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Sample records for human fecal pollution

  1. Quantitative PCR for Genetic Markers of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantificationapproach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for quantification of two recently described human-...

  2. Quantitative PCR for genetic markers of human fecal pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantification approach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described hum...

  3. Quantitative PCR for genetic markers of human fecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A

    2009-09-01

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacterial loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantification approach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for quantification of two recently described human-specific genetic markers targeting Bacteroidales-like cell surface-associated genes. Each assay exhibited a range of quantification from 10 to 1 x 10(6) copies of target DNA. For each assay, internal amplification controls were developed to detect the presence or absence of amplification inhibitors. The assays predominantly detected human fecal specimens and exhibited specificity levels greater than 97% when tested against 265 fecal DNA extracts from 22 different animal species. The abundance of each human-specific genetic marker in primary effluent wastewater samples collected from 20 geographically distinct locations was measured and compared to quantities estimated by real-time PCR assays specific for rRNA gene sequences from total Bacteroidales and enterococcal fecal microorganisms. Assay performances combined with the prevalence of DNA targets in sewage samples provide experimental evidence supporting the potential application of these quantitative methods for monitoring fecal pollution in ambient environmental waters. PMID:19592537

  4. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  5. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  6. Performance of PCR-based assays targeting Bacteroidales genetic markers of human fecal pollution in sewage and fecal samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to characterize human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct oligonucleotides and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method performance. Laboratory comparisons ...

  7. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BACTEROIDES DNA PROBES FOR THE SPECIFIC DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because Bacteroides spp. are obligate anaerobes that dominate the human fecal flora, and because some species may live only in the human intestine, these bacteria might be useful to distinguish human from nonhuman sources of fecal pollution. To test this hypothesis, PCR primers s...

  8. Differential Decay of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the decomposition of different human fecal pollution sources is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decay of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fe...

  9. Detection and Quantification of Human Fecal Pollution with Real-Time PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described ...

  10. Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.

    PubMed

    Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

    2014-12-01

    Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. PMID:25360571

  11. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  12. Performance of PCR-based assays targeting Bacteroidales genetic markers of human fecal pollution in sewage and fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; White, Karen; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Blannon, Janet; Meckes, Mark; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A

    2010-08-15

    There are numerous PCR-based assays available to characterize human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct oligonucleotides and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in assay performance. Performance comparisons utilizing feces and raw sewage samples are needed to determine which assays are best suited for expensive and time-consuming field validation, fate, transport, and epidemiology studies. We report the assessment of five end-point PCR and 10 real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays that target genes from presumptive Bacteroidales microorganisms reported to be associated with human feces. Each assay was tested against a reference collection of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from different geographical locations across the United States and 174 fecal DNA extracts from 23 different animal sources. Experiments indicate that human-associated genetic markers are distributed across a broad range of human populations but show substantial differences in specificity for human feces suggesting that particular assays may be more suitable than others depending on the abundance of genetic marker required for detection and the animal sources impacting a particular watershed or beach of interest. PMID:20704227

  13. QMRAcatch: Human-Associated Fecal Pollution and Infection Risk Modeling for a River/Floodplain Environment.

    PubMed

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Zoufal-Hruza, Christa M; van Driezum, Inge H; Reischer, Georg; Ixenmaier, Simone; Kirschner, Alexander; Frick, Christina; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-07-01

    Protection of drinking water resources requires addressing all relevant fecal pollution sources in the considered catchment. A freely available simulation tool, QMRAcatch, was recently developed to simulate concentrations of fecal indicators, a genetic microbial source tracking (MST) marker, and intestinal pathogens in water resources and to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). At the same time, QMRAcatch was successfully applied to a region of the Danube River in Austria, focusing on municipal wastewater emissions. Herein, we describe extension of its application to a Danube River floodplain, keeping the focus on fecal sources of human origin. QMRAcatch was calibrated to match measured human-associated MST marker concentrations for a dry year and a wet year. Appropriate performance characteristics of the human-associated MST assay were proven by simulating correct and false-positive marker concentrations, as determined in human and animal feces. With the calibrated tool, simulated and measured enterovirus concentrations in the rivers were compared. Finally, the calibrated tool allowed demonstrating that 4.5 log enterovirus and 6.6 log norovirus reductions must be achieved to convert current surface water to safe drinking water that complies with a health-based target of 10 infections person yr. Simulations of the low- and high-pollution scenarios showed that the required viral reductions ranged from 0 to 8 log. This study has implications for water managers with interests in assessing robust catchment protection measures and water treatment criteria by considering the fate of fecal pollution from its sources to the point of abstraction. PMID:27380068

  14. Fecal pollution source tracking in waters intended for human supply based on archaeal and bacterial genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Kayo; Barreto, Camila; Oliveira, Samara Sant'Anna; Pinto, Leonardo Henriques; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Miranda, Catia Chaia; Clementino, Maysa Mandetta

    2015-12-01

    The determination of fecal pollution sources in aquatic ecosystems is essential to estimate associated health risks. In this study, we evaluate eight microbial source tracking (MST) markers including host-specific Bacteroidales and Methanobrevibacter spp. for discrimination between human, bovine, equine, and swine fecal contamination in waters intended for human supply. Overall, the novel host-specific archaeal and bacterial primers proposed in this study demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. Markers for the Archaea domain were more prevalent in the fecal and water samples studied. We conclude that the investigations regarding the sources of fecal pollution in public water supplies can contribute to improve the quality of human health. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis using both archaeal and bacterial fecal MST markers on tropical water bodies of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. PMID:26608760

  15. Design and evaluation of Bacteroides DNA probes for the specific detection of human fecal pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kreader, C.A.

    1995-04-01

    Because Bacteroides spp. are obligate anaerobes that dominate the human fecal flora, and because some species may live only in the human intestine, these bacteria might be useful to distinguish human from nonhuman sources of fecal pollution. To test this hypothesis, PCR primers specific for 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacteroides distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. vulgatus were designed. Hybridization with species-specific internal probes was used to detect the intended PCR products. Extracts from 66 known Bacteroides strains, representing 10 related species, were used to confirm the specificity of these PCR-hybridization assays. To test for specificity in feces, procedures were developed to prepare DNA of sufficient purity for PCR. Extracts of feces from 9 humans and 70 nonhumans (cats, dogs, cattle, hogs, horses, sheep, goats, and chickens) were each analyzed with and without an internal positive control to verify that PCR amplification was not inhibited by substances in the extract. In addition, serial dilutions from each extract that tested positive were assayed to estimate the relative abundance of target Bacteroides spp. in the sample. Depending on the primer-probe set used, either 78 or 67% of the human fecal extracts tested had high levels of target DNA. On the other hand, only 7 to 11% of the nonhuman extracts tested had similarly high levels of target DNA. An additional 12 to 20% of the nonhuman extracts had levels of target DNA that were 100- to 1,000-fold lower than those found in humans. Although the B. vulgatus probes detected high levels of their target DNA in most of the house pets, similarly high levels of target DNA were found only in a few individuals from other groups of nonhumans. Therefore, the results indicate that these probes can distinguish human from non human feces in many cases. 50 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Design and evaluation of Bacteroides DNA probes for the specific detection of human fecal pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Kreader, C A

    1995-01-01

    Because Bacteroides spp. are obligate anaerobes that dominate the human fecal flora, and because some species may live only in the human intestine, these bacteria might be useful to distinguish human from nonhuman sources of fecal pollution. To test this hypothesis, PCR primers specific for 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacteroides distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. vulgatus were designed. Hybridization with species-specific internal probes was used to detect the intended PCR products. Extracts from 66 known Bacteroides strains, representing 10 related species, were used to confirm the specificity of these PCR-hybridization assays. To test for specificity in feces, procedures were developed to prepare DNA of sufficient purity for PCR. Extracts of feces from 9 humans and 70 nonhumans (cats, dogs, cattle, hogs, horses, sheep, goats, and chickens) were each analyzed with and without an internal positive control to verify that PCR amplification was not inhibited by substances in the extract. In addition, serial dilutions from each extract that tested positive were assayed to estimate the relative abundance of target Bacteroides spp. in the sample. Depending on the primer-probe set used, either 78 or 67% of the human fecal extracts tested had high levels of target DNA. On the other hand, only 7 to 11% of the nonhuman extracts tested had similarly high levels of target DNA. An additional 12 to 20% of the nonhuman extracts had levels of target DNA that were 100- to 1,000-fold lower than those found in humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7538270

  17. Overview of Microbial Source Tracking Methods Targeting Human Fecal Pollution Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to human fecal waste can be a public health risk dueto the presence of human pathogens. Human fecal pollutioncan be introduced into water resources from damagedsewer lines, faulty septic systems, combined sewer overflows,illicit dumping activities, and even recreational ...

  18. Improved HF183 quantitative real-time PCR assay for characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real-time quantitative PCR assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster have been found to be some of the top performing methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency is planning to conduct a ...

  19. Improved HF183 quantitative real-time PCR assay for characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface water samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time quantitative PCR assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster are considered to be some of the top performing methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. In response, the United States Environmental Protectio...

  20. Identification of Bacterial DNA Markers for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution in Water▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Orin C.; Domingo, Jorge W. Santo; Lu, Jingrang; Kelty, Catherine A.; Graham, James E.

    2007-01-01

    We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human and pig fecal samples, 351 plasmid clones were sequenced and were determined to define 289 different genomic DNA regions. These putative human-specific fecal bacterial DNA sequences were then analyzed by dot blot hybridization, which confirmed that 98% were present in the source human fecal microbial community and absent from the original pig fecal DNA extract. Comparative sequence analyses of these sequences suggested that a large number (43.5%) were predicted to encode bacterial secreted or surface-associated proteins. Deoxyoligonucleotide primers capable of annealing to a subset of 26 of the candidate sequences predicted to encode factors involved in interactions with host cells were then used in the PCR and did not amplify markers in DNA from any additional pig fecal specimens. These 26 PCR assays exhibited a range of specificity in tests with 11 other animal sources, with more than half amplifying markers only in specimens from dogs or cats. Four assays were more specific, detecting markers only in specimens from humans, including those from 18 different human populations examined. We then demonstrated the potential utility of these assays by using them to detect human fecal contamination in several impacted watersheds. PMID:17209067

  1. Identification of bacterial DNA markers for the detection of human fecal pollution in water.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Domingo, Jorge W Santo; Lu, Jingrang; Kelty, Catherine A; Graham, James E

    2007-04-01

    We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human and pig fecal samples, 351 plasmid clones were sequenced and were determined to define 289 different genomic DNA regions. These putative human-specific fecal bacterial DNA sequences were then analyzed by dot blot hybridization, which confirmed that 98% were present in the source human fecal microbial community and absent from the original pig fecal DNA extract. Comparative sequence analyses of these sequences suggested that a large number (43.5%) were predicted to encode bacterial secreted or surface-associated proteins. Deoxyoligonucleotide primers capable of annealing to a subset of 26 of the candidate sequences predicted to encode factors involved in interactions with host cells were then used in the PCR and did not amplify markers in DNA from any additional pig fecal specimens. These 26 PCR assays exhibited a range of specificity in tests with 11 other animal sources, with more than half amplifying markers only in specimens from dogs or cats. Four assays were more specific, detecting markers only in specimens from humans, including those from 18 different human populations examined. We then demonstrated the potential utility of these assays by using them to detect human fecal contamination in several impacted watersheds. PMID:17209067

  2. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method ...

  3. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Human Fecal Pollution - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods available to detect and enumerate human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and/or probes and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method p...

  4. Discriminant analysis of ribotype profiles of Escherichia coli for differentiating human and nonhuman sources of fecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Parveen, S; Portier, K M; Robinson, K; Edmiston, L; Tamplin, M L

    1999-07-01

    Estuarine waters receive fecal pollution from a variety of sources, including humans and wildlife. Escherichia coli is a ubiquitous bacterium in the intestines of warm-blooded animals and is used as an indicator of fecal pollution. However, its presence does not specifically differentiate sources of pollution. A total of 238 E. coli isolates from human sources (HS) and nonhuman sources (NHS) were collected from the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve, from associated sewage treatment plants, and directly from animals and tested for ribotype (RT) profile. HS and NHS isolates showed 41 and 61 RT profiles, respectively. At a similarity index of ca. 50%, HS and NHS isolates demonstrated four clusters, with the majority of HS and NHS isolates located in clusters C and D; isolates obtained directly from human and animal feces also could be grouped within these clusters. Discriminant analysis (DA) of RT profiles showed that 97% of the NHS isolates and 100% of the animal fecal isolates were correctly classified. The average rate of correct classification for HS and NHS isolates was 82%. We conclude that DA of RT profiles may be a useful method for identifying HS and NHS fecal pollution and may potentially facilitate management practices. PMID:10388715

  5. Combining Land Use Information and Small Stream Sampling with PCR-Based Methods for Better Characterization of Diffuse Sources of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffuse sources of human fecal pollution allow for the direct discharge of waste into receiving waters with minimal or no treatment. Traditional culture-based methods are commonly used to characterize fecal pollution in ambient waters, however these methods do not discern between...

  6. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND BIOSENSOR TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING NON-MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limitations exist in applying the conventional microbial methods to the detection of human fecal contamination in water. Recently, there has been an increased interest in developing supplemental and/or alternate indicators of human contamination to better define water quality an...

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human a...

  8. Evaluating sewage-associated JCV and BKV polyomaviruses for sourcing human fecal pollution in a coastal river in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Wan, C; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the host-sensitivity and host-specificity of JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) polyomaviruses were evaluated by testing wastewater and fecal samples from nine host groups in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The JCV and BKV polyomaviruses were detected in 63 human wastewater samples collected from primary and secondary effluent, suggesting high sensitivity of these viruses in human wastewater. In the 81 animal wastewater and fecal samples tested, 80 were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative for the JCV and BKV markers. Only one sample (out of 81 animal wastewater and fecal samples) from pig wastewater was positive. Nonetheless, the overall host-specificity of these viruses to differentiate between human and animal wastewater and fecal samples was 0.99. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Australia that reports on the high specificity of JCV and BKV polyomaviruses. To evaluate the field application of these viral markers for detecting human fecal pollution, 20 environmental samples were collected from a coastal river. In the 20 samples tested, 15% (3/20) and 70% (14/20) samples exceeded the regulatory guidelines for Escherichia coli and enterococci levels for marine waters. In all, five (25%) samples were PCR positive for JCV and BKV, indicating the presence of human fecal pollution in the coastal river investigated. The results suggest that JCV and BKV detection using PCR could be a useful tool for identifying human-sourced fecal pollution in coastal waters. PMID:21043279

  9. Improved HF183 quantitative real-time PCR assay for characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface water samples.

    PubMed

    Green, Hyatt C; Haugland, Richard A; Varma, Manju; Millen, Hana T; Borchardt, Mark A; Field, Katharine G; Walters, William A; Knight, R; Sivaganesan, Mano; Kelty, Catherine A; Shanks, Orin C

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays that target the human-associated HF183 bacterial cluster within members of the genus Bacteroides are among the most widely used methods for the characterization of human fecal pollution in ambient surface waters. In this study, we show that a current TaqMan HF183 qPCR assay (HF183/BFDrev) routinely forms nonspecific amplification products and introduce a modified TaqMan assay (HF183/BacR287) that alleviates this problem. The performance of each qPCR assay was compared in head-to-head experiments investigating limits of detection, analytical precision, predicted hybridization to 16S rRNA gene sequences from a reference database, and relative marker concentrations in fecal and sewage samples. The performance of the modified HF183/BacR287 assay is equal to or improves upon that of the original HF183/BFDrev assay. In addition, a qPCR chemistry designed to combat amplification inhibition and a multiplexed internal amplification control are included. In light of the expanding use of PCR-based methods that rely on the detection of extremely low concentrations of DNA template, such as qPCR and digital PCR, the new TaqMan HF183/BacR287 assay should provide more accurate estimations of human-derived fecal contaminants in ambient surface waters. PMID:24610857

  10. Human and bovine adenoviruses for the detection of source-specific fecal pollution in coastal waters in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the host-specificity and -sensitivity of human- and bovine-specific adenoviruses (HS-AVs and BS-AVs) were evaluated by testing wastewater/fecal samples from various animal species in Southeast, Queensland, Australia. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the HS-AVs marker were 1.0 and 0.78, respectively. These figures for the BS-AVs were 1.0 and 0.73, respectively. Twenty environmental water samples were collected during wet conditions and 20 samples were colleted during dry conditions from the Maroochy Coastal River and tested for the presence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), host-specific viral markers, zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens using PCR/qPCR. The concentrations of FIB in water samples collected after wet conditions were generally higher compared to dry conditions. HS-AVs was detected in 20% water samples collected during wet conditions and whereas BS-AVs was detected in both wet (i.e., 10%) and dry (i.e., 10%) conditions. Both Campylobacter jejuni mapA and Salmonella invA genes detected in 10% samples collected during dry conditions. The concentrations of Salmonella invA ranged between 3.5 × 10(2) and 4.3 × 10(2) genomic copies per 500 ml of water Giardia lamblia β-giardin gene was detected only in one sample (5%) collected during the dry conditions. Weak or significant correlations were observed between FIB with viral markers and zoonotic pathogens. However, during dry conditions, no significant correlations were observed between FIB concentrations with viral markers and zoonotic pathogens. The prevalence of HS-AVs in samples collected from the study river suggests that the quality of water is affected by human fecal pollution and as well as bovine fecal pollution. The results suggest that HS-AVs and BS-AVs detection using PCR could be a useful tool for the identification of human sourced fecal pollution in coastal waters. PMID:20891037

  11. Discovering new indicators of fecal pollution

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Eren, A. Murat

    2014-01-01

    Fecal pollution indicators are essential to identify and remediate contamination sources and protect public health. Historically, easily cultured facultative anaerobes such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, or enterococci have been used, but these indicators generally provide no information as to their source. More recently, molecular methods have targeted fecal anaerobes, which are much more abundant in humans and other mammals and some strains appear to be associated with certain host sources. Next-generation sequencing and microbiome studies have created an unprecedented inventory of microbial communities associated with fecal sources, allowing reexamination of which taxonomic groups are best suited as informative indicators. The use of new computational methods, such as oligotyping coupled with well-established machine learning approaches, is providing new insights into patterns of host association. In this review we examine the basis for host-specificity and the rationale for using 16S rRNA gene targets for alternative indicators and highlight two taxonomic groups, Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae, which are rich in host-specific bacterial organisms. Finally, we discuss considerations for using alternative indicators for water quality assessments with a particular focus on detecting human sewage sources of contamination. PMID:25199597

  12. Probabilistic analysis showing that a combination of bacteroides and methanobrevibacter source tracking markers is effective for identifying waters contaminated by human fecal pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Christopher; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Stewart, Jill R.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial source tracking assays to identify sources of waterborne contamination typically target genetic markers of host-specific microorganisms. However, no bacterial marker has been shown to be 100% host-specific, and cross-reactivity has been noted in studies evaluating known source samples. Using 485 challenge samples from 20 different human and animal fecal sources, this study evaluated microbial source tracking markers including the Bacteroides HF183 16S rRNA, M. smithii nifH, and Enterococcus esp gene targets that have been proposed as potential indicators of human fecal contamination. Bayes' Theorem was used to calculate the conditional probability that these markers or a combination of markers can correctly identify human sources of fecal pollution. All three human-associated markers were detected in 100% of the sewage samples analyzed. Bacteroides HF183 was the most effective marker for determining whether contamination was specifically from a human source, and greater than 98% certainty that contamination was from a human source was shown when both Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH markers were present. A high degree of certainty was attained even in cases where the prior probability of human fecal contamination was as low as 8.5%. The combination of Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH source tracking markers can help identify surface waters impacted by human fecal contamination, information useful for prioritizing restoration activities or assessing health risks from exposure to contaminated waters.

  13. Distribution of human-specific bacteroidales and fecal indicator bacteria in an urban watershed impacted by sewage pollution, determined using RNA- and DNA-based quantitative PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vikram; Pitkänen, Tarja; Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael; Wendell, David; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-01-01

    The identification of fecal pollution sources is commonly carried out using DNA-based methods. However, there is evidence that DNA can be associated with dead cells or present as "naked DNA" in the environment. Furthermore, it has been shown that rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays can be more sensitive than rRNA gene-based qPCR assays since metabolically active cells usually contain higher numbers of ribosomes than quiescent cells. To this end, we compared the detection frequency of host-specific markers and fecal bacteria using RNA-based RT-qPCR and DNA-based qPCR methods for water samples collected in sites impacted by combined sewer overflows. As a group, fecal bacteria were more frequently detected in most sites using RNA-based methods. Specifically, 8, 87, and 85% of the samples positive for general enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium markers, respectively, were detected using RT-qPCR, but not with the qPCR assay counterpart. On average, two human-specific Bacteroidales markers were not detected when using DNA in 12% of the samples, while they were positive for all samples when using RNA (cDNA) as the template. Moreover, signal intensity was up to three orders of magnitude higher in RT-qPCR assays than in qPCR assays. The human-specific Bacteroidales markers exhibited moderate correlation with conventional fecal indicators using RT-qPCR results, suggesting the persistence of nonhuman sources of fecal pollution or the presence of false-positive signals. In general, the results from this study suggest that RNA-based assays can increase the detection sensitivity of fecal bacteria in urban watersheds impacted with human fecal sources. PMID:25326295

  14. Distribution of Human-Specific Bacteroidales and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in an Urban Watershed Impacted by Sewage Pollution, Determined Using RNA- and DNA-Based Quantitative PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Vikram; Pitkänen, Tarja; Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The identification of fecal pollution sources is commonly carried out using DNA-based methods. However, there is evidence that DNA can be associated with dead cells or present as “naked DNA” in the environment. Furthermore, it has been shown that rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays can be more sensitive than rRNA gene-based qPCR assays since metabolically active cells usually contain higher numbers of ribosomes than quiescent cells. To this end, we compared the detection frequency of host-specific markers and fecal bacteria using RNA-based RT-qPCR and DNA-based qPCR methods for water samples collected in sites impacted by combined sewer overflows. As a group, fecal bacteria were more frequently detected in most sites using RNA-based methods. Specifically, 8, 87, and 85% of the samples positive for general enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium markers, respectively, were detected using RT-qPCR, but not with the qPCR assay counterpart. On average, two human-specific Bacteroidales markers were not detected when using DNA in 12% of the samples, while they were positive for all samples when using RNA (cDNA) as the template. Moreover, signal intensity was up to three orders of magnitude higher in RT-qPCR assays than in qPCR assays. The human-specific Bacteroidales markers exhibited moderate correlation with conventional fecal indicators using RT-qPCR results, suggesting the persistence of nonhuman sources of fecal pollution or the presence of false-positive signals. In general, the results from this study suggest that RNA-based assays can increase the detection sensitivity of fecal bacteria in urban watersheds impacted with human fecal sources. PMID:25326295

  15. Polymorphism of the glucosyltransferase gene (ycjM) in Escherichia coli and its use for tracking human fecal pollution in water.

    PubMed

    Deng, Daiyong; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Dong; Reed, Mary; Liu, Fengjing; Zheng, Guolu

    2015-12-15

    This study examined polymorphism of the glucosyltransferase gene (ycjM) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates and evaluated the use of the sequence polymorphism for measuring human fecal pollution in water. Significant nucleotide variations were observed through comparative analysis of the ycjM sequences of 70 E. coli strains isolated from the feces of humans, domestic livestock, and wild animals. Three distinct types of ycjM sequences were found: universal-ycjM, human/chicken-ycjM, and human-ycjM. Using the human-ycjM sequences, both a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Hycj-PCR and a quantitative PCR, Hycj-qPCR, were developed. As shown by the Hycj-PCR amplification, the human-ycjM marker appeared to be highly associated with the E. coli strains isolated from human feces, based on the analysis of 370 E. coli strains isolated from humans and seven other animal species. Similarly, the human-ycjM marker was highly linked with human feces, as demonstrated by the Hycj-PCR assay, when using 337 fecal DNA samples from 16 host animal sources, including both domestic and wild animals. Overall, the specificity and sensitivity of the human-ycjM marker for differentiating between the feces of humans and those of nonhuman groups were 99.7% and 100%, respectively; the prevalence of the marker appeared to be greater than 50% in the human-feces-associated E. coli population. In addition, our study showed that the quantification of human E. coli by the Hycj-qPCR was linearly correlated with the anthropogenic activity within a watershed. Our study suggests that this novel human-ycjM marker and the resulting PCR-based methods developed should be useful for measuring human-associated E. coli and human fecal pollution in water. PMID:26282760

  16. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. PMID:26298247

  17. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Templar, Hayley A; Dila, Deborah K; Bootsma, Melinda J; Corsi, Steven R; McLellan, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson's r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200-1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (<200 CFU/100 ml) FC levels also had evidence of human sewage. Load calculations in the in the Milwaukee estuary revealed storm-driven sewage contamination varied greatly among events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways. PMID:27236594

  18. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templar, Hayley A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Corsi, Steven; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and humanLachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson’s r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200–1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (<200 CFU/100 ml) FC levels also had evidence of human sewage. Load calculations in the in the Milwaukee estuary revealed storm-driven sewage contamination varied greatly among events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  19. Exposure to human source fecal indicators and self-reported illness among bathers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Indicator microorganisms are used to predict the presence of fecal pollution in water and assess associated health risks, usually gastrointestinal illness and diarrhea. Few studies have characterized the health risks associated with human fecal sources using microbi...

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  1. A Microbial Signature Approach to Identify Fecal Pollution in the Waters Off an Urbanized Coast of Lake Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (≥97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to >2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in

  2. FECAL POLLUTION, PUBLIC HEALTH AND MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) seeks to provide information about sources of fecal water contamination. Without knowledge of sources, it is difficult to accurately model risk assessments, choose effective remediation strategies, or bring chronically polluted waters into complian...

  3. Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ability to distinguish between human and animal fecal pollution is important for risk assessment and watershed management, particularly in bodies of water used as sources of drinking water or for recreation. PCR-based methods were used to determine the source of fecal pollution ...

  4. Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

    2014-02-01

    Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

  5. Flow fingerprinting fecal pollution and suspended solids in stormwater runoff from an urban coastal watershed.

    PubMed

    Surbeck, Cristiane Q; Jiang, Sunny C; Ahn, Jong Ho; Grant, Stanley B

    2006-07-15

    Field studies were conducted to characterize the concentration vs streamflow relationships (or "flow fingerprints") of fecal pollution and suspended solids in stormwater runoff from the Santa Ana River watershed, the largest watershed in southern California. The concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and F+ coliphages (viruses infecting E. coli) exhibit little-to-no dependence on streamflow rates, whereas the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) exhibit a very strong (power-law) dependence on streamflow rates. The different flow fingerprints observed for fecal pollutants, on one hand, and TSS, on the other hand, reflect different sources and transport pathways for these stormwater constituents. The flow-independent nature of fecal indicator bacteria and F+ coliphages is consistent with the idea that these contaminants are ubiquitously present on the surface of the urban landscape and rapidly partition into the surface water as the landscape is wetted by rainfall. The flow-dependent nature of TSS, on the other hand, is usually ascribed to the shear-induced erosion of channel bed sediments and/or the expansion of drainage area contributing to runoff. The apparent ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria and F+ coliphages, together with the very high storm-loading rates of fecal indicator bacteria and the low detection frequency of human adenovirus and human enterovirus, suggest that fecal pollution in stormwater runoff from the Santa Ana River watershed is primarily of nonhuman waste origin. PMID:16903282

  6. CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the quality of drinking and recreational waters is estimated through the measurement of fecal bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococci. However, since it takes time for the microorganisms to grow and be detected, their utility as indicators of human fecal co...

  7. Development of Cross-Assembly Phage PCR-Based Methods for Human Fecal Source Identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technologies that can characterize human fecal pollution in environmental waters offer many advantages over traditional general indicator approaches. However, many human-associated methods cross-react with non-human animal sources and lack suitable sensitivity for fecal source id...

  8. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL-1, human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of hotspots and trends of fecal surface water pollution in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Water is the essential resource ensuring human life on earth, which can only prosper when water is available and accessible. But of importance is not only the quantity of accessible water but also its quality, which in case of pollution may pose a risk to human health. The pollutants which pose a risk to human health are manifold, covering several groups such as pathogens, nutrients, human pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and others. With regards to human health, pathogen contamination is of major interest as 4% of all death and 5.7% of disability or ill health in the world can be attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. In developing countries, 2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation in 2011. The lack of sanitation poses a risk to surface water pollution which is a threat to human health. A typical indicator for pathogen pollution is fecal coliform bacteria. The objective our study is to assess fecal pollution in the developing regions Africa, Asia and Latin America using the large-scale water quality model WorldQual. Model runs were carried-out to calculate in-stream concentrations and the respective loadings reaching rivers for the time period 1990 to 2010. We identified hotspots of fecal coliform loadings and in-stream concentrations which were further analyzed and ranked in terms of fecal surface water pollution. Main findings are that loadings mainly originate from the domestic sector, thus loadings are high in highly populated areas. In general, domestic loadings can be attributed to the two subsectors domestic sewered and domestic non sewered. The spatial distribution of both sectors varies across catchments. Hotspot pattern of in-stream concentrations are similar to the loadings pattern although they are different in seasonality. As the dilution varies with climate its dilution capacity is high during seasons with high precipitation, which in turn decreases the in-stream concentrations. The fecal

  10. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  11. Modeling the Transport and Fate of Fecal Pollution and Nutrients of Miyun Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Fu, X.; Wang, G.

    2009-12-01

    Miyun Reservoir, a mountain valley reservoir, is located 100 km northeast of Beijing City. Besides the functions of flood control, irrigation and fishery for Beijing area, Miyun Reservoir is the main drinking water storage for Beijing city. The water quality is therefore of great importance. Recently, the concentration of fecal pollution and nutrients in the reservoir are constantly rising to arrest the attention of Beijing municipality. Fecal pollution from sewage is a significant public health concern due to the known presence of human viruses and parasites in these discharges. To investigate the transport and fate of the fecal pollution and nutrients at Miyun reservoir and the health risks associated with drinking and fishery, the reservoir and two tributaries, Chaohe river and Baihe river discharging into it are being examined for bacterial, nutrients and other routine pollution. To understand the relative importance of different processes influencing pollution transport and inactivation, a finite-element model of surf-zone hydrodynamics (coupled with models for temperature, fecal pollution, nutrients and other routine contaminants) is used. The developed models are being verified by the observed water quality data including water temperature, conductivities and dissolved oxygen from the reservoir and its tributaries. Different factors impacting the inactivation of fecal pollution and the transport of nutrients such as water temperature, sedimentation, sunlight insolation are evaluated for Miyun reservoir by a sensitivity analysis analogized from the previous research of Lake Michigan (figure 1, indicating that solar insolation dominates the inactivation of E. Coli, an indicator of fecal pollution, Liu et al. 2006). The calibrated modeling system can be used to temporally and spatially simulate and predict the variation of the concentration of fecal pollution and nutrients of Miyun reservoir. Therefore this research can provide a forecasting tool for the

  12. Association of Fecal Indicator Bacteria with Human Viruses and Microbial Source Tracking Markers at Coastal Beaches Impacted by Nonpoint Source Pollution

    PubMed Central

    McQuaig, Shannon; Griffith, John

    2012-01-01

    Water quality was assessed at two marine beaches in California by measuring the concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and by library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods targeting markers of human-associated microbes (human polyomavirus [HPyV] PCR and quantitative PCR, Methanobrevibacter smithii PCR, and Bacteroides sp. strain HF183 PCR) and a human pathogen (adenovirus by nested PCR). FIB levels periodically exceeded regulatory thresholds at Doheny and Avalon Beaches for enterococci (28.5% and 31.7% of samples, respectively) and fecal coliforms (20% and 5.8%, respectively). Adenoviruses were detected at four of five sites at Doheny Beach and were correlated with detection of HPyVs and human Bacteroides HF183; however, adenoviruses were not detected at Avalon Beach. The most frequently detected human source marker at both beaches was Bacteroides HF183, which was detected in 27% of samples. Correlations between FIBs and human markers were much more frequent at Doheny Beach than at Avalon Beach; e.g., adenovirus was correlated with HPyVs and HF183. Human sewage markers and adenoviruses were routinely detected in samples meeting FIB regulatory standards. The toolbox approach of FIB measurement coupled with analysis of several MST markers targeting human pathogens used here demonstrated that human sewage is at least partly responsible for the degradation of water quality, particularly at Doheny Beach, and resulted in a more definitive assessment of recreational water quality and human health risk than reliance on FIB concentrations alone could have provided. PMID:22773625

  13. Correlative Assessment of Fecal Indicators Using Human Mitochondrial DNA as a Direct Marker

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the source of surface water fecal contamination is paramount to mitigating pollution and risk to human health. Fecal bacteria such as E. coli have been staple indicator organisms for over a century, however there remains uncertainty with E. coli-based metrics since t...

  14. Use of Bifidobacterium dentium as an Indicator of the Origin of Fecal Water Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Nebra, Yolanda; Bonjoch, Xavier; Blanch, Anicet R.

    2003-01-01

    A new, simple, and specific protocol to discriminate between human and animal fecal pollution is described. The procedure is based on the detection of certain Bifidobacterium species in the samples. Two 16S rRNA gene-targeted probes are described. One of these probes (BDE) has as its target a region of the 16S rRNA gene of Bifidobacterium dentium, a Bifidobacterium species of exclusively human origin. The other probe (BAN) is based on the sequence of a region of 16S rRNA gene for several Bifidobacterium species related with animal origins. The specificity of both probes was evaluated by using 24 Bifidobacterium species, and their threshold detection limit was established by DNA-DNA hybridization. DNA-DNA hybridization with the BDE probe showed it to be specific for B. dentium, whereas that with the BAN probe showed it to be specific for B. animalis, B. asteroides, B. coryneforme, B. cuniculi, B. globosum, B. magnum, B. minimum, and B. subtile. A simple and specific protocol was also developed for the detection of their target species in environmental samples (sewage and feces). DNA-DNA hybridization with the BAN probe was only positive for samples from cattle and goats. Thus, this probe is not suitable for the identification of any animal fecal pollution. Whereas all samples with human fecal pollution showed a positive DNA-DNA hybridization result with the BDE probe, none of those with animal fecal pollution did. Therefore, this finding supports the potential use of this probe in detecting fecal pollution of human origin. PMID:12732533

  15. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  16. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Green, Hyatt C; Shanks, Orin C; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-10-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  17. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Eren, A. Murat; Green, Hyatt C.; Shanks, Orin C.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2015-01-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  18. Use of Antibiotic Resistance Analysis To Identify Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, B. A.; Andrews, R. W.; Conway, R. A.; Corr, C. L.; Dobratz, E. J.; Dougherty, D. P.; Eppard, J. R.; Knupp, S. R.; Limjoco, M. C.; Mettenburg, J. M.; Rinehardt, J. M.; Sonsino, J.; Torrijos, R. L.; Zimmerman, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the reliability and repeatability of antibiotic resistance analysis as a method of identifying the sources of fecal pollution in surface water and groundwater. Four large sets of isolates of fecal streptococci (from 2,635 to 5,990 isolates per set) were obtained from 236 samples of human sewage and septage, cattle and poultry feces, and pristine waters. The patterns of resistance of the isolates to each of four concentrations of up to nine antibiotics were analyzed by discriminant analysis. When isolates were classified individually, the average rate of correct classification (ARCC) into four possible types (human, cattle, poultry, and wild) ranged from 64 to 78%. When the resistance patterns of all isolates from each sample were averaged and the resulting sample-level resistance patterns were classified, the ARCCs were much higher (96 to 100%). These data confirm that there are measurable and consistent differences in the antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci isolated from various sources of fecal pollution and that antibiotic resistance analysis can be used to classify and identify these sources. PMID:10427038

  19. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution. PMID:26607578

  20. A human fecal contamination index for ranking impaired recreational watersusing the HF183 quantitative real-time PCR method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human fecal pollution of surface water remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for recreational water quality risk managem...

  1. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  2. ASSESSMENT OF FECAL POLLUTION SOURCES IN PLUM CREEK WATERSHED USING BACTEROIDETES 16S RDNA-BASED ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, 16S rDNA Bacteroidetes-targeted PCR assays were developed to discriminate between ruminant and human fecal pollution. These assays are rapid and relatively inexpensive but have been used in a limited number of studies. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy o...

  3. Identification of Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Pollution in Coastal Waters by Using Host-Specific 16S Ribosomal DNA Genetic Markers from Fecal Anaerobes

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Anne E.; Field, Katharine G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new PCR-based method for distinguishing human and cow fecal contamination in coastal waters without culturing indicator organisms, and we show that the method can be used to track bacterial marker sequences in complex environments. We identified two human-specific genetic markers and five cow-specific genetic markers in fecal samples by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from members of the genus Bifidobacterium and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group and performing length heterogeneity PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Host-specific patterns suggested that there are species composition differences in the Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides-Prevotella populations of human and cow feces. The patterns were highly reproducible among different hosts belonging to the same species. Additionally, all host-specific genetic markers were detected in water samples collected from areas frequently contaminated with fecal pollution. Ease of detection and longer survival in water made Bacteroides-Prevotella indicators better than Bifidobacterium indicators. Fecal 16S rDNA sequences corresponding to our Bacteroides-Prevotella markers comprised closely related gene clusters, none of which exactly matched previously published Bacteroides or Prevotella sequences. Our method detected host-specific markers in water at pollutant concentrations of 2.8 × 10−5 to 2.8 × 10−7 g (dry weight) of feces/liter and 6.8 × 10−7 g (dry weight) of sewage/liter. Although our aim was to identify nonpoint sources of fecal contamination, the method described here should be widely applicable for monitoring spatial and temporal fluctuations in specific bacterial groups in natural environments. PMID:10742246

  4. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF COW FECAL POLLUTION WITH REAL-TIME PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with cow fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described cow-specific g...

  5. COMPETITION POTENTIALS OF ENVIRONMENTALLY APPLIED BACTERIA WITH HUMAN FECAL MICROBIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the potential human health effects associated with the environmental release. his of genetically engineered microorganisms is colonization of the intestinal tract study uses serial transfer techniques to monitor the in vitro survival and competition with human fecal microb...

  6. Fecal pathogen pollution: sources and patterns in water and sediment samples from the upper Cook Inlet, Alaska ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Norman, Stephanie A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Wuertz, Stefan; Melli, Ann; Beckett, Laurel A; Chouicha, Nadira; Kundu, Arti; Miller, Woutrina A

    2013-05-01

    Fecal pathogens are transported from a variety of sources in multi-use ecosystems such as upper Cook Inlet (CI), Alaska, which includes the state's urban center and is highly utilized by humans and animals. This study used a novel water quality testing approach to evaluate the presence and host sources of potential fecal pathogens in surface waters and sediments from aquatic ecosystems in upper CI. Matched water and sediment samples, along with effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment facility, were screened for Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and noroviruses. Additionally, Bacteroidales spp. for microbial source tracking, and the fecal indicator bacteria Enterococcus spp. as well as fecal coliforms were evaluated. Overall, Giardia and Vibrio were the most frequently detected potential pathogens, followed by Cryptosporidium and norovirus, while Salmonella was not detected. Sample month, matrix type, and recent precipitation were found to be significant environmental factors for protozoa or host-associated Bacteroidales marker detection, whereas location and water temperature were not. The relative contribution of host-associated markers to total fecal marker concentration was estimated using a Monte Carlo method, with the greatest relative contribution to the Bacteroidales marker concentration coming from human sources, while the remainder of the universal fecal host source signal was uncharacterized by available host-associated assays, consistent with wildlife fecal sources. These findings show how fecal indicator and pathogen monitoring, along with identifying contributing host sources, can provide evidence of coastal pathogen pollution and guidance as to whether to target human and/or animal sources for management. PMID:23552731

  7. ASSESSMENT OF FECAL POLLUTION SOURCES IN PLUM CREEK WATERSHED USING PCR AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF BACTEROIDETES 16S RDNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional methods for assessing fecal pollution in environmental systems, such as monitoring for fecal coliforms are not capable of discriminating between different sources fecal pollution. Recently, 16S rDNA Bacteroidetes-targeted PCR assays were developed to discriminate betw...

  8. INFLUENCE OF DIET ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BOVINE FECAL POLLUTION DETECTION METHODS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practi...

  9. Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

  10. Microplate fecal coliform method to monitor stream water pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Maul, A; Block, J C

    1983-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the Moselle River by means of a microtechnique based on the most-probable-number method for fecal coliform enumeration. This microtechnique, in which each serial dilution of a sample is inoculated into all 96 wells of a microplate, was compared with the standard membrane filter method. It showed a marked overestimation of about 14% due, probably, to the lack of absolute specificity of the method. The high precision of the microtechnique (13%, in terms of the coefficient of variation for log most probable number) and its relative independence from the influence of bacterial density allowed the use of analysis of variance to investigate the effects of spatial and temporal bacterial heterogeneity on the estimation of coliforms. Variability among replicate samples, subsamples, handling, and analytical errors were considered as the major sources of variation in bacterial titration. Variances associated with individual components of the sampling procedure were isolated, and optimal replications of each step were determined. Temporal variation was shown to be more influential than the other three components (most probable number, subsample, sample to sample), which were approximately equal in effect. However, the incidence of sample-to-sample variability (16%, in terms of the coefficient of variation for log most probable number) caused by spatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations in the Moselle River is shown and emphasized. Consequently, we recommend that replicate samples be taken on each occasion when conducting a sampling program for a stream pollution survey. PMID:6360044

  11. Automatic Identification of Human Erythrocytes in Microscopic Fecal Specimens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Lei, Haoting; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Zhenglong; Liu, Juanxiu; Xie, Yu; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Traditional fecal erythrocyte detection is performed via a manual operation that is unsuitable because it depends significantly on the expertise of individual inspectors. To recognize human erythrocytes automatically and precisely, automatic segmentation is very important for extraction of characteristics. In addition, multiple recognition algorithms are also essential. This paper proposes an algorithm based on morphological segmentation and a fuzzy neural network. The morphological segmentation process comprises three operational steps: top-hat transformation, Otsu's method, and image binarization. Following initial screening by area and circularity, fuzzy c-means clustering and the neural network algorithms are used for secondary screening. Subsequently, the erythrocytes are screened by combining the results of five images obtained at different focal lengths. Experimental results show that even when the illumination, noise pollution, and position of the erythrocytes are different, they are all segmented and labeled accurately by the proposed method. Thus, the proposed method is robust even in images with significant amounts of noise. PMID:26349804

  12. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  13. Removal of bacterial fecal indicators, coliphages and enteric adenoviruses from waters with high fecal pollution by slow sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rosalie; Dizer, Halim; Graeber, Ingeborg; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; López-Pila, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the performance of slow sand filtration (SSF) facilities, including the time needed for reaching stabilization (maturation), operated with surface water bearing high fecal contamination, representing realistic conditions of rivers in many emerging countries. Surface water spiked with wastewater was infiltrated at different pore water velocities (PWV) and samples were collected at different migration distances. The samples were analyzed for phages and to a lesser extent for fecal bacteria and enteric adenoviruses. At the PWV of 50 cm/d, at which somatic phages showed highest removal, their mean log(10) removal after 90 cm migration was 3.2. No substantial differences of removal rates were observed at PWVs between 100 and 900 cm/d (2.3 log(10) mean removal). The log(10) mean removal of somatic phages was less than the observed for fecal bacteria and tended more towards that of enteric adenoviruses This makes somatic phages a potentially better process indicator than Escherichia coli for the removal of viruses in SSF. We conclude that SSF, and by inference in larger scale river bank filtration (RBF), is an excellent option as a component in multi-barrier systems for drinking water treatment also in areas where the sources of raw water are considerably fecally polluted, as often found in many emerging countries. PMID:20851449

  14. EVALUATION OF HOST SPECIFIC PCR-BASED METHODS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial Source Tracking (MST) is an approach to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting a body of water. MST is based on the assumption that, given the appropriate method and indicator, the source of microbial pollution can be identified. One of the key elements of...

