, C L; Hwang, L P

    1992-01-01

    A new 31P NMR method is used to probe the cytoplasmic viscosity of human erythrocytes. The method is based on observing two-spin order relaxation of the 31P atom of the hypophosphite ion. This method is superior to our previous method, using the longitudinal relaxation time of the ion, because random field effects such as intermolecular dipole-dipole relaxation can be separated from intramolecular relaxation. This allows a more accurate determination of the effective reorientational correlation time from the measured intramolecular relaxation because it is now unaffected by random field effects. The new method also provides a means by which to estimate the random field effects. Both two-spin order and proton-decoupled T1 measurements were conducted on hypophosphite in water solutions at various temperatures, glycerol solutions of various viscosities, and in erythrocyte samples of various cell volumes. The results show that the effective reorientational correlation time of the hypophosphite ion varies from 7.2 to 15.2 ps in the cytoplasm of cells ranging in volume from 102 to 56 fl cells. PMID:1504239

  18. Protein 4.1: its association with the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Shiffer, K A; Goodman, S R

    1984-01-01

    125I-labeled protein 4.1a and 4.1b have equal ability to reassociate with inside-out erythrocyte vesicles that were depleted of protein 4.1 in addition to other peripheral membrane proteins. The reassociation of 125I-labeled protein 4.1 to protein 4.1-depleted vesicles at 4 degrees C is salt dependent, pH dependent, and saturable with a Kd of 42-50 nM and an extrapolated maximal binding capacity of 120-140 micrograms of protein 4.1 bound per mg of vesicle protein or 60-70 micrograms of protein 4.1 bound per mg of ghost protein, correlating with the protein 4.1 content in the erythrocyte membrane (6-7% of the total membrane protein). Selective proteolytic cleavage of these vesicles with papain (5 micrograms/ml at 4 degrees C) eliminates greater than 60% of the high-affinity binding sites; therefore, we conclude that the interaction of protein 4.1 with the cytoplasmic membrane surface is through a specific high-affinity protein-protein association. Images PMID:6589603

  19. Triggering of Programmed Erythrocyte Death by Alantolactone

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (≥20 μM) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 μM), ceramide abundance (60 μM) and DCFDA fluorescence (≥40 μM). The effect of alantolactone (60 μM) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

  20. [Relationship between the mechanism of erythrocyte sensitization by proteins and the spatial interrelationship between immunoglobulins and their fragments and the surface of formalin treated erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Barban, P S

    1980-06-01

    The methods of serological analysis have been used to study the immunochemical (antibody and antigenic) properties and hemosensitizing activity of a number of immunoglobulin sensitins: immune serum, its fractions (globulin, 7S, 19s, gamma-globulin), as well as pure antibodies and their F(ab)2-and Fab-fragments. According to the findings obtained in this study, the hemosensitizing activity of sensitins may be classified as immunoglobulin activity and antigenic activity. All sensitins have been found to have both immunoglobulin and antigenic activity, with the exception of Fab-fragments having only antigenic activity. The results of this study and their comparison with the known data on the fine structure and properties of IgG form the basis for drawing up the picture of the possible location of IgG and their fragments on the surface of a tanned erythrocyte. PMID:6893783

  1. Anomalous cell surface structure of sickle cell anemia erythrocytes as demonstrated by cell surface labeling and endo-beta-galactosidase treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, M.; Fukuda, M.N.; Hakomori, S.; Papayannopoulou, T.

    1981-01-01

    Erythrocyte surface glycoproteins from patients with various types of sickle cell anemia have been analyzed and compared with those from normal individuals. By hemagglutination with various anti-carbohydrate antibodies, sickle cells showed profound increase of i antigens and moderate increase of GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 3Gal beta 1 leads to 3 Glc structure, whereas antigenicity toward globosidic structure was unchanged. In parallel to these findings, erythrocytes of sickle cell patients have additional sialylated lactosaminoglycan in Band 3. Thus, it can be concluded that erythrocytes of sickle cell patients are characterized by an altered cell surface structure which does not appear to be due to topographical changes of cell surface membrane. It is possible that the anemia or the ''stress'' hematopoiesis in these patients is responsible for these changes.

  2. Temporal expression and localization patterns of variant surface antigens in clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates during erythrocyte schizogony.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Tilly, Ann-Kathrin; Biller, Laura; Uliczka, Karin A; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Avoidance of antibody-mediated immune recognition allows parasites to establish chronic infections and enhances opportunities for transmission. The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum possesses a number of multi-copy gene families, including var, rif, stevor and pfmc-2tm, which encode variant antigens believed to be expressed on the surfaces of infected erythrocytes. However, most studies of these antigens are based on in vitro analyses of culture-adapted isolates, most commonly the laboratory strain 3D7, and thus may not be representative of the unique challenges encountered by P. falciparum in the human host. To investigate the expression of the var, rif-A, rif-B, stevor and pfmc-2tm family genes under conditions that mimic more closely the natural course of infection, ex vivo clinical P. falciparum isolates were analyzed using a novel quantitative real-time PCR approach. Expression patterns in the clinical isolates at various time points during the first intraerythrocytic developmental cycle in vitro were compared to those of strain 3D7. In the clinical isolates, in contrast to strain 3D7, there was a peak of expression of the multi-copy gene families rif-A, stevor and pfmc-2tm at the young ring stage, in addition to the already known expression peak in trophozoites. Furthermore, most of the variant surface antigen families were overexpressed in the clinical isolates relative to 3D7, with the exception of the pfmc-2tm family, expression of which was higher in 3D7 parasites. Immunofluorescence analyses performed in parallel revealed two stage-dependent localization patterns of RIFIN, STEVOR and PfMC-2TM. Proteins were exported into the infected erythrocyte at the young trophozoite stage, whereas they remained inside the parasite membrane during schizont stage and were subsequently observed in different compartments in the merozoite. These results reveal a complex pattern of expression of P. falciparum multi-copy gene families during clinical progression

  3. Helical image reconstruction of the outward-open human erythrocyte band 3 membrane domain in tubular crystals.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Fujii, Takashi; Abe, Yoshito; Hirai, Teruhisa; Kang, Dongchon; Namba, Keiichi; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Mitsuoka, Kaoru

    2010-03-01

    The C-terminal membrane domain of erythrocyte band 3 functions as an anion exchanger. Here, we report the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the membrane domain in an inhibitor-stabilized, outward-open conformation at 18A resolution. Unstained, frozen-hydrated tubular crystals containing the membrane domain of band 3 purified from human red blood cells (hB3MD) were examined using cryo-electron microscopy and iterative helical real-space reconstruction (IHRSR). The 3D image reconstruction of the tubular crystals showed the molecular packing of hB3MD dimers with dimensions of 60 x 110 A in the membrane plane and a thickness of 70A across the membrane. Immunoelectron microscopy and carboxyl-terminal digestion demonstrated that the intracellular surface of hB3MD was exposed on the outer surface of the tubular crystal. A 3D density map revealed that hB3MD consists of at least two subdomains and that the outward-open form is characterized by a large hollow area on the extracellular surface and continuous density on the intracellular surface. PMID:20005958

  4. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J. P.; Costa, Tamara G. F.; Silva, Lilian N. D.; Renó, Cristiane O.; Oliveira, Eneida S.; Tilelli, Cristiane Q.; Santos, Luciana L.; Cortes, Vanessa F.; Santos, Herica L.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels. PMID:26197432

  5. Identification of oxidized protein hydrolase of human erythrocytes as acylpeptide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Fujino, T; Watanabe, K; Beppu, M; Kikugawa, K; Yasuda, H

    2000-03-16

    Partial amino acid sequence of 80 kDa oxidized protein hydrolase (OPH), a serine protease present in human erythrocyte cytosol (Fujino et al., J. Biochem. 124 (1998) 1077-1085) that is adherent to oxidized erythrocyte membranes and preferentially degrades oxidatively damaged proteins (Beppu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1196 (1994) 81-87; Fujino et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1374 (1998) 47-55) was determined. The N-terminal amino acid of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-labeled OPH was suggested to be masked. Six peptide fragments of OPH obtained by digestion of DFP-labeled OPH with lysyl endopeptidase were isolated by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the sequence of more than eight amino acids from the N-terminal position of each peptide was determined. Results of homology search of amino acid sequence of each peptide strongly suggested that the protein was identical with human liver acylpeptide hydrolase (ACPH). OPH showed ACPH activity when N-acetyl-L-alanine p-nitroanilide and N-acetylmethionyl L-alanine were used as substrates. Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged recombinant ACPH (rACPH) was prepared by use of baculovirus expression system as a 107-kDa protein from cDNA of human erythroleukemic cell line K-562. rACPH reacted with anti-OPH antiserum from rabbit. rACPH showed OPH activity when hydrogen peroxide-oxidized or glycated bovine serum albumin was used as substrates. As well as the enzyme activities of OPH, those of rACPH were inhibited by DFP. The results clearly demonstrate that ACPH, whose physiological function has not yet been well characterized, can play an important role as OPH in destroying oxidatively damaged proteins in living cells. PMID:10719179

  6. Lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolases of human erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain: Sensitive targets of conserved specificity for organophosphorus delayed neurotoxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, Sarah C.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Casida, John E.

    2007-10-01

    Brain neuropathy target esterase (NTE), associated with organophosphorus (OP)-induced delayed neuropathy, has the same OP inhibitor sensitivity and specificity profiles assayed in the classical way (paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive hydrolysis of phenyl valerate) or with lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) as the substrate. Extending our earlier observation with mice, we now examine human erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and brain LysoPC hydrolases as possible sensitive targets for OP delayed neurotoxicants and insecticides. Inhibitor profiling of human erythrocytes and lymphocytes gave the surprising result of essentially the same pattern as with brain. Human erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolases are highly sensitive to OP delayed neurotoxicants, with in vitro IC{sub 50} values of 0.13-85 nM for longer alkyl analogs, and poorly sensitive to the current OP insecticides. In agricultural workers, erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolyzing activities are similar for newborn children and their mothers and do not vary with paraoxonase status but have high intersample variation that limits their use as a biomarker. Mouse erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolase activity is also of low sensitivity in vitro and in vivo to the OP insecticides whereas the delayed neurotoxicant ethyl n-octylphosphonyl fluoride inhibits activity in vivo at 1-3 mg/kg. Overall, inhibition of blood LysoPC hydrolases is as good as inhibition of brain NTE as a predictor of OP inducers of delayed neuropathy. NTE and lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) both hydrolyze LysoPC, yet they are in distinct enzyme families with no sequence homology and very different catalytic sites. The relative contributions of NTE and LysoPLAs to LysoPC hydrolysis and clearance from erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain remain to be defined.

  7. Quantitative determination of native proteins in individual human erythrocytes by capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.T.; Yeung, E.S. Iowa State Univ., Ames )

    1992-12-01

    Intracellular fluid within single human erythrocytes is analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with laser-excited native protein fluorescence. Good signal-to-noise is achieved, allowing even minor components to be quantified. Non-Gaussian distributions were found for total protein, fraction carbonic anhydrase, fraction hemoglobin A[sub 0], and an unidentified component. Variations among a group of 29 cells for each quantity are as much as 1 order of magnitude, even though erythrocytes are known to be fairly homogeneous in size distribution. Variations in fraction hemoglobin A[sub 0] reflect differences in in vitro oxidation rates to methemoglobin. A positive correlation was observed between carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin A[sub 0] for individual cells. This is consistent with the presence of erythrocytes of different ages within the population, with the older cells being less capable of maintaining enzyme activity and preventing oxidative damage. 35 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Site-specific antibodies as probes of the topology and function of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, A; Ciardelli, T L; Lienhard, G E; Boyle, J M; Whetton, A D; Baldwin, S A

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to most of the regions of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter predicted to be extramembranous in the model of Mueckler, Caruso, Baldwin, Panico, Blench, Morris, Lienhard, Allard & Lodish [(1985) Science 229, 941-945]. Most of the antibodies (17 out of a total of 19) recognized the intact denatured protein on Western blots. However, only seven of the antibodies recognized the native membrane-bound protein, even after its deglycosylation. These antibodies, against peptides encompassing residues 217-272 and 450-492 in the hydrophilic central and C-terminal regions of the transporter, bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the erythrocyte membrane. This finding is in agreement with the prediction of the model that these regions of the sequence are cytoplasmic. Antibodies against peptides from the central cytoplasmic loop of the transporter were found to inhibit the binding of cytochalasin B to the membrane-bound protein, whereas antibodies against the C-terminal region had no effect. The anti-peptide antibodies were then used to map the sequence locations of fragments of the transporter arising from tryptic digestion of the membrane-bound protein. This in turn enabled the epitopes for a number of anti-transporter monoclonal antibodies to be located within either the central cytoplasmic loop or the C-terminal region of the protein. Of those monoclonal antibodies which inhibited cytochalasin B binding to the protein, all but one were found to have epitopes within the central region of the sequence. In conjunction with the results of the anti-peptide antibody studies, these findings indicate the importance of this part of the protein for transporter function. Images Fig. 7. PMID:1691633

  9. Inhibition of Sendai virus fusion with phospholipid vesicles and human erythrocyte membranes by hydrophobic peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, D.R.; Flanagan, T.D.; Young, J.E.; Yeagle, P.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Hydrophobic di- and tripeptides which are capable of inhibiting enveloped virus infection of cells are also capable of inhibiting at least three different types of membrane fusion events. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of N-methyl dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (N-methyl DOPE), containing encapsulated 1-aminonaphthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid (ANTS) and/or p-xylene bis(pyridinium bromide) (DPX), were formed by extrusion. Vesicle fusion and leakage were then monitored with the ANTS/DPX fluorescence assay. Sendai virus fusion with lipid vesicles and Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes were measured by following the relief of fluorescence quenching of virus labeled with octadecylrhodamine B chloride (R18). This study found that the effectiveness of the peptides carbobenzoxy-L-Phe-L-Phe (Z-L-Phe-L-Phe), Z-L-Phe, Z-D-Phe, and Z-Gly-L-Phe-L-Phe in inhibiting N-methyl DOPE LUV fusion or fusion of virus with N-methyl DOPE LUV also paralleled their reported ability to block viral infectivity. Furthermore, Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly and Z-Gly-L-Phe inhibited Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes with the same relative potency with which they inhibited vesicle-vesicle and virus-vesicle fusion. The evidence suggests a mechanism by which these peptides exert their inhibition of plaque formation by enveloped viruses. This class of inhibitors apparently acts by inhibiting fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane, thereby preventing viral infection. The physical pathway by which these peptides inhibit membrane fusion was investigated. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of proposed intermediates in the pathway for membrane fusion in LUV revealed that the potent fusion inhibitor Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly selectively altered the structure (or dynamics) of the hypothesized fusion intermediates and that the poor inhibitor Z-Gly-L-Phe did not.

