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1

Apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells after bacterial invasion.  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cells that line the human intestinal mucosa are the initial site of host invasion by bacterial pathogens. The studies herein define apoptosis as a new category of intestinal epithelial cell response to bacterial infection. Human colon epithelial cells are shown to undergo apoptosis following infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. In contrast to the rapid onset of apoptosis seen after bacterial infection of mouse monocyte-macrophage cell lines, the commitment of human intestinal epithelial cell lines to undergo apoptosis is delayed for at least 6 h after bacterial infection, requires bacterial entry and replication, and the ensuing phenotypic expression of apoptosis is delayed for 12-18 h after bacterial entry. TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, which are produced as components of the intestinal epithelial cell proinflammatory program in the early period after bacterial invasion, play an important role in the later induction and regulation of the epithelial cell apoptotic program. Apoptosis in response to bacterial infection may function to delete infected and damaged epithelial cells and restore epithelial cell growth regulation and epithelial integrity that are altered during the course of enteric infection. The delay in onset of epithelial cell apoptosis after bacterial infection may be important both to the host and the invading pathogen since it provides sufficient time for epithelial cells to generate signals important for the activation of mucosal inflammation and concurrently allows invading bacteria time to adapt to the intracellular environment before invading deeper mucosal layers. PMID:9819367

Kim, J M; Eckmann, L; Savidge, T C; Lowe, D C; Witthöft, T; Kagnoff, M F

1998-01-01

2

Host-Bacterial Mutualism in the Human Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distal human intestine represents an anaerobic bioreactor programmed with an enormous population of bacteria, dominated by relatively few divisions that are highly diverse at the strain\\/subspecies level. This microbiota and its collective genomes (microbiome) provide us with genetic and metabolic attributes we have not been required to evolve on our own, including the ability to harvest otherwise inaccessible nutrients.

Fredrik Bäckhed; Ruth E. Ley; Justin L. Sonnenburg; Daniel A. Peterson; Jeffrey I. Gordon

2005-01-01

3

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the adult, the human intestine houses myriads of microorganisms, quantitatively up to 100 trillion and qualitatively over 500 species of bacteria, exceeding the number of host somatic cells by at least one order of magnitude. Actually, it remains a mystery as to how the intestine is able to contain such large quantities of bacteria without evident harm to the

A. Parodi; E. C. Lauritano; G. Nardone; L. Fontana; V. Savarino; A. Gasbarrini

2009-01-01

4

Shigella Infection in a SCID Mouse-Human Intestinal Xenograft Model: Role for Neutrophils in Containing Bacterial Dissemination in Human Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shigellae infect human intestine and cause intense inflammation and destruction of colonic and rectal mucosa. To model the interactions of shigella with human intestine in vivo, we have studied shigella infection in human intestinal xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice (SCID-HU-INT mice). Inoculation of shigella into human intestinal xenografts caused severe inflammation and mucosal damage, which was apparent as soon

ZHI ZHANG; LINGLING JIN; GRETCHEN CHAMPION; KARL B. SEYDEL; SAMUEL L. STANLEY

2001-01-01

5

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperproliferating intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, maintenance, and metastasis. In addition, chronic inflammation and infection have been increasingly recognized for their roles in cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bacterial infections can initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis remain elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human opportunistic bacterial pathogen, activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, a hallmark of the host stress response. This, in turn, causes apoptosis of enterocytes, the largest class of differentiated intestinal cells, and promotes a dramatic proliferation of SCs and progenitors that serves as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism to replenish the apoptotic enterocytes. However, we find that this homeostatic mechanism can lead to massive over-proliferation of intestinal cells when infection occurs in animals with a latent oncogenic form of the Ras1 oncogene. The affected intestines develop excess layers of cells with altered apicobasal polarity reminiscent of dysplasia, suggesting that infection can directly synergize with the genetic background in predisposed individuals to initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis. Our results provide a framework for the study of intestinal bacterial infections and their effects on undifferentiated and mature enteric epithelial cells in the initial stages of intestinal cancer. Assessment of progenitor cell responses to pathogenic intestinal bacteria could provide a measure of predisposition for apoptotic enterocyte-assisted intestinal dysplasias in humans. PMID:19934041

Apidianakis, Yiorgos; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Perrimon, Norbert; Rahme, Laurence

2009-12-01

6

Studies of the small-intestinal bacterial flora and of intestinal absorption in pernicious anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE INTESTINAL bacterial flora in patients with pernicious anemia has long attracted the interest of investigators, but few recent studies have been reported. Tile present investigation was undertaken to reappraise the significance of the bacterial flora of the small intestine and to correlate bacterial growth with intestinal absorption in patients with pernicious anemia. The implication of intestinal bacteria in the

William C. Sherwood; Franz Goldstein; Farid I. Haurani; C. Wilmer Wirts

1964-01-01

7

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia  

E-print Network

Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia Yiorgos intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, mainte- nance, and metastasis elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas

Perrimon, Norbert

8

Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane vesicles play an important role in bacterial interactions with human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C; Inglis, Neil F; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W; Smith, David G E; Dorrell, Nick

2012-12-01

9

Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential ``organ'' in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to

Paul B. Eckburg; Elisabeth M. Bik; Charles N. Bernstein; Elizabeth Purdom; Les Dethlefsen; Michael Sargent; Steven R. Gill; Karen E. Nelson; David A. Relman

2005-01-01

10

A Model of Bacterial Intestinal Infections in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Serratia marcescens is an entomopathogenic bacterium that opportunistically infects a wide range of hosts, including humans. In a model of septic injury, if directly introduced into the body cavity of Drosophila, this pathogen is insensitive to the host's systemic immune response and kills flies in a day. We find that S. marcescens resistance to the Drosophila immune deficiency (imd)-mediated humoral response requires the bacterial lipopolysaccharide O-antigen. If ingested by Drosophila, bacteria cross the gut and penetrate the body cavity. During this passage, the bacteria can be observed within the cells of the intestinal epithelium. In such an oral infection model, the flies succumb to infection only after 6 days. We demonstrate that two complementary host defense mechanisms act together against such food-borne infection: an antimicrobial response in the intestine that is regulated by the imd pathway and phagocytosis by hemocytes of bacteria that have escaped into the hemolymph. Interestingly, bacteria present in the hemolymph elicit a systemic immune response only when phagocytosis is blocked. Our observations support a model wherein peptidoglycan fragments released during bacterial growth activate the imd pathway and do not back a proposed role for phagocytosis in the immune activation of the fat body. Thanks to the genetic tools available in both host and pathogen, the molecular dissection of the interactions between S. marcescens and Drosophila will provide a useful paradigm for deciphering intestinal pathogenesis. PMID:18039029

Nehme, Nadine T; Liégeois, Samuel; Kele, Beatrix; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Pradel, Elizabeth; Hoffmann, Jules A; Ewbank, Jonathan J; Ferrandon, Dominique

2007-01-01

11

The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities favoring the occurrence of local infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to the pathophysiology of motor fluctuations. Thirty-three patients and 30 controls underwent glucose, lactulose, and urea breath tests to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients also underwent ultrasonography to evaluate gastric emptying. The clinical status and plasma concentration of levodopa were assessed after an acute drug challenge with a standard dose of levodopa, and motor complications were assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-IV and by 1-week diaries of motor conditions. Patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were treated with rifaximin and were clinically and instrumentally reevaluated 1 and 6 months later. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was significantly higher in patients than in controls (54.5% vs. 20.0%; P?=?.01), whereas the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was not (33.3% vs. 26.7%). Compared with patients without any infection, the prevalence of unpredictable fluctuations was significantly higher in patients with both infections (8.3% vs. 87.5%; P?=?.008). Gastric half-emptying time was significantly longer in patients than in healthy controls but did not differ in patients based on their infective status. Compared with patients without isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, patients with isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth had longer off time daily and more episodes of delayed-on and no-on. The eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth resulted in improvement in motor fluctuations without affecting the pharmacokinetics of levodopa. The relapse rate of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth at 6 months was 43%. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:23712625

Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Petracca, Martina; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Ragazzoni, Enzo; Barbaro, Federico; Piano, Carla; Fortuna, Serena; Tortora, Annalisa; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Campanale, Mariachiara; Gigante, Giovanni; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Navarra, Pierluigi; Marconi, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

2013-08-01

12

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health.  

PubMed

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of the healthy human microbiota. Changes in the abundance of F. prausnitzii have been linked to dysbiosis in several human disorders. Administration of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165 and its culture supernatant have been shown to protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Here, we discuss the role of F. prausnitzii in balancing immunity in the intestine and the mechanisms involved. PMID:23831042

Miquel, S; Martín, R; Rossi, O; Bermúdez-Humarán, L G; Chatel, J M; Sokol, H; Thomas, M; Wells, J M; Langella, P

2013-06-01

13

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes gut bacterial growth by reducing the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining human health and well-being. Previously, we have shown that mice deficient in the brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) suffer from dysbiosis and that oral IAP supplementation normalizes the gut flora. Here we aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism by which IAP promotes bacterial growth. We used an isolated mouse intestinal loop model to directly examine the effect of exogenous IAP on the growth of specific intestinal bacterial species. We studied the effects of various IAP targets on the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as on a few specific gut organisms. We determined the effects of ATP and other nucleotides on bacterial growth. Furthermore, we examined the effects of IAP on reversing the inhibitory effects of nucleotides on bacterial growth. We have confirmed that local IAP bioactivity creates a luminal environment that promotes the growth of a wide range of commensal organisms. IAP promotes the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and appears to exert its growth promoting effects by inactivating (dephosphorylating) luminal ATP and other luminal nucleotide triphosphates. We observed that compared with wild-type mice, IAP-knockout mice have more ATP in their luminal contents, and exogenous IAP can reverse the ATP-mediated inhibition of bacterial growth in the isolated intestinal loop. In conclusion, IAP appears to promote the growth of intestinal commensal bacteria by inhibiting the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates. PMID:24722905

Malo, Madhu S; Moaven, Omeed; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Brishti; Alam, Sayeda N; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Gul, Sarah Shireen; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Malo, Nondita S; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Tao, Qingsong; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth L; Warren, H Shaw; Robson, Simon C; Hodin, Richard A

2014-05-15

14

Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue  

PubMed Central

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn’s disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain Giardia infections may attenuate PMN accumulation by decreasing the expression of the mediators responsible for their recruitment. PMID:25289678

Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.

2014-01-01

15

Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences  

PubMed Central

This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, L-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram negative bacteria and preserving intestinal permeability to endotoxin may attenuate alcoholic liver and other organ injuries. PMID:18504085

Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J. Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y. James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R. Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R.

2008-01-01

16

Pediatric Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Low-Income Countries  

PubMed Central

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when colonic quantities of commensal bacteria are present in the small bowel. SIBO is associated with conditions of disrupted GI motility leading to stasis of luminal contents. Recent data show that SIBO is also found in children living in unsanitary conditions that do not have access to clean water. SIBO leads to impaired micronutrient absorption and increased GI permeability, both of which may contribute to growth stunting in children. SIBO also disrupts mucosal immunity and has been implicated in oral vaccination underperformance and the development of celiac disease. SIBO in the setting of the impoverished human habitat may be an under recognized cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality in the developing world. PMID:25486880

Donowitz, Jeffrey R.; Petri, William A.

2015-01-01

17

Early bacterial colonisation of the intestine: why it matters La colonizzazione batterica intestinale precoce: perché è importante  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The birth process allows the progressive formation of complex intestinal microflora com- posed of myriad bacteria, leading to this recently identified host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. This kind of cross-talk originating from birth is opportunistically used by the young host to initiate its own immune system. Recent epidemiological data support the hypothesis that some increasing immune deviances observed

J. P. LANGHENDRIES

18

Curcumin utilizes the anti-inflammatory response pathway to protect the intestine against bacterial invasion  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, a major component of the Curcuma species, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although it was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, the functional role of curcumin as well as its molecular mechanism in anti-inflammatory response, particularly in intestinal cells, has been less investigated. The intestine epithelial barrier is the first barrier and the most important location for the substrate coming from the lumen of the gut. SUBJECTS/METHODS We administered curcumin treatment in the human intestinal epithelial cell lines, T84 and Caco-2. We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response by thapsigargin, qPCR of XBP1 and BiP, electrophysiology by wild-type cholera toxin in the cells. RESULTS In this study, we showed that curcumin treatment reduces ER stress and thereby decreases inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, curcumin confers protection without damaging the membrane tight junction or actin skeleton change in intestine epithelial cells. Therefore, curcumin treatment protects the gut from bacterial invasion via reduction of ER stress and anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, our data demonstrate the important role of curcumin in protecting the intestine by modulating ER stress and inflammatory response post intoxication.

Cho, Jin Ah

2015-01-01

19

A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is a strict human pathogen that causes the disease cholera. It is an old-world pathogen that has re-emerged as a new threat since the early 1990s. V. cholerae colonizes the upper, small intestine where it produces a toxin that leads to watery diarrhea, characterizing the disease [36]. The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although a large initial infectious dose is required for infection, data suggests that only a smaller sub-population colonizes a portion of the small bowel leading to disease. There are many barriers to colonization in the intestines including peristalsis, fluid wash-out, viscosity of the mucus layer, and pH. We are interested in identifying the mechanisms that allow this sub-population of bacteria to survive and colonize the intestines when faced with these barriers. To elaborate the dynamics of V. cholerae infection, we have developed a mathematical model based on a convection-diffusion-reaction-swimming equation capturing bacterial dynamics coupled with Stokes equations governing fluid velocity where we developed a novel non-local boundary condition. Our results indicate that both host and bacterial factors contribute to bacterial density in the gut. Host factors include intestinal diffusion and convection rates while bacterial factors include adherence, motility and growth rates. This model can ultimately be used to test therapeutic strategies against V. cholerae. PMID:21903104

Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; DiRita, Victor; Kirschner, Denise

2011-01-01

20

Analysis of Intestinal Bacterial Community Diversity of Adult Dastarcus helophoroides  

PubMed Central

Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

Zhang, Z. Q.; He, C.; Li, M. L.

2014-01-01

21

Alterations in rat intestinal transit by morphine promote bacterial translocation.  

PubMed

Translocation of enteric microorganisms from the intestinal tract to extraintestinal sites has been proposed as an early step in the development of gram-negative sepsis. This study examined the role of altered bowel transit in influencing intestinal bacteriostasis and bacterial translocation using morphine as a pharmacologic inhibitor of such transit. In the first experiment, either normal saline (N = 8) or morphine sulfate (20 mg/kg; N = 8) was injected subcutaneously. Two hours later, morphine (7.5 mg/kg) was infused subcutaneously for an additional 22 hr; control animals received saline alone. After completion of this regimen, a volume of 0.2 ml of 2.5 mM FITC dextrans (10,000 daltons) were injected intraduodenally in each group. The bowel was removed 25 min later, divided into 5-cm segments, and the content of dextrans measured. Small bowel propulsion was expressed as the geometric center of the distribution of dextrans throughout the intestine (in percentage length of small bowel). Gut propulsion was significantly reduced after morphine treatment as compared to controls (32.8 +/- 8.2% vs. 55.8 +/- 4.0%; P < 0.01). In 16 additional rats, saline or morphine was again administered as described. After 24 hr, samples were obtained from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) complex, blood, spleen, liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum for standard bacteriology. The bacterial counts increased significantly in each intestinal segment following morphine treatment. Microorganisms translocated to the MLN complex in 5, and to distant sites in four of eight morphine-treated animals, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8344112

Runkel, N S; Moody, F G; Smith, G S; Rodriguez, L F; Chen, Y; Larocco, M T; Miller, T A

1993-08-01

22

Bacterial Overgrowth in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Null Mouse Small Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported the inflammation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse small intestine, and we hypothesized bacterial overgrowth as a possible cause. Quantitative PCR of bacterial 16S genomic DNA in the CF mouse small intestine revealed an increase of greater than 40-fold compared to controls. Sequencing of 16S PCR products and Gram staining showed that the majority of bacteria in

Oxana Norkina; Tim G. Burnett; Robert C. De Lisle

2004-01-01

23

Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth  

PubMed Central

Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO. PMID:24944923

Patil, Anant D.

2014-01-01

24

Regulation of Bacterial Pathogenesis by Intestinal Short-Chain Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

The human gut microbiota is inextricably linked to health and disease. One important function of the commensal organisms living in the intestine is to provide colonization resistance against invading enteric pathogens. Because of the complex nature of the interaction between the microbiota and its host, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to resistance. In this review, we dissect the biological role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are fermentation end products of the intestinal microbiota, in host–pathogen interactions. SCFA exert an extensive influence on host physiology through nutritional, regulatory, and immunomodulatory functions and can also affect bacterial fitness as a form of acid stress. Moreover, SCFA act as a signal for virulence gene regulation in common enteric pathogens. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of the chemical environment where the biology of the host, the microbiota, and the pathogen intersects, which provides a basis for designing effective infection prevention and control. PMID:23942149

Sun, Yvonne; O’Riordan, Mary X. D.

2013-01-01

25

Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

2008-01-01

26

Blockage of protease-activated receptor 1 ameliorates heat-stress induced intestinal high permeability and bacterial translocation.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidences indicate intestinal lesions play an important role in the pathogenesis of heatstroke. However, the underlying mechanisms by which heat stress causes intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in heat stress-induced intestinal hyper-permeability and bacterial translocation. Intestinal permeability in heat stressed mouse was evaluated by determining plasma endotoxin concentration and urinal lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio with gastric administration of L/M solution. Venous blood, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node tissues were collected for bacterial load test. Real time PCR was used to determine ileum PAR1 mRNA expression. In vitro study, permeability was assessed by determining trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. RWJ-58259, a selective antagonist of PAR1, was used both in vivo and in vitro studies. The results showed that heat stress could increase ileum PAR1 mRNA level, urinal L/M ratio, plasma endotoxin concentration and bacterial load in the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Blocking PAR1 with RWJ-58259 (10?mg/kg) pretreatment could significantly reduce heat stress-induced above changes, but have no role to PAR1 mRNA level. In Caco-2 cells, heat stress-induced high permeability could also be reduced by RWJ-58259 (5-20?µmol/L). In summary, our results demonstrated that PAR1 signaling pathway may play an important role in the heat stress-induced elevation of intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and the occurrence of endotoxemia. PMID:25492552

Xu, Qiu-Lin; Guo, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Xian; Chen, Bin; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Su, Lei

2015-04-01

27

Intestinal bacterial metabolism and anti-complement activities of three major components of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the metabolism of Entadae Semen by human fecal bacteria to clarify the relationship between its pharmacological activities and intestinal metabolism. Three major components (phaseoloidin, entadamide A-?-D-glucopyranoside and entadamide A) were isolated and identified from Entadae Semen and then incubated with human fecal microflora in vitro to investigate the metabolic processes. The metabolites were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anti-complement activities of the three components and their metabolites produced by human fecal microflora were evaluated in vitro using a hemolysis assay. Phaseoloidin and entadamide A-?-D-glucopyranoside were metabolized into their respective aglycones during the incubation process, which enhanced their anti-complement effects. These results indicated that the presence of intestinal bacteria likely plays an important role and that the pharmacological effects of Entadae Semen may be dependent on intestinal bacterial metabolism. PMID:25398297

Xing, Shihua; Wang, Mengyue; Peng, Ying; Dong, Yuqiong; Li, Xiaobo

2015-04-01

28

Breath testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: maximizing test accuracy.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has increased considerably owing to a growing recognition of its association with common bowel symptoms including chronic diarrhea, bloating, abdominal distention, and the irritable bowel syndrome. Ideally, an accurate and objective diagnosis of SIBO should be established before initiating antibiotic treatment. Unfortunately, no perfect test exists for the diagnosis of SIBO. The current gold standard, small-bowel aspiration and quantitative culture, is limited by its high cost, invasive nature, lack of standardization, sampling error, and need for dedicated infrastructure. Although not without shortcomings, hydrogen breath testing provides the simplest noninvasive and widely available diagnostic modality for suspected SIBO. Carbohydrates such as lactulose and glucose are the most widely used substrates in hydrogen breath testing, with glucose arguably providing greater testing accuracy. Lactose, fructose, and sorbitol should not be used as substrates in the assessment of suspected SIBO. The measurement of methane in addition to hydrogen can increase the sensitivity of breath testing for SIBO. Diagnostic accuracy of hydrogen breath testing in SIBO can be maximized by careful patient selection for testing, proper test preparation, and standardization of test performance as well as test interpretation. PMID:24095975

Saad, Richard J; Chey, William D

2014-12-01

29

Diversity and Contribution of the Intestinal Bacterial Community to the Development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Diversity and Contribution of the Intestinal Bacterial Community to the Development The bacterial diversity in the intestinal tract of Musca domestica L. was examined in larvae collected from), were isolated from the larval intestinal tracts. The majority of isolates represented facultatively

30

The Relationship between Small-Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Intestinal Permeability in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a frequent finding in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Many patients with IBS also have abnormal intestinal permeability, which is probably due to low-grade inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Our aim was to verify the relationship between SIBO and small-intestinal permeability in IBS patients. Methods A cohort of 38 IBS patients (20 women and 18 men; age range 16-70 years; mean age 40.2 years) with symptoms that fulfilled Rome-II criteria, and 12 healthy controls (5 women and 7 men; age range 25-52 years; mean age: 37.8 years) were recruited. All subjects underwent lactulose breath tests (LBTs) and intestinal permeability tests using the polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350/400 retrieval ratio. Results A positive LBT was found in 18.4% (7/38) of patients with IBS and 8.3% (1/12) of control subjects. Intestinal permeability was significantly increased in patients with IBS compared with the normal controls (0.82±0.09 vs 0.41±0.05 [mean±SD], respectively; p<0.05). However, the intestinal permeability did not differ significantly between IBS patients with a positive LBT and those with a negative LBT (0.90±0.13 and 0.80±0.11, respectively; p>0.05). Conclusions Intestinal permeability was increased in patients with IBS, but this finding did not correlated with the occurrence of SIBO. PMID:20431742

Park, Dong Il; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Won, Kyoung Hee; Park, Soon Min

2009-01-01

31

The Human Intestinal Microbiome: A New Frontier of Human Biology  

PubMed Central

To analyze the vast number and variety of microorganisms inhabiting the human intestine, emerging metagenomic technologies are extremely powerful. The intestinal microbes are taxonomically complex and constitute an ecologically dynamic community (microbiota) that has long been believed to possess a strong impact on human physiology. Furthermore, they are heavily involved in the maturation and proliferation of human intestinal cells, helping to maintain their homeostasis and can be causative of various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. A simplified animal model system has provided the mechanistic basis for the molecular interactions that occur at the interface between such microbes and host intestinal epithelia. Through metagenomic analysis, it is now possible to comprehensively explore the genetic nature of the intestinal microbiome, the mutually interacting system comprising the host cells and the residing microbial community. The human microbiome project was recently launched as an international collaborative research effort to further promote this newly developing field and to pave the way to a new frontier of human biology, which will provide new strategies for the maintenance of human health. PMID:19147530

Hattori, Masahira; Taylor, Todd D.

2009-01-01

32

Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length?=?442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2013-01-01

33

Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets  

PubMed Central

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

34

Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.  

PubMed

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25373234

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

35

Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.  

PubMed

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

2014-01-01

36

Intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the rat  

SciTech Connect

In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. The present study evaluated gut barrier function following orthotopic (in continuity) intestinal grafting in rats. Graft histology, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to the grafted mesenteric lymph nodes, the host's liver, and the host's spleen were assessed on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days. The study group received no immunosuppression after allotransplantation. The two control groups included rats with isografts and rats with cyclosporine-treated allografts. On the 7th POD, the study animals had moderate transmural inflammation due to rejection, with normal histology in the isografts and CsA-treated allografts; increased intestinal permeability, measured by urinary excretion of oral 51Cr-EDTA (P less than 0.01); and increased number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen (P less than 0.05). The number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen of the study group positively correlated with the changes in intestinal permeability (P less than 0.05). Rejection of the orthotopic intestinal graft leads to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the lumen of the graft to the host's reticuloendothelial system. Measures to improve gut barrier function and antibiotic therapy during rejection episodes may help reduce the incidence of septic complications after intestinal grafting.

Grant, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Zhong, R.; Wang, P.Z.; Chen, H.F.; Garcia, B.; Behme, R.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J. (University of Western Ontario (Canada))

1991-08-01

37

Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Irritable bowel syndrome is the most common gastrointestinal diagnosis. The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are similar to those of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The purpose of this study was to test whether overgrowth is associated with irritable bowel syndrome and whether treatment of overgrowth reduces their intestinal complaints.METHODS:Two hundred two subjects in a prospective database of subjects referred from

Mark Pimentel; Evelyn J. Chow; Henry C. Lin

2000-01-01

38

Human small intestinal motor activity and postprandial glycemia after dietary  

E-print Network

Human small intestinal motor activity and postprandial glycemia after dietary fiber intake. C, DF may also change motility in the small intestine and im- provement of glucose tolerance may of the small intestine and glycemia after ingestion of 3 different DF. Electromyographic activity in the first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Identification of a Core Bacterial Community within the Large Intestine of the Horse  

PubMed Central

The horse has a rich and complex microbial community within its gastrointestinal tract that plays a central role in both health and disease. The horse receives much of its dietary energy through microbial hydrolysis and fermentation of fiber predominantly in the large intestine/hindgut. The presence of a possible core bacterial community in the equine large intestine was investigated in this study. Samples were taken from the terminal ileum and 7 regions of the large intestine from ten animals, DNA extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA 454-pyrosequenced. A specific group of OTUs clustered in all ileal samples and a distinct and different signature existed for the proximal regions of the large intestine and the distal regions. A core group of bacterial families were identified in all gut regions with clear differences shown between the ileum and the various large intestine regions. The core in the ileum accounted for 32% of all sequences and comprised of only seven OTUs of varying abundance; the core in the large intestine was much smaller (5-15% of all sequences) with a much larger number of OTUs present but in low abundance. The most abundant member of the core community in the ileum was Lactobacillaceae, in the proximal large intestine the Lachnospiraceae and in the distal large intestine the Prevotellaceae. In conclusion, the presence of a core bacterial community in the large intestine of the horse that is made up of many low abundance OTUs may explain in part the susceptibility of horses to digestive upset. PMID:24204908

Dougal, Kirsty; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Harris, Patricia A.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Pinloche, Eric; Newbold, C. Jamie

2013-01-01

40

The Role of Milk Sialyllactose in Intestinal Bacterial Colonization123  

PubMed Central

Milk oligosaccharides influence the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby mucosal inflammation. Some of the major milk oligosaccharides are ?2,3-sialyllactose (3SL) and ?2,6-sialyllactose, which are mainly produced by the sialyltransferases ST3GAL4 and ST6GAL1, respectively. Recently, we showed that mice fed milk deficient in 3SL were more resistant to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. By contrast, the exposure to milk containing or deficient in 3SL had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. Milk 3SL mainly affected the colonization of the intestine by clostridial cluster IV bacteria. PMID:22585928

Weiss, G. Adrienne; Hennet, Thierry

2012-01-01

41

The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens.  