  15. Toolbox Approaches Using Molecular Markers and 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Data Sets for Identification of Fecal Pollution in Surface Water.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Palmer, A; Beale, D J; Toze, S

    2015-10-01

    In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial communities in the fecal, wastewater, and river water samples were sequenced. Water samples were also tested for the presence of bird-associated (GFD), cattle-associated (CowM3), horse-associated, and human-associated (HF183) molecular markers, to provide multiple lines of evidence regarding the possible presence of fecal pollution associated with specific hosts. Among the 18 water samples tested, 83%, 33%, 17%, and 17% were real-time PCR positive for the GFD, HF183, CowM3, and horse markers, respectively. Among the potential sources of fecal pollution in water samples from the river, DNA sequencing tended to show relatively small contributions from wastewater treatment plants (up to 13% of sequence reads). Contributions from other animal sources were rarely detected and were very small (<3% of sequence reads). Source contributions determined via sequence analysis versus detection of molecular markers showed variable agreement. A lack of relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, host-associated molecular markers, and 16S rRNA gene community analysis data was also observed. Nonetheless, we show that bacterial community and host-associated molecular marker analyses can be combined to identify potential sources of fecal pollution in an urban river. This study is a proof of concept, and based on the results, we recommend using bacterial community analysis (where possible) along with PCR detection or quantification of host-associated molecular markers to provide information on

  16. Toolbox Approaches Using Molecular Markers and 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Data Sets for Identification of Fecal Pollution in Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Staley, C.; Sadowsky, M. J.; Gyawali, P.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Palmer, A.; Beale, D. J.; Toze, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial communities in the fecal, wastewater, and river water samples were sequenced. Water samples were also tested for the presence of bird-associated (GFD), cattle-associated (CowM3), horse-associated, and human-associated (HF183) molecular markers, to provide multiple lines of evidence regarding the possible presence of fecal pollution associated with specific hosts. Among the 18 water samples tested, 83%, 33%, 17%, and 17% were real-time PCR positive for the GFD, HF183, CowM3, and horse markers, respectively. Among the potential sources of fecal pollution in water samples from the river, DNA sequencing tended to show relatively small contributions from wastewater treatment plants (up to 13% of sequence reads). Contributions from other animal sources were rarely detected and were very small (<3% of sequence reads). Source contributions determined via sequence analysis versus detection of molecular markers showed variable agreement. A lack of relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, host-associated molecular markers, and 16S rRNA gene community analysis data was also observed. Nonetheless, we show that bacterial community and host-associated molecular marker analyses can be combined to identify potential sources of fecal pollution in an urban river. This study is a proof of concept, and based on the results, we recommend using bacterial community analysis (where possible) along with PCR detection or quantification of host-associated molecular markers to provide information on

  17. Human-induced trophic cascades along the fecal detritus pathway.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Uriarte, María; Peres, Carlos A; Louzada, Julio; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Schiffler, Gustavo; Endo, Whaldener; Spector, Sacha H

    2013-01-01

    Human presence and activity in tropical forest is thought to exert top-down regulation over the various 'green-world' pathways of plant-based foodwebs. However, these effects have never been explored for the 'brown-world' pathways of fecal-detritus webs. The strong effects of humans on tropical game mammals are likely to indirectly influence fecal detritivores (including Scarabaeine dung beetles), with subsequent indirect impacts on detrivore-mediated and plant-facilitating detrital processes. Across a 380-km gradient of human influence in the western Brazilian Amazon, we conducted the first landscape-level assessment of human-induced cascade effects on the fecal detritus pathway, by coupling data on human impact, game mammal and detritivore community structure, and rate measurements of a key detritus process (i.e. dung beetle-mediated secondary seed dispersal). We found evidence that human impact indirectly influences both the diversity and biomass of fecal detritivores, but not detritivore-mediated processes. Cascade strength varied across detritivore groups defined by species' traits. We found smaller-bodied dung beetles were at higher risk of local decline in areas of human presence, and that body size was a better predictor of cascade structure than fecal resource manipulation strategy. Cascade strength was also stronger in upland, unflooded forests, than in seasonally flooded forests. Our results suggest that the impact of human activity in tropical forest on fecal-detritus food web structure is mediated by both species' traits and habitat type. Further research will be required to determine the conditions under which these cascade effects influence fecal-detritus web function. PMID:24146780

  18. Human-Induced Trophic Cascades along the Fecal Detritus Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Uriarte, María; Peres, Carlos A.; Louzada, Julio; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Schiffler, Gustavo; Endo, Whaldener; Spector, Sacha H.

    2013-01-01

    Human presence and activity in tropical forest is thought to exert top-down regulation over the various ‘green-world’ pathways of plant-based foodwebs. However, these effects have never been explored for the ‘brown-world’ pathways of fecal-detritus webs. The strong effects of humans on tropical game mammals are likely to indirectly influence fecal detritivores (including Scarabaeine dung beetles), with subsequent indirect impacts on detrivore-mediated and plant-facilitating detrital processes. Across a 380-km gradient of human influence in the western Brazilian Amazon, we conducted the first landscape-level assessment of human-induced cascade effects on the fecal detritus pathway, by coupling data on human impact, game mammal and detritivore community structure, and rate measurements of a key detritus process (i.e. dung beetle-mediated secondary seed dispersal). We found evidence that human impact indirectly influences both the diversity and biomass of fecal detritivores, but not detritivore-mediated processes. Cascade strength varied across detritivore groups defined by species' traits. We found smaller-bodied dung beetles were at higher risk of local decline in areas of human presence, and that body size was a better predictor of cascade structure than fecal resource manipulation strategy. Cascade strength was also stronger in upland, unflooded forests, than in seasonally flooded forests. Our results suggest that the impact of human activity in tropical forest on fecal-detritus food web structure is mediated by both species' traits and habitat type. Further research will be required to determine the conditions under which these cascade effects influence fecal-detritus web function. PMID:24146780

  19. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamin...

  20. Caffeine as an indicator of human fecal contamination in the Sinos River: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Linden, R; Antunes, M V; Heinzelmann, L S; Fleck, J D; Staggemeier, R; Fabres, R B; Vecchia, A D; Nascimento, C A; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The preservation of hydric resources is directly related to fecal contamination monitoring, in order to allow the development of strategies for the management of polluting sources. In the present study, twenty-five water samples from six water public supply collection sites were used for the evaluation of the presence of caffeine, total and fecal coliforms. Caffeine was detected in all samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.15 ng mL-1 to 16.72 ng mL-1. Total coliforms were detected in all samples, with concentrations in the range of 52 NMP/100 mL to higher than 24196 NMP/100 mL, whether the concentration range for fecal coliforms was in the range of below 1 NMP/100 mL to 7800 NMP/100 mL. No significant correlation was found between total coliforms and caffeine concentrations (rs = 0.35, p = 0.09). However, a moderate correlation between fecal coliforms and caffeine concentrations was found (rs = 0.412, p <0.05), probably indicating a human source for these bacteria. Caffeine determination in water may be a useful strategy to evaluate water contamination by human fecal waste. PMID:26270218

  1. Characterization of sources and loadings of fecal pollutants using microbial source tracking assays in urban and rural areas of the Grand River Watershed, Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T; Weir, Susan C; Thomas, Janis L; Habash, Marc

    2014-04-15

    Sources of fecal water pollution were assessed in the Grand River and two of its tributaries (Ontario, Canada) using total and host-specific (human and bovine) Bacteroidales genetic markers in conjunction with reference information, such as land use and weather. In-stream levels of the markers and culturable Escherichia coli were also monitored during multiple rain events to gain information on fecal loadings to catchment from diffuse sources. Elevated human-specific marker levels were accurately identified in river water impacted by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and at a downstream site in the Grand River. In contrast, the bovine-specific marker showed high levels of cattle fecal pollution in two tributaries, both of which are characterized as intensely farmed areas. The bovine-specific Bacteroidales marker increased with rainfall in the agricultural tributaries, indicating enhanced loading of cattle-derived fecal pollutants to river from non-point sources following rain events. However, rain-triggered fecal loading was not substantiated in urban settings, indicating continuous inputs of human-originated fecal pollutants from point sources, such as WWTP effluent. This study demonstrated that the Bacteroidales source tracking assays, in combination with land use information and hydrological data, may provide additional insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of source-specific fecal contamination in streams impacted by varying land uses. Using the approach described in this study may help to characterize impacted water sources and to design targeted land use management plans in other watersheds in the future. PMID:24509346

  2. Tracking the Primary Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Tropical Watershed in a One-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Ryu, Hodon; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel; Huertas, Evelyn; Toranzos, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the primary sources of fecal pollution in a subtropical watershed using host-specific assays developed in temperate regions. Water samples (n = 534) from 10 different sites along the Rio Grande de Arecibo (RGA) watershed were collected mostly on a weekly basis (54 sampling events) during 13 months. DNA extracts from water samples were used in PCR assays to determine the occurrence of fecal bacteria (Bacteroidales, Clostridium coccoides, and enterococci) and human-, cattle-, swine-, and chicken-specific fecal sources. Feces from 12 different animals (n = 340) and wastewater treatment samples (n = 16) were analyzed to determine the specificity and distribution of host-specific assays. The human-specific assay (HF183) was found to be highly specific, as it did not cross-react with nontarget samples. The cattle marker (CF128) cross-reacted to some extent with swine, chicken, and turkeys and was present in 64% of the cattle samples tested. The swine assays showed poor host specificity, while the three chicken assays showed poor host distribution. Differences in the detection of host-specific markers were noted per site. While human and cattle assays showed moderate average detection rates throughout the watershed, areas impacted by wastewater treatment plants and cattle exhibited the highest prevalence of these markers. When conditional probability for positive signals was determined for each of the markers, the results indicated higher confidence levels for the human assay and lower levels for all the other assays. Overall, the results from this study suggest that additional assays are needed, particularly to track cattle, chicken, and swine fecal pollution sources in the RGA watershed. The results also suggest that the geographic stability of genetic markers needs to be determined prior to conducting applied source tracking studies in tropical settings. PMID:23291547

  3. Influence of diet on the performance of bovine fecal pollution detection methods and microbial population structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims. Waterborne diseases originating from bovine fecal material are a significant public health issue. Ensuring water quality requires the use of methods that can consistently identify pollution across a broad range of management practices. One practice that is often overlooked is...

  4. Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

  5. Single Laboratory Comparison of Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for the Detection of Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays available to detect and enumerate fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct primers and probes that target different rRNA genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in concentration es...

  6. Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described cow feces-spec...

  7. Single laboratory comparison of host-specific PCR assays for the detection of bovine fecal pollution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field applications. We descri...

  8. Fecal coliform and Enterococci relationships to rainfall and runoff in a rural watershed reveal intrinsic differences between these fecal pollution indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, H. L.; Schulz, C. J.; Childers, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    Fecal coliforms and Enterococci, the two most commonly used fecal pollution indicators, were enumerated on a weekly basis for eight years at a USGS real time water station located on the Tangipahoa River in southeast Louisiana. This river provides drainage for 520 sq. mi. and receives both domestic and agricultural runoff. The fecal pollution data set was used to construct a nonparametric multiplicative regression hydrologic model that was able to forecast fecal coliform concentrations (cross-validated R2 = 0.57); however, Enterococci forecasting was unsuccessful. This result was surprising as it was expected that both fecal pollution indicators would have similar routes of entry in receiving waters. It was also found that Enterococci exceeded recreational water quality standards (33cfu / 100ml) in 91% of samples and fecal coliforms exceeded water quality standards (200cfu / 100ml) 46% of the time. The differing conclusions that could be reached depending upon the fecal pollution indicator used pose a dilemma from a public health perspective and the underlying causes of these discrepancies were investigated. The role of measurement uncertainty stemming from sampling error (spatial and temporal) and lab error (operator and systematic error) in both fecal coliform and Enterococci hydrologic modeling was examined. Measurement error between the two indicator species did not account for differences between hydrologic modeling results. Alternative possibilities for the observations included differential survival and environmental reservoirs (growth/regrowth) of each indicator organism. Time series analysis demonstrated distinct trends for each indicator organism. Fecal coliforms had peak densities in the winter months, corresponding to higher rainfall, runoff, and lower temperatures. Enterococci had relatively stable densities, with a slight increase in density in the summer months. These trends also show that Enterococci to fecal coliform ratios are relatively greater

  9. Assessment of fecal pollution sources in a small northern-plains watershed using PCR and phylogenetic analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamendella, R.; Domingo, J.W.S.; Oerther, D.B.; Vogel, J.R.; Stoeckel, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy, sensitivity, host-specificity, and spatial/temporal dynamics of human- and ruminant-specific 16S rRNA gene Bacteroidetes markers used to assess the sources of fecal pollution in a fecally impacted watershed. Phylogenetic analyses of 1271 fecal and environmental 16S rRNA gene clones were also performed to study the diversity of Bacteroidetes in this watershed. The host-specific assays indicated that ruminant feces were present in 28-54% of the water samples and in all sampling seasons, with increasing frequency in downstream sites. The human-targeted assays indicated that only 3-5% of the water samples were positive for human fecal signals, although a higher percentage of human-associated signals (19-24%) were detected in sediment samples. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 57% of all water clones clustered with yet-to-be-cultured Bacteroidetes species associated with sequences obtained from ruminant feces, further supporting the prevalence of ruminant contamination in this watershed. However, since several clusters contained sequences from multiple sources, future studies need to consider the potential cosmopolitan nature of these bacterial populations when assessing fecal pollution sources using Bacteroidetes markers. Moreover, additional data is needed in order to understand the distribution of Bacteroidetes host-specific markers and their relationship to water quality regulatory standards. ?? 2006 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  10. Quantitative identification of fecal water pollution sources by TaqMan real-time PCR assays using Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Young; Weir, Susan C; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T

    2010-12-01

    PCR-based analysis of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genes has emerged as a promising tool to identify sources of fecal water pollution. In this study, three TaqMan real-time PCR assays (BacGeneral, BacHuman, and BacBovine) were developed and evaluated for their ability to quantitatively detect general (total), human-specific, and bovine-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 6.5 copies of 16S rRNA gene for the BacGeneral and BacHuman assays and 10 copies for the BacBovine assay. The assays were capable of detecting approximately one to two cells per PCR. When tested with 70 fecal samples from various sources (human, cattle, pig, deer, dog, cat, goose, gull, horse, and raccoon), the three assays positively identified the target markers in all samples without any false-negative results. The BacHuman and BacBovine assays exhibited false-positive reactions with non-target samples in a few cases. However, the level of the false-positive reactions was about 50 times smaller than that of the true-positive ones, and therefore, these cross-reactions were unlikely to cause misidentifications of the fecal pollution sources. Microbial source-tracking capability was tested at two freshwater streams of which water quality was influenced by human and cattle feces, respectively. The assays accurately detected the presence of the corresponding host-specific markers upon fecal pollution and the persistence of the markers in downstream areas. The assays are expected to reliably determine human and bovine fecal pollution sources in environmental water samples. PMID:20871990

  11. Human Fecal Source Identification: Real-Time Quantitative PCR Method Standardization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Method standardization or the formal development of a protocol that establishes uniform performance benchmarks and practices is necessary for widespread adoption of a fecal source identification approach. Standardization of a human-associated fecal identification method has been...

  12. HUMAN FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION: REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR METHOD STANDARDIZATION - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Method standardization or the formal development of a protocol that establishes uniform performance benchmarks and practices is necessary for widespread adoption of a fecal source identification approach. Standardization of a human-associated fecal identification method has been...

  13. [Microbial source tracking of water fecal pollution: a review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Guan-da; Deng, Ming-rong; Zhu, Hong-hui; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Chang-xiong; Liang, Hao-liang

    2010-12-01

    Livestock feces and domestic sewage are the one of the main factors inducing water pollution, while the identification of the pollution source is particularly important in pollution control and management. Because of this, microbial source tracking (MST) has recently been paid more and more attention by the related researchers around the world. In this paper, the research progress of two types of MST methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and existing problems in application were reviewed and discussed. It was considered that in the library- and culture-dependent MST methods, PCR genotyping based on repetitive sequences was most practicable, while in the library- and culture-independent MST methods, PCR-DGGE based on the gene of specificity in Escherichia coli had a very glaring sight. Future researches should be more focused on the library- and culture-independent MST, and the combination of library- and culture-dependent MST with library- and culture-independent MST could make the tracking results more credible. PMID:21443019

  14. Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidales Alternative Fecal Indicators Reveal Chronic Human Sewage Contamination in an Urban Harbor▿†

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; VandeWalle, Jessica L.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gorelick, Marc H.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of fecal microbial communities and overlap among human and other animal sources have made it difficult to identify source-specific fecal indicator bacteria. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies now provides increased sequencing power to resolve microbial community composition within and among environments. These data can be mined for information on source-specific phylotypes and/or assemblages of phylotypes (i.e., microbial signatures). We report the development of a new genetic marker for human fecal contamination identified through microbial pyrotag sequence analysis of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence analysis of 37 sewage samples and comparison with database sequences revealed a human-associated phylotype within the Lachnospiraceae family, which was closely related to the genus Blautia. This phylotype, termed Lachno2, was on average the second most abundant fecal bacterial phylotype in sewage influent samples from Milwaukee, WI. We developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Lachno2 and used it along with the qPCR-based assays for human Bacteroidales (based on the HF183 genetic marker), total Bacteroidales spp., and enterococci and the conventional Escherichia coli and enterococci plate count assays to examine the prevalence of fecal and human fecal pollution in Milwaukee's harbor. Both the conventional fecal indicators and the human-associated indicators revealed chronic fecal pollution in the harbor, with significant increases following heavy rain events and combined sewer overflows. The two human-associated genetic marker abundances were tightly correlated in the harbor, a strong indication they target the same source (i.e., human sewage). Human adenoviruses were routinely detected under all conditions in the harbor, and the probability of their occurrence increased by 154% for every 10-fold increase in the human indicator concentration. Both Lachno2 and human Bacteroidales increased specificity to

  15. Effect of organotins on fecal pollution indicator organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Pettibone, G W; Cooney, J J

    1986-01-01

    Pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis and environmental water samples were examined for the possibility that pollution involving organotin compounds could decrease the values for indicator organisms when standard methods were applied to the analysis of water samples. (CH3)2SnCl2 and (CH3)3SnCl decreased viable counts at about 10 to 100 mg of Sn liter-1 (8.4 X 10(-5) to 8.4 X 10(-4) mol of Sn liter-1), and tributyltin chloride was effective at about 0.1 to 1.0 mg of Sn liter-1 (8.4 X 10(-7) to 8.4 X 10(-6) mol of Sn liter-1. These concentrations, particularly for the methyltin compounds, are greater than the concentrations reported to date for these compounds in aquatic ecosystems. Thus, organotin compounds alone would not be likely to cause reductions in counts of indicator organisms measured by standard methods. However, it is suggested that, when combined with other environmental stressors or upon long exposure, organotins such as butyltins may contribute to the injury of indicator organisms. PMID:3094450

  16. The effect of drinking milk containing conjugated linoleic acid on fecal microbiological profile, enzymatic activity, and fecal characteristics in humans

    PubMed Central

    Farnworth, Edward R; Chouinard, Yvan P; Jacques, Helene; Venkatramanan, Sudha; Maf, Akier A; Defnoun, Sabrina; Jones, Peter JH

    2007-01-01

    Background The primary objective was to determine whether consumption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) affected the fecal microbiota composition, fecal enzyme activity or fecal composition. Methods Human subjects consumed (1 L/day) cows' milk (4% fat) containing (5 mg/g fat) cis-9, trans-11 CLA (CONT), (32 mg/g fat) cis-9, trans-11 CLA (NAT) and (32 mg/g fat) trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA (SYN) for 8 weeks, in addition to their normal diet. Milk feeding periods were separated by 4 week washout periods. Fecal samples were obtained at the beginning (day 0) and the end (day 56) of each milk feeding period. Fecal samples were analysed for microbiological profile, enzyme activity, pH and short chain fatty acid content. Results Samples taken at day 0 and day 56 indicated that the numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria significantly decreased after consumption of all experimental milks; total aerobes, total anaerobes, enterobacteria, and enterococci + streptococci did not change. At day 56, the activities of β-glucosidase, nitroreductase, and urease enzymes had decreased compared to samples taken on day 0 for all treatments. β-glucuronidase activity did not change. Fecal pH and ammonia content did not change. Conclusion It was concluded that observed changes could have been attributed to increased milk intake; no differences could be attributed to consumption of the different CLAs. PMID:17620127

  17. Characterization of fecal concentrations in human and other animal sources by physical, culture-based, and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Jared S; Russell, Todd L; Layton, Blythe A; Yamahara, Kevan M; Wang, Dan; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Cao, Yiping; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Boehm, Alexandria B; Holden, Patricia A; Weisberg, Stephen B; Shanks, Orin C

    2013-11-15

    The characteristics of fecal sources, and the ways in which they are measured, can profoundly influence the interpretation of which sources are contaminating a body of water. Although feces from various hosts are known to differ in mass and composition, it is not well understood how those differences compare across fecal sources and how differences depend on characterization methods. This study investigated how nine different fecal characterization methods provide different measures of fecal concentration in water, and how results varied across twelve different fecal pollution sources. Sources investigated included chicken, cow, deer, dog, goose, gull, horse, human, pig, pigeon, septage and sewage. A composite fecal slurry was prepared for each source by mixing feces from 6 to 22 individual samples with artificial freshwater. Fecal concentrations were estimated by physical (wet fecal mass added and total DNA mass extracted), culture-based (Escherichia coli and enterococci by membrane filtration and defined substrate), and quantitative real-time PCR (Bacteroidales, E. coli, and enterococci) characterization methods. The characteristics of each composite fecal slurry and the relationships between physical, culture-based and qPCR-based characteristics varied within and among different fecal sources. An in silico exercise was performed to assess how different characterization methods can impact identification of the dominant fecal pollution source in a mixed source sample. A comparison of simulated 10:90 mixtures based on enterococci by defined substrate predicted a source reversal in 27% of all possible combinations, while mixtures based on E. coli membrane filtration resulted in a reversal 29% of the time. This potential for disagreement in minor or dominant source identification based on different methods of measurement represents an important challenge for water quality managers and researchers. PMID:23871252

  18. Development and evaluation of a quantitative PCR assay targeting sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) fecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Lu, Jingrang; Vogel, Jason; Elk, Michael; Chávez-Ramírez, Felipe; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Santo Domingo, Jorge

    2012-06-01

    While the microbial water quality in the Platte River is seasonally impacted by excreta from migrating cranes, there are no methods available to study crane fecal contamination. Here we characterized microbial populations in crane feces using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene fecal clone libraries. Using these sequences, a novel crane quantitative PCR (Crane1) assay was developed, and its applicability as a microbial source tracking (MST) assay was evaluated by determining its host specificity and detection ability in environmental waters. Bacteria from crane excreta were dominated by bacilli and proteobacteria, with a notable paucity of sequences homologous to Bacteroidetes and Clostridia. The Crane1 marker targeted a dominant clade of unclassified Lactobacillales sequences closely related to Catellicoccus marimammalium. The host distribution of the Crane1 marker was relatively high, being positive for 69% (66/96) of the crane excreta samples tested. The assay also showed high host specificity, with 95% of the nontarget fecal samples (i.e., n = 553; 20 different free-range hosts) being negative. Of the presumed crane-impacted water samples (n = 16), 88% were positive for the Crane1 assay, whereas none of the water samples not impacted by cranes were positive (n = 165). Bayesian statistical models of the Crane1 MST marker demonstrated high confidence in detecting true-positive signals and a low probability of false-negative signals from environmental water samples. Altogether, these data suggest that the newly developed marker could be used in environmental monitoring studies to study crane fecal pollution dynamics. PMID:22492437

  19. A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

  20. Sanitation in constructed wetlands: A review on the removal of human pathogens and fecal indicators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Müller, Jochen A; Manoj, Valsa Remony; Dong, Renjie

    2016-01-15

    Removal of human pathogens from wastewater is a critical factor with linkage to human health. Constructed Wetlands (CWs) are environmental friendly ecosystems that are applicable not only for chemical pollution control, but also for the reduction of pathogens from wastewater. Yet the knowledge on the fate and removal of such indicator bacteria in CWs is still not sufficient due to the complexity of removal mechanisms and influencing factors. This review serves to provide a better understanding of this state-of-the-art technology, which is necessary for further investigations and design development. The fecal indicator bacteria in CWs mainly come from three sources, namely, influent wastewaters, regrowth within the CWs, and animal activities. The properties of microbial contamination vary depending on the different sources. The removal of pathogens is a complex process that is influenced by operational parameters such as hydraulic regime and retention time, vegetation, seasonal fluctuation, and water composition. The most frequent and well-validated removal mechanisms include natural die-off due to starvation or predation, sedimentation and filtration, and adsorption. The concentration of the main fecal indicator bacteria in the effluent was found to be exponentially related to the loading rate. Generally, horizontal subsurface flow CWs have better reduction capacity than free water surface flow CWs, and hybrid wetland systems were found to be the most efficient due to a longer retention time. Further improvement of fecal indicator bacteria removal in CWs is needed, however, levels in CW effluents are still higher than most of the regulation standards for reuse. PMID:26398446

  1. Are fecal stanols suitable to record and identify a pulse of human fecal contamination in short-term exposed shellfish? A microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Harrault, Loïc; Jardé, Emilie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Petitjean, Patrice

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the capacity of oysters to bioaccumulate fecal stanols and to record a source-specific fingerprint was investigated by the short-term contamination of seawater microcosms containing oysters with a human effluent. Contaminated oysters bioaccumulated the typical fecal stanols coprostanol and 24-ethylcoprostanol and their bioaccumulation kinetics were similar to that of the Fecal Indicator Bacteria Escherichia coli used in European legislation. Although stanol fingerprints of contaminated water allowed the identification of the human specific fingerprint, this was not the case for oysters. This discrepancy is attributed to (i) high concentrations of endogenous cholestanol and sitostanol, responsible for "unbalanced" stanol fingerprints, (ii) different accumulation/depuration kinetics of fecal coprostanol and 24-ethylcoprostanol and (iii) the limits of the analytical pathway used. These results show that fecal stanols bioaccumulated by oysters are useful to record fecal contamination but the usefulness of stanol fingerprints to identify specific sources of contamination in shellfish currently seems limited. PMID:25455370

  2. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  3. Lachnospiraceae- and Bacteroidales alternative fecal indicators reveal chronic human sewage contamination in an urban harbor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complexity of fecal microbial communities and overlap among human and other animal sources has made it difficult to identify source-specific fecal indicator bacteria. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has provided increased power to resolve microbial community compos...

  4. CORRELATION OF CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION TO HEALTH EFFECTS VIA EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the quality of drinking and recreational waters is estimated through the measurement of fecal bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococci. However, since it takes time for the microorganisms to grow and be detected, their utility as indicators of human fecal co...

  5. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S

    2013-06-01

    Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23435630

  6. Tracking the Primary Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Tropical Watershed in a One-Year Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine the primary sources of fecal pollution in a subtropical watershed using host-specific assays developed in temperate regions. Water samples (n=534) from 10 different sites along the Rio Grande de Arecibo watershed were collected every two-three w...

  7. Combining watershed attributes with culture- and PCR-based methods for improved characterization and management of fecal pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Culture- and PCR-based methods for characterization of fecal pollution were evaluated in relation to physiographic, biotic, and chemical indicators of stream condition. Stream water samples (n = 235) were collected monthly over a two year period from ten channels draining subwat...

  8. Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Culture- and PCR-based measurements of fecal pollution were determined and compared to hydrologic and land use indicators. Stream water samples (n = 235) were collected monthly over a two year period from ten streams draining headwatersheds with different land use intensities ra...

  9. An environmental survey of surface waters using mitochondrial DNA from human, bovine and porcine origin as fecal source tracking markers.

    PubMed

    Villemur, Richard; Imbeau, Marianne; Vuong, Minh N; Masson, Luke; Payment, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is one the major sources of waterborne pathogens and consequently, is an important concern for public health. For reliable fecal source tracking (FST) monitoring, there is a need for a multi-marker toolbox as no single all-encompassing method currently exists. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a source tracking marker has emerged as a promising animal-specific marker. However, very few comprehensive field studies were done on the occurrence of this marker in surface waters. In this report, water samples were obtained from 82 sites in different watersheds over a six year period. The samples were analyzed for the presence of human, bovine and porcine mtDNA by endpoint nested PCR, along with the human-specific Bacteroidales HF183 marker. These sites represented a mix of areas with different anthropogenic activities, natural, urban and agricultural. The occurrences of mitoHu (human), mitoBo (bovine), mitoPo (porcine) and HF183 specific PCR amplifications from the samples were 46%, 23%, 6% and 50%, respectively. The occurrence of mitoHu and HF183 was high in all environment types with higher occurrence in the natural and urban areas, whereas the occurrence of mitoBo was higher in agricultural areas. FST marker concentrations were measured by real-time PCR for samples positive for these markers. The concentration of the mitoHu markers was one order of magnitude lower than HF183. There was co-linearity between the concentrations of the mitoHu and HF183 markers. Co-linearity was also observed between HF183 concentration and fecal coliform levels. Such a relationship was not observed between the mitoHu concentration and fecal coliform levels. In summary, our results showed a high incidence of human fecal pollution throughout the environment while demonstrating the potential of mtDNA as suitable FST markers. PMID:25463935

  10. DYNAMICS OF AQUATIC FECAL CONTAMINATION, FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, AND CORRELATION OF BACTEROIDALES HOST-SPECIFIC MARKERS DETECTION WITH FECAL PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution impairs the health and productivity of coastal waters and causes human disease. PCR of host-specific 16S rDNA sequences from anaerobic Bacteroidales bacteria offers a promising method of tracking fecal contamination and identifying its source(s). Before Bacteroida...

  11. SPECIFICITY AND SENSITIVITY OF FECAL BACTEROIDETES HUMAN-SPECIFIC PRIMERS WITH FECAL AND WASTEWATER SAMPLES FROM THE U.S. MIDWEST AND NORTHEAST REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous watersheds throughout the United States are impaired due to fecal contamination. Fecal Bacteroidetes is a group of anaerobic bacteria present in high concentrations in animal feces that has shown promise as a microbial source tracking indicator of human and othe...

  12. Differential decay of Enterococci and Escherichia coli originating from two fecal pollution sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habita...

  13. Fecapentaene excretion and fecal mutagenicity in relation to nutrient intake and fecal parameters in humans on omnivorous and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    de Kok, T M; van Faassen, A; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A; ten Hoor, F; Kleinjans, J C

    1992-02-14

    Fecapentaenes are strong fecal mutagenic compounds presumably occurring in the majority of Western human individuals, and are possibly essential initiators of colon carcinogenesis. Dietary factors have been shown to influence colorectal cancer risk and to modulate both fecal mutagenicity and fecapentaene concentrations. Therefore, in this study, excretion of fecapentaenes is determined in humans consuming either vegetarian or omnivorous diets. The results show that the most predominant fecapentaene forms are excreted in higher concentrations by vegetarians. Consumption of cereal fiber, calcium and carotene as well as fecal concentrations of iso-lithocholic acid were found to correlate positively with excreted concentrations of one or more fecapentaene analogues. On average, 22% of excreted fecapentaene concentrations was found to be related to nutrient intake in stepwise regression models. Dietary calcium intake was found to be the most significant factor positively correlating with excreted fecapentaene concentrations. Intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids or fiber from vegetables and fruit could be shown to correlate with fecapentaene excretion to a lesser degree. Despite high fecapentaene concentrations in fecal dichloromethane extracts, only 1 out of 20 samples revealed significant mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. Further, aqueous extracts of feces from omnivores appeared to be equally mutagenic as feces from vegetarians and contained non-detectable concentrations of fecapentaenes. It is concluded that dietary factors do affect excreted fecapentaene levels, but only to a relatively minor extent. Since vegetarians at low risk for colorectal cancer excrete higher concentrations of fecapentaenes, it could be hypothesized that relatively increased fecapentaene excretion in combination with antimutagenic compounds in feces represents colon cancer prevention. PMID:1540928

  14. In vitro fermentation by human fecal microflora of wheat arabinoxylans.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S A; Shewry, P R; Li, L; Gibson, G R; Sanz, M L; Rastall, R A

    2007-05-30

    The fermentation of three arabinoxylan (AX) fractions from wheat by the human fecal microflora was investigated in vitro. Three AX fractions, with average molecular masses of 354, 278, and 66 kDa, were incorporated into miniature-scale batch cultures (with inulin as a positive prebiotic control) with feces from three healthy donors, aged 23-29. Microflora changes were monitored by the culture-independent technique, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and lactic acid production were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Total cell numbers increased significantly in all treated cultures, and the fermentation of AX was associated with a proliferation of the bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and eubacteria groups. Smaller but statistically significant increases in bacteroides and clostridia groups were also observed. All AX fractions had comparable bifidogenic impacts on the microflora at 5 and 12 h, but the 66 kDa AX was particularly selective for lactobacilli. Eubacteria increased significantly on all AX fractions, particularly on 66 kDa AX. As previously reported, inulin gave a selective increase in bifidobacteria. All supplemented cultures showed significant rises in total SCFA production, with a particularly high proportion of butyric acid being produced from AX fermentation. The prebiotic effect, that is, the selectivity of AX for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli groups, increased as the molecular mass of the AX decreased. This suggests that molecular mass may influence the fermentation of AX in the colon. PMID:17488118

  15. Effects of Long Term Antibiotic Therapy on Human Oral and Fecal Viromes

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Shira R.; Ly, Melissa; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Pride, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in bacterial community membership. Alterations to human bacterial biota can result in human disease including a reduction in the host's resilience to pathogens. Here we report the ecology of oral and fecal viral communities and their responses to long-term antibiotic therapy in a cohort of human subjects. We found significant differences between the viral communities of each body site with a more heterogeneous fecal virus community compared with viruses in saliva. We measured the relative diversity of viruses, and found that the oral viromes were significantly more diverse than fecal viromes. There were characteristic changes in the membership of oral and fecal bacterial communities in response to antibiotics, but changes in fecal viral communities were less distinguishing. In the oral cavity, an abundance of papillomaviruses found in subjects on antibiotics suggests an association between antibiotics and papillomavirus production. Despite the abundance of papillomaviruses identified, in neither the oral nor the fecal viromes did antibiotic therapy have any significant impact upon overall viral diversity. There was, however, an apparent expansion of the reservoir of genes putatively involved in resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics in fecal viromes that was not paralleled in oral viromes. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in fecal viromes in response to long-term antibiotic therapy in humans suggests that viruses play an important role in the resilience of human microbial communities to antibiotic disturbances. PMID:26309137

  16. Locating sources of surf zone pollution: a mass budget analysis of fecal indicator bacteria at Huntington Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Ha; Grant, Stanley B; McGee, Charles D; Sanders, Brett F; Largier, John L

    2004-05-01

    The surf zone is the unique environment where ocean meets land and a place of critical ecological, economic, and recreational importance. In the United States, this natural resource is increasingly off-limits to the public due to elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and other contaminants, the sources of which are often unknown. In this paper, we describe an approach for calculating mass budgets of pollutants in the surf zone from shoreline monitoring data. The analysis reveals that fecal indicator bacteria pollution in the surf zone at several contiguous beaches in Orange County, California, originates from well-defined locations along the shore, including the tidal outlets of the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh. Fecal pollution flows into the ocean from the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets during ebb tides and from there is transported parallel to the shoreline by wave-driven surf zone currents and/or offshore tidal currents, frequently contaminating >5 km of the surf zone. The methodology developed here for locating and quantifying sources of surf zone pollution should be applicable to a wide array of contaminants and coastal settings. PMID:15180059

  17. Microbial Source Tracking Markers for Detection of Fecal Contamination in Environmental Waters: Relationships Between Pathogens and Human Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) describes a suite of methods and an investigative strategy designed to identify the dominant sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. The methods rely on the close association of certain fecal microorganisms with a particular host speci...

  18. Fecal transplant: a safe and sustainable clinical therapy for restoring intestinal microbial balance in human disease?

    PubMed

    Vrieze, A; de Groot, P F; Kootte, R S; Knaapen, M; van Nood, E; Nieuwdorp, M

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested an association between intestinal microbiota composition and human disease, however causality remains to be proven. With hindsight, the application of fecal transplantation (FMT) does indeed suggest a causal relation between interfering with gut microbiota composition and a resultant cure of several disease states. In this review, we aim to show the available evidence regarding the involvement of intestinal microbiota and human (autoimmune) disease. Moreover, we refer to (mostly case report) studies showing beneficial or adverse effects of fecal transplantation on clinical outcomes in some of these disease states. If these findings can be substantiated in larger randomized controlled double blind trials also implementing gut microbiota composition before and after intervention, fecal transplantation might provide us with novel insights into causally related intestinal microbiota, that might be serve as future diagnostic and treatment targets in human disease. PMID:23768558

  19. PCR detection and quantitation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rong-Fu; Cao, Wei-Wen; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1996-04-01

    PCR procedures based on 16S rRNA genen sequence specific for 12 anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed and used for quantitative detection of these species in human feces and animal feces. The reported PCR procedure including the fecal sample preparation method is simplified and rapid and eliminates the DNA isolation steps.

  20. Isolation of Bacteroides from fish and human fecal samples for identification of unique molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Leila; Alum, Absar; Rock, Channah; McLain, Jean E; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2013-12-01

    Bacteroides molecular markers have been used to identify human fecal contamination in natural waters, but recent work in our laboratory confirmed cross-amplification of several human-specific Bacteroides spp. assays with fecal DNA from fish. For identification of unique molecular markers, Bacteroides from human (n = 4) and fish (n = 7) fecal samples were cultured and their identities were further confirmed using Rapid ID 32A API strips. The 16S rDNA from multiple isolates from each sample was PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced to identify unique markers for development of more stringent human-specific assays. In human feces, Bacteroides vulgatus was the dominant species (75% of isolates), whereas in tilapia feces, Bacteroides eggerthii was dominant (66%). Bacteroides from grass carp, channel catfish, and blue catfish may include Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides ovatus, or Bacteroides stercoris. Phylogenic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed distinct Bacteroides groupings from each fish species, while human sequences clustered with known B. vulgatus. None of the fish isolates showed significant similarity to Bacteroides sequences currently deposited in NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information). This study expands the current sequence database of cultured fish Bacteroides. Such data are essential for identification of unique molecular markers in human Bacteroides that can be utilized in differentiating fish and human fecal contamination in water samples. PMID:24313449

  1. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  2. Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  3. Pollutants in human follicular fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Trapp, M.; Baukloh, V.; Bohnet, H.G.; Heeschen, W.

    1984-07-01

    The present study was initiated to clarify whether environmental pollutants can reach the human follicular fluid, an important biologic component for reproduction, in concentrations which could be harmful to the gamete. Fifteen patients with tubal malformations were treated in an in vitro fertilization program whereby 18 follicle aspirates were obtained for investigation. The substances which were measured in this study were alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, and heptachlorepoxide (HepE). None of the patients became pregnant during the treatment cycle.

  4. R-PLASMID TRANSFER TO AND FROM 'ESCHERICHIA COLI' STRAINS ISOLATED FROM HUMAN FECAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Escherichia coli recently isolated from human feces were examined for the frequency with which they accept and R factor (Ri) from a derepressed fi+ strain of E. coli K-12 and transfer it to fecal and laboratory strains. Colicins produced by some of the isolates rapidly...

  5. PERSISTENCE OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND OTHER WASTEWATER RELATED COMPOUNDS: UTILITY AS INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria. The tests to analyze for these bacteria require a considerable length of time to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. To shorten the t...

  6. The Effects of Water Matrix on Decay of Human Fecal Molecular Markers and Campylobacter spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although molecular source tracking for human fecal contamination is used on a wide range of sample types, little is known about comparative decay of proposed molecular markers under different conditions, or correlation with pathogen decay. Our purpose was to measure correlations ...

  7. Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

  8. Levels of fecal corticosterone in sandhill cranes during a human-led migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, B.K.; Olsen, G.H.; Czekala, N.M.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Langenberg, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen captive-reared greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were conditioned to follow ultralight aircraft to promote migration between Wisconsin and Florida (U SA) after release. Fecal samples were collected throughout the training period in Wisconsin and during a 1,977-km human-led migration to Florida to determine fecal corticosterone (FC) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. The mean (?SE) FC concentration during the training period was 1O9.5?7.5 ng/g and was representative of baseline levels recorded previously from sandhill cranes. Fecal corticosterone concentrations increased in early migration compared to concentrations 1 mo prior to departure (P<0.01) but were not different from baseline concentrations at the end of the 6-wk migration period. The variability of FC concentrations in individual samples was greater throughout the migration than the training period. Increases in FC during migration were modest and generally consistent with normal corticosterone elevations observed in migrating birds.

  9. [Substrate phase state and time factor in variability of human fecal microbiota].

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, E A; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Gerasimova, E V; Zverev, V V

    2007-01-01

    Effects of substrate phase state and time factor on variability of human fecal microbiota were studied. It was shown that microecological system of native feces was characterized by marked time-dependent variability. It is unstable and begins to destruct after 24 hours of cultivation. The most sensitive elements of the system were bifidobacteria and Escherichia coli. Change of phase state of biotope eliminated the effect of factor limiting the microecosystem development, which allowed species of obligate and transitory microflora to freely colonize the growth substrate and interact with each other. The mentioned facts demonstrate that fecal microbiota exists in the environment of excess of growth substrate, which colonization is limited by cluster structure of biotope of native feces. It was concluded that phase state of growth substrate and duration of cultivation are important factors determining the population variability of fecal microbiota. PMID:18277541

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Quantitative PCR Assay Targeting Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    While the microbial water quality in the Platte River is seasonally impacted by excreta from migrating cranes, there are no methods available to study crane fecal contamination. Here we characterized microbial populations in crane feces using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gen...

  11. Identifying fecal pollution sources using 3M(™) Petrifilm (™) count plates and antibiotic resistance analysis in the Horse Creek Watershed in Aiken County, SC (USA).

    PubMed

    Harmon, S Michele; West, Ryan T; Yates, James R

    2014-12-01

    Sources of fecal coliform pollution in a small South Carolina (USA) watershed were identified using inexpensive methods and commonly available equipment. Samples from the upper reaches of the watershed were analyzed with 3M(™) Petrifilm(™) count plates. We were able to narrow down the study's focus to one particular tributary, Sand River, that was the major contributor of the coliform pollution (both fecal and total) to a downstream reservoir that is heavily used for recreation purposes. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 2,400 to 120,333 cfu/100 mL, with sharp increases in coliform counts observed in samples taken after rain events. Positive correlations between turbidity and fecal coliform counts suggested a relationship between fecal pollution and stormwater runoff. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) compared antibiotic resistance profiles of fecal coliform isolates from the stream to those of a watershed-specific fecal source library (equine, waterfowl, canines, and untreated sewage). Known fecal source isolates and unknown isolates from the stream were exposed to six antibiotics at three concentrations each. Discriminant analysis grouped known isolates with an overall average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 84.3 %. A total of 401 isolates from the first stream location were classified as equine (45.9 %), sewage (39.4 %), waterfowl (6.2 %), and feline (8.5 %). A similar pattern was observed at the second sampling location, with 42.6 % equine, 45.2 % sewage, 2.8 % waterfowl, 0.6 % canine, and 8.8 % feline. While there were slight weather-dependent differences, the vast majority of the coliform pollution in this stream appeared to be from two sources, equine and sewage. This information will contribute to better land use decisions and further justify implementation of low-impact development practices within this urban watershed. PMID:25139239

  12. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  13. Implications of Fecal Bacteria Input from Latrine-Polluted Ponds for Wells in Sandy Aquifers

    PubMed Central

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Huq, Md. R.; Mey, Jacob; Feighery, John E.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Zhuang, Jie; Escamilla, Veronica; Emch, Michael; Perfect, Edmund; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Ponds receiving latrine effluents may serve as sources of fecal contamination to shallow aquifers tapped by millions of tube-wells in Bangladesh. To test this hypothesis, transects of monitoring wells radiating away from four ponds were installed in a shallow sandy aquifer underlying a densely populated village and monitored for 14 months. Two of the ponds extended to medium sand. Another pond was sited within silty sand and the last in silt. The fecal indicator bacterium E. coli was rarely detected along the transects during the dry season and was only detected near the ponds extending to medium sand up to 7 m away during the monsoon. A log-linear decline in E. coli and Bacteroidales concentrations with distance along the transects in the early monsoon indicates that ponds excavated in medium sand were the likely source of contamination. Spatial removal rates ranged from 0.5-1.3 log10/m. After the ponds were artificially filled with groundwater to simulate the impact of a rain storm, E. coli levels increased near a pond recently excavated in medium sand, but no others. These observations show that adjacent sediment grain-size and how recently a pond was excavated influence how much fecal contamination ponds receiving latrine effluents contribute to neighboring groundwater. PMID:22191430

  14. Evaluation of an optimal preparation of human standardized fecal inocula for in vitro fermentation studies.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Marisol; Eck, Anat; Koenen, Marjorie E; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Budding, Andries E; Venema, Koen

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the optimal preservation approach to prepare human feces as inoculum for in vitro fermentations as an alternative to the use of fresh feces. The four treatments studied were: Treatment 1) fresh feces resuspended in dialysate solution+glycerol; Treatment 2) fresh feces resuspended in dialysate solution+glycerol and then stored at -80°C; Treatment 3) fecal sample frozen with 1.5 g glycerol; and Treatment 4) fecal sample frozen. All the treatments contained 8.75 g of feces, 3.5 ml dialysate and 4.9 ml glycerol when inoculated in TIM-2 in vitro system. Treatment 1 (fresh fecal preparation) was used as a reference. The effects were evaluated in terms of i) metabolic activity and ii) composition of the microbiota using fermentation experiments in the TIM-2 in vitro system. In all treatments, high levels of acetate were produced followed by n-butyrate and propionate. However, the metabolic activity of the bacteria, in terms of short-chain fatty acid production, was affected by the different treatments. Microbiota composition was analyzed using the IS-pro profiling technique. Diversity in Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria groups seemed to be preserved in all treatments whereas it was observed to decline in the Bacteroidetes group. Preparing a human fecal inoculum resuspended in dialysate solution with glycerol and then stored at -80°C showed high similarities to the results obtained with fresh feces, and is proposed as the optimal way to freeze fecal material as an alternative to fresh feces for in vitro fermentation studies. PMID:26222994

  15. Proportion of beta-D-glucuronidase-negative Escherichia coli in human fecal samples.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, G W; Brill, J; Lum, R

    1989-01-01

    Convenient assays and reports that almost all clinical isolates of Escherichia coli produce beta-D-glucuronidase (GUR) have led to great interest in the use of the enzyme for the rapid detection of the bacterium in water, food, and environmental samples. In these materials, E. coli serves as an indicator of possible fecal contamination. Therefore, it was crucial to examine the proportion of GUR-negative E. coli in human fecal samples. The bacterium was isolated from 35 samples, and a mean of 34% and a median of 15% were found to be GUR negative in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide. E. coli from three samples were temperature dependent for GUR production: very weakly positive at 37 degrees C but strongly positive at 44.5 degrees C. These results remind us of differences between fecal and clinical E. coli populations, of diversity in GUR regulation and expression in natural populations of E. coli, and of the need for caution in using GUR for the detection of fecal E. coli. PMID:2655534

  16. Differentiation of fecal Escherichia coli from human, livestock, and poultry sources by rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting on the shellfish culture area of East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Jia; Fu, Ling-Lin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2011-05-01

    The rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting performed with REP, BOX A1R, and (GTG)(5) primers was investigated as a way to differentiate between human, livestock, and poultry sources of fecal pollution on the area of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. Of the three methods, the BOX-PCR DNA fingerprints analyzed by jack-knife algorithm were revealed high rate of correct classification (RCC) with 91.30, 80.39, 89.39, 86.14, 93.24, 87.72, and 89.28% of human, cattle, swine, chicken, duck, sheep, and goose E. coli isolates classified into the correct host source, respectively. The average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of REP-, BOX-, and (GTG)(5)-PCR patterns was 79.88, 88.21, and 86.39%, respectively. Although the highest amount of bands in (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints could be observed, the discriminatory efficacy of BOX-PCR was superior to both REP- and (GTG)(5)-PCR. Moreover, the similarity of 459 isolates originated from shellfish and growing water was compared with fecal-obtained strains. The results showed that 92.4 and 96.2% E. coli strains isolated from midstream and downstream shellfish samples, respectively, had a ≥ 80% similarity with corresponding strains isolated from fecal samples. It was indicated that E. coli in feces could spread from human sewage or domestic farms to the surrounding shellfish culture water, and potentially affect the quality of shellfish. This work suggests that rep-PCR fingerprinting can be a promising genotypic tool applied in the shellfish growing water management on East China Sea for source identification of fecal pollution. PMID:21279641

  17. Natural soil reservoirs for human pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boschiroli, Maria L; Falkinham, Joseph; Favre-Bonte, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie; Piveteau, Pascal; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Delaquis, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Soils receive inputs of human pathogenic and indicator bacteria through land application of animal manures or sewage sludge, and inputs by wildlife. Soil is an extremely heterogeneous substrate and contains meso- and macrofauna that may be reservoirs for bacteria of human health concern. The ability to detect and quantify bacteria of human health concern is important in risk assessments and in evaluating the efficacy of agricultural soil management practices that are protective of crop quality and protective of adjacent water resources. The present chapter describes the distribution of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in soils. Methods for detecting and quantifying soilborne bacteria including extraction, enrichment using immunomagnetic capture, culturing, molecular detection and deep sequencing of metagenomic DNA to detect pathogens are overviewed. Methods for strain phenotypic and genotypic characterization are presented, as well as how comparison with clinical isolates can inform the potential for human health risk.