  10. Human erythrocyte nucleoside transporter ENT1 functions at ice-cold temperatures.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kimura, Eri; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nagai, Junya; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2010-01-01

    The functionality of human erythrocyte nucleoside transporter ENT1 was examined at ice-cold temperatures (ICT; measured temperature, 0.5-0.7 degrees C) using rightside-out membrane vesicles (ROVs). The uptake of uridine, an ENT1 substrate, showed saturation kinetics and was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), a specific ENT1 inhibitor, at both 23 degrees C and ICT. [3H]Uridine uptake was markedly trans-stimulated by preloading ROVs with unlabeled uridine or ribavirin, another ENT1 substrate, and the overshoot phenomenon was observed at ICT. Similarly, [3H]ribavirin uptake was markedly trans-stimulated by unlabeled ribavirin or uridine at ICT. The trans-stimulated uptake of [3H]uridine at ICT was inhibited by ENT1 inhibitors/substrates such as NBMPR, dipyridamole, adenosine, and ribavirin in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition of [3H]uridine uptake by NBMPR and dipyridamole at ICT was also observed in intact red blood cells. Like uridine uptake, [3H]D-glucose uptake by ROVs, which is mediated by facilitative glucose transporter GLUT1, was trans-stimulated by unlabeled D-glucose at ICT, and the overshoot phenomenon was observed. In contrast, the ability of ATP-dependent transport of 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein via multidrug resistance-associated protein 5 in inside-out membrane vesicles disappeared at ICT. These results clearly indicate that human erythrocyte transporters such as ENT1 function even at very low temperatures near 0 degrees C. The significance of these findings in transporter research is discussed. PMID:20814156

  11. Proteinase-resistant factors in human erythrocyte membranes mediate CD4-dependent fusion with cells expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Dragic, T; Picard, L; Alizon, M

    1995-01-01

    Murine CD4+ cells are resistant to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry and to fusion with cells expressing HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env). The role of human-specific factors in Env/CD4-mediated fusion is shown by the ability of transient cell hybrids formed between CD4+ murine cells and human HeLa cells to fuse with Env+ cells. Fusion events were observed when other human cells, including erythrocytes, were substituted for HeLa cells in the hybrids. Experiments with erythrocyte ghosts showed that the factors allowing Env/CD4-mediated fusion are located in the plasma membrane. These factors were fully active after extensive digestion of erythrocytes with proteinase K or pronase. Nonprotein components of human plasma membranes, possibly glycolipids, could therefore be required for Env/CD4-mediated fusion and virus entry. PMID:7815477

  12. Hydroxychloroquine binding to cytoplasmic domain of Band 3 in human erythrocytes: Novel mechanistic insights into drug structure, efficacy and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mizuki; Sugawara, Kotomi; Goto, Tatsufumi; Wakui, Hideki; Nunomura, Wataru

    2016-05-13

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a widely used drug in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. It has also been prescribed for the treatment of malaria owing to its lower toxicity compared to its closely related compound chloroquine (CQ). However, the mechanisms of action of HCQ in erythrocytes (which bind preferentially this drug) have not been documented and the reasons underlying the lower side effects of HCQ compared to CQ remain unclear. Here we show that, although the activity of erythrocyte lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but not GAPDH, was inhibited by both HCQ and CQ in vitro, LDH activity in erythrocytes incubated with 20 mM HCQ was not significantly reduced within 5 h in contrast to CQ did. Using HCQ coupled Sepharose chromatography (HCQ-Sepharose), we identified Band 3, spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.1R and protein 4.2 as HCQ binding proteins in human erythrocyte plasma membrane. Recombinant cytoplasmic N-terminal 43 kDa domain of Band 3 bound to HCQ-Sepharose and was eluted with 40 mM (but not 20 mM) HCQ. Band 3 transport activity was reduced by only 23% in the presence of 20 mM HCQ. Taken together, these data demonstrate that HCQ binds to the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of Band 3 in human erythrocytes but does not inhibit dramatically its transport activity. We hypothesize that the trapping of HCQ on Band 3 contributes to the lower side effects of the drug on energy production in erythrocytes. PMID:27049308

  13. Insulin inhibits human erythrocyte cAMP accumulation and ATP release: role of PDE3 and PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Madelyn S.; Stephenson, Alan H.; Bowles, Elizabeth A.; Sprague, Randy S.

    2010-01-01

    In non – erythroid cells, insulin stimulates a signal transduction pathway that results in the activation of phosphoinositide 3 – kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3). Erythrocytes possess insulin receptors, PI3K, and PDE3B. These cells release ATP via a signaling pathway that requires activation of the G protein, Gi, as well as increases in cAMP. Although insulin inhibits ATP release from human erythrocytes in response to Gi activation with mastoparan 7 (Mas 7), no effect on cAMP was described. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that insulin activates PDE3 in human erythrocytes via a PI3K – mediated mechanism resulting in cAMP hydrolysis and inhibition of ATP release. We show that insulin attenuates Mas 7 – induced increases in cAMP and that selective inhibitors of PDE3 (cilostazol) or PI3K (LY294002) rescue this effect of insulin. In addition, we demonstrated that both cilostazol and LY294002 prevent insulin – induced attenuation of Mas 7 – induced ATP release. These results provide support for the hypothesis that insulin activates PDE3 in erythrocytes via a PI3K – dependent mechanism. Once activated, PDE3 limits Mas 7 – induced increases in intracellular cAMP. This effect of insulin leads, ultimately, to decreased ATP release in response to Mas 7. Since the activation of Gi is required for reduced O2 tension – induced ATP release from erythrocytes, and insulin has been shown to inhibit that release, these results suggest a novel mechanism by which supraphysiological levels of plasma insulin, such as those reported in humans with prediabetes, could inhibit ATP release from erythrocytes. Erythrocyte – derived ATP has been shown to participate in the matching of O2 supply with demand in skeletal muscle. Thus, pathological increases in circulating insulin could, via activation of PDE3, inhibit ATP release from erythrocytes depriving the peripheral circulation of a mechanism that regulates delivery of O2 to meet tissue

  14. Surface co-expression of two different PfEMP1 antigens on single plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes facilitates binding to ICAM1 and PECAM1.

    PubMed

    Joergensen, Louise; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Bengtsson, Anja; Ronander, Elena; Berger, Sanne S; Turner, Louise; Dalgaard, Michael B; Cham, Gerald K K; Victor, Michala E; Lavstsen, Thomas; Theander, Thor G; Arnot, David E; Jensen, Anja T R

    2010-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigens play a major role in cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE), antigenic variation, and immunity to malaria. The current consensus on control of variant surface antigen expression is that only one PfEMP1 encoded by one var gene is expressed per cell at a time. We measured var mRNA transcript levels by real-time Q-PCR, analysed var gene transcripts by single-cell FISH and directly compared these with PfEMP1 antigen surface expression and cytoadhesion in three different antibody-selected P. falciparum 3D7 sub-lines using live confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and in vitro adhesion assays. We found that one selected parasite sub-line simultaneously expressed two different var genes as surface antigens, on single IE. Importantly, and of physiological relevance to adhesion and malaria pathogenesis, this parasite sub-line was found to bind both CD31/PECAM1 and CD54/ICAM1 and to adhere twice as efficiently to human endothelial cells, compared to infected cells having only one PfEMP1 variant on the surface. These new results on PfEMP1 antigen expression indicate that a re-evaluation of the molecular mechanisms involved in P. falciparum adhesion and of the accepted paradigm of absolutely mutually exclusive var gene transcription is required. PMID:20824088

  15. Physicochemical Aspects of the Plasmodium chabaudi-Infected Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Eri H.; Kobayashi, Seiki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Membrane electrochemical potential is a feature of the molecular profile of the cell membrane and the two-dimensional arrangement of its charge-bearing molecules. Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria, are intracellular parasites that remodel host erythrocytes by expressing their own proteins on erythrocyte membranes. Although various aspects of the modifications made to the host erythrocyte membrane have been extensively studied in some human Plasmodium species (such as Plasmodium falciparum), details of the structural and molecular biological modifications made to host erythrocytes by nonhuman Plasmodium parasites have not been studied. We employed zeta potential analysis of erythrocytes parasitized by P. chabaudi, a nonhuman Plasmodium parasite. From these measurements, we found that the surface potential shift was more negative for P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes than for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. However, electron microscopic analysis of the surface of P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes did not reveal any modifications as compared with nonparasitized erythrocytes. These results suggest that differences in the membrane modifications found herein represent unique attributes related to the pathogenesis profiles of the two different malaria parasite species in different host animals and that these features have been acquired through parasite adaptations acquired over long evolutionary time periods. PMID:26557685

  16. Diversity of antigens expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected with mature Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, K P; Philip, G; Smith, T; Kum, E; Southwell, B; Brown, G V

    1989-09-01

    Antigens were detected on the surface of erythrocytes from children with acute falciparum malaria in Madang, Papua New Guinea. These parasite-induced erythrocyte surface antigens (PIESA) were serotyped with convalescent sera from children and hyperimmune sera from adults in parasite infected cell agglutination assays (PICAs) and by inhibition of binding of infected cells to melanoma cells. Extensive serological diversity of PIESA was demonstrated. A significant correlation between serotypes defined by reactivity of immune sera in PICA and inhibition of melanoma cell binding (MCB) was observed. This suggests that both assays measure antibody responses to the same antigen(s). Increased recognition of different PIESA specificities with age is consistent with the hypothesis that repeated exposure to malaria confers immunity against a range of PIESA serotypes and parallels the development of clinical immunity to malaria in this area of Papua New Guinea. PMID:2679156

  17. Protective effect of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana S; Silva, Branca M; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Carvalho, Márcia

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant activity of quince (Cydonia oblonga) fruit. For this purpose, fruits were separated into pulps, peels and seeds and methanolic extracts were prepared. The phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC/UV and antioxidant properties were studied for their ability to quench the stable free radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and to inhibit the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes. The main phenolic compounds were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid for pulp and peel (57% and 29%, respectively) and stellarin-2 for seed (18%). Total phenolics content was 2.5, 6.3 and 0.4g/kg of methanolic extract for pulp, peel and seed, respectively. Pulp and peel extracts showed similar DPPH free radical scavenging activities (EC(50) of 0.6 and 0.8 mg/ml, respectively), while seed extract presented much lower antioxidant potential (EC(50) of 12.2mg/ml). Under the oxidative action of AAPH, pulp and peel extracts showed significant protection of the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Seed extracts by themselves induced extensive hemolysis. These results indicate higher antioxidant activity for certain parts of quince fruit, namely pulp and peel, that may therefore represent accessible sources of natural antioxidants with potential application in nutritional/pharmaceutical fields, as preventive or therapeutic agents in diseases in which free radicals are implicated. PMID:19306906

  18. Protective effect of Ugni molinae Turcz against oxidative damage of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Orellana, P; Avello, M; Villena, F

    2007-01-01

    Ugni molinae Turcz, also known as "Murtilla", is a plant that grows in the south of Chile. Infusions of its leaves have long been used in traditional native herbal medicine. The chemical composition of the leaves indicates the presence of polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. In the present work, the antioxidant properties of U. molinae were evaluated in human erythrocytes exposed in vitro to oxidative stress induced by HClO. The experiments were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hemolysis measurements. The SEM observations showed that HClO induced a morphological alteration in the red blood cells from a discoid to an echinocytic form. According to the bilayer couple hypothesis, the formation of echinocytes indicates that HClO was inserted in the outer leaflet of the erythrocyte membrane. However, a concentration as low as 10 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE) U. molinae aqueous extract neutralized the shape change effect of HClO applied in a concentration as high as 0.25 mM. The significant protection of U. molinae aqueous extract was also shown in the hemolysis experiments. In fact, very low concentrations of the extract considerably reduced the deleterious capacity of HClO to induce hemolysis in red blood cells. It is concluded that the location of the extract components into the membrane bilayer and the resulting restriction on its fluidity might hinder the diffusion of HClO and its consequent damaging effects. This conclusion can also imply that this restriction could apply to the diffusion of free radicals into cell membranes and the subsequent decrease of the kinetics of free radical reactions. PMID:17030381

  19. PHOSPHINE-MEDIATED HEINZ BODY FORMATION AND HEMOGLOBIN OXIDATION IN HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of hen erythrocytes in vitro to phosphine (PH 3) induces the development of Heinz body lesions. he lower limit for phosphine mediated Heinz body formation is 1.25 ppm for a four hour exposure. t exposure levels of 3.0 ppm or higher all erythrocytes are observed to contai...

  20. Hydroxytyrosol inhibits phosphatidylserine exposure and suicidal death induced by mercury in human erythrocytes: Possible involvement of the glutathione pathway.