PubMed

As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds. PMID:21267722

Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

2011-05-01

42

Plant innate immunity against human bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Certain human bacterial pathogens such as the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are not proven to be plant pathogens yet. Nonetheless, under certain conditions they can survive on, penetrate into, and colonize internal plant tissues causing serious food borne disease outbreaks. In this review, we highlight current understanding on the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against human bacterial pathogens and discuss salient common and contrasting themes of plant interactions with phytopathogens or human pathogens. PMID:25157245

Melotto, Maeli; Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana

2014-01-01

43

Bacterial Pollution Indicators in the Intestinal Tract of Freshwater Fish  

PubMed Central

A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and persistence of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci in the intestinal tract of freshwater fish. A total of 132 fish representing 14 different species were used in various phases of these experiments. Examination of the intestinal contents of 78 fish from moderately polluted sections of the Little Miami River indicated that fecal coliform densities were lowest in bluegills (less than 20 per gram) and highest in catfish (1,090,000 per gram). Levels of fecal streptococci for these two species were 220 and 240,000 per gram, respectively. The occurrence of fecal coliforms in fish caught in this stream reflected the warm-blooded-animal-pollution level of the water. All fish used in this phase of the study were caught during July, August, and September when the water temperatures were between 13 and 18 C. The fate of fecal coliforms and Streptococcus faecalis in the fish intestine indicated that these organisms can probably survive and multiply when fish and water temperatures are 20 C or higher, but only when the organisms are retained in the gut for periods beyond 24 hr. Based on the biochemical reactions for 3,877 coliform strains isolated from 132 freshwater fish of 14 different species, 91.4% of all strains were composed of five IMViC types. In a similar study of the biochemical reactions of 850 streptococci isolated from the intestinal tract of 55 freshwater fish, the predominant strains included S. faecalis and various closely associated biotypes. No consistently recurring pattern for either coliforms or streptococci could be developed to identify species of fish investigated. The composition of the intestinal flora is, however, related in varying degree to the level of contamination of water and food in the environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6008184

Geldreich, Edwin E.; Clarke, Norman A.

1966-01-01

44

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is diagnosed in some cases of irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal tract disfunction characterized by abdominal pain (or discomfort) and alteration in bowel movements. The etiology of presented symptoms despite numerous studies is unclear. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is one of potential factors causing symptoms of some gastrointe- stinal functional disorders. The aim of the study was to check whether SIBO

Agnieszka Meder

45

Salmonella?infected crypt?derived intestinal organoid culture system for host–bacterial interactions  

PubMed Central

Abstract The in vitro analysis of bacterial–epithelial interactions in the intestine has been hampered by a lack of suitable intestinal epithelium culture systems. Here, we report a new experimental model using an organoid culture system to study pathophysiology of bacterial–epithelial interactions post Salmonella infection. Using crypt?derived mouse intestinal organoids, we were able to visualize the invasiveness of Salmonella and the morphologic changes of the organoids. Importantly, we reported bacteria?induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions in the infected organoids. In addition, we showed the inflammatory responses through activation of the NF??B pathway in the organoids. Moreover, our western blot, PCR, and immunofluorescence data demonstrated that stem cell markers (Lgr5 and Bmi1) were significantly decreased by Salmonella infection (determined using GFP?labeled Lgr5 organoids). For the first time, we created a model system that recapitulated a number of observations from in vivo studies of the Salmonella?infected intestine, including bacterial invasion, altered tight junctions, inflammatory responses, and decreased stem cells. We have demonstrated that the Salmonella?infected organoid culture system is a new experimental model suitable for studying host–bacterial interactions. PMID:25214524

Zhang, Yong?Guo; Wu, Shaoping; Xia, Yinglin; Sun, Jun

2014-01-01

46

Dynamic efficiency of the human intestinal microbiota.  

PubMed

Abstract The emerging dynamic dimensions of the human intestinal microbiota (IM) are challenging the traditional definition of healthy gut microbiota, principally based on the static concepts of phylogenetic and functional core. On the other hand, recent researches are revealing that the microbiota plasticity is strategic for several aspects of our biology, addressing the different immunological and metabolic needs at various ages, and adjusting the ecosystem services in response to different lifestyle, physiological states or diets. In light of these studies, we propose to revise the traditional concept of healthy human IM, including its degree of plasticity among the fundamental requisites for providing host health. In order to make a model taking into account the relative importance of IM core functions and plasticity for the maintenance of host health, we address to Economics, where the efficiency of a productive system is measured by computing static and dynamic parameters. PMID:25168339

Candela, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Turroni, Silvia; Maccaferri, Simone; Figini, Paolo; Brigidi, Patrizia

2013-09-01

47

Novel Bacterial Taxa in the Human Microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gut harbors thousands of bacterial taxa. A profusion of metagenomic sequence data has been generated from human stool samples in the last few years, raising the question of whether more taxa remain to be identified. We assessed metagenomic data generated by the Human Microbiome Project Consortium to determine if novel taxa remain to be discovered in stool samples

Kristine M. Wylie; Rebecca M. Truty; Thomas J. Sharpton; Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Yanjiao Zhou; Hongyu Gao; Erica Sodergren; George M. Weinstock; Katherine S. Pollard

2012-01-01

48

Wingless homolog Wnt11 suppresses bacterial invasion and inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Wnt11 plays an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation, and previous investigations have focused on development and immune responses. However, the roles of how enteric bacteria regulate Wnt11 and how Wnt11 modulates the host response to pathogenic bacteria remain unexplored. This study investigated the effects of Salmonella infection on Wnt activation in intestinal epithelial cells. We found that Wnt11 mRNA and protein expression were elevated after Salmonella colonization. Wnt11 protein secretion in epithelial cells was also elevated after bacterial infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pathogenic Salmonella regulated Wnt11 expression and localization in vivo. We found a decrease in Salmonella invasion in cells with Wnt11 overexpression compared with cells with normal Wnt11 level. IL-8 mRNA in Wnt11-transfected cells was low; however, it was enhanced in cells with a low level of Wnt11 expression. Functionally, Wnt11 overexpression inhibited Salmonella-induced apoptosis. AvrA is a known bacterial effector protein that stabilizes ?-catenin, the downstream regulator of Wnt signaling, and inhibits bacterially induced intestinal inflammation. We observed that Wnt11 expression, secretion, and transcriptional activity were regulated by Salmonella AvrA. Overall, Wnt11 is involved in the protection of the host intestinal cells by blocking the invasion of pathogenic bacteria, suppressing inflammation, and inhibiting apoptosis. Wnt11 is a novel and important contributor to intestinal homeostasis and host defense. PMID:21903761

Liu, Xingyin; Wu, Shaoping; Xia, Yinglin; Li, Xi Emma; Xia, Yuxuan; Zhou, Zhongren David

2011-01-01

49

The effects of intestinal tract bacterial diversity on mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Highly diverse bacterial populations inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and modulate host inflammation and promote immune tolerance. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the gastrointestinal mucosa is damaged, and colonizing bacteria are impacted, leading to an impaired intestinal microbiota with reduced diversity. We examined the impact of intestinal diversity on subsequent mortality outcomes following transplantation. Fecal specimens were collected from 80 recipients of allo-HSCT at the time of stem cell engraftment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were characterized, and microbial diversity was estimated using the inverse Simpson index. Subjects were classified into high, intermediate, and low diversity groups and assessed for differences in outcomes. Mortality outcomes were significantly worse in patients with lower intestinal diversity; overall survival at 3 years was 36%, 60%, and 67% for low, intermediate, and high diversity groups, respectively (P = .019, log-rank test). Low diversity showed a strong effect on mortality after multivariate adjustment for other clinical predictors (transplant related mortality: adjusted hazard ratio, 5.25; P = .014). In conclusion, the diversity of the intestinal microbiota at engraftment is an independent predictor of mortality in allo-HSCT recipients. These results indicate that the intestinal microbiota may be an important factor in the success or failure in allo-HSCT. PMID:24939656

Jenq, Robert R.; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Littmann, Eric R.; Morjaria, Sejal; Ling, Lilan; No, Daniel; Gobourne, Asia; Viale, Agnes; Dahi, Parastoo B.; Ponce, Doris M.; Barker, Juliet N.; Giralt, Sergio; van den Brink, Marcel; Pamer, Eric G.

2014-01-01

50

The effects of intestinal tract bacterial diversity on mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Highly diverse bacterial populations inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and modulate host inflammation and promote immune tolerance. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the gastrointestinal mucosa is damaged, and colonizing bacteria are impacted, leading to an impaired intestinal microbiota with reduced diversity. We examined the impact of intestinal diversity on subsequent mortality outcomes following transplantation. Fecal specimens were collected from 80 recipients of allo-HSCT at the time of stem cell engraftment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were characterized, and microbial diversity was estimated using the inverse Simpson index. Subjects were classified into high, intermediate, and low diversity groups and assessed for differences in outcomes. Mortality outcomes were significantly worse in patients with lower intestinal diversity; overall survival at 3 years was 36%, 60%, and 67% for low, intermediate, and high diversity groups, respectively (P = .019, log-rank test). Low diversity showed a strong effect on mortality after multivariate adjustment for other clinical predictors (transplant related mortality: adjusted hazard ratio, 5.25; P = .014). In conclusion, the diversity of the intestinal microbiota at engraftment is an independent predictor of mortality in allo-HSCT recipients. These results indicate that the intestinal microbiota may be an important factor in the success or failure in allo-HSCT. PMID:24939656

Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Littmann, Eric R; Morjaria, Sejal; Ling, Lilan; No, Daniel; Gobourne, Asia; Viale, Agnes; Dahi, Parastoo B; Ponce, Doris M; Barker, Juliet N; Giralt, Sergio; van den Brink, Marcel; Pamer, Eric G

2014-08-14

51

A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine  

SciTech Connect

A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

2005-02-28

52

A gene-targeted approach to investigate the intestinal butyrate-producing bacterial community  

PubMed Central

Background Butyrate, which is produced by the human microbiome, is essential for a well-functioning colon. Bacteria that produce butyrate are phylogenetically diverse, which hinders their accurate detection based on conventional phylogenetic markers. As a result, reliable information on this important bacterial group is often lacking in microbiome research. Results In this study we describe a gene-targeted approach for 454 pyrotag sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the final genes in the two primary bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). We monitored the establishment and early succession of butyrate-producing communities in four patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent a colectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and compared it with three control samples from healthy colons. All patients established an abundant butyrate-producing community (approximately 5% to 26% of the total community) in the pouch within the 2-month study, but patterns were distinctive among individuals. Only one patient harbored a community profile similar to the healthy controls, in which there was a predominance of but genes that are similar to reference genes from Acidaminococcus sp., Eubacterium sp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia sp., and an almost complete absence of buk genes. Two patients were greatly enriched in buk genes similar to those of Clostridium butyricum and C. perfringens, whereas a fourth patient displayed abundant communities containing both genes. Most butyrate producers identified in previous studies were detected and the general patterns of taxa found were supported by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis, but the gene-targeted approach provided more detail about the potential butyrate-producing members of the community. Conclusions The presented approach provides quantitative and genotypic insights into butyrate-producing communities and facilitates a more specific functional characterization of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, our analysis refines but and buk reference annotations found in central databases. PMID:24451334

2013-01-01

53

Chloride dependent amino acid transport in the human small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carriers of beta amino acids and imino acids in the small intestine of rabbits and guinea pigs are chloride dependent, and a cotransport of chloride, sodium, and 2-methyl-aminoisobutyric acid has been shown. This study examines the chloride dependence of amino acid transport in the human small intestine. The steady state tissue uptake of amino acids, given as the ratio between

L K Munck

1995-01-01

54

In vivo genome-wide RNAi screen identifies genes involved in intestinal pathogenic bacterial infection  

PubMed Central

Innate immunity represents the first line of defense in animals. We report a genome-wide in vivo Drosophila RNA interference screen to uncover genes involved in susceptibility or resistance to intestinal infection with the bacterium Serratia marcescens. We employed first whole-organism gene suppression followed by tissue-specific silencing in gut epithelium or hemocytes to identify several hundred genes involved in intestinal anti-bacterial immunity. Among the pathways identified, we showed that the JAK-STAT signaling pathway controls host defense in the gut by regulating stem cell proliferation and thus epithelial cell homeostasis. Thus, we revealed multiple genes involved in anti-bacterial defense and the regulation of innate immunity. PMID:19520911

Cronin, Shane J. F.; Nehme, Nadine T.; Limmer, Stefanie; Liegeois, Samuel; Pospisilik, J. Andrew; Schramek, Daniel; Leibbrandt, Andreas; Simoes, Ricardo de Matos; Gruber, Susanne; Puc, Urszula; Ebersberger, Ingo; Zoranovic, Tamara; Neely, G. Gregory; von Haeseler, Arndt; Ferrandon, Dominique; Penninger, Josef M.

2010-01-01

55

Rye Affects Bacterial Translocation, Intestinal Viscosity, Microbiota Composition and Bone Mineralization in Turkey Poults  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are currently being evaluated. PMID:25849537

Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

2015-01-01

56

The Intestinal Bacterial Community in the Food Waste-Reducing Larvae of Hermetia illucens  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that\\u000a the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial\\u000a communities in the gut of BSF larvae

Hyunbum Jeon; Soyoung Park; Jiyoung Choi; Gilsang Jeong; Sang-Beom Lee; Youngcheol Choi; Sung-Jae Lee

2011-01-01

57

[The aerobic bacterial intestinal flora of various wintering geese species].  

PubMed

The aerobic fecal flora of wintering Brent Goos (Branta bernicla), Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), Greylag Goose (Anser anser), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), and Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) was studied. There were no specific differences between the various geese. Bacterial counts were in the range of 10(5)-10(7) CPU per gram of feces. Neither pathogenic bacteria nor rotavirus could be detected in the fecal samples of the wintering geese, so that a contamination of the environment with those pathogenic organisms could be excluded. The majority of the isolated bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas; enterobacteria and streptococci were less common. The observations are discussed regarding their epidemiological and ecological significance. PMID:7136353

Holländer, R

1982-07-01

58

Histological and bacteriological changes in intestine of beluga ( Huso huso) following ex vivo exposure to bacterial strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the intestinal sac method (ex vivo) was used to evaluate the interactions between lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of beluga (Huso huso). The distal intestine (DI) of beluga was exposed ex vivo to Staphylococcus aureus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum. Histological changes following bacterial exposure were assessed by light and electron

Wahida Salma; Zhigang Zhou; Wenwen Wang; Fatemeh Askarian; Armin Kousha; Maryam Tajabadi Ebrahimi; Reidar Myklebust; Einar Ringø

2011-01-01

59

Wnt2 inhibits enteric bacterial-induced inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Wnt signaling plays an essential role in gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation. Most investigations have focused on developmental and immune responses. Bacterial infection can be chronic and increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer. However, we lack studies on how bacteria regulate Wnt proteins and how Wnts modulate the host responses to enteric bacteria. This study investigated the effects of Salmonella and E. coli on Wnt2, one of the Wnt family members, in intestinal epithelia cells. Methodology/Findings Using cultured epithelial cells, a Salmonella-colitis mouse model, and a gnotobiotic mouse model, we found that Wnt2 mRNA and protein expression levels were elevated after bacterial infection. Enteric bacteria regulate Wnt2 location in the intestine. Furthermore, we found that elevation of Wnt2 was a strategy for host defense by inhibiting cell apoptosis and inflammatory responses to infection. Using Wnt2 siRNA analysis, we show enhanced inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in epithelial cells. Cells over-expressed Wnt2 had less bacterial-induced IL-8 secretion. AvrA is a bacterial protein that inhibits inflammation by stabilizing beta-catenin, the down-stream target of Wnt. We found that the stabilization of Wnt2 was regulated through ubiquitination. Moreover, the bacterial protein AvrA from Salmonella and E. coli stabilized Wnt2 protein expression in vivo. In an ex-germ-free system, E. coli F18 expressing AvrA increased Wnt2 expression and changed Wnt2 distribution in intestine. Conclusion Wnt2 contributes to host protection in response to enteric bacteria. Our findings thus reveal a previously undefined role of Wnt for host-pathogen interaction and inflammation. PMID:21674728

Liu, Xingyin; Lu, Rong; Wu, Shaoping; Zhang, Yong-guo; Xia, Yinglin; Sartor, R. Balfour; Sun, Jun

2012-01-01

60

Milk sialyllactose influences colitis in mice through selective intestinal bacterial colonization  

PubMed Central

Milk oligosaccharides contribute to the development of the intestinal environment by acting as decoy receptors for pathogens and as prebiotics, which promote the colonization of commensal bacteria. Here, using ?2,3- and ?2,6-sialyltransferase-deficient mice, we investigated the role of the sialylated milk oligosaccharides sialyl(?2,3)lactose and sialyl(?2,6)lactose on mucosal immunity. The exposure of newborn mice to milk containing or deficient in sialyllactose had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. However, when challenged by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water, adult mice that had been fostered on sialyl(?2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to colitis compared with mice fostered on normal milk or sialyl(?2,6)lactose-deficient milk. Analysis of intestinal microbiota showed different colonization patterns depending on the presence or absence of sialyl(?2,3)lactose in the milk. Germ-free mice reconstituted with intestinal microbiota isolated from mice fed on sialyl(?2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to DSS-induced colitis than germ-free mice reconstituted with standard intestinal microbiota. Thus, exposure to sialyllactose during infancy affects bacterial colonization of the intestine, which influences the susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis in adult mice. PMID:21098096

Fuhrer, Andrea; Sprenger, Norbert; Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Borsig, Lubor; Chassard, Christophe

2010-01-01

61

Intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases: from bacterial community structure and functions to species of pathophysiological relevance.  

PubMed

The trillions of bacterial cells that colonize the mammalian digestive tract influence both host physiology and the fate of dietary compounds. Gnotobionts and fecal transplantation have been instrumental in revealing the causal role of intestinal bacteria in energy homeostasis and metabolic dysfunctions such as type-2 diabetes. However, the exact contribution of gut bacterial metabolism to host energy balance is still unclear and knowledge about underlying molecular mechanisms is scant. We have previously characterized cecal bacterial community functions and host responses in diet-induced obese mice using omics approaches. Based on these studies, we here discuss issues on the relevance of mouse models, give evidence that the metabolism of cholesterol-derived compounds by gut bacteria is of particular importance in the context of metabolic disorders and that dominant species of the family Coriobacteriaceae are good models to study these functions. PMID:25003516

Clavel, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Charles; Haller, Dirk; Gérard, Philippe; Rohn, Sascha; Lepage, Patricia; Daniel, Hannelore

2014-07-01

62

Glucan and glutamine reduce bacterial translocation in rats subjected to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.  

PubMed

Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) may induce bacterial translocation (BT). Glutamine (GLN)-enriched nutrition decreases BT. However, little is known about the effect of glucan (GL) in BT. This study investigated the combined effect of GL/GLN on BT, intestinal damage, and portal blood cytokines in animals under I/R. Four groups of 10 rats each were subjected to 60 min of intestinal ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The control group (group 1) received only rat food/water, group 2 received glutamine via gavage, group 3 received subcutaneuos soluble (1, 3)-d-glucan, and group 4 received GL + GLN. A sham group (group 5) served as a normal control. Bacterial cultures of ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver and lung biopsies, histological changes of ileum, and serum cytokines variables were examined after I/R. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Newman-Keuls test. Results showed that GLN, GL, and GL/GLN significantly reduced BT to MLN, liver, and lung. BT was more attenuated after GL treatment than GLN (P < .05). Rats treated with both GL and GLN exhibited lower bacterial colony counts than the ones treated only with GLN or GL. Severe mucosal damage on histological findings was shown in group 1, but these findings were significantly ameliorated (P < .05) in groups 3 and 4. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-6 levels in portal serum were significantly reduced and IL-10 was increased by GL and GLN treatment. In conclusion, the use of GL was more effective than GLN in reducing BT, intestinal damage, and cytokine levels after I/R. Additionally, the combination of GL and GLN improved results. PMID:16546928

Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Chacon, Dâmaso Araújo; Sales, Valéria Soraya Farias; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa; Brandão-Neto, José; Pinheiro, Laíza Araújo Mohana; Carvalho, Mariana Rego

2006-01-01

63

Three-Dimensional Coculture Of Human Small-Intestine Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex three-dimensional masses of normal human epithelial and mesenchymal small-intestine cells cocultured in process involving specially designed bioreactors. Useful as tissued models for studies of growth, regulatory, and differentiation processes in normal intestinal tissues; diseases of small intestine; and interactions between cells of small intestine and viruses causing disease both in small intestine and elsewhere in body. Process used to produce other tissue models, leading to advances in understanding of growth and differentiation in developing organisms, of renewal of tissue, and of treatment of myriad of clinical conditions. Prior articles describing design and use of rotating-wall culture vessels include "Growing And Assembling Cells Into Tissues" (MSC-21559), "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), and "In Vitro, Matrix-Free Formation Of Solid Tumor Spheroids" (MSC-21843).

Wolf, David; Spaulding, Glen; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Prewett, Tracy

1994-01-01

64

Diclofenac toxicity in human intestine ex vivo is not related to the formation of intestinal metabolites.  

PubMed

The use of diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is associated with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal side effects. In vivo studies in rodents suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF produced by the liver or the intestine might be responsible for this toxicity. In the present study, precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) prepared from the jejunum of 18 human donors were used as an ex vivo model to investigate whether DCF intestinal metabolites are responsible for its intestinal toxicity in man. PCIS were incubated with a concentration range of DCF (0-600 µM) up to 24 h. DCF (?400 µM) caused direct toxicity to the intestine as demonstrated by ATP depletion, morphological damage, caspase 3 activation, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Three main metabolites produced by PCIS (4'-hydroxy DCF, 5-hydroxy DCF, and DCF acyl glucuronide) were detected by HPLC. Protein adducts were detected by immunohistochemical staining and showed correlation with the intestinal metabolites. DCF induced similar toxicity to each of the samples regardless of the variation in metabolism among them. Less metabolites were produced by slices incubated with 400 µM DCF than with 100 µM DCF. The addition of the metabolic inhibitors such as ketoconazole, cimetidine, or borneol decreased the metabolite formation but increased the toxicity. The results suggest that DCF can induce intestinal toxicity in human PCIS directly at therapeutically relevant concentrations, independent of the reactive metabolites 4'-OH DCF, 5-OH DCF, or diclofenac acylglucuronide produced by the liver or formed in the intestine. PMID:24770551

Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A M; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Horvatovich, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M M

2015-01-01

65

Microbiology of bacterial translocation in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Gut translocation of bacteria has been shown in both animal and human studies. Evidence from animal studies that links bacterial translocation to the development of postoperative sepsis and multiple organ failure has yet to be confirmed in humans.Aims—To examine the spectrum of bacteria involved in translocation in surgical patients undergoing laparotomy and to determine the relation between nodal migration of

C J O’Boyle; J MacFie; C J Mitchell; D Johnstone; P M Sagar; P C Sedman

1998-01-01

66

Microb Ecol . Author manuscript Human intestinal microbiota gene risk factors for antibiotic-associated  

E-print Network

Microb Ecol . Author manuscript Page /1 8 Human intestinal microbiota gene risk factors factors within the resident intestinal microbiota in a cohort of outpatients receiving antibiotherapy ; Microbiota genes ; Prevention ; Risk factors Introduction The collective effects of the intestinal microbiota

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans.  

PubMed

Almonds and almond skins are rich in fiber and other components that have potential prebiotic properties. In this study we investigated the prebiotic effects of almond and almond skin intake in healthy humans. A total of 48 healthy adult volunteers consumed a daily dose of roasted almonds (56 g), almond skins (10 g), or commercial fructooligosaccharides (8 g) (as positive control) for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at defined time points and analyzed for microbiota composition and selected indicators of microbial activity. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to almonds or almond skins. Significant increases in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed in fecal samples as a consequence of almond or almond skin supplementation. However, the populations of Escherichia coli did not change significantly, while the growth of the pathogen Clostridum perfringens was significantly repressed. Modification of the intestinal microbiota composition induced changes in bacterial enzyme activities, specifically a significant increase in fecal ?-galactosidase activity and decreases in fecal ?-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and azoreductase activities. Our observations suggest that almond and almond skin ingestion may lead to an improvement in the intestinal microbiota profile and a modification of the intestinal bacterial activities, which would induce the promotion of health beneficial factors and the inhibition of harmful factors. Thus we believe that almonds and almond skins possess potential prebiotic properties. PMID:24315808

Liu, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuchun; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Pingfan; Ni, Li

2014-04-01

68

Distinct Human Stem Cell Populations in Small and Large Intestine  

PubMed Central

The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease. PMID:25751518

Cramer, Julie M.; Thompson, Timothy; Geskin, Albert; LaFramboise, William; Lagasse, Eric

2015-01-01

69

Fusion between Hematopoietic and Epithelial Cells in Adult Human Intestine  

PubMed Central

Following transplantation of hematopoietic lineage cells, genetic markers unique to the transplanted cells have been detected in non-hematopoietic recipient cells of human liver, vascular endothelium, intestinal epithelium and brain. The underlying mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. Evidence from mice suggests it is due in part to fusion between cells of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origins; however, direct evidence for this in humans is scant. Here, by quantitative and statistical analysis of X- and Y-chromosome numbers in epithelial and non-epithelial intestinal cells from gender-mismatched hematopoietic cell transplant patients, we provide evidence that transplanted cells of the hematopoietic lineage incorporate into human intestinal epithelium through cell fusion. This is the first definitive identification of cell fusion between hematopoietic cells and any epithelial cell type in humans, and provides the basis for further understanding the physiological and potential pathological consequences of cell fusion in humans. PMID:23383228

Silk, Alain D.; Gast, Charles E.; Davies, Paige S.; Fakhari, Farnaz D.; Vanderbeek, Gretchen E.; Mori, Motomi; Wong, Melissa H.

2013-01-01

70

Intestinal beta-galactosidases. I. Separation and characterization of three enzymes in normal human intestine.  

PubMed

Previous studies based on work in the rat and preliminary experiments with human intestine have suggested that two beta-galactosidases are present in small intestine, and it is believed that only one of these enzymes is a lactase important for the digestion of dietary lactose. The high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in man prompted more complete study of these enzymes. Human intestinal beta-galactosidases were studied by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Biogel P-300 as well as by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Gel filtration produced partial separation into three peaks of enzyme activity, but much activity against synthetic substrates was lost. Only the trailing peak with specificity for synthetic beta-galactosides was completely separated from the other enzymes. Thus gel filtration was not a suitable preparative procedure for biochemical characterization. Density gradients separated the enzymes more completely, and they were designated according to their sedimentation rates and further characterized. Enzyme I has a molecular weight of 280,000, pH optimum of 6.0, and specificity for lactose of at least five times that for cellobiose or synthetic substrates. A second lactase, enzyme II, possesses slightly greater activity against lactose than for some synthetic substrates and is incapable of splitting cellobiose. Further, it has a lower pH optimum (4.5) and is present in two molecular species (molecular weights 156,000 and 660,000). Enzyme III shows specificity only for synthetic beta-galactosides but has a pH activity curve identical with enzyme I and a molecular weight of 80,000. Whereas human liver and kidney contain a beta-galactosidase with the same biochemical characteristics as intestinal enzyme II, enzymes I and III appear to be peculiar to intestine, and enzyme I most probably represents the lactase of importance in the mucosal digestion of dietary lactose. The following paper considers this further in terms of the biochemical change in intestinal lactase deficiency. PMID:5774109

Gray, G M; Santiago, N A

1969-04-01

71

Systemic inflammation increases intestinal permeability during experimental human endotoxemia.  