  18. Fecal pollution in coastal marine sediments from a semi-enclosed deep embayment subjected to anthropogenic activities: an issue to be considered in environmental quality management frameworks development.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, D; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D

    2010-12-01

    Sewage discharge is a major source of pollution in marine environments. Urban wastewaters can directly enter marine environments carrying pathogen organisms, organic loads, and nutrients. Because marine sediments can act as the ultimate fate of a wide range of pollutants, environmental quality assessment in this compartment can help to identify pollution problems in coastal areas. In the present study, characterization of surficial marine sediments allowed assessment of fecal pollution in a semi-enclosed deep embayment that is subjected to anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters and fecal indicators presented a great spatial heterogeneity. Fecal coliform and Clostridium perfringens showed accumulation in an extensive area, not only in proximity to sewage discharge points, but also in sediments at 100 meters depth. Results included herein demonstrated that, in coastal areas, urban wastewater discharge can affect the whole ecosystem through accumulation of fecal matter in bottom sediments. Application of multivariate techniques provided useful information with applicability for management of coastal areas in such complex systems. Environmental implications of wastewater discharge in coastal areas indicate the need to implement and include sediment quality control strategies in legislative frameworks. PMID:21225312

  19. Performance of human fecal anaerobe-associated PCR-based assays in a multi-laboratory method evaluation study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layton, Blythe A.; Cao, Yiping; Ebentier, Darcy L.; Hanley, Kaitlyn; Ballesté, Elisenda; Brandão, João; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Converse, Reagan; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer, Gidley, Maribeth L.; Gourmelon, Michèle; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung; Lozach, Solen; Madi, Tania; Meijer, Wim G.; Noble, Rachel; Peed, Lindsay; Reischer, Georg H.; Rodrigues, Raquel; Rose, Joan B.; Schriewer, Alexander; Sinigalliano, Chris; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Stewart, Jill; Van De Werfhorst; Laurie, C.; Wang, Dan; Whitman, Richard; Wuertz, Stefan; Jay, Jenny; Holden, Patricia A.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Shanks, Orin; Griffith, John F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of PCR-based methods for detecting human fecal material in environmental waters have been developed over the past decade, but these methods have rarely received independent comparative testing in large multi-laboratory studies. Here, we evaluated ten of these methods (BacH, BacHum-UCD, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (BtH), BsteriF1, gyrB, HF183 endpoint, HF183 SYBR, HF183 Taqman®, HumM2, and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH (Mnif)) using 64 blind samples prepared in one laboratory. The blind samples contained either one or two fecal sources from human, wastewater or non-human sources. The assay results were assessed for presence/absence of the human markers and also quantitatively while varying the following: 1) classification of samples that were detected but not quantifiable (DNQ) as positive or negative; 2) reference fecal sample concentration unit of measure (such as culturable indicator bacteria, wet mass, total DNA, etc); and 3) human fecal source type (stool, sewage or septage). Assay performance using presence/absence metrics was found to depend on the classification of DNQ samples. The assays that performed best quantitatively varied based on the fecal concentration unit of measure and laboratory protocol. All methods were consistently more sensitive to human stools compared to sewage or septage in both the presence/absence and quantitative analysis. Overall, HF183 Taqman® was found to be the most effective marker of human fecal contamination in this California-based study.

  20. In Vitro Effects of Dietary Inulin on Human Fecal Microbiota and Butyrate Production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Administration of dietary fibers has various health benefits, mainly by increasing numbers of beneficial bacteria and enhancing production of short-chain fatty acids in the colon. There has been growing interest in the addition of dietary fiber to human diet, due to its prebiotic effects. This study aimed to evaluate the prebiotic activity of inulin using an in vitro batch fermentation system with human fecal microbiota. Fermentation of inulin resulted in a significantly greater ratio of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria to Enterobacteria strains as an index of healthy human intestine and elevated butyrate concentration, which are related to improvement of gut health. PMID:26095388

  1. EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER CHEMICALS AS INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria. The traditional tests that analyze for these bacteria require approximately 24 hours to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal sources. One solution is to use hum...

  2. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  3. Pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator and a tracer of fecal pollution in water environments: comparative evaluation with wastewater-tracer pharmaceuticals in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Nakada, Norihide; Hanamoto, Seiya; Inaba, Manami; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Do, An Thuan; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Oguma, Kumiko; Hayashi, Takeshi; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2015-02-15

    We analyzed pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in 36 samples taken from surface water, wastewater, groundwater, tap water and bottled water in Hanoi, Vietnam. We then compared the occurrence and fates of PMMoV with pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which are known wastewater tracers. PMMoV was detected in 94% of the surface water samples (ponds, water from irrigated farmlands and rivers) and in all the wastewater samples. The PMMoV concentration ranged from 5.5×10(6)-7.2×10(6)copies/L in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents, 6.5×10(5)-8.5×10(5)copies/L in WWTP effluents and 1.0×10(4)-1.8×10(6)copies/L in surface water. Among the sixty PPCPs analyzed, caffeine and carbamazepine had high detection rates in surface water (100% and 88%, respectively). In surface water, the concentration ratio of PMMoV to caffeine remained unchanged than that in WWTP influents, suggesting that the persistence of PMMoV in surface water was comparable to that of caffeine. The persistence and the large concentration ratio of PMMoV in WWTP influents to the method detection limit would account for its ubiquitous detection in surface water. In comparison, human enteric viruses (HEV) were less frequently detected (18-59%) than PMMoV in surface water, probably because of their faster decay. Together with the reported high human feces-specificity, our results suggested that PMMoV is useful as a sensitive fecal indicator for evaluating the potential occurrence of pathogenic viruses in surface water. Moreover, PMMoV can be useful as a moderately conservative fecal tracer for specifically tracking fecal pollution of surface water. PMMoV was detected in 38% of the groundwater samples at low concentrations (up to 19copies/L). PMMoV was not detected in the tap water and bottled water samples. In groundwater, tap water and bottled water samples, the occurrence of PPCPs and HEV disagreed with that of PMMoV, suggesting that PMMoV is not suitable as an indicator or a tracer in

  4. In vitro fermentation of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica by human fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qing; Dong, Shiyuan; Gao, Jian; Jiang, Chaoyu

    2016-10-01

    In vitro fermentation of the sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds Enteromorpha prolifera and Laminaria japonica and their prebiotic effects on human fecal microbiota were investigated in this study. The sulfated polysaccharides were fermented in vitro for 48h by human fecal cultures. When 0.8g MWCOL (polysaccharides MWCO<30kD) from L. japonica was fermented, the pH in fecal cultures decreased from 6.5 to 5.1 and the levels of short chain fatty acids, such as acetic, butyric and lactic acids all significantly increased. After 48h fermentation, 0.8g MWCOL showed good effect on modulating the gut microflora balance, because the beneficial strains (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) were both significantly higher than those in control group (p<0.05). As far as we know, this is the first report that consumption of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica is beneficial to the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by increasing the populations of probiotics and short chain fatty acids. Furthermore, our reports indicated that molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae is related to its prebiotic effects. PMID:27316763

  5. Effects of roxithromycin on fecal bacteria in human volunteers and resistance to colonization in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pecquet, S; Chachaty, E; Tancrède, C; Andremont, A

    1991-01-01

    The ecological impact of roxithromycin given orally at 300 mg/day on the intestinal floras in six human volunteers was studied. The resulting fecal concentrations of active roxithromycin were in the range of 100 to 200 micrograms/g of feces. Consecutive modifications in the composition of the fecal floras were limited to a decrease in counts of total members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The rest of the intestinal floras, including the predominant anaerobic floras, changed little. No overgrowth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, fungi, or highly erythromycin-resistant strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae was observed. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae and of anaerobes isolated during treatment were not markedly more resistant to roxithromycin than those isolated before treatment started. Changes in intestinal resistance to colonization by exogenous microorganisms in gnotobiotic mice inoculated with human fecal flora were studied and were also found to be minimal. The impact of oral roxithromycin on the intestinal microbiota appears to be weaker than that previously observed with oral erythromycin, perhaps because the concentrations of roxithromycin in the feces were lower than those previously found for erythromycin. PMID:2039207

  6. USE OF COMPETITIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION TO ENRICH FOR GENOME-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO CLOSELY RELATED HUMAN FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enterococci are frequently used as indicators of fecal pollution in surface waters. To accelerate the identification of Enterococcus faecalis-specific DNA sequences, we employed a comparative genomic strategy utilizing a positive selection process to compare E. faec...

  7. Predicting fecal sources in waters with diverse pollution loads using general and molecular host-specific indicators and applying machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Gómez-Doñate, Marta; Sánchez, David; Belanche-Muñoz, Lluís A; Muniesa, Maite; Blanch, Anicet R

    2015-03-15

    In this study we use a machine learning software (Ichnaea) to generate predictive models for water samples with different concentrations of fecal contamination (point source, moderate and low). We applied several MST methods (host-specific Bacteroides phages, mitochondrial DNA genetic markers, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium dentium markers, and bifidobacterial host-specific qPCR), and general indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci and somatic coliphages) to evaluate the source of contamination in the samples. The results provided data to the Ichnaea software, that evaluated the performance of each method in the different scenarios and determined the source of the contamination. Almost all MST methods in this study determined correctly the origin of fecal contamination at point source and in moderate concentration samples. When the dilution of the fecal pollution increased (below 3 log10 CFU E. coli/100 ml) some of these indicators (bifidobacterial host-specific qPCR, some mitochondrial markers or B. dentium marker) were not suitable because their concentrations decreased below the detection limit. Using the data from source point samples, the software Ichnaea produced models for waters with low levels of fecal pollution. These models included some MST methods, on the basis of their best performance, that were used to determine the source of pollution in this area. Regardless the methods selected, that could vary depending on the scenario, inductive machine learning methods are a promising tool in MST studies and may represent a leap forward in solving MST cases. PMID:25585145

  8. Evaluation of equivalence between different methods for enumeration of fecal indicator bacteria before and after adoption of the new Bathing Water Directive and risk assessment of pollution.

    PubMed

    Lušić, Darija Vukić; Lušić, Dražen; Pešut, Denis; Mićović, Vladimir; Glad, Marin; Bilajac, Lovorka; Peršić, Vesna

    2013-08-15

    The quality of bathing water is of considerable public importance due to the possibility of fecal contamination. In 2009, Croatia implemented the new European Bathing Water Directive (BWD, 2006/7/EC) establishing stricter microbiological standards for new parameters with new reference methods. This study aims to evaluate the equivalence of different methods according to the old and revised BWD and to provide the possibility of data comparison. Furthermore, the directive requires the establishment of the bathing water profile (BWP) for pollution risk assessment. The estimation of consistency of pollution risk assessment with obtained microbiological results was also performed. Six marine beaches of the Municipality of Rijeka (Croatia) were examined during the 2009 season. Statistical analysis showed equivalence between determination methods for fecal contamination indicators. Based on the current water classification results, the need for correction of estimated pollution risks and recommendations for inclusion of historical microbiological data during BWP enactment was noticed. PMID:23756111

  9. Surf zone entrainment, along-shore transport, and human health implications of pollution from tidal outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, S. B.; Kim, J. H.; Jones, B. H.; Jenkins, S. A.; Wasyl, J.; Cudaback, C.

    2005-10-01

    Field experiments and modeling studies were carried out to characterize the surf zone entrainment and along-shore transport of pollution from two tidal outlets that drain into Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, popular public beaches in southern California. The surf zone entrainment and near-shore transport of pollutants from these tidal outlets appears to be controlled by prevailing wave conditions and coastal currents, and fine-scale features of the flow field around the outlets. An analysis of data from dye experiments and fecal indicator bacteria monitoring studies reveals that the along-shore flux of surf zone water is at least 50 to 300 times larger than the cross-shore flux of surf zone water. As a result, pollutants entrained in the surf zone hug the shore, where they travel significant distances parallel to the beach before diluting to extinction. Under the assumption that all surf zone pollution at Huntington Beach originates from two tidal outlets, the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets, models of mass and momentum transport in the surf zone approximately capture the observed tidal phasing and magnitude of certain fecal indicator bacteria groups (total coliform) but not others (Escherichia coli and enterococci), implying the existence of multiple sources of, and/or multiple transport pathways for, fecal pollution at this site. The intersection of human recreation and near-shore pollution pathways implies that, from a human health perspective, special care should be taken to reduce the discharge of harmful pollutants from land-side sources of surface water runoff, such as tidal outlets and storm drains.

  10. Identifying Host Sources of Fecal Pollution: Diversity of Escherichia coli in Confined Dairy and Swine Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zexun; Lapen, David; Scott, Andrew; Dang, Angela; Topp, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting of Escherichia coli is one microbial source tracking approach for identifying the host source origin of fecal pollution in aquatic systems. The construction of robust known-source libraries is expensive and requires an informed sampling strategy. In many types of farming systems, waste is stored for several months before being released into the environment. In this study we analyzed, by means of repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus primers and comparative analysis using the Bionumerics software, collections of E. coli obtained from a dairy farm and from a swine farm, both of which stored their waste as a slurry in holding tanks. In all fecal samples, obtained from either barns or holding tanks, the diversity of the E. coli populations was underrepresented by collections of 500 isolates. In both the dairy and the swine farms, the diversity of the E. coli community was greater in the manure holding tank than in the barn, when they were sampled on the same date. In both farms, a comparison of stored manure samples collected several months apart suggested that the community composition changed substantially in terms of the detected number, absolute identity, and relative abundance of genotypes. Comparison of E. coli populations obtained from 10 different locations in either holding tank suggested that spatial variability in the E. coli community should be accounted for when sampling. Overall, the diversity in E. coli populations in manure slurry storage facilities is significant and likely is problematic with respect to library construction for microbial source tracking applications. PMID:16204513

  11. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry applied to isotopic analysis of iron in human fecal matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, B.T.G.; Janghorbani, M.

    1986-06-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with stable isotope dilution is applied to accurate isotopic analysis of human fecal matter for /sup 54/Fe and /sup 58/Fe. Argon plasma generated interferences are of minor concern. The interference from /sup 54/Cr can be corrected instrumentally, whereas /sup 58/Ni must be removed chemically. The ratio of the stable isotopes of interest can be measured routinely with a relative standard deviation of about 1%. The overall accuracy of the method for quantitative isotopic analyses is evaluated in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1577a (Bovine Liver), fecal homogenate subsamples, and synthetic solutions of iron. For SRM 1577a, the respective comparisons are (..mu..g/g) 192.2 +/- 2.2 (present method) vs. 194 +/- 20 (certified value). For the fecal matrix, the present method yields (..mu..g/mL) 15.14 +/- 0.36 vs. 15.82 +/- 0.48 based on atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For an iron solution (250 ppm), replicate analyses yield the value of 245.4 +/- 1.5 ppm.

  12. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W.; Cheung, Melissa; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid. PMID:26378564

  13. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W; Cheung, Melissa; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-09-01

    Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid. PMID:26378564

  14. The Human Fecal Microbiota Metabolizes Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside and May Be Responsible for Urinary Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Gary; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a potent mycotoxin produced by Fusarium molds and affects intestinal nutrient absorption and barrier function in experimental and farm animals. Free DON and the plant metabolite DON-3-β-d-glucoside (D3G) are frequently found in wheat and maize. D3G is stable in the upper human gut, but some human intestinal bacteria release DON from D3G in vitro. Furthermore, some bacteria derived from animal digestive systems degrade DON to a less toxic metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1). The metabolism of D3G and DON by the human microbiota has not been fully assessed. We therefore conducted in vitro batch culture experiments assessing the activity of the human fecal microbiota to release DON from D3G. We also studied detoxification of DON to DOM-1 by the microbiota and its potential effect on urinary DON excretion in humans. Fecal slurry from five volunteers was spiked with DON or D3G and incubated anaerobically (from 1 h to 7 days), and mycotoxins were extracted into acetonitrile. Mycotoxins were detected in fecal extracts and urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The fecal microbiota released DON from D3G very efficiently, with hydrolysis peaking after 4 to 6 h. The fecal microbiota from one volunteer transformed DON to DOM-1. Urine from the same volunteer also contained DOM-1 (4.7% of DON), whereas DOM-1 was not detectable in urine from other volunteers. Our results confirm that the fecal microbiota releases DON from its glycosylated form, hence increasing the toxic burden in exposed individuals. Furthermore, this is first evidence that the human fecal microbiota of one volunteer detoxifies DON, resulting in the appearance of DOM-1 in urine. PMID:23315729

  15. The seasonality of fecal coliform bacteria pollution and its influence on closures of shellfish harvesting areas in Mississippi Sound.

    PubMed

    Chigbu, Paulinus; Gordon, Scott; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño--Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997), and La Niña (1999, 2000) years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February) reaching 120 MPN (February 1990), 165 MPN (January 1992), and 86 MPN (January 1997), and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 - 19 MPN). Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 - 24 MPN). Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 -10.3 MPN) than in 1992 (1.2 - 165 MPN), and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year), peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN) was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March). The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April) to 24 - 26 (October to December). ENSO events thus influenced the extent and timing of the peak levels of fecal

  16. Discrimination Efficacy of Fecal Pollution Detection in Different Aquatic Habitats of a High-Altitude Tropical Country, Using Presumptive Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens Spores

    PubMed Central

    Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L.; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central and eastern parts of Uganda. Unlike the chemophysical water quality, which was water source type dependent (i.e., spring, lake, or stream), fecal indicators were associated with the anthropogenic influence status of the respective sites. A total of 79% of the total variability, including all the determined four bacteriological and five chemophysical parameters, could be assigned to either a pollution, a habitat, or a metabolic activity component by principal-component analysis. Bacteriological indicators revealed significant correlations to the pollution component, reflecting that anthropogenic contamination gradients were followed. Discrimination sensitivity analysis revealed high ability of E. coli to differentiate between high and low levels of anthropogenic influence. CP also showed a reasonable level of discrimination, although FC and TC were found to have worse discrimination efficacy. Nonpoint influence by soil erosion could not be detected during the study period by correlation analysis, although a theoretical contamination potential existed, as investigated soils in the immediate surroundings often contained relevant concentrations of fecal indicators. The outcome of this study indicates that rapid techniques for presumptive E. coli and CP determination may be reliable for fecal pollution monitoring in high-altitude tropical developing countries such as those of Eastern Africa. PMID:15640171

  17. Water quality indicators and the risk of illness at beaches with nonpoint sources of fecal contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Indicator bacteria are a good predictor of illness at marine beaches that have point sources of pollution with human fecal content. Few studies have addressed the utility of indicator bacteria where nonpoint sources are the dominant fecal input. Extrapolating current ...

  18. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Folinsbee, L J

    1993-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines. Air pollutants have been shown to cause responses ranging from reversible changes in respiratory symptoms and lung function, changes in airway reactivity and inflammation, structural remodeling of pulmonary airways, and impairment of pulmonary host defenses, to increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. Quantitative and qualitative understanding of the effects of a small group of air pollutants has advanced considerably, but the understanding is by no means complete, and the breadth of effects of all air pollutants is only partially understood. PMID:8354181

  19. Semi-quantitative evaluation of fecal contamination potential by human and ruminant sources using multiple lines of evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeckel, D.M.; Stelzer, E.A.; Stogner, R.W.; Mau, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Protocols for microbial source tracking of fecal contamination generally are able to identify when a source of contamination is present, but thus far have been unable to evaluate what portion of fecal-indicator bacteria (FIB) came from various sources. A mathematical approach to estimate relative amounts of FIB, such as Escherichia coli, from various sources based on the concentration and distribution of microbial source tracking markers in feces was developed. The approach was tested using dilute fecal suspensions, then applied as part of an analytical suite to a contaminated headwater stream in the Rocky Mountains (Upper Fountain Creek, Colorado). In one single-source fecal suspension, a source that was not present could not be excluded because of incomplete marker specificity; however, human and ruminant sources were detected whenever they were present. In the mixed-feces suspension (pet and human), the minority contributor (human) was detected at a concentration low enough to preclude human contamination as the dominant source of E. coli to the sample. Without the semi-quantitative approach described, simple detects of human-associated marker in stream samples would have provided inaccurate evidence that human contamination was a major source of E. coli to the stream. In samples from Upper Fountain Creek the pattern of E. coli, general and host-associated microbial source tracking markers, nutrients, and wastewater-associated chemical detections-augmented with local observations and land-use patterns-indicated that, contrary to expectations, birds rather than humans or ruminants were the predominant source of fecal contamination to Upper Fountain Creek. This new approach to E. coli allocation, validated by a controlled study and tested by application in a relatively simple setting, represents a widely applicable step forward in the field of microbial source tracking of fecal contamination. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  1. Effect of environmental pollutants on human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-01-01

    With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of health effects of polluted environment must be made for maintaining and enhancing the quality of human life on this earth. Significant number of malformed children are born each year. Sixty-five to 70% of all birth defects have an unknown etiology. More than one-third of early human conception and up to 15% of recognized pregnancies are terminated by spontaneous abortion. The extent of the effect of environmental pollution on human reproductive performance is for the most part unknown. Of the approximately five million chemicals in existence, humans could be expose to a sufficient quantity of an estimated 53,000 for toxicity to be of potential problem. Methods that do not require autopsy or surgery such as semen analysis would be attractive for assessing the effect of environmental toxicology on quality of human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the effects of heavily polluted environment of industrial area of Ludhiana and relatively clean, pollution free environment of Chandigarh on the human semen quality. It was believed that the function of the male reproductive system may often be the most sensitive to toxic effects.

  2. Validation of Bacteroidales quantitative PCR assays targeting human and animal fecal contamination in the public and domestic domains in India.

    PubMed

    Odagiri, Mitsunori; Schriewer, Alexander; Hanley, Kaitlyn; Wuertz, Stefan; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-01-01

    We compared host-associated Bacteroidales qPCR assays developed in the continental United States and Europe for the purpose of measuring the effect of improved sanitation on human fecal exposure in rural Indian communities where both human and animal fecal loading are high. Ten candidate Bacteroidales qPCR assays were tested against fecal samples (human, sewage, cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, dog and chicken) from a test set of 30 individual human, 5 sewage, and 60 pooled animal samples collected in coastal Odisha, India. The two universal/general Bacteroidales assays tested (BacUni, GenBac3) performed equally well, achieving 100% sensitivity on the test set. Across the five human-associated assays tested (HF183 Taqman, BacHum, HumM2, BacH, HF183 SYBR), we found low sensitivity (17 to 49%) except for HF183 SYBR (89%), and moderate to high cross-reactivity with dog (20 to 80%) and chicken fecal samples (60 to 100%). BacHum had the highest accuracy (67%), amplified all sewage samples within the range of quantification (ROQ), and did not cross-react with any fecal samples from cows, the most populous livestock animal in India. Of the ruminant- and cattle-associated assays tested (BacCow, CowM2), BacCow was more sensitive in detecting the full range of common Indian livestock animal fecal sources, while CowM2 only detected cow sources with 50% sensitivity. Neither assay cross-reacted with human sources. BacCan, the dog-associated assay tested, showed no cross-reactivity with human sources, and high sensitivity (90%) for dog fecal samples. Overall, our results indicate BacUni, BacHum, HumM2, BacCan and BacCow would be the most suitable MST assays to distinguish and quantify relative amounts of human-associated and livestock/domestic animal-associated contributions to fecal contamination in Odisha, India. PMID:25285421

  3. Microcin determinants are associated with B2 phylogroup of human fecal Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Micenková, Lenka; Bosák, Juraj; Štaudová, Barbora; Kohoutová, Darina; Čejková, Darina; Woznicová, Vladana; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Bureš, Jan; Šmajs, David

    2016-06-01

    Escherichia coli strains are classified into four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) and strains of these phylogroups differ in a number of characteristics. This study tested whether human fecal E. coli isolates belonging to different phylogroups differ in prevalence of bacteriocinogenic isolates and prevalence of individual bacteriocinogenic determinants. A set of 1283 fecal E. coli isolates from patients with different diseases was tested for the presence of DNA regions allowing classification into E. coli phylogroups and for the ability to produce bacteriocins (23 colicins and 7 microcins). Of the isolates tested, the most common was phylogroup B2 (38.3%) followed by phylogroups A (28.3%), D (26.3%) and B1 (7.2%). Altogether, 695 bacteriocin producers were identified representing 54.2% of all tested isolates. The highest prevalence of bacteriocin producers was found in group B2 (60.3%) and the lowest in group B1 (44.6%). Determinants encoding colicins E1, Ia, and microcin mV were most common in phylogroup A, determinants encoding microcins mM and mH47 were most common in phylogroup B2, and determinant encoding mB17 was most common in phylogroup D. The highest prevalence of bacteriocinogeny was found in phylogroup B2, suggesting that bacteriocinogeny and especially the synthesis of microcins was associated with virulent and resident E. coli strains. PMID:26987297

  4. SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION AND HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH PHOTODIODE ARRAY DETECTION OF CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Faster and more sensitive analysis of water that is contaminated by human fecal matter is very important for health. The current microbiological methods to assess water quality do not meet this need. Alternate non-microbial human fecal indicators have been proposed by various r...

  5. Application of a Human Fecal Marker Assay to Diverse Coastal Environments in California and Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, B.; Boehm, A.

    2007-05-01

    Bacterial pollution at beaches is a growing problem of increasing national concern. Currently, the EPA uses Enterococcus as one measure of water quality for recreational contact. Recent work has suggested that rather than indicating anthropogenic pollution, enterococci may be indigenous to the environment. A human-specific gene marker for Enterococcus faecium (known as esp) was recently proposed as a molecular test for bacterial contamination of human origin. The present study applied the esp gene assay to a variety of coastal environments in California and Hawaii, including groundwater, sand, freshwater creeks, estuaries, and the surf zone. Results indicate that enterococci of human origin are present in many of these environments, suggesting that at least a portion of the bacterial pollution at these sites is a result of anthropogenic inputs rather than autochthonous microbial populations.

  6. Fecal Source Identification with Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne diseases that originate from fecal pollution remain a significant public health issue. Current fecal indicator technologies recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water quality testing do not discriminate between different animal sources of fecal ...

  7. Comparison of PCR and quantitative real-time PCR methods for the characterization of ruminant and cattle fecal pollution sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state of California has mandated the preparation of a guidance document on the application of fecal source identification methods for recreational water quality management. California contains the fifth highest population of cattle in the United States, making the inclusio...

  8. Transfer of Viral Communities between Human Individuals during Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chehoud, Christel; Dryga, Anatoly; Hwang, Young; Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Hollister, Emily B.; Luna, Ruth Ann; Versalovic, James; Kellermayer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment for refractory Clostridium difficile infections. However, concerns persist about unwanted cotransfer of pathogenic microbes such as viruses. Here we studed FMT from a single healthy human donor to three pediatric ulcerative colitis patients, each of whom received a course of 22 to 30 FMT treatments. Viral particles were purified from donor and recipient stool samples and sequenced; the reads were then assembled into contigs corresponding to viral genomes or partial genomes. Transfer of selected viruses was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Viral contigs present in the donor could be readily detected in recipients, with up to 32 different donor viral contigs appearing in a recipient sample. Reassuringly, none of these were viruses are known to replicate on human cells. Instead, viral contigs either scored as bacteriophage or could not be attributed taxonomically, suggestive of unstudied phage. The two most frequently transferred gene types were associated with temperate-phage replication. In addition, members of Siphoviridae, the group of typically temperate phages that includes phage lambda, were found to be transferred with significantly greater efficiency than other groups. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the temperate-phage replication style may promote efficient phage transfer between human individuals. In summary, we documented transfer of multiple viral lineages between human individuals through FMT, but in this case series, none were from viral groups known to infect human cells. PMID:27025251

  9. TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL COMPOUNDS FROM KNOWN WASTEWATER DISCHARGES: POTENTIAL FOR USE AS INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking and recreational water currently (2005) is determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze for these bacteria require a long time to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One co...

  10. TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM KNOWN WSTEWATER DISCHARGES: POTENTIAL CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require 24 to 48 hours to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal...

  11. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal sourceidentification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data q...

  12. Detection of Giardia lamblia Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by a Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay▿

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Garcia, John Paul

    2006-01-01

    The SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay (Medical Chemical Corporation) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects Giardia lamblia in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens. Testing 106 Giardia-positive and 104 Giardia-negative stool specimens yielded a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 100% for the SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay. PMID:17065273

  13. Performance of human fecal anaerobe-associated PCR-based assays in a multi-laboratory method evaluation study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of PCR-based methods for detecting human fecal material in environmental waters have been developed over the past decade, but these methods have rarely received independent comparative testing. Here, we evaluated ten of these methods (BacH, BacHum-UCD, B. thetaiotaomic...

  14. Human and Animal Fecal Contamination of Community Water Sources, Stored Drinking Water and Hands in Rural India Measured with Validated Microbial Source Tracking Assays

    PubMed Central

    Schriewer, Alexander; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Wuertz, Stefan; Misra, Pravas R.; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined pathways of exposure to fecal contamination of human and animal origin in 24 villages in Odisha, India. In a cross-sectional study during the monsoon season, fecal exposure via community water sources (N = 123) and in the home (N = 137) was assessed using human- and nonhuman-associated Bacteroidales microbial source tracking (MST) markers and fecal coliforms (FCs). Detection rates and marker concentrations were examined to pinpoint pathways of human fecal exposure in the public and domestic domains of disease transmission in study communities. Human fecal markers were detected much more frequently in the domestic domain (45% of households) than in public domain sources (8% of ponds; 4% of groundwater drinking sources). Animal fecal markers were widely detected in both domains (74% of ponds, 96% of households, 10% of groundwater drinking sources), indicating ubiquitous risks of exposure to animal feces and zoonotic pathogens. This study confirms an often suggested contamination link from hands to stored water in the home in developing countries separately for mothers' and children's hands and both human and animal fecal contamination. In contrast to MST markers, FCs provided a poor metric to assess risks of exposure to fecal contamination of human origin in this rural setting. PMID:26149868

  15. Improved technique for measuring fecal energy loss in normal and malabsorbing humans.

    PubMed

    Zarling, E J; Ruchim, M A; Makino, D

    1986-01-01

    Fecal energy concentration is measured by bomb calorimetry on freeze-dried stool samples. Some of the energy-containing fecal compounds are volatile in the pH ranges of normal stool and hence may be lost during sample preparation. We found that significant amounts of volatile fatty acids and lactic acid are lost during lyophilization. Fecal alkalization caused an increase of 9.8% of measurable energy in stools from normal individuals and 25% in stools from patients with untreated exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. We conclude that previous reports of fecal energy concentration that did not use an alkalization procedure are probably underestimations. We recommend fecal alkalization before lyophilization in future measurements of fecal energy excretion. PMID:3941294

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF POLLUTED WATERS USING SOURCE TRACKING MOLECULAR TOOLS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Different approaches have been used to identify fecal pollution sources in water samples. Early on, the fecal coliforms - fecal streptococci ratio was proposed as a method that could discriminate between human and animal contamination. Several studies showed that the latter appro...

  17. Broad scope method for creating humanized animal models for animal health and disease research through antibiotic treatment and human fecal transfer.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Korry J; Cox, James E; Rompato, Giovanni; Benninghoff, Abby D; Ward, Robert E; Broadbent, Jeff; Lefevre, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, mouse humanization studies have used human fecal transfer to germ-free animals. This practice requires gnotobiotic facilities and is restricted to gnotobiotic mouse lines, which limits humanized mouse research. We have developed a generalizable method to humanize non germ-free mice using antibiotic treatment and human fecal transfer. The method involves depleting resident intestinal microbiota with broad-spectrum antibiotics, introducing human microbiota from frozen fecal samples by weekly gavage, and maintaining mice in HEPA-filtered microisolator cages. Pyrosequencing cecal microbiota 16S rRNA genes showed that recipient mice adopt a humanized microbiota profile analogous to their human donors, and distinct from mice treated with only antibiotics (no fecal transfer) or untreated control mice. In the humanized mice, 75% of the sequence mass was observed in their respective human donor and conversely, 68% of the donor sequence mass was recovered in the recipient mice. Principal component analyses of GC- and HPLC-separated cecal metabolites were performed to determine effects of transplanted microbiota on the metabolome. Cecal metabolite profiles of mice treated with only antibiotics (no fecal transfer) and control mice were dissimilar from each other and from humanized mice. Metabolite profiles for mice humanized from different donor samples clustered near each other, yet were sufficiently distinct that separate clusters were apparent for each donor. Also, cecal concentrations of 57 metabolites were significantly different between humanization treatments. These data demonstrate that our protocol can be used to humanize non germ-free mice and is sufficiently robust to generate metabolomic differences between mice humanized from different human donors. PMID:24637796

  18. Environmental occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene is an unreliable indicator of human fecal contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Whitman, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    The enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene found in Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium has recently been explored as a marker of sewage pollution in recreational waters but its occurrence and distribution in environmental enterococci has not been well-documented. If the esp gene is found in environmental samples, there are potential implications for microbial source tracking applications. In the current study, a total of 452 samples (lake water, 100; stream water, 129; nearshore sand, 96; and backshore sand, 71; Cladophora sp. (Chlorophyta), 41; and periphyton (mostly Bacillariophyceae), 15) collected from the coastal watersheds of southern Lake Michigan were selectively cultured for enterococci and then analyzed for the esp gene by PCR, targeting E. faecalis/ E. faecium (espfs/fm) and E. faecium (espfm). Overall relative frequencies for espfs/fm and espfm were 27.4 and 5.1%. Respective percent frequency for the espfs/fm and espfm was 36 and 14% in lake water; 38.8 and 2.3% in stream water; 24 and 6.3% in nearshore sand; 0% in backshore sand; 24.4 and 0% in Cladophora sp.; and 33.3 and 0% in periphyton. The overall occurrence of both espfs/fm and espfm was significantly related (χ2 = 49, P espfs/fm increased in lake and stream water and nearshore sand. Further, E. coli and enterococci cell densities were significant predictors for espfs/fm occurrence in post-rain lake water, but espfm was not. F+ coliphage densities were not significant predictors for espfm or espfs/fm gene incidence. In summary, the differential occurrence of the esp gene in the environment suggests that it is not limited to human fecal sources and thus may weaken its use as a reliable tool in discriminating contaminant sources (i.e., human vs nonhuman).

  19. Characterizing climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to air pollutants such as ozone (O3) have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures, including: ambient pollutant concentrations, human activity patterns, population sizes and distributions, and hous...

  20. Effects of Crude Oil, Dispersant, and Oil-Dispersant Mixtures on Human Fecal Microbiota in an In Vitro Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Nam; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Jae; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 raised concerns that dispersant and dispersed oil, as well as crude oil itself, could contaminate shellfish and seafood habitats with hazardous residues that had potential implications for human health and the ecosystem. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the human fecal microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil, Corexit 9500 dispersant, and their combination on human fecal microbial communities, using an in vitro culture test system. Fecal specimens from healthy adult volunteers were made into suspensions, which were then treated with oil, dispersant, or oil-dispersant mixtures under anaerobic conditions in an in vitro culture test system. Perturbations of the microbial community, compared to untreated control cultures, were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing methods. DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis showed that oil-dispersant mixtures reduced the diversity of fecal microbiota from all individuals. Real-time PCR results indicated that the copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in cultures treated with dispersed oil or oil alone were significantly lower than those in control incubations. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes decreased in crude oil-treated and dispersed-oil-treated cultures, while the Proteobacteria increased in cultures treated with dispersed oil. In conclusion, the human fecal microbiota was affected differently by oil and dispersed oil, and the influence of dispersed oil was significantly greater than that of either oil or dispersant alone compared to control cultures. PMID:23093387

  1. Effect of Sunlight on the Divergence of Community Structure of Fecal Bacteria in Cowpats Collected from Three Different Farms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies applied next generation sequencing to understand the shift...

  2. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

  3. Preliminary evidence for human fecal contamination in corals of the Florida Keys, USA.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Erin K; Jarrell, Jennifer L; Griffin, Dale W; Lukasik, Jerzy; Jacukiewicz, Jennifer; Rose, Joan B

    2002-07-01

    Corals and reef environments are under increased stress from anthropogenic activities, particularly those in the vicinity of heavily populated areas such as the Florida Keys. The potential adverse impacts of wastewater can affect both the environment and human health; however, because of the high decay rate of bacterial indicators in coral reef waters it has been difficult to document the presence of microbial contaminants and to assign risks in these environments. Here we show initial evidence that microorganisms associated with human feces are concentrated along the surface of coral heads relative to the overlying water column in the Florida Keys. Bacterial indicators (fecal coliform bacteria, enterococci or Clostridium perfringens) were detected in 66.7% of the coral surface microlayer (CSM) samples at levels between five and 1000 CFU/100 ml, but were found infrequently and at low numbers in the overlying water column ( < or = 2.5 CFU/100 ml). Similarly, enterovirus nucleic acid sequences, an indicator of human-specific waste, were detected in 93.3% of the CSM samples and only once in the water column by cell culture. Results show that coral mucus may accumulate enteric microorganisms in reef environments, and may indicate a risk to public and environmental health despite low indicator levels in the surrounding water. PMID:12222890

  4. Frequent occurrence of the human-specific Bacteroides fecal marker at an open coast marine beach: relationship to waves, tides and traditional indicators.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Alyson E; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2007-08-01

    Molecular genetic markers, such as those from fecal Bacteroides microorganisms, can link microbial pollution with its source, and have been used successfully in studies of sheltered aquatic environments. Their applicability to wave-driven, open coast environments has not been tested. We assessed the contribution of a tidal outlet to surf zone water quality in coastal Orange County, California, USA by measuring three traditional culture-based fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as well as the human-specific Bacteroides molecular marker (HF marker) at four shoreline locations. We found that total and fecal coliform levels were higher during low tides than high tides at two of the four stations, and that this effect was strongest at the mouth of the tidal lagoon and decayed with distance from the outlet. The HF marker was detected in 23% and 47% of samples from the tidal outlet and 26% and 41% of samples from an adjacent recreational beach in 2005 and 2006 respectively. Surprisingly, the station farthest from the tidal outlet had the highest occurrence of the HF marker. We found no relationship between FIB abundance and occurrence of the HF marker for individual samples, but that when the data were considered together by year, higher FIB abundance was correlated with a higher incidence of the HF marker. DNA sequences of the HF marker recovered from this site were > 99% similar to those recovered from other states and countries, suggesting low global diversity of this marker. These data provide strong support for the idea that multiple time points and physical conditions should be considered when assessing coastal water quality. PMID:17635548

  5. Fecal Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... control than formed stool, it is an added stress that can lead to fecal incontinence. Diagnosis & Tests How will my doctor diagnose the cause of fecal incontinence? Along with a physical exam, your doctor may want to do other tests ...

  6. Metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in human adults: Identification and quantification of urinary and fecal metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Chenard, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Results of kinetic and pharmacokinetic studies have suggested that dietary carnitine is not totally absorbed and is in part degraded in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. To determine the metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in humans, we administered orally a tracer dose of methyl-{sup 3}H L-carnitine with a meal to subjects who had been adapted to a low-carnitine diet or a high-carnitine diet. Urinary and fecal excretion of radiolabeled carnitine and metabolites was monitored for 5 to 11 d following administration of the test dose. Total radioactive metabolites excreted ranged from 13 to 34% (low carnitine diet) and 27 to 46% (high carnitine diet) of the ingested tracer. Major metabolites found were ({sup 3}H)trimethylamine N-oxide (8 to 39% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in urine) and ({sup 3}H)gamma-butyrobetaine (0.09 to 8% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in feces). Urinary excretion of total carnitine was 42 to 95% (high carnitine diet) and 190 to 364% (low carnitine diet) of intake. These results indicate that oral carnitine is 54 to 87% bioavailable from normal Western diets; the percentage of intake absorbed is related to the quantity ingested.

  7. Identification of the sources of fecal coliforms in an urban watershed using antibiotic resistance analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, John E; Jones, David T; Harwood, Valerie J

    2002-10-01

    Bacteria such as fecal coliforms are used as indicators of fecal pollution in natural waters. These bacteria are found in the feces of most wild and domestic animals and thus provide no information as to the source of fecal contamination, yet identification of indicator bacteria sources allows improved risk assessment, remediation, and total daily maximum load (TDML) assessment of environmental waters. This bacterial source tracking study was initiated in order to identify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination in the urban watershed of Stevenson Creek in Clearwater, Florida. Five sites that represent areas where routine monitoring has previously shown high levels of fecal coliforms were sampled over 7 months. Fecal coliforms were enumerated by membrane filtration, and antibiotic resistance analysis was used to "fingerprint" a subset of randomly selected isolates and statistically match them to fingerprints of fecal coliforms from known sources (the library). A field test of the classification accuracy of the library was carried out by isolating fecal coliforms from the soil and waters surrounding a failing onsite wastewater treatment and disposal system (OSTDS). The vast majority of the isolates were classified into the human category. The major sources of fecal pollution in Stevenson Creek over the course of the study were wild animal, human, and, to a lesser extent, dog. Overall, wild animal feces were identified as the dominant source when fecal coliform levels were high, but when fecal coliform levels were low, the dominant source was identified as human. The results of this study demonstrate that the sources of fecal indicator bacteria within one urban watershed can vary substantially over temporal and spatial distances. PMID:12420932

  8. Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverage.

    PubMed

    Odagiri, Mitsunori; Schriewer, Alexander; Daniels, Miles E; Wuertz, Stefan; Smith, Woutrina A; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Jin, Yujie; Torondel, Belen; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Jenkins, Marion W

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to eradicate open defecation and improve sanitation access are unlikely to achieve health benefits unless interventions reduce microbial exposures. This study assessed human fecal contamination and pathogen exposures in rural India, and the effect of increased sanitation coverage on contamination and exposure rates. In a cross-sectional study of 60 villages of a cluster-randomized controlled sanitation trial in Odisha, India, human and domestic animal fecal contamination was measured in community tubewells and ponds (n = 301) and via exposure pathways in homes (n = 354), using Bacteroidales microbial source tracking fecal markers validated in India. Community water sources were further tested for diarrheal pathogens (rotavirus, adenovirus and Vibrio cholerae by quantitative PCR; pathogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex PCR; Cryptosporidium and Giardia by immunomagnetic separation and direct fluorescent antibody microscopy). Exposure pathways in intervention and control villages were compared and relationships with child diarrhea examined. Human fecal markers were rarely detected in tubewells (2.4%, 95%CI: 0.3-4.5%) and ponds (5.6%, 95%CI: 0.8-10.3%), compared to homes (35.4%, 95%CI: 30.4-40.4%). In tubewells, V. cholerae was the most frequently detected pathogen (19.8%, 95%CI: 14.4-25.2%), followed by Giardia (14.8%, 95%CI: 10.0-19.7%). In ponds, Giardia was most often detected (74.5%, 95%CI: 65.7-83.3%), followed by pathogenic E. coli (48.1%, 95%CI: 34.8-61.5%) and rotavirus (44.4%, 95%CI: 34.2-54.7%). At village-level, prevalence of fecal pathogen detection in community drinking water sources was associated with elevated prevalence of child diarrhea within 6 weeks of testing (RR 2.13, 95%CI: 1.25-3.63) while within homes, higher levels of human and animal fecal marker detection were associated with increased risks of subsequent child diarrhea (P = 0.044 and 0.013, respectively). There was no evidence that the intervention, which increased

  9. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Molina, Marirosa; Hunter, Shayla; Cyterski, Mike; Peed, Lindsay A; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Prieto, Lourdes; Shanks, Orin C

    2014-11-01

    Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamination could be present at beaches solely impacted by urban runoff. Accurately estimating risk requires understanding sources, concentrations, and transport mechanisms of microbial contaminants in these environments. By applying microbial source tracking methods and empirical modeling, we assessed the presence and level of human contamination at urban runoff impacted recreational beaches. We also identified environmental parameters and pollution sources that can influence the concentration and transport of culturable and molecular fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in systems impacted solely by urban runoff. Water samples and physico-chemical parameters were collected from shoreline locations from three South Carolina (SC) beaches (five locations per beach) and two Florida (FL) beaches (three locations per beach). Each SC beach was directly impacted by swashes or tidal creeks receiving stormwater runoff from the urbanized area and therefore were designated as swash drain associated (SDA) beaches, while FL beaches were designated as non-swash drain associated (NSDA). Sampling in swash drains (SD; three sites per SD) directly impacting each SC beach was also conducted. Results indicate that although culturable (enterococci) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (EC23S857, Entero1, and GenBac3) FIB concentrations were, on average, higher at SD locations, SDA beaches did not have consistently higher molecular FIB signals compared to NSDA beaches. Both human-associated markers (HF183 and HumM2) were concomitantly found only at SDA beaches. Bacteroidales species-specific qPCR markers (BsteriF1 and BuniF2) identified differences in the Bacteroidales community, depending on beach

  10. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Massart, Francesco; Gherarducci, Giulia; Marchi, Benedetta; Saggese, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics. In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed. In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible. PMID:19578503

  11. Geographic information systems and multivariate analysis to evaluate fecal bacterial pollution in coastal waters of Andaman, India.