    PubMed

    Officioso, Arbace; Alzoubi, Kousi; Lang, Florian; Manna, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic antioxidant naturally occurring in virgin olive oil. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effects of HT on programmed suicidal death (eryptosis) induced by mercury (Hg) treatment in intact human erythrocytes (RBC). Our study confirms that the Hg-eryptosis is characterized by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure at the cell surface, with cell shrinkage and ATP and glutathione depletion; calcium influx is also a key event that triggers eryptosis. Here we report that cell preconditioning with an optimal dose (1-5 μM) of HT prior to exposure to 2.5 μM HgCl2 causes a noteworthy decrease in PS-exposing RBC, almost restoring ATP and GSH content. Conversely, HT shows no effect against decrease in cell volume nor against influx of extracellular calcium. Taken together our data provide the first experimental evidence of the efficacy of HT in modulating the programmed suicidal death in non nucleated cells; the reported findings also confirm that the prevention of Hg toxicity should be regarded as an additional mechanism responsible for the health-promoting potential of this dietary phenol. Finally, virgin olive oil would appear to be a promising healthy food to reduce the adverse effects of chronic mercury exposure in humans. PMID:26774912

  1. Protective Effect of Selenium-Based Medicines on Toxicity of Three Common Organophosphorus Compounds in Human Erythrocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mostafalou, Sara; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are used to control pests, however they can reach the food chain and enter the human body causing serious health problems by means of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and oxidative stress (OS). Among the OPs, chlorpyrifos (CHP), malathion (MAL), and diazinon (DIA) are commonly used for commercial extermination purposes, in addition to veterinary practices, domestic, agricul- ture and public health applications. Two new recently registered medicines that contain selenium and other antioxidants, IMOD and angipars (ANG), have shown beneficial ef- fects for OS related disorders. This study examines the effect of selenium-based medi- cines on toxicity of three common OP compounds in erythrocytes. Materials and Methods In the present experimental study, we determined the ef- ficacy of IMOD and ANG on OS induced by three mentioned OP pesticides in human erythrocytes in vitro. After dose-response studies, AChE, lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP) and total thiol molecules (TTM) were measured in eryth- rocytes after exposure to OPs alone and in combined treatment with IMOD or ANG. Results AChE activity, TAP and TTM reduced in erythrocytes exposed to CHP, MAL and DIA while they were restored in the presence of ANG and IMOD. ANG and IMOD reduced the OPs-induced elevation of LPO. Conclusion The present study shows the positive effects of IMOD and ANG in re- duction of OS and restoration of AChE inhibition induced by CHP, MAL and DIA in erythrocytes in vitro. PMID:26862533

  2. Variations in the distribution of selenium between erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and hemoglobin in different human populations

    SciTech Connect

    Whanger, P.D.; Robinson, M.F.; Feldman, E.B.; Beilstein, M.A.; Butler, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    The majority of erythrocyte (RBC) selenium (Se) is associated with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in animals, but most of it is with hemoglobin (Hb) in human RBCs. Dietary forms of Se may influence this distribution since a rat study showed that selenite promoted the deposition of Se in GPx but selenomethionine (SeMet) resulted in greater amounts with Hb. Three different populations of people were chosen to investigate some possible reasons for the Se distribution in human RBC proteins. An average of 12% of the RBC Se (0.71 ng Se/mg Hb) was associated with GPx in people living in Oregon, but nearly 30% of the Se was associated with GPx in RBC (0.26 ng Se/mg Hb) from New Zealanders. Georgia residents with low RBC Se levels (0.35 ng Se/mg Hb) had 38% of the Se associated with GPx as compared to 29% for those with higher RBC levels (0.56 ng Se/mg Hb). In a third group of people the amount of Se tended to be higher in RBC GPx from non-vegetarian OSU students than from vegetarians. The predominant form of Se in meat appears to be selenocysteine, which is metabolized similarly to selenite, and presumably contributes to this difference since many plant foods contain Se as SeMet. These are examples of many possible factors affecting the relative distribution of Se in human RBC proteins.

  3. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte. beta. -spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    Prchal, J.T.; Morley, B.J.; Yoon, S.H.; Coetzer, T.L.; Palek, J.; Conboy, J.G.; Kan, Y.W.

    1987-11-01

    Spectrin is an important structural component of the membrane skeleton that underlies and supports the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It is composed of nonidentical ..cap alpha.. (M/sub r/ 240,000) and ..beta.. (M/sub r/ 220,000) subunits, each of which contains multiple homologous 106-amino acid segments. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of a human erythroid-specific ..beta..-spectrin cDNA clone that encodes parts of the ..beta..-9 through ..beta..-12 repeat segments. This cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to assign the ..beta..-spectrin gene to human chromosome 14 and to begin molecular analysis of the gene and its mRNA transcripts. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the reticulocyte ..beta..-spectrin mRNA is 7.8 kilobases in length. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) within the ..beta..-spectrin gene locus. The isolation of human spectrin cDNA probes and the identification of closely linked RFLPs will facilitate analysis of mutant spectrin genes causing congenital hemolytic anemias associated with quantitative and qualitative spectrin abnormalities.

  4. Triggering of Erythrocyte Death by Triparanol

    PubMed Central

    Officioso, Arbace; Manna, Caterina; Alzoubi, Kousi; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor Triparanol has been shown to trigger apoptosis in several malignancies. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress which may activate erythrocytic Ca2+ permeable unselective cation channels with subsequent Ca2+ entry and increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). The present study explored whether and how Triparanol induces eryptosis. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ROS formation from 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) dependent fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Triparanol (20 µM) significantly increased DCFDA fluorescence and significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence. Triparanol (15 µM) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, and significantly decreased the forward scatter. The effect of Triparanol on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, Triparanol leads to eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane. Triparanol is at least in part effective by stimulating ROS formation and Ca2+ entry. PMID:26305256

  5. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan. PMID

  6. Agglutination of human erythrocytes by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine-651 on the extracellular domain of band 3.

    PubMed

    Kiyotake, Kento; Ochiai, Hideharu; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    Clustering of band 3, chloride/bicarbonate exchanger, has been reported in Zn(2+)-treated human erythrocytes. However, the agglutination of human erythrocytes is also induced by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine on band 3. Identification of histidine that interacts with Zn(2+)ion remains to be determined. The Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes was unaffected by chymotrypsin cleavage of the small loop region containing His-547 in the extracellular domain of band 3. On the other hand, papain digestion of the large loop region containing His-651 in band 3 inhibited such Zn(2+)-induced agglutination. Moreover, Zn(2+)-induced erythrocyte agglutination was inhibited by the peptide (ARGWVIHPLG) containing His-651, but not by the peptide such as ARGWVIRPLG, which His-651 was substituted by arginine. Among 10 kinds of animal erythrocytes tested, interestingly, no agglutination by Zn(2+)ions was observed in cow cells only that the forth amino acid in the upstream from His-669 on the large loop of cow band 3 is aspartate (Asp-665) instead of glycine. As expected, the agglutination of human erythrocytes by Zn(2+) ions was inhibited in the presence of aspartate. These data indicate that the interaction of Zn(2+) ion with His-651 residue of band 3 plays an important role in the Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes. PMID:26859120

  7. Iloprost- and isoproterenol-induced increases in cAMP are regulated by different phosphodiesterases in erythrocytes of both rabbits and humans

    PubMed Central

    Adderley, Shaquria P.; Dufaux, Eileen A.; Sridharan, Meera; Bowles, Elizabeth A.; Hanson, Madelyn S.; Stephenson, Alan H.; Ellsworth, Mary L.; Sprague, Randy S.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the G protein Gs results in increases in cAMP, a necessary step in the pathway for ATP release from rabbit and human erythrocytes. In all cells, the level of cAMP is the product of its synthesis by adenylyl cyclase and its hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Both iloprost (Ilo), a PGI2 analog, and isoproterenol (Iso), a β-agonist, stimulate receptor-mediated increases in cAMP in rabbit and human erythrocytes. However, the specific PDEs associated with each of these signaling pathways in the erythrocyte have not been fully characterized. Previously, we reported that PDE3B is present in rabbit and human erythrocyte membranes and that PDE3 inhibitors potentiate Ilo-induced increases in cAMP. Here we report that inhibitors of either PDE2 or PDE4, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and rolipram, respectively, potentiate Iso-induced increases in cAMP in rabbit and human erythrocytes. Importantly, these inhibitors had no effect on cAMP increases associated with the incubation of erythrocytes with Ilo. In addition, we establish, for the first time, the presence of PDE2A protein in rabbit and human erythrocyte membranes. Finally, we determined that preincubation of human erythrocytes with EHNA and rolipram together potentiate Iso-induced ATP release, whereas preincubation with cilostazol enhances Ilo-induced release of ATP. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in rabbit and human erythrocytes, Ilo-induced increases in cAMP and ATP release are regulated by PDE3, whereas those associated with Iso are regulated by the activities of both PDE2 and PDE4. These studies demonstrate that PDE activity in these cells is localized to specific signaling pathways. PMID:19252089

  8. Allelic Diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Entails Variant-Specific Red Cell Surface Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Vigan-Womas, Inès; Guillotte, Micheline; Juillerat, Alexandre; Vallieres, Cindy; Lewit-Bentley, Anita; Tall, Adama; Baril, Laurence; Bentley, Graham A.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2011-01-01

    The clonally variant Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 adhesin is a virulence factor and a prime target of humoral immunity. It is encoded by a repertoire of functionally differentiated var genes, which display architectural diversity and allelic polymorphism. Their serological relationship is key to understanding the evolutionary constraints on this gene family and rational vaccine design. Here, we investigated the Palo Alto/VarO and IT4/R29 and 3D7/PF13_003 parasites lines. VarO and R29 form rosettes with uninfected erythrocytes, a phenotype associated with severe malaria. They express an allelic Cys2/group A NTS-DBL1α1 PfEMP1 domain implicated in rosetting, whose 3D7 ortholog is encoded by PF13_0003. Using these three recombinant NTS-DBL1α1 domains, we elicited antibodies in mice that were used to develop monovariant cultures by panning selection. The 3D7/PF13_0003 parasites formed rosettes, revealing a correlation between sequence identity and virulence phenotype. The antibodies cross-reacted with the allelic domains in ELISA but only minimally with the Cys4/group B/C PFL1955w NTS-DBL1α. By contrast, they were variant-specific in surface seroreactivity of the monovariant-infected red cells by FACS analysis and in rosette-disruption assays. Thus, while ELISA can differentiate serogroups, surface reactivity assays define the more restrictive serotypes. Irrespective of cumulated exposure to infection, antibodies acquired by humans living in a malaria-endemic area also displayed a variant-specific surface reactivity. Although seroprevalence exceeded 90% for each rosetting line, the kinetics of acquistion of surface-reactive antibodies differed in the younger age groups. These data indicate that humans acquire an antibody repertoire to non-overlapping serotypes within a serogroup, consistent with an antibody-driven diversification pressure at the population level. In addition, the data provide important information for vaccine design, as production of a vaccine

  9. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Nelfinavir

    PubMed Central

    Bissinger, Rosi; Waibel, Sabrina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections, has later been shown to be effective in various infectious diseases including malaria. Nelfinavir may trigger mitochondria-independent cell death. Erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a mitochondria-independent suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress and increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i). During malaria, accelerated death of infected erythrocytes may decrease parasitemia and thus favorably influence the clinical course of the disease. In the present study, phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with nelfinavir significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥5µg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (≥2.5µg/mL), significantly increased ROS abundance (10 µg/mL), and significantly increased [Ca2+]i (≥5 µg/mL). The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following nelfinavir treatment was significantly blunted, but not abolished by either addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (1 mM) or removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, exposure of erythrocytes to nelfinavir induces oxidative stress and Ca2+ entry, thus leading to suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling. PMID:26008229

  10. The effects of phorbol ester, diacylglycerol, phospholipase C and Ca2+ ionophore on protein phosphorylation in human and sheep erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Raval, P J; Allan, D

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of human or sheep erythrocytes with PMA (phorbol myristate acetate) enhanced [32P]phosphate labelling of membrane polypeptides of approx. 100, 80 and 46 kDa. The 80 kDa and 46 kDa polypeptides coincided with bands 4.1 and 4.9 respectively on Coomassie-Blue-stained gels. Similar but smaller effects were obtained by treating human cells with 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol (OAG), exogenous bacterial phospholipase C or ionophore A23187 + Ca2+, each of which treatments would be expected to raise the concentration of membrane diacylglycerol. In contrast, sheep cells, which do not increase their content of diacylglycerol when treated with phospholipase C or A23187 + Ca2+, only showed enhanced phosphorylation with OAG. Neither human nor sheep cells showed any enhanced [32P]phosphate labelling of phosphoproteins when treated with 1-mono-oleoyl-rac-glycerol. It is concluded that diacylglycerol from a variety of sources can activate erythrocyte protein kinase C, but that the most effective diacylglycerol is that derived from endogenous polyphosphoinositides. In contrast with bacterial phospholipase C and A23187, which stimulate synthesis of phosphatidate by increasing the cell-membrane content of diacylglycerol in human erythrocytes, PMA, OAG or 1-mono-oleoyl-rac-glycerol caused no change in phospholipid metabolism. Images PMID:4084238

  11. Oxidative damage increases intracellular free calcium [Ca2+]i concentration in human erythrocytes incubated with lead.