PubMed

Although the gut is often considered the motor of sepsis, the relation between systemic inflammation and intestinal permeability in humans is not clear. We analyzed intestinal permeability during experimental endotoxemia in humans. Before and during experimental endotoxemia (Escherichia coli LPS, 2 ng/kg), using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a permeability marker, intestinal permeability was analyzed in 14 healthy subjects. Enterocyte damage was determined by intestinal fatty acid binding protein. Endotoxemia induced an inflammatory response. Urinary PEGs 1,500 and 4,000 recovery increased from 38.8 +/- 6.3 to 63.1 +/- 12.5 and from 0.58 +/- 0.31 to 3.11 +/- 0.93 mg, respectively (P < 0.05). Intestinal fatty acid binding protein excretion was not affected by endotoxemia. The peak serum IL-10 concentrations correlated with the increase in PEG 1,500 recovery (r = 0.48, P = 0.027). Systemic inflammation results in an increased intestinal permeability. The increase in intestinal permeability is most likely caused by inflammation-induced paracellular permeability, rather than ischemia-mediated enterocyte damage. PMID:19295480

Hietbrink, Falco; Besselink, Marc G H; Renooij, Willem; de Smet, Martin B M; Draisma, Annelies; van der Hoeven, Hans; Pickkers, Peter

2009-10-01

72

Role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in severe small intestinal damage in chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Enteric bacteria play a significant role in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal damage. However, the association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and NSAID-induced small intestinal damage remains unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the association between SIBO and the presence of NSAID-induced severe small intestinal damage or its symptoms in chronic NSAID users. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Forty-three patients who had been using NSAIDs for over 3 months were enrolled. They were examined by capsule endoscopy and a lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT). We defined severe small intestinal damage as the presence of more than four small erosions or large erosions/ulcers. The LHBT result was considered positive if there was an increase in the level of breath hydrogen gas of >20 ppm above baseline. RESULTS. Out of 43 patients, 22 (51%) had severe small intestinal damage. The LHBT was positive in 5 of 21 patients (24%) without severe small intestinal damage and in 13 of 21 patients (59%) with severe small intestinal damage. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an LHBT-positive result was significantly associated with increased odds ratio for severe small intestinal damage (OR, 6.54; 95% CI, 1.40-30.50). There was no significant difference in the presence of symptoms between the LHBT-positive and LHBT-negative patients with severe small intestinal damage. CONCLUSION. SIBO might have a role in the development of severe small intestinal damage in chronic NSAID users. PMID:24417613

Muraki, Motoko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Machida, Hirohisa; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Sogawa, Mitsue; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Kenji; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Arakawa, Tetsuo

2014-03-01

73

Chemokine receptor expression by human intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Intestinal epithelial cells produce an array of proinflammatory chemokines that can provide signals to mucosal immune and inflammatory cells. To determine if chemokines can also signal epithelial cells, we characterized the expression of chemokine receptors on human colon epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Expression of chemokine receptor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by the human colon

Michael B. Dwinell; Lars Eckmann; John D. Leopard; Nissi M. Varki; Martin F. Kagnoff

1999-01-01

74

Modulation of pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion from HT29 human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) secrete the chemokine CCL20 in response to infection by various enteropathogenic bacteria or exposure to bacterial flagellin. CCL20 recruits immature dendritic cells and lymphocytes to target sites. Here we investigated IEC responses to various pathogenic and commensal bacteria as well as the modulatory effects of commensal bacteria on pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion. HT-29 human IECs

Shomik Sibartie; Ann M O'Hara; Jude Ryan; Áine Fanning; Jim O'Mahony; Shaun O'Neill; Barbara Sheil; Liam O'Mahony; Fergus Shanahan

2009-01-01

75

Effects of Intrapartum Penicillin Prophylaxis on Intestinal Bacterial Colonization in Infants  

PubMed Central

Early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. To prevent the vertical transmission of GBS and neonatal GBS infection, guidelines recommend intrapartum penicillin or amoxicillin prophylaxis. This intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is suspected to favor colonization by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, the effects of this prophylaxis on the patterns of acquisition of gastrointestinal bacterial flora in infants have never been studied. We collected stool samples from 3-day-old infants born to mothers who received intrapartum amoxicillin (antibiotic-exposed group; n = 25) and to untreated mothers (non-antibiotic-exposed group; n = 25). The groups were matched for factors known to affect intestinal microbial colonization: gestational age, type of delivery, and type of feeding. Qualitative and quantitative differential analyses of the bacterial flora in stool samples were performed. Similar numbers of infants in the non-antibiotic-exposed and antibiotic-exposed groups were colonized by aerobic bacteria and amoxicillin-resistant enterobacteria (75 and 77%, respectively) (P = 0.79). In contrast, significantly fewer infants in the antibiotic-exposed group than in the non-antibiotic-exposed group were colonized by anaerobic bacteria, especially Clostridium (12 and 40%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Regarding intestinal bacterial colonization, the differences between antibiotic-exposed and non-antibiotic-exposed infants were remarkably few. The only statistically significant effect was the reduced initial bacterial colonization by Clostridium in the antibiotic-exposed group. In our study, the use of IAP did not favor colonization by ?-lactam-resistant bacteria. However, further evaluations are required to highlight the potential risks of the widespread use of antibiotics to prevent early-onset GBS infection. PMID:15528713

Jauréguy, Françoise; Carton, Mathieu; Panel, Pierre; Foucaud, Pierre; Butel, Marie-José; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

2004-01-01

76

Understanding drug resistance in human intestinal protozoa.  

PubMed

Infections with intestinal protozoa continue to be a major health problem in many areas of the world. The widespread use of a limited number of therapeutic agents for their management and control raises concerns about development of drug resistance. Generally, the use of any antimicrobial agent should be accompanied by meticulous monitoring of its efficacy and measures to minimize resistance formation. Evidence for the occurrence of drug resistance in different intestinal protozoa comes from case studies and clinical trials, sometimes with a limited number of patients. Large-scale field-based assessment of drug resistance and drug sensitivity testing of clinical isolates are needed. Furthermore, the association of drug resistance with certain geographic isolates or genotypes deserves consideration. Drug resistance has been triggered in vitro and has been linked to modification of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, nitroreductases, antioxidant defense, or cytoskeletal system. Further mechanistic studies will have important implications in the development of second generation therapeutic agents. PMID:25782683

El-Taweel, Hend Aly

2015-05-01

77

Host-Microbe Interactions in the Neonatal Intestine: Role of Human Milk Oligosaccharides123  

PubMed Central

The infant intestinal microbiota is shaped by genetics and environment, including the route of delivery and early dietary intake. Data from germ-free rodents and piglets support a critical role for the microbiota in regulating gastrointestinal and immune development. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) both directly and indirectly influence intestinal development by regulating cell proliferation, acting as prebiotics for beneficial bacteria and modulating immune development. We have shown that the gut microbiota, the microbial metatranscriptome, and metabolome differ between porcine milk–fed and formula-fed (FF) piglets. Our goal is to define how early nutrition, specifically HMO, shapes host-microbe interactions in breast-fed (BF) and FF human infants. We an established noninvasive method that uses stool samples containing intact sloughed epithelial cells to quantify intestinal gene expression profiles in human infants. We hypothesized that a systems biology approach, combining i) HMO composition of the mother’s milk with the infant’s gut gene expression and fecal bacterial composition, ii) gene expression, and iii short-chain fatty acid profiles would identify important mechanistic pathways affecting intestinal development of BF and FF infants in the first few months of life. HMO composition was analyzed by HLPC Chip/time-of-flight MS and 3 HMO clusters were identified using principle component analysis. Initial findings indicated that both host epithelial cell mRNA expression and the microbial phylogenetic profiles provided strong feature sets that distinctly classified the BF and FF infants. Ongoing analyses are designed to integrate the host transcriptome, bacterial phylogenetic profiles, and functional metagenomic data using multivariate statistical analyses. PMID:22585924

Donovan, Sharon M.; Wang, Mei; Li, Min; Friedberg, Iddo; Schwartz, Scott L.; Chapkin, Robert S.

2012-01-01

78

Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).  

PubMed Central

The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs were slightly less than those from the other two groups of frogs. Another group of 14 summer frogs, after treatment to induce hibernation, showed a drop in bacterial counts accompanied by a change in the composition of the flora. In most frogs, Bacteroides was the dominant organism. Other bacteria repeatedly isolated at high dilutions were strict anaerobes, including butyrigenic and acetogenic helically coiled bacteria; fusobacteria; and acetogenic, small, gram-positive bacilli. These data indicate that the intestinal flora of frogs is similar to that of mammals and birds and that this flora can be maintained at temperatures close to freezing. PMID:6982025

Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

1982-01-01

79

Impact of enrofloxacin on the human intestinal microbiota revealed by comparative molecular analysis.  

PubMed

The indigenous human intestinal microbiota could be disrupted by residues of antibiotics in foods as well as therapeutically administered antibiotics to humans. These disruptions may lead to adverse health outcomes. To observe the possible impact of residues of antibiotics at concentrations below therapeutic levels on human intestinal microbiota, we performed studies using in vitro cultures of fecal suspensions from three individuals with 10 different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 150 ?g/ml) of the fluoroquinolone, enrofloxacin. The bacterial communities of the control and enrofloxacin dosed fecal samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. In addition, changes of functional gene expression were analyzed by a pyrosequencing-based random whole-community mRNA sequencing method. Although each individual had a unique microbial composition, the communities of all individuals were affected by enrofloxacin. The proportions of two phyla, namely, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, were significantly reduced with increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin exposure, while the proportion of Firmicutes increased. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) using the Fast UniFrac indicated that the community structures of intestinal microbiota were shifted by enrofloxacin. Most of the mRNA transcripts and the anti-microbial drug resistance genes increased with increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of control and enrofloxacin treated fecal suspensions provided valuable information of affected bacterial taxa down to the species level, and the community transcriptomic analyses using mRNA revealed the functional gene expression responses of the changed bacterial communities by enrofloxacin. PMID:22321759

Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Jong Nam; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Chun, Jongsik; Cerniglia, Carl E

2012-06-01

80

Molecular Characterisation of Bacterial Community Structure along the Intestinal Tract of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

The bacterial composition along the intestinal tract of Danio rerio was investigated by cultivation-independent analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Clone libraries were constructed for three compartments of the intestinal tract of individual fish. 566 individual clones were differentiated by amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA), and clone representatives from each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) were sequenced. As reported in other studies, we found that Proteobacteria was the most prominent phylum among clone libraries from different fish. Data generated from this pilot study indicated some compositional differences in bacterial communities. Two dominant classes, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli, displayed different levels of abundance in different compartments; Gammaproteobacteria increased along the intestinal tract, while Bacilli decreased its abundance along the proximal-distal axis. Less obvious spatial patterns were observed for other classes. In general, bacterial diversity in the intestinal bulb was greater than that in the posterior intestine. Interindividual differences in bacterial diversity and composition were also noted in this study. PMID:23724326

Lan, Chuan-Ching; Love, Donald R.

2012-01-01

81

Comparative Analysis of the Intestinal Bacterial and RNA Viral Communities from Sentinel Birds Placed on Selected Broiler Chicken Farms  

PubMed Central

There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing the poultry enteric virome have identified novel poultry viruses, but the roles these viruses play in disease and performance problems have yet to be fully characterized. The complex bacterial community present in the poultry gut influences gut development, immune status, and animal health, each of which can be an indicator of overall performance. The present metagenomic investigation was undertaken to provide insight into the colonization of specific pathogen free chickens by enteric microorganisms under field conditions and to compare the pre-contact intestinal microbiome with the altered microbiome following contact with poultry raised in the field. Analysis of the intestinal virome from contact birds (“sentinels”) placed on farms revealed colonization by members of the Picornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Reoviridae, and Astroviridae that were not present in pre-contact birds or present in proportionally lower numbers. Analysis of the sentinel gut bacterial community revealed an altered community in the post-contact birds, notably by members of the Lachnospiracea/Clostridium and Lactobacillus families and genera. Members of the avian enteric Reoviridae and Astroviridae have been well-characterized and have historically been implicated in poultry enteric disease; members of the Picobirnaviridae and Picornaviridae have only relatively recently been described in the poultry and avian gut, and their roles in the recognized disease syndromes and in poultry performance in general have not been determined. This metagenomic analysis has provided insight into the colonization of the poultry gut by enteric microbes circulating in commercial broiler flocks, and has identified enteric viruses and virus communities that warrant further study in order to understand their role(s) in avian gut health and disease. PMID:25635690

Day, J. Michael; Oakley, Brian B.; Seal, Bruce S.; Zsak, Laszlo

2015-01-01

82

Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

Montoudis, Alain [Department of Nutrition, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Delvin, Edgard [Department of Biochemistry, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Health Research, Group of the Functional Development and Physiopathology of the Digestive Tract, and Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., Canada J1H 5N4 (Canada); Menard, Daniel [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Health Research, Group of the Functional Development and Physiopathology of the Digestive Tract, and Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., J1H 5N4 (Canada)] (and others)

2006-01-06

83

Human Ghrelin Mitigates Intestinal Injury and Mortality after Whole Body Irradiation in Rats  

PubMed Central

Widespread use of ionizing radiation has led to the realization of the danger associated with radiation exposure. Although studies in radiation countermeasures were initiated a half century ago, an effective therapy for a radiomitigator has not been identified. Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone, and administration of ghrelin is protective in animal models of injuries including radiation combined injury. To test whether ghrelin can be protective in whole body irradiaton (WBI) alone, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with human ghrelin (20 nmol/rat) daily for 6 days starting at either 24 h or 48 h after 10 Gray (Gy) WBI and survival outcome was examined. The 10 Gy WBI produced a LD70/30 model in SD rats (30% survival in 30 days). The survival rate in rats treated with ghrelin starting at 24 h was significantly improved to 63% and when treatment was initiated at 48 h, the survival remained at 61%. At 7 days post WBI, plasma ghrelin was significantly reduced from the control value. Ghrelin treatment starting at 24 h after WBI daily for 6 days improved histological appearance of the intestine, reduced gut permeability, serum endotoxin levels and bacterial translocation to the liver by 38%, 42% and 61%, respectively at day 7 post WBI. Serum glucose and albumin were restored to near control levels with treatment. Ghrelin treatment also attenuated WBI-induced intestinal apoptosis by 62% as evidenced by TUNEL staining. The expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-xl was decreased by 38% in the vehicle and restored to 75% of the control with ghrelin treatment. Increased expression of intestinal CD73 and pAkt were observed with ghrelin treatment, indicating protection of the intestinal epithelium after WBI. These results indicate that human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI. Thus, human ghrelin can be developed as a novel mitigator for radiation injury. PMID:25671547

Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Weng Lang; Jacob, Asha; Aziz, Monowar; Wang, Ping

2015-01-01

84

Human ghrelin mitigates intestinal injury and mortality after whole body irradiation in rats.  

PubMed

Widespread use of ionizing radiation has led to the realization of the danger associated with radiation exposure. Although studies in radiation countermeasures were initiated a half century ago, an effective therapy for a radiomitigator has not been identified. Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone, and administration of ghrelin is protective in animal models of injuries including radiation combined injury. To test whether ghrelin can be protective in whole body irradiaton (WBI) alone, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with human ghrelin (20 nmol/rat) daily for 6 days starting at either 24 h or 48 h after 10 Gray (Gy) WBI and survival outcome was examined. The 10 Gy WBI produced a LD70/30 model in SD rats (30% survival in 30 days). The survival rate in rats treated with ghrelin starting at 24 h was significantly improved to 63% and when treatment was initiated at 48 h, the survival remained at 61%. At 7 days post WBI, plasma ghrelin was significantly reduced from the control value. Ghrelin treatment starting at 24 h after WBI daily for 6 days improved histological appearance of the intestine, reduced gut permeability, serum endotoxin levels and bacterial translocation to the liver by 38%, 42% and 61%, respectively at day 7 post WBI. Serum glucose and albumin were restored to near control levels with treatment. Ghrelin treatment also attenuated WBI-induced intestinal apoptosis by 62% as evidenced by TUNEL staining. The expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-xl was decreased by 38% in the vehicle and restored to 75% of the control with ghrelin treatment. Increased expression of intestinal CD73 and pAkt were observed with ghrelin treatment, indicating protection of the intestinal epithelium after WBI. These results indicate that human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI. Thus, human ghrelin can be developed as a novel mitigator for radiation injury. PMID:25671547

Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Weng Lang; Jacob, Asha; Aziz, Monowar; Wang, Ping

2015-01-01

85

Role of Ankaferd on bacterial translocation and inflammatory response in an experimental rat model of intestinal obstruction  

PubMed Central

Intestinal obstruction (IO) is an important risk factor for the development of bacteria translocation (BT), a serious condition associated with sepsis and potential mortality. Ankaferd is an herbal extract that is reported to exert anti-hemorrhagic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory, effects in the intestine. In this study, we employed an animal model of intestinal obstruction to evaluate the effects of Ankaferd in the prevention of bacterial translocation and the suppression of the inflammatory response. Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were allocated randomly to three groups: Group 1 (sham) underwent ileal manipulation alone; Group 2 (intestinal obstruction, IO) underwent complete ileal ligation; Group 3 (intestinal obstruction + Ankaferd blood stopper, ABS) underwent complete ileal ligation and intraperitoneal Ankaferd injection. All rats were euthanized after 24 hours. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum oxidative stress parameters and cytokine expression. In addition, liver, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and ileal specimens were obtained for microbiological culture to determine the rate of bacterial translocation. Liver and ileal tissues were collected for histopathological examination. A reduction in oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial translocation was observed in the ABS treatment group relative to the IO group (p<0.05). Furthermore, histopathological examination demonstrated a reduction in obstruction-induced mucosal injury in Ankaferd-treated rats. Data derived from this study provided the first evidence that Ankaferd treatment limits bacterial translocation and enhances intestinal barrier function in mice undergoing intestinal obstruction. Ankaferd may be useful in the prevention of BT associated with IO. PMID:25356125

?en, Velat; Uluca, Ünal; Ece, Ayd?n; Güne?, Ali; Zeytun, Hikmet; Arslan, Serkan; Kaplan, ?brahim; Türkçü, Gül; Tekin, Recep

2014-01-01

86

Alpha2 adrenoceptors regulate proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMSPrevious studies on rodents have suggested that catecholamines stimulate proliferation of the intestinal epithelium through activation of ?2 adrenoceptors located on crypt cells. The occurrence of this effect awaits demonstration in humans and the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of ?2 agonists on a clone of Caco2 cells expressing the

S Schaak; D Cussac; C Cayla; J C Devedjian; R Guyot; C Denis

2000-01-01

87

Diet and the development of the human intestinal microbiome  

PubMed Central

The important role of the gut microbiome in maintaining human health has necessitated a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of intestinal microbial communities as well as the host and environmental factors driving these dynamics. Genetics, mode of birth, infant feeding patterns, antibiotic usage, sanitary living conditions and long term dietary habits contribute to shaping the composition of the gut microbiome. This review focuses primarily on diet, as it is one of the most pivotal factors in the development of the human gut microbiome from infancy to the elderly. The infant gut microbiota is characterized by a high degree of instability, only reaching a state similar to that of adults by 2–3 years of age; consistent with the establishment of a varied solid food diet. The diet-related factors influencing the development of the infant gut microbiome include whether the child is breast or formula-fed as well as how and when solid foods are introduced. In contrast to the infant gut, the adult gut microbiome is resilient to large shifts in community structure. Several studies have shown that dietary changes induce transient fluctuations in the adult microbiome, sometimes in as little as 24 h; however, the microbial community rapidly returns to its stable state. Current knowledge of how long-term dietary habits shape the gut microbiome is limited by the lack of long-term feeding studies coupled with temporal gut microbiota characterization. However, long-term weight loss studies have been shown to alter the ratio of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, the two major bacterial phyla residing in the human gastrointestinal tract. With aging, diet-related factors such as malnutrition are associated with microbiome shifts, although the cause and effect relationship between these factors has not been established. Increased pharmaceutical usage is also more prevalent in the elderly and can contribute to reduced gut microbiota stability and diversity. Foods containing prebiotic oligosaccharide components that nurture beneficial commensals in the gut community and probiotic supplements are being explored as interventions to manipulate the gut microbiome, potentially improving health status. PMID:25295033

Voreades, Noah; Kozil, Anne; Weir, Tiffany L.

2014-01-01

88

Identification of astilbin metabolites produced by human intestinal bacteria using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.  

PubMed

Astilbin, mainly isolated from a commonly used herbal medicine, Smilax glabra Roxb (SGR), exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities and biological effects. It is metabolized by intestinal bacteria after oral administration which leads to the variation of ethnopharmacological profile of this traditional medicine. However, little is known on the interactions of this active compound with intestinal bacteria, which would be very helpful in unravelling how SGR works. In this study, different pure bacteria from human feces were isolated and were used to investigate their conversion capability of astilbin. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) technique combined with Metabolynx(TM) software was used to analyze astilbin and its metabolites. The parent compound and two metabolites (quercetin and eriodictyol) were detected in the isolated bacterial samples compared with blank samples. Quercetin was present in Enterococcus sp. 8B, 8-2 and 9-2 samples. Eriodictyol was only identified in Enterococcus sp. 8B sample. The metabolic routes and metabolites of astilbin produced by the different intestinal bacteria are reported for the first time. This will be useful for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic study of astilbin in vivo and the role of different intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of natural compounds. PMID:24399635

Zhao, Min; Xu, Jun; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Jiang, Shu; Shang, Er-xin; Duan, Jin-ao

2014-07-01

89

Expression and functional contribution of hTHTR-2 in thiamin absorption in human intestine  

E-print Network

Expression and functional contribution of hTHTR-2 in thiamin absorption in human intestine Hamid M absorption in human intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 286: G491­G498, 2004. First published by human intestinal epithelial cells. Northern blot analysis showed that the message of the hTHTR-2

Marchant, Jonathan

90

Bacterial biogeography of the human digestive tract  

PubMed Central

We present bacterial biogeography as sampled from the human gastrointestinal tract of four healthy subjects. This study generated >32 million paired-end sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) representing >95,000 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% similarity clusters), with >99% Good's coverage for all samples. The highest OTU richness and phylogenetic diversity was found in the mouth samples. The microbial communities of multiple biopsy sites within the colon were highly similar within individuals and largely distinct from those in stool. Within an individual, OTU overlap among broad site definitions (mouth, stomach/duodenum, colon and stool) ranged from 32–110 OTUs, 25 of which were common to all individuals and included OTUs affiliated with Faecalibacterium prasnitzii and the TM7 phylum. This first comprehensive characterization of the abundant and rare microflora found along the healthy human digestive tract represents essential groundwork to investigate further how the human microbiome relates to health and disease. PMID:22355685

Stearns, Jennifer C.; Lynch, Michael D. J.; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Tenenbaum, Howard C.; Goldberg, Michael B.; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Neufeld, Josh D.

2011-01-01

91

Bacterial Diversity in Human Subgingival Plaque  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in the human subgingival plaque by using culture-independent molecular methods as part of an ongoing effort to obtain full 16S rRNA sequences for all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of human oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque was analyzed from healthy subjects and subjects with refractory periodontitis, adult periodontitis, human immunodeficiency virus periodontitis, and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial genes from DNA isolated from subgingival plaque samples were PCR amplified with all-bacterial or selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. The sequences of cloned 16S rDNA inserts were used to determine species identity or closest relatives by comparison with sequences of known species. A total of 2,522 clones were analyzed. Nearly complete sequences of approximately 1,500 bases were obtained for putative new species. About 60% of the clones fell into 132 known species, 70 of which were identified from multiple subjects. About 40% of the clones were novel phylotypes. Of the 215 novel phylotypes, 75 were identified from multiple subjects. Known putative periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola were identified from multiple subjects, but typically as a minor component of the plaque as seen in cultivable studies. Several phylotypes fell into two recently described phyla previously associated with extreme natural environments, for which there are no cultivable species. A number of species or phylotypes were found only in subjects with disease, and a few were found only in healthy subjects. The organisms identified only from diseased sites deserve further study as potential pathogens. Based on the sequence data in this study, the predominant subgingival microbial community consisted of 347 species or phylotypes that fall into 9 bacterial phyla. Based on the 347 species seen in our sample of 2,522 clones, we estimate that there are 68 additional unseen species, for a total estimate of 415 species in the subgingival plaque. When organisms found on other oral surfaces such as the cheek, tongue, and teeth are added to this number, the best estimate of the total species diversity in the oral cavity is approximately 500 species, as previously proposed. PMID:11371542

Paster, Bruce J.; Boches, Susan K.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Ericson, Rebecca E.; Lau, Carol N.; Levanos, Valerie A.; Sahasrabudhe, Ashish; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

2001-01-01

92

Application of the Human Intestinal Tract Chip to the non-human primate gut microbiota.  

PubMed

The human intestinal microbiota is responsible for various health-related functions, and its diversity can be readily mapped with the 16S ribosomal RNA targeting Human Intestinal Tract (HIT) Chip. Here we characterise distal gut samples from chimpanzees, gorillas and marmosets, and compare them with human gut samples. Our results indicated applicability of the HITChip platform can be extended to chimpanzee and gorilla faecal samples for analysis of microbiota composition and enterotypes, but not to the evolutionary more distant marmosets. PMID:25519524

Bello González, T D J; van Passel, M W J; Tims, S; Fuentes, S; De Vos, W M; Smidt, H; Belzer, C

2015-01-01

93

Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.  

PubMed

The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, ?- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-?) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. PMID:24612255

Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

2014-05-01

94

Colonization of Mucin by Human Intestinal Bacteria and Establishment of Biofilm Communities in a Two-Stage Continuous Culture System  

PubMed Central

The human large intestine is covered with a protective mucus coating, which is heavily colonized by complex bacterial populations that are distinct from those in the gut lumen. Little is known of the composition and metabolic activities of these biofilms, although they are likely to play an important role in mucus breakdown. The aims of this study were to determine how intestinal bacteria colonize mucus and to study physiologic and enzymatic factors involved in the destruction of this glycoprotein. Colonization of mucin gels by fecal bacteria was studied in vitro, using a two-stage continuous culture system, simulating conditions of nutrient availability and limitation characteristic of the proximal (vessel 1) and distal (vessel 2) colon. The establishment of bacterial communities in mucin gels was investigated by selective culture methods, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, in association with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. Gel samples were also taken for analysis of mucin-degrading enzymes and measurements of residual mucin sugars. Mucin gels were rapidly colonized by heterogeneous bacterial populations, especially members of the Bacteroides fragilis group, enterobacteria, and clostridia. Intestinal bacterial populations growing on mucin surfaces were shown to be phylogenetically and metabolically distinct from their planktonic counterparts. PMID:16269790

Macfarlane, Sandra; Woodmansey, Emma J.; Macfarlane, George T.

2005-01-01

95

[Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].  

PubMed

Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD. PMID:25566836

Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

2015-02-01

96

Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract  

SciTech Connect

Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Zoetendal, Erwin G. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

2011-01-01

97

Apolipoprotein B-100: immunolocalization and synthesis in human intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

Despite the evidence that the human small intestine produces two separate species of apoB mRNA encoding for B-100 and B-48, there is a paucity of data concerning the expression of the latter form in this organ. Using a high resolution immunogold approach, with specific polyclonal antibodies and a panel of monoclonal antibodies (2D8, 3A10, 4G3), both forms of apoB (B-48 and B-100) were revealed over enterocytes of pediatric intestinal samples. Intense labeling was observed over microvilli, apical smooth membrane vesicles, multivesicular bodies, the basolateral membrane, as well as the trans Golgi region. Only low labeling was found over the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Similar patterns of apoB distribution characterized both duodenal and jejunal regions. The presence of labeling over the Golgi apparatus and rER suggests a synthetic activity of both forms of apoB by the epithelial cells. To test this hypothesis, human intestine was incubated with [3H]leucine, homogenized, and subjected to immunoprecipitation for apoB. Immunoprecipitates contained radioactivity mainly in apoB-48 with relatively small amounts in apoB-100 when examined by NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These findings were further supported by the biochemical determination of apoB-100 and apoB-48 in chylomicron particles isolated from thoracic duct lymph of a human donor. Taken together, our data suggest that the human intestine is able to synthesize and to express the apoB-100. PMID:2086693

Levy, E; Rochette, C; Londono, I; Roy, C C; Milne, R W; Marcel, Y L; Bendayan, M

1990-11-01

98

Biotransformation of 1-nitropyrene to 1-aminopyrene and N-formyl-1-aminopyrene by the human intestinal microbiota  

SciTech Connect

The nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) is an environmental pollutant, a potent bacterial and mammalian mutagen, and a carcinogen. The metabolism of 1-NP by the human intestinal microbiota was studied using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the colonic lumen. (/sup 3/H)-1-Nitropyrene was metabolized by the intestinal microbiota to 1-aminopyrene (1-AP) and N-formyl-1-aminopyrene (FAP) as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Twenty-four hours after the addition of (/sup 3/H)-1-NP, the formylated compound and 1-AP accounted for 20 and 80% of the total metabolism respectively. This percentage increased to 66% for FAP after 24 h following 10 d of chronic exposure to unlabeled 1-NP, suggesting metabolic adaptation to 1-NP by the microbiota. Both 1-AP and FAP have been shown to be nonmutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium TA98, which indicates that the intestinal microflora may potentially detoxify 1-NP.