    PubMed

    Dheenan, Palaiyaa Sukumaran; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Das, Apurba Kumar; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2016-07-01

    Urbanization of coastal areas in recent years has driven us to consider a new approach for visually delineating sites that are contaminated with fecal bacteria (FB) in the coastal waters of the Andaman Islands in India. Geo-spatial analysis demarcated harbor, settlement, and freshwater/discharge influenced zones as hot spots for FB, while the open sea was demarcated as a cold spot. The land use types, such as developed and agriculture, with more anthropogenic activities increasing the FB counts while open sea showed the least FB. Box whisker plot indicated an increasing FB trend in the coastal waters during monsoon. Furthermore, principal component analysis revealed 67.35%, 78.62% and 70.43% of total variance at Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial bays, respectively. Strong factor loading was observed for depth (0.95), transparency (0.93), dissolved oxygen (0.93) and fecal streptococci (0.85). Distance proximity analysis revealed that fecal contaminations diluted significantly (P < 0.05) at the distance of 2.1 km toward the deeper or open sea water. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of an integrated approach in identifying the sources of fecal contamination and thus helping in better monitoring and management of coastal waters. PMID:27061474

  12. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jan; Birkett, Anne; Hulshof, Toine; Verbeke, Kristin; Gibes, Kernon

    2016-01-01

    Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of <48 h. In those with an initial transit time ≥48 h, transit time was reduced by approximately 30 min per gram of cereal, fruit or vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993. PMID:26950143

  13. Safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing human serum albumin from urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profile.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Chen, Siyuan; Sheng, Yao; Guo, Mingzhang; Liu, Yifei; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2015-02-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice expressing human serum albumin (HSA) is used for non-food purposes; however, its food safety assessment should be conducted due to the probability of accidental mixture with conventional food. In this research, Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing 50% (wt/wt) GM rice expressing HSA or non-GM rice for 90 days. Urine metabolites were detected by (1)H NMR to examine the changes of the metabolites in the dynamic process of metabolism. Fecal bacterial profiles were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to reflect intestinal health. Additionally, short chain fatty acids and fecal enzymes were investigated. The results showed that compared with rats fed the non-GM rice, some significant differences were observed in rats fed with the GM rice; however, these changes were not significantly different from the control diet group. Additionally, the gut microbiota was associated with blood indexes and urine metabolites. In conclusion, the GM rice diet is as safe as the traditional daily diet. Furthermore, urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profiles provide a non-invasive food safety assessment rat model for genetically modified crops that are used for non-food/feed purposes. Fecal bacterial profiles have the potential for predicting the change of blood indexes in future. PMID:25478734

  14. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan; Birkett, Anne; Hulshof, Toine; Verbeke, Kristin; Gibes, Kernon

    2016-03-01

    Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of <48 h. In those with an initial transit time ≥48 h, transit time was reduced by approximately 30 min per gram of cereal, fruit or vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993. PMID:26950143

  15. Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microsporidia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Contact to Human

    PubMed Central

    ASKARI, Zeinab; MIRJALALI, Hamed; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabih; SHOJAEI, Saeideh; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia species are obligatory intracellular agents that can infect all major animal groups including mammals, birds, fishes and insects. Whereas worldwide human infection reports are increasing, the cognition of sources of infection particularly zoonotic transmission could be helpful. We aimed to detect zoonotic microsporidia spore in fecal samples from some animals with close – contact to human. Methods: Overall, 142 fecal samples were collected from animals with closed-contact to human, during 2012-2013. Trichrome – blue staining were performed and DNA was then extracted from samples, identified positive, microscopically. Nested PCR was also carried out with primers targeting SSU rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced. Results: From 142 stool samples, microsporidia spores have been observed microscopically in 15 (10.56%) samples. En. cuniculi was found in the faces of 3 (15%) small white mice and 1 (10%) laboratory rabbits(totally 2.81%). Moreover, E. bieneusi was detected in 3 (10%) samples of sheep, 2 (5.12%) cattle, 1 (10%) rabbit, 3 (11.53%) cats and 2 (11.76%) ownership dogs (totally 7.74%). Phylogenetic analysis showed interesting data. This is the first study in Iran, which identified E. bieneusi and En. Cuniculi in fecal samples of laboratory animals with close – contact to human as well as domesticated animal and analyzed them in phylogenetic tree. Conclusion: E. bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidia species in animals. Our results can also alert us about potentially zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. PMID:26622293

  16. Microbial community analysis and identification of alternative host-specific fecal indicators in fecal and river water samples using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ju-Yong; Park, Hee-Deung; Lee, Kyong-Hee; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2011-08-01

    It is important to know the comprehensive microbial communities of fecal pollution sources and receiving water bodies for microbial source tracking. Pyrosequencing targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate the characteristics of bacterial and Bacteroidales communities in major fecal sources and river waters. Diversity analysis indicated that cow feces had the highest diversities in the bacterial and Bacteroidales group followed by the pig sample, with human feces having the lowest value. The Bacteroidales, one of the potential fecal indicators, totally dominated in the fecal samples accounting for 31%-52% of bacterial sequences, but much less (0.6%) in the river water. Clustering and Venn diagram analyses showed that the human sample had a greater similarity to the pig sample in the bacterial and Bacteroidales communities than to samples from other hosts. Traditional fecal indicators, i.e., Escherichia coli, were detected in the human and river water samples at very low rates and Clostridium perfringens and enterococci were not detected in any samples. Besides the Bacteroidales group, some microorganisms detected in the specific hosts, i.e., Parasutterella excrementihominis, Veillonella sp., Dialister invisus, Megamonas funiformis, and Ruminococcus lactaris for the human and Lactobacillus amylovorus and Atopostipes sp. for the pig, could be used as potential host-specific fecal indicators. These microorganisms could be used as multiple fecal indicators that are not dependent on the absence or presence of a single indicator. Monitoring for multiple indicators that are highly abundant and host-specific would greatly enhance the effectiveness of fecal pollution source tracking. PMID:21887641

  17. ENHANCED CONCENTRATION AND ISOLATION OF CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS OOCYSTS FROM HUMAN FECAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is the causative agent of cyclosporiasis, an emerging infections disease. A new method for the purification of Cycloposra cayetanensis oocysts from fecal matter has been developed, using a modified detachment solution and a Renocal-sucrose gradient sedimen...

  18. Evaluation of optical brightener photodecay characteristics for detection of human fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yiping; Griffith, John F; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2009-05-01

    Detection of optical brighteners by fluorometry combined with ultraviolet light (UV) exposure has been proposed as an inexpensive method for detection of human fecal contamination, but has received limited testing. This study evaluated the approach in southern California by applying it to a variety of detergents, sewage and septage samples from the region, as well as to natural stream water as a negative control. The concept of using UV exposure to differentiate fluorescence from natural organic matter proved valid, as the method produced no false positives. However, the method failed to detect half of the detergents tested in natural stream water at 5 microL/L, due to its conservative thresholds. This study identified a method modification that provides greater sensitivity by taking advantage of differences in the shape of photodecay curves between optical brighteners and natural organic matter. This method modification resulted in detection of all detergents, sewage at 1:10 dilution and septage at 1:100 dilution. Several caveats for its use remain, including our observation that the optical brightener signal degraded rapidly in strong sunlight. Additionally, there was low sensitivity for some environmentally friendly detergents, which does not present a problem on a community basis where a mix of detergents are used, but could be of concern for assessing septic inputs from individual homes. Still, the method is simple to employ in the field, yields rapid results and is useful as a low-cost initial screening tool. PMID:19285334

  19. Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia: 3. In vitro fermentability using human fecal microflora.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Wong, King-Yee; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Peter C K

    2005-11-30

    The in vitro fermentability of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, was investigated and compared with that of the cellulose control. All DF samples (0.5 g each) were fermented in vitro with a human fecal homogenate (10 mL) in a batch system (total volume, 50 mL) under strictly anaerobic conditions (using oxygen reducing enzyme and under argon atmosphere) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. All three novel sclerotial DFs exhibited notably higher dry matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 8.56%; P. rhinocerus, 13.5%; and W. cocos, 53.4%) and organic matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 9.82%; P. rhinocerus, 14.6%; and W. cocos, 57.4%) when compared with those of the cellulose control. Nevertheless, only the W. cocos DF was remarkably degraded to produce considerable amounts of total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) (5.23 mmol/g DF on organic matter basis, with a relatively higher molar ratio of propionate) that lowered the pH of its nonfermented residue to a slightly acidic level (5.89). Variations on the in vitro fermentability among the three sclerotial DFs might mainly be attributed to their different amounts of interwoven hyphae present (different amounts of enzyme inaccessible cell wall components) as well as the possible different structural arrangement (linkage and degree of branching) of their beta-glucans. PMID:16302755

  20. New Real-Time Quantitative PCR Procedure for Quantification of Bifidobacteria in Human Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Tölkkö, Satu; Korpimäki, Teemu; Salminen, Seppo

    2004-01-01

    The application of a real-time quantitative PCR method (5′ nuclease assay), based on the use of a probe labeled at its 5′ end with a stable, fluorescent lanthanide chelate, for the quantification of human fecal bifidobacteria was evaluated. The specificities of the primers and the primer-probe combination were evaluated by conventional PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. The results obtained by real-time PCR were compared with those obtained by fluorescent in situ hybridization, the current gold standard for intestinal microbiota quantification. In general, a good correlation between the two methods was observed. In order to determine the detection limit and the accuracy of the real-time PCR procedure, germfree rat feces were spiked with known amounts of bifidobacteria and analyzed by both methods. The detection limit of the method used in this study was found to be about 5 × 104 cells per g of feces. Both methods, real-time PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization, led to an accurate quantification of the spiked samples with high levels of bifidobacteria, but real-time PCR was more accurate for samples with low levels. We conclude that the real-time PCR procedure described here is a specific, accurate, rapid, and easy method for the quantification of bifidobacteria in feces. PMID:15240297

  1. In Vitro Fermentation of Xylooligosaccharides Produced from Miscanthus × giganteus by Human Fecal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hsu; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C; Dien, Bruce S; Beloshapka, Alison N; Bauer, Laura L; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-13

    Purified xylooligosaccharides from Miscanthus × giganteus (M×G XOS) were used in an in vitro fermentation experiment inoculated with human fecal microbiota. A commercial XOS product and pectin were used as controls. Decreases in pH by 2.3, 2.4, and 2.0 units and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetic acid, 7764.2, 6664.1, and 6387.9 μmol/g; propionic acid, 1006.7, 1089.5, and 661.5 μmol/g; and butyric acid, 955.5, 1252.9, and 917.7 μmol/g) were observed in M×G XOS, commercial XOS, and pectin medium after 12 h of fermentation, respectively. Titers of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Escherichia coli increased when fed all three substrates as monitored by qPCR. There was no significant trend for Clostridium perfringens. During fermentation, M×G XOS was statistically equivalent in performance to the commercial XOS sample as measured by culture acidification and growth of health-promoting bacteria and resulted in the highest SCFA production among the three substrates. PMID:26648520

  2. Resistant Starches Types 2 and 4 Have Differential Effects on the Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Inés; Kim, Jaehyoung; Duffy, Patrick R.; Schlegel, Vicki L.; Walter, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Background To systematically develop dietary strategies based on resistant starch (RS) that modulate the human gut microbiome, detailed in vivo studies that evaluate the effects of different forms of RS on the community structure and population dynamics of the gut microbiota are necessary. The aim of the present study was to gain a community wide perspective of the effects of RS types 2 (RS2) and 4 (RS4) on the fecal microbiota in human individuals. Methods and Findings Ten human subjects consumed crackers for three weeks each containing either RS2, RS4, or native starch in a double-blind, crossover design. Multiplex sequencing of 16S rRNA tags revealed that both types of RS induced several significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbial populations, with differential effects on community structure. RS4 but not RS2 induced phylum-level changes, significantly increasing Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes while decreasing Firmicutes. At the species level, the changes evoked by RS4 were increases in Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Parabacteroides distasonis, while RS2 significantly raised the proportions of Ruminococcus bromii and Eubacterium rectale when compared to RS4. The population shifts caused by RS4 were numerically substantial for several taxa, leading for example, to a ten-fold increase in bifidobacteria in three of the subjects, enriching them to 18–30% of the fecal microbial community. The responses to RS and their magnitudes varied between individuals, and they were reversible and tightly associated with the consumption of RS. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that RS2 and RS4 show functional differences in their effect on human fecal microbiota composition, indicating that the chemical structure of RS determines its accessibility by groups of colonic bacteria. The findings imply that specific bacterial populations could be selectively targeted by well designed functional carbohydrates, but the inter-subject variations in the response to RS

  3. Effects of crude oil, dispersant, and oil-dispersant mixtures on human fecal microbiota in an in vitro culture system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Nam; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Jae; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 raised concerns that dispersant and dispersed oil, as well as crude oil itself, could contaminate shellfish and seafood habitats with hazardous residues that had potential implications for human health and the ecosystem. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the human fecal microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil, Corexit 9500 dispersant, and their combination on human fecal microbial communities, using an in vitro culture test system. Fecal specimens from healthy adult volunteers were made into suspensions, which were then treated with oil, dispersant, or oil-dispersant mixtures under anaerobic conditions in an in vitro culture test system. Perturbations of the microbial community, compared to untreated control cultures, were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing methods. DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis showed that oil-dispersant mixtures reduced the diversity of fecal microbiota from all individuals. Real-time PCR results indicated that the copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in cultures treated with dispersed oil or oil alone were significantly lower than those in control incubations. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes decreased in crude oil-treated and dispersed-oil-treated cultures, while the Proteobacteria increased in cultures treated with dispersed oil. In conclusion, the human fecal microbiota was affected differently by oil and dispersed oil, and the influence of dispersed oil was significantly greater than that of either oil or dispersant alone compared to control cultures. IMPORTANCE There have been concerns whether human health is adversely affected by exposure to spilled crude oil, which contains regulated carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, we determined the effect of BP Deepwater Horizon crude oil and oil dispersant on the

  4. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  5. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in suscep...

  6. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  7. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  8. Biotic interactions and sunlight affect persistence of fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers in the Upper Mississippi River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary quality of recreational waters is assessed by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (Escherichia coli and enterococci); organisms present in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, hence providing no information about the pollution source. Micro...

  9. Ape Conservation Physiology: Fecal Glucocorticoid Responses in Wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following Human Visitation

    PubMed Central

    Muehlenbein, Michael P.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary

  10. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we predicted that i) fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations would be elevated on the day after tourist visitation (indicative of normal stress response to exposure to tourists on the previous day) compared to samples taken before or during tourist visitation in wild, habituated orangutans, and ii) that samples collected from habituated animals would have lower fecal glucocorticoid metabolites than unhabituated animals not used for tourism. Among the habituated animals used for tourism, fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were significantly elevated in samples collected the day after tourist visitation (indicative of elevated cortisol production on the previous day during tourist visitation). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were also lower in the habituated animals compared to their age-matched unhabituated counterparts. We conclude that the habituated animals used for this singular ecotourism project are not chronically stressed, unlike other species/populations with documented permanent alterations in stress responses. Animal temperament, species, the presence of coping/escape mechanisms, social confounders, and variation in amount of tourism may explain differences among previous experiments. Acute alterations in glucocorticoid measures in wildlife exposed to tourism must be interpreted conservatively. While permanently altered stress responses can be detrimental, preliminary results

  11. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  12. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  13. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  14. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters. PMID:26769702

  15. Human exposure to pollutants in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. )

    1992-07-01

    Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

  16. Water pollution and human health in China.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C; Maurer, C; Wang, Y; Xue, S; Davis, D L

    1999-01-01

    China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090702

  17. Impact of population and latrines on fecal contamination of ponds in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Knappett, Peter S K; Escamilla, Veronica; Layton, Alice; McKay, Larry D; Emch, Michael; Williams, Daniel E; Huq, R; Alam, J; Farhana, Labony; Mailloux, Brian J; Ferguson, Andy; Sayler, Gary S; Ahmed, Kazi M; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    A majority of households in Bangladesh rely on pond water for hygiene. Exposure to pond water fecal contamination could therefore still contribute to diarrheal disease despite the installation of numerous tubewells for drinking. The objectives of this study are to determine the predominant sources (human or livestock) of fecal pollution in ponds and examine the association between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and E. coli, Bacteroidales and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation spatial data were collected and measured against pond fecal contamination. Humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds according to Bacteroidales measurements. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (up to 10⁶ Most Probable Number (MPN) of culturable E. coli per 100 mL). Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.05) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines (visible effluent or open pits) within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). Water in the vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination attributable primarily to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent, to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is derived from human waste, continued use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural South Asia. PMID:21632095

  18. Impact of Population and Latrines on Fecal Contamination of Ponds in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; Escamilla, Veronica; Layton, Alice; McKay, Larry D.; Emch, Michael; Williams, Daniel E.; Huq, Md. R.; Alam, Md. J.; Farhana, Labony; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andy; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A majority of households in Bangladesh rely on pond water for hygiene. Exposure to pond water fecal contamination could therefore still contribute to diarrheal disease despite the installation of numerous tubewells for drinking. The objectives of this study are to determine the predominant sources (human or livestock) of fecal pollution in ponds and examine the association between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and E. coli, Bacteroidales and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation spatial data were collected and measured against pond fecal contamination. Humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds according to Bacteroidales measurements. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (up to 106 Most Probable Number (MPN) of culturable E. coli per 100 mL). Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.05) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines (visible effluent or open pits) within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). Water in the vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination attributable primarily to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is derived from human waste, continued use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural South Asia. PMID:21632095

  19. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from an Urban Lake Receiving Water from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Mexico City: Fecal Pollution and Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Irma; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Espinosa, Norma; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    The presence of enteric bacteria in water bodies is a cause of public health concerns, either by directly causing water- and food-borne diseases, or acting as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance determinants. Water is used for crop irrigation; and sediments and aquatic plants are used as fertilizing supplements and soil conditioners. In this work, the bacterial load of several micro-environments of the urban lake of Xochimilco, in Mexico City, was characterized. We found a differential distribution of enteric bacteria between the water column, sediment, and the rhizoplane of aquatic plants, with human fecal bacteria concentrating in the sediment, pointing to the need to assess such bacterial load for each micro-environment, for regulatory agricultural purposes, instead of only the one of the water, as is currently done. Resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was common among Escherichia coli isolates, but was also differentially distributed, being again higher in sediment isolates. A distinct distribution of chloramphenicol minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) among these isolates suggests the presence of a local selective pressure favoring lower MICs than those of isolates from treated water. Fecal bacteria of human origin, living in water bodies along with their antibiotic resistance genes, could be much more common than typically considered, and pose a higher health risk, if assessments are only made on the water column of such bodies. PMID:26198413

  20. Basin-Wide Analysis of the Dynamics of Fecal Contamination and Fecal Source Identification in Tillamook Bay, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Orin C.; Nietch, Christopher; Simonich, Michael; Younger, Melissa; Reynolds, Don; Field, Katharine G.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate spatial and temporal dynamics in source-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic marker data across a watershed; to compare these dynamics to fecal indicator counts, general measurements of water quality, and climatic forces; and to identify geographic areas of intense exposure to specific sources of contamination. Samples were collected during a 2-year period in the Tillamook basin in Oregon at 30 sites along five river tributaries and in Tillamook Bay. We performed Bacteroidales PCR assays with general, ruminant-source-specific, and human-source-specific primers to identify fecal sources. We determined the Escherichia coli most probable number, temperature, turbidity, and 5-day precipitation. Climate and water quality data collectively supported a rainfall runoff pattern for microbial source input that mirrored the annual precipitation cycle. Fecal sources were statistically linked more closely to ruminants than to humans; there was a 40% greater probability of detecting a ruminant source marker than a human source marker across the basin. On a sample site basis, the addition of fecal source tracking data provided new information linking elevated fecal indicator bacterial loads to specific point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution in the basin. Inconsistencies in E. coli and host-specific marker trends suggested that the factors that control the quantity of fecal indicators in the water column are different than the factors that influence the presence of Bacteroidales markers at specific times of the year. This may be important if fecal indicator counts are used as a criterion for source loading potential in receiving waters. PMID:16885307

  1. Basin-wide analysis of the dynamics of fecal contamination and fecal source identification in Tillamook Bay, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Nietch, Christopher; Simonich, Michael; Younger, Melissa; Reynolds, Don; Field, Katharine G

    2006-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate spatial and temporal dynamics in source-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic marker data across a watershed; to compare these dynamics to fecal indicator counts, general measurements of water quality, and climatic forces; and to identify geographic areas of intense exposure to specific sources of contamination. Samples were collected during a 2-year period in the Tillamook basin in Oregon at 30 sites along five river tributaries and in Tillamook Bay. We performed Bacteroidales PCR assays with general, ruminant-source-specific, and human-source-specific primers to identify fecal sources. We determined the Escherichia coli most probable number, temperature, turbidity, and 5-day precipitation. Climate and water quality data collectively supported a rainfall runoff pattern for microbial source input that mirrored the annual precipitation cycle. Fecal sources were statistically linked more closely to ruminants than to humans; there was a 40% greater probability of detecting a ruminant source marker than a human source marker across the basin. On a sample site basis, the addition of fecal source tracking data provided new information linking elevated fecal indicator bacterial loads to specific point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution in the basin. Inconsistencies in E. coli and host-specific marker trends suggested that the factors that control the quantity of fecal indicators in the water column are different than the factors that influence the presence of Bacteroidales markers at specific times of the year. This may be important if fecal indicator counts are used as a criterion for source loading potential in receiving waters. PMID:16885307

  2. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  3. Distribution of Genes Encoding the Trypsin-Dependent Lantibiotic Ruminococcin A among Bacteria Isolated from Human Fecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Marcille, F.; Gomez, A.; Joubert, P.; Ladiré, M.; Veau, G.; Clara, A.; Gavini, F.; Willems, A.; Fons, M.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen bacterial strains capable of producing a trypsin-dependent antimicrobial substance active against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from human fecal samples of various origins (from healthy adults and children, as well as from adults with chronic pouchitis). Identification of these strains showed that they belonged to Ruminococcus gnavus, Clostridium nexile, and Ruminococcus hansenii species or to new operational taxonomic units, all from the Clostridium coccoides phylogenetic group. In hybridization experiments with a probe specific for the structural gene encoding the trypsin-dependent lantibiotic ruminococcin A (RumA) produced by R. gnavus, seven strains gave a positive response. All of them harbored three highly conserved copies of rumA-like genes. The deduced peptide sequence was identical to or showed one amino acid difference from the hypothetical precursor of RumA. Our results indicate that the rumA-like genes have been disseminated among R. gnavus and phylogenetically related strains that can make up a significant part of the human fecal microbiota. PMID:12089024

  4. Isolation and maintenance of Balantidium coli (Malmsteim, 1857) cultured from fecal samples of pigs and non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira; Uchôa, Claudia M Antunes; Pissinatti, Alcides; Ferreira Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Dib, Lais Verdan; Azevedo, Eduarda Peixoto; de Siqueira, Mayara Perlingeiro; Cardozo, Matheus Lessa; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2015-06-15

    Balantidium coli is a protozoa that can determine dysentery in humans, pigs and non-human primates having zoonotic potential. The lack of standardization in isolation and maintenance hinders the development of research on its biology and epidemiology. This study is aimed to standardize the isolation and maintenance of this parasite from animal feces, in culture medium, Pavlova modified. From 2012 to 2014, 1905 fecal samples were collected from captive animals of Rio de Janeiro. Were selected for isolation samples with a minimum of 10 trophozoites and/or 30 cysts of B. coli, totaling 88 pigs, 26 Cynomolgus and 90 rhesus macaques. In the presence of cysts, the sample was homogenized in saline solution, 500 μL was removed and inoculated into culture medium. The material that contained trophozoites the inoculum was made from 240 μL of fecal solution. All inoculate tubes with the subcultures were kept at 36°C, and sterile rice starch was always added to the medium. The parasites isolate from pigs, 34%, and from Cynomolgus 38.4% were maintained in vitro for a period of more than 24 months. These procedures proved to be adequate for isolation and maintenance of B. coli from different animals, they were found to be inexpensive and easy to perform. PMID:25920329

  5. Influence of Sterilized Human Fecal Extract on the Sensitivity of Salmonella enterica ATCC 13076 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 to Enrofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Youngbeom; Stuckey, Ryan; Sung, Kidon; Rafii, Fatemeh; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    There is much debate on whether continuous exposure of commensal bacteria and potential pathogens residing in the human intestinal tract to low levels of antimicrobial agents from treated food animals pose a public health concern. To investigate antimicrobial effects on bacteria under colonic conditions, we studied resistance development in Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes exposed to enrofloxacin in the presence of fecal extract. The bacteria were incubated at 37 °C in Mueller-Hinton broth, with and without 0.01~0.5 μg/mL enrofloxacin, in the presence and absence of sucrose, and with 1% or 2.5% filter-sterilized fecal extract, for three passages. In the second and third passages, only the bacteria incubated in the media containing sterilized fecal extract grew in 0.5 μg/mL of enrofloxacin. Fecal extract (1% and 2.5%) decreased the sensitivity of S. enterica to enrofloxacin in the medium containing the efflux pump inhibitors reserpine and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and affected the accumulation of ethidium bromide (EtBr) in this bacterium. Enrofloxacin (0.06 µg/mL) and fecal extract altered the composition of fatty acids in S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. We conclude that fecal extract decreased the susceptibilities of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes to concentrations of enrofloxacin higher than the MIC and resulted in rapid resistance selection. PMID:27029316

  6. The approach to sample acquisition and its impact on the derived human fecal microbiome and VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robin D; Navarro, Karl; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Pat; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the importance of the microbiota in maintaining a healthy state, as well as promoting disease states. The intestinal microbiota exerts its effects primarily through its metabolites, and metabolomics investigations have begun to evaluate the diagnostic and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) isolated from human feces, enabled by specialized sampling methods such as headspace solid-phase microextraction (hSPME). The approach to stool sample collection is an important consideration that could potentially introduce bias and affect the outcome of a fecal metagenomic and metabolomic investigation. To address this concern, a comparison of endoscopically collected (in vivo) and home collected (ex vivo) fecal samples was performed, revealing slight variability in the derived microbiomes. In contrast, the VOC metabolomes differ widely between the home collected and endoscopy collected samples. Additionally, as the VOC extraction profile is hyperbolic, with short extraction durations more vulnerable to variation than extractions continued to equilibrium, a second goal of our investigation was to ascertain if hSPME-based fecal metabolomics studies might be biased by the extraction duration employed. As anticipated, prolonged extraction (18 hours) results in the identification of considerably more metabolites than short (20 minute) extractions. A comparison of the metabolomes reveals several analytes deemed unique to a cohort with the 20 minute extraction, but found common to both cohorts when the VOC extraction was performed for 18 hours. Moreover, numerous analytes perceived to have significant fold change with a 20 minute extraction were found insignificant in fold change with the prolonged extraction, underscoring the potential for bias associated with a 20 minute hSPME. PMID:24260553

  7. The Approach to Sample Acquisition and Its Impact on the Derived Human Fecal Microbiome and VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Navarro, Karl; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Pat; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the importance of the microbiota in maintaining a healthy state, as well as promoting disease states. The intestinal microbiota exerts its effects primarily through its metabolites, and metabolomics investigations have begun to evaluate the diagnostic and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) isolated from human feces, enabled by specialized sampling methods such as headspace solid-phase microextraction (hSPME). The approach to stool sample collection is an important consideration that could potentially introduce bias and affect the outcome of a fecal metagenomic and metabolomic investigation. To address this concern, a comparison of endoscopically collected (in vivo) and home collected (ex vivo) fecal samples was performed, revealing slight variability in the derived microbiomes. In contrast, the VOC metabolomes differ widely between the home collected and endoscopy collected samples. Additionally, as the VOC extraction profile is hyperbolic, with short extraction durations more vulnerable to variation than extractions continued to equilibrium, a second goal of our investigation was to ascertain if hSPME-based fecal metabolomics studies might be biased by the extraction duration employed. As anticipated, prolonged extraction (18 hours) results in the identification of considerably more metabolites than short (20 minute) extractions. A comparison of the metabolomes reveals several analytes deemed unique to a cohort with the 20 minute extraction, but found common to both cohorts when the VOC extraction was performed for 18 hours. Moreover, numerous analytes perceived to have significant fold change with a 20 minute extraction were found insignificant in fold change with the prolonged extraction, underscoring the potential for bias associated with a 20 minute hSPME. PMID:24260553

  8. The fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J., (Edited By); Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  9. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

  10. Development and testing of real-time PCR assays for determining fecal loading and source identification (cattle, human, etc.) in surface water and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, L. D.; Layton, A.; Gentry, R.

    2004-12-01

    A multi-disciplinary group of researchers at the University of Tennessee is developing and testing a series of microbial assay methods based on real-time PCR to detect fecal bacterial concentrations and host sources in water samples. Real-time PCR is an enumeration technique based on the unique and conserved nucleic acid sequences present in all organisms. The first research task was development of an assay (AllBac) to detect total amount of Bacteroides, which represents up to 30 percent of fecal mass. Subsequent assays were developed to detect Bacteroides from cattle (BoBac) and humans (HuBac) using 16sRNA genes based on DNA sequences in the national GenBank, as well as sequences from local fecal samples. The assays potentially have significant advantages over conventional bacterial source tracking methods because: 1. unlike traditional enumeration methods, they do not require bacterial cultivation; 2. there are no known non-fecal sources of Bacteroides; 3. the assays are quantitative with results for total concentration and for each species expressed in mg/l; and 4. they show little regional variation within host species, meaning that they do not require development of extensive local gene libraries. The AllBac and BoBac assays have been used in a study of fecal contamination in a small rural watershed (Stock Creek) near Knoxville, TN, and have proven useful in identification of areas where cattle represent a significant fecal input and in development of BMPs. It is expected that these types of assays (and future assays for birds, hogs, etc.) could have broad applications in monitoring fecal impacts from Animal Feeding Operations, as well as from wildlife and human sources.

  11. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  12. Human exposure to endotoxins and fecal indicators originating from water features.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Heederik, D D J; Leenen, E J T M; de Roda Husman, A M; Spithoven, J J G; van Knapen, F

    2014-03-15

    Exposure to contaminated aerosols and water originating from water features may pose public health risks. Endotoxins in air and water and fecal bacteria in water of water features were measured as markers for exposure to microbial cell debris and enteric pathogens, respectively. Information was collected about wind direction, wind force, distance to the water feature, the height of the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. The mean concentration of endotoxins in air nearby and in water of 31 water features was 10 endotoxin units (EU)/m(3) (Geometric Mean (GM), range 0-85.5 EU/m(3) air) and 773 EU/mL (GM, range 9-18,170 EU/mL water), respectively. Such mean concentrations may be associated with respiratory health effects. The water quality of 26 of 88 water features was poor when compared to requirements for recreational water in the Bathing Water Directive 2006/7/EC. Concentrations greater than 1000 colony forming units (cfu) Escherichia coli per 100 mL and greater than 400 cfu intestinal enterococci per 100 mL increase the probability of acquiring gastrointestinal health complaints. Regression analyses showed that the endotoxin concentration in air was significantly influenced by the concentration of endotoxin in water, the distance to the water feature and the tangibility of water spray. Exposure to air and water near water features was shown to lead to exposure to endotoxins and fecal bacteria. The potential health risks resulting from such exposure to water features may be estimated by a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), however, such QMRA would require quantitative data on pathogen concentrations, exposure volumes and dose-response relationships. The present study provides estimates for aerosolisation ratios that can be used as input for QMRA to quantify exposure and to determine infection risks from exposure to water features. PMID:24231029

  13. Human-Associated Fecal Quantitative Polymerase Chain ReactionMeasurements and Simulated Risk of Gastrointestinal Illness in Recreational Waters Contaminated with Raw Sewage

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to estimate the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness associated with swimming in recreational waters containing different concentrations of human-associated fecal qPCR markers from raw sewage– HF183 and HumM2. The volume/volu...

  14. Human-associated fecal qPCR measurements and predicted risk of gastrointestinal illness in recreational waters contaminated with raw sewage

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to estimate the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness associated with swimming in recreational waters containing different concentrations of human-associated fecal qPCR markers from raw sewage– HF183 and HumM2. The volume/volu...

  15. Fecal Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Fecal Incontinence Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  16. Identification of Bacterial DNA Markers for the Detection of Human and Cattle Fecal Pollution - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes. However, the use of these approaches to discern key genomic differences between natural microbial communities remains prohibitively expensive for most laborato...

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN AND CATTLE FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes. However, the use of these approaches to discern key genomic differences between natural microbial communities remains prohibitively expensive for most laborato...

  18. Detection of human and animal sources of pollution by microbial and chemical methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-indicator approach comprising Enterococcus, bacterial source tracking (BST), and sterol analysis was tested for pollution source identification. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water sites tested. Enterococcus faecium was the dominant species in aged litter samples from p...

  19. Relative decay of fecal indicator bacteria and human-associated markers: a microcosm study simulating wastewater input into seawater and freshwater.

    PubMed

    Jeanneau, L; Solecki, O; Wéry, N; Jardé, E; Gourmelon, M; Communal, P-Y; Jadas-Hécart, A; Caprais, M-P; Gruau, G; Pourcher, A-M

    2012-02-21

    Fecal contaminations of inland and coastal waters induce risks to human health and economic losses. To improve water management, specific markers have been developed to differentiate between sources of contamination. This study investigates the relative decay of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, Escherichia coli and enterococci) and six human-associated markers (two bacterial markers: Bacteroidales HF183 (HF183) and Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BifAd); one viral marker: genogroup II F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH II); three chemical markers: caffeine and two fecal stanol ratios) in freshwater and seawater microcosms seeded with human wastewater. These experiments were performed in darkness, at 20 °C and under aerobic conditions. The modeling of the decay curves allows us (i) to compare FIB and markers and (ii) to classify markers according to their persistence in seawater (FRNAPH II < HF183, stanol ratios < BifAd, caffeine) and in freshwater (HF183, stanol ratios < FRNAPH II < BifAd < caffeine). Although those results depend on the experimental conditions, this study represents a necessary step to develop and validate an interdisciplinary toolbox for the investigation of the sources of fecal contaminations. PMID:22236067

  20. Fecal Microbiomes of Non-Human Primates in Western Uganda Reveal Species-Specific Communities Largely Resistant to Habitat Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    McCORD, ALEIA I.; CHAPMAN, COLIN A.; WENY, GEOFFREY; TUMUKUNDE, ALEX; HYEROBA, DAVID; KLOTZ, KELLY; KOBLINGS, AVERY S.; MBORA, DAVID N.M.; CREGGER, MELISSA; WHITE, BRYAN A.; LEIGH, STEVEN R.; GOLDBERG, TONY L.

    2014-01-01

    Primate gastrointestinal microbial communities are becoming increasingly appreciated for their relevance to comparative medicine and conservation, but the factors that structure primate “microbiomes” remain controversial. This study examined a community of primates in Kibale National Park, Uganda, to assess the relative importance of host species and location in structuring gastrointestinal microbiomes. Fecal samples were collected from primates in intact forest and from primates in highly disturbed forest fragments. People and livestock living nearby were also included, as was a geographically distant population of related red colobus in Kenya. A culture-free microbial community fingerprinting technique was used to analyze fecal microbiomes from 124 individual red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus), 100 individual black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), 111 individual red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius), 578 human volunteers, and 364 domestic animals, including cattle (Bos indicus and B. indicus × B. taurus crosses), goats (Caprus hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Microbiomes sorted strongly by host species, and forest fragmentation did not alter this pattern. Microbiomes of Kenyan red colobus sorted distinctly from microbiomes of Ugandan red colobus, but microbiomes from these two red colobus populations clustered more closely with each other than with any other species. Microbiomes from red colobus and black-and-white colobus were more differentiated than would be predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness of these two species, perhaps reflecting heretofore underappreciated differences in digestive physiology between the species. Within Kibale, social group membership influenced intra-specific variation among microbiomes. However, intra-specific variation was higher among primates in forest fragments than among primates in intact forest, perhaps reflecting the physical separation of fragments. These results suggest that, in this

  1. Conclusions and future use of fecal indicator bacteria for monitoring water quality and protecting human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    A summary of the focus and the recurring theme of the book is presented in this chapter. It includes the use of faecal bacteria as an indicator of faecal pollution and water quality, ubiquity of faecal bacteria, and sources and movement of faecal bacteria in the environment.

  2. Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Janwan, Penchom; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2011-12-01

    Human opisthorchiasis caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is an endemic disease in Southeast Asian countries including the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand. Infection with the soil-transmitted roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis is an important problem worldwide. In some areas, both parasitic infections are reported as co-infections. A duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR merged with melting curve analysis was developed for the rapid detection of O. viverrini and S. stercoralis in human fecal samples. Duplex real-time FRET PCR is based on fluorescence melting curve analysis of a hybrid of amplicons generated from two genera of DNA elements: the 162 bp pOV-A6 DNA sequence specific to O. viverrini and the 244 bp 18S rRNA sequence specific to S. stercoralis, and two pairs of specific fluorophore-labeled probes. Both O. viverrini and S. stercoralis can be differentially detected in infected human fecal samples by this process through their different fluorescence channels and melting temperatures. Detection limit of the method was as little as two O. viverrini eggs and four S. stercoralis larvae in 100 mg of fecal sample. The assay could distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of negative fecal samples and fecal samples with other parasite materials, as well as from the DNA of human leukocytes and other control parasites. The technique showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The introduced duplex real-time FRET PCR can reduce labor time and reagent costs and is not prone to carry over contamination. The method is important for simultaneous detection especially in areas where both parasites overlap incidence and is useful as the screening tool in the returning travelers and immigrants to industrialized countries where number of samples in the diagnostic units will become increasing. PMID:21537984

  3. Contamination of nonylphenolic compounds in creek water, wastewater treatment plant effluents, and sediments from Lake Shihwa and vicinity, Korea: Comparison with fecal pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Minkyu; Furlong, Edward T.; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2011-01-01

    Nonylphenolic compounds (NPs), coprostanol (COP), and cholestanol, major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewaters, were analyzed in creek water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and sediment samples from artificial Lake Shihwa and its vicinity, one of the most industrialized regions in Korea. We also determined mass discharge of NPs and COP, a fecal sterol, into the lake, to understand the linkage between discharge and sediment contamination. Total NP (the sum of nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates) were 0.32–875 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.61–87.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 29.3–230 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. Concentrations of COP were 0.09–19.0 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.11–44.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 2.51–438 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. The spatial distributions of NPs in creeks and sediments from the inshore region were different from those of COP, suggesting that Lake Shihwa contamination patterns from industrial effluents differ from those from domestic effluents. The mass discharge from the combined outfall of the WWTPs, located in the offshore region, was 2.27 kg d-1 for NPs and 1.00 kg d-1 for COP, accounting for 91% and 95% of the total discharge into Lake Shihwa, respectively. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP in sediments were found in samples at sites near the submarine outfall of the WWTPs, indicating that the submarine outfall is an important point source of wastewater pollution in Lake Shihwa.

  4. Human Activity and Pollution in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, H.-F.; Shirsat, S. V.; Podzun, R.

    2009-04-01

    A regional climate chemistry model is used to determine the level of pollution of the Antarctic continent due to anthropogenic and natural emission of sulphur species. Based on an emission inventory for the year 2004/2005 including emissions from energy use and ground traffic at and between Antarctic research stations, flight activity, tourist and scientific ship operations, and emissions from the Mt. Erebus volcano, atmospheric concentration and deposition rates of sulphur species and black carbon were simulated at 0.5 degree resolution for the whole Antarctic continent. The biggest anthropogenic source of pollution is ship operations. These concentrate near the Antarctic Peninsula and close to the big scientific stations at Queen Maud Land and in the Ross sea area. The prevailing winds guarantee that most of the anthropogenic emissions from sources near the coast will be blown to lower latitudes and do not affect the continent. While atmospheric concentrations over vast areas remain extremely low, in some places locally concentrations and deposition rates are reached that may be detectable by in-situ measurements and give rise to concern. Especially at the Peninsula atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of sulphur and soot are dominated by ship emissions. The largest part of shipping activity in this region is from tourist ships, a strongly increasing business. The by far biggest source of sulphur species in Antarctica is the Mt. Erebus volcano. It is also the only source that remains equally strong in polar winter. However, due to its high altitude and the long life time of SO2, especially in winter resulting in long range transport and dilution, Erebus emissions contribute relatively little to deposition of sulphur in the most anthropogenic polluted areas while they dominate the sulphur deposition in central Antarctica.

  5. Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glassmeyer, S.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Cahill, J.D.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Kryak, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze for these bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 μg/L at the reference location to 97.7 μg/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01−1.0 μg/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5−38 μg/L. The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend:  they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge.

  6. Fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids and bile acids as determinants of colonic mucosal cell proliferation in humans.

    PubMed

    Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna; Salvadori, Maddalena; Morozzi, Guido; Fabiani, Roberto; Cresci, Alberto; Orpianesi, Carla; Trallori, Giacomo; Russo, Antonio; Palli, Domenico

    2002-01-01

    We studied the correlation between fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), bile acids (BA), and colonic mucosal proliferation in humans on a free diet. Subjects [n = 43: 27 men and 16 women; 61 +/- 7 and 59 +/- 6 (SE) yr old, respectively] were outpatients who previously underwent resection of at least two sporadic colon polyps. Mucosal proliferation was determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation in vitro in three colorectal biopsies obtained without cathartics and was expressed as labeling index (LI). BA were analyzed in feces by mass spectrometry and SCFA by gas chromatography. We found that increasing levels of BA in feces did not correlate with higher LI. On the contrary, higher levels of SCFA were significantly associated with lower LI in the colonic mucosa (P for trend = 0.02). In conclusion, in humans on a free diet, intestinal proliferation seems to be regulated by the levels of SCFA in feces and not by BA. Because a lower intestinal proliferation is associated with a decreased colon cancer risk, treatments or diets that increase colonic levels of SCFA might be beneficial for colonic mucosa. PMID:12416258

  7. Molecular Monitoring of the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Human Subjects during Administration of Lactulose and Saccharomyces boulardii

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutte, Tom; De Preter, Vicky; De Brandt, Evie; Verbeke, Kristin; Swings, Jean; Huys, Geert

    2006-01-01

    Diet is a major factor in maintaining a healthy human gastrointestinal tract, and this has triggered the development of functional foods containing a probiotic and/or prebiotic component intended to improve the host's health via modulation of the intestinal microbiota. In this study, a long-term placebo-controlled crossover feeding study in which each subject received several treatments was performed to monitor the effect of a prebiotic substrate (i.e., lactulose), a probiotic organism (i.e., Saccharomyces boulardii), and their synbiotic combination on the fecal microbiota of three groups of 10 healthy human subjects differing in prebiotic dose and/or intake of placebo versus synbiotic. For this purpose, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to detect possible changes in the overall bacterial composition using the universal V3 primer and to detect possible changes at the subpopulation level using group-specific primers targeting the Bacteroides fragilis subgroup, the genus Bifidobacterium, the Clostridium lituseburense group (cluster XI), and the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group (cluster XIVa). Although these populations remained fairly stable based on DGGE profiling, one pronounced change was observed in the universal fingerprint profiles after lactulose ingestion. Band position analysis and band sequencing revealed that a band appearing or intensifying following lactulose administration could be assigned to the species Bifidobacterium adolescentis. Subsequent analysis with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) indicated a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in total bifidobacteria in one of the three subject groups after lactulose administration, whereas a similar but nonsignificant trend was observed in the other two groups. Combined RT-PCR results from two subject groups indicated a borderline significant increase (P = 0.074) of B. adolescentis following lactulose intake. The probiotic yeast S

  8. Comparison of Fecal Antigen Detection Using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay With the Auramine Phenol Staining Method for Diagnosis of Human Cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Rasool; Maghsood, Amir Hossein; Safari, Marzieh; Latifi, Milad; Fallah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fecal antigen detection using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and oocyst detection using auramine phenol (AP) staining methods, are told to be more sensitive compared to other conventional methods, for diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antigen-detection capacity in the stool specimens using ELISA and oocyst detection by AP staining methods, for the diagnosis of human cryptosporidiosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 228 fecal samples were collected from residents of rural areas of Hamadan, West of Iran. Each fecal sample was divided into two parts, one kept frozen at -20˚C for Ag-capture ELISA and the other in 10% formalin for the AP staining method. Cryptosporidium Ag-detection ELISA procedure was performed according to the manual of the manufacturer. The preserved samples concentrated using the formalin-ether concentration technique were stained with AP and then investigated under florescent microscopy. Results: Eight (3.5%) and three (1.3%) out of 228 fecal samples were positive for Cryptosporidium infection by ELISA and AP staining methods, respectively. Cryptosporidium Ag-detection using ELISA showed an increased frequency of the infection, compared to the AP staining method (P = 0.062). Conclusions: For epidemiological studies and diagnostic purposes of the Cryptosporidium infection, especially in asymptomatic individuals, Ag-detection ELISA is an easy to perform and accurate method, compared to other conventional microscopic methods. PMID:25825642

  9. Influence of seasonal environmental variables on the distribution of presumptive fecal Coliforms around an Antarctic research station.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kevin A

    2003-08-01

    Factors affecting fecal microorganism survival and distribution in the Antarctic marine environment include solar radiation, water salinity, temperature, sea ice conditions, and fecal input by humans and local wildlife populations. This study assessed the influence of these factors on the distribution of presumptive fecal coliforms around Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer and winter of February 1999 to September 1999. Each factor had a different degree of influence depending on the time of year. In summer (February), although the station population was high, presumptive fecal coliform concentrations were low, probably due to the biologically damaging effects of solar radiation. However, summer algal blooms reduced penetration of solar radiation into the water column. By early winter (April), fecal coliform concentrations were high, due to increased fecal input by migrant wildlife, while solar radiation doses were low. By late winter (September), fecal coliform concentrations were high near the station sewage outfall, as sea ice formation limited solar radiation penetration into the sea and prevented wind-driven water circulation near the outfall. During this study, environmental factors masked the effect of station population numbers on sewage plume size. If sewage production increases throughout the Antarctic, environmental factors may become less significant and effective sewage waste management will become increasingly important. These findings highlight the need for year-round monitoring of fecal coliform distribution in Antarctic waters near research stations to produce realistic evaluations of sewage pollution persistence and dispersal. PMID:12902283

  10. Comparison of bile acid synthesis determined by isotope dilution versus fecal acidic sterol output in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Duane, W.C.; Holloway, D.E.; Hutton, S.W.; Corcoran, P.J.; Haas, N.A.