    PubMed

    Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González-Martínez, M T; del Pilar, Intriago-Ortega Ma; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2010-08-01

    One important effect of lead toxicity in erythrocytes consists of increasing [Ca(2+)](i) which in turn may cause alterations in cell shape and volume and it is associated with cellular rigidity, hemolysis, senescence and apoptosis. In this work, we proposed the use of erythrocytes incubated with Pb(2+) to assess association of the mechanisms of lead erythrocyte oxidative damage and calcium homeostasis. Lead incubation produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) dose- and time-dependent, which mainly involved Ca(2+) entry mechanism. Additionally, in this in vitro model alterations similar to erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers were produced: Increase in Ca(2+) influx, decrease in (Ca(2+)-Mg(2+))-ATPase activity and GSH/GSGG ratio; increase in lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation and osmotic fragility accompanied of dramatic morphological changes. Co-incubation with trolox, a soluble vitamin-E analog is able to prevent these alterations indicating that lead damage mechanism is strongly associated with oxidative damage with an intermediate toxic effect via [Ca(2+)](i) increase. Furthermore, erythrocytes oxidation induced with a free radical generator (APPH) showed effects in [Ca(2+)](i) and oxidative damage similar to those found in erythrocytes incubated with lead. Co-incubation with trolox prevents the oxidative effects induced by AAPH in erythrocytes. These results suggest that increase of [Ca(2+)](i) depends on the oxidative status of the erythrocytes incubated with lead. We consider that this model contributes in the understanding of the relation between oxidative damage induced by lead exposure and Ca(2+) homeostasis, the consequences related to these phenomena and the molecular basis of lead toxicity in no excitable cells. PMID:20460147

  12. Transmembrane Exchange of Hyperpolarized 13C-Urea in Human Erythrocytes: Subminute Timescale Kinetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pagès, Guilhem; Puckeridge, Max; Liangfeng, Guo; Tan, Yee Ling; Jacob, Chacko; Garland, Marc; Kuchel, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    The rate of exchange of urea across the membranes of human erythrocytes (red blood cells) was quantified on the 1-s to 2-min timescale. 13C-urea was hyperpolarized and subjected to rapid dissolution and the previously reported (partial) resolution of 13C NMR resonances from the molecules inside and outside red blood cells in suspensions was observed. This enabled a stopped-flow type of experiment to measure the (initially) zero-trans transport of urea with sequential single-pulse 13C NMR spectra, every second for up to ∼2 min. Data were analyzed using Bayesian reasoning and a Markov chain Monte Carlo method with a set of simultaneous nonlinear differential equations that described nuclear magnetic relaxation combined with transmembrane exchange. Our results contribute to quantitative understanding of urea-exchange kinetics in the whole body; and the methodological approach is likely to be applicable to other cellular systems and tissues in vivo. PMID:24209840

  13. Chlorodinitrobenzene-mediated damage in the human erythrocyte membrane leads to haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Cheng-Gang; Agar, Nihal S; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2002-07-01

    1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), an intracellular glutathione-depleting agent, has been shown to have an adverse effect on erythrocyte membrane integrity. In the current study, we have demonstrated that CDNB caused haemolysis of human red blood cells (RBC) at higher concentrations (>or= 5 mM). The haemolysis induced by CDNB was preceded by the leakage of K(+) from the cells suggesting the colloid-osmotic nature of this lysis. The inclusion of molecules of increasing size in the extracellular media inhibited both the rate and extent of haemolysis thus supporting the proposal of CDNB-induced pore formation. The size of membrane lesions increased with an increase in the concentration of CDNB. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that CDNB causes the polymerisation and/or fragmentation of membrane proteins. Although CDNB has been shown to cause a drastic reduction in membrane thiols, our data suggest that the CDNB-induced formation of membrane disulfide bonds as a prima facie cause of permeability enhancement is unlikely. PMID:12074932

  14. Structurally Similar but Functionally Diverse ZU5 Domains in Human Erythrocyte Ankyrin

    SciTech Connect

    Yasunaga, Mai; Ipsaro, Jonathan J.; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2014-10-02

    The metazoan cell membrane is highly organized. Maintaining such organization and preserving membrane integrity under different conditions are accomplished through intracellular tethering to an extensive, flexible protein network. Spectrin, the principal component of this network, is attached to the membrane through the adaptor protein ankyrin, which directly bridges the interaction between {beta}-spectrin and membrane proteins. Ankyrins have a modular structure that includes two tandem ZU5 domains. The first domain, ZU5A, is directly responsible for binding {beta}-spectrin. Here, we present a structure of the tandem ZU5 repeats of human erythrocyte ankyrin. Structural and biophysical experiments show that the second ZU5 domain, ZU5B, does not participate in spectrin binding. ZU5B is structurally similar to the ZU5 domain found in the netrin receptor UNC5b supramodule, suggesting that it could interact with other domains in ankyrin. Comparison of several ZU5 domains demonstrates that the ZU5 domain represents a compact and versatile protein interaction module.

  15. Structural basis of human erythrocyte glucose transporter function in proteoliposome vesicles: circular dichroism measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, J J; Jung, E K; Chen, V; Jung, C Y

    1987-01-01

    The secondary structural compositions of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter in proteoliposome vesicles were assessed on the basis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra measured in the absence and in the presence of D-glucose or an inhibitor, cytochalasin B. We designed and used a scattered-light-collecting device, which corrects CD spectra for optical artifacts originating from light scattering. Relative contents of eight types of secondary structure were estimated by using basis spectra generated by the eigenvector method based on CD spectra of 15 proteins of known structure. Results indicate that the glucose transporter is composed of approximately 82% alpha-helices, 10% beta-turns, and 8% other random structure, with no beta-strands. In the presence of an excess of D-glucose, the alpha-helical content is reduced by more than 10% and there is a significant increase in the random structure content. Cytochalasin B does not appear to affect the secondary structural composition of the transporter to any significant degree. PMID:3473495

  16. Laser-based particle-counting microimmunoassay for the analysis of single human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, Z.; Yeung, E.S. Ames Lab., IA )

    1994-05-15

    A particle-counting immunoassay system for ultrasensitive analysis of proteins in a capillary environment has been developed. The assay is based on the agglutination of antibody-coated particles in the presence of an antigen (usually a protein). The particles were electrophoretically migrated in a 20-[mu]m-i.d. capillary past a detection window where a laser beam irradiates continuously. The light scattering events generated by the agglutinated particles were counted while those produced by unreacted particles were electronically rejected. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was chosen as a test compound for the off-column as well as for the on-column versions of this method. A limit of detection of 620 molecules of G6PDH (1 zmol) was found in the on-column assay. The standard deviation between runs was approximately 6%, which is comparable to that of standard immunoassay methods. The application to the determination of G6PDH levels in individual human erythrocytes is presented. A 14-fold cell-to-cell variation was found which can be explained by the age distribution in the red blood cells. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  17. The first case of a complete deficiency of diphosphoglycerate mutase in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, R; Prehu, M O; Beuzard, Y; Rosa, J

    1978-01-01

    An inherited and complete deficiency of diphosphoglycerate mutase was discovered in the erythrocytes of a 42-yr-old man of French origin whose blood hemoglobin concentration was 19.0 g/dl. Upon physical examination he was normal with the exception of a ruddy cyanosis. The morphology of his erythrocytes was also normal and there was no evidence of hemolysis. The erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level was below 3% of normal values and, as a consequence, the affinity of the cells for oxygen was increased. Diphosphoglycerate mutase activity was undetectable in erythrocytes as was that of diphosphoglycerate phosphatase. The activities of all the other erythrocyte enzymes that were tested were normal except for nomophosphoglycerate mutase which was diminished to 50% of the normal value. The levels of reduced glutathione, ATP, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and of triose phosphates were elevated, whereas those of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were decreased. This report sheds new light on the role of diphosphoglycerate mutase in the metabolism of erythrocytes. Images PMID:152321

  18. Effect of 3-bromopyruvic acid on human erythrocyte antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2013-12-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a promising compound for anticancer therapy, its main mode of action being the inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, but this compound also induces oxidative stress. This study aimed at characterisation of the effect of 3-BP on the antioxidant defense system of erythrocytes. Suspensions of erythrocytes in PBS containing 5 mM glucose were treated with different concentration of 3-BP at 37°C for 1 h. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were estimated by standard colorimetric methods. The antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes was estimated using the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)) decolorisation assay and ferricyanide reduction. The content of reduced and oxidized glutathione was estimated fluorimetrically with o-phtalaldehyde. 3-BP did not affect the integrity of the erythrocyte membrane (lack of changes in the osmotic fragility). However, it induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes, as evidenced by the decrease in the content of acid-soluble thiols and reduced glutathione (GSH). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly decreased. 3-BP also decreased the transmembrane reduction of ferricyanide. Thus induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by 3-BP is due to depletion of glutathione and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23881849

  19. Comparative in vitro study of interactions between particles and respiratory surface macrophages, erythrocytes, and epithelial cells of the chicken and the rat

    PubMed Central

    Kiama, S G; Adekunle, J S; Maina, J N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In mammals, surface macrophages (SMs) play a foremost role in protecting the respiratory system by engulfing and destroying inhaled pathogens and harmful particulates. However, in birds, the direct defense role(s) that SMs perform remains ambiguous. Paucity and even lack of SMs have been reported in the avian respiratory system. It has been speculated that the pulmonary defenses in birds are inadequate and that birds are exceptionally susceptible to pulmonary diseases. In an endeavour to resolve the existing controversy, the phagocytic capacities of the respiratory SMs of the domestic fowl and the rat were compared under similar experimental conditions by exposure to polystyrene particles. In cells of equivalent diameters (8.5 µm in the chicken and 9.0 µm in the rat) and hence volumes, with the volume density of the engulfed polystyrene particles, i.e. the volume of the particles per unit volume of the cell (SM) of 23% in the chicken and 5% in the rat cells, the avian cells engulfed substantially more particles. Furthermore, the avian SMs phagocytized the particles more efficiently, i.e. at a faster rate. The chicken erythrocytes and the epithelial cells of the airways showed noteworthy phagocytic activity. In contrast to the rat cells that did not, 22% of the chicken erythrocytes phagocytized one to six particles. In birds, the phagocytic efficiencies of the SMs, erythrocytes, and epithelial cells may consolidate pulmonary defense. The assorted cellular defenses may explain how and why scarcity of SMs may not directly lead to a weak pulmonary defense. The perceived susceptibility of birds to respiratory diseases may stem from the human interventions that have included extreme genetic manipulation and intensive management for maximum productivity. The stress involved and the structural–functional disequilibria that have occurred from a ‘directed evolutionary process’, rather than weak immunological and cellular immunity, may explain the alleged

  20. Plasmodium falciparum STEVOR proteins impact erythrocyte mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Sohini; Egée, Stéphane; Bouyer, Guillaume; Perrot, Sylvie; Safeukui, Innocent; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Buffet, Pierre; Deitsch, Kirk W; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H; Templeton, Thomas J; Lavazec, Catherine

    2012-01-12

    Infection of erythrocytes with the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, results in dramatic changes to the host cell structure and morphology. The predicted functional localization of the STEVOR proteins at the erythrocyte surface suggests that they may be involved in parasite-induced modifications of the erythrocyte membrane during parasite development. To address the biologic function of STEVOR proteins, we subjected a panel of stevor transgenic parasites and wild-type clonal lines exhibiting different expression levels for stevor genes to functional assays exploring parasite-induced modifications of the erythrocyte membrane. Using this approach, we show that stevor expression impacts deformability of the erythrocyte membrane. This process may facilitate parasite sequestration in deep tissue vasculature. PMID:22106347

  1. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of human blood exposed to low-level laser.

    PubMed

    Al Musawi, Mustafa S; Jaafar, M S; Al-Gailani, B; Ahmed, Naser M; Suhaimi, Fatanah M; Bakhsh, Muhammad

    2016-08-01

    This study is designed to investigate in vitro low-level laser (LLL) effects on rheological parameter, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), of human blood. The interaction mechanism between LLL radiation and blood is unclear. Therefore, research addresses the effects of LLL irradiation on human blood and this is essential to understanding how laser radiation interacts with biological cells and tissues. The blood samples were collected through venipuncture into EDTA-containing tubes as an anticoagulant. Each sample was divided into two equal aliquots to be used as a non-irradiated sample (control) and an irradiated sample. The aliquot was subjected to doses of 36, 54, 72 and 90 J/cm(2) with wavelengths of 405, 589 and 780 nm, with a radiation source at a fixed power density of 30 mW/cm(2). The ESR and red blood cell count and volume are measured after laser irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated samples. The maximum reduction in ESR is observed with radiation dose 72 J/cm(2) delivered with a 405-nm wavelength laser beam. Moreover, no hemolysis is observed under these irradiation conditions. In a separate protocol, ESR of separated RBCs re-suspended in irradiated plasma (7.6 ± 2.3 mm/h) is found to be significantly lower (by 51 %) than their counterpart re-suspended in non-irradiated plasma (15.0 ± 3.7 mm/h). These results indicate that ESR reduction is mainly due to the effects of LLL on the plasma composition that ultimately affect whole blood ESR. PMID:27250712

  2. [Raman spectra of single human living erythrocyte with the effect of pH and serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng-Jie; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Zheng-Chun; Jiao, Qing-Ze

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, a cell environment which mimicked the real body environment according to the concentration radio between serum albumin and hemoglobin was built, and the cell morphology, the membrane deformation capacity, and the structure of intracellular hemoglobin of single human living erythrocyte under the effect of pH and serum albumin were studied. It was found that at different suspension pH, the magnitude of variations in cell shape and membrane deformation capacity changes with the structural changes of the intracellular hemoglobin. At pH 4. 14, 4. 76 and 10. 18, the loss of helical structure for hemoglobin, exposing of the hydrophobic amino acid in the globin chains, and changing of the combination of heme and globin, would completely destroy the stability of hemoglobin's structure, which seriously changes RBC's morphology and membrane deformation capacity. While at pH 6. 51 and 7. 80, the Raman spectra of erythrocytes are found to have no such changes, indicating that the structure of intracellular hemoglobin was not varied, thus the cell morphology and membrane deformation capacity are quite close to the normal values. At pH 5. 49 and 8. 76, RBC's morphology and membrane deformation capacity have different degrees of variation, but the structure of intracellular hemoglobin has not changed, suggesting that the cell morphology and membrane deformation capacity may be reversible. The results suggest that in the suspension solution containing serum albumin, erythrocytes have better ability to regulate and control the variation of the extracellular pH. In summary, upon building an environment which contains the same concentration radio of serum albumin to hemoglobin in the blood, this work performed systematic studies on the effect of pH on human erythrocytes. It can not only help to solve the problems about the mechanism of the structural and functional changes of erythrocytes induced by environmental pH, but also elucidates the possible variation of

  3. Identification of a human erythrocyte receptor for colonization factor antigen I pili expressed by H10407 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, P; Worobec, E A; Paranchych, W; Armstrong, G D

    1988-01-01

    We have identified a receptor for colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) pili in human erythrocyte membranes. Erythrocyte binding assays, using whole organisms, suggested that the CFA/I receptor was a glycoprotein containing important sialic acid moieties. Subsequently, human erythrocyte membranes were extracted with lithium diiodosalicylate to obtain a soluble glycoprotein fraction from which to isolate receptors. The extracted material caused agglutination of the CFA/I+ but not the CFA/I- organisms at a protein concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. The CFA/I receptor was identified in iodinated extract by an affinity isolation procedure, using whole bacterial cells. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of the washed, extract-coated H10407 CFA/I+ organisms revealed a band with an apparent molecular weight of 26,000 which was present in the original extract but was not observed on extract-coated H10407 CFA/I- bacteria. The addition of purified CFA/I pili reduced binding of the 26,000-molecular-weight receptor to CFA/I+ bacteria. The CFA/I-specific receptor species also bound to wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. This observation supported the suggestion that the CFA/I receptor identified in this report is a sialoglycoprotein. Images PMID:2895745

  4. Real-time study of shape and thermal fluctuations in the echinocyte transformation of human erythrocytes using defocusing microscopy.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, Sebastián; Gallardo, María José; Solano, Pablo; Suwalsky, Mario; Mesquita, Oscar N; Saavedra, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    We present a real-time method to measure the amplitude of thermal fluctuations in biological membranes by means of a new treatment of the defocusing microscopy (DM) optical technique. This approach was also applied to study the deformation of human erythrocytes to its echinocyte structure. This was carried out by making three-dimensional shape reconstructions of the cell and measuring the thermal fluctuations of its membrane, as the cell is exposed to the anti-inflammatory drug naproxen and as it recovers its original shape, when it is subsequently cleansed of the drug. The results showed biomechanical changes in the membrane even at low naproxen concentration (0.2 mM). Also, we found that when the cell recovered its original shape, the membrane properties were different compared to the nondrugged initial erythrocyte, indicating that the drug administration-recovery process is not completely reversible. PMID:23224012

  5. Distribution of sodium and potassium within individual human erythrocytes by pulsed-laser vaporization in a sheath flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.H.; Yeung, E.S. )

    1994-04-01

    Simultaneous determination of the amounts of Na and K inside single human erythrocytes was accomplished by laser vaporization and monitoring the atomic emission produced. By using a modified sheath-flow arrangement, detection of 8 fg (0.35 fmol) of Na is possible with one laser pulse. By using Poisson statistics, one can obtain single-cell information even when multiple cells are vaporized per laser pulse. The intracellular contents for a given individual were found to vary significantly. The [+-]55% and [+-]155% variations for Na and K, respectively, cannot be explained by changes in cell volume. There is only a weak correlation between the Na and K contents in single cells. The results reflect the age distribution of erythrocytes in the sample. Presumably, the enzymes regulating ion transport lose their activities in the older cells. 28 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Erythrocyte Aggregation due to Surface Nanobubble Interactions During the Onset of Thermal Burn Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidner, Harrison S.