Manning, B.W.; Cerniglia, C.E.; Federle, T.W.

1986-01-01

99

Development of the Human Infant Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract. PMID:17594176

Palmer, Chana; Bik, Elisabeth M; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Brown, Patrick O

2007-01-01

100

Protective effects of terminal ileostomy against bacterial translocation in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of terminal ileostomy on bacterial translocation (BT) and systemic inflammation after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were assigned to either the sham-operated group, I/R group, I/R + resection and anastomosis group, or the I/R + ileostomy group. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min. After 4 h, tissue samples were collected for analysis. BT was assessed by bacteriologic cultures, intestinal permeability and serum levels of endotoxin; systemic inflammation was assessed by serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, as well as by the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and by intestinal histopathology. RESULTS: Intestinal I/R injury not only caused morphologic damage to ileal mucosa, but also induced BT, increased MPO activity and promoted the release of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum. BT and ileal mucosa injuries were significantly improved and levels of TNF-? and IL-6 in serum were decreased in the I/R + ileostomy group compared with the I/R + resection and anastomosis group. CONCLUSION: Terminal ileostomy can prevent the detrimental effects of intestinal I/R injury on BT, intestinal tissue, and inflammation. PMID:25548488

Lin, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Wen-Kui; Tan, Shan-Jun; Duan, Kai-Peng; Dong, Yi; Bai, Xiao-Wu; Xu, Lin; Li, Ning

2014-01-01

101

Phylogenetic diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in the termite Reticulitermes speratus.  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic diversity of the intestinal microflora of a lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, was examined by a strategy which does not rely on cultivation of the resident microorganisms. Small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) were directly amplified from the mixed-population DNA of the termite gut by the PCR and were clonally isolated. Analysis of partial 16S rDNA sequences showed the existence of well-characterized genera as well as the presence of bacterial species for which no 16S rDNA sequence data are available. Of 55 clones sequenced, 45 were phylogenetically affiliated with four of the major groups of the domain Bacteria: the Proteobacteria, the spirochete group, the Bacteroides group, and the low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria. Within the Proteobacteria, the 16S rDNA clones showed a close relationship to those of cultivated species of enteric bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria, while the 16S rDNA clones in the remaining three groups showed only distant relationships to those of known organisms in these groups. Of the remaining 10 clones, among which 8 clones formed a cluster, there was only very low sequence similarity to known 16S rRNA sequences. None of these clones were affiliated with any of the major groups within the domain Bacteria. The 16S rDNA gene sequence data show that the majority of the intestinal microflora of R. speratus consists of new, uncultured species previously unknown to microbiologists. PMID:8593049

Ohkuma, M; Kudo, T

1996-01-01

102

Loss of Sirt1 Function Improves Intestinal Anti-Bacterial Defense and Protects from Colitis-Induced Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report a role for the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the control of anti-bacterial defense. Mice with an intestinal specific Sirt1 deficiency (Sirt1int?/?) have more Paneth and goblet cells with a consequent rearrangement of the gut microbiota. From a mechanistic point of view, the effects on mouse intestinal cell maturation are mediated by SIRT1-dependent changes in the acetylation status of SPDEF, a master regulator of Paneth and goblet cells. Our results suggest that targeting SIRT1 may be of interest in the management of IBD and CAC. PMID:25013930

Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Ryu, Dongryeol; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Fernando, Samodha C.; Anderson, Christopher L.; Katsyuba, Elena; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Hottiger, Michael O.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

2014-01-01

103

Bifidobacteria isolated from infants and cultured on human milk oligosaccharides affect intestinal epithelial function  

PubMed Central

Objectives Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant component of breast milk. Our laboratory has previously revealed gene clusters specifically linked to HMO metabolism in select bifidobacteria isolated from fecal samples of infants. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that growth of select bifidobacteria on HMO stimulates the intestinal epithelium. Methods Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were incubated with lactose (LAC) or HMO-grown Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) or B. bifidum. Bacterial adhesion and translocation was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and tight junction proteins was analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase. Distribution of tight junction proteins was measured using immunofluorescent microscopy. Results We showed that HMO-grown B. infantis had significantly higher rate of adhesion to HT-29 cells compared to B. bifidum. B. infantis also induced expression of a cell membrane glycoprotein, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand -1. Both B. infantis and B. bifidum grown on HMO caused less occludin relocalization and higher expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10 compared to LAC-grown bacteria in Caco-2 cells. B. bifidum grown on HMO showed higher expression of junctional adhesion molecule and occludin in Caco-2 cell and HT-29 cells. There were no significant differences between LAC or HMO treatments in bacterial translocation. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the specific relationship between HMO-grown bifidobacteria and intestinal epithelial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing HMO-induced changes in the bifidobacteria-intestinal cells interaction. PMID:22383026

Chichlowski, Maciej; De Lartigue, Guillaume; German, J. Bruce; Raybould, Helen E.; Mills, David A.

2012-01-01

104

A Layered Model of a Virtual Human Intestine for Surgery Simulation  

E-print Network

A Layered Model of a Virtual Human Intestine for Surgery Simulation L. France a , J. Lenoir b , A propose a new approach to simulate the small intestine in a context of laparoscopic surgery. The ultimate the intestine to reach hidden areas of the abdomen. The main problem posed by this kind of simulation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Trichuriasis is an infection of the large intestine caused by the human whipworm (Trichuris trichi-  

E-print Network

Trichuriasis is an infection of the large intestine caused by the human whipworm (Trichuris trichi feces. Once inside the body, whipworm eggs migrate to the small intestine and hatch into adult worms which embed themselves in the lining of the large intestine and colon. Adult whipworms can live

Davis, Richard E.

106

Inability of normal human intestinal macrophages to form multinucleated giant cells in response to cytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multinucleated giant cells are an important feature of the granulomatous reaction in Crohn's disease (CD) but their cellular origin is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to discover if intestinal macrophages are capable of generating multinucleated giant cells in vitro in response to cytokine stimulation. Human intestinal macrophages were isolated from the intestinal mucosa of CD and uninflamed

S Fais; F Pallone

1995-01-01

107

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inactive Crohn’s disease: Influence of thiopurine and biological treatment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the influence of thiopurines and biological drugs on the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: This was a prospective study in patients with CD in remission and without corticosteroid treatment, included consecutively from 2004 to 2010. SIBO was investigated using the hydrogen glucose breath test. RESULTS: One hundred and seven patients with CD in remission were included. Almost 58% of patients used maintenance immunosuppressant therapy and 19.6% used biological therapy. The prevalence of SIBO was 16.8%. No association was observed between SIBO and the use of thiopurine Immunosuppressant (12/62 patients), administration of biological drugs (2/21 patients), or with double treatment with an anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs plus thiopurine (1/13 patients). Half of the patients had symptoms that were suggestive of SIBO, though meteorism was the only symptom that was significantly associated with the presence of SIBO on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of meteorism and a fistulizing pattern were associated with the presence of SIBO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressants and/or biological drugs do not induce SIBO in inactive CD. Fistulizing disease pattern and meteorism are associated with SIBO. PMID:25320539

Sánchez-Montes, Cristina; Ortiz, Vicente; Bastida, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Ester; Yago, María; Beltrán, Belén; Aguas, Mariam; Iborra, Marisa; Garrigues, Vicente; Ponce, Julio; Nos, Pilar

2014-01-01

108

Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: meaningful association or unnecessary hype.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 10? colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

2014-03-14

109

Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Meaningful association or unnecessary hype  

PubMed Central

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 105 colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

2014-01-01

110

Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*  

PubMed Central

Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human ?-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human ?-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine H? D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

2013-01-01

111

Human milk hyaluronan enhances innate defense of the intestinal epithelium.  

PubMed

Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human ?-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human ?-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine H? D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

Hill, David R; Rho, Hyunjin K; Kessler, Sean P; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

2013-10-01

112

Human milk and infant intestinal mucosal glycans guide succession of the neonatal intestinal microbiota.  

PubMed

Infants begin acquiring intestinal microbiota at parturition. Initial colonization by pioneer bacteria is followed by active succession toward a dynamic ecosystem. Keystone microbes engage in reciprocal transkingdom communication with the host, which is essential for human homeostasis and health; therefore, these bacteria should be considered mutualists rather than commensals. This review discusses the maternal role in providing infants with functional and stable microbiota. The initial fecal inoculum of microbiota results from the proximity of the birth canal and anus; the biological significance of this anatomic proximity could underlie observed differences in microbiota between vaginal and cesarean birth. Secondary sources of inocula include mouths and skin of kin, animals and objects, and the human milk microbiome, but guiding microbial succession may be a primary role of human milk. The unique glycans of human milk cannot be digested by the infant, but are utilized by mutualist bacteria. These prebiotic glycans support expansion of mutualist microbiota, which manifests as differences in microbiota among breastfed and artificially fed infants. Human milk glycans vary by maternal genotype. Milks of genetically distinct mothers and variations in infant mucosal glycan expression support discrete microbiota. Early colonization may permanently influence microbiota composition and function, with ramifications for health. PMID:25356747

Newburg, David S; Morelli, Lorenzo

2015-01-01

113

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an 111In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal 111In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (75Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis. PMID:3609658

Bjarnason, I; Zanelli, G; Smith, T; Prouse, P; Williams, P; Smethurst, P; Delacey, G; Gumpel, M J; Levi, A J

1987-09-01

114

A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)  

PubMed Central

Background Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans. PMID:23020652

2012-01-01

115

Computational approaches for modeling human intestinal absorption and permeability  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal absorption (HIA) is an important roadblock in the formulation of new drug substances. Computational models are needed for the rapid estimation of this property. The measurements are determined via in vivo experiments or in vitro permeability studies. We present several computational models that are able to predict the absorption of drugs by the human intestine and the permeability through human Caco-2 cells. The training and prediction sets were derived from literature sources and carefully examined to eliminate compounds that are actively transported. We compare our results to models derived by other methods and find that the statistical quality is similar. We believe that models derived from both sources of experimental data would provide greater consistency in predictions. The performance of several QSPR models that we investigated to predict outside the training set for either experimental property clearly indicates that caution should be exercised while applying any of the models for quantitative predictions. However, we are able to show that the qualitative predictions can be obtained with close to a 70% success rate. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available for this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-005-0065-z. PMID:16583199

Subramanian, Govindan

2006-01-01

116

Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia.  

PubMed

The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling axis constitutes a master "communication coordinator" between cells of the nervous and immune systems. To date, VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2, mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity, including arresting CD4 T cells in G(1) of the cell cycle, protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mucosa associated lymphoid compartment of the gastrointestinal tissues. Since the discovery of VIP in 1970, followed by the cloning of VPAC1 and VPAC2 in the early 1990s, this signaling axis has been associated with common human cancers, including leukemia. This review highlights the present day knowledge of the VIP ligand and its receptor expression profile in T cell leukemia and cell lines. Also, there will be a discussion describing how the anti-leukemic DNA binding transcription factor, Ikaros, regulates VIP receptor expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and T cell lymphoblastic cell lines (e.g. Hut-78). Lastly, future goals will be mentioned that are expected to uncover the role of how the VIP signaling axis contributes to human leukemogenesis, and to establish whether the VIP receptor signature expressed by leukemic blasts can provide therapeutic and/or diagnostic information. PMID:21765981

Dorsam, Glenn Paul; Benton, Keith; Failing, Jarrett; Batra, Sandeep

2011-06-26

117

Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.  

PubMed

The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine. PMID:17615175

De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

2007-09-01

118

Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

2014-01-01

119

Species differences in intestinal metabolic activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms between cynomolgus monkeys and humans.  

PubMed

The oral bioavailability of some drugs is markedly lower in cynomolgus monkeys than in humans. One of the reasons for the low bioavailability in cynomolgus monkeys may be the higher metabolic activity of intestinal CYP3A; however, the species differences in intestinal metabolic activities of other CYP isoforms between cynomolgus monkeys and humans are not well known. In the present study, we investigated the intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) values in pooled intestinal microsomes from cynomolgus monkeys and humans using 25 substrates of human CYP1A2, CYP2J2, CYP2C, and CYP2D6. As in humans, intestinal CL(int) values of human CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 substrates in cynomolgus monkeys were low. On the other hand, intestinal CL(int) values of human CYP2J2 and CYP2C substrates in cynomolgus monkeys were greatly higher than those in humans. Using immunoinhibitory antibodies and chemical inhibitors, we showed that the higher intestinal CL(int) values of the human CYP2J2 and CYP2C substrates in cynomolgus monkeys might be caused by monkey CYP4F and CYP2C subfamily members, respectively. In conclusion, there is a possibility that the greatly higher metabolic activity of CYP2C and CYP4F in cynomolgus monkey intestine is one of the causes of the species difference of intestinal first-pass metabolism between cynomolgus monkeys and humans. PMID:21383522

Nishimuta, Haruka; Sato, Kimihiko; Mizuki, Yasuyuki; Yabuki, Masashi; Komuro, Setsuko

2011-06-01

120

Rafts and related glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains in the intestinal epithelium: bacterial targets linked to nutrient absorption.  

PubMed

Plasma membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts or caveolae play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. Although this field of research has been extensively studied, two important points have been poorly addressed: (i) the molecular basis of raft-pathogen interactions, and (ii) the effect of such interactions on nutrient absorption. The aim of this review was to propose a biochemical analysis of bacterial adhesion to lipid raft components exposed on the mucosal surface of the intestinal epithelium. A special attention has been given to CH-pi interactions that allow the sugar rings of glycosphingolipids (GSL) to stack against aromatic side chains of bacterial adhesins and toxins. These interactions are controlled by cholesterol molecules intercalated between membrane GSL and/or by the presence of an alpha-OH group in the acyl chain of the ceramide backbone of GSL. In the second part of the review, we analysed the experimental data suggesting the involvement of lipid rafts in the intestinal absorption of nutrients, the mechanisms by which bacteria could impair intestinal functions, and possible therapeutic strategies based on the biochemistry of raft-pathogen interactions. PMID:15063589

Taïeb, Nadira; Yahi, Nouara; Fantini, Jacques

2004-04-19

121

Adherence and cytokine induction in Caco-2 cells by bacterial populations from a three-stage continuous-culture model of the large intestine.  

PubMed

Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells is an important step in colonization and immune modulation in the large bowel. The aims of this study were to use a three-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) to investigate how environmental factors affect bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells and modulation of cytokine expression by gut microorganisms, including a probiotic Bifidobacterium longum strain, DD2004. The CCS simulated environmental conditions in the proximal large intestine (vessel 1 [V1]) and distal colon (V2 and V3) at two different system retention times (R) within the range of normal colonic transits (20 and 60 h). The model was inoculated with human fecal material, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to characterize microbial populations and to assess bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was employed to measure cytokine gene expression following challenge with bacteria from different components of the CCS in the presence and absence of B. longum. At an R of 60 h, bacterial adherence increased from V1 to V3, but this trend was reversed at an R of 20 h. Atopobia were the predominant adherent organisms detected at both system retention times in each culture vessel. Modulation of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-18 gene expression by CCS bacteria was marked at an R of 60 h, while at an R of 20 h, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-?2, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were significantly affected. The addition of B. longum affected cytokine expression significantly at both retention times. This study demonstrates that environmental determinants regulate the adherence properties of intestinal bacteria and their abilities to regulate cytokine synthesis. PMID:21378047

Bahrami, Bahram; Child, Matthew W; Macfarlane, Sandra; Macfarlane, George T

2011-05-01

122

Acetate kinase Activity and Kinetic Properties of the Enzyme in Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 Intestinal Bacterial Strains  

PubMed Central

Activity of acetate kinase in cell-free extracts and individual fractions and the kinetic properties of the enzyme obtained from the Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were presented at the first time. The highest activity of the enzyme was measured in the cell-free extracts (1.52 ± 0.163 and 0.46 ± 0.044 U × mg-1 protein for D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) compared to other fractions. The specific activity of acetate kinase in the extracts of both bacterial strains was determined at different temperature and pH. Analysis of the kinetic properties of the purified acetate kinase was carried out. The acetate kinase activity, initial (instantaneous) reaction rate (V0) and maximum rate of the acetate kinase reaction (Vmax) in D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were defined. Michaelis constants (KmAcetyl phosphate and KmADP) of the enzyme reaction (2.54 ± 0.26 and 2.39 ± 0.24 mM for D. piger Vib-7 as well as 2.68 ± 0.25 and 2.47 ± 0.27 mM for Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9, respectively) were calculated. The described results of acetate kinase, an important enzyme in the process of organic compounds oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction would be perspective and useful for clarification of the etiological role of these bacteria in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and animals. PMID:25598851

Kushkevych, Ivan V

2014-01-01

123

Adherence and Cytokine Induction in Caco-2 Cells by Bacterial Populations from a Three-Stage Continuous-Culture Model of the Large Intestine?  

PubMed Central

Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells is an important step in colonization and immune modulation in the large bowel. The aims of this study were to use a three-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) to investigate how environmental factors affect bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells and modulation of cytokine expression by gut microorganisms, including a probiotic Bifidobacterium longum strain, DD2004. The CCS simulated environmental conditions in the proximal large intestine (vessel 1 [V1]) and distal colon (V2 and V3) at two different system retention times (R) within the range of normal colonic transits (20 and 60 h). The model was inoculated with human fecal material, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to characterize microbial populations and to assess bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was employed to measure cytokine gene expression following challenge with bacteria from different components of the CCS in the presence and absence of B. longum. At an R of 60 h, bacterial adherence increased from V1 to V3, but this trend was reversed at an R of 20 h. Atopobia were the predominant adherent organisms detected at both system retention times in each culture vessel. Modulation of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-18 gene expression by CCS bacteria was marked at an R of 60 h, while at an R of 20 h, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-?2, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were significantly affected. The addition of B. longum affected cytokine expression significantly at both retention times. This study demonstrates that environmental determinants regulate the adherence properties of intestinal bacteria and their abilities to regulate cytokine synthesis. PMID:21378047

Bahrami, Bahram; Child, Matthew W.; Macfarlane, Sandra; Macfarlane, George T.

2011-01-01

124

Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.  

PubMed

Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells. PMID:25573173

Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

2015-04-15

125

Metabolism of aspartame by human and pig intestinal microvillar peptidases.  

PubMed Central

The artificial sweetener aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenyl-alanine-1-methyl ester; Nutrasweet), its decomposition product alpha Asp-Phe and the related peptide alpha Asp-PheNH2 were rapidly hydrolysed by microvillar membranes prepared from human duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and from pig duodenum and kidney. The metabolism of aspartame by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations was inhibited significantly (> 78%) by amastatin or 1,10-phenanthroline, and partially (> 38%) by actinonin or bestatin, and was activated 2.9-4.5-fold by CaCl2. The inhibition by amastatin and 1,10-phenanthroline, and the activation by CaCl2 are characteristic of the cell-surface ectoenzyme aminopeptidase A (EC 3.4.11.7) and a purified preparation of this enzyme hydrolysed aspartame with a Km of 0.25 mM and a Vmax of 126 mumol/min per mg. A purified preparation of aminopeptidase W (EC 3.4.11.16) also hydrolysed aspartame but with a Km of 4.96 mM and a Vmax of 110 mumol/min per mg. However, rentiapril, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase W, caused only slight inhibition (maximally 19%) of the hydrolysis of aspartame by the microvillar membrane preparations. Similar patterns of inhibition and kinetic parameters were observed for alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2. Two other decomposition products of aspartame, beta Asp-PheMe and cyclo-Asp-Phe, were essentially resistant to hydrolysis by both the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations and the purified preparations of aminopeptidases A and W. Although the relatively selective inhibitor of aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), actinonin, partially inhibited the metabolism of aspartame, alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2 by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations, these peptides were not hydrolysed by a purified preparation of aminopeptidase N. Membrane dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) only hydrolysed the unblocked dipeptide, alpha Asp-Phe, but the selective inhibitor of this enzyme, cilastatin, did not block the metabolism of alpha Asp-Phe by the microvillar membrane preparations. PMID:8141778

Hooper, N M; Hesp, R J; Tieku, S

1994-01-01

126

Regulatory T cells promote a protective Th17-associated immune response to intestinal bacterial infection with C. rodentium.  

PubMed

Intestinal infection with the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium induces a strong local Th17 response in the colon. Although this inflammatory immune response helps to clear the pathogen, it also induces inflammation-associated pathology in the gut and thus, has to be tightly controlled. In this project, we therefore studied the impact of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) on the infectious and inflammatory processes elicited by the bacterial pathogen C. rodentium. Surprisingly, we found that depletion of Treg by diphtheria toxin in the Foxp3(DTR) (DEREG) mouse model resulted in impaired bacterial clearance in the colon, exacerbated body weight loss, and increased systemic dissemination of bacteria. Consistent with the enhanced susceptibility to infection, we found that the colonic Th17-associated T-cell response was impaired in Treg-depleted mice, suggesting that the presence of Treg is crucial for the establishment of a functional Th17 response after the infection in the gut. As a consequence of the impaired Th17 response, we also observed less inflammation-associated pathology in the colons of Treg-depleted mice. Interestingly, anti-interleukin (IL)-2 treatment of infected Treg-depleted mice restored Th17 induction, indicating that Treg support the induction of a protective Th17 response during intestinal bacterial infection by consumption of local IL-2. PMID:24646939

Wang, Z; Friedrich, C; Hagemann, S C; Korte, W H; Goharani, N; Cording, S; Eberl, G; Sparwasser, T; Lochner, M

2014-11-01

127

Induction of Bacterial Antigen-Specific Colitis by a Simplified Human Microbiota Consortium in Gnotobiotic Interleukin-10?/? Mice  

PubMed Central

We evaluated whether a simplified human microbiota consortium (SIHUMI) induces colitis in germfree (GF) 129S6/SvEv (129) and C57BL/6 (B6) interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10?/?) mice, determined mouse strain effects on colitis and the microbiota, examined the effects of inflammation on relative bacterial composition, and identified immunodominant bacterial species in “humanized” IL-10?/? mice. GF wild-type (WT) and IL-10?/? 129 and B6 mice were colonized with 7 human-derived inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related intestinal bacteria and maintained under gnotobiotic conditions. Quantification of bacteria in feces, ileal and colonic contents, and tissues was performed using 16S rRNA gene selective quantitative PCR. Colonic segments were scored histologically, and gamma interferon (IFN-?), IL-12p40, and IL-17 levels were measured in supernatants of unstimulated colonic tissue explants and of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells stimulated by lysates of individual or aggregate bacterial strains. Relative bacterial species abundances changed over time and differed between 129 and B6 mice, WT and IL-10?/? mice, luminal and mucosal samples, and ileal and colonic or fecal samples. SIHUMI induced colitis in all IL-10?/? mice, with more aggressive colitis and MLN cell activation in 129 mice. Escherichia coli LF82 and Ruminococcus gnavus lysates induced dominant effector ex vivo MLN TH1 and TH17 responses, although the bacterial mucosal concentrations were low. In summary, this study shows that a simplified human bacterial consortium induces colitis in ex-GF 129 and B6 IL-10?/? mice. Relative concentrations of individual SIHUMI species are determined by host genotype, the presence of inflammation, and anatomical location. A subset of IBD-relevant human enteric bacterial species preferentially stimulates bacterial antigen-specific TH1 and TH17 immune responses in this model, independent of luminal and mucosal bacterial concentrations. PMID:24643531

Eun, Chang Soo; Mishima, Yoshiyuki; Wohlgemuth, Steffen; Liu, Bo; Bower, Maureen; Carroll, Ian M.

2014-01-01

128

Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Imbalance between tolerance and immunity (e.g. intestinal homeostasis) contributes to the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases like inflammatory bowel

M. Bol-Schoenmakers

2009-01-01

129

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth  

MedlinePLUS

Overgrowth - intestinal bacteria; Bacterial overgrowth - intestine ... Unlike the large intestine, the small intestine does not have a high number of bacteria. When there are too many bacteria in the ...

130

Bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies indicate that bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common alteration of lower genital tract flora in women, is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Other recent studies show that HIV is detected more frequently and at higher levels in the lower genital tract of HIV-seropositive women with BV. In vitro studies show that genital tract secretions from women with

Gregory T Spear; Elizabeth St John; M Reza Zariffard

2007-01-01

131

Bats as Reservoir Hosts of Human Bacterial Pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis  

PubMed Central

A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton’s bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:24856523

Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Lilley, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

132

Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p?=?0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p?=?0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p?

Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

2015-01-01

133

Regulation of expression of CFTR in human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

As a first step in our efforts to delineate the role of CFTR in cellular phenotypes we have studied its expression in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells. In particular we have examined the effect of cellular differentiation on CFTR gene expression. CFTR mRNA was measured by quantitative densitometry of Northern blots and normalized to the amounts of pyruvate dehydrogenase message. We have found that in T84 cells the levels of CFTR mRNA do not change as the cells grow to confluence. In contrast, levels of CFTR mRNA increase by a factor of 10-20 as Caco2 cells grow after subculture. This change in the levels of CFTR mRNA is correlated with the morphological differentiation that occurs in Caco2 cells during culture. The potential significance of this observation is discussed. PMID:1719762

Buchwald, M; Sood, R; Auerbach, W

1991-01-01

134

Adherence to lipids and intestinal mucin by a recently recognized human pathogen, Campylobacter upsaliensis.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter upsaliensis is a recently recognized human enteric pathogen associated with enteritis, colitis, bacteremia, and sepsis. Very little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this organism. The goals of this study were to determine whether C. upsaliensis binds to epithelial cells and whether there are specific lipid molecules that might serve as cell membrane receptors. In addition, we also explored C. upsaliensis binding to purified human small-intestinal mucin, since the mucus gel overlying the epithelium provides an initial contact surface for the bacteria and must be penetrated for the organisms to reach their cell receptors. Binding of C. upsaliensis to model epithelial cells was shown by microscopy adhesion assays, and binding to lipids was detected by thin-layer chromatography-overlay assays. Bacteria bound to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), gangliotetraosylceramide (Gg4), and, more weakly, to phosphatidylserine (PS). There was no binding to ceramide, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and globosides. Using receptor-based microtiter well immunoassays, we observed binding to be equal, specific, and saturable for PE and Gg 4 but low and nonspecific for PS. At least five bacterial surface proteins (50 to 90 kDa) capable of PE binding were identified by a lipid-silica affinity column technique. In slot blot overlay assays, biotin-labeled C. upsaliensis also bound in a concentration-dependent fashion to purified human small-intestinal mucin, implying that these microorganisms also express an adhesin(s) recognizing a specific mucin epitope(s). We speculate that binding to mucins may influence access of the bacteria to cell membrane receptors and thereby influence host resistance to infection. PMID:8926069

Sylvester, F A; Philpott, D; Gold, B; Lastovica, A; Forstner, J F

1996-01-01

135

Characterization of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme of human small intestine.  