    1982-05-01

    Fecal acidic sterol output has been found to be much lower than bile acid synthesis determined by isotope dilution. Because of this confusing discrepancy, we compared these 2 measurements done simultaneously on 13 occasions in 5 normal volunteers. In contrast to previous findings, bile acid synthesis by the Lindstedt isotope dilution method averaged 16.3% lower than synthesis simultaneously determined by fecal acidic sterol output (95% confidence limit for the difference - 22.2 to -10.4%). When one-sample determinations of bile acid pools were substituted for Lindstedt pools, bile acid synthesis by isotope dilution averaged 5.6% higher than synthesis by fecal acidic sterol output (95% confidence limits -4.9 to 16.1%). These data indicate that the 2 methods yield values in reasonably close agreement with one another. If anything, fecal acidic sterol outputs are slightly higher than synthesis by isotope dilution.

  11. Characterization of Clostridium difficile isolates from human fecal samples and retail meat from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Jyotika B; Very, Katherine J; Williams, Jen L; Hegarty, John P; Stewart, David B; Lumadue, Jeanne; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2014-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and characterize C. difficile isolates from human stool and retail grocery meat samples. Human stool samples (n=317) were obtained from a clinical laboratory and meat samples (n=303) were collected from 8 retail grocery stores from October 2011 through September 2012 from Centre County of Pennsylvania and were examined for C. difficile. C. difficile was isolated from 16.7% of stool samples (n=317) and 6.9%, 11.5%, 14.5%, and 7.8% of beef (n=72), pork (n=78), turkey (n=76), and chicken (n=77) samples, respectively. Six different toxin gene profiles were detected in all human and meat isolates of C. difficile based on the presence or absence of toxin genes tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA and cdtB. Interestingly, 75.6% of the human C. difficile isolates lacked any deletion in the tcdC gene (139-bp), whereas a 39-bp deletion was observed in 61.3% of the C. difficile strains isolated from meat samples. C. difficile from meat samples were more susceptible to clindamycin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and metronidazole than C. difficile isolates from human samples. Twenty-five different ribotypes were identified in human and meat C. difficile isolates. In conclusion, significant genotypic and phenotypic differences were observed between human and meat isolates of C. difficile; however, a few C. difficile isolates from meat-in particular ribotypes 078, PA01, PA05, PA16, and PA22 with unique profiles (toxin gene, tcdC gene size and antimicrobial resistance profiles)-were similar to human C. difficile isolates. PMID:25269079

  12. Protecting drinking water: Rapid detection of human fecal contamination, injured and non-culturable pathogenic microbes in water systems

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C.; Nivens, D.E.; Arrage, A.A.; Appelgate, B.M.; Reardon, S.R.; Sayler, G.S.

    1996-05-01

    The rapid, potentially-automatable extraction of filter retentates has allowed quantitative detection of the unique biomarker for human fecal contamination, coprostanol, and the signature lipid biomarkers for total cellular biomass, viable cellular biomass, lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin). This method may be integrated with DNA based gene probe analysis for specific strains and enzyme activities. Not only does the analysis provide for detection of injured and non-culturable microbes but it also provides biomarkers characteristic of microbes exposed to biocides and disinfectants that can be utilized to monitor effectiveness of water mitigation/treatment. The analysis schemes involve filtration of the water or direct extraction of biofilms in sidestream chambers, supercritical fluid and/or liquid extraction, derivatization, and analysis of ``signature`` patterns by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Signature lipid biomarkers of interest are diglycerides, steroids including coprostanol and its isomers, poly-{beta}- hydroxyalcanoates (PHA), phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA), and the lipopolysaccharide lipid A hydroxy fatty acids. PLFA found in polar lipid fractions estimate total viable cellular biomass, whereas the total cellular biomass can be calculated from diglyceride/phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids ratios. Furthermore, direct evidence of mitigation/treatment effectiveness can be ascertained by detection of diglycerides, respiratory quinones, PHA, and PLFA markers indicative of metabolic stress and toxicity such as trans monoenoic PLFA as well as oxirane and dicarboxylic fatty acids derived from the PLFA.

  13. Evaluation of genetic markers from the 16S rRNA gene V2 region for use in quantitative detection of selected Bacteroidales species and human fecal waste by real time PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular methods for rapidly quantifying defined Bacteroidales species from the human gastrointestinal tract may have important clinical and environmental applications, ranging from diagnosis of infections to fecal source tracking in surface waters. In this study, sequences from...

  14. Assessment of human exposure to gaseous pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, L.B.; Falco, J.W. )

    1989-09-01

    A mathematical model to aid in assessment of human environmental exposure to volatile organic substances is presented. The model simulates the convective and diffusive transport of gas from the ambient environment into the human body by way of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Data required include easily obtained physical and chemical properties of substances as well as several estimated or measured physiological parameters. Transient and steady-state tissue concentrations resulting from an input atmospheric partial pressure are predicted. From these concentrations, an effective dose may be calculated, allowing for the determination of an exposure-response relationship based upon independently obtained dose-response data. The model's results compare favorably to experimental data on oxygen and halothane. Steady-state conditions are reached very rapidly. These results suggest that uptake of these substances is limited by both ventilation and perfusion. Rates are demonstrated to be essentially linear within the current neighborhoods. Conditions in which the primary processes of ventilation, diffusion, perfusion, and elimination limit uptake of gases are considered. Expressions describing the conditions necessary for a single process to limit gas uptake are derived. Accompanying equations for estimating tissue concentrations under these limiting conditions are presented.

  15. GUTSS: An Alignment-Free Sequence Comparison Method for Use in Human Intestinal Microbiome and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heltshe, Sonya L.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Radey, Matthew C.; Weiss, Eli J.; Damman, Christopher J.; Zisman, Timothy L.; Suskind, David L.; Miller, Samuel I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparative analysis of gut microbiomes in clinical studies of human diseases typically rely on identification and quantification of species or genes. In addition to exploring specific functional characteristics of the microbiome and potential significance of species diversity or expansion, microbiome similarity is also calculated to study change in response to therapies directed at altering the microbiome. Established ecological measures of similarity can be constructed from species abundances, however methods for calculating these commonly used ecological measures of similarity directly from whole genome shotgun (WGS) metagenomic sequence are lacking. Results We present an alignment-free method for calculating similarity of WGS metagenomic sequences that is analogous to the Bray–Curtis index for species, implemented by the General Utility for Testing Sequence Similarity (GUTSS) software application. This method was applied to intestinal microbiomes of healthy young children to measure developmental changes toward an adult microbiome during the first 3 years of life. We also calculate similarity of donor and recipient microbiomes to measure establishment, or engraftment, of donor microbiota in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) studies focused on mild to moderate Crohn's disease. We show how a relative index of similarity to donor can be calculated as a measure of change in a patient's microbiome toward that of the donor in response to FMT. Conclusion Because clinical efficacy of the transplant procedure cannot be fully evaluated without analysis methods to quantify actual FMT engraftment, we developed a method for detecting change in the gut microbiome that is independent of species identification and database bias, sensitive to changes in relative abundance of the microbial constituents, and can be formulated as an index for correlating engraftment success with clinical measures of disease. More generally, this method may be applied to clinical

  16. Comparative Study of Bacterial Groups within the Human Cecal and Fecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Marteau, Philippe; Pochart, Philippe; Doré, Joël; Béra-Maillet, Christel; Bernalier, Annick; Corthier, Gérard

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the human cecal microbiota is poorly known because of sampling difficulties. Samples of cecal fluid from eight subjects were collected via an intestinal tube. Feces were also collected. Total anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides were enumerated by culture methods, and the predominant phylogenetic groups were quantified by molecular hybridization using a set of six rRNA-targeted probes. The numbers of strict anaerobes, bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, and members of the Clostridium coccoides group and Clostridium leptum subgroup were lower in the cecum. Facultative anaerobes represented 25% of total bacteria in the cecum versus 1% in the feces. PMID:11571208

  17. [The effect of new broad-spectrum cephamycin, cefotetan administered intravenously on human fecal flora (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nakaya, R; Chida, T; Shibaoka, H; Sagara, H

    1982-03-01

    The changes in the fecal flora and their correlation with the fecal drug concentrations were studied, employing 4 volunteers (healthy adult males) to whom 1 g of cefotetan was intravenously administered daily for 6 days. 1. In all of the subjects, the total counts of fecal organisms were slightly decreased 1 day after administration of cefotetan, then showed gradual increase, and recovered to the normal level on 8 days after the withdrawal of the drug. 2. Cefotetan caused drastic suppression of normal aerobic and anaerobic flora during the administration period, except streptococci that remained unchanged at all. The bacterial groups suppressed were bacteroidaceae, eubacteria, bifidobacteria, peptococcaceae, lactobacilli, enterobacteriaceae, lecithinase-positive clostridia, and staphylococci. Yeasts were found to increase during the administration period. 3. The changes in flora well correlated with the fecal level of the drug concentrations. This is in accordance with the in vitro antibacterial activity of the drug. 4. A period of more than 15 days was required after the withdrawal of cefotetan to recover the normal fecal flora. 5. Loss of body weight and diarrhoea were not observed in any of the subjects. PMID:6954292

  18. The Effects of Organic Pollutants in Soil on Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    The soil has always been depository of the organic chemicals produced naturally or anthropogenically. Soil contamination is a serious human and environmental problem. A large body of evidence has shown the risks of adverse health effects with the exposure to contaminated soil due to the large quantities of organic chemicals used in agriculture and urban areas that have a legacy of environmental pollution linked to industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration and waste dumping. In agricultural areas, because of the effort to provide adequate quantities of agricultural products, farmers have been using an increasing amount of organic chemicals, but the resulting pollution has enormous potential for environmental damage. The types of organic pollutants commonly found in soils are polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, herbicides and organic fuels, especially gasoline and diesel. Another source of soil pollution is the complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals and microorganisms in the effluent from septic systems, animal wastes and other sources of biowaste. The soils of the world are a vast mixture of chemicals and although conditions are such that an individual is rarely exposed to a single compound, the great majority of people are exposed to a vast chemical mixture of organics, their metabolites, and other compounds at low concentrations Human exposure to organic pollutants in the soil is an area of toxicology that is very difficult to study due to the low concentration of the pollutants. The toxicological studies of single organic pollutants found in soils are limited and research on the metabolites and of chemical mixtures is very limited. The majority of toxicological studies are conducted at relatively high doses and for short periods of exposure. This makes the application of this data to exposure

  19. A new protoparvovirus in human fecal samples and cutaneous T cell lymphomas (mycosis fungoides).

    PubMed

    Phan, Tung G; Dreno, Brigitte; da Costa, Antonio Charlys; Li, Linlin; Orlandi, Patricia; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Siqueira, Juliana; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Halary, Franck; Dantal, Jacques; Alexander, Kathleen A; Pesavento, Patricia A; Delwart, Eric

    2016-09-01

    We genetically characterized seven nearly complete genomes in the protoparvovirus genus from the feces of children with diarrhea. The viruses, provisionally named cutaviruses (CutaV), varied by 1-6% nucleotides and shared ~76% and ~82% amino acid identity with the NS1 and VP1 of human bufaviruses, their closest relatives. Using PCR, cutavirus DNA was found in 1.6% (4/245) and 1% (1/100) of diarrhea samples from Brazil and Botswana respectively. In silico analysis of pre-existing metagenomics datasets then revealed closely related parvovirus genomes in skin biopsies from patients with epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL or mycosis fungoides). PCR of skin biopsies yielded cutavirus DNA in 4/17 CTCL, 0/10 skin carcinoma, and 0/21 normal or noncancerous skin biopsies. In situ hybridization of CTCL skin biopsies detected viral genome within rare individual cells in regions of neoplastic infiltrations. The influence of cutavirus infection on human enteric functions and possible oncolytic role in CTCL progression remain to be determined. PMID:27393975

  20. Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

  1. Performance Assessment of Human-Specific Microbial Source Tracking Assays End-Point PCR Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne diseases are a significant public health issue, and many originate from contact with water contaminated with human fecal material. Ensuring public water quality requires the use of methods that can rapidly and accurately identify human fecal pollution. We report the ...

  2. Hybrid Sequencing Approach Applied to Human Fecal Metagenomic Clone Libraries Revealed Clones with Potential Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Džunková, Mária; D’Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be “domesticated” for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7–15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts. PMID:23082187

  3. Evaluation of Two PCR-Based Swine-Specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the specificity and distribution of these targets have not been adequately assessed. Consequently, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination...

  4. Diversity and Population Structure of Bovine Fecal-Derived Microorganisms from Different Animal Feeding Operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but in odor emissions, agricultural land nutrient loading, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, our understanding of the specif...

  5. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  6. Involuntary bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population

    SciTech Connect

    Krotoszynski, B.K.; O'Neill, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical bioaccumulation in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population was determined by a noninvasive expired air technique. Ubiquitous and nonubiquitous environmental pollutants were isolated and identified and the respective distribution and inhalation hazards were evaluated. Attempts were made to isolate and identify the state of health related expired air constituents. The selected 291 environmental pollutants or the total estimated bioaccumulation, were distributed among the heterogenous and homogenous study populations as the constituents of the respective chemical bioaccumulation. The bioaccumulation of the environmental pollutants observed in the heterogenous population, including controls, prediabetics and diabetics, consisted of 176 compounds or 60.5% of the total estimated bioaccumulation. The constituents of this bioaccumulation are termed ubiquitous pollutants because they have accumulated in the heterogenous population as the result of the prolonged body exposures irrespectively of the residence, age, height, weight, sex, occupation, diet and the state of health of the exposed individuals. The major contribution to the bioaccumulation in the heterogenous population arose from 150 hydrocarbons (85.2% of total bioaccumulation) which presents serious exposure health hazards to this population. This is supported by the known toxicity and the possible mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of these hydrocarbons. Such health hazards will augment with the increasing utilization of petroleum products in industry and automobiles. (JMT)

  7. Comparison of the host specificities of two bacteroidales quantitative PCR assays used for tracking human fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Sercu, Bram; Holden, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    The sewage-associated real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays BacHum and HF183 SYBR were compared for specificity against local fecal sources. Both assays were equally sensitive to sewage, but BacHum showed substantially more false-positive results for cat, dog, gull, and raccoon feces. PMID:21742921

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. PMID:16949712

  9. Evaluation of chemical, molecular, and traditional markers of fecal contamination in an effluent dominated urban stream.

    PubMed

    Litton, Rachel M; Ahn, Jong Ho; Sercu, Bram; Holden, Patricia A; Sedlak, David L; Grant, Stanley B

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we present a quantitative sanitary survey of the Middle Santa Ana River, in southern California, utilizing a variety of source tracking tools, including traditional culture-dependent fecal markers (Enterococcus and Escherichia coli by IDEXX), speciation of enterococci isolates, culture-independent fecal markers (human-specific HF183 Bacteroides and Enterococcus by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, qPCR), and chemical markers of sewage and wastewater (nutrients, enantiomeric fraction (EF) of propranolol and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). To facilitate comparison of these different methods, data are interpreted in a loading (i.e., mass per time) framework that enables a quantitative apportionment of fecal markers and nutrients to specific source waters in the Middle Santa Ana River. Multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis that Enterococcus in the Middle Santa Ana River originates primarily from in situ growth in streambed sediments, not from significant and persistent sources of untreated human waste. The EF of propranolol of tertiary treated wastewater effluent is in the range (0.42 to 0.71) previously reported for raw sewage, making EF of propranolol an unsuitable marker for fecal pollution, at least at this site. The human fecal marker HF183 Bacteroides was detected at a few sites, although not in a source of disinfected and tertiary treated wastewater effluent. Based on the results presented here and prior experience at other sites in southern California, HF183 Bacteroides would appear to be a candidate marker of fecal contamination for inland waters, although more qPCR measurements in disinfected wastewater effluent are needed to account for variations due to treatment plant performance and other factors. More generally, our results support the notion that regrowth of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in river sediments may lead to a decoupling between FIB and pathogen concentrations in the water column and thus limit the utility of

  10. 78 FR 12763 - Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation; Public Workshop AGENCY... ``Fecal Microbiota for Transplantation.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to exchange information... fecal microbiota for transplantation (FMT). ] Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on May...

  11. Fecal microbiota transplantation: in perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shaan; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Petrof, Elaine O.

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of the human gut microbiome to elucidate the therapeutic potential of its manipulation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the administration of a solution of fecal matter from a donor into the intestinal tract of a recipient in order to directly change the recipient’s gut microbial composition and confer a health benefit. FMT has been used to successfully treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. There are preliminary indications to suggest that it may also carry therapeutic potential for other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26929784

  12. Fecal microbiota transplantation: in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shaan; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Petrof, Elaine O

    2016-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of the human gut microbiome to elucidate the therapeutic potential of its manipulation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the administration of a solution of fecal matter from a donor into the intestinal tract of a recipient in order to directly change the recipient's gut microbial composition and confer a health benefit. FMT has been used to successfully treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. There are preliminary indications to suggest that it may also carry therapeutic potential for other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26929784

  13. Effects of environmental pollutants on cellular iron homeostasis and ultimate links to human disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic disease has increased in the last several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanism underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to co...

  14. ADDRESSING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO AIR POLLUTANTS AROUND BUILDINGS IN URBAN AREAS WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models to address challenges for modeling human exposures to air pollutants around urban building microenvironments. There are challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant sour...

  15. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  16. Changes in the composition of the human fecal microbiome following bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Khoruts, A.; Dicksved, J.; Jansson, J.K.; Sadowsky, M.J.

    2009-08-15

    CDAD is the major known cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea and colitis, and the disease is thought to result from persistent disruption of commensal gut microbiota. Bacteriotherapy by way of fecal transplantation can be used to treat recurrent CDAD and is thought to re-establish the normal colonic microflora. However, limitations of conventional microbiologic techniques have until recently precluded testing of this idea. In this study we used T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches to characterize the bacterial composition of the colonic microflora in a patient suffering from recurrent CDAD, before and after treatment by fecal transplantation from a healthy donor. While the patient's residual colonic microbiota, prior to therapy, was deficient in members of the bacterial divisions-Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes, transplantation had a dramatic impact on the composition of the patient's gut microbiota. By 14 days post transplantation, the fecal bacterial composition of the recipient was highly similar to the donor and was dominated by Bacteroides spp. strains and an uncharacterized butyrate producing bacterium. The change in bacterial composition was accompanied by resolution of the patient's symptoms. The striking similarity of the recipient's and donor's intestinal microbiota following bacteriotherapy suggests that the donor's bacteria quickly occupied their requisite niches, resulting in restoration of both the structure and function of the microbial communities present.

  17. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  18. Bile acid production in human subjects: rate of oxidation of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol compared to fecal bile acid excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, N.O.; Bradlow, H.L.; Ahrens, E.H. Jr.; Rosenfeld, R.S.; Schwartz, C.C.

    1986-02-01

    Bile acid production has been quantitated in seven subjects by methods that compare the results of two independent approaches, namely, quantitation of cholesterol side-chain oxidation and fecal bile acid excretion. Six hypertriglyceridemic (HT) subjects and one normolipidemic control were studied by both techniques. A further control subject was studied by the cholesterol side-chain oxidation method alone. Cholesterol side-chain oxidation was quantitated by measuring the appearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O after intravenous administration of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol, using multicompartmental analysis of plasma cholesterol and (/sup 3/H)water specific activity. Body water kinetics were independently defined by use of oral D/sub 2/O. Two HT subjects were restudied while they were taking cholestyramine, 16 g/day. In all ten studies, multicompartmental analysis closely simulated the observed appearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O. Values obtained for bile acid production suggest that cholesterol oxidation, or bile acid input, was significantly greater than fecal bile acid output in the HT subjects (P less than 0.05). Cholesterol side-chain oxidation rates in the two normal subjects were lower than those encountered in HT subjects, being similar to published values for normal subjects both for bile acid synthesis as determined by isotope dilution kinetics and fecal bile acid excretion. Studies conducted with two, synthetically different, preparations of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol indicated that, in one of the two preparations, approximately 20% of the tritium label was at positions proximal to C24. In the other preparation examined, all of the tritium was located at, or distal to, C24. Further studies revealed that 0.055-0.24% of the dose was present as labile tritium by virtue of its appearance as /sup 3/H/sub 2/O following in vitro incubation with human plasma. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Evaluation of Intestinal Protozoan Morphology in Human Fecal Specimens Preserved in EcoFix: Comparison of Wheatley’s Trichrome Stain and EcoStain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Shimizu, Robyn Y.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of disposal problems related to the use of mercury compounds, many laboratories have switched from mercuric chloride-based Schaudinn’s and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) stool preservatives to other, non-mercury-based preservatives. A comparison of organism recoveries and morphologies of the intestinal protozoa was undertaken with PVA containing the EcoFix zinc-based Schaudinn’s preservative (Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.); both Wheatley’s modification of Gomori’s trichrome stain (WT) and EcoStain (ES) were used to stain 51 human fecal specimens. Morphology, clarity of nuclear and cytoplasmic detail, overall color differences, and the ease or difficulty in detecting intestinal protozoa in fecal debris were assessed for the two permanent stained smears. Overall, organism morphology of the intestinal protozoa stained with WT and that of protozoa stained with ES were not equal in nuclear and cytoplasmic detail or range of color. However, the same organisms were identified in stained fecal smears with either WT or ES, with the exception of situations in which organism numbers were characterized as rare. Included were 67 protozoan challenges (number of organisms): Entamoeba histolytica-Entamoeba dispar (5), Entamoeba coli (9), Entamoeba hartmanni (6), Endolimax nana (12), Iodamoeba bütschlii (8), Blastocystis hominis (19), Giardia lamblia (6), Dientamoeba fragilis (2), yeast (2), and leukocytes (2). Five specimens were negative for parasites but contained fecal debris that was compared for morphologic detail and color range. The ES produces a more gray-green monotone with very little pink or red tone; contrast among the various colors is less than that seen with WT. Stain intensity for all organisms was acceptable, and there were no problems with stain deposition. The quality of the protozoan morphology with ES was often comparable to that with WT (36 of 67 [53.7%]) and, in some cases, better (24 of 67 [35.8%]). Organisms on the WT-stained smear exhibited

  20. Evaluation of intestinal protozoan morphology in human fecal specimens preserved in EcoFix: comparison of Wheatley's trichrome stain and EcoStain.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L S; Shimizu, R Y

    1998-07-01

    As a result of disposal problems related to the use of mercury compounds, many laboratories have switched from mercuric chloride-based Schaudinn's and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) stool preservatives to other, non-mercury-based preservatives. A comparison of organism recoveries and morphologies of the intestinal protozoa was undertaken with PVA containing the EcoFix zinc-based Schaudinn's preservative (Meridian Diagnostics, Inc.); both Wheatley's modification of Gomori's trichrome stain (WT) and EcoStain (ES) were used to stain 51 human fecal specimens. Morphology, clarity of nuclear and cytoplasmic detail, overall color differences, and the ease or difficulty in detecting intestinal protozoa in fecal debris were assessed for the two permanent stained smears. Overall, organism morphology of the intestinal protozoa stained with WT and that of protozoa stained with ES were not equal in nuclear and cytoplasmic detail or range of color. However, the same organisms were identified in stained fecal smears with either WT or ES, with the exception of situations in which organism numbers were characterized as rare. Included were 67 protozoan challenges (number of organisms): Entamoeba histolytica-Entamoeba dispar (5), Entamoeba coli (9), Entamoeba hartmanni (6), Endolimax nana (12), Iodamoeba bütschlii (8), Blastocystis hominis (19), Giardia lamblia (6), Dientamoeba fragilis (2), yeast (2), and leukocytes (2). Five specimens were negative for parasites but contained fecal debris that was compared for morphologic detail and color range. The ES produces a more gray-green monotone with very little pink or red tone; contrast among the various colors is less than that seen with WT. Stain intensity for all organisms was acceptable, and there were no problems with stain deposition. The quality of the protozoan morphology with ES was often comparable to that with WT (36 of 67 [53.7%]) and, in some cases, better (24 of 67 [35.8%]). Organisms on the WT-stained smear exhibited better

  1. FINGERPRINTING OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI BY MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fecal enterococci group has been suggested as an indicator of fecal contamination in freshwater and marine water systems and as a potential target for bacterial source tracking of fecal pollution. While many studies have described the diversity of enterococci in environmenta...

  2. Cigarette pollution effects on humans. November 1986-October 1988 (Citations from Pollution abstracts). Report for November 1986-October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning health consequences to human beings of primary and secondary exposure to cigarette smoke and its various gaseous and particulate components by themselves, and in conjunction with other pollutants encountered in the natural environment and in special types of environments. Technical and economic aspects of cigarette pollution are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 127 citations, 39 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

  4. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed.

    PubMed

    Stea, Emma C; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Christopher K

    2015-09-01

    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens ( O157:H7, spp., and spp. [, and ]), water quality (turbidity, temperature, and ), and human and ruminant-cow and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based fecal source tracking (FST) markers in two source watersheds. Water samples ( = 329) were collected at 10 sites (five in each watershed) over 18 mo. The human marker (HF183) occurred in 9 to 10% of the water samples at nine sampling sites; while a forested site in the urban watershed tested negative. Ruminant-cow markers (BacR and CowM2) only appeared in the rural watershed (6%). The mtDNA markers (HcytB and AcytB) showed the same pattern but were less sensitive due to lower fecal concentrations. Higher prevalences ( < 0.05) of spp. (41 vs. 16% for the rural and urban watershed, respectively) and O157:H7 (12 vs. 3%) were observed in the rural watershed, while spp. levels were comparable (23-28%). Densities of ≥100 colony-forming units (CFU) 100 mL increased the odds ( < 0.05) of detecting the enteric bacterial pathogens. The water turbidity levels (nephelometric turbidity units [NTU] ≥ 1.0) similarly predicted ( < 0.05) pathogen presence. Storm events increased ( < 0.01) pathogen and fecal marker concentrations in the waterways. The employment of multiple FST methods suggested failing onsite wastewater systems contribute to human fecal pollution in both watersheds. PMID:26436273

  5. EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON HUMAN VIRAL RESPIRATORY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies have shown excessive respiratory disease morbidity in areas of high atmospheric pollution. This study was designed to develop and characterize an animal model and investigate the possible interactive effects of infection and particulate air pollutants u...

  6. Biological Monitoring of Air Pollutants and Its Influence on Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring air pollutants via plants is an economic, convenient and credible method compared with the traditional ways. Plants show different damage symptoms to different air pollutants, which can be used to determine the species of air pollutants. Besides, pollutants mass concentration scope can be estimated by the damage extent of plants and the span of polluted time. Based on the domestic and foreign research, this paper discusses the principles, mechanism, advantages and disadvantages of plant-monitoring, and exemplifies plenty of such plants and the minimum mass concentration and pollution time of the plants showing damage symptoms. Finally, this paper introduced the human health effects of air pollutants on immune function of the body, such as decrease of the body's immune function, decline of lung function, respiratory and circulatory system changes, inducing and promoting human allergic diseases, respiratory diseases and other diseases. PMID:26628931

  7. Air Pollution by Hydrothermal Volcanism and Human Pulmonary Function.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana; Ventura Garcia, Patrícia; Viveiros, Fátima; Ferreira, Teresa; dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic exposure to volcanogenic air pollution by hydrothermal soil diffuse degassing is associated with respiratory defects in humans. This study was carried in the archipelago of the Azores, an area with active volcanism located in the Atlantic Ocean where Eurasian, African, and American lithospheric plates meet. A cross-sectional study was performed on a study group of 146 individuals inhabiting an area where volcanic activity is marked by active fumarolic fields and soil degassing (hydrothermal area) and a reference group of 359 individuals inhabiting an area without these secondary manifestations of volcanism (nonhydrothermal area). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for age, gender, fatigue, asthma, and smoking. The OR for restrictive defects and for exacerbation of obstructive defects (COPD) in the hydrothermal area was 4.4 (95% CI 1.78-10.69) and 3.2 (95% CI 1.82-5.58), respectively. Increased prevalence of restrictions and all COPD severity ranks (mild, moderate, and severe) was observed in the population from the hydrothermal area. These findings may assist health officials in advising and keeping up with these populations to prevent and minimize the risk of respiratory diseases. PMID:26301247

  8. Air Pollution by Hydrothermal Volcanism and Human Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Diana; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Viveiros, Fátima; Ferreira, Teresa; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic exposure to volcanogenic air pollution by hydrothermal soil diffuse degassing is associated with respiratory defects in humans. This study was carried in the archipelago of the Azores, an area with active volcanism located in the Atlantic Ocean where Eurasian, African, and American lithospheric plates meet. A cross-sectional study was performed on a study group of 146 individuals inhabiting an area where volcanic activity is marked by active fumarolic fields and soil degassing (hydrothermal area) and a reference group of 359 individuals inhabiting an area without these secondary manifestations of volcanism (nonhydrothermal area). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for age, gender, fatigue, asthma, and smoking. The OR for restrictive defects and for exacerbation of obstructive defects (COPD) in the hydrothermal area was 4.4 (95% CI 1.78–10.69) and 3.2 (95% CI 1.82–5.58), respectively. Increased prevalence of restrictions and all COPD severity ranks (mild, moderate, and severe) was observed in the population from the hydrothermal area. These findings may assist health officials in advising and keeping up with these populations to prevent and minimize the risk of respiratory diseases. PMID:26301247

  9. [Update on fecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Helena; Nocito, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Fecal incontinence is defined as an accidental loss of stool or the inability to control defecation. There are three subtypes of fecal incontinence: passive incontinence, urge incontinence and soiling. About 8% of the adult population suffer from fecal incontinence, but only 1/3 consults a doctor. Beside the individual handicap, fecal incontinence has a huge socio-economic impact. Causes of fecal incontinence are changes in the quantity or quality of the stool and structural or functional disorders. Diagnostics encompass the medical history, clinical examination including the digital rectal examination, imaging (particularly endoanal ultrasound) as well as functional diagnostics (anal manometry and defecography). Nowadays, the most promising conservative treatment option consists of loperamide and biofeedback therapy. The most successful invasive method is the sacral neuromodulation. PMID:25351694

  10. Ezakiella peruensis gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from human fecal sample from a coastal traditional community in Peru.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nisha B; Tito, Raul Y; Obregón-Tito, Alexandra J; O'Neal, Lindsey; Trujillo-Villaroel, Omar; Marin-Reyes, Luis; Troncoso-Corzo, Luzmila; Guija-Poma, Emilio; Hamada, Moriyuki; Uchino, Yoshihito; Lewis, Cecil M; Lawson, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-sporeforming coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a fecal sample of an individual residing in a traditional Peruvian community. The organism was characterized using biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that the organism was biochemically and phenotypically related, but distinct, from a group of organisms referred to as the Gram-stain positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC). The major cellular fatty acids of the novel isolate were determined to be C16:0 (18.3%), C18:1ω9c (39.8%), C18:2ω6,9c/C18:0 ANTE (13.2%). Fermentation end products from PYG are acetate and formate. Cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to be A4α (L-Lys-L-Ala-L-Glu) and the G + C content was determined to be 38.4 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic results, Ezakiella peruensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is now proposed. The type strain is M6.X2(T) (DSM 27367(T) = NBRC 109957 (T) = CCUG 64571(T)). PMID:25481562

  11. Ezakiella peruensis gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from human fecal sample from a coastal traditional community in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nisha B.; Tito, Raul Y.; Obregón-Tito, Alexandra J.; O’Neal, Lindsey; Trujillo-Villaroel, Omar; Marin-Reyes, Luis; Troncoso-Corzo, Luzmila; Guija-Poma, Emilio; Hamada, Moriyuki; Uchino, Yoshihito; Lewis, Cecil M.; Lawson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-sporeforming coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a fecal sample of an individual residing in a traditional Peruvian community. The organism was characterized using biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that the organism was biochemically and phenotypically related, but distinct, from a group of organisms referred to as the Gram-stain positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC). The major cellular fatty acids of the novel isolate were determined to be C16:0 (18.3%), C18:1ε9c (39.8%), C18:2ε6,9c/C18:0 ANTE (13.2%). Fermentation end products from PYG are acetate and formate. Cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to be A4∋ (L-Lys-L-Ala-L-Glu) and the G + C content was determined to be 38.4 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic results, Ezakiella peruensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is now proposed. The type strain is M6.X2T (DSM 27367T = NBRC 109957 T = CCUG 64571T). PMID:25481562

  12. Functional anatomy of the colonic bioreactor: Impact of antibiotics and Saccharomyces boulardii on bacterial composition in human fecal cylinders.

    PubMed

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Schulz, Stefan; Manowsky, Julia; Verstraelen, Hans; Swidsinski, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Sections of fecal cylinders were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting 180 bacterial groups. Samples were collected from three groups of women (N=20 each) treated for bacterial vaginosis with ciprofloxacin+metronidazole. Group A only received the combined antibiotic regimen, whereas the A/Sb group received concomitant Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 treatment, and the A_Sb group received S. boulardii prophylaxis following the 14-day antibiotic course. The number of stool cylinders analyzed was 188 out of 228 in group A, 170 out of 228 in group A/Sb, and 172 out of 216 in group A_Sb. The colonic biomass was organized into a separate mucus layer with no bacteria, a 10-30μm broad unstirred transitional layer enriched with bacteria, and a patchy fermentative area that mixed digestive leftovers with bacteria. The antibiotics suppressed bacteria mainly in the fermentative area, whereas abundant bacterial clades retreated to the transitional mucus and survived. As a result, the total concentration of bacteria decreased only by one order. These effects were lasting, since the overall recovery of the microbial mass, bacterial diversity and concentrations were still below pre-antibiotic values 4 months after the end of antibiotic treatment. Sb-prophylaxis markedly reduced antibiotic effects and improved the recovery rates. Since the colon is a sophisticated bioreactor, the study indicated that the spatial anatomy of its biomass was crucial for its function. PMID:26723852

  13. Novel Approaches for Estimating Human Exposure to Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous health studies have used measurements from a few central-site ambient monitors to characterize air pollution exposures. Relying on solely on central-site ambient monitors does not account for the spatial-heterogeneity of ambient air pollution patterns, the temporal varia...

  14. MODELING INHALATION AND MULTIMEDIA MULTIPATHWAY HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of exposures of children and adults to air toxics or multimedia pollutants require careful consideration of sources and concentrations of pollutants that may be present in different media, as well as various routes and pathways of exposures associated with age-specif...

  15. Fecal transplant policy and legislation

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Aekka, Apoorva; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has garnered significant attention in recent years in the face of a reemerging Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) epidemic. Positive results from the first randomized control trial evaluating FMT have encouraged the medical community to explore the process further and expand its application beyond C. difficile infections and even the gastrointestinal domain. However promising and numerous the prospects of FMT appear, the method remains limited in scope today due to several important barriers, most notably a poorly defined federal regulatory policy. The Food and Drug Administration has found it difficult to standardize and regulate the administration of inherently variable, metabolically active, and ubiquitously available fecal material. The current cumbersome policy, which classifies human feces as a drug, has prevented physicians from providing FMT and deserving patients from accessing FMT in a timely fashion, and subsequent modifications seem only to be temporary. The argument for reclassifying fecal material as human tissue is well supported. Essentially, this would allow for a regulatory framework that is sufficiently flexible to expand access to care and facilitate research, but also appropriately restrictive and centralized to ensure patient safety. Such an approach can facilitate the advancement of FMT to a more refined, controlled, and aesthetic process, perhaps in the form of a customized and well-characterized stool substitute therapy. PMID:25574076

  16. Fecal transplant policy and legislation.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Aekka, Apoorva; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has garnered significant attention in recent years in the face of a reemerging Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) epidemic. Positive results from the first randomized control trial evaluating FMT have encouraged the medical community to explore the process further and expand its application beyond C. difficile infections and even the gastrointestinal domain. However promising and numerous the prospects of FMT appear, the method remains limited in scope today due to several important barriers, most notably a poorly defined federal regulatory policy. The Food and Drug Administration has found it difficult to standardize and regulate the administration of inherently variable, metabolically active, and ubiquitously available fecal material. The current cumbersome policy, which classifies human feces as a drug, has prevented physicians from providing FMT and deserving patients from accessing FMT in a timely fashion, and subsequent modifications seem only to be temporary. The argument for reclassifying fecal material as human tissue is well supported. Essentially, this would allow for a regulatory framework that is sufficiently flexible to expand access to care and facilitate research, but also appropriately restrictive and centralized to ensure patient safety. Such an approach can facilitate the advancement of FMT to a more refined, controlled, and aesthetic process, perhaps in the form of a customized and well-characterized stool substitute therapy. PMID:25574076

  17. Rapid detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Van Hien, Hoang; Dung, Do Trung; Maleewong, Wanchai; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2012-07-01

    We developed a single step duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR merged with melting curve analysis for the fast detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples. Two species of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad2) DNA elements, the 165-bp nad2 product of C. sinensis and the 209-bp nad2 product of O. viverrini, were amplified by species-specific primers, and the fluorescence melting curve analyses were generated from hybrid of amplicons and two pairs of species-specific fluorophore-labeled probes. By their different fluorescence channels and melting temperatures, both C. sinensis and O. viverrini eggs in infected human fecal samples were detected and differentiated with high (100%) sensitivity and specificity. Detection limit was as little as a single C. sinensis egg and two O. viverrini eggs in 100 mg of fecal sample. The assay could distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of negative fecal samples and fecal samples with other parasitosis, as well as from the well-defined genomic DNA of human leukocytes and other parasites. It can reduce labor time of microscopic examination and is not prone to carry over contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Our duplex real-time FRET PCR method would be useful to determine the accurate range of endemic areas and/or to discover the co-endemic areas of two liver flukes, C. sinensis and O. viverrini, in Asia. This method also would be helpful for the differential diagnosis of the suspected cases of liver fluke infections among travelers who had visited the endemic countries of those parasites. PMID:22246366

  18. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 μg m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  19. Chapter A7. Section 7.2. Fecal Indicator Viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bushon, Rebecca N.

    2003-01-01

    More than 100 types of human pathogenic viruses may be present in fecal-contaminated waters. Coliphages are used as indicators of virus-related fecal contamination and of the microbiological quality of waters. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and laboratory methods that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator viruses.

  20. Air pollution dispersion models for human exposure predictions in London.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Sean D; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Williams, Martin L; Kelly, Frank J; Ross Anderson, H; Carslaw, David C

    2013-01-01

    The London household survey has shown that people travel and are exposed to air pollutants differently. This argues for human exposure to be based upon space-time-activity data and spatio-temporal air quality predictions. For the latter, we have demonstrated the role that dispersion models can play by using two complimentary models, KCLurban, which gives source apportionment information, and Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ)-urban, which predicts hourly air quality. The KCLurban model is in close agreement with observations of NO(X), NO(2) and particulate matter (PM)(10/2.5), having a small normalised mean bias (-6% to 4%) and a large Index of Agreement (0.71-0.88). The temporal trends of NO(X) from the CMAQ-urban model are also in reasonable agreement with observations. Spatially, NO(2) predictions show that within 10's of metres of major roads, concentrations can range from approximately 10-20 p.p.b. up to 70 p.p.b. and that for PM(10/2.5) central London roadside concentrations are approximately double the suburban background concentrations. Exposure to different PM sources is important and we predict that brake wear-related PM(10) concentrations are approximately eight times greater near major roads than at suburban background locations. Temporally, we have shown that average NO(X) concentrations close to roads can range by a factor of approximately six between the early morning minimum and morning rush hour maximum periods. These results present strong arguments for the hybrid exposure model under development at King's and, in future, for in-building models and a model for the London Underground. PMID:23443237

  1. Clustering of water bodies in unpolluted and polluted environments based on Escherichia coli phylogroup abundance using a simple interaction database.

    PubMed

    de Castro Stoppe, Nancy; Silva, Juliana Saragiotto; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; Carlos, Camila; Hachich, Elayse Maria; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Saraiva, Antonio Mauro; Ottoboni, Laura Maria Mariscal

    2014-10-01

    Different types of water bodies, including lakes, streams, and coastal marine waters, are often susceptible to fecal contamination from a range of point and nonpoint sources, and have been evaluated using fecal indicator microorganisms. The most commonly used fecal indicator is Escherichia coli, but traditional cultivation methods do not allow discrimination of the source of pollution. The use of triplex PCR offers an approach that is fast and inexpensive, and here enabled the identification of phylogroups. The phylogenetic distribution of E. coli subgroups isolated from water samples revealed higher frequencies of subgroups A1 and B23 in rivers impacted by human pollution sources, while subgroups D1 and D2 were associated with pristine sites, and subgroup B1 with domesticated animal sources, suggesting their use as a first screening for pollution source identification. A simple classification is also proposed based on phylogenetic subgroup distribution using the w-clique metric, enabling differentiation of polluted and unpolluted sites. PMID:25505844

  2. Clustering of water bodies in unpolluted and polluted environments based on Escherichia coli phylogroup abundance using a simple interaction database

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Stoppe, Nancy; Silva, Juliana Saragiotto; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; Carlos, Camila; Hachich, Elayse Maria; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Saraiva, Antonio Mauro; Ottoboni, Laura Maria Mariscal

    2014-01-01

    Different types of water bodies, including lakes, streams, and coastal marine waters, are often susceptible to fecal contamination from a range of point and nonpoint sources, and have been evaluated using fecal indicator microorganisms. The most commonly used fecal indicator is Escherichia coli, but traditional cultivation methods do not allow discrimination of the source of pollution. The use of triplex PCR offers an approach that is fast and inexpensive, and here enabled the identification of phylogroups. The phylogenetic distribution of E. coli subgroups isolated from water samples revealed higher frequencies of subgroups A1 and B23 in rivers impacted by human pollution sources, while subgroups D1 and D2 were associated with pristine sites, and subgroup B1 with domesticated animal sources, suggesting their use as a first screening for pollution source identification. A simple classification is also proposed based on phylogenetic subgroup distribution using the w-clique metric, enabling differentiation of polluted and unpolluted sites. PMID:25505844

  3. Giardia duodenalis in Damascus, Syria: Identification of Giardia genotypes in a sample of human fecal isolates using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyzing method.

    PubMed

    Skhal, Dania; Aboualchamat, Ghalia; Al Nahhas, Samar

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals. It is most prevalent in many developing and industrialized countries. G. duodenalis is considered to be a complex species. While no morphological distinction among different assemblages exist, it can be genetically differentiated into eight major assemblages: A to H. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis in human isolates (a study conducted for the first time in Syria). 40 fecal samples were collected from three different hospitals during the hot summer season of 2014. Extraction of genomic DNA from all Giardia positive samples (based on a microscopic examination) was performed using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. β-giardin gene was used to differentiate between different Giardia assemblages. The 514 bp fragment was amplified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, followed by digestion in HaeIII restriction enzyme. Our result showed that genotype A was more frequent than genotype B, 27/40 (67.5%); 4/40 (10%) respectively. A mixed genotype of A+B was only detected in 9 isolates (22.5%). This is the first molecular study performed on G. duodenalis isolates in Syria in order to discriminate among the different genotypes. Further expanded studies using more genes are needed to detect and identify the Giardia parasite at the level of assemblage and sub-assemblage. PMID:26524628

  4. Application of a qPCR Assay with Melting Curve Analysis for Detection and Differentiation of Protozoan Oocysts in Human Fecal Samples from Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Laura F.; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A.

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437

  5. EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short-term health effects of common ambient air pollutants, particularly photochemical oxidants, were investigated under controlled conditions simulating typical ambient exposures. Volunteer subjects were exposed, in an environmental control chamber providing highly purified back...