    Red Blood Cell (RBC) aggregation is an important hemorheological phenomenon especially in microcirculation. In healthy individuals, RBCs are known to aggregate and gravitate toward the faster flow in the center of vessels to increase their throughput for more efficient oxygen delivery. Their aggregation is known to occur during a variety of environmental, pathological, and physiological conditions and is reversible when aggregates are subject to the relatively high shear forces in the circulation. The likelihood that aggregates will monodisperse in flow is dependent on the conditions during which they form. In situations where such aggregates are not sheared to monodispersion their presence can impact the perfusion of microvascular networks. More specifically, aggregates subject to the low shear rates in the zone of stasis near regions of thermal burn injury are capable of occluding vessels in the microcirculation and inhibiting the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissue downstream. The basic mechanism leading to erythrocyte aggregation at the onset of thermal injury is unknown. This dissertation investigates parameters involved in erythrocyte aggregation, methods of measuring and testing erythrocyte aggregation, and incorporates modeling based on first principles ultimately to propose a mechanism of this phenomenon.

  7. Functional topography of band 3: specific structural alteration linked to function aberrations in human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, M.M.B.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Lawrence, C.

    1988-01-01

    Band 3 is the major anion transport polypeptide of erythrocytes. It appears to be the binding site of several glycolytic enzymes. Structurally, band 3 is the major protein spanning the erythrocyte membrane and connects the plasma membrane to band 2.1, which binds to the cytoskeleton. In the present study, the authors report an alteration of band 3 molecule that is associated with the following changes: erythrocyte shape change from discoid to thorny cells (acanthocytes), restriction of rotational diffusion of band 3 in the membrane, increase in anion transport, and decrease in the number of high-affinity ankyrin-binding sites. Changes in erythrocyte IgG binding, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fluorescence polarization (indicative of membrane fluidity), and other membrane proteins as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were not detected. Cells containing the altered band 3 polypeptide were obtained from individuals with abnormal erythrocyte morphology. Two-dimensional peptide maps revealed differences in the M/sub r/ 17,000 anion transport segment of band 3 consistent with additions of tyrosines or tyrosine-containing peptides. The data suggest that (i) this alteration of band 3 does not result in accelerated aging as does cleavage and (ii) structural changes in the anion transport region result in alterations in anion transport.

  8. Development and validation of HPLC method for the determination of alpha-tocopherol in human erythrocytes for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Solichová, Dagmar; Korecká, Lucie; Svobodová, Iveta; Musil, Frantisek; Bláha, Vladimír; Zdánský, Petr; Zadák, Zdenek

    2003-06-01

    In this work, a simple isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method for determination of alpha-tocopherol in human erythrocytes has been developed and validated. After separation of plasma the erythrocytes were washed three times with 0.9% sodium chloride containing 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidant and then were diluted 1:1 (v/v) with the same solution. In the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure, 2500 microL of n-hexane was added to 500 microL of erythrocytes. After 2 min this mixture was deproteinized by addition of cool ethanol (500 microL, 5 min) denatured with 5% methanol containing alpha-tocopherol acetate (20 micromol L(-1)), as internal standard, and then extracted for 5 min by vortex mixing. After centrifugation (10 min, 1600xg) an aliquot (2000 microL) of the clean extract was separated and evaporated under nitrogen. The residue was dissolved in 400 microL methanol and analysed by reversed-phase HPLC on a 4.6 mmx150 mm, 5 microm Pecosphere C18 column; the mobile phase was 100% methanol, flow rate 1.2 mL min(-1). The volume injected was 100 microL and detection was by diode-array detector at a wavelength of 295 nm. The extraction recovery of alpha-tocopherol from human erythrocytes was 100.0+/-2.0%. The detection limit was 0.1 micromol L(-1) and a linear calibration plot was obtained in the concentration range 0.5-20.0 micromol L(-1). Within determination precision was 5.2% RSD (n=10), between determination precision was 6.1% RSD (n=10). The method was applied successfully in a clinical study of patients with acute pancreatitis and for determination of the reference values in the healthy Czech population. PMID:12719955

  9. Biological Activity of Japanese Quince Extract and Its Interactions with Lipids, Erythrocyte Membrane, and Human Albumin.

    PubMed

    Strugała, Paulina; Cyboran-Mikołajczyk, Sylwia; Dudra, Anna; Mizgier, Paulina; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Olejniczak, Teresa; Gabrielska, Janina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine in vitro biological activity of fruit ethanol extract from Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai (Japanese quince, JQ) and its important constituents (-)-epicatechin (EC) and chlorogenic acid (CA). The study also investigated the structural changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, and erythrocyte membranes (RBC) induced by the extract. It was found that the extract effectively inhibits oxidation of RBC, induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), and PC liposomes, induced by UVB radiation and AAPH. Furthermore, JQ extract to a significant degree inhibited the activity of the enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, involved in inflammatory reactions. The extract has more than 2 times greater activity in relation to COX-2 than COX-1 (selectivity ratio 0.48). JQ extract stimulated growth of the beneficial intestinal bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum. In the fluorimetric method by means of the probes Laurdan, DPH and TMA-DPH, and (1)H-NMR, we examined the structural changes induced by JQ and its EC and CA components. The results show that JQ and its components induce a considerable increase of the packing order of the polar heads of lipids with a slight decrease in mobility of the acyl chains. Lipid membrane rigidification could hinder the diffusion of free radicals, resulting in inhibition of oxidative damage induced by physicochemical agents. JQ extract has the ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of human serum albumin through static quenching. This report thus could be of huge significance in the food industry, pharmacology, and clinical medicine. PMID:26861057

  10. The orientation of eosin-5-maleimide on human erythrocyte band 3 measured by fluorescence polarization microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, S M; Cobb, C E; Beth, A H; Piston, D W

    1996-01-01

    The dominant motional mode for membrane proteins is uniaxial rotational diffusion about the membrane normal axis, and investigations of their rotational dynamics can yield insight into both the oligomeric state of the protein and its interactions with other proteins such as the cytoskeleton. However, results from the spectroscopic methods used to study these dynamics are dependent on the orientation of the probe relative to the axis of motion. We have employed polarized fluorescence confocal microscopy to measure the orientation of eosin-5-maleimide covalently reacted with Lys-430 of human erythrocyte band 3. Steady-state polarized fluorescence images showed distinct intensity patterns, which were fit to an orientation distribution of the eosin absorption and emission dipoles relative to the membrane normal axis. This orientation was found to be unchanged by trypsin treatment, which cleaves band 3 between the integral membrane domain and the cytoskeleton-attached domain. this result suggests that phosphorescence anisotropy changes observed after trypsin treatment are due to a rotational constraint change rather than a reorientation of eosin. By coupling time-resolved prompt fluorescence anisotropy with confocal microscopy, we calculated the expected amplitudes of the e-Dt and e-4Dt terms from the uniaxial rotational diffusion model and found that the e-4Dt term should dominate the anisotropy decay. Delayed fluorescence and phosphorescence anisotropy decays of control and trypsin-treated band 3 in ghosts, analyzed as multiple uniaxially rotating populations using the amplitudes predicted by confocal microscopy, were consistent with three motional species with uniaxial correlation times ranging from 7 microseconds to 1.4 ms. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8804603

  11. Comparative study of the effect of BPA and its selected analogues on hemoglobin oxidation, morphological alterations and hemolytic changes in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Maćczak, Aneta; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to provoke many deleterious impacts on human health, and thus it is now successively substituted by BPA analogues, whose effects have been poorly investigated. Up to now, only one study has been realized to assess the effect of BPA on human erythrocytes, which showed its significant hemolytic and oxidative potential. Moreover, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of BPA analogues on red blood cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of BPA and its selected analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hemolytic and morphological changes and hemoglobin oxidation (methemoglobin formation) of human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with different bisphenols concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500μg/ml for 1, 4 and 24h. The compounds examined caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes with BPAF exhibiting the strongest effect. All bisphenols examined caused methemoglobin formation with BPA inducing the strongest oxidative potential. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all bisphenols (excluding BPS) induced significant changes in erythrocytes size. Changes in red blood cells shape were conducted using phase contrast microscopy. It was noticed that BPA and BPAF induced echinocytosis, BPF caused stomatocytosis, while BPS did not provoke significant changes in shape of red blood cells. Generally, the results showed that BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production, exhibited significantly lower disturbance of erythrocyte functions than BPA. PMID:26232583

  12. Sodium nitrite enhances generation of reactive oxygen species that decrease antioxidant power and inhibit plasma membrane redox system of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fariheen Aisha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2016-08-01

    Nitrite/nitrate salts are used in fertilizers and as food preservatives. Human exposure to high levels of nitrite results in its uptake and subsequent entry into blood where it can interact with erythrocytes. We show that treatment of human erythrocytes with sodium nitrite (NaNO2 ) results in a dose-dependent increase in the production of reactive oxygen species. This was accompanied by a decrease in the antioxidant power which lowered the free radical quenching and metal-reducing ability. NaNO2 treatment also inhibited plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) of erythrocytes. These changes increase the susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative damage, decrease the antioxidant power of whole blood, and can be a major cause of nitrite-induced cellular toxicity. PMID:27214747

  13. Effect of ethanol intake on human erythrocyte membrane fluidity and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Hrelia, S; Lercker, G; Biagi, P L; Bordoni, A; Stefanini, F; Zunarelli, P; Rossi, C A

    1986-05-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was evaluated in chronic alcoholic patients without any liver alteration, assuming different daily ethanol amounts, and in normal subjects and related to ghost fatty acid and total lipid composition obtained by high resolution gas chromatography. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was significantly increased in a dose dependent manner in chronic alcoholic patients respect to normal subjects. This real fluidizing effect of ethanol "in vivo" was attributed mainly to a significant increase in the polyunsaturated fatty acids amount in patient ghosts in comparison with control subjects. On the other hand the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was not significantly affected by chronic ethanol assumption. PMID:3729966

  14. Radiation damage to human erythrocytes: Influence of the composition of medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorowska, Magdalena; Krokosz, Anita; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

    2007-10-01

    The erythrocyte suspensions in PBS (Na-phosphate buffered isotonic NaCl solution) or PB (Na-phosphate isotonic buffer) (hematocrit 1%) were irradiated with the dose of 400 Gy in aerobic conditions. The level of damage to cells was estimated after incubation in different media. A higher level of destruction of cells irradiated in PBS than in PB was observed. The same level of MetHb and lipid peroxidation determined right after irradiation was detected. However, the loss of reduced glutathione was higher in PB than in PBS. We discussed the contribution of hydroxyl and chloride radicals in the initiation of erythrocyte damage.

  15. Pharmacological targeting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in human erythrocytes by Bay 11-7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate.

    PubMed

    Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Giustarini, Daniela; Koralkova, Pavla; Köberle, Martin; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Dreischer, Peter; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Lang, Florian; Toulany, Mahmoud; Wieder, Thomas; Mojzikova, Renata; Rossi, Ranieri; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In mature erythrocytes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) yield NADPH, a crucial cofactor of the enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) converting glutathione disulfide (GSSG) into its reduced state (GSH). GSH is essential for detoxification processes in and survival of erythrocytes. We explored whether the anti-inflammatory compounds Bay 11-7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were able to completely deplete a common target (GSH), and to impair the function of upstream enzymes of GSH recycling and replenishment. Treatment of erythrocytes with Bay 11-7082, parthenolide or DMF led to concentration-dependent eryptosis resulting from complete depletion of GSH. GSH depletion was due to strong inhibition of G6PDH activity. Bay 11-7082 and DMF, but not parthenolide, were able to inhibit the GR activity. This approach "Inhibitors, Detection of their common target that is completely depleted or inactivated when pharmacologically relevant concentrations of each single inhibitor are applied, Subsequent functional analysis of upstream enzymes for this target" (IDS), can be applied to a broad range of inhibitors and cell types according to the selected target. The specific G6PDH inhibitory effect of these compounds may be exploited for the treatment of human diseases with high NADPH and GSH consumption rates, including malaria, trypanosomiasis, cancer or obesity. PMID:27353740

  16. Pharmacological targeting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in human erythrocytes by Bay 11–7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Giustarini, Daniela; Koralkova, Pavla; Köberle, Martin; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Dreischer, Peter; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Lang, Florian; Toulany, Mahmoud; Wieder, Thomas; Mojzikova, Renata; Rossi, Ranieri; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In mature erythrocytes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) yield NADPH, a crucial cofactor of the enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) converting glutathione disulfide (GSSG) into its reduced state (GSH). GSH is essential for detoxification processes in and survival of erythrocytes. We explored whether the anti-inflammatory compounds Bay 11–7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were able to completely deplete a common target (GSH), and to impair the function of upstream enzymes of GSH recycling and replenishment. Treatment of erythrocytes with Bay 11–7082, parthenolide or DMF led to concentration-dependent eryptosis resulting from complete depletion of GSH. GSH depletion was due to strong inhibition of G6PDH activity. Bay 11–7082 and DMF, but not parthenolide, were able to inhibit the GR activity. This approach “Inhibitors, Detection of their common target that is completely depleted or inactivated when pharmacologically relevant concentrations of each single inhibitor are applied, Subsequent functional analysis of upstream enzymes for this target” (IDS), can be applied to a broad range of inhibitors and cell types according to the selected target. The specific G6PDH inhibitory effect of these compounds may be exploited for the treatment of human diseases with high NADPH and GSH consumption rates, including malaria, trypanosomiasis, cancer or obesity. PMID:27353740

  17. Binding specificities of eight monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A - studies with M/sup c/M, and M/sub k/En(UK) variant human erythrocytes and M- and MN/sup V/-type chimpanzee erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, W.L.; Langlois, R.G.; Vanderlaan, M.; Jensen, R.H.