PubMed

Acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme plays a significant role in dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) absorption in the small intestine. However, the characteristics of human intestinal DGAT enzyme have not been examined in detail. The aim of our study was to characterize the human intestinal DGAT enzyme by examining acyl-CoA specificity, temperature dependency, and selectivity for 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) or 1,3-DAG. We detected DGAT activity of human intestinal microsome and found that the acyl-CoA specificity and temperature dependency of intestinal DGAT coincided with those of recombinant human DGAT1. To elucidate the selectivity of human intestinal DGAT to 1,2-DAG or 1,3-DAG, we conducted acyl-coenzyme A:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase assays using 1- or 2-monoacylglycerol (MAG) as substrates. When 2-MAG was used as acyl acceptor, both 1,2-DAG and TAG were generated; however, when 1-MAG was used, 1,3-DAG was predominantly observed and little TAG was detected. These findings suggest that human small intestinal DGAT, which is mainly encoded by DGAT1, utilizes 1,2-DAG as the substrate to form TAG. This study will contribute to understand the lipid absorption profile in the small intestine. PMID:21369919

Hiramine, Yasushi; Tanabe, Toshizumi

2011-06-01

136

Lipoteichoic acid from Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits Pam2CSK4-induced IL-8 production in human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are probiotic bacteria that are considered to be beneficial in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Although lactobacilli are well known to alleviate intestinal inflammation, the molecular basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA), which is a major cell wall component of this species, on the production of interleukin (IL)-8 in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Treatment with Pam2CSK4, a synthetic lipopeptide that is known to mimic Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins as an important virulence factor, significantly induced IL-8 expression in Caco-2 cells. However, neither heat-inactivated L. plantarum nor L. plantarum peptidoglycan inhibited Pam2CSK4-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. In addition, both a deacylated form and a dealanylated form of Lp.LTA failed to inhibit Pam2CSK4-induced IL-8 expression, indicating that the lipid and D-alanine moieties are critical for Lp.LTA-mediated inhibition. Moreover, Lp.LTA inhibited Pam2CSK4-induced activation of p38 kinase, JNK, and NF-?B transcription factor by suppressing toll-like receptor 2 activation. Collectively, these results suggest that Lp.LTA exerts anti-inflammatory effects on human intestinal epithelial cells by blocking IL-8 production. PMID:25481370

Noh, Su Young; Kang, Seok-Seong; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

2015-03-01

137

Fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) secretion by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were used to investigate the mechanistic basis of transepithelial secretion of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Net secretion and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin (at 0.1?mM) were not subject to competitive inhibition by sulphate, thiosulphate, oxalate, succinate and para-amino hippurate, probenecid (10?mM), taurocholate (100??M) or bromosulphophthalein (100??M). Similarly tetraethylammonium and N-?methylnicotinamide (10?mM) were without effect. Net secretion of ciprofloxacin was inhibited by the organic exchange inhibitor 4,4?-diisothiocyanostilbene-2-2?-disulphonic acid (DIDS, 400??M). Net secretion of ciprofloxacin was partially inhibited by 100??M verapamil, whilst net secretion of the P-glycoprotein substrate vinblastine was totally abolished under these conditions. Ciprofloxacin secretion was unaltered after preincubation of cells with two anti-P-glycoprotein antibodies (UIC2 and MRK16), which both significantly reduced secretory vinblastine flux (measured in the same cell batch). Ciprofloxacin (3?mM) failed to inhibit vinblastine net secretion in Caco-2 epithelia, and was not itself secreted by the P-glycoprotein expressing and vinblastine secreting dog kidney cell line, MDCK. Net secretion and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin (at 0.1?mM) were not subject to alterations of either cytosolic or medium pH, or dependent on the presence of medium Na+, Cl? or K+ in the bathing media. The substrate specificity of the ciprofloxacin secretory transport in Caco-2 epithelia is distinct from both the renal organic anion and cation transport. A role for P-glycoprotein in ciprofloxacin secretion may also be excluded. A novel transport mechanism, sensitive to both DIDS and verapamil mediates secretion of ciprofloxacin by human intestinal Caco-2 epithelia. PMID:9283689

Cavet, M E; West, M; Simmons, N L

1997-01-01

138

Isolation and characterization of human intestinal mast cells.  

PubMed

Mast cells are granulated immune cells typically located at barrier sites of the body, such as the skin and the mucosa of the respiratory, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tract. They are well known for their capacity to participate in the orchestration of inflammatory and immune responses by releasing a broad array of mediators as a consequence of IgE-dependent and IgE-independent activation. Mast cells derive from myeloid progenitors, but in contrast to other myeloid cells, they leave the bone marrow in an immature state; therefore, mast cells are not visible in the blood under normal conditions. For full maturation, the tissue environment is necessary. Thus, mature mast cells can be only isolated from tissue such as skin or mucosal sites, which makes mast cell isolation complicated. This chapter describes methods to isolate, purify, and culture mast cells from the human intestinal mucosa. Human mucosal mast cells can be used to characterize their mediators and to study the mechanisms of human mast cell activation, signal transduction, and exocytosis in response to specific stimuli. PMID:25388251

Lorentz, Axel; Sellge, Gernot; Bischoff, Stephan C

2015-01-01

139

Metabolism of green tea catechins by the human small intestine.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that green tea polyphenols can be degraded in the colon, and there is abundant knowledge about the metabolites of these substances that appear in urine and plasma after green tea ingestion. However, there is very little information on the extent and nature of intestinal degradation of green tea catechins in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine in detail the microbial metabolism and chemical stability of these polyphenols in the small intestine using a well-established ex vivo model. For this purpose, fresh ileostomy fluids from two probands were incubated for 24 h under anaerobic conditions with (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatchin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) and gallic acid (GA). After lyophilisation and extraction, metabolites were separated, identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. Two metabolites of EC and C (3', 4', 5'-trihydroxyphenyl-?-valerolactone and 3', 4'-dihydroxyphenyl-?-valerolactone) were identified. In addition, 3', 4', 5'-trihydroxyphenyl-?-valerolactone was detected as a metabolite of EGC, and (after 24-h incubation) pyrogallol as a degradation product of GA. Cleavage of the GA esters of EGCG and ECG was also observed, with variations dependent on the sources (probands) of the ileal fluids, which differed substantially microbiotically. The results provide new information about the degradation of green tea catechins in the gastrointestinal tract, notably that microbiota-dependent liberation of GA esters may occur before these compounds reach the colon. PMID:20931601

Schantz, Markus; Erk, Thomas; Richling, Elke

2010-10-01

140

Effect of ceftobiprole on the normal human intestinal microflora.  

PubMed

Ceftobiprole is a new broad-spectrum pyrrolidinone cephem active against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of administration of ceftobiprole on the normal intestinal microflora. Twelve healthy subjects (six males and six females) aged 20-31 years received ceftobiprole 500 mg by intravenous infusion every 8h for 7 days. Plasma samples were collected on Days -1, 1, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for determination of drug concentration by biological and chemical methods. Faecal samples were collected on Days -1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21. For analysis of the microflora, faecal specimens were cultured on non-selective and selective media. Different colony types were counted, isolated in pure culture and identified to genus level. All new colonising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were tested for susceptibility to ceftobiprole. Plasma concentrations of ceftobiprole 10 min after completion of infusion were as follows: Day 1, 14.7-23.6 mg/L; Day 4, 15.9-24.5 mg/L; and Day 7, 15.9-23.9 mg/L. No ceftobiprole was detected in plasma on Days -1, 10, 14 and 21. No measurable concentrations of ceftobiprole were found in faeces on Days -1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21. There were minor changes in the numbers of enteric bacteria, enterococci and Candida albicans and there were moderate changes in the numbers of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, clostridia and Bacteroides spp. during the same period. No Clostridium difficile strains or toxins were found. No new colonising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with ceftobiprole minimum inhibitory concentrations of ? 4 mg/L were found. Ceftobiprole had no significant ecological impact on the human intestinal microflora. PMID:20926263

Bäckström, Tobias; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Beck, Olof; Asker-Hagelberg, Charlotte; Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

2010-12-01

141

Initial insights into bacterial succession during human decomposition.  

PubMed

Decomposition is a dynamic ecological process dependent upon many factors such as environment, climate, and bacterial, insect, and vertebrate activity in addition to intrinsic properties inherent to individual cadavers. Although largely attributed to microbial metabolism, very little is known about the bacterial basis of human decomposition. To assess the change in bacterial community structure through time, bacterial samples were collected from several sites across two cadavers placed outdoors to decompose and analyzed through 454 pyrosequencing and analysis of variable regions 3-5 of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Each cadaver was characterized by a change in bacterial community structure for all sites sampled as time, and decomposition, progressed. Bacteria community structure is variable at placement and before purge for all body sites. At bloat and purge and until tissues began to dehydrate or were removed, bacteria associated with flies, such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtimonas, were common. After dehydration and skeletonization, bacteria associated with soil, such as Acinetobacter, were common at most body sites sampled. However, more cadavers sampled through multiple seasons are necessary to assess major trends in bacterial succession. PMID:25431049

Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Petrosino, Joseph F; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R

2015-05-01

142

The Nucleotide Synthesis Enzyme CAD Inhibits NOD2 Antibacterial Function in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Polymorphisms that reduce the function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a bacterial sensor, have been associated with Crohn’s disease (CD). No proteins that regulate NOD2 activity have been identified as selective pharmacologic targets. We sought to discover regulators of NOD2 that might be pharmacologic targets for CD therapies. METHODS Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/ aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotase (CAD) is an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis; it was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein by immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry. CAD expression was assessed in colon tissues from individuals with and without inflammatory bowel disease by immunohistochemistry. The interaction between CAD and NOD2 was assessed in human HCT116 intestinal epithelial cells by immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, reporter gene, and gentamicin protection assays. We also analyzed human cell lines that express variants of NOD2 and the effects of RNA interference, overexpression and CAD inhibitors. RESULTS CAD was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein expressed at increased levels in the intestinal epithelium of patients with CD compared with controls. Overexpression of CAD inhibited NOD2-dependent activation of nuclear factor ?B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as intracellular killing of Salmonella. Reduction of CAD expression or administration of CAD inhibitors increased NOD2-dependent signaling and antibacterial functions of NOD2 variants that are and are not associated with CD. CONCLUSIONS The nucleotide synthesis enzyme CAD is a negative regulator of NOD2. The antibacterial function of NOD2 variants that have been associated with CD increased in response to pharmacologic inhibition of CAD. CAD is a potential therapeutic target for CD. PMID:22387394

Richmond, Amy L.; Kabi, Amrita; Homer, Craig R.; García, Noemí Marina; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; NesvizhskiI, Alexey I.; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Nuñez, Gabriel; McDonald, Christine

2013-01-01

143

Impaired bacterial flora in human excluded colon.  

PubMed Central

We compared the rectal microflora of 16 patients with surgically excluded colorectum with 16 healthy controls. The cause of diversion was inflammatory bowel disease (n = 10), colon cancer (n = 3), miscellaneous (n = 3). Six patients had a diversion colitis. In the excluded colorectum, the total bacterial count was only slightly lower than controls but the variety of the flora was significantly reduced. This reduction was confined to strict anaerobes, mainly the genus Eubacterium and Bifidobacterium. Among aerobes, enterobacteria were more often isolated than in controls. This altered microflora of excluded colorectum could be involved in the mucosal damage observed in some cases. PMID:2767506

Neut, C; Colombel, J F; Guillemot, F; Cortot, A; Gower, P; Quandalle, P; Ribet, M; Romond, C; Paris, J C

1989-01-01

144

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. PMID:10375432

Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

1999-06-01

145

Effect of steroid on mitochondrial oxidative stress enzymes, intestinal microflora, and bacterial translocation in rats subjected to temporary liver inflow occlusion.  

PubMed

Protective effects of steroids against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury are well known, but there is little information about the influence of temporary inflow occlusion on intestinal barrier function or bacterial translocation. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects on liver, kidney, spleen, ileal mitochondrial stress enzymes, and bacterial translocation of methylprednisolone (MP) in rats undergoing temporary liver inflow occlusion. Twenty-seven pathogen-free Wistar albino rats were randomized into three groups: group A: I/R (n = 10); group B: I/R + MP (n = 10); and group C: sham (n = 7). Rats in groups A and B were subjected to 20 minutes of portal vein and hepatic artery occlusion with 3 mg/kg MP injected into group B animals intraperitoneally during the occlusion. Twenty-two hours later, all rats were sacrificed to measure mitochondrial oxidative stress enzymes in liver, kidney, spleen, and ileum. We evaluated intestinal bacterial counts, intestinal mucosal histopathology, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, spleen, and kidney. Decreased levels of malondialdehyde and increased levels of glutathione were observed in all examined tissues of group B compared to those of group A rats. Statistically significant increases in the intestinal counts of Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp and of bacterial translocation to liver, kidney, spleen, and MLN were measured in group B with respect to group A. PMID:16549125

Kirimlioglu, V; Kirimlioglu, H; Yilmaz, S; Piskin, T; Tekerekoglu, S; Bayindir, Y

2006-03-01

146

Protective effect of glutamine on intestinal injury and bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effect of glutamine (Gln) on intestinal injury and the bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and hypobaric hypoxia + Gln (5.0 g/kg BW·d) (HG) groups. On the first 3 d, all rats were placed in a normal environment. After the third day, the HH and HG groups were transferred into a hypobaric chamber at a simulated elevation of 7000 m for 5 d. The rats in the HG group were given Gln by gavage daily for 8 d. The rats in the control and HH groups were treated with the same volume of saline. The intestinal morphology, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and diamino oxidase (DAO) were examined. We also evaluated the expression levels of occludin, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-?B p65 (NF-?B p65) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and examined the bacterial community in caecal contents. RESULTS: Hypobaric hypoxia induced the enlargement of the heart, liver, lung and kidney, and caused spleen atrophy. Intestinal villi damage was also observed in the HH group. Supplementation with Gln significantly alleviated hypobaric-induced damage to main organs including the intestine, increased serum SOD (1.14 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) and MDA (8.35 ± 1.60, P < 0.01) levels and decreased serum IL-6 (1172.13±30.49 vs 1407.05 ± 34.36, P < 0.05), TNF-? (77.46 ± 0.78 vs 123.70 ± 3.03, P < 0.001), IFN-? (1355.42 ± 72.80 vs 1830.16 ± 42.07, P < 0.01) and DAO (629.30 ± 9.15 vs 524.10 ± 13.34, P < 0.001) levels. Moreover, Gln significantly increased occludin (0.72 ± 0.05 vs 0.09 ± 0.01, P < 0.001), TLR4 (0.15 ± 0.05 vs 0.30 ±0.09, P < 0.05), MyD88 (0.32 ± 0.08 vs 0.71 ± 0.06, P < 0.01), and NF-?B p65 (0.16 ± 0.04 vs 0.44 ± 0.03, P < 0.01) expression levels and improved the intestinal bacterial community. CONCLUSION: Gln treatment protects from intestinal injury and regulates the gut flora imbalance in hypoxia environment. These effects may be related to the TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24782618

Xu, Chun-Lan; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Xiang-Jin; Xu, Cui-Cui; Shang, Xiao-Ya; Niu, Wei-Ning

2014-01-01

147

Correlation between oral drug absorption in humans and apparent drug permeability coefficients in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monolayers of a well differentiated human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, were used as a model to study passive drug absorption across the intestinal epithelium. Absorption rate constants (expressed as apparent permeability coefficients) were determined for 20 drugs and peptides with different structural properties. The permeability coefficients ranged from approximately 5 x 10{sup - 8} to 5 x 10{sup -

P. Artursson; J. Karlsson

1991-01-01

148

Permeability of rhynchophylline across human intestinal cell in vitro  

PubMed Central

Rhynchophylline (Rhy) is the major component of Uncaria species, which is used in Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. However, its oral bioavailability has not been known. This study aims to investigate the intestinal permeability and related mechanisms of Rhy using cultured human epithelial Caco-2 cells. The cytotoxicity of Rhy on Caco-2 cells was evaluated with MTT assay. The effect of Rhy on the integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayer was assayed with transepithelial electrical resistance. The permeability of Rhy across cell monolayer was assayed by measuring Rhy quantity in received side with HPLC. The effect of Rhy on the expression of P-glycoprotein and MDR1 was detected with Western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. In the concentration of Rhy, which did not produce toxicity on cell viability and integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayer, Rhy crossed the monolayer with velocity 2.76~5.57×10^-6 cm/sec and 10.68~15.66×10^-6 cm/sec from apical to basolateral side and from basolateral to apical side, respectively. The permeability of Rhy was increased by verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, or rhodamine123, a P-glycoprotein substrate. Rhy revealed an induction effect on P-glycoprotein expression in Caco-2 cells. These results demonstrate the low permeability of Rhy in intro, and suggest that P-glycoprotein may underlie the mechanism. PMID:24966905

Ma, Bo; Wang, Jing; Sun, Jing; Li, Ming; Xu, Huibo; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

2014-01-01

149

Focused Specificity of Intestinal Th17 Cells towards Commensal Bacterial Antigens  

PubMed Central

T-helper-17 (Th17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defense and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis 1-3. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria (SILP), where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota 4-7. Segmented Filamentous Bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce Th17 cells and to promote Th17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models 8-14. However, the specificity of Th17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal Th17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4+ T cells and that most Th17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into ROR?t-expressing Th17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harbored a strong Th1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines. PMID:24739972

Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B.; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L.; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Lafaille, Juan J.; Littman, Dan R.

2014-01-01

150

Focused specificity of intestinal TH17 cells towards commensal bacterial antigens.  

PubMed

T-helper-17 (TH17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defence and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria, where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce TH17 cells and to promote TH17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models. However, the specificity of TH17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal TH17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4(+) T cells and that most TH17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into ROR?t-expressing TH17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harboured a strong TH1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T-cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines. PMID:24739972

Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J; Jenkins, Marc K; Lafaille, Juan J; Littman, Dan R

2014-06-01

151

Importance of Colonic Bacterial Fermentation in Short Bowel Patients (Small Intestinal Malabsorption of Easily Digestible Carbohydrate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small intestine's large capacity for glucoseabsorption and for adaptation seems to contradict thereported importance of carbohydrate malabsorption inshort bowel (SB) patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence ofmalabsorption in these patients ingesting realisticamounts of carbohydrates. We performed a dose-responsestudy [ingestion of increasing amounts of glucose and complex carbohydrates (boiled rice and wheatbread), and the

Merete Olesen; Eivind Gudmand-Hoyer; Jens Juul Holst; Stig Jorgensen

1999-01-01

152

Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal

Freddy J Troost; Peter van Baarlen; Patrick Lindsey; Andrea Kodde; Willem M de Vos; Michiel Kleerebezem; Robert-Jan M Brummer

2008-01-01

153

Musashi-1 suppresses expression of Paneth cell-specific genes in human intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Musashi-1 (Msi-1) is a RNA-binding protein, known as a putative marker of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, little is\\u000a known about the function of Msi-1 within human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Thus, the present study aimed to clarify\\u000a the role of Msi-1 in differentiation and proliferation of IECs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A human intestinal epithelial cell line stably expressing Msi-1 was established. Proliferation

Minekazu Murayama; Ryuichi Okamoto; Kiichiro Tsuchiya; Junko Akiyama; Tetsuya Nakamura; Naoya Sakamoto; Takanori Kanai; Mamoru Watanabe

2009-01-01

154

Characterization of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme of human small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme plays a significant role in dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) absorption\\u000a in the small intestine. However, the characteristics of human intestinal DGAT enzyme have not been examined in detail. The\\u000a aim of our study was to characterize the human intestinal DGAT enzyme by examining acyl-CoA specificity, temperature dependency,\\u000a and selectivity for 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) or 1,3-DAG. We detected

Yasushi Hiramine; Toshizumi Tanabe

2011-01-01

155

The V delta 1 T cell receptor repertoire in human small intestine and colon  

PubMed Central

V delta 1 bearing T cells comprise the major population of gamma/delta T cells in the human intestinal tract. To gain insight into mechanisms involved in the generation of these cells and the diversity of their repertoire, we have characterized the junctional sequences of V delta 1 T cell receptor transcripts in the human small intestine and colon. Mucosal biopsies obtained from defined regions along the length of the small intestine or colon contained a high frequency of either one or a few identical in frame V delta 1 sequences. Less abundant sequences were also detected repeatedly throughout the length of small intestine or colon. Moreover, the intestinal V delta 1 repertoire in the small intestine and colon appeared compartmentalized and showed no overlap with the V delta 1 repertoire in peripheral blood. Dominant V delta 1 transcripts in each subject differed between the small intestine and colon, and the dominant transcripts within these sites differed among individuals. Analysis of small intestinal transcripts obtained at a 1- yr interval revealed that the V delta 1 repertoire was stable over time. The fact that the majority of V delta 1 transcripts, both dominant and rare, are distributed throughout a several meter length of the adult intestinal tract and are stable over time suggests they are not generated by an ongoing process of in situ VDJ gene rearrangement. Our results favor a model in which the repertoire of V delta 1 T cells in the intestinal tract is shaped by positive selection in response to a limited array of ligands before the migration of V delta 1 cells throughout the small intestine or colon. PMID:8006582

1994-01-01

156

Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in intestinal and lymph node tissues of water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis) by PCR and bacterial culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of bacterial culture and IS900-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was compared for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from the intestinal and mesenteric lymph node tissues of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) showing lesions of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Out of 20 (4.9%) animals showing histological lesions suggestive of paratuberculosis, 14 (70%) and 6 (30%) were positive in

P. Sivakumar; B. N. Tripathi; Nem Singh

2005-01-01

157

Butyrate Produced by Commensal Bacteria Potentiates Phorbol Esters Induced AP-1 Response in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M.

2012-01-01

158

Congruent Strain Specific Intestinal Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an Intestine-Mimicking In Vitro System and in Human Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species. However, data on the in situ persistence characteristics of individual or mixtures of strains of the same species in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy human volunteers have not been reported to date. Methodology/Principal Findings The GI-tract survival of individual L. plantarum strains was determined using an intestine mimicking model system, revealing substantial inter-strain differences. The obtained data were correlated to genomic diversity of the strains using comparative genome hybridization (CGH) datasets, but this approach failed to discover specific genetic loci that explain the observed differences between the strains. Moreover, we developed a next-generation sequencing-based method that targets a variable intergenic region, and employed this method to assess the in vivo GI-tract persistence of different L. plantarum strains when administered in mixtures to healthy human volunteers. Remarkable consistency of the strain-specific persistence curves were observed between individual volunteers, which also correlated significantly with the GI-tract survival predicted on basis of the in vitro assay. Conclusion The survival of individual L. plantarum strains in the GI-tract could not be correlated to the absence or presence of specific genes compared to the reference strain L. plantarum WCFS1. Nevertheless, in vivo persistence analysis in the human GI-tract confirmed the strain-specific persistence, which appeared to be remarkably similar in different healthy volunteers. Moreover, the relative strain-specific persistence in vivo appeared to be accurately and significantly predicted by their relative survival in the intestine-mimicking in vitro assay, supporting the use of this assay for screening of strain-specific GI persistence. PMID:22970257

van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; van Swam, Iris; Wels, Michiel; Bron, Peter A.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2012-01-01

159

Looking in ticks for human bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases and the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. A number of emerging tick-borne pathogens are already discovered; however, the proportion of undiagnosed infectious diseases, especially in tropical regions, may suggest that there are still more pathogens associated with ticks. Moreover, the identification of bacteria associated with ticks may provide new tool for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Described here molecular methods of screening of ticks, extensive use of modern culturomics approach, newly developed artificial media and different cell line cultures may significantly improve our knowledge about the ticks as the agents of human and animal pathology. PMID:25229617

Mediannikov, O; Fenollar, F

2014-12-01

160

Deconjugation of bile acids by human intestinal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this report is to present the deconjugation of bile acids by numbers of strains of bacteria in the small intestine\\u000a and feces. The small intestinal juice was aseptically aspirated by a double lumen tube with a rubber cover on the tip devised\\u000a by us (“Fukushima Type 1”). Bile acids were analyzed with thin layer chromatography. The results:

Kunihiko Shindo; Kokichi Fukushima

1976-01-01

161

Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.  

PubMed

Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression. PMID:25534429

Vuille-Dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

2015-04-01

162

Human large intestinal epithelium: light microscopy, histochemistry, and ultrastructure.  

PubMed

Despite numerous reports of morphologic characteristics of premalignant and malignant large intestinal epithelium, the literature lacks comprehensive reports of the morphologic features of the epithelium of the normal large intestine, except of the rectum. Large intestinal epithelium from 41 persons was obtained, and samples from the ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid areas were studied by light microscopy, histochemical techniques, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic features and histochemical reactions of the various segments of the large intestine are different. Neutral mucopolysaccharide is predominant in the ascending colon, whereas the rectum has predominantly or exclusively acidic mucin. Only three basic epithelial cell phenotypes have been identified: undifferentiated cells, mucous cells, and endocrine cells. The columnar cells at the surface between the crypts appear to be a variant of mucous cells. Compared with other segments, the rectum shows an unusually high concentration of endocrine cells, positively correlating with the high incidence of carcinoid tumors in that segment of the large intestine. The mucous cells in all segments contain large mucous vacuoles and small apical vesicles. The apical vesicles show variable electron density, being most dense in the ascending colon and becoming progressively less dense at the transverse and descending colon and most electron-lucent in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Ultrastructurally, the mucin shows a variable degree of heterogeneity in the proximal segments. This study suggests that some of the previously described ultrastructural features of abnormal large-intestinal epithelium may be only the result of failure to compare the so-called abnormal cells with normal cells from the same region. Well-controlled studies of the abnormal epithelium of a particular segment of large intestine must include the normal epithelium from the identical segment as control in order to make interpretations accurate. PMID:7106744

Shamsuddin, A M; Phelps, P C; Trump, B F

1982-09-01

163

Lymphocyte-filled villi: Comparison with other lymphoid aggregations in the mucosa of the human small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Solitary lymphoid structures that may be sites of primary extrathymic T-cell differentiation have been described recently in murine (cryptopatches) and rat (lymphocyte-filled villi) small intestine. This study tests the hypothesis that similar structures occur in human small intestine. Methods: Normal small intestine was obtained during surgery. Fixed tissue was examined histologically, and frozen sections were examined by

Mahin Moghaddami; Adrian Cummins; Graham Mayrhofer

1998-01-01

164

Interindividual variability of carboxymethylenebutenolidase homolog, a novel olmesartan medoxomil hydrolase, in the human liver and intestine.  

PubMed

Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug-type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist. OM is rapidly converted into its active metabolite olmesartan by multiple hydrolases in humans, and we recently identified carboxymethylenebutenolidase homolog (CMBL) as one of the OM bioactivating hydrolases. In the present study, we further investigated the interindividual variability of mRNA and protein expression of CMBL and OM-hydrolase activity using 40 individual human liver and 30 intestinal specimens. In the intestinal samples, OM-hydrolase activity strongly correlated with the CMBL protein expression, clearly indicating that CMBL is a major contributor to the prodrug bioactivation in human intestine. The protein and activity were highly distributed in the proximal region (duodenum and jejunum) and decreased to the distal region of the intestine. Although there was high interindividual variability (16-fold) in both the protein and activity in the intestinal segments from the duodenum to colon, the interindividual variability in the duodenum and jejunum was relatively small (3.0- and 2.4-fold, respectively). In the liver samples, the interindividual variability in the protein and activity was 4.1- and 6.8-fold, respectively. No sex differences in the protein and activity were shown in the human liver or intestine. A genetically engineered Y155C mutant of CMBL, which was caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism rs35489000, showed significantly lower OM-hydrolase activity than the wild-type protein although no minor allele was genotyped in the 40 individual liver specimens. PMID:23471504

Ishizuka, Tomoko; Rozehnal, Veronika; Fischer, Thomas; Kato, Ayako; Endo, Seiko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi

2013-05-01

165

The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates  

PubMed Central

The human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) harbors a complex community of microbes. The microbiota composition varies between different locations in the GI tract, but most studies focus on the fecal microbiota, and that inhabiting the colonic mucosa. Consequently, little is known about the microbiota at other parts of the GI tract, which is especially true for the small intestine because of its limited accessibility. Here we deduce an ecological model of the microbiota composition and function in the small intestine, using complementing culture-independent approaches. Phylogenetic microarray analyses demonstrated that microbiota compositions that are typically found in effluent samples from ileostomists (subjects without a colon) can also be encountered in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Phylogenetic mapping of small intestinal metagenome of three different ileostomy effluent samples from a single individual indicated that Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp. and high G+C organisms are most abundant in the small intestine. The compositions of these populations fluctuated in time and correlated to the short-chain fatty acids profiles that were determined in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine. PMID:22258098

Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Booijink, Carien CGM; Troost, Freddy J; Bork, Peer; Wels, Michiel; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2012-01-01

166

Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase  

SciTech Connect

A cDNA clone for human adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum); EC 3.1.3.1) was isolated from a lambdagt11 expression library. The cDNA insert of this clone is 2513 base pairs in length and contains an open reading frame that encodes a 528-amino acid polypeptide. This deduced polypeptide contains the first 40 amino acids of human intestinal ALP, as determined by direct protein sequencing. Intestinal ALP shows 86.5% amino acid identity to placental (type 1) ALP and 56.6% amino acid identity to liver/bone/kidney ALP. In the 3'-untranslated regions, intestinal and placental ALP cDNAs are 73.5% identical (excluding gaps). The evolution of this multigene enzyme family is discussed.