  6. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  7. Commercial Assay for Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by Rapid Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatography

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Shimizu, Robyn Y.; Novak, Susan; Carroll, Marilyn; Chan, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The ImmunoCard STAT! Cryptosporidium/Giardia rapid assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects and distinguishes between Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens (fresh, frozen, unfixed, or fixed in 5 or 10% formalin or sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). By using specific antibodies, antigens specific for these organisms are isolated and immobilized on a substrate. After the addition of appropriate reagents, a positive test is detected visually by the presence of a gray-black color bar (regardless of the intensity) next to the organism name printed on the test device. A control is included in the device. Steps include tube preparation (buffer, patient specimen, conjugates A and B), testing (addition of sample onto the test device), and visual reading (total time, 12 min). Test performance was evaluated with known positive and negative stool specimens (170 specimens positive for Giardia and 231 specimens negative for Giardia) (85 specimens positive for Cryptosporidium and 316 specimens negative for Cryptosporidium); they were tested with trichrome, iron-hematoxylin, or modified acid-fast stains or the Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Giardia/Cryptosporidium Merifluor combination reagent; specimens with discrepant results were retested by using the Merifluor combination reagent. On the basis of the results of the reference methods, the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: for G. lamblia, 93.5, 100, 100, and 95.5%, respectively; for C. parvum, 98.8, 100, 100, and 99.7%, respectively. False-negative results for G. lamblia were obtained with specimens with low parasite numbers (n = 7) or specimens containing trophozoites only (n = 3); one specimen with a false-negative result contained numerous cysts. The one specimen false negative for C. parvum was confirmed to be positive by immunofluorescence. No cross

  8. Microbial source tracking in a coastal California watershed reveals canines as controllable sources of fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Jared S; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2014-08-19

    Elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli and enterococci, trigger coastal beach advisories and signal public health risks. Solving FIB pollution in suburban coastal watersheds is challenging, as there are many potential sources. The Arroyo Burro watershed in Santa Barbara, CA is an example, with its popular, but chronically FIB-contaminated beach. To address, a microbial source tracking study was performed. Surface waters were sampled over 2 years, FIB were quantified, and DNA was analyzed for host-associated fecal markers. Surf zone FIB were only elevated when the coastal lagoon was discharging. Among the fecal sources into the lagoon, including upstream human sources and coastal birds, canines were the most important. Canine sources included input via upstream creek water, which decreased after creek-side residences were educated about proper pet waste disposal, and direct inputs to the lagoon and surf zone, where dog waste could have been tidally exchanged with the lagoon. Based on this study, canine waste can be an influential, yet controllable, fecal source to suburban coastal beaches. PMID:25055204

  9. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  10. Constipation and Fecal Soiling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase fluids in the diet, especially water and water rich foods (which usually are fiber-rich). (continued on next page) Fecal Soiling continued 5. Increase physical activity. Exercise helps the colon move. 6. It is ...

  11. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Find a Doctor Join eNewsletter Sidebar × MOBILE MENU About Us What is Incontinence? Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's Guide to Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of ...

  12. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to <10% by day 57. The RA of Proteobacteria was only 1% at day 0, but increased to ~50% by day 57in both shaded and unshaded samples. By the end of the study, shaded and unshaded samples had a similar RA of Firmcutes and Proteobacteria but the RA of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria was, respectively, about 7% lower and 10% higher for unshaded samples. UV intensity, moisture, and temperature were significantly different between shaded and unshaded plots, indicating that these environmental stresses could influence the structure of fecal bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the

  13. Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  14. Evaluation of Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Originating from Swine Manure Applied to Agricultural Lands Using Culture-Based and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  15. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element against Clostridium difficile Toxin B and Sensitive Detection in Human Fecal Matter

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Eamonn; Williams, Ryan M.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2015-01-01

    Toxin B is one of the major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile, a bacterium that is responsible for a significant number of diarrhea cases in acute care settings. Due to the prevalence of C. difficile induced diarrhea, rapid and correct diagnosis is crucial in the disease management. In this study, we have employed a stringent in vitro selection method to identify single-stranded DNA molecular recognition elements (MRE) specific for toxin B. At the end of the 12-round selection, one MRE with high affinity (Kd = 47.3 nM) for toxin B was identified. The selected MRE demonstrated low cross binding activities on negative targets: bovine serum albumin, Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A, and cholera toxin of Vibrio cholera. A modified sandwich ELISA assay was developed utilizing the selected ssDNA MRE as the antigen capturing element and achieved a sensitive detection of 50 nM of toxin B in human fecal preparations. PMID:25734010

  16. Detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens Using the Triage Parasite Panel Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Shimizu, Robyn Y.; Bernard, Caroline N.

    2000-01-01

    The Triage parasite panel (BIOSITE Diagnostics, San Diego, Calif.) is a new qualitative enzyme immunoassay (EIA) panel for the detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum in fresh or fresh, frozen, unfixed human fecal specimens. By using specific antibodies, antigens specific for these organisms are captured and immobilized on a membrane. Panel performance was evaluated with known positive and negative stool specimens (a total of 444 specimens) that were tested by the standard ova and parasite (O&P) examination as the “gold standard,” including staining with both trichrome and modified acid-fast stains. Specimens with discrepant results between the reference and Triage methods were retested by a different method, either EIA or immunofluorescence. A number of samples with discrepant results with the Triage device were confirmed to be true positives. After resolution of discrepant results, the number of positive specimens and the sensitivity and specificity results were as follows: for G. lamblia, 170, 95.9%, and 97.4%, respectively; for E. histolytica/E. dispar, 99, 96.0%, and 99.1%, respectively; and for C. parvum, 60, 98.3%, and 99.7%, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with other parasites found in stool specimens, including eight different protozoa (128 challenges) and three different helminths (83 challenges). The ability to perform the complete O&P examination should remain an option for those patients with negative parasite panel results but who are still symptomatic. PMID:10970380

  17. Genotypic and Phenotypic Traits That Distinguish Neonatal Meningitis-Associated Escherichia coli from Fecal E. coli Isolates of Healthy Human Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Catherine M.; Doetkott, Curt; Mangiamele, Paul; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tivendale, Kelly A.; Li, Ganwu; Sherwood, Julie S.

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) is one of the top causes of neonatal meningitis worldwide. Here, 85 NMEC and 204 fecal E. coli isolates from healthy humans (HFEC) were compared for possession of traits related to virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and plasmid content. This comparison was done to identify traits that typify NMEC and distinguish it from commensal strains to refine the definition of the NMEC subpathotype, identify traits that might contribute to NMEC pathogenesis, and facilitate choices of NMEC strains for future study. A large number of E. coli strains from both groups were untypeable, with the most common serogroups occurring among NMEC being O18, followed by O83, O7, O12, and O1. NMEC strains were more likely than HFEC strains to be assigned to the B2 phylogenetic group. Few NMEC or HFEC strains were resistant to antimicrobials. Genes that best discriminated between NMEC and HFEC strains and that were present in more than 50% of NMEC isolates were mainly from extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli genomic and plasmid pathogenicity islands. Several of these defining traits had not previously been associated with NMEC pathogenesis, are of unknown function, and are plasmid located. Several genes that had been previously associated with NMEC virulence did not dominate among the NMEC isolates. These data suggest that there is much about NMEC virulence that is unknown and that there are pitfalls to studying single NMEC isolates to represent the entire subpathotype. PMID:22706051

  18. Global Inter-Laboratory Fecal Source Identification Methods Comparison Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source tracking is key to identifying sources of fecal contamination for remediation as well as risk assessment. Previous intra- and inter-lab studies have investigated the performance of human and cow-associated source tracking markers, as well as library-dependent fecal source ...

  19. Detection of Bacteroidales fecal indicators and the zoonotic pathogens E. coli 0157:H7, salmonella, and campylobacter in river water.

    PubMed

    Walters, Sarah P; Gannon, Victor P J; Field, Katharine G

    2007-03-15

    Bacteroidales host-specific PCR offers a rapid method of diagnosing fecal pollution in water and identifying sources of input. To assess human health risks from exposure to fecal pathogens, however, Bacteroidales markers should be detectable when pathogens are present. To determine if Bacteroidales general, human-, ruminant-, and swine-specific markers correlate with certain fecal pathogens, we conducted a retrospective study on water samples for which the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. had been determined. We found a positive relationship between detection of the Bacteroidales general fecal marker and presence of the pathogens. Detection of ruminant-specific markers predicted E. coli O157: H7 occurrence. There was a significant increase in the likelihood of detecting Salmonella when a ruminant marker was present, and Campylobacter spp. when human markers were present. For pathogens such as E. coli O157: H7 that are strongly associated with particular hosts, Bacteroidales host-specific markers can estimate the likelihood of pathogen occurrence, enabling more accurate health risk assessments. PMID:17410775

  20. Model studies of lignified fiber fermentation by human fecal microbiota and its impact on heterocyclic aromatic amine adsorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined how shifts in pH and fiber fermentation may alter the adsorption of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HAAs) 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AaC) to dietary fiber in the human small intestine and colon. Nonlignified and artif...

  1. Metabolomic analysis of human fecal microbiota: a comparison of feces-derived communities and defined mixed communities.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sandi; McDonald, Julie A K; Schroeter, Kathleen; Oliphant, Kaitlyn; Sokolenko, Stanislav; Blondeel, Eric J M; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Aucoin, Marc G

    2015-03-01

    The extensive impact of the human gut microbiota on its human host calls for a need to understand the types of communication that occur among the bacteria and their host. A metabolomics approach can provide a snapshot of the microbe-microbe interactions occurring as well as variations in the microbes from different hosts. In this study, metabolite profiles from an anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) system supporting the growth of several consortia of bacteria representative of the human gut were established and compared. Cell-free supernatant samples were analyzed by 1D (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, producing spectra representative of the metabolic activity of a particular community at a given time. Using targeted profiling, specific metabolites were identified and quantified on the basis of NMR analyses. Metabolite profiles discriminated each bacterial community examined, demonstrating that there are significant differences in the microbiota metabolome between each cultured community. We also found unique compounds that were identifying features of individual bacterial consortia. These findings are important because they demonstrate that metabolite profiles of gut microbial ecosystems can be constructed by targeted profiling of NMR spectra. Moreover, examination of these profiles sheds light on the type of microbes present in the gut and their metabolic interactions. PMID:25670064

  2. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of fecal indicator bacteria in an urban stream under different meteorological regimes.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sung Min; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Yong Eun; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Seungyoon; Kim, Joon Ha

    2010-01-01

    As a representative urban stream in Korea, the Gwangju (GJ) stream suffers from chronic fecal contamination. In this study, to characterize levels of fecal pollution in the GJ stream, the monthly monitoring data for seven years (from 2001 to 2007) and the hourly monitoring data from two field experiments were examined with respect to seasonal/daily variations and spatial distribution under wet and dry weather conditions. This research revealed that concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria strongly varied depending on the prevalent meteorological conditions. That is, during the dry daytime, fecal indicator bacteria concentrations decreased due to inactivation from solar irradiation, but rapidly increased in the absence of sunlight, suggesting external source inputs. In addition, bacterial concentrations substantially increased during rainfall events, due probably to a major contribution from combined sewer overflow. The observations in this study can be useful for implementing fecal pollution management strategies and for predicting fecal contamination as a function of meteorological conditions. PMID:20555206

  4. Fecal source tracking in water by next-generation sequencing technologies using host-specific Escherichia coli genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Matsui, Yasuto; Yoneda, Minoru

    2014-08-19

    High levels of fecal bacteria are a concern for the aquatic environment, and identifying sources of those bacteria is important for mitigating fecal pollution and preventing waterborne disease. Escherichia coli has been used as an indicator of fecal pollution, however less success has been achieved using this organism for library-independent microbial source tracking. In this study, using next-generation sequencing technology we sequenced the whole genomes of 22 E. coli isolates from known sources (9 from humans, 2 from cows, 6 from pigs, and 5 from chickens) and identified candidate host-specific genomic regions. Specificity testing on the candidate regions was performed using 30 E. coli isolates from each source. Finally, we identified 4 human-, 2 cow-, 3 pig-, and 4 chicken-specific genetic markers useful for source tracking. We also found that a combination of multiplex PCR and dual index sequencing is effective for detecting multiple genetic markers in multiple isolates at one time. This technique was applied to investigating identified genetic markers in 549 E. coli isolates obtained from the Yamato River, Japan. Results indicate that humans constitute a major source of water contamination in the river. However, further work must include isolates obtained from geographically diverse animal hosts to make this method more reliable. PMID:25055157

  5. Tracking the Sources of Fecal Contaminations: an Interdisciplinary Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanneau, L.; Jarde, E.; Derrien, M.; Gruau, G.; Solecki, O.; Pourcher, A.; Marti, R.; Wéry, N.; Caprais, M.; Gourmelon, M.; Mieszkin, S.; Jadas-Hécart, A.; Communal, P.

    2011-12-01

    Fecal contaminations of inland and coastal waters induce risks to human health and economic losses. In order to improve water management, it is necessary to identify the sources of contamination, which implies the development of specific markers. In order to be considered as a valuable host-specific marker, one must (1) be source specific, (2) occur in high concentration in polluting matrices, (3) exhibit extra-intestinal persistence similar to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and (4) not grow out of the host. However, up to day no single marker has fulfilled all those criteria. Thus, it has been suggested to use a combination of markers in order to generate more reliable data. This has lead to the development of a Microbial Source Tracking (MST) toolbox including FIB and microbial and chemical specific markers in order to differentiate between human, bovine and porcine fecal contaminations. Those specific markers are, (1) genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, (2) bacterial markers belonging to the Bacteroidales (human-specific HF183, ruminant-specific Rum-2-Bac and pig-specific Pig-2-Bac markers), to the Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and pig-specific Lactobacillus amylovorus, (3) fecal stanols and (4) caffeine. The development of this MST toolbox was composed of four steps, from the molecular scale to the watershed scale. At the molecular scale, the specificity and the concentration of those markers were studied in cattle and pig manures and in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and influents. At the microcosm scale, the transfer of bovine and porcine specific markers was investigated by rainfall simulations on agricultural plots amended with cattle or pig manure. Moreover, the relative persistence of FIB and human, porcine and bovine specific markers was investigated in freshwater and seawater microcosms inoculated with a WWTP influent, pig manure and cow manure. Finally, the aforementioned MST toolbox has been validated at the

  6. Gene-targeted metagenomic analysis of glucan-branching enzyme gene profiles among human and animal fecal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunghee; Cantarel, Brandi; Henrissat, Bernard; Gevers, Dirk; Birren, Bruce W; Huttenhower, Curtis; Ko, GwangPyo

    2014-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs), the enzymes that breakdown complex carbohydrates, are a highly diversified class of key enzymes associated with the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions. To learn more about the diversity of GHs and their potential role in a variety of gut microbiomes, we used a combination of 16S, metagenomic and targeted amplicon sequencing data to study one of these enzyme families in detail. Specifically, we employed a functional gene-targeted metagenomic approach to the 1-4-α-glucan-branching enzyme (gBE) gene in the gut microbiomes of four host species (human, chicken, cow and pig). The characteristics of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and operational glucan-branching units (OGBUs) were distinctive in each of hosts. Human and pig were most similar in OTUs profiles while maintaining distinct OGBU profiles. Interestingly, the phylogenetic profiles identified from 16S and gBE gene sequences differed, suggesting the presence of different gBE genes in the same OTU across different vertebrate hosts. Our data suggest that gene-targeted metagenomic analysis is useful for an in-depth understanding of the diversity of a particular gene of interest. Specific carbohydrate metabolic genes appear to be carried by distinct OTUs in different individual hosts and among different vertebrate species' microbiomes, the characteristics of which differ according to host genetic background and/or diet. PMID:24108330

  7. Simple Fecal Flotation Is a Superior Alternative to Guadruple Kato Katz Smear Examination for the Detection of Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders; Marti, Hanspeter; Traub, Rebecca J.; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Microscopy-based identification of eggs in stool offers simple, reliable and economical options for assessing the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections, and for monitoring the success of helminth control programs. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the diagnostic parameters of the Kato-Katz (KK) and simple sodium nitrate flotation technique (SNF) in terms of detection and quantification of hookworm eggs, with PCR as an additional reference test in stool, collected as part of a baseline cross-sectional study in Cambodia. Methods/Principle Findings Fecal samples collected from 205 people in Dong village, Rovieng district, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia were subjected to KK, SNF and PCR for the detection (and in case of microscopy-based methods, quantification) of hookworm eggs in stool. The prevalence of hookworm detected using a combination of three techniques (gold standard) was 61.0%. PCR displayed a highest sensitivity for hookworm detection (92.0%) followed by SNF (44.0%) and quadruple KK smears (36.0%) compared to the gold standard. The overall eggs per gram feces from SNF tended to be higher than for quadruple KK and the SNF proved superior for detecting low egg burdens. Conclusion/Significance As a reference, PCR demonstrated the higher sensitivity compared to SNF and the quadruple KK method for detection of hookworm in human stool. For microscopic-based quantification, a single SNF proved superior to the quadruple KK for the detection of hookworm eggs in stool, in particular for low egg burdens. In addition, the SNF is cost-effective and easily accessible in resource poor countries. PMID:25521997

  8. NEW MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent legislation and EPA action plans, including the Clean Water Action Plan, the Beach Action Plan, and the Beach Act of 2000, have identified new requirements to protect recreational waters and people's health. To meet these requirements, a new health study (task 9656), condu...

  9. Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushal, S.S.; Groffman, P.M.; Band, L.E.; Elliott, E.M.; Shields, C.A.; Kendall, C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of ?? 15N-NO3-, and ??18O-NO 3- indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between ??15N-NO3- and ??18O- NO3- in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ???50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between ??15N-NO3- and ??18O-NO3- in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    PubMed Central

    Bojanova, Diana P.

    2016-01-01

    Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile) in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets) in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool). Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool), archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool), viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool), fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool), protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component. PMID:27404502

  11. Fecal Transplants: What Is Being Transferred?

    PubMed

    Bojanova, Diana P; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2016-07-01

    Fecal transplants are increasingly utilized for treatment of recurrent infections (i.e., Clostridium difficile) in the human gut and as a general research tool for gain-of-function experiments (i.e., gavage of fecal pellets) in animal models. Changes observed in the recipient's biology are routinely attributed to bacterial cells in the donor feces (~1011 per gram of human wet stool). Here, we examine the literature and summarize findings on the composition of fecal matter in order to raise cautiously the profile of its multipart nature. In addition to viable bacteria, which may make up a small fraction of total fecal matter, other components in unprocessed human feces include colonocytes (~107 per gram of wet stool), archaea (~108 per gram of wet stool), viruses (~108 per gram of wet stool), fungi (~106 per gram of wet stool), protists, and metabolites. Thus, while speculative at this point and contingent on the transplant procedure and study system, nonbacterial matter could contribute to changes in the recipient's biology. There is a cautious need for continued reductionism to separate out the effects and interactions of each component. PMID:27404502

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ISOLATES FROM AN ICE-COVERED RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The membrane filter technique was used to enumerate the total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococcus (FS) populations at seven sample stations on an ice-covered river downstream from a major source of domestic pollution. From each membrane filter population (...

  13. Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provid...

  14. Evaluation of Two PCR-based Swine-specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination on a broad geographic scale is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the specificity, distr...

  15. Community structure of cattle fecal bacteria from different animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provide adequate detail ab...

  16. Characterization of fecal concentrations in human and other animal sources by physical, culture-based, and quantitative real-time PCR methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    The characteristics of fecal sources, and the ways in which they are measured, can profoundly influence the interpretation of which sources are contaminating water. Although feces from various hosts are known to differ, it is not well understood how those differences compare acro...

  17. Pinto Bean Consumption Changes SCFA Profiles in Fecal Fermentations, Bacterial Populations of the Lower Bowel, and Lipid Profiles in Blood of Humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Beans improve serum lipids and may reduce the risk of colon cancer by increasing colonic short chain fatty acid (SCFAs) formation. Objective: We assessed whether pinto bean consumption affects 1) in vitro fecal bacterial fermentation and production of SCFAs, 2) colonic bacterial populat...

  18. Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Cellular Iron Homeostasis and Ultimate Links to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, Dina M.; Ghio, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic disease has increased in the past several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases may indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanisms underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to complex iron through electronegative functional groups containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Cellular exposure to the chemical or its metabolite may cause a loss of requisite functional iron from intracellular sites. The cell is compelled to acquire further iron critical to its survival by activation of iron-responsive proteins and increasing iron import. Iron homeostasis in the exposed cells is altered due to a new equilibrium being established between iron-requiring cells and the inappropriate chelator (the pollutant or its catabolite). Following exposure to environmental pollutants, the perturbation of functional iron homeostasis may be the mechanism leading to adverse biological effects. Understanding the mechanism may lead to intervention methods for this major public health concern. PMID:26966372

  19. [Population exposure to air pollutant emissions in Human Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Hao, Jiming; Ye, Xuemei; Zhu, Tianle

    2003-05-01

    Estimate of population exposure to air pollution is necessary to health impact assessment. Based on the concept of intake fraction, a rapid population exposure assessment method was developed in this paper. The CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model was applied to estimate intake fractions of primary and secondary fine particles emitted from a set of 17 power plants in Hunan Province. Results showed that within 500 km from the emission source, average values of intake fraction were 9.73 x 10(-6) for PM2.5, 2.39 x 10(-6) for sulfate and 2.47 x 10(-6) for nitrate. From regression analysis, good correlations were found for the relations among intake fraction of PM2.5, stack height, and population (R2 = 0.83), and intake fraction of SO(4)2- and population (R2 = 0.64), and intake fraction of NO3-, stack height and population (R2 = 0.74). Iso-intake fraction maps were produced based on the regression equations and population distribution, which reflected the differentiation of population density and enabled simple impact assessment for emission sources in this region. PMID:12916195

  20. Survival and persistence of fecal host-specific Bacteroidales cells and their DNA assessed by PMA-qPCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, S.; Bombardelli, F.; Wuertz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding and managing microbial pollutions in water is one of the foremost challenges of establishing effective managements and remediation strategies to impaired water bodies polluted by uncharacterized fecal sources. Quantitative microbial source tracking (MST) approaches using fecal Bacteroidales and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to measure gene copies of host-specific 16S rRNA genetic markers are promising because they can allow for identifying and quantifying fecal loadings from a particular animal host and understanding the fate and transport of host-specific Bacteroidales over a range of conditions in water bodies. Similar to the case of traditional fecal indicator bacteria, a relatively long persistence of target DNA may hamper applied MST studies, if genetic markers cannot be linked to recent fecal pollution in water. We report a successful approach to removing the qPCR signal derived from free DNA and dead host-specific Bacteroidales cells by selectively binding the DNA and consequently inhibiting PCR amplification using light- activated propidium monoazide (PMA). Optimal PMA-qPCR conditions were determined as 100 µM of PMA concentration and a 10-min light exposure time at different solids concentrations in order to mimic a range of water samples. Under these conditions, PMA-qPCR resulted in the selective exclusion of DNA from heat- treated cells of non-culturable Bacteroidales in human feces and wastewater influent and effluent samples. Also, the persistence of feces-derived host-specific Bacteroidales DNA and their cells (determined by universal, human-, cow- and dog-specific Bacteroidales qPCR assays) in seawater was investigated in microcosms at environmental conditions. The average T99 (two log reduction) value for host-specific viable Bacteroidales cells was 28 h, whereas that for total host-specific Bacteroidales DNA was 177 h. Natural sunlight did not have a strong influence on the fate of fecal Bacteroidales cells and their DNA, presumably

  1. Determination of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead human renal calculi in both cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, I.; Itoh, M.; Tsukada, S.

    1987-08-01

    A number of investigators have reported about heavy metal contents in food, blood, urine, and animal tissues, including bone, hair, feather, and tooth. However, few data concerning calculi are reported as yet. Heavy metal contents in the calculi might reflect the level of metals absorbed from respiratory tract, skin and intestine. When absorbed metals from respiration are distributed in blood, a part of cadmium is accumulated in liver and kidney, and of lead is in bone, annular vessel and kidney. The remainder is excreted in the urine through the urinary tracts. From intestine, they are distributed by the blood to the liver, and excreted in the urine in the same manner of respiration. It is well known that renal calculi are produced in the urinary tract. The present study is focused on the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead in human renal calculi, samples collected from Hokuriku which is one of the most cadmium polluted areas and from Chugoku which is recognized as a non-polluted one in Japan.

  2. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples using multiplex PCR and qPCR-MCA.

    PubMed

    Zebardast, Nozhat; Yeganeh, Farshid; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Abadi, Alireza; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad; Haghighi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common causes of diarrheal and intestinal diseases all over the world. Microscopic methods are useful in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites (IPs), but their sensitivity was assessed approximately 60 percent. Recently, molecular techniques have been used increasingly for the identification and characterization of the parasites. Among those, in this study we have used multiplex PCR and Real-time PCR with melting curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) for simultaneous detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples. Twenty DNA samples from 12 E. histolytica and 8 E. dispar samples and twenty stool samples confirmed positive for G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. were analyzed. After DNA extraction from the samples, multiplex PCR was done for detection and differentiation of above mentioned parasites. QPCR-MCA was also performed for the detection and differentiation of 11 isolates of above mentioned parasite in a cycle with a time and temperature. Multiplex PCR was able to simultaneous detect and differentiate of above mentioned parasite in a single reaction. QPCR-MCA was able to differentiate genus and species those five protozoa using melting temperature simultaneously at the same time and temperature programs. In total, qPCR-MCA diagnosed 7/11 isolation of E. histolytica, 6/8 isolation of E. dispar, 1/1 E. moshkovskii Laredo, 10/11 G. Lamblia and 6/11 Cryptosporidium spp. Application of multiplex PCR for detection of more than one species in a test in developing countries, at least in reference laboratories has accurate diagnosis and plays a critical role in differentiation of protozoan species. Multiplex PCR assay with a template and multi template had different results and it seems that using a set of primers with one template has higher diagnostic capability in compare with multi template. The results of this study

  3. HUMAN HEALTH DAMAGES FROM MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION: ADDITIONAL DELPHI DATA ANALYSIS. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains the results of additional analyses of the data generated by a panel of medical experts for a study of Human Health Damages from Mobile Source Air Pollution (hereafter referred to as HHD) conducted by the California Air Resources Board in 1973-75 for the U.S. E...

  4. MITOCHONDRIAL OXIDANT PRODUCTION BY POLLUTANT DUST AND NO-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a pollutant dust that stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria and apoptosis in alveolar macrophages (AM), but the relationship between these two processes is unclear. In this study, human AM were incubated with RO...

  5. Current State of the Evidence: Air Pollution Impacts on Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a consistent association between ambient levels of air pollution and adverse human health effects, including mortality and morbidity. Many of these studies have relied on the US Air Quality System (AQS) for exposure assessment. The AQS is a...

  6. Three-dimensional modeling of fecal coliform in the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel, Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Bai, Sen; Lung, Wu-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Fecal coliform are widely used as bacterial indicator in the United States and around the world. Fecal coliform impaired water is highly possible to be polluted by pathogenic bacteria. The Tidal Basin and Washington Channel in Washington, DC are on the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) list due to the high fecal coliform level. To support TMDL development, a three-dimensional numerical model of fecal coliform was developed using the EFDC framework. The model calculates the transport of fecal coliform under the influences of flap gate operations and tidal elevation. The original EFDC code was modified to calculate the die-off of fecal coliform under the impact of temperature and solar radiation intensity. The watershed contribution is expressed as storm water inflow and the load carried by the runoff. Model results show that fecal coliform vary strongly in space in both the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel. The storm water only impacts a small area around the storm water outfall in the Tidal Basin and the impacts are negligible in the Washington Channel due to dilution. The water from the Potomac River may affect the fecal coliform level in the area close to the flap gate in the Tidal Basin. The fecal coliform level in the Washington Channel is mainly controlled by the fecal coliform level in the Anacostia River, which is located at the open boundary of the Washington Channel. The potential sediment layer storage of fecal coliform was analyzed and it was found that the sediment layer fecal coliform level could be much higher than the water column fecal coliform level and becomes a secondary source under high bottom shear stress condition. The developed model built solid connection of fecal coliform source and concentration in the water column and has been used to develop TMDL. PMID:16854806

  7. Implications of Nitrogen-Climate Interactions for Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuber, R.; Peel, J. L.; Garcia, V.; Neas, L.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also formed by lightning and wildland fires and is emitted by soil. Reduced nitrogen (e.g., ammonia, NH3) is also emitted by various sources, including fertilizer application and animal waste decomposition. NOX, ozone and PM2.5 pollution related to atmospheric emissions of nitrogen and other pollutants can cause premature death and a variety of serious health effects. Climate change is expected to impact how nitrogen-related pollutants affect human health. For example, changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are projected to both lengthen the ozone season and intensify high ozone episodes in some areas. Other climate-related changes may increase the atmospheric release of nitrogen compounds through impacts on wildfire regimes, soil emissions, and biogenic emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. This session will examine the potential human health implications of climate change and nitrogen cycle interactions related to ambient air pollution.

  8. Fecal coliform loadings and stocks in buttermilk bay, Massachusetts, USA, and management implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiela, Ivan; Alber, Merryl; Lamontagne, Michael

    1991-09-01

    Abundance of fecal caliform bacteria is a weak index of the presence of human pathogens in wastewater entering coastal waters. In spite of this, use of fecal caliform indices for management purposes is widespread. To gain insight into interpretation of fecal coliform data, we evaluated size of stocks of fecal coliforms in water, sediments, and sea wrack, in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment in Massachusetts. Sediments contained most of the fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms in sediments were as much as one order of magnitude more abundant than in the water column or in sea wrack. The fecal coliforms in sediments of Buttermilk Bay were so abundant that resuspension of fecal coliforms from just the top 2 cm of muddy sediments could add sufficient cells to the water column to have the whole bay exceed the federal limit of fecal coliforms for shellfishing. The major sources of fecal coliforms to the bay were water-fowls, surface runoff, groundwater, and streams. Waterfowl were the largest source of fecal coliforms during cold months; surface runoff, streams, and groundwater were most important during warm months. Redirection of surface runoff pipes is unlikely to be a very successful management action since contributions via this source are insufficient to account for the measured increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms in water. Removal of waterfowl is also unlikely to be useful, since fecal coliform concentrations leading to closures of shellfish beds and swimming areas are most frequent during warm months when waterfowl are rarest. Rates of loss of fecal caliform cells from the water column by death and tidal exchange were high. Mortality of cells was about an order of magnitude larger than losses by tidal exchange. The amounts of fecal coliforms brought into the bay by waterfowl, surface runoff, groundwater, and streams are an order of magnitude smaller than the losses by mortality and tidal removal. This implies that there is an additional source of fecal

  9. Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Elvidge, Christopher D; Keith, David M; Haim, Abraham

    2011-10-01

    Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this "residual light pollution", cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment

  10. An uncooked vegan diet shifts the profile of human fecal microflora: computerized analysis of direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography profiles of bacterial cellular fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, R; Ling, W H; Hänninen, O; Eerola, E

    1992-01-01

    The effect of an uncooked extreme vegan diet on fecal microflora was studied by direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) of bacterial cellular fatty acids and by quantitative bacterial culture by using classical microbiological techniques of isolation, identification, and enumeration of different bacterial species. Eighteen volunteers were divided randomly into two groups. The test group received an uncooked vegan diet for 1 month and a conventional diet of mixed Western type for the other month of the study. The control group consumed a conventional diet throughout the study period. Stool samples were collected. Bacterial cellular fatty acids were extracted directly from the stool samples and measured by GLC. Computerized analysis of the resulting fatty acid profiles was performed. Such a profile represents all bacterial cellular fatty acids in a sample and thus reflects its microflora and can be used to detect changes, differences, or similarities of bacterial flora between individual samples or sample groups. GLC profiles changed significantly in the test group after the induction and discontinuation of the vegan diet but not in the control group at any time, whereas quantitative bacterial culture did not detect any significant change in fecal bacteriology in either of the groups. The results suggest that an uncooked extreme vegan diet alters the fecal bacterial flora significantly when it is measured by direct stool sample GLC of bacterial fatty acids. PMID:1482187

  11. Identification of chicken-specific fecal microbial sequences using a metagenomic approach.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingrang; Santo Domingo, Jorge; Shanks, Orin C

    2007-08-01

    In this study, we applied a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to select for genomic regions that differ among different fecal metagenomes. Competitive DNA hybridizations were performed between chicken fecal DNA and pig fecal DNA (CP) and between chicken fecal DNA and an avian DNA composite consisting of turkey, goose, and seagull fecal DNA extracts (CB) to enrich for chicken-specific DNA fragments. A total of 471 non-redundant chicken metagenomic sequences were retrieved and analyzed. All of the clone sequences were similar to prokaryotic genes, of which more than 60% could not be assigned to previously characterized functional roles. In general terms, sequences assigned characterized functional roles were associated with cellular processes (11.7%), metabolism (11.0%) and information storage and processing (13.4%). Approximately 53% of the non-redundant sequences are similar to genes present in intestinal bacteria belonging to Clostridia (20.9%), Bacteroidetes (15.0%), and Bacilli (17.3%). Twenty-five sequences from the CP and CB clone libraries were selected to develop chicken fecal-specific PCR assays. These assays were challenged against fecal DNA extracted from 21 different animal species, including mammals and birds. The results from the host-specificity studies showed that 12 of the assays had a high degree of specificity to chicken feces. In addition, three assays were specific to chicken and turkey while another four assays tested positive to more than two avian species, suggesting a broader distribution of some of the enriched gene fragments among different avian fecal microbial communities. Fecal pollution signals were detected using chicken-specific assays in contaminated water samples, although the PCR assays showed different detection limits. These results indicate the need for multiple assays to detect poultry fecal sources of pollution. The competitive DNA hybridization approach used in this study can rapidly select for numerous chicken fecal

  12. [Safety value of contaminant in water pollution accident based on human health risk].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; Luo, Jin-Hong; Fu, Qing; Qin, Yan-Wen; Hu, Lin-Lin

    2012-02-01

    The acute human health risk assessment of contaminant in water pollution accident is a new study field of environmental sciences. This study established a model for calculating acute safety value of contaminant in water pollutant. The acute safety value of contaminant in mainly water pollution during 2000-2010 was calculated by this model. The safety value of sodium cyanide, cadmium, formaldehyde, ammonia, toluene, nitrobenzene, microcystin-LR were 0.1, 0.6, 8, 20, 6, 0.07, 0.004 mg x L(-1), respectively. The differences of safety value calculate methods between acute and chronic exposure were compared from the following aspects, the toxicology exposure end-point, allocation of intake, exposure sensitive subpopulation. PMID:22509564

  13. Vegetable fiber fermentation by human fecal bacteria: cell wall polysaccharide disappearance and short-chain fatty acid production during in vitro fermentation and water-holding capacity of unfermented residues.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, L D; Titgemeyer, E C; Fahey, G C

    1993-05-01

    Dietary fiber from eight vegetables (broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, lettuce, onion and radish) was analyzed for chemical composition and potential in vitro fermentation by human fecal bacteria. Total dietary fiber concentration of substrates ranged from 34.9 (broccoli) to 5.8 (cucumber) g/kg edible matter. Substrate fiber fractions were composed primarily of pectic substances and cellulose with smaller concentrations of hemicelluloses and lignin. Total dietary fiber residues isolated from substrates were fermented in vitro for 24 h with fecal bacteria obtained from each of three human volunteers. Substrate dry matter disappearance during fermentation was highest for carrot (63.7%) and lowest for cucumber (49.4%). Averaged across all substrates, disappearances of arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose and uronic acids during fermentation were 96, 90, 54, 68, 51 and 97%, respectively. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production during substrate fermentation averaged 10.5 mmol SCFA/g dry matter fermented. Averaged across all substrates, production of the major SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate, occurred in the molar ratio 76:14:10. Potential water-holding capacity of substrates was not influenced by fiber source and averaged 2.04 g H2O/g original substrate dry matter. Extent of substrate fermentation, SCFA production and substrate potential water-holding capacity were significantly different among inoculum donors, indicating that considerable inter-individual variation exists in the potential in vivo fermentation of vegetable fiber. PMID:8387579

  14. The effect of future outdoor air pollution on human health and the contribution of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Lamarque, J.; Shindell, D.; Collins, W.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Faluvegi, G. S.; Folberth, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Bergmann, D. J.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Doherty, R. M.; Eyring, V.; Josse, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, D.; Righi, M.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S. A.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2013-12-01

    At present, exposure to outdoor air pollution from ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) causes over 2 million deaths per year, due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Future ambient concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 will be affected by both air pollutant emissions and climate change. Here we estimate the potential impact of future outdoor air pollution on premature human mortality, and isolate the contribution of future climate change due to its effect on air quality. We use modeled present-day (2000) and future global ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from simulations with an ensemble of chemistry-climate models from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). Future air pollution was modeled for global greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in the four IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, for 2030, 2050 and 2100. All model outputs are regridded to a common 0.5°x0.5° horizontal resolution. Future premature mortality is estimated for each RCP scenario and year based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000. Using a health impact function, changes in concentrations for each RCP scenario are combined with future population and cause-specific baseline mortality rates as projected by a single independent scenario in which the global incidence of cardiopulmonary diseases is expected to increase. The effect of climate change is isolated by considering the difference between air pollutant concentrations from simulations with 2000 emissions and a future year climate and simulations with 2000 emissions and climate. Uncertainties in the results reflect the uncertainty in the concentration-response function and that associated with variability among models. Few previous studies have quantified the effects of future climate change on global human health via changes in air quality, and this is the first such study to use an ensemble of global models.

  15. [Fecal microbiota transplantation: review].

    PubMed

    Barbut, F; Collignon, A; Butel, M-J; Bourlioux, P

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained an increasing medical interest, since the recognition of the role of disturbed microbiota in the development of various diseases. To date, FMT is an established treatment modality for multiple recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI), despite lack of standardization of the procedure. Persisting normalization of the disturbed colonic microbiota associated with RCDI seems to be responsible for the therapeutic effect of FMT. For other diseases, FMT should be considered strictly experimental, only offered to patients in an investigational clinical setting. Although the concept of FMT is appealing, current expectations should be damped until future evidence arises. PMID:25577013

  16. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  17. Theoretical and Numerical Modeling of Transport of Land Use-Specific Fecal Source Identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, F. A.; Sirikanchana, K. J.; Bae, S.; Wuertz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Microbial contamination in coastal and estuarine waters is of particular concern to public health officials. In this work, we advocate that well-formulated and developed mathematical and numerical transport models can be combined with modern molecular techniques in order to predict continuous concentrations of microbial indicators under diverse scenarios of interest, and that they can help in source identification of fecal pollution. As a proof of concept, we present initially the theory, numerical implementation and validation of one- and two-dimensional numerical models aimed at computing the distribution of fecal source identifiers in water bodies (based on Bacteroidales marker DNA sequences) coming from different land uses such as wildlife, livestock, humans, dogs or cats. These models have been developed to allow for source identification of fecal contamination in large bodies of water. We test the model predictions using diverse velocity fields and boundary conditions. Then, we present some preliminary results of an application of a three-dimensional water quality model to address the source of fecal contamination in the San Pablo Bay (SPB), United States, which constitutes an important sub-embayment of the San Francisco Bay. The transport equations for Bacteroidales include the processes of advection, diffusion, and decay of Bacteroidales. We discuss the validation of the developed models through comparisons of numerical results with field campaigns developed in the SPB. We determine the extent and importance of the contamination in the bay for two decay rates obtained from field observations, corresponding to total host-specific Bacteroidales DNA and host-specific viable Bacteroidales cells, respectively. Finally, we infer transport conditions in the SPB based on the numerical results, characterizing the fate of outflows coming from the Napa, Petaluma and Sonoma rivers.

  18. Current and future trends in fecal source tracking and deployment in the Lake Taihu Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Charles; Liang, Xinqiang

    The emerging discipline of microbial and/or chemical source tracking (collectively termed fecal source tracking (FST)) is being used to identify origins of fecal contamination in polluted waters in many countries around the world. FST has developed rapidly because standard methods of measuring contamination in water by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as fecal coliforms and enterococci do not identify the sources of the contamination. FST is an active area of research and development in both the academic and private sectors and includes: Developing and testing new microbial and chemical FST methods. Determining the geographic application and animal host ranges of existing and emerging FST techniques. Conducting experimental comparisons of FST techniques. Combining direct monitoring of human pathogens associated with waterborne outbreaks and zoonotic pathogens responsible for infections among people, wildlife, or domesticated animals with the use of FST techniques. Applying FST to watershed analysis and coastal environments. Designing appropriate statistical and probability analysis of FST data and developing models for mass loadings of host-specific fecal contamination. This paper includes a critical review of FST with emphasis on the extent to which methods have been tested (especially in comparison with other methods and/or with blind samples), which methods are applicable to different situations, their shortcomings, and their usefulness in predicting public health risk or pathogen occurrence. In addition, the paper addresses the broader question of whether FST and fecal indicator monitoring is the best approach to regulate water quality and protect human health. Many FST methods have only been tested against sewage or fecal samples or isolates in laboratory studies (proof of concept testing) and/or applied in field studies where the “real” answer is not known, so their comparative performance and accuracy cannot be assessed. For FST to be

  19. Development of new host-specific Bacteroides qPCRs for the identification of fecal contamination sources in water.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Doñate, Marta; Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Muniesa, Maite; Blanch, Anicet R

    2016-02-01

    Bacteroides spp. have been proposed as indicators of fecal contamination in microbial source tracking (MST) methodologies. The aim of this study was to develop new qPCR assays that target host-specific Bacteroidal 16S ribosomal RNA genes, to determine the source of fecal contamination in water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to select for host-specific bands of Bacteroides associated with a fecal pollution source and later to design four qPCR host-specific assays. A set of common primers for Bacteroides spp., four different Bacteroides spp. host-associated hydrolysis probes (human, cattle, pig, and poultry), and one hydrolysis probe for the Bacteroides genus were designed. This set of qPCR assays together with other previously developed Bacteroidetes MST targets were used to analyze water samples with fecal contamination from the four sources studied. The host-specific Bacteroides qPCRs designed for human (HMprobeBac), pig (PGprobeBac), and poultry (PLprobeBac) were highly specific for its sources (1.0, 0.97, and 1.0, respectively) although its sensitivity was lower (0.45, 0.50, and 0.73, respectively). The cattle-specific qPCR was totally unspecific and was discarded for future experiments. When compared to previously designed assays, the human and pig qPCRs showed better accuracies (0.86 and 0.84) than their counterparts HF183 and Pig-2-Bac (0.38 and 0.65). Thus, the newly designed human, pig, and poultry qPCR assays outperform other methods developed until date and may be useful for source tracking purposes. PMID:26763626

  20. Development of a PCR assay and pyrosequencing for identification of important human fish-borne trematodes and its potential use for detection in fecal specimens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Small liver and minute intestinal flukes are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Definitive diagnosis of parasite infection is usually achieved parasitologically by finding the fluke eggs in feces. However, their eggs are difficult to differentiate morphologically in fecal samples, even for experienced technicians. The present study developed a PCR assay coupled with DNA pyrosequencing for identification of the fish-borne trematodes (FBT), Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio and Stellantchasmus falcatus, and to evaluate potential detection in fecal specimens, and identification and differentiation of cercarial and metacercarial stages. Methods Primers targeting the partial 28S large subunit ribosomal RNA gene were designed and about 46–47 nucleotides were selected as the target region for species identification by a PCR assay coupled with a pyrosequencing technique. Results The nucleotide variations at 24 positions, which is sufficient for the identification of the five species of FBT were selected. The method could identify O. viverrini and C. sinensis eggs in feces, cercarial and metacercarial stages of O. viverrini, and metacercarial stage of H. pumilio and H. taichui. The detection limit was as little as a single O. viverrini or C. sinensis egg artificially inoculated in 100 mg of non-infected fecal sample (equivalent to 10 eggs per gram), indicating highly sensitivity. The method was found to be superior to the traditional microscopy method and was more rapid than Sanger DNA sequencing. Conclusions DNA pyrosequencing-based identification is a valuable tool for differentiating O. viverrini and other Opisthorchis-like eggs, and can be applied to epidemiological studies and for molecular taxonomic investigation of FBT in endemic areas. PMID:24589167

  1. Fecal corticoid monitoring in whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, B.K.; Olsen, G.H.; Czekala, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    We used radioimmunoassay to determine fecal corticoid concentrations and assess potential stress in 10 endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction to the wild. Fecal samples were collected shortly after hatching at a captive facility in Maryland, during field training in Wisconsin, and throughout a human-led migration to Florida. After a 14-day decline following hatching, fecal corticoid concentrations stabilized at baseline levels for the duration of the captive period, despite exposure to potentially stressful stimuli. Shipment of the cranes to the field training site was correlated with an eight- to 34-fold increase in fecal corticoid concentrations, which returned to baseline levels within 1 week. Increases were positively correlated with age but not body weight at the time of shipping. Fecal corticoid concentrations during the training period increased slightly and exhibited greater variation than levels observed at the captive facility, but were well within expected norms based on previous studies. Fecal corticoid concentrations increased twofold following premigration physical examinations and placement of radiotransmitters, and persisted for up to 4 days before they returned to baseline levels. Though fecal corticoid concentrations and variation during the migration period were similar to training levels, there was an overall decline in fecal corticoid concentrations during the artificial migration. Acute stressors, such as capture, restraint, and severe storms, were associated with stress responses by the cranes that varied in accordance with lasting physical or psychological stimuli. The overall reintroduction process of costume-rearing, ultralight aircraft habituation, training, and artificial migration was not associated with elevations in fecal corticoid concentrations suggestive of chronic stress.