    1984-12-01

    Four newly derived mouse monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A are described. Three of these antibodies bind preferentially to the N form of glycophorin A; the fourth recognizes a shared determinant of the M and N forms. All four antibodies are directed toward the 39 amino acid, amino-terminal portion of the protein, and the N-specific antibodies require for binding the presence of N-acetyl-neuraminic acid on the glycosidically linked oligosaccharides. Cross-reaction of the N-specific antibodies to homozygous MM erythrocytes appears to result from binding to glycophorin B. In addition, these antibodies together with four previously reported glycophorin monoclonal antibodies, including two that specifically recognize the M form of glycophorin A, were tested for binding to M/sup c/M and M/sup k/En(UK) variant human erythrocytes. Results obtained for five of the six M- or N-specific monoclonal antibodies point to the general immunodominance of the amino-terminal serine-leucine polymorphism and the requirement for sialic acid. The epitopes for all three N-specific monoclonal antibodies include the amino terminal leucine that occurs in the N form of glycophorin A and may also include the glutamic acid that occurs at position five. Their studies support the proposed Lepore-type glycophorin A-B hybrid gene rearrangement for the En(UK) allele found in the English En(a-) family. The data also confirm the expression of the M-like glycoprotein on chimpanzee erythrocytes and the presence of a human glycophorin B-like antigen on the MN/sup V/-type cells.

  18. Human Erythrocyte PIG-A Assay: An Easily Monitored Index of Gene Mutation Requiring Low Volume Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dertinger, Stephen D.; Avlasevich, Svetlana L.; Bemis, Jeffrey C.; Chen, Yuhchyau; MacGregor, James T.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory has previously described a method for scoring the incidence of rodent blood Pig-a mutant phenotype erythrocytes using immunomag-netic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). The current work extends this approach to human blood. The frequencies of CD59- and CD55-negative reticulo-cytes (RETCD59−/CD55−) and erythrocytes (RBCCD59−/CD55−) seve as phenotypic reporters of PIG-A gene mutation. Immunomagnetic separation was found to provide an effective means of increasing the number of reticulocytes and erythro-cytes evaluated. Technical replicates were utilized to provide a sufficient number of cells for precise scoring while at the same time controlling for procedural accuracy by allowing comparison of replicate values. Cold whole blood samples could be held for at least one week without affecting reticulo-cyte, RETCD59−/CD55− or RBCCD59−/CD55− frequencies. Specimens from a total of 52 nonsmoking, self-reported healthy adult subjects were evaluated. The mean frequency of RETCD59−/CD55− and RBCCD592−/CD55− were 6.0 × 10−6 and 2.9 × 10−6, respectively. The difference is consistent with a modest selective pressure against mutant phenotype erythrocytes in the circulation, and suggests advantages of studying both populations of erythrocytes. Whereas intra-subject variability was low, inter-subject variability was relatively high, with RETCD59−/CD55− frequencies differing by more than 30-fold. There was an apparent correlation between age and mutant cell frequencies. Taken together, the results indicate that the frequency of human PIG-A mutant phenotype cells can be efficiently and reliably estimated using a labeling and analysis protocol that is well established for rodent-based studies. The applicability of the assay across species, its simplicity and statistical power, and the relatively non-invasive nature of the assay should benefit myriad research areas involving DNA damage

  19. Association of human erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins with blood-group Cad specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, J P; Blanchard, D

    1982-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membranes from a blood-group-B individual with the rare Cad phenotype indicates a lower-than-normal mobility of the main sialoglycoproteins, suggesting an increase in apparent molecular mass of 3kDa and 2kDa respectively for glycoprotein alpha (synonym glycophorin A) and glycoprotein delta (synonym glycophorin B). Since the chief structural determinant of Cad specificity is N-acetylgalactosamine, the membrane receptors have been isolated by affinity binding on immobilized Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) lectin. The predominant species eluted from the gel was the abnormal glycoprotein alpha, whereas in control experiments no material could be recovered from the adsorbent incubated with group-B Cad-negative erythrocyte membranes. After partition of the membranes with organic solvents, the blood-group-Cad activity was found in aqueous phases containing the sialoglycoproteins, but not in the organic phases containing simple or complex glycolipids, which, however, retained the blood-group-B activity. The carbohydrate composition of highly purified lipid-free glycoprotein alpha molecules prepared from Cad and control erythrocytes was determined. Interestingly the molar ratio of N-acetylneuraminic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine was equal to 2:1 in the case of controls and equal to 1:1 in the case of Cad erythrocytes. Taken together these results suggest that Cad specificity is defined by N-acetylgalactosamine residues carried by the alkali-labile oligosaccharide chains attached to the erythrocyte membrane sialo-glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6187337

  20. Activation of monocytes and platelets by monoclonal antibodies or malaria-infected erythrocytes binding to the CD36 surface receptor in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ockenhouse, C F; Magowan, C; Chulay, J D

    1989-01-01

    The CD36 leukocyte differentiation antigen, recognized by MAbs OKM5 and OKM8 and found on human monocytes and endothelial cells, has been implicated as a sequestration receptor for erythrocytes infected with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (IRBC). CD36 is also expressed on platelets and appears to be identical to platelet glycoprotein IV. We investigated receptor activation of monocytes and platelets by anti-CD36 MAbs and by IRBC. Incubation of human monocytes with anti-CD36 MAbs or IRBC resulted in stimulation of the respiratory burst as measured by reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium and generation of chemiluminescence. Incubation of human platelets with anti-CD36 MAbs resulted in platelet activation as measured by aggregation or ATP secretion. Activation of monocytes and platelets required appropriate intracellular transmembrane signaling and was inhibited by calcium antagonists or by specific inhibitors of protein kinase C or guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Soluble CD36 inhibited binding of IRBC to both monocytes and platelets, suggesting that these interactions are mediated by the CD36 receptor. Using a cytochemical electron microscopic technique, the presence of reactive oxygen intermediates was identified at the interface between human monocytes and IRBC. These data provide support for the hypothesis that reactive oxygen intermediates produced by monocytes when IRBC ligands interact with cell surface receptors may play a role in the pathophysiology of falciparum malaria. Images PMID:2474569

  1. Age-dependent effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on the membrane fluidity of human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Eugenia; Savopol, Tudor; Pologea-Moraru, Roxana; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    1997-12-01

    The low power He-Ne laser radiation has been extensively used in past decades as medical device to relieve pain, accelerate wound healing as well as aiming beam in invisible laser beam in invisible laser beam applications. It is not known however if there are any secondary, undesirable effects of He-Ne laser radiation on the irradiated tissue. In this paper we investigate the changes induced in membrane fluidity of human erythrocyte during/upon the interaction with the He-Ne laser beam having the parameters currently used for target aiming in laser surgery.

  2. Hereditary Hemolytic Anemia with Human Erythrocyte Pyrimidine 5′-Nucleotidase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, William N.; Fink, Kay; Paglia, Donald E.; Harris, Susan R.; Adams, William S.

    1974-01-01

    A severe deficiency of a red cell pyrimidine 5′-nucleotidase was found to be associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia in four members of three kindreds. The syndrome was characterized by marked increases above normal in red cell basophilic stippling, total nucleotides, and GSH and by a fairly severe deficiency of ribosephosphate pyrophosphokinase (EC 2.7.6.1.). Patient erythrocytes uniquely contained large amounts of pyrimidine 5′-ribonucleotides. In earlier studies, these were erroneously considered to be adenosine phosphates, since all previous investigations of the nucleotides of human red cells and reticulocytes have shown 97% or more to contain adenine. Total nucleotides in patient cells were present in amounts 3-6 times greater than normal, and approximately 80% contained pyrimidine. The ultraviolet spectral curves of deproteinized red cell extracts exhibited a shift in maximum absorbance from the usual 256-257 nm to approximately 266-270 nm, and absorbance at 250, 270, 280, and 290 nm, expressed as a ratio of that at 260 nm, differed greatly from normal. The spectral characteristics of extracts provide the basis of a readily performed screening procedure, which does not require enzyme assay. The nucleotidase activity in deficient red cells assayed less than 14%, and usually less than 10%, of normal and much less in terms of reticulocyte-rich blood, where it was consistently found to be increased. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 7.5-8.0, is inhibited by EDTA, and does not utilize purine 5′-ribonucleotides or β-glycerophosphate as substrates. While comparatively few family members have been available thus far for study, initial data are compatible with an autosomal, recessive mode of transmission of the deficiency. The pyrimidine 5′-ribonucleotides are presumably derived from RNA degradation and, not being diffusible, accumulate when the enzyme catalyzing their dephosphorylation is deficient. It is postulated that the prominent basophilic stippling

  3. Dynamic Regulation of Cell Volume and Extracellular ATP of Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Leal Denis, M. Florencia; Alvarez, H. Ariel; Lauri, Natalia; Alvarez, Cora L.; Chara, Osvaldo; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The peptide mastoparan 7 (MST7) triggered in human erythrocytes (rbcs) the release of ATP and swelling. Since swelling is a well-known inducer of ATP release, and extracellular (ATPe), interacting with P (purinergic) receptors, can affect cell volume (Vr), we explored the dynamic regulation between Vr and ATPe. Methods and Treatments We made a quantitative assessment of MST7-dependent kinetics of Vr and of [ATPe], both in the absence and presence of blockers of ATP efflux, swelling and P receptors. Results In rbcs 10 μM MST7 promoted acute, strongly correlated changes in [ATPe] and Vr. Whereas MST7 induced increases of 10% in Vr and 190 nM in [ATPe], blocking swelling in a hyperosmotic medium + MST7 reduced [ATPe] by 40%. Pre-incubation of rbcs with 10 μM of either carbenoxolone or probenecid, two inhibitors of the ATP conduit pannexin 1, reduced [ATPe] by 40–50% and swelling by 40–60%, while in the presence of 80 U/mL apyrase, an ATPe scavenger, cell swelling was prevented. While exposure to 10 μM NF110, a blocker of ATP-P2X receptors mediating sodium influx, reduced [ATPe] by 48%, and swelling by 80%, incubation of cells in sodium free medium reduced swelling by 92%. Analysis and Discussion Results were analyzed by means of a mathematical model where ATPe kinetics and Vr kinetics were mutually regulated. Model dependent fit to experimental data showed that, upon MST7 exposure, ATP efflux required a fast 1960-fold increase of ATP permeability, mediated by two kinetically different conduits, both of which were activated by swelling and inactivated by time. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that, following MST7 exposure, ATP is released via two conduits, one of which is mediated by pannexin 1. The accumulated ATPe activates P2X receptors, followed by sodium influx, resulting in cell swelling, which in turn further activates ATP release. Thus swelling and P2X receptors constitute essential components of a positive feedback loop

  4. Annotating N Termini for the Human Proteome Project: N Termini and Nα-Acetylation Status Differentiate Stable Cleaved Protein Species from Degradation Remnants in the Human Erythrocyte Proteome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A goal of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project is to identify all human protein species. With 3844 proteins annotated as “missing”, this is challenging. Moreover, proteolytic processing generates new protein species with characteristic neo-N termini that are frequently accompanied by altered half-lives, function, interactions, and location. Enucleated and largely void of internal membranes and organelles, erythrocytes are simple yet proteomically challenging cells due to the high hemoglobin content and wide dynamic range of protein concentrations that impedes protein identification. Using the N-terminomics procedure TAILS, we identified 1369 human erythrocyte natural and neo-N-termini and 1234 proteins. Multiple semitryptic N-terminal peptides exhibited improved mass spectrometric identification properties versus the intact tryptic peptide enabling identification of 281 novel erythrocyte proteins and six missing proteins identified for the first time in the human proteome. With an improved bioinformatics workflow, we developed a new classification system and the Terminus Cluster Score. Thereby we described a new stabilizing N-end rule for processed protein termini, which discriminates novel protein species from degradation remnants, and identified protein domain hot spots susceptible to cleavage. Strikingly, 68% of the N-termini were within genome-encoded protein sequences, revealing alternative translation initiation sites, pervasive endoproteolytic processing, and stabilization of protein fragments in vivo. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange with the data set identifier . PMID:24555563

  5. Comparative cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of permethrin and its nanometric form on human erythrocytes and lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv; Velusamy, Yuvaraj; Balaji, A P B; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2016-09-25

    The research on the novel pesticides such as nanopesticides has become inevitable to control the mosquito population. Nanopermethrin (NP), one of such kind was formulated in pesticide loaded oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion by rapid evaporation. Even though NP possess improved efficacy against the target pests, the toxicological investigation on the human or mammalian system remains unexplored. So, the present study focused on a comparative investigation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of NP in vitro and its commercial parental bulk form of permethrin (BP) on human peripheral erythrocyte/lymphocyte by erythrocyte morphology analysis, cell viability assay, and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The NP and BP concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml) interacted with human blood cells, and the morphological changes were observed using a phase contrast microscope. The drastic increase of echinocyte was observed at 24, 48 and 72 h treatment as compared with the control. The cell viability studies have shown the significant decrease with increase in NP and BP concentration. CBMN study showed a series correlation in the number of micronuclei, bridge, bud, trinucleated and tetranucleated when interacted with different levels of NP and BP, as comparative to control *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001, ***p < 0.0001. PMID:27502151