Henthorn, P.S.; Raducha, M.; Edwards, Y.H.; Weiss, M.J.; Slaughter, C.; Lafferty, M.A.; Harris, H.

1987-03-01

167

[Study on the Apriona germari(Hope) larvae's intestinal bacterial flora].  

PubMed

Intestinal flora of 47 Apriona germari(Hope) larvae, collected from fields, had been isolated and identified. The results showed that the predominant bacteria were Staphylococcus. Its viable count was 7.63 +/- 0.21, and the detection rate was 100%. Meanwhile, a strain of cellulose-utilizing bacterium was isolated from the fore-midgut fluid of A. germari larvae with the cellulose-congo red agar medium. The bacterium was tentatively identified as Cellulomonas. The detection rate of the cellulolytic bacterium was 23.40%, and the count was 3.84 +/- 0.54 approximately. Its contribution to the borer's cellulose digestion needs further investigations. PMID:12552833

He, Z; Yin, Y; Cao, Y; Dong, Y; Zhang, W

2001-12-01

168

Isolation and Identification of Intestinal CYP3A Inhibitors from Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using Human Intestinal Microsomes  

PubMed Central

Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, a cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC50) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and <10 ?M, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and was 2.8, 4.3, and <10 ?M, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. PMID:20717876

Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N.; Brantley, Scott J.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

2010-01-01

169

Cdx2 modulates proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homeobox gene Cdx2 is involved in the regulation of the expression of intestine specific markers such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Previous studies performed with immortalized or transformed intestinal cell lines have provided evidence that Cdx2 can promote morphological and functional differentiation in these experimental models. However, no data exist concerning the implication of this factor in normal human

Fabrice Escaffit; Frédéric Paré; Rémy Gauthier; Nathalie Rivard; François Boudreau; Jean-Francois. Beaulieu

2006-01-01

170

The effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on bacterial translocation and intestinal damage in cholestatic rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in rat ileum injury induced by chronic biliary obstruction. Swiss albino rats were divided into three groups: Group 1, sham (n = 7); Group 2, common bile duct ligation (n = 7); and Group 3, common bile duct ligation plus caffeic acid phenethyl ester (n = 7). In the caffeic acid phenethyl ester-treated rats, ileum tissue levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were significantly lower than those of the bile duct-ligated rats (P < 0.001). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1alpha in the caffeic acid phenethyl ester group were significantly lower than those in the bile duct ligation group (P < 0.03, P < 0.01, and P < 0.02 respectively). The present study demonstrates that intraperitoneal administration of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in bile duct-ligated rats reduces intestinal oxidative stress. This effect may be useful in the preservation of intestinal damage in cholestasis. PMID:16983503

Ara, Cengiz; Esrefoglu, Mukaddes; Polat, Alattin; Isik, Burak; Aladag, Murat; Gul, Mehmet; Ay, Selma; Tekerleklioglu, M Sait; Yilmaz, Sezai

2006-10-01

171

Differentiation of human adult and fetal intestinal alkaline phosphatases with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Two forms of intestinal alkaline phosphatase have been recognized in humans. They are very similar in a number of biochemical and immunologic characteristics, but the exact genetic relationship between them remains unclear. To further study this problem, six monoclonal antibodies and a polyclonal rabbit antiserum to human fetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase have been produced. All of the monoclonal antibodies and the rabbit antiserum crossreact with adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase and with the intestinal-like alkaline phosphatase found in D98/AH-2 human tissue-culture cells. Four of the monoclonal antibodies and the rabbit antiserum crossreact with placental alkaline phosphatase, while none of the antibodies or the antiserum recognize liver or kidney alkaline phosphatase. Four of the monoclonal antibodies can distinguish between adult and fetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase in electrophoretic titration-binding studies, with the relative binding of adult enzyme being significantly greater than that of the fetal enzyme in each case. One of these antibodies, which also reacts with placental alkaline phosphatase, can distinguish the type 3 allelic variant of the placental enzyme from types 1 and 2. This indicates that the antibody detects a structural difference in the protein moiety of one of the allelic forms of the enzyme. These data suggest that adult and fetal intestinal alkaline phosphatases represent structurally distinct proteins, either encoded for by different genes or produced by differential processing of a common precursor molecule determined by a single gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:6437214

Vockley, J; Meyer, L J; Harris, H

1984-01-01

172

The role of disulphide bonds in human intestinal mucin  

PubMed Central

Goblet-cell mucin (mucin 1) was isolated and purified from human small-intestinal scrapings. After application of mucin 1 to DEAE-Bio-Gel (A) columns, most of the glycoprotein (76–94% of hexoses) was eluted in the first peak (designated mucin 2). Minor amounts of acidic glycoproteins were eluted with 0.2m- and 0.4m-NaCl in later peaks. Analyses of mucin 1 and mucin 2 revealed mucin 2 to be a monodisperse highly glycosylated glycoprotein containing 6.3% by wt. of protein, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucose. Mucin 1 was similar in composition, but was polydisperse and contained more protein (12.3% by wt.) as well as N-acetylneuraminic acid. Analytical CsCl-gradient ultracentrifugation showed both mucin 1 and mucin 2 to have a major component with an average buoyant density of 1.47000g/ml. Mucin 1 also contained a slightly less-dense minor glycoprotein component. After exhaustive reduction and alkylation mucin 1 retained its major component, but partly dissociated into two lighter glycoprotein components. Mucin 2, in contrast, did not change its density distribution after reduction. Band ultracentrifugation in 2H2O-containing iso-osmotic buffers showed that mucin 1 contained a major fast-sedimenting component (so=37±2S), and a minor amount of a slower-sedimenting component. After reduction there was an increased quantity of the latter component, for which an so value of 14.5S was calculated. In contrast, mucin 2 was unaltered by reduction (so=33±2S). These findings indicate that the major component of goblet-cell mucin (mucin 2) does not dissociate after S–S-bond reduction, and thus does not apparently rely for its polymeric structure on the association of subunits through covalent disulphide bonds. However, the effects of reduction on mucin 1 suggest that in the native mucin intramolecular disulphide bonds in the minor glycoproteins may stabilize their structure, permitting secondary non-covalent interactions to develop with the major dense mucin (mucin 2) protein. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:518552

Forstner, Janet F.; Jabbal, Inderjit; Qureshi, Rauf; Kells, David I. C.; Forstner, Gordon G.

1979-01-01

173

Biosynthesis and turn-over of human intestinal brush border glycoproteins during organ culture  

E-print Network

Biosynthesis and turn-over of human intestinal brush border glycoproteins during organ culture. Summary. The biosynthesis of enzymatic glycoproteins of the brush border of the human jejunum was analyzed labelled after 5 hrs of culture. The renewal of enzymatic glycoproteins, analyzed by chase experiments

Boyer, Edmond

174

Survival of Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Stomach and Adhesion to Intestinal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of four strains of lactic acid bacteria in human gastric juice, in vivo and in vitro, and in buffered saline, pH 1 to 5, has been investigated. The strains studied include two Lactobacillus acidophilus strains, Lactobacillus bul- garicus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. In addition, the adhesion of these strains to freshly collected human and pig small intestinal cells and

P. L. Conway; S. L. Gorbach; B. R. Goldin

1987-01-01

175

Mass chemotherapy for intestinal Taenia solium infection: effect on prevalence in humans and pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass treatment of the human population with niclosamide was carried out in 2 villages in rural Guatemala where Taenia solium was endemic, to determine how this would affect the epidemiology of the parasite. Intestinal taeniasis was diagnosed by microscopy and coproantigen testing, and porcine cysticercosis by a specific Western blot. Before mass treatment, the prevalence of human taeniasis was 3·5%;

J. C. Allan; M. Velasquez-Tohom; C. Fletes; R. Torres-Alvarez; G. Lopez-Virula; P. Yurrita; H. Soto de Alfaro; A. Rivera; J. Garcia-Noval

1997-01-01

176

Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

2014-01-01

177

Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.  

PubMed

A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

2014-04-01

178

Notch2-dependent classical dendritic cells orchestrate intestinal immunity against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Defense against attaching and effacing (A/E) bacteria requires the sequential generation of interleukin 23 (IL-23) and IL-22 to induce protective mucosal responses. While CD4+ and NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the critical source of IL-22 during infection, the precise source of IL-23 is unclear. We used genetic techniques to deplete specific subsets of classical dendritic cells (cDCs) and analyzed immunity to the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. We found that Notch2 controlled the terminal stage of cDC differentiation. Notch2-dependent intestinal CD11b+ cDCs, but not Batf3-dependent CD103+ cDCs, were an obligate source of IL-23 required to survive C. rodentium infection. These results provide the first demonstration of a non-redundant function of CD11b+ cDCs in response to pathogens in vivo. PMID:23913046

Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Briseño, Carlos G.; Lee, Jacob S.; Ng, Dennis; Manieri, Nicholas A.; KC, Wumesh; Wu, Xiaodi; Thomas, Stephanie R.; Lee, Wan-Ling; Turkoz, Mustafa; McDonald, Keely G.; Meredith, Matthew M.; Song, Christina; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Newberry, Rodney D.; Ouyang, Wenjun; Murphy, Theresa L.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Colonna, Marco; Kopan, Raphael; Murphy, Kenneth M.

2013-01-01

179

Bacterial Community Associated with the Intestinal Tract of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Farmed in Lake Tai, China  

PubMed Central

Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal ?95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2015-01-01

180

Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 promotes bacterial phagocytosis by human macrophages.  

PubMed

LL-37/hCAP-18 is the only human member of the cathelicidin family and plays an important role in killing various pathogens, as well as in immune modulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of LL-37 on bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages and demonstrate that LL-37 enhances phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in a dose- and time-dependent manner by dTHP-1 cells. In addition, LL-37 enhanced phagocytosis of nonopsonized Escherichia coli by human macrophages. Consistently, LL-37 elevated the expression of Fc?Rs on macrophages but not the complement receptors CD11b and -c. Further studies revealed that the expression of TLR4 and CD14 is also increased on LL-37-treated macrophages. Several lines of evidence indicated that the FPR2/ALX receptor mediated LL-37-induced phagocytosis. However, TLR4 signaling was also coupled to the phagocytic response, as a specific TLR4 antibody significantly suppressed phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized E. coli and nonopsonized E. coli by dTHP-1 cells. Finally, macrophages from Cnlp(-/-) mice exhibited diminished bacterial phagocytosis compared with macrophages from their WT littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel, immune-modulatory mechanism of LL-37, which may contribute to bacterial clearance. PMID:24550523

Wan, Min; van der Does, Anne M; Tang, Xiao; Lindbom, Lennart; Agerberth, Birgitta; Haeggström, Jesper Z

2014-06-01

181

Composition and Metabolic Activities of Bacterial Biofilms Colonizing Food Residues in the Human Gut  

PubMed Central

Bacteria growing in the human large intestine live in intimate association with the host and play an important role in host digestive processes, gut physiology, and metabolism. Fecal bacteria have been investigated extensively, but few studies have been done on biofilms that form on digestive wastes in the large bowel. The aims of this investigation were to investigate the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial communities that colonize the surfaces of food residues in fecal material, with respect to their role in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. Fresh stools were obtained from 15 healthy donors, and food residues were separated by filtration. Adherent bacteria were removed by surfactant treatment for microbiological analysis and fermentation studies. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to visualize intact biofilms. Results showed that bacterial populations strongly adhering to particulate matter were phenotypically similar in composition to unattached communities, with bacteroides and bifidobacteria predominating. Biofilms comprised a mixture of living and dead bacteria, and CLSM showed that bifidobacteria in the biofilms occurred as isolated dispersed cells and in microcolonies near the interface with the substratum. Fermentation experiments with a variety of complex carbohydrates demonstrated that biofilm populations were more efficient in digesting polysaccharides, while nonadhering communities fermented oligosaccharides most rapidly. Acetate was the principal fermentation product formed by biofilm bacteria, whereas higher levels of butyrate were produced by nonadherent populations, showing that the two communities were metabolically distinct. PMID:16957247

Macfarlane, Sandra; Macfarlane, George T.

2006-01-01

182

Increased Bacterial Translocation in Gluten-Sensitive Mice Is Independent of Small Intestinal Paracellular Permeability Defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  We investigated whether treatment with gliadin induces a paracellular permeability defect that enhances bacterial translocation\\u000a to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) via resident dendritic cells (DC) expressing TLR-2 or 4 in HCD4\\/HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice were sensitized and subsequently gavaged with gliadin, in the presence or absence of AT1001 (paracellular\\u000a permeability inhibitor). Non-sensitized mice were gavaged with indomethacin (permeability

Manuel A. SilvaJennifer; Jennifer Jury; Yolanda Sanz; Michelle Wiepjes; Xianxi Huang; Joseph A. Murray; Chella S. David; Alessio Fasano; Elena F. Verdú

183

Human Intestinal Tissue with Adult Stem Cell Properties Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been proposed as a source for transplantation therapies and are rapidly becoming valuable tools for human disease modeling. However, many applications are limited due to the lack of robust differentiation paradigms that allow for the isolation of defined functional tissues. Here, using an endogenous LGR5-GFP reporter, we derived adult stem cells from hPSCs that gave rise to functional human intestinal tissue comprising all major cell types of the intestine. Histological and functional analyses revealed that such human organoid cultures could be derived with high purity and with a composition and morphology similar to those of cultures obtained from human biopsies. Importantly, hPSC-derived organoids responded to the canonical signaling pathways that control self-renewal and differentiation in the adult human intestinal stem cell compartment. This adult stem cell system provides a platform for studying human intestinal disease in vitro using genetically engineered hPSCs. PMID:24936470

Forster, Ryan; Chiba, Kunitoshi; Schaeffer, Lorian; Regalado, Samuel G.; Lai, Christine S.; Gao, Qing; Kiani, Samira; Farin, Henner F.; Clevers, Hans; Cost, Gregory J.; Chan, Andy; Rebar, Edward J.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Gregory, Philip D.; Pachter, Lior; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Hockemeyer, Dirk

2014-01-01

184

Combining flagellin and human ?-defensin-3 to combat bacterial infections  

PubMed Central

The discovery and therapeutic use of antibiotics made a major contribution to the reduction of human morbidity and mortality. However, the growing resistance to antibiotics has become a matter of huge concern. In this study we aimed to develop an innovative approach to treat bacterial infections utilizing two components: the human antibacterial peptide ?-defensin-3 (BD3) and the bacterial protein flagellin (F). This combination was designed to provide an efficient weapon against bacterial infections with the peptide killing the bacteria directly, while the flagellin protein triggers the immune system and acts against bacteria escaping from the peptide’s action. We designed, expressed and purified the fusion protein flagellin BD3 (FBD3) and its two components, the F protein and the native BD3 peptide. FBD3 fusion protein and native BD3 peptide had antibacterial activity in vitro against various bacterial strains. FBD3 and F proteins could also recognize their receptor expressed on target cells and stimulated secretion of IL-8. In addition, F and FBD3 proteins had a partial protective effect in mice infected by pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria that cause a lethal disease. Moreover, we were able to show partial protection of mice infected with E. coli using a flagellin sequence from Salmonella. We also explored flagellin’s basic mechanisms of action, focusing on its effects on CD4+ T cells from healthy donors. We found that F stimulation caused an increase in the mRNA levels of the Th1 response cytokines IL12A and IFN?. In addition, F stimulation affected its own receptor. PMID:25538693

Sabag, Ofra; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

2014-01-01

185

Brucella invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells elicits a weak proinflammatory response but a significant CCL20 secretion.  

PubMed

In spite of the frequent acquisition of Brucella infection by the oral route in humans, the interaction of the bacterium with cells of the intestinal mucosa has been poorly studied. Here, we show that different Brucella species can invade human colonic epithelial cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29), in which only smooth species can replicate efficiently. Infection with smooth strains did not produce a significant cytotoxicity, while the rough strain RB51 was more cytotoxic. Infection of Caco-2 cells or HT-29 cells with either smooth or rough strains of Brucella did not result in an increased secretion of TNF-?, IL-1?, MCP-1, IL-10 or TGF-? as compared with uninfected controls, whereas all the infections induced the secretion of IL-8 and CCL20 by both cell types. The MCP-1 response to flagellin from Salmonella typhimurium was similar in Brucella-infected or uninfected cells, ruling out a bacterial inhibitory mechanism as a reason for the weak proinflammatory response. Infection did not modify ICAM-1 expression levels in Caco-2 cells, but increased them in HT-29 cells. These results suggest that Brucella induces only a weak proinflammatory response in gut epithelial cells, but produces a significant CCL20 secretion. The latter may be important for bacterial dissemination given the known ability of Brucella to survive in dendritic cells. PMID:22553918

Ferrero, Mariana C; Fossati, Carlos A; Rumbo, Martín; Baldi, Pablo C

2012-10-01

186

The influence of the immunostimulation by bacterial cell components derived from altered large intestinal microbiota on probiotic anti-inflammatory benefits.  

PubMed

Using murine macrophage-like J774.1 cells and fecal precipitates prepared from the feces of elderly volunteers whose acute inflammation had been inhibited by LKM512 yogurt consumption, we investigated the likelihood that immunostimulation by altered intestinal bacterial cell components contribute to the anti-inflammatory benefits of this yogurt. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha production due to stimulation by fecal precipitates obtained during LKM512 yogurt consumption tended to be higher than due to stimulation by precipitates obtained from preconsumption (P=0.0827), although acute phase response was suppressed by LKM512 yogurt consumption. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory benefits of LKM512 yogurt on elderly volunteers are independent of direct immunostimulation by the bacterial cell components derived from altered intestinal microbiota. PMID:17378901

Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Hara, Kurt; Benno, Yoshimi

2007-04-01

187

Reductive Dechlorination of Methoxychlor and DDT by Human Intestinal Bacterium Eubacterium limosum Under Anaerobic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methoxychlor [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)ethane], a substitute for 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), is a compound of environmental concern because of potential long-term health risks related to\\u000a its endocrine-disrupting and carcinogenic potency. In order to determine the metabolic fate of methoxychlor and DDT in the\\u000a human intestinal gut, Eubacterium limosum (ATCC 8486), a strict anaerobe isolated from the human intestine that is capable of O-demethylation toward

You-Jin Yim; Jiyoung Seo; Su-Il Kang; Joong-Hoon Ahn; Hor-Gil Hur

2008-01-01

188

Slipping through the Cracks: Linking Low Immune Function and Intestinal Bacterial Imbalance to the Etiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are considered to be caused by the host immune system which attacks and destroys its own tissue by mistake. A widely accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenic mechanism of ADs is “molecular mimicry,” which states that antibodies against an infectious agent cross-react with a self-antigen sharing an identical or similar antigenic epitope. However, this hypothesis was most likely established based on misleading antibody assay data largely influenced by intense false positive reactions involved in immunoassay systems. Thus reinvestigation of this hypothesis using an appropriate blocking agent capable of eliminating all types of nonspecific reactions and proper assay design is strongly encouraged. In this review, we discuss the possibility that low immune function may be the fundamental, common defect in ADs, which increases the susceptibility to potential disease causative pathogens located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI), such as bacteria and their components or dietary components. In addition to these exogenous agents, aberrations in the host's physical condition may disrupt the host defense system, which is tightly orchestrated by “immune function,” “mucosal barrier function,” and “intestinal bacterial balance.” These disturbances may initiate a downward spiral, which can lead to chronic health problems that will evolve to an autoimmune disorder.

Terato, Kuniaki

2015-01-01

189

Duodenal Aspirates for Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth: Yield, PPIs, and Outcomes after Treatment at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center  

PubMed Central

Duodenal aspirates are not commonly collected, but they can be easily used in detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been proposed to contribute to the development of SIBO. We aimed to determine the yield of SIBO-positive cultures detected in duodenal aspirates, the relationship between SIBO and PPI use, and the clinical outcomes of patients identified by this method. In a retrospective study, we analyzed electronic medical records from 1263 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy at a tertiary medical center. Aspirates were collected thought out the third and fourth portions of the duodenum, and cultures were considered to be positive for SIBO if they produced more than 100,000?cfu/mL. Culture analysis of duodenal aspirates identified SIBO in one-third of patients. A significantly higher percentage of patients with SIBO use PPIs than patients without SIBO, indicating a possible association. Similar proportions of patients with SIBO improved whether or not they received antibiotic treatment, calling into question the use of this expensive therapy for this disorder. PMID:25694782

Franco, Diana L.; Disbrow, Molly B.; Kahn, Allon; Koepke, Laura M.; Harris, Lucinda A.; Ramirez, Francisco C.

2015-01-01

190

Bacterial prostatitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Bacterial prostatitis was diagnosed in 17 of 209 human immunodeficiency virus-infected men hospitalized from October 1985 to October 1987. A history of urogenital disease was found in 13 of 17 patients. Clinical signs of prostatitis were present in 16 of 17 patients, including fever in 13, urinary symptoms in 11 and tender prostate on rectal palpation in 7. Bacteriuria was found in 14 of the 17 patients. Prostatic ultrasound examination showed an abscess in 11 of 16 patients studied. Prostatitis was diagnosed at autopsy in 1 patient. Within 6 weeks after onset of antimicrobial therapy 9 of 13 patients were cured and 4 of 13 did not respond to therapy. Among the 7 patients followed for more than 2 months after the end of antimicrobial therapy 5 had relapse. The prevalence of bacterial prostatitis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients increased from 3 per cent in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients to 14 per cent in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:2643725

Leport, C; Rousseau, F; Perronne, C; Salmon, D; Joerg, A; Vilde, J L

1989-02-01

191

Human Oral Isolate Lactobacillus fermentum AGR1487 Reduces Intestinal Barrier Integrity by Increasing the Turnover of Microtubules in Caco-2 Cells  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus fermentum is found in fermented foods and thought to be harmless. In vivo and clinical studies indicate that some L. fermentum strains have beneficial properties, particularly for gastrointestinal health. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of intestinal barrier integrity. The hypothesis was that L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases the expression of intestinal cell tight junction genes and proteins, thereby reducing barrier integrity. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Caco-2 cells (model of human intestinal epithelial cells) treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 were used to obtain a global view of the effect of the bacterium on intestinal epithelial cells. Specific functional characteristics by which L. fermentum AGR1487 reduces intestinal barrier integrity were examined using confocal microscopy, cell cycle progression and adherence bioassays. The effects of TEER-enhancing L. fermentum AGR1485 were investigated for comparison. L. fermentum AGR1487 did not alter the expression of Caco-2 cell tight junction genes (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485) and tight junction proteins were not able to be detected. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 increased the expression levels of seven tubulin genes and the abundance of three microtubule-associated proteins, which have been linked to tight junction disassembly. Additionally, Caco-2 cells treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 did not have defined and uniform borders of zona occludens 2 around each cell, unlike control or AGR1485 treated cells. L. fermentum AGR1487 cells were required for the negative effect on barrier integrity (bacterial supernatant did not cause a decrease in TEER), suggesting that a physical interaction may be necessary. Increased adherence of L. fermentum AGR1487 to Caco-2 cells (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485) was likely to facilitate this cell-to-cell interaction. These findings illustrate that bacterial strains of the same species can cause contrasting host responses and suggest that food-safe status should be given to individual strains not species. PMID:24244356

Anderson, Rachel C.; Young, Wayne; Clerens, Stefan; Cookson, Adrian L.; McCann, Mark J.; Armstrong, Kelly M.; Roy, Nicole C.

2013-01-01

192

Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes.  

PubMed

Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC(50)) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and < 10 µM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and 2.8, 4.3, and < 10 µM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. PMID:20717876

Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N; Brantley, Scott J; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H

2011-02-01

193

Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4?h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6?h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods.

Lodemann, Ulrike; Strahlendorf, Julia; Schierack, Peter; Klingspor, Shanti; Aschenbach, Jörg R.

2015-01-01

194

Chemical form of selenium affects its uptake, transport and glutathione peroxidase activity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Determining the effect of selenium (Se) chemical form on uptake and transport in human intestinal cells is critical to assess Se bioavailability. In the present study, we measured the uptake and transport of various Se compounds in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. We found that two sources...

195

Bacterial Enteritides of Poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteric bacterial infections in poultry pose a threat to intestinal health and can contribute to poor feed efficiency and livability of a flock. A variety of enteric bacterial diseases are recognized in poultry. Three of these bacterial diseases, necrotic enteritis, ulcerative enteritis, and spirochetosis, primarily infect the intestine, whereas other bacterial diseases, such as salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycobacteriosis, erysipelas, and fowl

ROBERT E. PORTER

196

Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine. PMID:18681965

Troost, Freddy J; van Baarlen, Peter; Lindsey, Patrick; Kodde, Andrea; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert-Jan M

2008-01-01

197

Construction and Identification of Bacterial Plasmids Containing Nucleotide Sequence for Human Leukocyte Interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial plasmids containing human leukocyte interferon sequences were constructed and identified. Identification was confirmed by correspondence of the nucleotide sequence with our amino acid sequence of human leukocyte interferon. The finding of bacterial recombinants containing distinct leukocyte interferon sequences is consistent with our purification of different leukocyte interferon species. We conclude that what has been designated human leukocyte interferon is,

Shuichiro Maeda; Russell McCandliss; Mitchell Gross; Alan Sloma; Philip C. Familletti; John M. Tabor; Marian Evinger; Warren P. Levy; Sidney Pestka

1980-01-01

198

Involvement of the Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Plasmid-Encoded Toxin in Causing Human Intestinal Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strains have been shown to adhere to human intestinal tissue in an in vitro organ culture (IVOC) model, and certain strains manifest mucosal toxicity. We have recently described the EAEC plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet), a member of a specific serine protease subclass of the autotransporter proteins. When injected into rat ileal loops, Pet both elicited fluid accumulation

IAN R. HENDERSON; SUSAN HICKS; FERNANDO NAVARRO-GARCIA; WALDIR P. ELIAS; ALAN D. PHILIPS; JAMES P. NATARO

1999-01-01

199

Differential expression of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist isoforms in human intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Regulatory cytokines mediate intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) participation in mucosal immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of secretory and intracellular isoforms of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in human primary IECs and carcinoma-derived cell lines. Methods: Primary IECs were isolated from patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis and from normal

Ulrich Böcker; Aderson Damião; Lisa Holt; Dong Soo Han; Christian Jobin; Asit Panja; Lloyd Mayer; R. Balfour Sartor

1998-01-01

200

Human crypt intestinal epithelial cells are capable of lipid production, apolipoprotein synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent availability of spontaneously prolifer- ating, non-transformed human crypt intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC) affords an opportunity to investigate lipid me- tabolism in undifferentiated enterocytes. The major pur- pose of this study was to explore the capability of undiffer- entiated crypt cells to synthesize, assemble, and secrete lipids and apolipoproteins. HIEC were cultured in medium with 5% fetal bovine serum

Emile Levy; Jean-François Beaulieu; Edgard Delvin; Ernest Seidman; Wagner Yotov; Jean-René Basque; Daniel Ménard

201

Evidence of native starch degradation with human small intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (recombinant)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Action of human small intestinal brush border carbohydrate digesting enzymes is thought to involve only final hydrolysis reactions of oligosaccharides to monosaccharides. In vitro starch digestibility assays use fungal amyloglucosidase to provide this function. In this study, recombinant N-terminal ...