  2. Fecal corticoid monitoring in whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, B.K.; Olsen, G.H.; Czekala, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    We used radioimmunoassay to determine fecal corticoid concentrations and assess potential stress in 10 endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) undergoing reintroduction to the wild. Fecal samples were collected shortly after hatching at a captive facility in Maryland, during field training in Wisconsin, and throughout a human-led migration to Florida. After a 14-day decline following hatching, fecal corticoid concentrations stabilized at baseline levels for the duration of the captive period, despite exposure to potentially stressful stimuli. Shipment of the cranes to the field training site was correlated with an eight- to 34-fold increase in fecal corticoid concentrations, which returned to baseline levels within 1 week. Increases were positively correlated with age but not body weight at the time of shipping. Fecal corticoid concentrations during the training period increased slightly and exhibited greater variation than levels observed at the captive facility, but were well within expected norms based on previous studies. Fecal corticoid concentrations increased twofold following premigration physical examinations and placement of radiotransmitters, and persisted for up to 4 days before they returned to baseline levels. Though fecal corticoid concentrations and variation during the migration period were similar to training levels, there was an overall decline in fecal corticoid concentrations during the artificial migration. Acute stressors, such as capture, restraint, and severe storms, were associated with stress responses by the cranes that varied in accordance with lasting physical or psychological stimuli. The overall reintroduction process of costume-rearing, ultralight aircraft habituation, training, and artificial migration was not associated with elevations in fecal corticoid concentrations suggestive of chronic stress. ?? 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  4. Ambient Levels of Air Pollution Induce Goblet-Cell Hyperplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Priscila; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Kara-José, Newton; Macchione, Mariângela; Matsuda, Monique; Racca, Lourdes; Berra, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Background Ocular mucosa is exposed constantly to the external environment, and chronic exposure to air pollution may affect the ocular surface. Objective We assessed the effect of air pollution on the ocular surface by combining determinations of individual exposure and conjunctival impression cytology. Methods A panel study was conducted with 29 volunteers recruited in two locations with different pollution levels: São Paulo (n = 13) and Divinolândia (n = 16). We assessed mean individual levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure for 7 days, using a passive sampler. Impression cytology samples were obtained from inferior tarsal conjunctiva. Comparisons between the two groups in terms of NO2 exposure and goblet-cell counts were performed using the Student t-test. Correlations between goblet-cells counts and corresponding individual NO2 exposure levels were determined using Spearman’s correlation. Results Individuals living in São Paulo received a significantly (p = 0.005) higher dose of NO2 (mean 32.47; SD 9.83) than those living in Divinolândia (mean 19.33; SD 5.24). There was a steady increase in goblet-cell counts, proportional to NO2 exposure (Spearman’s correlation = 0.566, p = 0.001), with a dose–response pattern. Conclusions A positive and significant association between exposure to air pollution and goblet-cell hyperplasia in human conjunctiva was detected. The combination of simple measurements of exposure and impression cytology was an effective and noninvasive approach for characterizing human response to ambient levels of air pollution. PMID:18087595

  5. No difference in fecal levels of bacteria or short chain fatty acids in humans, when consuming fruit juice beverages containing fruit fiber, fruit polyphenols, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Alison J; Eady, Sarah L; Hunter, Denise C; Skinner, Margot A; Huffman, Lee; Ansell, Juliet; Blatchford, Paul; Wohlers, Mark; Herath, Thanuja D; Hedderley, Duncan; Rosendale, Douglas; Stoklosinski, Halina; McGhie, Tony; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Redman, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a Boysenberry beverage (750 mg polyphenols), an apple fiber beverage (7.5 g dietary fiber), and a Boysenberry plus apple fiber beverage (750 mg polyphenols plus 7.5 g dietary fiber) on gut health. Twenty-five individuals completed the study. The study was a placebo-controlled crossover study, where every individual consumed 1 of the 4 treatments in turn. Each treatment phase was 4-week long and was followed by a 2-week washout period. The trial beverages were 350 g taken in 2 doses every day (ie, 175 mL taken twice daily). The hypothesis for the study was that the combination of polyphenols and fiber would have a greater benefit on gut health than the placebo product or the fiber or polyphenols on their own. There were no differences in fecal levels of total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, Bifidobacteriumspecies, Clostridium perfringens, or Lactobacillus species among any of the treatment groups. Fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations did not vary among treatment groups, although prostaglandin E2 concentrations were higher after consumption of the Boysenberry juice beverage. No significant differences were found in quantitative measures of gut health between the Boysenberry juice beverage, the apple fiber beverage, the Boysenberry juice plus apple fiber beverage, and the placebo beverage. PMID:25530011

  6. Evaluation of fecal contamination by human and ruminant sources in upper Fountain Creek, Colorado, 2007-2008, by using multiple lines of evidence:

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeckel, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Fountain Creek is a high-gradient stream on the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. The headwaters of Fountain Creek drain Pikes Peak, a major destination for tourism. Fountain Creek is a drinking-water source for the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado, and is used for irrigation, recreation, and other purposes between Colorado Springs and the confluence with the Arkansas River at Pueblo, Colorado. In 2008, Fountain Creek was placed on the Colorado 303(d) list of impaired streams because of fecal contamination. Colorado uses a 30-day geometric mean standard of 126 Escherichia coli per 100 milliliters as its management goal for recreational waters. The objective of this study was to identify major sources of Escherichia coli in upper Fountain Creek during exceedances of the State recreational water standard. To meet this objective, a new approach was developed and tested that uses genetic marker analysis for microbial source tracking, along with other information, to evaluate potential contributions of fecal contamination from various sources.

  7. Evaluation of Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 bacteriophages as novel human-associated faecal indicators in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phages infecting human-associated Bacteroides fragilis (GB-124 phages) have been employed in the European Union (EU) to identify human fecal pollution, but their utility for U.S. was unclear. Primary sewage effluent samples were collected seasonally from seven wastewater treatme...

  8. EVALUATION OF THE USE OF DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTICS IN THE DIRECT VIABLE COUNT METHOD TO DETECT FECAL ENTEROCOCCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of fecal pollution is performed via culturing methods in spite of the fact that culturable counts can severely underestimate the densities of fecal microorganisms. One approach that has been used to enumerate bacteria is the direct viable count method (DVC). The ob...

  9. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  10. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  11. Surgical Management for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Anandam, Joselin L.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a socially debilitating condition that can lead to social isolation, loss of self-esteem and self-confidence, and depression in an otherwise healthy person. After the appropriate clinical evaluation and diagnostic testing, medical management is initially instituted to treat fecal incontinence. Once medical management fails, there are a few surgical procedures that can be considered. This article is devoted to the various surgical options for fecal incontinence including the history, technical details, and studies demonstrating the complication and success rate. PMID:25320569

  12. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  13. Quantifying the human health benefits of curbing air pollution in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Carmichael, Gregory R; Streets, David G; Chang, Young-Soo; Fung, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    Urban development in the mega-cities of Asia has caused detrimental effects on the human health of its inhabitants through air pollution. However, averting these health damages by investing in clean energy and industrial technologies and measures can be expensive. Many cities do not have the capital to make such investments or may prefer to invest that capital elsewhere. In this article, we examine the city of Shanghai, China, and perform an illustrative cost/benefit analysis of air pollution control. Between 1995 and 2020 we expect that Shanghai will continue to grow rapidly. Increased demands for energy will cause increased use of fossil fuels and increased emissions of air pollutants. In this work, we examine emissions of particles smaller than 10 microm in diameter (PM10), which have been associated with inhalation health effects. We hypothesize the establishment of a new technology strategy for coal-fired power generation after 2010 and a new industrial coal-use policy. The health benefits of pollution reduction are compared with the investment costs for the new strategies. The study shows that the benefit-to-cost ratio is in the range of 1-5 for the power-sector initiative and 2-15 for the industrial-sector initiative. Thus, there appear to be considerable net benefits for these strategies, which could be very large depending on the valuation of health effects in China today and in the future. This study therefore provides economic grounds for supporting investments in air pollution control in developing cities like Shanghai. PMID:15125545

  14. Teplice program--the impact of air pollution on human health.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J; Benes, I; Binková, B; Dejmek, J; Horstman, D; Kotĕsovec, F; Otto, D; Perreault, S D; Rubes, J; Selevan, S G; Skalík, I; Stevens, R K; Lewtas, J

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the Teplice Program is to investigate and assess the impact of air pollution on the health of the population in the district of Teplice, Czech Republic. Characterization of the air pollutants demonstrated unusually high concentrations during winter inversions of fine particles dominated by acidic sulfates, genotoxic organic compounds, and toxic trace elements. The major source of airborne fine particles is the burning of coal for heating and power. Human exposure and biomarker studies demonstrated large seasonal variations in air pollution within the Teplice District and higher seasonal average pollution levels than the comparative district, Prachatice. Personal exposures to fine particles and organic carcinogens [e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)] were correlated with excretion of PAH metabolites in urine, several trace metals in blood, and DNA adducts in white blood cells. Respiratory and neurobehavioral studies of school children were conducted using questionnaires and clinical measures. A significantly higher prevalence of adverse respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function were found in the Teplice district than in Prachatice. The neurobehavioral studies indicated significantly higher teacher referrals for clinical assessment in Teplice, but the majority of objective performance measures did not differ. Reproductive studies were conducted in both males and females. A study of the effects of exposure on pregnancy and birth found an excess prevalence of low birth weight and premature births in Teplice; these adverse effects were more common in infants conceived in the winter and whose mothers were smokers. Based on questionnaires and medical examination, the reproductive development of young men was not different between districts and seasons, however, measures of semen quality suggest that exposure to high levels of air pollution are associated with transient decrements in semen quality. PMID:8879999

  15. Human teratogenic and mutagenic markers in monitoring about point sources of pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, E.B.

    1981-06-01

    For most pollutants a full range of short-term adverse reproductive outcomes should be considered as possible markers in monitoring populations. These include sex ratio, birthweight, intrauterine growth retardations, neonatal motality, birth defects manifest at birth or very shortly thereafter, embryonic and fetal deaths (EFD), germinal chromosome abnormalities in EFD and in livebirths, specific locus mutations detectable at birth, and indicators of somatic mutation including chromosome breakage and sister chromatid exchange. It is suggested (in the absence of a defined expected effect) that the highest priority be given to study of rates of EFD and of somatic chromosome rearrangement. Where possible, data on reproductive and mutagenic outcomes in the potential target population should be sought systematically before a putative pollution source comes into operation. Reference data on human mutagenic and teratogenic outcomes are presented.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2012-11-01

    To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ΣDDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ΣDDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples. PMID:22840535

  17. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p < 0.05), and slightly increased serum HDL. B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation. PMID:19515264

  18. FECAL BACTERIA SOURCE TRACKING AND BACTEROIDES SPP. HOST SPECIES SPECIFICITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point and non-point pollution sources of fecal pollution on a watershed adversely impact the quality of drinking source waters and recreational waters. States are required to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and devise best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the po...

  19. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  20. A MECHANISTIC MODEL OF RUNOFF-ASSOCIATED FECAL COLIFORM FATE AND TRANSPORT THROUGH A COASTAL LAGOON. (R828676C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coast...

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of human and nonhuman Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Parveen, S; Hodge, N C; Stall, R E; Farrah, S R; Tamplin, M L

    2001-02-01

    Estuarine waters receive fecal pollution from a variety of sources, including humans and wildlife. Escherichia coli is one of several fecal coliform bacteria that inhabit the intestines of many warm-blooded animals that sometimes contaminate water. Its presence does not specifically implicate human fecal input, therefore it is necessary to differentiate contamination sources to accurately assess health risks. E. coli were isolated from human sources (HS) and nonhuman sources (NHS) in the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve and analyzed for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), O-serogroup, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. For FAME and PFGE analyses, there was no relationship between profile and isolate source. Human source PFGE profiles were less diverse than NHS isolates, and conversely for FAME. In contrast, O-serogrouping showed less diversity for HS vs. NHS isolates, and the predominant HS O-serogroups differed significantly (P < 0.01) from those of NHS isolates. PMID:11228989

  2. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  3. Distribution of fecal sterols in surface sediment of Sungai Tebrau, Johor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, N.; Ali, M. M.

    2013-11-01

    Decreasing quality of aquatic environments may harm human health in general. Sewage pollution from human and animal excretions is a major cause of environmental quality depletion. This study investigates the distribution of sewage contamination level in twenty surface sediment samples taken from Sungai Tebrau, Johor. Four principal fecal sterols have been identified and were found in all sediment samples, which are coprostanol, cholesterol, epicoprostanol and also cholestanol. Cholesterol as the major sterol and most abundant compound derived from a variety of sources ranged from 32.92 to 1,100.55 ngg-1 dry weights. Meanwhile, major fecal sterol, coprostanol has the lowest quantity of total sterol in all samples, constituting only 13% of total sterol. It ranged from 12.63 to 565.42 ngg-1 dry weights, but only two stations (ST12 and ST14) are sewage contaminated. Squatters and residential areas are a major contributor of poorly treated sewage into the aquatic environment. Coprostanol concentration alone is not reliable to indicate sewage contamination; diagnostic indices enhance reliability of sterols as a marker for sewage contamination. Indices applied in this study are coprostanol/cholesterol, coprostanol/(coprostanol+cholestanol) and also epicoprostanol/coprostanol. Resultsof coprostanol/cholesterol, coprostanol/(coprostanol+cholestanol) indices supported the findings that both ST12 and ST14 samples are contaminated with sewage. All samples consist of relativelyhigh concentration of epicoprostanol and high ratio value of epicoprostanol/coprostanol. Generally, it can be concluded that these sampling sites are not contaminated with sewage even though fecal sterols were detected in all samples as they were found to be at low concentration.

  4. Minimizing human health effects of urban air pollution through quantification and control of motor vehicular carbon monoxide (CO) in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Amer; Bajwa, Ihsan Ullah

    2007-12-01

    Impact of urban air pollution has variety of focuses such as urban ecology, human health, economy, etc. But human health is always given priority. Air pollution is threat to the lives of people living in big cities of Pakistan. In Lahore only there die 1,250 people annually because of air pollution. A strong correlation exists between urban air pollution and human health in Lahore. Growth of COPD is highest among other air pollution borne diseases. Existing mass transit system (one of driving forces behind motor vehicular emission) in Lahore due to frequent stoppages, entering and exit in flow of traffic causes excess discharge of motor vehicular carbon monoxide (CO) which is a hazardous to human health. Quantification and enumeration of this discharge is essential for environmental management. The paper is an attempt to highlight human health effects of urban air pollution through correlation and regression analysis. Further it is focused upon quantifying excess motor vehicular carbon monoxide through application of simplified mobile emission model. In light of results emission control measures are recommended. PMID:17380418

  5. Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Placental Tissue from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachael M.; Li, An; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Walker, Cheryl; Szabo, Sara; Leuthner, Steve; Durkin, Maureen S.; Moye, Jack; Miller, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and legacy environmental pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (DDE) are found in human placenta, indicating prenatal exposure, but data from the United States are sparse. We sought to determine concentrations of these compounds in human placentae as part of a formative research project conducted by the National Children’s Study Placenta Consortium. A total of 169 tissue specimens were collected at different time points post delivery from 42 human placentae at three U.S. locations, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry following extraction using matrix solid phase dispersion. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE were detected in all specimens. The concentrations of 10 PBDEs (∑10PBDEs), 32 PCBs (∑32PCBs) and p,p’-DDE were 43–1,723, 76–856 and 10–1,968 pg/g wet weight, respectively, in specimens collected shortly after delivery. Significant geographic differences in PBDEs were observed, with higher concentrations in placentae collected in Davis, CA than in those from Rochester, NY or Milwaukee, WI. We combined these with other published data and noted first-order declining trends for placental PCB and DDE concentrations over the past decades, with half-lives of about 5 and 8 years, respectively. The effect of time to tissue collection from refrigerated placentae on measured concentrations of these three classes of persistent organic pollutants was additionally examined, with no significant effect observed up to 120 hours. The results of this work indicate that widespread prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the United States continues. PMID:24485817

  6. The head dome: a simplified method for human exposures to inhaled air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bowes, S M; Frank, R; Swift, D L

    1990-05-01

    Acute controlled exposures of human subjects to air pollutants are customarily carried out with whole-body chambers, masks, or mouthpieces. The use of these methods may be limited by cost or technical considerations. To permit a study involving a highly unstable pollutant, artificial acid fog, administered to subjects during natural breathing, a head-only exposure chamber, called a head dome, was developed. It consists of a transparent cylinder with a neck seal which fits over the subject's head and rests lightly on his shoulders. The head dome does not constrain the upper airways or impede exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Ventilation can be monitored accurately and unobtrusively with a pneumotachograph at the exhaust port of the dome. A thermocouple may be used to monitor the onset and persistence of oronasal breathing. For short-term exposures to unstable or reactive pollutants lasting up to several hours, the head dome is an effective alternative to a whole-body chamber and probably superior to a face mask or mouthpiece. PMID:2346113

  7. The head dome: A simplified method for human exposures to inhaled air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Bowes, S.M. III; Frank, R.; Swift, D.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Acute controlled exposures of human subjects to air pollutants are customarily carried out with whole-body chambers, masks, or mouthpieces. The use of these methods may be limited by cost or technical considerations. To permit a study involving a highly unstable pollutant, artificial acid fog, administered to subjects during natural breathing, a head-only exposure chamber, called a head dome, was developed. It consists of a transparent cylinder with a neck seal which fits over the subject's head and rests lightly on his shoulders. The head dome does not constrain the upper airways or impede exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Ventilation can be monitored accurately and unobtrusively with a pneumotachograph at the exhaust port of the dome. A thermocouple may be used to monitor the onset and persistence of oronasal breathing. For short-term exposures to unstable or reactive pollutants lasting up to several hours, the head dome is an effective alternative to a whole-body chamber and probably superior to a face mask or mouthpiece.

  8. Estimates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Fecal Coliforms Entering the Environment Due to Inadequate Sanitation Treatment Technologies in 108 Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmeister, Erica R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Julian, Timothy R

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the excretion and treatment of human waste (feces and urine) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is necessary to design appropriate waste management strategies. However, excretion and treatment are often difficult to quantify due to decentralization of excreta management. We address this gap by developing a mechanistic, stochastic model to characterize phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and fecal coliform pollution from human excreta for 108 LMICs. The model estimates excretion and treatment given three scenarios: (1) use of existing sanitation systems, (2) use of World Health Organization-defined "improved sanitation", and (3) use of best available technologies. Our model estimates that more than 10(9) kg/yr each of phosphorus, nitrogen and BOD are produced. Of this, 22(19-27)%, 11(7-15)%, 17(10-23)%, and 35 (23-47)% (mean and 95% range) BOD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliforms, respectively, are removed by existing sanitation systems. Our model estimates that upgrading to "improved sanitation" increases mean removal slightly to between 17 and 53%. Under the best available technology scenario, only approximately 60-80% of pollutants are treated. To reduce impact of nutrient and microbial pollution on human and environmental health, improvements in both access to adequate sanitation and sanitation treatment efficiency are needed. PMID:26320879

  9. Toxic interactions among environmental pollutants: corroborating laboratory observations with human experience.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, K; Brodeur, J

    1994-01-01

    Combined exposures to multiple chemicals may result in interactions leading to a significant increase or decrease in the overall toxicity of the mixture compared to the summation of the toxicity of the components. A large number of chemical interactions have been described in animal studies by administering high doses of chemicals by routes and scenarios often different from anticipated human exposures. Though limited, there is some evidence for the occurrence of several supra-additive (the combined effects are greater than the simple summation of the individual effects) and infra-additive (the combined effects are smaller than the simple summation of the individual effects) chemical interactions in humans. For example, toxicokinetic interactions between several solvents have been found to occur in the workplace, whereas those involving pesticides have been reported less frequently, especially during accidental exposures. Toxic interactions involving nutritionally important metals and metalloids appear to occur more frequently, since several of them have an important role in a variety of physiological and biochemical processes. On the contrary, there is not much evidence to confirm the occurrence of toxic interactions among the commonly encountered inorganic gaseous pollutants in humans. Overall, the majority of chemical interactions observed in animal studies have neither been investigated in humans nor been extrapolated to humans based on appropriate mechanistic considerations. Future research efforts in the chemical interactions arena should address these issues by focusing on the development of mechanistically and biologically based models that allow predictions of the extent of interactions likely to be observed in humans. PMID:7698071

  10. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  11. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance

    PubMed Central

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  12. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  13. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Freshwater Impacted by Animal Fecal Material (proceedings)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the potential for human illness from a hypothetical recreational exposure to freshwater that was impacted by land-applied, agricultural animal fecal material. The scenario included 1) fresh cattle manure, pig slurry, or chicken litter (fecal material) land-applied, a...

  14. Development and Testing of Novel Canine Fecal Source-Identification Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent to which dogs contribute to aquatic fecal contamination is unknown despite the potential for zoonotic transfer of harmful human pathogens. Recent method comparison studies have shown that available Bacteroidales 16S rRNA-based methods for the detection of canine fecal ...

  15. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Pascale S J; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air. PMID:27605301

  16. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air. PMID:27605301

  17. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples.

    PubMed

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. PMID:26350449

  18. Methods for the determination of biomarkers of exposure to emerging pollutants in human specimens

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Vicent; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a very useful tool for assessing human exposure to environmental pollutants. This review discusses recent methods for the quantitative measurement of biomarkers of exposure to different classes of chemicals used in personal-care products (e.g., musk fragrances, preservatives, UV filters, and insect repellents) and consumer products (e.g., organophosphate flame retardants, phthalate esters, perfluorinated compounds, and industrial phenols). The measurements are mainly taken in urine, blood, and breast milk. We also discuss the different procedures commonly used for sample-pretreatment, extraction, and clean up, and chromatographic techniques currently used to determine these compounds. Finally, we present data on the main biomarkers occurring in different human specimens. PMID:26705372

  19. Biodetection of potential genotoxic pollutants entering the human food chain through ashes used in livestock diets.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vicente, Laura; Herraez, Elisa; Briz, Oscar; Nogales, Rogelio; Molina-Alcaide, Eduarda; Marin, Jose J G

    2016-08-15

    Ash derived from energy generation is used as a source of minerals in livestock feeds. The microbial biosensor recApr-Luc2 was built to detect genotoxic hazard in recycled ash. Escherichia coli SOS gene (recA, lexA, dinI and umuC) expression in response to cisplatin-induced DNA damage led to the selection of the recA promoter. The biosensor required functional RecA expression to respond to genotoxic heavy metals (Cr>Cd≈Pb), and polluted ash induced a strong recApr-Luc2 response. In human liver and intestinal cells, heavy metals induced acute toxicity (Cr>Cd>Pb) at concentrations sufficient to activate recApr-Luc2. Cytostatic effects, including genotoxicity, were cell- and metal-dependent, apart from Cr. In agreement with the recApr-Luc2 bioassay, Cr had the strongest effect in all cells. In conclusion, recApr-Luc2 could be useful for evaluating the genotoxic risk of pollutants present in ash that might be concentrated in animal products and, thus, entering the human food chain. PMID:27006217

  20. Human intake fraction of toxic pollutants: a model comparison between caltox and uses-lca

    SciTech Connect

    Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Geelen, Loes M.J.; Hertwich, Edgar G.; McKone, Thomas E.; van de Meent, Dik

    2004-01-06

    In Life Cycle Assessment and Comparative Risk Assessment potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the human intake fraction (iF), representing the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess model uncertainty in the human intake fraction, ingestion and inhalation iFs of 367 substances emitted to air and freshwater were calculated with two commonly applied multi-media fate and exposure models, CalTOX and USES-LCA. Comparison of the model outcomes reveal that uncertainty in the ingestion iFs was up to a factor of 70. The uncertainty in the inhalation iFs was up to a factor of 865,000. The comparison showed that relatively few model differences account for the uncertainties found. An optimal model structure in the calculation of human intake fractions can be achieved by including (1) rain and no-rain scenarios, (2) a continental sea water compartment, (3) drinking water purification, (4) pH-correction of chemical properties, and (5) aerosol-associated deposition on plants. Finally, vertical stratification of the soil compartment combined with a chemical-dependent soil depth may be considered in future intake fraction calculations.

  1. Estimation and interpretation of fermentation in the gut: coupling results from a 24 h batch in vitro system with fecal measurements from a human intervention feeding study using fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber.

    PubMed

    Koecher, Katie J; Noack, Jackie A; Timm, Derek A; Klosterbuer, Abby S; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2014-02-12

    Gut bacteria ferment fiber at different rates to primarily short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gas while proteins are metabolized to SCFA, branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), gas, and undesirable metabolites. Large volumes of gas produced in vivo may contribute to bloating and flatulence in an individual. The objectives of this trial were to (1) compare the in vitro fermentation profiles of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber alone or blended using a 24 h batch model and (2) relate these findings to a human study that fed enteral formula fortified with fiber blend (FB) or no fiber (FF). The in vitro fermentation of the fiber blend resulted in a delayed pH decrease and gas and SCFA production compared to the FOS and inulin. Human samples had higher SCFA on FB compared to FF (p = 0.029). BCFA were not different between formulas. By using a blend of fibers, we observed a slower fermentation in vitro but still increased fecal SCFA when fed to human subjects. PMID:24446899

  2. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    PubMed

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment. PMID:26162353

  3. Current Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer Y; Abbas, Maher A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the management of fecal incontinence, which affects more than 1 in 10 people and can have a substantial negative impact on quality of life. Methods: The medical literature between 1980 and April 2012 was reviewed for the evaluation and management of fecal incontinence. Results: A comprehensive history and physical examination are required to help understand the severity and type of symptoms and the cause of incontinence. Treatment options range from medical therapy and minimally invasive interventions to more invasive procedures with varying degrees of morbidity. The treatment approach must be tailored to each patient. Many patients can have substantial improvement in symptoms with dietary management and biofeedback therapy. For younger patients with large sphincter defects, sphincter repair can be helpful. For patients in whom biofeedback has failed, other options include injectable medications, radiofrequency ablation, or sacral nerve stimulation. Patients with postdefecation fecal incontinence and a rectocele can benefit from rectocele repair. An artificial bowel sphincter is reserved for patients with more severe fecal incontinence. Conclusion: The treatment algorithm for fecal incontinence will continue to evolve as additional data become available on newer technologies. PMID:24355892

  4. Evaluation of potential sewage contamination by fecal sterol biomarkers adsorbed in natural biofilms.

    PubMed

    Froehner, Sandro; Sánez, Juan

    2013-10-01

    The use of biofilms for adsorption of sterols was investigated for the first time to evaluate sewage contamination in the Barigüi River, Curitiba (Brazil). The characteristics of a biofilm that favor its use in monitoring include the relatively rapid development of biofilms and their capacity to sorb hydrophobic compounds. Some fecal sterols considered to be biomarkers for human and animal feces have relatively high octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log KOW); thus, sterols were expected to be readily sorbed in the biofilms. The biofilms were developed on glass plates (0.48 m(2)) previously coated with a fine layer of stearic acid and supported by a PVC tube that was submersed in the river 20 cm above the river bottom. After a certain period of incubation time, the biofilm growth was scraped from the plates and analyzed for the following fecal steroids: coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3β-ol), epicoprostanol (5β-cholestan-3α-ol), cholesterol (5,6-cholesten-3β-ol), cholestanol (5α-cholestan-3β-ol), stigmastanol (24β-ethyl-5α-cholestan-3β-ol) and coprostanone (5β-cholestan-3-one). Six samples were collected between March 2012 and June 2012. All analyzed compounds were detected, and in general, cholesterol was present in high amounts (23 160-41.9 ng g(-1) dry biofilm). Variation among campaigns was observed in the distribution of sterols, with cholestanol showing the least variation among the samples. Sterol ratios that are commonly used for evaluating sewage contamination were calculated; these ratios indicated some periods of potential sewage influence. However, these sterol ratios are intended to be applied primarily for sediments and not for biological compartments; thus, the results must be carefully interpreted. Biofilms developed under natural conditions can be a tool for monitoring some important sterols that are used as biomarkers of fecal pollution. PMID:24064988

  5. A cautionary note on fecal sampling and molecular epidemiology in predatory wild great apes.

    PubMed

    De Nys, Hélène Marie; Madinda, Nadège Freda; Merkel, Kevin; Robbins, Martha; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian Hubertus; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2015-08-01

    Fecal samples are an important source of information on parasites (viruses, prokaryotes, or eukaryotes) infecting wild great apes. Molecular analysis of fecal samples has already been used for deciphering the origins of major human pathogens such as HIV-1 or Plasmodium falciparum. However, for apes that hunt (chimpanzees and bonobos), detection of parasite nucleic acids may reflect either true infection of the host of interest or ingestion of an infected prey, for example, another non-human primate. To determine the potential magnitude of this issue, we estimated the prevalence of prey DNA in fecal samples obtained from two wild chimpanzee communities. We observed values >15%, which are higher than or close to the fecal detection rates of many great ape parasites. Contamination of fecal samples with parasite DNA from dietary origin may therefore occasionally impact non-invasive epidemiological studies. This problem can be addressed (at least partially) by monitoring the presence of prey DNA. PMID:26031302

  6. [Tracing the Fecal Contamination Sources Based on Bacteroides 16S rRNA PCR- DGGE in Karst Groundwater: Taking Laolongdong Underground River System, Nanshan, Chongqing as an Example].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Yong-jun; Zhang, Yuan-zhu; Duan, Yi-fan; Lü, Xian-fu; He, Qiu-fang

    2016-05-15

    Microbial contamination in karst groundwater continually increases and tracing the source researches has become a hot topic for international researchers. In this study, Laolongdong underground river at Nanshan, Chongqing was chosen as an example to adopt filter membrane methods to monitor the fecal microbial contaminations including the total bacterial concentration (TB), the total E. coli concentration (TE), the total fecal coliform (FC) and the total fecal Streptocoocci (FS). Bacteriodes was used as an indicator and PCR-DGGE analysis was used to trace fecal contamination sources in karst groundwater. The results suggested that groundwater in this area was seriously polluted by microbes from feces. The concentrations of microbial parameters exceeded limited levels greatly and the total bacterial amounts ranged 10-2.9 x 10⁷ CFU · mL⁻¹, the concentrations of E. coli were between 4.3-4.0 x 10⁵ CFU · mL⁻¹, the max concentration of FC was 1.1 x 10⁶ CFU · (100 mL)⁻¹ and the max concentration of FS was 1.1 x 10⁵ CFU · (100 mL)⁻¹. The FC/FS ratios were mostly over 2 which suggested that the main fecal source in groundwater was human feces. In addition, PCR-DGGE contrastive analysis of Bacteroides communities showed that the similarities between groundwater samples and human feces were in range of 7. 1% -69. 1% , and the similarity of the groundwater sample from Laolongdong underground river outlet was 69.1% . Bacteroides community similarities between groundwater samples and swine feces were in range of 1.1%-53.4%, and the similarity of Laolongdong underground river outlet was merely 1.5%. The similarity data implied that groundwater contamination resulted mainly from human feces, swine feces contamination composed part of animals' fecal contamination, and other animals' feces participated too. Furthermore, sequencing results of PCR-DGGE products revealed that most Bacteroides in groundwater originated from human intestinal tract and human feces

  7. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  8. A chain modeling approach to estimate the impact of soil cadmium pollution on human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Franz, Eelco; Römkens, Paul; van Raamsdonk, Leo; van der Fels-Klerx, Ine

    2008-12-01

    Cadmium in soil poses a risk for human health, due to its accumulation in food and feed crops. The extent of accumulation depends strongly on soil type and the degree of pollution. The objective of the present study was to develop a predictive model to estimate human dietary cadmium exposure from soil characteristics. This chain model consists of three basic steps: (i) calculation of plant cadmium levels from soil contamination levels and soil characteristics, (ii) calculation of animal transfer from consumption and contamination levels, and (iii) human exposure from both plant and animal products. Six soil scenarios were assessed, reflecting a specific contaminated region and ranging from 0.5 mg/kg of Cd (pH 4.5) to 2.5 mg/kg of Cd (pH 5.5). Cadmium levels in feed crops and vegetables were estimated with regression and mathematical models. Animal exposure and transfer to cattle kidneys, livers, and meat were calculated using a consumption database and a parameterized linear simulation model. Human exposure was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation, using a consumption database. The median human exposure for the different scenarios ranged from 0.24 to 0.98 microg/kg of body weight per day, which is comparable to results obtained from exposure levels based on observed field contamination data. The study shows that a chain model approach from soil contamination to human exposure, including animal exposure and transfer to animal products, can successfully be applied. The model can be used for fast evaluation of dietary cadmium exposure and the identification of risk areas based on soil conditions. PMID:19244905

  9. IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE DETECTION OF 'CRYPTOSPORIDIUM' OOCYSTS IN FECAL SMEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in human, nonhuman primate, and bovine fecal smears. The procedure, which takes about 90 min to perform, involves the use of a rabbit antiserum against Cryptosporidium ...

  10. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  11. Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Fecal Occult Blood Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... test kit to measure the presence of hidden (occult) blood in your stool (feces). What is fecal ...

  12. More human, more humane: a new approach for testing airborne pollutants.

    PubMed

    Potera, Carol

    2007-03-01

    People not only inhale airborne contaminants but also absorb them through the skin. Both routes can set off localized toxic reactions or damage internal organs such as the liver, kidney, and brain. Conventional tests of the toxicity of gases and vapors, in which laboratory animals are exposed to lethal or sub-lethal doses of chemicals, have been criticized as expensive, unethical, inhumane, and time-consuming. Now researchers at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney, Australia, have developed an animal-free alternative that uses human cells to test the effects of exposure to airborne toxicants. PMID:17431472

  13. More Human, More Humane: A New Approach for Testing Airborne Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Potera, Carol

    2007-01-01

    People not only inhale airborne contaminants but also absorb them through the skin. Both routes can set off localized toxic reactions or damage internal organs such as the liver, kidney, and brain. Conventional tests of the toxicity of gases and vapors, in which laboratory animals are exposed to lethal or sub-lethal doses of chemicals, have been criticized as expensive, unethical, inhumane, and time-consuming. Now researchers at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney, Australia, have developed an animal-free alternative that uses human cells to test the effects of exposure to airborne toxicants. PMID:17431472

  14. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method of separating strontium, and, more particularly, to a method of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. Radioactive strontium is a radionuclide which represents a hazard to man because of its long half-life and, if ingested, its tendency to be retained in the human body. In the event that radionuclides such as strontium or various actinides are ingested, it is desirable to monitor the discharge or release of these radionuclides from the human body through analysis of fecal matter. In laboratories and other facilities where potential for radionuclide contamination exists, fecal analysis for strontium is routinely conducted for individuals who are terminating from their position or are suspected of having been contaminated with radionuclides. Methods for separating and analyzing radioactive actinides from a biomass sample are well known and have been extensively developed for the US Department of Energy. These methods, described in the Department`s internal procedure, USDOE, RESL/ID, A-16, 1981, as well as in US Patent 5,190,881, involve the use of an iron phosphate precipitation step to separate actinides from a solution, or supernate. However, there are no established procedures for the separation of strontium from a biomass sample wherein an iron phosphate precipitation step is involved.

  15. Improved HF183 reverse primer and probe for greater analytical sensitivity of human bacteroides in the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Numerous indicators have been used to assess the presence of fecal pollution, many relying on molecular methods such as qPCR. One of the targets frequently used, the human-specific Bacteroides 16s rRNA genetic marker, has several assays in current usage. These assays vary in terms of t...

  16. Improved HF183 reverse primer and probe for greater analytical sensitivity of human Bacteroides in the environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Numerous indicators have been used to assess the presence of fecal pollution, many relying on molecular methods such as qPCR. One of the targets frequently used, the human-associated Bacteroides 16s rRNA region, has several assays in current usage. These assays vary...

  17. DNA adducts in human placenta as related to air pollution and to GSTM1 genotype.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J; Binková, B; Mracková, G; Stávková, Z; Benes, I; Dejmek, J; Lenícek, J; Srám, R J

    1997-04-24

    DNA adducts in human placenta have been studied in relation to metabolic genotype for glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) in 98 mothers living in two regions with a different annual average air pollution levels: Northern Bohemia-the district of Teplice as polluted industrial area (mines, brown coal power plants) and Southern Bohemia-the district of Prachatice as agricultural area without heavy industry. Forty-nine placenta samples (25 from the Teplice district and 24 from the Prachatice district) from non-smoking mothers with the date of delivery in the summer period and 49 placenta samples (25 from the Teplice district and 24 from Prachatice district) from mothers with the date of delivery in the winter period were analysed. The total DNA adduct levels were calculated as the sum of adducts in the diagnoal radioactive zone (DRZ) and one distinct spot outside of the DRZ (termed X), which was detected in almost all placenta samples. We found total DNA adduct levels of 1.40 +/- 0.87 (0.04-3.65) and 1.04 +/- 0.63 (0.11-3.08) adducts per 10(8) nucleotides for the Teplice and Prachatice districts, respectively. The significant difference between both districts in placental DNA adduct levels was found for the winter sampling period only (1.49 vs. 0.96 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides; p = 0.023). No seasonal variation was observed for DNA adduct levels in the overall population studied. A positive GSTM1 genotype was detected in 51 subjects, while GSTM1-null genotype was found in 47 subjects. Higher DNA adduct levels were detected in a group with GSTM1-null genotype (p = 0.009). This finding seems more significant for subjects in the Teplice district (p = 0.047) than for those in the Prachatice district (p = 0.092). Significant district and seasonal differences were found in subgroups carrying the GSTM1-null genotype. DNA adduct levels in placentas of mothers with GSTM1-null genotype living in the polluted district of Teplice were higher than those in Prachatice (p = 0

  18. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    PubMed

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments. PMID:25656265

  19. Development of a Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Toolkit for Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Patricia; Ray, Meredith; Fisher, Jeffrey; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2011-01-01

    Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can be used to determine the internal dose and strengthen exposure assessment. Many PBPK models are available, but they are not easily accessible for field use. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has conducted translational research to develop a human PBPK model toolkit by recoding published PBPK models. This toolkit, when fully developed, will provide a platform that consists of a series of priority PBPK models of environmental pollutants. Presented here is work on recoded PBPK models for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals. Good agreement was generally obtained between the original and the recoded models. This toolkit will be available for ATSDR scientists and public health assessors to perform simulations of exposures from contaminated environmental media at sites of concern and to help interpret biomonitoring data. It can be used as screening tools that can provide useful information for the protection of the public. PMID:22174611

  20. Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases from the preindustrial period to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2013-02-01

    Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. We estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 from pre-industrial (1860) to present (2000) and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We extend previous work to differentiate the contribution of changes in three factors: emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8 ± 0.16 μg m-3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv (results reported as annual average ±standard deviation of 10-yr model simulations), respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global population-weighted average PM2.5 (O35) to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 μg m-3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv), +0.4 ± 0.17 μg m-3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv), and 0.04 ± 0.24 μg m-3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total global changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.2-1.8) million cardiopulmonary mortalities and 95 (95% CI, 44-144) thousand lung cancer mortalities annually and changes in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129-592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their

  1. The Ecological Dynamics of Fecal Contamination and Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A in Municipal Kathmandu Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Karkey, Abhilasha; Jombart, Thibaut; Walker, Alan W; Thompson, Corinne N; Torres, Andres; Dongol, Sabina; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Pham Thanh, Duy; Tran Thi Ngoc, Dung; Voong Vinh, Phat; Singer, Andrew C; Parkhill, Julian; Thwaites, Guy; Basnyat, Buddha; Ferguson, Neil; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One of the UN sustainable development goals is to achieve universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030. It is locations like Kathmandu, Nepal, a densely populated city in South Asia with endemic typhoid fever, where this goal is most pertinent. Aiming to understand the public health implications of water quality in Kathmandu we subjected weekly water samples from 10 sources for one year to a range of chemical and bacteriological analyses. We additionally aimed to detect the etiological agents of typhoid fever and longitudinally assess microbial diversity by 16S rRNA gene surveying. We found that the majority of water sources exhibited chemical and bacterial contamination exceeding WHO guidelines. Further analysis of the chemical and bacterial data indicated site-specific pollution, symptomatic of highly localized fecal contamination. Rainfall was found to be a key driver of this fecal contamination, correlating with nitrates and evidence of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, for which DNA was detectable in 333 (77%) and 303 (70%) of 432 water samples, respectively. 16S rRNA gene surveying outlined a spectrum of fecal bacteria in the contaminated water, forming complex communities again displaying location-specific temporal signatures. Our data signify that the municipal water in Kathmandu is a predominant vehicle for the transmission of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. This study represents the first extensive spatiotemporal investigation of water pollution in an endemic typhoid fever setting and implicates highly localized human waste as the major contributor to poor water quality in the Kathmandu Valley. PMID:26735696

  2. The Ecological Dynamics of Fecal Contamination and Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A in Municipal Kathmandu Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Alan W.; Thompson, Corinne N.; Torres, Andres; Dongol, Sabina; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Pham Thanh, Duy; Tran Thi Ngoc, Dung; Voong Vinh, Phat; Singer, Andrew C.; Parkhill, Julian; Thwaites, Guy; Basnyat, Buddha; Ferguson, Neil; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One of the UN sustainable development goals is to achieve universal access to safe and affordable drinking water by 2030. It is locations like Kathmandu, Nepal, a densely populated city in South Asia with endemic typhoid fever, where this goal is most pertinent. Aiming to understand the public health implications of water quality in Kathmandu we subjected weekly water samples from 10 sources for one year to a range of chemical and bacteriological analyses. We additionally aimed to detect the etiological agents of typhoid fever and longitudinally assess microbial diversity by 16S rRNA gene surveying. We found that the majority of water sources exhibited chemical and bacterial contamination exceeding WHO guidelines. Further analysis of the chemical and bacterial data indicated site-specific pollution, symptomatic of highly localized fecal contamination. Rainfall was found to be a key driver of this fecal contamination, correlating with nitrates and evidence of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, for which DNA was detectable in 333 (77%) and 303 (70%) of 432 water samples, respectively. 16S rRNA gene surveying outlined a spectrum of fecal bacteria in the contaminated water, forming complex communities again displaying location-specific temporal signatures. Our data signify that the municipal water in Kathmandu is a predominant vehicle for the transmission of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. This study represents the first extensive spatiotemporal investigation of water pollution in an endemic typhoid fever setting and implicates highly localized human waste as the major contributor to poor water quality in the Kathmandu Valley. PMID:26735696

  3. Household Air Pollution Causes Dose-Dependent Inflammation and Altered Phagocytosis in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Duncan G.; Scriven, James; Aljurayyan, Abdullah N.; Mzinza, David; Barrett, Steve; Wright, Adam K. A.; Wootton, Daniel G.; Glennie, Sarah J.; Baple, Katy; Knott, Amy; Mortimer, Kevin; Russell, David G.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Three billion people are exposed to household air pollution from biomass fuel use. Exposure is associated with higher incidence of pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Understanding mechanisms underlying these defects would improve preventive strategies. We used human alveolar macrophages obtained from healthy Malawian adults exposed naturally to household air pollution and compared them with human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed in vitro to respirable-sized particulates. Cellular inflammatory response was assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 production in response to particulate challenge; phagosomal function was tested by uptake and oxidation of fluorescence-labeled beads; ingestion and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured by microscopy and quantitative culture. Particulate ingestion was quantified by digital image analysis. We were able to reproduce the carbon loading of naturally exposed alveolar macrophages by in vitro exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages. Fine carbon black induced IL-8 release from monocyte-derived and alveolar macrophages (P < 0.05) with similar magnitude responses (log10 increases of 0.93 [SEM = 0.2] versus 0.74 [SEM = 0.19], respectively). Phagocytosis of pneumococci and mycobacteria was impaired with higher particulate loading. High particulate loading corresponded with a lower oxidative burst capacity (P = 0.0015). There was no overall effect on killing of M. tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophage function is altered by particulate loading. Our macrophage model is comparable morphologically to the in vivo uptake of particulates. Wood smoke–exposed cells demonstrate reduced phagocytosis, but unaffected mycobacterial killing, suggesting defects related to chronic wood smoke inhalation limited to specific innate immune functions. PMID:25254931

  4. Household air pollution causes dose-dependent inflammation and altered phagocytosis in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rylance, Jamie; Fullerton, Duncan G; Scriven, James; Aljurayyan, Abdullah N; Mzinza, David; Barrett, Steve; Wright, Adam K A; Wootton, Daniel G; Glennie, Sarah J; Baple, Katy; Knott, Amy; Mortimer, Kevin; Russell, David G; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Stephen B

    2015-05-01

    Three billion people are exposed to household air pollution from biomass fuel use. Exposure is associated with higher incidence of pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Understanding mechanisms underlying these defects would improve preventive strategies. We used human alveolar macrophages obtained from healthy Malawian adults exposed naturally to household air pollution and compared them with human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed in vitro to respirable-sized particulates. Cellular inflammatory response was assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 production in response to particulate challenge; phagosomal function was tested by uptake and oxidation of fluorescence-labeled beads; ingestion and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured by microscopy and quantitative culture. Particulate ingestion was quantified by digital image analysis. We were able to reproduce the carbon loading of naturally exposed alveolar macrophages by in vitro exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages. Fine carbon black induced IL-8 release from monocyte-derived and alveolar macrophages (P < 0.05) with similar magnitude responses (log10 increases of 0.93 [SEM = 0.2] versus 0.74 [SEM = 0.19], respectively). Phagocytosis of pneumococci and mycobacteria was impaired with higher particulate loading. High particulate loading corresponded with a lower oxidative burst capacity (P = 0.0015). There was no overall effect on killing of M. tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophage function is altered by particulate loading. Our macrophage model is comparable morphologically to the in vivo uptake of particulates. Wood smoke-exposed cells demonstrate reduced phagocytosis, but unaffected mycobacterial killing, suggesting defects related to chronic wood smoke inhalation limited to specific innate immune functions. PMID:25254931

  5. A review of environmental and human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wei, Yan-Li; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-10-01

    Rapid economic growth in South China (including Guangdong Province, Hong Kong, and Macau), particularly within the Pearl River Delta region, has resulted in severe pollution of the natural eco-environment in the last three decades. Large amounts of monitoring data on organic pollution in the Pearl River Delta have been accumulated, which allows us to conduct a fairly comprehensive assessment of the state of the Pearl River Delta and elucidate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution on a regional scale. Of various causes for environmental deterioration, negative impact from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a global concern. This review examines the current levels and distribution patterns of several POPs, namely DDT (and its metabolites DDD and DDE), hexachlorocyclohexanes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in various environmental compartments of South China. The general information on environmental occurrence, regional behaviors, ecological effects, and human exposure of these POPs in this region are reviewed. PMID:23245873

  6. Fecal detection of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, L A; Van Meerbeke, S; Albesiano, E; Goodwin, A; Wu, S; Yu, H; Carroll, K; Sears, C

    2015-09-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is a common colonic symbiote of which one subtype, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), causes inflammatory diarrhea. However, asymptomatic ETBF colonization is common. Through its primary virulence factor, B. fragilis toxin (BFT), ETBF causes asymptomatic, chronic colitis in C57BL/6 mice and increased colon tumorigenesis in multiple intestinal neoplasia mice. Human studies suggest an association between ETBF infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer. Additional studies on ETBF epidemiology are, therefore, crucial. The goal of this study is to develop a reliable fecal diagnostic for ETBF. To develop a sensitive assay for ETBF, we tested multiple protocols on mouse stools spiked with serially diluted ETBF. Each assay was based on either touchdown or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and used primers targeted to bft to detect ETBF. Using touchdown PCR or qPCR, the mean ETBF detection limit was 1.55 × 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/g stool and 1.33 × 10(4) CFU/g stool, respectively. Augmentation of Bacteroides spp. growth in fecal samples using PYGB (Peptone Yeast Glucose with Bile) broth enhanced ETBF detection to 2.93 × 10(2) CFU/g stool using the touchdown PCR method and 2.63 × 10(2) CFU/g stool using the qPCR method. Fecal testing using combined culture-based amplification and bft touchdown PCR is a sensitive assay for the detection of ETBF colonization and should be useful in studying the role of ETBF colonization in intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. We conclude that touchdown PCR with culture-based amplification may be the optimal ETBF detection strategy, as it performs as well as qPCR with culture-based amplification, but is a less expensive technique. PMID:26173688

  7. Human mother`s milk as a marker for human exposure to environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, M.A.; Kamel, A.; Ragab, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Levels of the heavy metal Lead and persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in human breast milk of 360 Egyptian women representing 20 different provinces throughout Egypt were determined. Lead was determined using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption spectrometer and chlorinated pesticides were analyzed by GC/ECD and confirmed by GC/MS. Lead level was considerably higher in highly populated cities i.e. Cairo and Alexandria which is attributed to heavy automobiles traffic and the use of leaded gasoline as the only type of gasoline available in Egypt. Other populations with lower traffics showed much lower level of lead. The same was true for the level of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in which higher levels were found in agricultural rural areas and big cities but was much lower in remote desert locations when pesticides are rarely used. Lindane, Endosulfan and DDT metabolites were among the most commonly found insecticides.