  6. Quantification of L-ergothioneine in human plasma and erythrocytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Zhi; Thuya, Win-Lwin; Toh, Dorothy Su-Lin; Lie, Michael George-Limenta; Lau, Jie-Ying Amelia; Kong, Li-Ren; Wan, Seow-Ching; Chua, Kian-Ngiap; Lee, Edmund Jon-Deoon; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2013-03-01

    A sensitive analytical method has been developed and validated for the quantification of L-ergothioneine in human plasma and erythrocytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A commercially available isotope-labeled L-ergothioneine-d9 is used as the internal standard. A simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile is utilized for bio-sample preparation prior to analysis. Chromatographic separation of L-ergothioneine is conducted using gradient elution on Alltime C18 (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 µ). The run time is 6 min at a constant flow rate of 0.45 ml/min. The mass spectrometer is operated under a positive electrospray ionization condition with multiple reaction monitoring mode. The mass transitions of L-ergothioneine and L-ergothioneine-d9 are m/z 230 > 127 and m/z 239 > 127, respectively. Excellent linearity [coefficient of determination (r(2)) ≥ 0.9998] can be achieved for L-ergothioneine quantification at the ranges of 10 to 10,000 ng/ml, with the intra-day and inter-day precisions at 0.9-3.9% and 1.3-5.7%, respectively, and the accuracies for all quality control samples between 94.5 and 101.0%. This validated analytical method is suitable for pharmacokinetic monitoring of L-ergothioneine in human and erythrocytes. Based on the determination of bio-samples from five healthy subjects, the mean concentrations of L-ergothioneine in plasma and erythrocytes are 107.4 ± 20.5 ng/ml and 1285.0 ± 1363.0 ng/ml, respectively. PMID:23494799

  7. Enhanced erythrocyte suspension layer stability achieved by surface tension lowering additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.; Absolom, D. R.; Van Oss, C. J.; Neumann, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a fractionation procedure involving the separation of particles, a dilute suspension of these particles in a liquid is carefully layered on a dense liquid. Under ideal conditions, the suspension forms a zone of finite thickness with a 'sharp' interface between the suspension layer and the supporting liquid. Under an applied field, e.g., gravitational or electrical, the particles in the suspension layer migrate to form different layers according to their size and/or density or according to their electrophoretic mobilities. However, in many cases the ideal conditions necessary for the fractionation process are not obtained. Many studies have been conducted to explore the reasons for suspension layer 'instability'. The present investigation represents an extension of a study conducted by Omenyi et al. (1981). An electrostatic repulsion-van der Waals mechanism was used to study the stability of fixed erythrocyte suspensions layered on a D2O cushion.

  8. Photoaffinity labeling of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter with /sup 4/H-labelled forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, M.F.; Edwards, B.M.; Morris, D.P.

    1986-05-01

    Forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, is also known to inhibit glucose transport in a number of cells. The authors have investigated photoincorporation of (/sup 3/H)forskolin into erythrocyte membrane proteins using a technique they previously developed for photolabeling the erythrocyte glucose transporter with cytochalasin B (CB). A 30-40s irradiation of erythrocyte ghosts in the presence of (/sup 3/H)forskolin resulted in a concentration-dependent, covalent incorporation of radiolabel into all of the major membrane protein bands. However, most of the incorporation occurred in only three regions of the gel. Peak 1 was a sharp peak near the top of the gel in the region corresponding to spectrin, peak 2 appeared to be associated with band 3 (approx. 90kDa), and the third region labeled was between 41-60 kDa which corresponds to the region of the glucose transporter. This region appeared to contain several overlapping peaks with the largest incorporation of label occurring around 45 kDa in the area of red cell actin. When photolabeling was performed in the presence of 400 ..mu..M cytochalasin B (8.0 ..mu..M forskolin) the labeling in the 41-60 kDa region was totally inhibited while labeling of the 90 kDa peak was partially blocked. CB had no effect on the photolabeling of peak 1 by forskolin.

  9. Two-Component Coarse-Grained Molecular-Dynamics Model for the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George

    2012-01-01

    We present a two-component coarse-grained molecular-dynamics model for simulating the erythrocyte membrane. The proposed model possesses the key feature of combing the lipid bilayer and the erythrocyte cytoskeleton, thus showing both the fluidic behavior of the lipid bilayer and the elastic properties of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. In this model, three types of coarse-grained particles are introduced to represent clusters of lipid molecules, actin junctions, and band-3 complexes, respectively. The proposed model facilitates simulations that span large length scales (approximately micrometers) and timescales (approximately milliseconds). By tuning the interaction potential parameters, we were able to control the diffusivity and bending rigidity of the membrane model. We studied the membrane under shearing and found that at a low shear strain rate, the developed shear stress was due mainly to the spectrin network, whereas the viscosity of the lipid bilayer contributed to the resulting shear stress at higher strain rates. In addition, we investigated the effects of a reduced spectrin network connectivity on the shear modulus of the membrane. PMID:22225800

  10. Antioxidant Capacity and Radical Scavenging Effect of Polyphenol Rich Mallotus philippenensis Fruit Extract on Human Erythrocytes: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B.; Goel, R. K.; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines. PMID:25525615

  11. Antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging effect of polyphenol rich Mallotus philippenensis fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B; Goel, R K; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines. PMID:25525615

  12. LC-MS/MS analysis of carboxymethylated and carboxyethylated phosphatidylethanolamines in human erythrocytes and blood plasma[S

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Naoki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Asai, Akira; Fujita, Ikuko; Hashiura, Aya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    An amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is considered as a target for nonenzymatic glycation, and the potential involvement of lipid glycation in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications has generated interest. However, unlike an early glycation product of PE (Amadori-PE), the occurrence and roles of advanced glycation end products of PE (AGE-PE) in vivo have been unclear. Here, we developed an LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of AGE-PE [carboxymethyl-PE (CM-PE) and carboxyethyl-PE (CE-PE)]. Collision-induced dissociation of CM-PE and CE-PE produced characteristic ions, permitting neutral loss scanning (NLS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of AGE-PE. By NLS analysis, a series of AGE-PE molecular species was detected in human erythrocytes and blood plasma. In LC-MS/MS analysis, MRM enabled the separation and determination of the predominant AGE-PE species. Between healthy subjects and diabetic patients, no significant differences were observed in AGE-PE concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma, whereas Amadori-PE concentrations were higher in diabetic patients. These results provide direct evidence for the presence of AGE-PE in human blood, and indicated that, compared with Amadori-PE, AGE-PE is less likely to be accumulated in diabetic blood. The presently developed LC-MS/MS method appears to be a powerful tool for understanding in vivo lipid glycation and its pathophysiological consequence. PMID:20386060

  13. Mathematical modeling of electro-rotation spectra of small particles in liquid solutions: application to human erythrocyte aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zehe, A; Ramírez, A; Starostenko, O

    2004-02-01

    Electro-rotation can be used to determine the dielectric properties of cells, as well as to observe dynamic changes in both dielectric and morphological properties. Suspended biological cells and particles respond to alternating-field polarization by moving, deforming or rotating. While in linearly polarized alternating fields the particles are oriented along their axis of highest polarizability, in circularly polarized fields the axis of lowest polarizability aligns perpendicular to the plane of field rotation. Ellipsoidal models for cells are frequently applied, which include, beside sphere-shaped cells, also the limiting cases of rods and disks. Human erythrocyte cells, due to their particular shape, hardly resemble an ellipsoid. The additional effect of rouleaux formation with different numbers of aggregations suggests a model of circular cylinders of variable length. In the present study, the induced dipole moment of short cylinders was calculated and applied to rouleaux of human erythrocytes, which move freely in a suspending conductive medium under the effect of a rotating external field. Electro-rotation torque spectra are calculated for such aggregations of different length. Both the maximum rotation speeds and the peak frequencies of the torque are found to depend clearly on the size of the rouleaux. While the rotation speed grows with rouleaux length, the field frequency nu(p) is lowest for the largest cell aggregations where the torque shows a maximum. PMID:14762571

  14. Adhesion of Annexin 7 Deficient Erythrocytes to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Majed; Balasaheb, Siraskar; Towhid, Syeda Tasneem; Daniel, Christoph; Amann, Kerstin; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Annexin 7 deficiency has previously been shown to foster suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis, which is triggered by increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with subsequent phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptosis following increase of [Ca2+]i by Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin, osmotic shock or energy depletion was more pronounced in erythrocytes from annexinA7-deficient mice (anxA7−/−) than in erythrocytes from wild type mice (anxA7+/+). As phosphatidylserine exposure is considered to mediate adhesion of erythrocytes to the vascular wall, the present study explored adhesion of erythrocytes from anx7−/− and anx7+/+-mice following increase of [Ca2+]i by Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 µM for 30 min), hyperosmotic shock (addition of 550 mM sucrose for 2 hours) or energy depletion (removal of glucose for 12 hours). Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes were identified by annexin V binding, cell volume estimated from forward scatter in FACS analysis and adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) utilizing a flow chamber. As a result, ionomycin, sucrose addition and glucose removal all triggered phosphatidylserine-exposure, decreased forward scatter and enhanced adhesion of erythrocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), effects significantly more pronounced in anx7−/− than in anx7+/+-erythrocytes. Following ischemia, morphological renal injury was significantly higher in anx7−/− than in anx7+/+-mice. The present observations demonstrate that enhanced eryptosis of annexin7 deficient cells is paralleled by increased adhesion of erythrocytes to the vascular wall, an effect, which may impact on microcirculation during ischemia. PMID:23437197

  15. Surface shape change during fusion of erythrocyte membranes is sensitive to membrane skeleton agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y; Rosenberg, J D; Sowers, A E

    1994-01-01

    We previously reported that the induction of membrane fusion between pairs of erythrocyte ghosts is accompanied by the formation of a multipore fusion zone that undergoes an area expansion with condition-dependent characteristics. These characteristics allowed us to hypothesize substantial, if not major, involvement of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in controlling this expansion. It was also found that the fusion zone, which first appears in phase optics as a flat diaphragm, has a lifetime that is also highly condition-dependent. We report here that 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, wheat germ agglutinin, diamide, and N-ethylmaleimide, all known to have binding sites primarily on skeleton components (including spectrin), have condition-dependent effects on specific components of the fusion zone diameter versus time expansion curve and the flat diaphragm lifetime. We also report a pH/ionic strength condition that causes a dramatic stabilization of flat diaphragms in a manner consistent with the known pH/ionic strength dependence of the spectrin calorimetric transition, thus further supporting the hypothesis of spectrin involvement. Our data suggest that the influence of the membrane skeleton on cell fusion is to restrain the rounding up that takes place after membrane fusion and that it may have variable, rather than fixed, mechanical properties. Data show that WGA, a known ligand for sialic acid, and DPG, a known metabolite, influences the flat diaphragm stability and late period expansion rates, raising the possibility that some of these mechanical properties are biologically regulated. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:7858126

  16. Suramin and suramin analogues inhibit merozoite surface protein-1 secondary processing and erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Suzanne L; Birdsall, Berry; Babon, Jeffrey; Dluzewski, Anton R; Martin, Stephen R; Morgan, William D; Angov, Evelina; Kettleborough, Catherine A; Feeney, James; Blackman, Michael J; Holder, Anthony A

    2003-11-28

    Malarial merozoites invade erythrocytes; and as an essential step in this invasion process, the 42-kDa fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP142) is further cleaved to a 33-kDa N-terminal polypeptide (MSP133) and an 19-kDa C-terminal fragment (MSP119) in a secondary processing step. Suramin was shown to inhibit both merozoite invasion and MSP142 proteolytic cleavage. This polysulfonated naphthylurea bound directly to recombinant P. falciparum MSP142 (Kd = 0.2 microM) and to Plasmodium vivax MSP142 (Kd = 0.3 microM) as measured by fluorescence enhancement in the presence of the protein and by isothermal titration calorimetry. Suramin bound only slightly less tightly to the P. vivax MSP133 (Kd = 1.5 microM) secondary processing product (fluorescence measurements), but very weakly to MSP119 (Kd approximately 15 mM) (NMR measurements). Several residues in MSP119 were implicated in the interaction with suramin using NMR measurements. A series of symmetrical suramin analogues that differ in the number of aromatic rings and substitution patterns of the terminal naphthylamine groups was examined in invasion and processing assays. Two classes of analogue with either two or four bridging rings were found to be active in both assays, whereas two other classes without bridging rings were inactive. We propose that suramin and related compounds inhibit erythrocyte invasion by binding to MSP1 and by preventing its cleavage by the secondary processing protease. The results indicate that enzymatic events during invasion are suitable targets for drug development and validate the novel concept of an inhibitor binding to a macromolecular substrate to prevent its proteolysis by a protease. PMID:13679371

  17. Inhibition of lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and human erythrocytes by a synthetic anhydride of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J H; Belt, J A; Dubinsky, W P; Zimniak, A; Racker, E

    1980-08-01

    The synthesis and some of the physical and biological characteristics of a new inhibitor of lactate transport are described. The inhibitor is isobutylcarbonyl lactayl anhydride (iBCLA). It is formed by the condensation of lactic acid and isobutylchloroformate. It inhibits lactate transport 50% at 0.5 microgram/mg of protein in both Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and human erythrocytes. In contrast, 15 microgram of iBCLA/mg of protein is required for 50% inhibition of phosphate transport in erythrocytes, and phosphate transport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is unaffected at levels as high as 50 microgram of iBCLA/mg of protein. A time-dependent and concentration-dependent reversal of lactate transport inhibition took place on exposure of iBCLA-treated Ehrlich ascites cells to hydroxylamine or dithiothreitol. These data, along with the observed sensitivity of the lactate transporter to sulfhydryl reagents [Spencer, T. L., & Lehninger, A. L. (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 405-414], suggest that iBCLA acylates an essential sulfhydryl group on the transporter. When glycolyzing Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were treated with concentrations of iBCLA sufficient for complete inhibition of lactate transport, intracellular lactate levels increased, intracellular pH and extra-cellular lactate levels decreased, and overall lactate production was inhibited. PMID:7407072