202

tion. Human or mouse intestinal epithelial cells that express the poly-Ig receptor were  

E-print Network

tion. Human or mouse intestinal epithelial cells that express the poly-Ig receptor were co-cultivated with hybridoma or myeloma cells that produce dimeric IgA antibodies. The monolayers were subsequently exposed could then be analyzed. To facilitate the genera- tion of monoclonal IgA antibodies, a novel strategy

Boyer, Edmond

203

Short chain fatty acids in human large intestine, portal, hepatic and venous blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for the occurrence of microbial breakdown of carbohydrate in the human colon has been sought by measuring short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the contents of all regions of the large intestine and in portal, hepatic and peripheral venous blood obtained at autopsy of sudden death victims within four hours of death. Total SCFA concentration (mmol\\/kg) was low

J H Cummings; E W Pomare; W J Branch; C P Naylor; G T Macfarlane

1987-01-01

204

Two-dimensional gel proteome reference map of human small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The small intestine is an important human organ that plays a central role in many physiological functions including digestion, absorption, secretion and defense. Duodenal pathologies include, for instance, the ulcer associated to Helicobacter Pylori infection, adenoma and, in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease. Alterations in the bowel reduce its capability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Anemia and

Maria Paola Simula; Renato Cannizzaro; Maria Dolores Marin; Alessandro Pavan; Giuseppe Toffoli; Vincenzo Canzonieri; Valli De Re

2009-01-01

205

Functional Genomic Studies of the Intestinal Response to a Foodborne Enteropathogen in a Humanized Gnotobiotic  

E-print Network

Functional Genomic Studies of the Intestinal Response to a Foodborne Enteropathogen in a Humanized University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63108 and the § Bacteria Cell Interactions Unit, Institut by a complex community of tril- lions of microorganisms representing all three known domains of life: Bacteria

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

206

Adaptive function of soil consumption: an in vitro study modeling the human stomach and small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite occurring in a wide variety of taxa, deliberate soil consumption (geophagy) is a poorly understood behavior. In humans, geophagy is sometimes considered aberrant or a sign of metabolic dysfunction. However, geophagy is normally assigned an adaptive function in nonhuman primates and various other organisms. One hypothesis submits that clay-rich soil adsorbs intestinal insults, namely plant metabolites or diarrhoea-causing enterotoxins.

Nathaniel J. Dominy; Estelle Davoust; Mans Minekus

2004-01-01

207

Human Intestinal Lumen and Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Patients with Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have suggested the involvement of gut microbiota in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We utilized pyrosequencing based analysis of 16S rRNA genes to determine the overall structure of microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls; we investigated microbiota of the intestinal lumen, the cancerous tissue and matched noncancerous normal tissue. Moreover, we investigated the mucosa-adherent microbial composition using rectal swab samples because the structure of the tissue-adherent bacterial community is potentially altered following bowel cleansing. Our findings indicated that the microbial structure of the intestinal lumen and cancerous tissue differed significantly. Phylotypes that enhance energy harvest from diets or perform metabolic exchange with the host were more abundant in the lumen. There were more abundant Firmicutes and less abundant Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in lumen. The overall microbial structures of cancerous tissue and noncancerous tissue were similar; howerer the tumor microbiota exhibited lower diversity. The structures of the intestinal lumen microbiota and mucosa-adherent microbiota were different in CRC patients compared to matched microbiota in healthy individuals. Lactobacillales was enriched in cancerous tissue, whereas Faecalibacterium was reduced. In the mucosa-adherent microbiota, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, and Blautia were reduced in CRC patients, whereas Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus, and Mogibacterium were enriched. In the lumen, predominant phylotypes related to metabolic disorders or metabolic exchange with the host, Erysipelotrichaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were increased in cancer patients. Coupled with previous reports, these results suggest that the intestinal microbiota is associated with CRC risk and that intestinal lumen microflora potentially influence CRC risk via cometabolism or metabolic exchange with the host. However, mucosa-associated microbiota potentially affects CRC risk primarily through direct interaction with the host. PMID:22761885

Ling, Zongxin; Tong, Xiaojuan; Xiang, Charlie

2012-01-01

208

Th2 Cytokines Down-Regulate TLR Expression and Function in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

TLRs serve important immune and nonimmune functions in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Proinflammatory Th1 cytokines have been shown to promote TLR expression and function in IECs, but the effect of key Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) on TLR signaling in IECs has not been elucidated so far. We stimulated human model IECs with Th2 cytokines and examined TLR mRNA

Tobias Mueller; Tomohiro Terada; Ian M. Rosenberg; Oren Shibolet; Daniel K. Podolsky

209

Intestinal Drug Transporter Expression and the Impact of Grapefruit Juice in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to assess the extent of human intestinal drug transporter expression, determine the subcellular localization of the drug uptake transporter OATP1A2, and then to assess the effect of grapefruit juice consumption on OATP1A2 expression relative to cytochrome P450 3A4 and MDR1. Expression of drug uptake and efflux transporters was assessed using human duodenal biopsy samples.

H Glaeser; D G Bailey; G K Dresser; J C Gregor; U I Schwarz; J S McGrath; E Jolicoeur; W Lee; B F Leake; R G Tirona; R B Kim

2007-01-01

210

The multi-herbal drug STW 5 (Iberogast) has prosecretory action in the human intestine.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that STW 5 (Iberogast), fixed combination of hydroethanolic herbal extracts), besides being effective in functional dyspepsia, also improves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical data indicate that modulation of mucosal secretion is a promising approach to treat intestinal disorders associated with IBS. We therefore explored the effect of STW 5 on secretion in the human intestine and the mechanisms by which it acts. The Ussing chamber technique was used to measure mucosal secretion in human intestinal mucosa/submucosa preparations and in human epithelial cell line T84. In addition, we recorded STW 5 effects on human enteric neurons with voltage sensitive dye imaging. In human tissue and T84 cells STW 5 induced a dose-dependent increase in ion secretion that was significantly reduced by the Na-K-Cl cotransporter blocker bumetanide, the adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL-12 330, the non-specific and selective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitors glibenclamide and CFTR(inh)-172, respectively, and the blocker of calcium dependent Cl(-) channels (ClCa) SITS (4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulphonic acid). It was unaffected by amiloride, a blocker of epithelial Na(+) channels. In human tissue, the nerve blocker tetrodotoxin significantly suppressed the STW 5 response. STW 5 evoked an increased spike discharge in 51% of human submucous neurons. Results suggest that STW 5 is a secretogogue in the human intestine by direct epithelial actions and through activation of enteric neurons. The prosecretory effect is due to increased epithelial Cl(-) fluxes via CFTR and Ca-dependent ClCa channels. STW 5 may be a novel option to treat secretory disorders associated with IBS and constipation. PMID:19210628

Krueger, D; Gruber, L; Buhner, S; Zeller, F; Langer, R; Seidl, S; Michel, K; Schemann, M

2009-11-01

211

Cytokine profiles of cultured microvascular endothelial cells from the human intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims—Cytokine production by endothelial cells has, for practical reasons, been chiefly studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) but, because tissue-specific differences apparently exist, the role of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) as a source of mucosal cytokines was also assessed.Methods—The expression of cytokine transcripts in HIMEC was screened by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain

E M Nilsen; F-E Johansen; F L Jahnsen; K E A Lundin; T Scholz; P Brandtzaeg; G Haraldsen

1998-01-01

212

Effect of liquiritin on human intestinal bacteria growth: metabolism and modulation.  

PubMed

Licorice is one of the oldest and most frequently used prescribed traditional Chimese medicines. However, the route and metabolites of liquiritin by human intestinal microflora are not well understood and its metabolites may accumulate to exert physiological effects. Therefore, our objective was to screen the ability of the bacteria to metabolize liquiritin and assess the effect of this compound on the intestinal bacteria. Finally, six strains, comprising Bacteroides sp. 22 and sp.57, Veillonella sp. 31 and sp.48, Bacillus sp. 46 and Clostridium sp. 51, were isolated and their abilities to convert liquiritin studied. A total of five metabolites were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in human incubated solution. The results indicated that hydrolysis, hydrogenation, methylation, deoxygenation and acetylation were the major routes of metabolism of liquiritin. On the other hand, effect of liquiritin on different strains of intestinal bacteria growth was detected using an Emax precision microplate reader. Growth of certain pathogenic bacteria, such as Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides, was significantly repressed by liquiritin, while growth of commensal probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium was less severely affected. Our observation provided further evidence for the importance of intestinal bacteria in the metabolism, and the potential activity of liquiritin in human health and disease. PMID:24616071

Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Shu; Qian, Dawei; Shang, Er-xin; Duan, Jin-ao

2014-09-01

213

Radioimmunoassay of human intestinal goblet cell mucin. Investigation of mucus from different organs and species.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the quantitative measurement of human goblet cell mucin (GCM) in order to study intestinal mucus in human and other species. The assay used 3H-labeled mucin as the antigen, rabbit antisera, and sheep anti-rabbit IgG antisera as the second antibody. A number of applications of the assay were investigated. A survey of human tissues revealed that mucins of the rectum, colon, and small intestine had identical affinity for the rabbit antibody, whereas lung eyelid conjunctiva, esophagus, and stomach reacted less strongly. GCM concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14 microgram mucin protein/mg tissue protein in the small and large intestine, respectively. The radioimmunoassay was also found to be useful as a marker during the isolation of GCM from human ileal extracts, where it indicated that a 10,000-fold purification had been achieved. Antigenic determinants of the mucin did not rely upon ABH blood group-specific terminal sugars in oligosaccharide chains. A comparison of mucins among various species revealed a partial species specificity of the GCM antibody. Human GCM cross-reacted with dog, monkey, and rabbit mucins, but not with mucins of rat, pig, toad, and oyster. Organ distributions of cross-reactive mucins in rabbit tissues indicated a pattern that was qualitatively similar to that seen in human tissues. Possible implications of these findings for autoimmune diseases are briefly discussed. PMID:115900

Qureshi, R; Forstner, G G; Forstner, J F

1979-01-01

214

Human milk oligosaccharides influence maturation of human intestinal Caco-2Bbe and HT-29 cell lines.  

PubMed

Stimulation of gastrointestinal tract maturation is 1 of the many benefits of human milk. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundant in human milk and are reported to promote enterocyte differentiation in vitro. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of 3 predominant HMOs on multiple aspects of enterocyte maturation in vitro. Ranging from crypt-like to differentiated enterocytes, we used the well-characterized intestinal cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe to model early and late stages of differentiation, respectively. With this model of the crypt-villus axis made up of preconfluent HT-29, preconfluent Caco-2Bbe, and postconfluent Caco-2Bbe cultures, we characterized the impact of lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), and 6'-sialyllactose on epithelial cell kinetics and function. All 3 HMOs dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in undifferentiated HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe cultures (P < 0.05). In contrast to previous reports, only treatment with 2'FL at concentrations similar to human milk increased alkaline phosphatase activity by 31% (P = 0.044) in HT-29 cultures and increased sucrase activity by 54% (P = 0.005) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cultures. LNnT at concentrations similar to that reported for human milk increased transepithelial resistance by 21% (P = 0.002) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cells. In summary, all 3 HMOs reduced cell proliferation in an epithelial cell model of the crypt-villus axis. However, effects on differentiation, digestive function, and epithelial barrier function differed between the HMOs tested. These results suggest differential roles for specific HMOs in maturation of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24572036

Holscher, Hannah D; Davis, Steven R; Tappenden, Kelly A

2014-05-01

215

Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lsw@amc.seoul.kr; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-07-15

216

Human small intestinal epithelial cells differentiated from adult intestinal stem cells as a novel system for predicting oral drug absorption in humans.  

PubMed

Adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs) possess both a long-term proliferation ability and differentiation capability into enterocytes. As a novel in vitro system for the evaluation of drug absorption, we characterized a human small intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) monolayer that differentiated from adult ISCs. Continuous proliferation/differentiation from ISCs consistently conferred the capability of maturation of enterocytes to HIECs over 25 passages. The morphologically matured HIEC monolayer consisted of polarized columnar epithelia with dense microvilli, tight junctions, and desmosomes 8 days after seeding onto culture inserts. Transepithelial electrical resistance across the monolayer was 9-fold lower in HIECs (98.9 ? × cm(2)) than in Caco-2 cells (900 ? × cm(2)), which indicated that the looseness of the tight junctions in the HIEC monolayer was similar to that in the human small intestine (approximately 40 ? × cm(2)). No significant differences were observed in the overall gene expression patterns of the major drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters between the HIEC and Caco-2 cell monolayers. Furthermore, the functions of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein in the HIEC monolayer were confirmed by the vectorial transport of marker substrates and their disappearance in the presence of specific inhibitors. The apparent drug permeability values of paracellularly transported compounds (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000, atenolol, and terbutaline) and nucleoside transporter substrates (didanosine, ribavirin, and doxifluridine) in the HIEC monolayer were markedly higher than those of Caco-2 cells, whereas transcellularly transported drugs (pindolol and midazolam) were equally well permeated. In conclusion, the HIEC monolayer can serve as a novel and superior alternative to the conventional Caco-2 cell monolayer for predicting oral absorption in humans. PMID:25200868

Takenaka, Toru; Harada, Naomoto; Kuze, Jiro; Chiba, Masato; Iwao, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Tamihide

2014-11-01

217

In vivo gene expression profiling of human intestinal epithelial cells: analysis by laser microdissection of formalin fixed tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The small intestinal epithelium mediates vital functions of nutrient absorption and host defense. The spatial organization of the epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis segregates them into regions of specialized function. However, the differences in transcriptional programming and the molecular machinery that governs the migration, adhesion, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cell lineages in humans remain under-explored. To increase

Michael D George; Jan Wehkamp; Robert J Kays; Christian M Leutenegger; Sadiah Sabir; Irina Grishina; Satya Dandekar; Charles L Bevins

2008-01-01

218

Electromagnetic radiation from ingested sources in the human intestine between 150 MHz and 1.2 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional method of diagnosing disorders of the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is by sensors embedded in cannulae that are inserted through the anus, mouth, or nose. However, these cannulae cause significant patient discomfort and cannot be used in the small intestine. As a result, there is considerable ongoing work in developing wireless sensors that can be used in the

Lawrence C. Chirwa; Paul A. Hammond; Scott Roy; David R. S. Cumming

2003-01-01

219

Characterization of Butyrate Uptake by Nontransformed Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyrate (BT) is one of the main end products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the human colon.\\u000a Among its recognized effects, BT inhibits colon carcinogenesis. Our aim was to characterize uptake of BT by two nontransformed\\u000a intestinal epithelial cell lines: rat small intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) and fetal human colonic epithelial (FHC) cells.\\u000a Uptake of 14C-BT by IEC-6

Pedro GoncalvesJoao; João R. Araújo; Fátima Martel

2011-01-01

220

Surface expression, polarization, and functional significance of CD73 in human intestinal epithelia.  

PubMed Central

During active intestinal inflammation polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) transmigrate into the lumen and release 5'-AMP (J. Clin. Invest. 1993. 91:2320-2325). 5'-AMP is converted to adenosine by the apical epithelial surface with subsequent activation of electrogenic Cl- secretion (the basis of secretory diarrhea) via apical A2b adenosine receptors (J. Biol. Chem. 1995. 270:2387-2394). Using a polarized human intestinal epithelial monolayer (T84), we now characterize the basis of the observed conversion of 5'-AMP to adenosine required for this paracrine signaling pathway. An inhibitor of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase CD73, alpha, beta-methylene ADP (AOPCP), inhibited epithelial Cl- secretory responses to 5'-AMP, but not to authentic adenosine. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy revealed CD73 to be surface expressed on both model and natural human intestinal epithelia. Expression was about sixfold greater on the apical cell surface as assessed biochemically by selective cell surface biotinylation, and morphologically by immunofluorescence. Treatment with phosphotidylinositol specific-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released 95% of apical CD73, indicating that the intestinal CD73 possesses a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Neither adenosine nor 5'-AMP stimulation induced intact T84 cells to shed surface CD73. The bulk of apical CD73 ( approximately 60%) was released from the cell surface by treatment with 1% Triton X-100 (TX-100) at 4 degrees C, but such release was not affected by pretreatment with ligand or by prior, antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD73. Subsequent analyses showed that the subpool of CD73 released by TX-100 at 4 degrees C was not truly solubilized, but rather represented TX-100-induced release of CD73-containing membrane fragments. These membrane fragments displayed light density on sucrose gradients characteristic of detergent insoluble glycosphingolipid-rich membrane domains (DIGs)/ caveolae, were solubilized by n-octyl glucoside (NOG, 1%) at 4 degrees C, and contained caveolin. These data indicate that human intestinal epithelia express CD73, which is apically polarized and targeted to microdomains with DIGs/caveolae characteristics. CD73 likely participates in translating paracrine, PMN-derived 5'-AMP signals to the authentic effector adenosine. These studies define CD73 as central to PMN-mediated intestinal Cl- secretion, the major directacting mechanism by which PMN induce intestinal epithelial Cl- secretion. PMID:9169488

Strohmeier, G R; Lencer, W I; Patapoff, T W; Thompson, L F; Carlson, S L; Moe, S J; Carnes, D K; Mrsny, R J; Madara, J L

1997-01-01

221

Safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing human serum albumin from urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profile.  

PubMed

The genetically modified (GM) rice expressing human serum albumin (HSA) is used for non-food purposes; however, its food safety assessment should be conducted due to the probability of accidental mixture with conventional food. In this research, Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing 50% (wt/wt) GM rice expressing HSA or non-GM rice for 90 days. Urine metabolites were detected by (1)H NMR to examine the changes of the metabolites in the dynamic process of metabolism. Fecal bacterial profiles were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to reflect intestinal health. Additionally, short chain fatty acids and fecal enzymes were investigated. The results showed that compared with rats fed the non-GM rice, some significant differences were observed in rats fed with the GM rice; however, these changes were not significantly different from the control diet group. Additionally, the gut microbiota was associated with blood indexes and urine metabolites. In conclusion, the GM rice diet is as safe as the traditional daily diet. Furthermore, urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profiles provide a non-invasive food safety assessment rat model for genetically modified crops that are used for non-food/feed purposes. Fecal bacterial profiles have the potential for predicting the change of blood indexes in future. PMID:25478734

Qi, Xiaozhe; Chen, Siyuan; Sheng, Yao; Guo, Mingzhang; Liu, Yifei; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

2015-02-01

222

Type I Collagen as an Extracellular Matrix for the In Vitro Growth of Human Small Intestinal Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background We previously reported in vitro maintenance and proliferation of human small intestinal epithelium using Matrigel, a proprietary basement membrane product. There are concerns over the applicability of Matrigel-based methods for future human therapies. We investigated type I collagen as an alternative for the culture of human intestinal epithelial cells. Methods Human small intestine was procured from fresh surgical pathology specimens. Small intestinal crypts were isolated using EDTA chelation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts were isolated from a pediatric sample and expanded in vitro. After suspension in Matrigel or type I collagen gel, crypts were co-cultured above a confluent layer of myofibroblasts. Crypts were also grown in monoculture with exposure to myofibroblast conditioned media; these were subsequently sub-cultured in vitro and expanded with a 1?2 split ratio. Cultures were assessed with light microscopy, RT-PCR, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Results Collagen supported viable human epithelium in vitro for at least one month in primary culture. Sub-cultured epithelium expanded through 12 passages over 60 days. Histologic sections revealed polarized columnar cells, with apical brush borders and basolaterally located nuclei. Collagen-based cultures gave rise to monolayer epithelial sheets at the gel-liquid interface, which were not observed with Matrigel. Immunohistochemical staining identified markers of differentiated intestinal epithelium and myofibroblasts. RT-PCR demonstrated expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and vimentin in myofibroblasts and E-Cadherin, CDX2, villin 1, intestinal alkaline phosphatase, chromogranin A, lysozyme, and Lgr5 in epithelial cells. These markers were maintained through several passages. Conclusion Type I collagen gel supports long-term in vitro maintenance and expansion of fully elaborated human intestinal epithelium. Collagen-based methods yield familiar enteroid structures as well as a new pattern of sheet-like growth, and they eliminate the need for Matrigel for in vitro human intestinal epithelial growth. Future research is required to further develop this cell culture system for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25222024

Jabaji, Ziyad; Brinkley, Garrett J.; Khalil, Hassan A.; Sears, Connie M.; Lei, Nan Ye; Lewis, Michael; Stelzner, Matthias; Martín, Martín G.; Dunn, James C. Y.

2014-01-01

223

Bacterial expression and kinetic characterization of the human monoamine-sulfating form of phenol sulfotransferase.  

PubMed

The cDNA for the human monoamine-sulfating form of phenol sulfotransferase (hM-PST) was isolated from a T47D human breast carcinoma lambda gt10 cDNA library, and the active enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli. Expressed hM-PST was very similar to the brain, intestinal, and platelet forms of the enzyme in its physical, immunological, and kinetic properties. The ability of hM-PST to sulfate a number of xenobiotics was examined and compared with the bacterially expressed human phenol-sulfating form of PST (hP-PST). The translation product of the T47D hM-PST cDNA was 92% identical to that of liver hP-PST. Monoamine neurotransmittors, such as epinephrine and dopamine, were maximally conjugated at lower concentrations by expressed hM-PST (2 and 20 microM, respectively) than by hP-PST (1 and 1 mM, respectively). In contrast, simple phenols--such as p-nitrophenol, acetaminophen, and alpha-naphthol--were maximally conjugated at lower concentrations (4 microM, 20 microM, and 0.5 microM, respectively) by hP-PST than by hM-PST (1 mM, 1.5 mM, and 50 microM, respectively). Minoxidil was sulfated at similar rates and concentrations (7 mM) by both forms of PST. None of the estrogens or related compounds, such as beta-estradiol, 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, diethylstilbestrol, equilenin, or genistein tested as substrates were sulfated by hM-PST; however, all of these compounds were substrates for hP-PST. As with hP-PST, the hydroxysteroids dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol were not sulfated by hM-PST.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8565785

Ganguly, T C; Krasnykh, V; Falany, C N

1995-09-01

224

Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases  

SciTech Connect

Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are {approx} 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts ({approx} 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected. Together, these results demonstrate that extrahepatic esterolytic metabolism of specific pyrethroids may be significant. Moreover, hepatic cytosolic and microsomal hydrolytic metabolism should each be considered during the development of pharmacokinetic models that predict the disposition of pyrethroids and other esterified compounds.

Crow, J. Allen [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 6100 Mississippi State, MS 39762-6100 (United States); Borazjani, Abdolsamad [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 6100 Mississippi State, MS 39762-6100 (United States); Potter, Philip M. [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Ross, Matthew K. [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 6100 Mississippi State, MS 39762-6100 (United States)]. E-mail: mross@cvm.msstate.edu

2007-05-15

225

Pathogenicity of human and porcine intestinal spirochetes in one-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks: an animal model of intestinal spirochetosis.  

PubMed Central

One-day-old chicks were infected orally with two strains of weakly hemolytic spirochetes isolated from a human and a pig with intestinal spirochetosis. These spirochetosis both colonized birds, attached end-on to their cecal enterocytes, induced watery diarrhea, and significantly depressed growth rates. Cultures of Serpulina innocens failed to colonize the chicks. PMID:7642310

Trott, D J; McLaren, A J; Hampson, D J

1995-01-01

226

Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Activates CD57-Negative Human NK Cells.  

PubMed

NK cells play an important regulatory role in sepsis by induction and augmentation of proinflammatory reactions in early stages of the septic process and by suppression of immune response in later stages of inflammation. The present work was aimed at the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the main pathogenic factor of sepsis development, on human NK cells ex vivo. We show that LPS activates immature CD57-negative NK cells, which typically constitute less than half of the normal NK cell population in human peripheral blood. Under conditions of NK cell stimulation with IL-2, addition of LPS provokes an increase in IFN-? production. However, LPS both increased and inhibited NK cell cytotoxic activity. It is important to note that the activation of NK cells on LPS addition was observed in the absence of TLR4 on the NK cell surface. These results confirm our previous data arguing for a direct interaction of LPS with NK cells and evidence an atypical mechanism of LPS-induced NK cell activation without the involvement of surface TLR4. PMID:25716727

Kanevskiy, L M; Erokhina, S A; Streltsova, M A; Telford, W G; Sapozhnikov, A M; Kovalenko, E I

2014-12-01

227

Generation of L-cells in mouse and human small intestine organoids  

PubMed Central

Upon a nutrient challenge, L-cells produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a powerful stimulant of insulin release. Strategies to augment endogenous GLP-1 production include promoting L-cell differentiation and increasing L-cell number. Here we present a novel in vitro platform to generate functional L-cells from 3D cultures of mouse and human intestinal crypts. We show that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) selectively increase the number of L-cells resulting in an elevation of GLP-1 release. This is accompanied by up-regulation of transcription factors, associated with the endocrine lineage of intestinal stem cell development. Thus, our platform allows us to study and modulate the development of L-cells in mouse and human crypts as a potential basis for novel therapeutic strategies in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24130334

Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; Bartfeld, Sina; Farin, Henner F.; Ringnalda, Femke C.; Vries, Robert G. J.; van den Brink, Stieneke; Clevers, Hans; Gribble, Fiona M.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.

2015-01-01

228

Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells  

PubMed Central

Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

2012-01-01

229

Transglutaminase 2 expression is enhanced synergistically by interferon-? and tumour necrosis factor-? in human small intestine.  

PubMed

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is expressed ubiquitously, has multiple physiological functions and has also been associated with inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmunity and cancer. In particular, TG2 is expressed in small intestine mucosa where it is up-regulated in active coeliac disease (CD). The aim of this work was to investigate the induction of TG2 expression by proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-? and IL-15] and the signalling pathways involved, in human epithelial and monocytic cells and in intestinal tissue from controls and untreated CD patients. Here we report that IFN-? was the most potent inducer of TG2 expression in the small intestinal mucosa and in four [Caco-2, HT-29, Calu-6 and human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1)] of five cell lines tested. The combination of TNF-? and IFN-? produced a strong synergistic effect. The use of selective inhibitors of signalling pathways revealed that induction of TG2 by IFN-? was mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), while c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were required for TNF-? activation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry and Western blot analysis showed that TG2 expression was blocked completely when stimulation by either TNF-? or IFN-? was performed in the presence of nuclear factor (NF)-?B inhibitors (sulphasalazine and BAY-117082). TG2 was up-regulated substantially by TNF-? and IFN-? in intestinal mucosa in untreated CD compared with controls. This study shows that IFN-?, a dominant cytokine in intestinal mucosa in active CD, is the most potent inducer of TG2, and synergism with TNF-? may contribute to exacerbate the pathogenic mechanism of CD. Selective inhibition of signalling pathways may be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22385244

Bayardo, M; Punzi, F; Bondar, C; Chopita, N; Chirdo, F

2012-04-01

230

Biorelevant media resistant co-culture model mimicking permeability of human intestine.  