  8. The impact of European measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnock, S.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T.; Mann, G.; Forster, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Johnson, C.; Bellouin, N.; Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C.

    2015-12-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, resulting in improved air quality and benefits to human health but also an unintended impact on regional climate. Here we used a coupled chemistry-climate model and a new policy relevant emission scenario to determine the impact of air pollutant emission reductions over Europe. The emission scenario shows that a combination of technological improvements and end-of-pipe abatement measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors reduced European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon and organic carbon by 53%, 59% and 32% respectively. We estimate that these emission reductions decreased European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, black carbon (BC) by 56% and particulate organic matter (POM) by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 107,000 (40,000-172,000, 5-95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually from cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer across the EU member states. The decrease in aerosol concentrations caused a positive all-sky aerosol radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere over Europe of 2.3±0.06 W m-2 and a positive clear-sky forcing of 1.7±0.05 W m-2. Additionally, the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe increased by 3.3±0.07 W m-2 under all-sky and by 2.7±0.05 W m-2 under clear-sky conditions. Reductions in BC concentrations caused a 1 Wm-2 reduction in atmospheric absorption. We use an energy budget approximation to show that the aerosol induced radiative changes caused both temperature and precipitation to increase globally and over Europe. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human health over Europe, as well as altered the regional radiative balance and climate.

  9. Stereo-Selectivity of Human Serum Albumin to Enantiomeric and Isoelectronic Pollutants Dissected by Spectroscopy, Calorimetry and Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ejaz; Rabbani, Gulam; Zaidi, Nida; Singh, Saurabh; Rehan, Mohd; Khan, Mohd Moin; Rahman, Shah Kamranur; Quadri, Zainuddin; Shadab, Mohd.; Ashraf, Mohd Tashfeen; Subbarao, Naidu; Bhat, Rajiv; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2011-01-01

    1–naphthol (1N), 2–naphthol (2N) and 8–quinolinol (8H) are general water pollutants. 1N and 2N are the configurational enantiomers and 8H is isoelectronic to 1N and 2N. These pollutants when ingested are transported in the blood by proteins like human serum albumin (HSA). Binding of these pollutants to HSA has been explored to elucidate the specific selectivity of molecular recognition by this multiligand binding protein. The association constants (Kb) of these pollutants to HSA were moderate (104–105 M−1). The proximity of the ligands to HSA is also revealed by their average binding distance, r, which is estimated to be in the range of 4.39–5.37 nm. The binding free energy (ΔG) in each case remains effectively the same for each site because of enthalpy–entropy compensation (EEC). The difference observed between ΔCpexp and ΔCpcalc are suggested to be caused by binding–induced flexibility changes in the HSA. Efforts are also made to elaborate the differences observed in binding isotherms obtained through multiple approaches of calorimetry, spectroscopy and bioinformatics. We suggest that difference in dissociation constants of pollutants by calorimetry, spectroscopic and computational approaches could correspond to occurrence of different set of populations of pollutants having different molecular characteristics in ground state and excited state. Furthermore, our observation of enhanced binding of pollutants (2N and 8H) in the presence of hemin signifies that ligands like hemin may enhance the storage period of these pollutants in blood that may even facilitate the ill effects of these pollutants. PMID:22073150

  10. Evaluation of Swine-Specific PCR Assays Used for Fecal Source Tracking and Analysis of Molecular Diversity of Swine-Specific "Bacteroidales" Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study we evaluated specificity, distribution, and sensitivity of Bacteroidales – (PF163 and PigBac1) and methanogen-based (P23-2) assays proposed to detect swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. The assays were tested against 220 fecal DNA extracts derived from t...

  11. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Freshwater Impacted by Animal Fecal Material

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the potential for human illness from a hypothetical recreational exposure to freshwater impacted by land-applied, agricultural animal fecal material. The hypothetical exposure scenario included the following characteristics: 1) fresh cattle manure, pig slurry, or ch...

  12. Evaluating spatial and temporal variability of fecal coliform bacteria loads at Pelahatchie Watershed in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial contaminations of surface waters are an increasing concern for scientists because pathogenic bacteria can cause adverse effects on human health. This research was performed to investigate spatial and seasonal variability of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) concentrations from the Pelahatchie ...

  13. Fecal-borne bacteria in stormwater and treatment systems in coastal New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. H.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial contamination is the most common use limitation in New Hampshire's coastal waters. Past studies have shown consistently elevated levels of fecal-borne bacteria in surface waters occur during and following runoff events. Follow-up investigations have shown many stormwater conduits in urban areas that discharge directly into tidal rivers to contain high levels of bacteria, even during dry weather conditions. One of the results of these conditions is the need to close shellfishing waters throughout coastal New Hampshire, especially in Hampton Harbor, following rainfall events. Several recent studies have involved investigation of stormwater treatment system impacts on bacterial pollutants. Influent and effluent water samples from parking lot and storm drain treatment systems, runoff from urban streets, effluent from urban storm drains and receiving water samples were collected during different stages of stormwater runoff and analyzed for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci. E. coli isolates from one storm drain system were also ribotyped to identify source species. The stormwater treatment systems showed different capabilities for removing bacteria. Most were inconsistent at removing bacteria while others showed evidence of possible re-growth of bacteria between storms, especially during warmer weather. Re-growth or illicit connections appear to impact effluent bacterial levels in many urban storm drains. The source species identified for E. coli isolates in one storm drain changed between different stages of a storm event, reflecting runoff dynamics and human behavior patterns. Further work is focused on identifying the most significant sources of bacterial contaminants in receiving waters to help focus ongoing pollution abatement measures.

  14. REAL-TIME MODELING AND MEASUREMENT OF MOBILE SOURCE POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FOR ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES IN COMMUNITIES NEAR ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is pursuing a project to improve the methodology for real-time site specific modeling of human exposure to pollutants from motor vehicles. The overall project goal is to deve...

  15. Hazardous Metal Pollution in the Republic of Fiji and the Need to Elicit Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Kee; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Wilson, Colleen Turaga; Ueno, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The fact that hazardous metals do not bio-degrade or bio-deteriorate translates to long-lasting environmental effects. In the context of evidently rapid global industrialization, this ought to warrant serious caution, particularly in developing countries. In the Republic of Fiji, a developing country in the South Pacific, several different environmental studies over the past 20 years have shown levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron in sediments of the Suva Harbor to be 6.2, 3.9, 3.3 and 2.1 times more than the accepted background reference levels, respectively. High levels of mercury have also been reported in lagoon shellfish. These data inevitably warrant thorough assessment of the waste practices of industries located upstream from the estuaries, but in addition, an exposure and health impact assessment has never been conducted. Relevant government departments are duty-bound, at least to the general public that reside in and consume seafood from the vicinities of the Suva Harbor, to investigate possible human effects of the elevated hazardous metal concentrations found consistently in 20 years of surface sediment analysis. Furthermore, pollution of the intermediate food web with hazardous metals should be investigated, regardless of whether human effects are eventually confirmed present or not. PMID:24498594

  16. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans through improvements in the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene, public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jeanne Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st century cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st century, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and facilitate the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy. PMID:24401556

  17. Hazardous metal pollution in the republic of fiji and the need to elicit human exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kee; Wilson, Donald; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Wilson, Colleen Turaga; Ueno, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The fact that hazardous metals do not bio-degrade or bio-deteriorate translates to long-lasting environmental effects. In the context of evidently rapid global industrialization, this ought to warrant serious caution, particularly in developing countries. In the Republic of Fiji, a developing country in the South Pacific, several different environmental studies over the past 20 years have shown levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron in sediments of the Suva Harbor to be 6.2, 3.9, 3.3 and 2.1 times more than the accepted background reference levels, respectively. High levels of mercury have also been reported in lagoon shellfish. These data inevitably warrant thorough assessment of the waste practices of industries located upstream from the estuaries, but in addition, an exposure and health impact assessment has never been conducted. Relevant government departments are duty-bound, at least to the general public that reside in and consume seafood from the vicinities of the Suva Harbor, to investigate possible human effects of the elevated hazardous metal concentrations found consistently in 20 years of surface sediment analysis. Furthermore, pollution of the intermediate food web with hazardous metals should be investigated, regardless of whether human effects are eventually confirmed present or not. PMID:24498594

  18. Uneven Futures of Human Lifespans: Reckonings from Gompertz Mortality Rates, Climate Change, and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans thru improvements of the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene- public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jean Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st C cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st C, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution, as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and to favor the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socio-economic disparities of life expectancy. PMID:24401556

  19. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  20. Measuring the benefits from air pollution abatement on human health and welfare: a case study of Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Erfani-Ezati, G.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test benefit measures of air pollution to human health and welfare. Two market approaches, labor market (wage rate) and housing market (property value), were employed to estimate benefits from improvements in air quality. Indices of air pollution used in this study were sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and total suspended particulate matter (TSP). Using the labor market approach as a measure of benefits from improved air quality, a Mortality Effect Model (MEM) was developed. Then, the model was utilized to quantify the estimates of the pollution mortality relationship for the city of Jacksonville. The resulting pollution related mortality function was then monetized by applying estimates of individual's willingness to pay for mortality reductions. The MEM was estimated using multiple regression analysis. TSP showed no statistically significant association with mortality rates. The significance of the estimated coefficient for the pollution variable SO/sub 2/ supported the contention that some form of air pollution bears a positive and significant relationship to mortality rates. By utilizing a willingness to pay estimate for mortality reductions, it was concluded that individuals in Jacksonville would be willing to pay a minimum of $10 million annually, in order to maintain SO/sub 2/ concentrations at a level of 1% below the average for 1972.

  1. Nucleotide Excision Repair Is Not Induced in Human Embryonic Lung Fibroblasts Treated with Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Rossner, Pavel; Spatova, Milada; Rossnerova, Andrea; Libalova, Helena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Sram, Radim J.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular response to genotoxic treatment depends on the cell line used. Although tumor cell lines are widely used for genotoxicity tests, the interpretation of the results may be potentially hampered by changes in cellular processes caused by malignant transformation. In our study we used normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469 cells) and tested their response to treatment with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and extractable organic matter (EOM) from ambient air particles <2.5 µm (PM2.5) collected in two Czech cities differing in levels and sources of air pollution. We analyzed multiple endpoints associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the levels of bulky DNA adducts and the nucleotide excision repair (NER) response [expression of XPE, XPC and XPA genes on the level of mRNA and proteins, unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS)]. EOMs were collected in the winter and summer of 2011 in two Czech cities with different levels and sources of air pollution. The effects of the studied compounds were analyzed in the presence (+S9) and absence (–S9) of the rat liver microsomal S9 fraction. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were highest after treatment with B[a]P, followed by winter EOMs; their induction by summer EOMs was weak. The induction of both mRNA and protein expression was observed, with the most pronounced effects after treatment with B[a]P (–S9); the response induced by EOMs from both cities and seasons was substantially weaker. The expression of DNA repair genes was not accompanied by the induction of UDS activity. In summary, our results indicate that the tested compounds induced low levels of DNA damage and affected the expression of NER genes; however, nucleotide excision repair was not induced. PMID:23894430

  2. Calcium dependent and independent cytokine synthesis by air pollution particle-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Shizu; Gosselink, John; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Hogg, James C.; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution particles with a diameter of < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. We have shown that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) exposed to PM{sub 10} produce pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to a local and systemic inflammatory response. Changes in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) have been demonstrated to regulate several functions of the airway epithelium including the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature and mechanism of calcium responses induced by PM{sub 10} in HBECs and its relationship to cytokine synthesis. Methods: Primary HBECs were exposed to urban air pollution particles (EHC-93) and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} responses were measured using the fluoroprobe (Fura-2). Cytokine levels were measured at mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results: PM{sub 10} increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a dose-dependent manner. This calcium response was reduced by blocking the influx of calcium into cells (i.e. calcium-free medium, NiCl{sub 2}, LaCl{sub 3}). PM{sub 10} also decreased the activity of calcium pumps. PM{sub 10} increased the production of IL-1{beta}, IL-8, GM-CSF and LIF. Preincubation with intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM) attenuated IL-1{beta} and IL-8 production, but not GM-CSF and LIF production. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to PM{sub 10} induces an increase in cytosolic calcium and cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cells. Our results also suggest that PM{sub 10} induces the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via either intracellular calcium-dependent (IL-1{beta}, IL-8) or -independent (GM-CSF, LIF) pathways.

  3. Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens Using the ColorPAC Combination Rapid Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Shimizu, Robyn Y.

    2000-01-01

    The ColorPAC Giardia/Cryptosporidium (Becton Dickinson) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects and distinguishes between Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human stool. Agreement between the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Giardia Rapid EIA and the ColorPAC assay was 166 of 172 (96.5%). Agreement between the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Cryptosporidium Rapid EIA and the ColorPAC assay was 169 of 171 (98.8%). No cross-reactions were seen with other parasites or human cells. PMID:10699038

  4. Development of the analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and identification of fecal contamination in shellfish harvesting areas.

    PubMed

    Harrault, Loïc; Jardé, Emilie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Petitjean, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of washing and purification steps on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fecal stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas using either single or a combination of lipid purification steps on silica gel or aminopropyl bonded silica gel (NH2) or a washing step. Among the three analytical pathways compared, the two including water extraction or NH2 purification did not lead to higher recoveries and decreased repeatabilities of extractions compared to the single purification on silica gel. This latter led to similar recoveries (ca. 80%) and repeatabilities (ca. 10%) for both spiked standards (coprostanol and sitostanol). This analytical pathway has been applied to oysters collected in a harvesting area in Brittany (France) where fecal contaminations are important and allowed to quantify eight stanols in oysters. The relative proportions of fecal stanols of these oysters were combined with principal component analysis in order to investigate the usefulness of their stanol fingerprints to record a fecal contamination and to distinguish its source between human, porcine and bovine contaminations. Oysters non-fecally contaminated by Escherichia coli did not present specific stanol fingerprints while oysters fecally contaminated had a bovine fingerprint, suggesting a contamination of these samples by bovine sources. As a consequence, the method developed here allows the use of stanol fingerprints of oysters as a microbial source tracking tool that can be applied to shellfish harvesting areas subjected to fecal contaminations in order to identify the different sources of contamination and improve watershed management. PMID:24771549

  5. COLONIZATION POTENTIALS OF MALE AND FEMALE E. COLI K 12 STRAINS E COLI B AND HUMAN FECAL E. COLI STRAINS IN THE MOUSE GI TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to compare the colonization potentials of individual Escherichia coli strains, the authors developed a simple animal system in which both freshly isolated human strains and laboratory strains (i.e. E. coli B and E. coli K 12 strains) survive in the large intestine for lo...

  6. Assessing uncertain human exposure to ambient air pollution using environmental models in the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerharz, L. E.; Pebesma, E.; Denby, B.

    2012-04-01

    Ambient air quality can have significant impact on human health by causing respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. Thereby, the pollutant concentration a person is exposed to can differ considerably between individuals depending on their daily routine and movement patterns. Using a straight forward approach this exposure can be estimated by integration of individual space-time paths and spatio-temporally resolved ambient air quality data. To allow a realistic exposure assessment, it is furthermore important to consider uncertainties due to input and model errors. In this work, we present a generic, web-based approach for estimating individual exposure by integration of uncertain position and air quality information implemented as a web service. Following the Model Web initiative envisioning an infrastructure for deploying, executing and chaining environmental models as services, existing models and data sources for e.g. air quality, can be used to assess exposure. Therefore, the service needs to deal with different formats, resolutions and uncertainty representations provided by model or data services. Potential mismatch can be accounted for by transformation of uncertainties and (dis-)aggregation of data under consideration of changes in the uncertainties using components developed in the UncertWeb project. In UncertWeb, the Model Web vision is extended to an Uncertainty-enabled Model Web, where services can process and communicate uncertainties in the data and models. The propagation of uncertainty to the exposure results is quantified using Monte Carlo simulation by combining different realisations of positions and ambient concentrations. Two case studies were used to evaluate the developed exposure assessment service. In a first study, GPS tracks with a positional uncertainty of a few meters, collected in the urban area of Münster, Germany were used to assess exposure to PM10 (particulate matter smaller 10 µm). Air quality data was provided by an

  7. Acute effects of motor vehicle traffic-related air pollution exposures on measures of oxidative stress in human airways

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked exposure to traffic-related air pollutants to increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Evidence from human, animal, and in vitro studies supports an important role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiological pathways underlying the adverse health effects of air pollutants. In controlled-exposure studies of animals and humans, emissions from diesel engines, a major source of traffic-related air pollutants, cause pulmonary and systemic inflammation that is mediated by redox-sensitive signaling pathways. Assessment of human responses to traffic-related air pollution under realistic conditions is challenging due to the complex, dynamic nature of near-roadway exposure. Noninvasive measurement of biomarkers in breath and breath condensate may be particularly useful for evaluating the role of oxidative stress in acute responses to exposures that occur in vehicles or during near-roadway activities. Promising biomarkers include nitric oxide in exhaled breath, and nitrite/nitrate, malondialdehyde, and F2-isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate. PMID:20716291

  8. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreña-Barroso, E

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings

  9. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F.; Velázquez-Tavera, N.; Fargher, L.; Derrien, M.; Noreña-Barroso, E.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g- 1) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g- 1). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate

  10. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from manured fields: Model sensitivity analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial quality of surface waters attracts attention due to food- and waterborne disease outbreaks. Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used for the microbial pollution level evaluation. Models predicting the fate and transport of FIOs are required to design and evalu...

  11. Alternative methods for fecal coliform load reductions in South Georgia watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the 11,285 miles of streams and rivers assessed in the state of Georgia, roughly 57% have been classified as impaired. Of the impaired water bodies, impairments due to fecal coliform (FC) bacteria are the most prevalent form of pollutant. FC bacteria are found in both urban and rural settings a...

  12. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from animal waste applied fields: model sensitivity analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial quality of surface waters warrants attention because of associated food- and waterborne-disease outbreaks, and fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used to evaluate levels of microbial pollution. Models that predict the fate and transport of FIOs are required for designing and...

  13. Spatial sensitivities of human health risk to intercontinental and high-altitude pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi; Henze, Daven K.; Waitz, Ian A.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-06-01

    We perform the first long-term (>1 year) continuous adjoint simulations with a global atmospheric chemistry-transport model focusing on population exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and associated risk of early death. Sensitivities relevant to intercontinental and high-altitude PM pollution are calculated with particular application to aircraft emissions. Specifically, the sensitivities of premature mortality risk in different regions to NOx, SOx, CO, VOC and primary PM2.5 emissions as a function of location are computed. We apply the resultant sensitivity matrices to aircraft emissions, finding that NOx emissions are responsible for 93% of population exposure to aircraft-attributable PM2.5. Aircraft NOx accounts for all of aircraft-attributable nitrate exposure (as expected) and 53% of aircraft-attributable sulfate exposure due to the strong "oxidative coupling" between aircraft NOx emissions and non-aviation SO2 emissions in terms of sulfate formation. Of the health risk-weighted human PM2.5 exposure attributable to aviation, 73% occurs in Asia, followed by 18% in Europe. 95% of the air quality impacts of aircraft emissions in the US are incurred outside the US. We also assess the impact of uncertainty or changes in (non-aviation) ammonia emissions on aviation-attributable PM2.5 exposure by calculating second-order sensitivities. We note the potential application of the sensitivity matrices as a rapid policy analysis tool in aviation environmental policy contexts.

  14. Interactions of acidic pharmaceuticals with human serum albumin: insights into the molecular toxicity of emerging pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabin; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Qian, Yajie; Gao, Haiping

    2012-10-01

    Acidic pharmaceuticals such as diclofenac (DCF), clofibric acid (CA) and ketoprofen (KTP) have been detected frequently in environmental media. In order to reveal the toxicity of such emerging pollutants, their interactions with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by capillary electrophoresis, molecular spectrometry, and equilibrium dialysis. The binding constants and sites of these acidic pharmaceuticals with HSA were obtained. The thermodynamic parameters, e.g. enthalpy change and entropy change of these interactions were calculated to characterize that all the reactions resulted from hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The static quenching of the fluorescence of HSA was observed when interacted with acidic pharmaceuticals, indicating acidic pharmaceuticals bound to Tryptophan residue of HSA. The 3D fluorescence and circular dichroism confirmed that the secondary conformation of HSA changed after the interactions with the pharmaceuticals. At physiological condition, only 0.12 mM acidic pharmaceuticals reduced the binding of vitamin B(2) to HSA by 37, 30 and 21% for DCF, KTP and CA, respectively. This work provides an insight into non-covalent interactions between emerging contaminants and biomolecule, and is helpful for clarifying the toxic mechanism of such emerging contaminants. PMID:22307229

  15. Effects of ecological factors and human activities on nonpoint source pollution in the upper reach of the Yangtze River and its management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, X. W.; Shen, Z. Y.; Liu, R. M.; Chen, L.; Lin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ecological and human activities on nonpoint source (NPS) pollution are key issues for sustainable water resources management. In this study, the Improved Export Coefficient Model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation were adopted to estimate the annual loads of NPS pollutants during the period from 1960 through 2003 in the upper reach of the Yangtze River (URYR). Ecological factors and human activities affecting NPS pollution were distinguished and their respective effects were assessed. Variations of the dominant cause (between ecological factors and human activities) were presented. Furthermore, the combined effect of them on NPS pollution were successfully revealed. The results showed that the annual loads raised from ecological factors of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) were relatively steady from 1960 to 2003. But those of sediment, absorbed nitrogen (AN) and absorbed phosphorus (AP) decreased during that period. In terms of the annual loads caused by human activities, those of dissolved pollutants increased from 1960 to 2000 and then fell. Those of sediment as well as absorbed pollutants peaked in 1980 and then decreased. Simultaneously, the dominant cause of DN loads shifted from ecological factors to human activities after 1980 while DP loads were mainly contributed by human activities. However, sediment, dissolved pollutants were primarily exported by ecological factors. Finally, strategies for managing anthropogenic activities were proposed and their effects on NPS pollution reduction were also depicted quantitatively.

  16. Nonhomologous DNA end joining and chromosome aberrations in human embryonic lung fibroblasts treated with environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Beskid, Olena; Tabashidze, Nana; Libalova, Helena; Uhlirova, Katerina; Topinka, Jan; Sram, Radim J

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and PAH-containing complex mixtures to induce double strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and repair of damaged DNA in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469 cells), we investigated the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and extractable organic matter (EOM) from ambient air particles <2.5μm (PM2.5) on nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) and induction of stable chromosome aberrations (CAs). PM2.5 was collected in winter and summer 2011 in two Czech cities differing in levels and sources of air pollutants. The cells were treated for 24h with the following concentrations of tested chemicals: B[a]P: 1μM, 10μM, 25μM; EOMs: 1μg/ml, 10μg/ml, 25μg/ml. We tested several endpoints representing key steps leading from DSBs to the formation of CAs including histone H2AX phosphorylation, levels of proteins Ku70, Ku80 and XRCC4 participating in NHEJ, in vitro ligation activity of nuclear extracts of the HEL12469 cells and the frequency of stable CAs assessed by whole chromosome painting of chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 17 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Our results show that 25μM of B[a]P and most of the tested doses of EOMs induced DSBs as indicated by H2AX phosphorylation. DNA damage was accompanied by induction of XRCC4 expression and an increased frequency of CAs. Translocations most frequently affected chromosome 7. We observed only a weak induction of Ku70/80 expression as well as ligation activity of nuclear extracts. In summary, our data suggest the induction of DSBs and NHEJ after treatment of human embryonic lung fibroblasts with B[a]P and complex mixtures containing PAHs. PMID:24694657

  17. Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS{reg_sign}): Exposure pathway and human health impact assessment models

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Chamberlain, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) provides physics-based models for human health risk assessment for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. MEPAS analyzes pollutant behavior in various media (air, soil, groundwater and surface water) and estimates transport through and between media and exposure and impacts to the environment, to the maximum individual, and to populations. MEPAS includes 25 exposure pathway models, a database with information on more than 650 contaminants, and a sensitivity module that allows for uncertainty analysis. Four major transport pathways are considered in MEPAS: groundwater, overland, surface water, and atmospheric. This report describes the exposure pathway and health impact assessment component of MEPAS, which provides an estimate of health impacts to selected individuals and populations from exposure to pollutants. The exposure pathway analysis starts with pollutant concentration in a transport medium and estimates the average daily dose to exposed individuals from contact with the transport medium or a secondary medium contaminated by the transport medium. The average daily dose is then used to estimate a measure of health impact appropriate to the type of pollutant considered. Discussions of the exposure pathway models include the assumptions and equations used to convert the transport medium concentrations to exposure medium concentrations. The discussion for a given exposure pathway defines the transport pathways leading to the exposure, the special processes considered in determining the pollutant concentration in the exposure medium, and the exposure model used to estimate the average daily dose. Models for the exposure pathway and health impact assessments require definition of several parameters. A summary of the notation used for these parameters is provided.

  18. Storm loads of culturable and molecular fecal indicators in an inland urban stream.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hehuan; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Cully Hession, W; Benitez, Romina; Sawyer, Richard; Schaberg, Erin; von Wagoner, Emily; Badgley, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    Elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria in receiving waters during wet-weather flows are a considerable public health concern that is likely to be exacerbated by future climate change and urbanization. Knowledge of factors driving the fate and transport of fecal indicator bacteria in stormwater is limited, and even less is known about molecular fecal indicators, which may eventually supplant traditional culturable indicators. In this study, concentrations and loading rates of both culturable and molecular fecal indicators were quantified throughout six storm events in an instrumented inland urban stream. While both concentrations and loading rates of each fecal indicator increased rapidly during the rising limb of the storm hydrographs, it is the loading rates rather than instantaneous concentrations that provide a better estimate of transport through the stream during the entire storm. Concentrations of general fecal indicators (both culturable and molecular) correlated most highly with each other during storm events but not with the human-associated HF183 Bacteroides marker. Event loads of general fecal indicators most strongly correlated with total runoff volume, maximum discharge, and maximum turbidity, while event loads of HF183 most strongly correlated with the time to peak flow in a hydrograph. These observations suggest that collection of multiple samples during a storm event is critical for accurate predictions of fecal indicator loading rates and total loads during wet-weather flows, which are required for effective watershed management. In addition, existing predictive models based on general fecal indicators may not be sufficient to predict source-specific genetic markers of fecal contamination. PMID:26050960

  19. Fecal coliform modeling under two flow scenarios in St. Louis Bay of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijun; Hashim, Noor B; Kingery, William L; Huddleston, David H

    2010-01-01

    St. Louis Bay, along with its two major tributaries, Wolf River and Jourdan River, are included in the Mississippi 1998 Section 303(d) List for violation of the designated water use of recreation and shellfish harvesting. Fecal coliform was identified as one of the pollutants that caused the water quality impairment. In order to facilitate the total maximum daily loads (TMDL) development, the fecal coliform dynamics was investigated under 2 flow scenarios with a calibrated and validated modeling framework by integration of Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) and Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF). EFDC was used to model the hydrodymics and fecal coliform transportation in the Bay and the tributaries, whereas HSPF was applied to compute the flow and fecal coliform loadings from the watersheds. The total amount of precipitation in the dry year simulation corresponds to a 50-year return period of low flow condition, and a 10-year return period of high flow condition for wet weather simulation. For EFDC modeling, the fecal coliform sources considered were the contributions from the 2 upper watersheds (no tidal influence), the 28 small surrounding watershed, and 12 municipal, industrial, and domestic point sources. When simulating the fecal coliform loadings from the 2 upper watersheds using HSPF, the simulated non-point source loadings of fecal coliform included wildlife, land application of hog and cattle manure, land application of poultry litter, and grazing animals. The EFDC modeling results indicated that the wet weather exerted greater stress on fecal coliform water quality conditions. The number of exceedance of fecal coliform water quality standard in wet year simulation is much higher than that in dry year simulation. The impact of the upper rural watersheds loads on fecal coliform levels in the St. Louis Bay is much less significant than that from the surrounding urban runoff. Fecal coliform TMDL development should be based on high flow

  20. [Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. PMID:23916209

  1. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Muñoz-González, Irene; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota. PMID:25532710

  2. Synergistic effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine pollution particles and nitrogen dioxide in humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to single pollutants such as ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear, however, if simultaneous exposure to multiple air pollutants (e.g. PM and ozone or nitrogen dioxide), a more real world scenario, results in non-additiv...

  3. Teplice Program--The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of the Teplice Program is to investigate and assess the impact of air pollution on the health of the population in the district of Teplice, Czech Republic. Characterization of the air pollutants demonstrated unusually high concentrations during winter inversions of fine p...

  4. THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON URBAN AIR POLLUTION AND HUMAN HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 350 volunteers from East Cleveland, Ohio and 320 counterparts from Elyria, Ohio were studied for the chronic effects of air pollution. The East Cleveland area was chosen for its proximity to heavy industrial air pollution, and Elyria, because it is an urban area wit...

  5. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  6. A novel application of capnography during controlled human exposure to air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lukic, Karl Z; Urch, Bruce; Fila, Michael; Faughnan, Marie E; Silverman, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective was to determine the repeatability and stability of capnography interfaced with human exposure facility. Methods Capnographic wave signals were obtained from five healthy volunteers exposed to particle-free, filtered air during two consecutive 5 min intervals, 10 min apart, within the open and then the sealed and operational human exposure facility (HEF). Using a customized setup comprised of the Oridion Microcap® portable capnograph, DA converter and AD card, the signal was acquired and saved as an ASCII file for subsequent processing. The minute ventilation (VE), respiratory rate (RR) and expiratory tidal volume (VTE) were recorded before and after capnographic recording and then averaged. Each capnographic tracing was analyzed for acceptable waves. From each recorded interval, 8 to 19 acceptable waves were selected and measured. The following wave parameters were obtained: total length and length of phase II and III, slope of phase II and III, area under the curve and area under phase III. In addition, we recorded signal measures including the mean, standard deviation, mode, minimum, maximum – which equals end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), zero-corrected maximum and true RMS. Results Statistical analysis using a paired t-test for means showed no statistically significant changes of any wave parameters and wave signal measures, corrected for RR and VTE, comparing the measures when the HEF was open vs. sealed and operational. The coefficients of variation of the zero-corrected and uncorrected EtCO2, phase II absolute difference, signal mean, standard deviation and RMS were less than 10% despite a sub-atmospheric barometric pressure, and slightly higher temperature and relative humidity within the HEF when operational. Conclusion We showed that a customized setup for the acquisition and processing of the capnographic wave signal, interfaced with HEF was stable and repeatable. Thus, we expect that analysis of capnographic waves in controlled human

  7. Changes in Human Fecal Microbiota Due to Chemotherapy Analyzed by TaqMan-PCR, 454 Sequencing and PCR-DGGE Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Zwielehner, Jutta; Lassl, Cornelia; Hippe, Berit; Pointner, Angelika; Switzeny, Olivier J.; Remely, Marlene; Kitzweger, Elvira; Ruckser, Reinhard; Haslberger, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated whether chemotherapy with the presence or absence of antibiotics against different kinds of cancer changed the gastrointestinal microbiota. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces of 17 ambulant patients receiving chemotherapy with or without concomitant antibiotics were analyzed before and after the chemotherapy cycle at four time points in comparison to 17 gender-, age- and lifestyle-matched healthy controls. We targeted 16S rRNA genes of all bacteria, Bacteroides, bifidobacteria, Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa as well as C. difficile with TaqMan qPCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing. After a significant drop in the abundance of microbiota (p = 0.037) following a single treatment the microbiota recovered within a few days. The chemotherapeutical treatment marginally affected the Bacteroides while the Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa were significantly more sensitive to chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment. DGGE fingerprinting showed decreased diversity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa in response to chemotherapy with cluster IV diversity being particularly affected by antibiotics. The occurrence of C. difficile in three out of seventeen subjects was accompanied by a decrease in the genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Enterococcus faecium increased following chemotherapy. Conclusions/Significance Despite high individual variations, these results suggest that the observed changes in the human gut microbiota may favor colonization with C.difficile and Enterococcus faecium. Perturbed microbiota may be a target for specific mitigation with safe pre- and probiotics. PMID:22194876

  8. THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

  9. Colonization of the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine by a human fecal Escherichia coli strain: role of growth in mucus.

    PubMed Central

    Wadolkowski, E A; Laux, D C; Cohen, P S

    1988-01-01

    The relative colonizing abilities of Escherichia coli F-18, isolated from the feces of a healthy human, and E. coli F-18col-, a strain derived from it which does not make the E. coli F-18 colicin, were studied. In a previous report, it was shown that when each strain was fed individually to streptomycin-treated mice, at approximately 10(10) CFU per mouse, each colonized the large intestine at between 10(7) and 10(8) CFU/g of feces indefinitely. However, when simultaneously fed to mice, although E. coli F-18 colonized at about 10(8) CFU/g of feces, E. coli F-18col- dropped to a level of 10(3) CFU/g of feces within 3 to 5 days. In the present investigation, we show that when given enough time to establish a state of colonization, E. coli F-18col- persists in feces in high numbers despite subsequent challenge by E. coli F-18. Therefore, a major defect in the ability of E. coli F-18col- to colonize in the presence of E. coli F-18 appears to be in initiating that state. In addition, when mucus was scraped from the cecal wall and, without further treatment, was inoculated with E. coli F-18 or F-18col-, both strains grew well. However, when cecal mucus was inoculated with both strains simultaneously, E. coli F-18 grew far more rapidly than E. coli F-18col-. Moreover, neither strain grew in cecal luminal contents. Together, these data suggest the possibility that both E. coli F-18 and F-18col- must grow in mucus to colonize the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine, that E. coli F-18col- is eliminated by E. coli F-18 because it does not grow in mucus as well as E. coli F-18, and that E. coli F-18col- can resist elimination by E. coli F-18 if it is allowed enough time to establish itself within the mucus layer. PMID:3281898

  10. Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Tiantian; Leveque, Thibault; Shahid, Muhammad; Foucault, Yann; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2014-09-01

    When plants are exposed to airborne particles, they can accumulate metals in their edible portions through root or foliar transfer. There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of plant exposure conditions on human bioaccessibility of metals, which is of particular concern with the increase in urban gardening activities. Lettuce, radish, and parsley were exposed to metal-rich ultrafine particles from a recycling factory via field atmospheric fallouts or polluted soil. Total lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in of the edible plant parts and their human bioaccessibility were measured, and Pb translocation through the plants was studied using Pb isotopic analysis. The Pb and Cd bioaccessibility measured for consumed parts of the different polluted plants was significantly higher for root exposure (70% for Pb and 89% for Cd in lettuce) in comparison to foliar exposure (40% for Pb and 69% for Cd in lettuce). The difference in metal bioaccessibility could be linked to the metal compartmentalization and speciation changes in relation to exposure conditions. Metal nature strongly influences the measured bioaccessibility: Cd presents higher bioaccessibility in comparison to Pb. In the case of foliar exposure, a significant translocation of Pb from leaves toward the roots was observed. To conclude, the type of pollutant and the method of exposure significantly influences the phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility of metals, especially in relation to the contrasting phenomena involved in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. The conditions of plant exposure must therefore be taken into account for environmental and health risk assessment. PMID:25603245

  11. Environmental organic pollutants in human milk before and after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Lignell, Sanna; Winkvist, Anna; Bertz, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Glynn, Anders; Aune, Marie; Brekke, Hilde Kristin

    2016-09-01

    Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are banned because they accumulate in organisms and are toxic. Lipophilic POPs are stored in maternal adipose tissue and concentrations in human milk (HM) may increase during weight loss. Our aim was to examine associations between weight loss and concentrations of chlorinated POPs in HM in lactating women participating in a weight loss study. We analysed POPs (PCB 28, PCB 153, HCB, DDE) in HM at 12 and 24 weeks postpartum from 32 women who participated in a randomized, 2 × 2 factorial trial of diet and exercise for postpartum weight loss. Participants donated milk before and after the intervention period. We examined associations between weight loss and change in POP concentrations and estimated the intake of POPs by their breastfed infants. Most (n = 27) women lost weight during intervention, 0.45 ± 0.30 kg/week (mean ± SD). Among these women, the concentration of PCB 153 in HM was significantly (p = 0.04) higher at follow-up than at baseline. Weight loss was significantly positively associated with changes in concentrations of all studied POPs (2.0-2.4% increase per percent weight loss). Estimated mean intakes of POPs (ng/day) remained stable because infant milk consumption decreased during the study period. As infants gained weight, estimated mean intakes per kg body weight decreased 17-22%. Changes in concentrations of POPs in HM correlated positively with maternal weight loss, but it is unlikely that the balance between the benefits and risks of breastfeeding will change if the weight loss is restricted to 0.5 kg per week. PMID:27281542

  12. The relation of phase distributions of persistent organic pollutants to estimated fate and human exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, L.; McKone, T.; Daisey, J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation is to show how advanced measurement technologies for determination of the gas and particulate phase distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can, with appropriate modeling efforts, lead to better understanding of how atmospheric phase distribution impacts exposure persistence or half-life. New data collected in California with both conventional and diffusion-denuder-based samplers are used to (1) assess the direction and magnitude of sampling biases in existing databases of POPs including organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and (2) compare predictions of persistence and half life using a regional fugacity exposure model (CalTOX). For many POPs, there are data quality problems in measurements of the partitioning between the gas phase and airborne particulate matter, between the gas phase and soils, and between the gas phase and vegetation. Whether intermedia transport takes place in gas or particulate phase can have a strong impact of the estimated persistence of potential human and ecosystem exposure. Most phase distribution measurements use filters followed by adsorbents to determining the relative concentrations of particulate-phase and gas-phase SVOC. In these measurements use filters followed by adsorbents to determining the relative concentrations of particulate-phase and gas-phase SVOC. In these systems, desorption of semi-volatile compounds form the particles on the filters, or adsorption of gases by the filter materials can lead to incorrect measurements of gas- and particulate-phase concentrations. Because the gas phase is collected before the particulate phase, diffusion denuder technology provides a less artifact-encumbered approach for accurate determination of phase distributions of semivolatile species.

  13. Multi-platform metabolomics assays for human lung lavage fluids in an air pollution exposure study.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, Izabella; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Wu, Junfang; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Trygg, Johan; Nording, Malin L

    2016-07-01

    Metabolomics protocols are used to comprehensively characterize the metabolite content of biological samples by exploiting cutting-edge analytical platforms, such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) assays, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays. We have developed novel sample preparation procedures combined with GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR metabolomics profiling for analyzing bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 15 healthy volunteers following exposure to biodiesel exhaust and filtered air. Our aim was to investigate the responsiveness of metabolite profiles in the human lung to air pollution exposure derived from combustion of biofuels, such as rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel, which are increasingly being promoted as alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Our multi-platform approach enabled us to detect the greatest number of unique metabolites yet reported in BW and BAL fluid (82 in total). All of the metabolomics assays indicated that the metabolite profiles of the BW and BAL fluids differed appreciably, with 46 metabolites showing significantly different levels in the corresponding lung compartments. Furthermore, the GC-MS assay revealed an effect of biodiesel exhaust exposure on the levels of 1-monostearylglycerol, sucrose, inosine, nonanoic acid, and ethanolamine (in BAL) and pentadecanoic acid (in BW), whereas the LC-MS assay indicated a shift in the levels of niacinamide (in BAL). The NMR assay only identified lactic acid (in BW) as being responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed multi-platform approach is useful for wide metabolomics screening of BW and BAL fluids and can facilitate elucidation of metabolites responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract illustrating the study workflow. NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, LC-TOFMS Liquid chromatography-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry, GC Gas

  14. Surgical management of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Kann, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    The surgical approach to treating fecal incontinence is complex. After optimal medical management has failed, surgery remains the best option for restoring function. Patient factors, such as prior surgery, anatomic derangements, and degree of incontinence, help inform the astute surgeon regarding the most appropriate option. Many varied approaches to surgical management are available, ranging from more conservative approaches, such as anal canal bulking agents and neuromodulation, to more aggressive approaches, including sphincter repair, anal cerclage techniques, and muscle transposition. Efficacy and morbidity of these approaches also range widely, and this article presents the data and operative considerations for these approaches. PMID:24280402

  15. CHRONIC FECAL IMPACTION IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Feigen, Gerald Mason

    1957-01-01

    In seventeen cases of chronic fecal impaction in children the main symptoms were severe constipation, pain and bleeding on defecation, soiling of the underpants, and anxiety. The main findings were large impactions in the rectum, minor injuries of the anal canal, some degree of patulous anus and soiling of the perianal skin. Good results were obtained in all cases with treatment that included giving dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate and flavored petrolatum, attention to diet, encouragement of the patient and advice to the parents. PMID:13383391

  16. Measurement of fecal glucocorticoids in parrotfishes to assess stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, J.W., Jr.; Nemeth, R.; Rogers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide from a combination of natural and human forces. The environmental compromises faced by coral reef habitats and their associated fishes are potentially stressful, and in this study we examined the potential for assessing stress levels in coral reef fish. We determined the feasibility of using fecal casts from parrotfishes for remote assessment of stress-related hormones (cortisol and corticosterone), and the response of these hormones to the stress of restraint and hypoxia. Measurement of these hormones in fecal extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated using mass spectrometry, chemical derivitization, and radioactive tracer methods. In aquarium-adapted parrotfish, baseline levels of cortisol and corticosterone averaged 3.4??1.1 and 14.8??2.8ng/g feces, respectively, across 32 days. During 13 days of periodic stress these hormones, respectively, average 10.8-fold and 3.2-fold greater than baseline, with a return to near baseline during a 23-day follow-up. Testosterone was also measured as a reference hormone which is not part of the stress-response axis. Levels of this hormone were similar across the study. These fecal hormones were also measured in a field study of parrotfish in 10 fringing coral reef areas around the Caribbean Island of St. John, US Virgin Islands. Extracts of remotely collected fecal casts of three parrotfish species revealed no difference in respective average hormone levels among these species. Also, there was no difference in respective hormone levels between aquarium and field environments. However, levels of both cortisol and corticosterone, but not testosterone, were elevated in two of the 10 reef sites surveyed. This study demonstrates that parrotfish fecals can be collected in aquarium and field conditions and that steroid hormones in these fecals can be extracted and reliably measured. The study also demonstrates that cortisol and corticosterone in parrotfish fecals can

  17. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; Martínez Bueno, María J; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. PMID:19932535

  18. The etymological role of the main atmosphere pollutants in development of human diseases.

    PubMed

    Lomtatidze, N; Kiknadze, N; Khakhnalidze, R; Tusishvili, Kh; Alasania, N; Kiknadze, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of research was monitoring of the main atmospheric air pollutants concentration on Adjara Autonomous Republic territory in order to determine their role in causing different diseases. The following atmospheric air pollutants have been determined in Batumi: dust, carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen dioxide. The number of diseases registered in Adjara Autonomous Republic, which may be linked to the air pollution, has been studied. These are the following: chronic and nonspecific bronchitis, asthma and asthma status diseases, allergic rhinitis, trachea-, bronchi- and lung malignant tumor. In order to reduce the number of risk-factors significant attention should be paid to the proper functionality of the vehicles and systematic observations should continue on the chemical pollution of the air to make proper decisions to reduce the number of diseases. PMID:23676494

  19. [Safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens in water pollution accident based on human health risk].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin-Hong; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Fu, Qing; Hung, Min-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    It was an urgent problem to determine short-term exposure safety concentration of genetic carcinogens in water pollution accident in China. Based on the hypothesis that the relationship between exposure dosage and carcinogenic risk was linear, the calculation process of genetic carcinogens safety concentration was put forwarded, and the method using life-time exposed safety concentration to calculate short-term exposure safety concentration was set up. Based on the statistical result of water pollution accident occurred in china during 2000-2010, arsenic was a major characteristic contaminate in water pollution accident. According to the method of short-term exposure safety concentration of genotoxic carcinogens, the safety concentration of arsenic was 0.5 mg x L(-1), it showed that the method was feasible in emergence management of water pollution accident. PMID:22509565

  20. Rapid microRNA changes in airways of human volunteers after controlled exposure to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction/Rationale: Exposure to air pollutants, including ozone and diesel exhaust (DE) are known to cause acute cardiopulmonary dysfunction; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain elusive. One mechanism for rapid regulation of multiple genes is a...