  18. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase in human erythrocyte membrane. Properties and malonyl-CoA sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, R R; Mancinelli, G; Arduini, A

    1991-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase located in the erythrocyte plasma membrane is sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA and 2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA plus carnitine. Although this inhibition and other properties suggest similarities to the intracellular enzymes in other tissues, no cross-reaction was observed with antisera to the peroxisomal or to the mitochondrial inner-membrane enzyme. The activity was solubilized by and was stable in Triton X-100, which destroys the enzymes found in microsomes and in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The substrate specificity is broader than for the intracellular enzymes, the activities with stearoyl-CoA (114%) and arachidonoyl-CoA (97%) being equal to that with palmitoyl-CoA, and the activities with linoleoyl-CoA (44%) and erucoyl-CoA (46%) about half that with palmitoyl-CoA. The function of this carnitine palmitoyltransferase is probably to buffer the acyl-CoA present in the erythrocyte for turnover of the fatty acyl groups of the membrane lipids. PMID:2039446

  19. Protective Effect of Sundakai (Solanum torvum) Seed Protein (SP) Against Oxidative Membrane Damage in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sivapriya, M; Gowda, S S Thammanna; Srinivas, Leela

    2015-12-01

    Lipid peroxidation by ROS at the membrane level disturbs the inherit integrity of components activating subsequent alterations in the function. In this study, the protective effect of purified Sundakai (Solanum torvum) seed protein (SP) was tested against oxidative membrane damage in erythrocyte membrane. SP prevented oxidative RBC lysis induced by pro-oxidants; Fe:As (2:20 μmol), periodate (0.4 mM), and t-BOOH (1 mM) up to 86, 81, and 86 %, respectively. Further, SP prevented the Fe:As-induced K(+) leakage up to the tune of 95 %. The inhibition offered by SP on K(+) leakage was comparable to inhibition offered by quinine sulfate, a known K(+) channel blocker. SP dose dependently restored Na(+)K(+) ATPase and Ca(2+)Mg(2+) ATPase activities in erythrocyte membrane. The restoration of ATPase activity by SP was two times more than standard antioxidants BHA and α-tocopherol. Besides, SP at 1.6 μmol restored the membrane proteins over Fe:As induction when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, which was comparable to protection offered by BHA. In conclusion, SP is an effective antioxidant in preventing oxidative membrane damage and associated functions mediated by ROS. As SP is non-toxic, it can be used as an effective bioprotective antioxidant agent to cellular components. PMID:26374653

  20. Advanced Glycation-Modified Human Serum Albumin Evokes Alterations in Membrane and Eryptosis in Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Gayathiri, S K; Ramya, R; Duraichelvan, R; Dhason, A; Saraswathi, N T

    2015-11-01

    Increased burden of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in case of hyperglycemic conditions leads to the development of retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. AGEs are considered as pro-oxidants, and their accumulation increases the oxidative stress. The prolonged exposure to these AGEs is the fundamental cause of chronic oxidative stress. Abnormal morphology of red blood cells (RBCs) and excessive eryptosis has been observed in diabetes, glomerulonephritis, dyslipidemia, and obesity, but yet the contribution of extracellular AGEs remains undefined. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGEs on erythrocytes to determine their impact on the occurrence of different pathological forms of these blood cells. Specifically, carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and Arg-pyrimidine (Arg-P) which have been reported to be the most pre-dominant AGEs formed under in vivo conditions were used in this study. Results suggested the eryptotic properties of CML, CEL, and Arg-P for RBCs, which were evident from the highly damaged cell membrane and occurrence of abnormal morphologies. Methylglyoxal-modified albumin showed more severe effects, which can be attributed to the high reactivity and pro-oxidant nature of glycation end products. These findings suggest the possible role of AGE-modified albumin towards the morphological changes in erythrocyte's membrane associated with diabetic conditions. PMID:26276445

  1. Zinc ions and alkaline pH alter the phosphorylation state of human erythrocyte membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fennell, R.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Since the phosphorylation state of the red cell membrane proteins in vitro is likely to be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, this research was carried out to investigate the possible role of membrane-bound phosphatase activities. These studies were conducted with red blood cell ghosts and IOVs from normal individuals and from an individual with hereditary spherocytosis. In vitro phosphorylation with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP was conducted in the presence and the absence of Zn{sup ++}, or erythrocyte ghosts and IOVs were pretreated for 30 minutes at 37{degree}C and pH 7-11 in the presence and the absence of calf intestine alkaline phosphatase. The resulting phosphoproteins were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie blue, and fluorographed. In the presence of Zn{sup ++}, the red blood ghosts, with or without pretreatment, demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation of membrane proteins, including band 4.2. Preincubation at pH 10 in the presence of absence of exogenous phosphatase further stimulates phosphorylation of these proteins. Under similar conditions, the erythrocyte membranes also demonstrated the ability to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate and to remove {sup 32}P from red blood cell phosphoproteins.

  2. Development and behavior of cultured Schistosoma mansoni fed on human erythrocyte ghosts.

    PubMed

    Basch, P F

    1984-09-01

    Schistosomula and adults of Schistosoma mansoni were grown from cercariae in cultures differing only in the treatment of the red blood cells fed to the organisms. "Pink ghosts," containing about 5% of the original hemoglobin, were produced by hemolysis in water; "white ghosts" with no detectable hemoglobin were made in 5 mM phosphate buffer, pH 8. Early growth and development were more rapid and vigorous, and pairs formed more readily when pink ghosts, rather than intact erythrocytes were fed. Schistosomula remained stunted and undeveloped when fed with white ghosts. Attempts at reconstitution of the latter by addition of hemoglobin, concentrated erythrocyte lysate, or pressure-liquefied pink ghosts did not restore growth-promoting activity. Pink ghost-fed worms, particularly paired males, attached to the dish bottom by their acetabulum and oral sucker and travelled by an active looping motion. Substrates of collagen or fibrin or a mammalian cell monolayer did not affect this behavior. Such attachment and locomotion are interpreted as instinctive migratory behavior of schistosomes. PMID:6486300

  3. Ceranib-2-induced suicidal erythrocyte death.

    PubMed

    Signoretto, Elena; Zierle, Jens; Bhuyan, Abdulla Al Mamun; Castagna, Michela; Lang, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Ceramide is known to trigger apoptosis of nucleated cells and eryptosis of erythrocytes. Eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Besides ceramide, stimulators of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity ([Ca(2+) ]i ) and oxidative stress. Ceramide is degraded by acid ceramidase and inhibition of the enzyme similarly triggers apoptosis. The present study explored, whether ceramidase inhibitor Ceranib-2 induces eryptosis. Flow cytometry was employed to quantify phosphatidylserine-exposure at the cell surface from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca(2+) ]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) from DCF dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Hemolysis was estimated from hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant. A 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Ceranib-2 significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥50 μM) and the percentage of hemolytic cells (≥10 μM) without significantly modifying forward scatter. Ceranib-2 significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence, DCF fluorescence and ceramide abundance. The effect of Ceranib-2 on annexin-V-binding was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) . Ceranib-2 triggers phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part due to increase of ceramide abundance and induction of oxidative stress, but not dependent on Ca(2+) entry. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27291470

  4. Characterization of glycolytic enzyme interactions with murine erythrocyte membranes in wild-type and membrane protein knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, M. Estela; Chu, Haiyan; Wandersee, Nancy J.; Peters, Luanne L.; Mohandas, Narla; Gilligan, Diana M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that glycolytic enzymes (GEs) exist as multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of human erythrocyte membranes. Because GE binding sites have been mapped to sequences on the membrane protein, band 3, that are not conserved in other mammalian homologs, the question arose whether GEs can organize into complexes on other mammalian erythrocyte membranes. To address this, murine erythrocytes were stained with antibodies to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase and analyzed by confocal microscopy. GEs were found to localize to the membrane in oxygenated erythrocytes but redistributed to the cytoplasm upon deoxygenation, as seen in human erythrocytes. To identify membrane proteins involved in GE assembly, erythrocytes from mice lacking each of the major erythrocyte membrane proteins were examined for GE localization. GEs from band 3 knockout mice were not membrane associated but distributed throughout the cytoplasm, regardless of erythrocyte oxygenation state. In contrast, erythrocytes from mice lacking α-spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.2, protein 4.1, β-adducin, or dematin headpiece exhibited GEs bound to the membrane. These data suggest that oxygenation-dependent assembly of GEs on the membrane could be a general phenomenon of mammalian erythrocytes and that stability of these interactions depends primarily on band 3. PMID:18698006

  5. Quantitative non-invasive intracellular imaging of Plasmodium falciparum infected human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Farahi, Faramarz

    2014-05-01

    Malaria is a virulent pathological condition which results in over a million annual deaths. The parasitic agent Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in connection with this epidemic but much remains unknown about its development inside the red blood cell host. Optical and fluorescence imaging are among the two most common procedures for investigating infected erythrocytes but both require the introduction of exogenous contrast agents. In this letter, we present a procedure for the non-invasive in situ imaging of malaria infected red blood cells. The procedure is based on the utilization of simultaneously acquired quantitative phase and independent topography data to extract intracellular information. Our method allows for the identification of the developmental stages of the parasite and facilitates in situ analysis of the morphological changes associated with the progression of this disease. This information may assist in the development of efficacious treatment therapies for this condition.

  6. Identical kinetics of human erythrocyte and muscle acetylcholinesterase with respect to carbamate pre-treatment, residual activity upon soman challenge and spontaneous reactivation after withdrawal of the inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Herkert, Nadja M; Eckert, Saskia; Eyer, Peter; Bumm, Rudolf; Weber, Georg; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2008-04-18

    The efficacy of oxime treatment in soman poisoning is limited due to rapid aging of inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Pre-treatment with carbamates was shown to improve antidotal treatment substantially. Recently, by using a dynamically working in vitro model with real-time determination of membrane-bound AChE activity, we were able to demonstrate that pre-inhibition of human erythrocyte AChE with pyridostigmine or physostigmine resulted in a markedly higher residual AChE activity after inhibition by soman or paraoxon than in the absence of reversible inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of carbamate pre-treatment and soman challenge with human erythrocyte and muscle homogenate AChE. Both enzyme sources were immobilized on particle filters which were perfused with acetylthiocholine, Ellman's reagent and phosphate buffer. AChE activity was continuously analyzed in a flow-through detector. Pre-inhibition of AChE with pyridostigmine or physostigmine resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in carbamylation, residual activity after soman inhibition and fraction of decarbamylation AChE after discontinuation of the inhibitors without differences between human erythrocyte and muscle AChE. This data support the view that human erythrocyte AChE is an adequate surrogate marker for synaptic AChE in OP poisoning. PMID:18304715

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid on copper-induced oxidative changes in human erythrocytes: example of a biphasic dose-response relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, J.; Calabrese, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    In an in vitro study, ascorbic acid reduced the occurrence of copper acetate-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes at biologically relevant concentrations (0.06 - 0.25 mM) while enhancing oxidative changes (i.e., changes in methemoglobin (METHB) and reduced glutathione (GSH)) at higher levels of exposure (>1.0 mM).

  8. EFFECT OF METHYL LINOLEATE HYDROPEROXIDE (MLHP), A POSSIBLE TOXIC INTERMEDIATE OF OZONE, ON HUMAN NORMAL AND GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (G-6-PD) DEFICIENT ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Erythrocytes of both normal and G-6-PD deficient humans responded in a dose-dependent manner to the oxidant stress of MLHP as measured by decreases in G-6-PD activity, increases in methemoglobin (METHB) levels and decreases in reduced glutahione (GSH). The G-6-PD deficient erythr...

  9. Protection of human erythrocyte using Crinumasiaticum extract and lycorine from oxidative damage induced by 2-amidinopropane

    PubMed Central

    Ilavenil, S.; Kaleeswaran, B.; Sumitha, P.; Tamilvendan, D.; Ravikumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    The intention of this investigation was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and erythrocyte protective activity of ethanolic extract of Crinumasiaticum (L) and lycorine. The ethanolic extract of C. asiaticum (L) and lycorine were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models. Both ethanolic extract of C. asiaticum (L) (0.5–2.5 mg/ml) and lycorine (0.010 mg–0.050 mg/ml) increases the percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition (26.25 ± 0.23% and 19.25 ± 0.23%) and enhances the free radical scavenging activity (20.92 ± 0.22% and 20.52 ± 0.22%), scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (25.67 ± 0.17% and 23.07 ± 0.3%) superoxide anion scavenging activity (27.69 ± 0.16% and 16.09 ± 0.7%) at concentration of 2.5 and 0.050 mg of C. asiaticum (L) and lycorine, respectively. But compared with tocopherol (P < 0.05) less activity was observed by C. asiaticum (L) and lycorine. The ethanolic extract of C. asiaticum (L) and lycorine were normalized to reduce the level of glutathione and also to sustain the status of protein in erythrocytes during the peroxyl radical [2,2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)] induced oxidative damage in ex vivo model. The present results of the investigations demonstrated that protective nature of the C. asiaticum (L) and lycorine will be considered as a significant natural antioxidant source. PMID:23961122

  10. Substituted benzaldehydes designed to increase the oxygen affinity of human haemoglobin and inhibit the sickling of sickle erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Beddell, C. R.; Goodford, P. J.; Kneen, G.; White, R. D.; Wilkinson, S.; Wootton, R.

    1984-01-01

    Substituted benzaldehydes have been designed to bind preferentially to the oxy conformation of human haemoglobin at a site between the amino terminal residues of the alpha-subunits. Such compounds should stabilize the oxygenated form of haemoglobin and thereby increase its oxygen affinity. The compounds produce the expected effect, left-shifting the oxygen saturation curve of dilute haemoglobin solutions and of whole blood, although the binding pattern to haemoglobin is more complex than envisaged by the design hypothesis. The predicted best compound is also a potent inhibitor, at low oxygen pressure, of the sickling of erythrocytes from patients homozygous for sickle cell disease, and may prove to be a clinically useful anti-sickling agent. PMID:6733364