PubMed

Cell culture models are currently used to predict absorption pattern of new compounds and formulations in the human gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). One major drawback is the lack of relevant apical incubation fluids allowing mimicking luminal conditions in the GIT. Here, we suggest a culture model compatible with biorelevant media, namely Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FaSSIF) and Fed State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF). Co-culture was set up from Caco-2 and mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells using an original seeding procedure. Viability and cytotoxicity assays were performed following incubation of FeSSIF and FaSSIF with co-culture. Influence of biorelevant fluids on paracellular permeability or transporter proteins were also evaluated. Results were compared with Caco-2 and HT29-MTX monocultures. While Caco-2 viability was strongly affected with FeSSIF, no toxic effect was detected for the co-cultures in terms of viability and lactate dehydrogenase release. The addition of FeSSIF to the basolateral compartment of the co-culture induced cytotoxic effects which suggested the apical mucus barrier being cell protective. In contrast to FeSSIF, FaSSIF induced a slight increase of the paracellular transport and both tested media inhibited partially the P-gp-mediated efflux in the co-culture. Additionally, the absorptive transport of propranolol hydrochloride, a lipophilic ?-blocker, was strongly affected by biorelevant fluids. This study demonstrated the compatibility of the Caco-2/HT29-MTX model with some of the current biorelevant media. Combining biorelevant intestinal fluids with features such as mucus secretion, adjustable paracellular and P-gp mediated transports, is a step forward to more realistic in-vitro models of the human intestine. PMID:25601199

Antoine, Delphine; Pellequer, Yann; Tempesta, Camille; Lorscheidt, Stefan; Kettel, Bernadette; Tamaddon, Lana; Jannin, Vincent; Demarne, Frédéric; Lamprecht, Alf; Béduneau, Arnaud

2015-03-15

231

Hot Spices Influence Permeability of Human Intestinal Epithelial Monolayers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect evidence suggests that hot spices may interact with epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract to modulate their transport properties. Using HCT-8 cells, a cell line from a human ileocoecal carcinoma, we studied the effects of spices on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), permeability for fluorescein isothiocya- nate (FITC)-labeled dextrans with graded molecular weight, and morphological alterations of tight junctions by

Erika Jensen-Jarolim; Leszek Gajdzik; Ines Haberl; Dietrich Kraft; Otto Scheiner; Jurg Graf

232

Metabolism of liriodendrin and syringin by human intestinal bacteria and their relation to in vitro cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When liriodendrin or syringin was incubated for 24 h with human intestinal bacteria, two metabolites, (+)-syringaresinol-?-d-glucopyranoside and (+)-syringaresinol, from liriodendrin and one metabolite, synapyl alcohol, from syringin were produced.\\u000a The metabolic time course of liriodendrin was as follows: at early time, liriodendrin was converted to (+)-syringaresinol-?-d-glucopyranoside, and then (+)-syringaresinol. Thein vitro cytotoxicities of these metabolites, (+)-syringaresinol and synapyl alcohol, were

Dong-Hyun Kim; Kyung Tae Lee; Eun-Ah Bae; Myung Joo Han; Hee-Juhn Park

1999-01-01

233

Human intestinal epithelial cells promote the differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:In mice, a subpopulation of gut dendritic cells (DCs) expressing CD103 drives the development of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Further, it was recently described that the cross-talk between human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and DCs helps in maintaining gut immune homeostasis via the induction of non-inflammatory DCs. In this study, an analysis was carried out to determine whether IECs could

I D Iliev; I Spadoni; E Mileti; G Matteoli; A Sonzogni; G M Sampietro; D Foschi; F Caprioli; G Viale; M Rescigno

2009-01-01

234

Relationship between tenascin and ?-smooth muscle actin expression in the developing human small intestinal mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of tenascin (Tn) and a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) was analyzed in the developing and adult human small intestine by means of double immunofluorescent staining with specific antibodies. By 7 weeks of gestation, the gut anlage has a simple tubular shape and is formed of a stratified undifferentiated epithelium surrounded by a poorly organized mesenchyme. Both Tn and a-SMA

Jean-François Beaulieu; Sophie Jutras; Josée Durand; Pierre H. Vachon; Nathalie Perreault

1993-01-01

235

Effects of Nonpathogenic Bacteria on Cytokine Secretion by Human Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The human intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, and the mucosa is the interface between the immune system and the luminal environment. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether host–bacteria interactions influence mucosal cytokine production.METHODS:Macroscopically normal colonic specimens were obtained at surgery from eight patients with neoplasm, and inflamed ileal specimens were obtained from two patients with Crohn's

Natalia Borruel; Francesc Casellas; María Antolín; Marta Llopis; Monica Carol; Eloy Espíin; Javier Naval; Francisco Guarner; Juan R. Malagelada

2003-01-01

236

Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1  

PubMed Central

The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration–time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E.

2014-01-01

237

Paneth cell granule depletion in the human small intestine under infective and nutritional stress.  

PubMed

Paneth cells are important contributors to the intestinal antimicrobial barrier through synthesis and release of antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Animal studies indicate that Paneth cell numbers, location and granule morphology are altered by infection and zinc status. We examined human tissue to determine whether Paneth cell numbers, distribution or granule morphology are altered in infective, inflammatory and nutritional disorders. Archival sections from infective disorders (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, HIV, helminth infection) were compared with active inflammatory conditions (coeliac, Crohn's and graft-versus-host diseases) and histologically normal tissues. A subset of tissues was studied by electron microscopy and TUNEL staining for apoptosis. Human defensin-5 (HD5) peptide and mRNA was analysed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sections from a tropical population cohort study were then analysed to determine the relationship of granule depletion to infection, nutritional status and plasma zinc concentration. In HIV-related cryptosporidiosis, but not other disorders, Paneth cells were reduced in number and markedly depleted of granules. Paneth cell granule depletion was associated with reduced HD5 immunoreactivity, but this was not due to apoptosis and there was no reduction in mRNA transcripts. In the tropical population studied, depletion of granules was associated with reduced body mass index, reduced plasma zinc levels and HIV infection. Paneth cell granules in human small intestine may be depleted in response to infective and nutritional stress. We postulate that this is one mechanism through which zinc status influences host susceptibility to intestinal infection. PMID:14738460

Kelly, P; Feakins, R; Domizio, P; Murphy, J; Bevins, C; Wilson, J; McPhail, G; Poulsom, R; Dhaliwal, W

2004-02-01

238

Evidence against T-cell development in the adult human intestinal mucosa based upon lack of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase expression.  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence indicate that a subset of murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIEL), particularly those which express the CD8 alpha alpha homodimer, mature extrathymically. This study confirms that a small fraction of adult human iIEL also express the CD8 alpha alpha homodimer and demonstrates that most of these cells in the small intestine are T cells using the alpha beta T-cell receptor (TCR). Whether these cells or other subsets of adult human iIEL mature extrathymically in the intestine was assessed by measuring the expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT), an enzyme expressed exclusively by immature lymphocytes. Very low levels of TdT message could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in some iIEL samples. The level of TdT expression was assayed by competitive PCR amplification and compared with thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes. These measurements indicated that the number of immature T cells expressing TdT in the intestinal epithelium was less than one cell per 10(7) lymphocytes. This demonstrates that there are few if any TdT expressing immature T cells in the adult human intestinal mucosa and indicates, therefore, that T-cell development in the intestinal mucosa does not contribute significantly to the T-cell repertoire of the adult human intestine. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8778025

Taplin, M E; Frantz, M E; Canning, C; Ritz, J; Blumberg, R S; Balk, S P

1996-01-01

239

Short chain fatty acid absorption by the human large intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short chain fatty acid absorption from the human rectum has been studied in 46 subjects attending an obesity clinic, using a dialysis bag technique. From a mixed electrolyte solution, acetate concentrations fell from 97.0 to 64.2 mmol\\/l, and sodium from 97.8 to 85.1 mmol\\/l with respective net absorption rates of 8.1 and 5.2 mumol\\/cm2\\/h. From a solution with mixed short

N I McNeil; J H Cummings; W P James

1978-01-01

240

Enterocyte Shedding and Epithelial Lining Repair Following Ischemia of the Human Small Intestine Attenuate Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, we observed that small-intestinal ischemia and reperfusion was found to entail a rapid loss of apoptotic and necrotic cells. This study was conducted to investigate whether the observed shedding of ischemically damaged epithelial cells affects IR induced inflammation in the human small gut. Methods and Findings Using a newly developed IR model of the human small intestine, the inflammatory response was studied on cellular, protein and mRNA level. Thirty patients were consecutively included. Part of the jejunum was subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and variable reperfusion periods (mean reperfusion time 120 (±11) minutes). Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Increased plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) levels indicated loss in epithelial cell integrity in response to ischemia and reperfusion (p<0.001 vs healthy). HIF-1? gene expression doubled (p?=?0.02) and C3 gene expression increased 4-fold (p?=?0.01) over the course of IR. Gut barrier failure, assessed as LPS concentration in small bowel venous effluent blood, was not observed (p?=?0.18). Additionally, mRNA expression of HO-1, IL-6, IL-8 did not alter. No increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, TNF? release, increased numbers of inflammatory cells (p?=?0.71) or complement activation, assessed as activated C3 (p?=?0.14), were detected in the reperfused tissue. Conclusions In the human small intestine, thirty minutes of ischemia followed by up to 4 hours of reperfusion, does not seem to lead to an explicit inflammatory response. This may be explained by a unique mechanism of shedding of damaged enterocytes, reported for the first time by our group. PMID:19753114

Matthijsen, Robert A.; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Kuipers, Dian; van Dam, Ronald M.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Buurman, Wim A.

2009-01-01

241

Mechanisms underlying modulation of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) by somatostatin in human intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Somatostatin (SST), an important neuropeptide of the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to stimulate sodium chloride absorption and inhibit chloride secretion in the intestine. However, the effects of SST on luminal butyrate absorption in the human intestine have not been investigated. Earlier studies from our group and others have shown that monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) plays an important role in the transport of butyrate in the human intestine. The present studies were undertaken to examine the effects of SST on butyrate uptake utilizing postconfluent human intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells. Apical SST treatment of Caco-2 cells for 30–60 min significantly increased butyrate uptake in a dose-dependent manner with maximal increase at 50 nM (?60%, P < 0.05). SST receptor 2 agonist, seglitide, mimicked the effects of SST on butyrate uptake. SST-mediated stimulation of butyrate uptake involved the p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. Kinetic studies demonstrated that SST increased the maximal velocity (Vmax) of the transporter by approximately twofold without any change in apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km). The higher butyrate uptake in response to SST was associated with an increase in the apical membrane levels of MCT1 protein parallel to a decrease in the intracellular MCT1 pool. MCT1 has been shown to interact specifically with CD147 glycoprotein/chaperone to facilitate proper expression and function of MCT1 at the cell surface. SST significantly enhanced the membrane levels of CD147 as well as its association with MCT1. This association was completely abolished by the specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Our findings demonstrate that increased MCT1 association with CD147 at the apical membrane in response to SST is p38 MAP kinase dependent and underlies the stimulatory effects of SST on butyrate uptake. PMID:20501436

Theegala, Saritha; Bansal, Nikhil; Gill, Ravinder K.; Tyagi, Sangeeta; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

2009-01-01

242

Autochthonous Intestinal Bacterial Flora and Cholesterol Levels in Specific Pathogen-free Swine Fed High-Lipid and High-Sucrose Diets  

PubMed Central

Graber, C. D. (Baylor University College of Medicine, Houston, Tex.). R. W. Moore, M. Suzuki, W. E. Redmond, R. M. O'Neal, and B. M. Lockhart. Autochthonous intestinal bacterial flora and cholesterol levels in specific pathogen-free swine fed high-lipid and high-sucrose diets. J. Bacteriol. 92:1290–1297. 1966.—Thirty-two specific pathogen-free (SPF) and conventional swine fed high fat, high sugar, and a standard ration were cultured for intestinal flora, and their blood cholesterol levels were measured. The diets, whether sterilized or not sterilized, fed ad libitum or restricted, did not alter bacterial flora greatly or influence blood cholesterol levels. Anaerobes outnumbered aerobes by several logs. Four autochthonous bacteria, lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and gram-variable, nonspore-forming anaerobes (GVNSA; a type of bacteroides), were shown to be constantly present in all animals regardless of dietary conditions. From the duodenum and jejunum of 14 pigs, GVNSA and Bacteroides nigrescens were cultured in rather large numbers, a finding not previously reported in swine or in most other mammals. This finding may have special significance in reference to bile acid and cholesterol metabolism. PMID:5332699

Graber, C. D.; Moore, R. W.; Suzuki, M.; Redmond, W. E.; O'Neal, R. M.; Lockhart, B. M.

1966-01-01

243

Biological role, protein expression, subcellular localization, and oxidative stress response of paraoxonase 2 in the intestine of humans and rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is a cardinal manifestation of various intestinal disorders. However, very little knowledge is available on the intestine's inherent defense mechanisms against free radicals. This study was designed to determine the protein expression, subcellular localization and oxidative stress response of paraoxonase 2 (PON2), a member of a powerful antioxidant family in human and rat intestine. Biochemical and ultrastructural experiments all showed a substantial expression of PON2 in human and rat intestine. Western blot analysis disclosed higher levels of PON2 in the jejunum than in the duodenum, ileum, and colon. Cell fractionation revealed a predominant PON2 association with microsomes and lysosomes in the human jejunum, which differed from that in rats. PON2 was detected in the intestine as early as week 15 of gestation and was significantly increased by week 20. Iron ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation induced a marked decrease in PON2 expression in intestinal specimens coincidental to an abundant rise in malondialdehyde (MDA). On the other hand, preincubation with potent antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene, Trolox, and N-acetylcysteine, prevented iron-ascorbate-generating PON2 reduction in parallel with MDA suppression. Finally, the preincubation of permeabilized Caco-2 cells with purified PON2 led to a protection against iron-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation. These observations demonstrate that the human intestine is preferentially endowed with a marked PON2 expression compared with the rat intestine and this expression shows a developmental and intracellular pattern of distribution. Furthermore, our observations suggest PON2 protective effects against prooxidant stimuli in the small intestine. PMID:17916643

Levy, Emile; Trudel, Karine; Bendayan, Moise; Seidman, Ernest; Delvin, Edgard; Elchebly, Mounib; Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Precourt, Louis-Philippe; Amre, Devendra; Sinnett, Daniel

2007-12-01

244

Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.  

PubMed

Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NF?B signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NF?B signaling in epithelial cells through I?B? phosphorylation, NF?Bp65 nuclear translocation, and TNF? secretion. In addition, NF?B activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.89. PMID:25269707

Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

2014-10-01

245

Isolation and characterization of human primary enterocytes from small intestine using a novel method  

PubMed Central

Cell culture studies of enterocytes are important in many fields. However, there are difficulties in obtaining cell lines from adult human intestine, such as microbial contamination of cultures from the tissue samples, short life span of enterocytes, overgrowth of mesenchymal cells, etc. Various model used to obtain adult intestinal cell lines are very complex requiring use of feeder layer or gel matrices. The aim of this study was to establish a novel method for the simple and reproducible isolation of human enterocytes. Enterocytes were isolated from SI samples (n = 5) obtained from cadaveric donors using a mechanical procedure, and separation with immunomagnetic beads coated with anti-EpCAM antibodies. Light and electron microscopy, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry techniques were used to characterize the isolated cells. Immunohistochemical staining of normal SB biopsies confirmed that the cell cultures maintained an in vivo phenotype as reflected in cytokeratin expression CK18, CK20 and expression of intestine-specific markers such as sucrase isomaltase and maltase glucoamylase. Furthermore, the cells strongly expressed TLR-5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 and several molecules such as CD40, CD86, CD44, ICAM-1 and HLA-DR which are important in triggering cell-mediated immune responses. This novel technique provides a unique in vitro system to study the biology of enterocytes in normal conditions as well as to study inflammatory processes in various small bowel disorders. PMID:22943429

Chougule, Priti; Herlenius, Gustaf; Hernandez, Nidia Maritza; Patil, Pradeep B; Xu, Bo

2012-01-01

246

Isolation and characterization of human primary enterocytes from small intestine using a novel method.  

PubMed

Cell culture studies of enterocytes are important in many fields. However, there are difficulties in obtaining cell lines from adult human intestine, such as microbial contamination of cultures from the tissue samples, short life span of enterocytes, overgrowth of mesenchymal cells, etc. Various model used to obtain adult intestinal cell lines are very complex requiring use of feeder layer or gel matrices. The aim of this study was to establish a novel method for the simple and reproducible isolation of human enterocytes. Enterocytes were isolated from SI samples (n = 5) obtained from cadaveric donors using a mechanical procedure, and separation with immunomagnetic beads coated with anti-EpCAM antibodies. Light and electron microscopy, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry techniques were used to characterize the isolated cells. Immunohistochemical staining of normal SB biopsies confirmed that the cell cultures maintained an in vivo phenotype as reflected in cytokeratin expression CK18, CK20 and expression of intestine-specific markers such as sucrase isomaltase and maltase glucoamylase. Furthermore, the cells strongly expressed TLR-5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 and several molecules such as CD40, CD86, CD44, ICAM-1 and HLA-DR which are important in triggering cell-mediated immune responses. This novel technique provides a unique in vitro system to study the biology of enterocytes in normal conditions as well as to study inflammatory processes in various small bowel disorders. PMID:22943429

Chougule, Priti; Herlenius, Gustaf; Hernandez, Nidia Maritza; Patil, Pradeep B; Xu, Bo; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

2012-11-01

247

Involvement of the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli plasmid-encoded toxin in causing human intestinal damage.  

PubMed

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strains have been shown to adhere to human intestinal tissue in an in vitro organ culture (IVOC) model, and certain strains manifest mucosal toxicity. We have recently described the EAEC plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet), a member of a specific serine protease subclass of the autotransporter proteins. When injected into rat ileal loops, Pet both elicited fluid accumulation and had cytotoxic effects on the mucosa. Furthermore, the Pet protein caused rises in short circuit current from rat jejunal tissue mounted in a Ussing chamber and rounding of intestinal epithelial cells in culture. We therefore hypothesized that the mucosal pathology induced by EAEC strains in the IVOC model was related to expression of the Pet protein. Here, we have examined the effects of EAEC strain 042 and its isogenic pet mutant in the IVOC model. 042-infected colonic explants exhibited dilation of crypt openings, increased cell rounding, development of prominent intercrypt crevices, and absence of apical mucus plugs. Colonic tissue incubated with the pet mutant exhibited significantly fewer mucosal abnormalities both subjectively and as quantitated morphometrically by measurement of crypt aperture diameter. Mucosal effects were restored upon complementation of the pet mutation in trans. Interestingly, we found that the ability of 042 to damage T84 cells was not dependent upon Pet. The data suggest that the Pet toxin is active on the human intestinal mucosa but that EAEC may have other mechanisms of eliciting mucosal damage. PMID:10496914

Henderson, I R; Hicks, S; Navarro-Garcia, F; Elias, W P; Philips, A D; Nataro, J P

1999-10-01

248

Molecular and histological identification of the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma cf. capitatum from the human small intestine.  

PubMed

Acanthocephalans of the genus Bolbosoma are intestinal parasites of marine mammals with a lifecycle similar to that of anisakid nematodes. Several cases of Bolbosoma infection in humans have been reported, but no species identification has been made. Here, we report a case of Bolbosoma infection, in which the worm was found in histological sections of the partially resected small intestine of a Japanese man. Morphological features of the worm reconstructed from serial sectioning indicated that the worm was most likely to be a sexually immature female of Bolbosoma capitatum. DNA extraction from paraffin-embedded sections and ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequencing showed that this species formed a monophyletic group with Bolbosoma nipponicum, and was clearly distinguishable from Corynosoma spp. or Polymorphus spp. These results may provide a reference for identifying and characterizing unknown acanthocephalans found in histological sections. PMID:22634485

Arizono, Naoki; Kuramochi, Toshiaki; Kagei, Noboru

2012-12-01

249

Microbiology of the human intestinal tract and approaches for its dietary modulation.  

PubMed

Gut bacteria can be categorised as being either beneficial or potentially pathogenic due to their metabolic activities and fermentation end-products. Health-promoting effects of the microflora may include immunostimulation, improved digestion and absorption, vitamin synthesis, inhibition of the growth of potential pathogens and lowering of gas distension. Detrimental effects are carcinogen production, intestinal putrefaction, toxin production, diarrhoea/constipation and intestinal infections. Certain indigenous bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are considered to be examples of health-promoting constituents of the microflora. They may aid digestion of lactose in lactose-intolerant individuals, reduce diarrhoea, help resist infections and assist in inflammatory conditions. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are functional foods that fortify the lactate producing microflora of the human or animal gut. PMID:19442165

Saulnier, Delphine M; Kolida, Sofia; Gibson, Glenn R

2009-01-01

250

Effects of Antibiotics on Bacterial Species Composition and Metabolic Activities in Chemostats Containing Defined Populations of Human Gut Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

The composition and metabolic activities of the human colonic microbiota are modulated by a number of external factors, including diet and antibiotic therapy. Changes in the structure and metabolism of the gut microbiota may have long-term consequences for host health. The large intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem comprising several hundreds of different bacterial species, which complicates investigations on intestinal physiology and ecology. To facilitate such studies, a highly simplified microbiota consisting of 14 anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic organisms (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Clostridium butyricum, C. perfringens, C. bifermentans, C. innocuum, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus) was used in this investigation. Ampicillin [9.2 ?g (ml culture)?1] was added to two chemostats operated at different dilution rates (D; 0.10 h?1 and 0.21 h?1), and metronidazole [76.9 ?g (ml culture)?1] was added to a third vessel (D = 0.21 h?1). Perturbations in bacterial physiology and metabolism were sampled over a 48-h period. Lactobacillus acidophilus and C. bifermentans populations did not establish in the fermentors under the imposed growth conditions. Ampicillin resulted in substantial reductions in bacteroides and C. perfringens populations at both dilution rates. Metronidazole strongly affected bacteroides communities but had no effect on bifidobacterial communities. The bacteriostatic effect of ampicillin on bifidobacterial species was growth rate dependent. Several metabolic activities were affected by antibiotic addition, including fermentation product formation and enzyme synthesis. The growth of antibiotic-resistant bifidobacteria in the large bowel may enable them to occupy ecological niches left vacant after antibiotic administration, preventing colonization by pathogenic species. PMID:23403424

Newton, Dorothy F.; Macfarlane, George T.

2013-01-01

251

Lineage-Specific Expression of Bestrophin-2 and Bestrophin-4 in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) regulate the absorption and secretion of anions, such as HCO3- or Cl-. Bestrophin genes represent a newly identified group of calcium-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs). Studies have suggested that, among the four human bestrophin-family genes, bestrophin-2 (BEST2) and bestrophin-4 (BEST4) might be expressed within the intestinal tissue. Consistently, a study showed that BEST2 is expressed by human colonic goblet cells. However, their precise expression pattern along the gastrointestinal tract, or the lineage specificity of the cells expressing these genes, remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BEST2 and BEST4 are expressed in vivo, each in a distinct, lineage-specific manner, in human IECs. While BEST2 was expressed exclusively in colonic goblet cells, BEST4 was expressed in the absorptive cells of both the small intestine and the colon. In addition, we found that BEST2 expression is significantly down-regulated in the active lesions of ulcerative colitis, where goblet cells were depleted, suggesting that BEST2 expression is restricted to goblet cells under both normal and pathologic conditions. Consistently, the induction of goblet cell differentiation by a Notch inhibitor, LY411575, significantly up-regulated the expression of not BEST4 but BEST2 in MUC2-positive HT-29 cells. Conversely, the induction of absorptive cell differentiation up-regulated the expression of BEST4 in villin-positive Caco-2 cells. In addition, we found that the up- or down-regulation of Notch activity leads to the preferential expression of either BEST4 or BEST2, respectively, in LS174T cells. These results collectively confirmed that BEST2 and BEST4 could be added to the lineage-specific genes of humans IECs due to their abilities to clearly identify goblet cells of colonic origin and a distinct subset of absorptive cells, respectively. PMID:24223998

Ito, Go; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Murano, Tatsuro; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Nakata, Toru; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Okada, Eriko; Araki, Akihiro; Ohtsuka, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

2013-01-01

252

Meta-analysis of the turnover of intestinal epithelia in preclinical animal species and humans.  

PubMed

Due to the rapid turnover of the small intestinal epithelia, the rate at which enterocyte renewal occurs plays an important role in determining the level of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the gut wall. Current physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models consider enzyme and enterocyte recovery as a lumped first-order rate. An assessment of enterocyte turnover would enable enzyme and enterocyte renewal to be modeled more mechanistically. A literature review together with statistical analysis was employed to establish enterocyte turnover in human and preclinical species. A total of 85 studies was identified reporting enterocyte turnover in 1602 subjects in six species. In mice, the geometric weighted combined mean (WX) enterocyte turnover was 2.81 ± 1.14 days (n = 169). In rats, the weighted arithmetic mean enterocyte turnover was determined to be 2.37 days (n = 501). Humans exhibited a geometric WX enterocyte turnover of 3.48 ± 1.55 days for the gastrointestinal epithelia (n = 265), displaying comparable turnover to that of cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro (0.96-4.33 days). Statistical analysis indicated humans to display longer enterocyte turnover as compared with preclinical species. Extracted data were too sparse to support regional differences in small intestinal enterocyte turnover in humans despite being indicated in mice. The utilization of enterocyte turnover data, together with in vitro enzyme turnover in PBPK modeling, may improve the predictions of metabolic drug-drug interactions dependent on enzyme turnover (e.g., mechanism-based inhibition and enzyme induction) as well as absorption of nanoparticle delivery systems and intestinal metabolism in special populations exhibiting altered enterocyte turnover. PMID:25233858

Darwich, Adam S; Aslam, Umair; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

2014-12-01

253

Culture media from hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.  

PubMed

Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon, whereby short episodes of non-lethal ischemia to an organ or tissue exert protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a distant organ. However, there is still an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the RIPC-mediated mechanisms within the target organ and the released factors. Here we established a human cell culture model to investigate cellular and molecular effects of RIPC and to identify factors responsible for RIPC-mediated intestinal protection. Human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) were exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia (3 × 15 min) and conditioned culture media (CM) were collected after 24h. Human intestinal cells (CaCo-2) were cultured with or without CM and subjected to 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, gelatin zymography, hydrogen peroxide measurements and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were performed. In HUVEC cultures hypoxic conditioning did not influence the profile of secreted proteins but led to an increased gelatinase activity (P<0.05) in CM. In CaCo-2 cultures 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in morphological signs of cell damage, increased LDH levels (P<0.001) and elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (P<0.01). Incubation of CaCo-2 cells with CM reduced the hypoxia-induced signs of cell damage and LDH release (P<0.01) and abrogated the hypoxia-induced increase of hydrogen peroxide. These events were associated with an enhanced phosphorylation status of the prosurvival kinase Erk1/2 (P<0.05) but not Akt and STAT-5. Taken together, CM of hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. The established culture model may help to unravel RIPC-mediated cellular events and to identify molecules released by RIPC. PMID:24394542

Hummitzsch, Lars; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

2014-03-10

254

Human ?2-glycoprotein I attenuates mouse intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induced injury and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury results from a complex cascade of inflammatory components. In the mouse model of intestinal IR, the serum protein, ?2-glycoprotein I (?2-GPI) binds to the cell surface early in the cascade. The bound ?2-GPI undergoes a conformational change which exposes a neoantigen recognized by naturally occurring antibodies and initiates the complement cascade. We hypothesized that providing additional antigen with exogenous ?2-GPI would alter IR-induced tissue injury. Administration of human but not mouse ?2-GPI attenuated IR-induced tissue damage and prostaglandin E2 production indicating a physiological difference between ?2-GPI isolated from the two species. To investigate whether structural features were responsible for this physiological difference, we compared the chemical, physical and biochemical properties of the two proteins. Despite possessing 76% amino acid identity and 86% sequence homology, we found that mouse ?2-GPI differs from the human protein in size, carbohydrate chain location, heterogeneity and secondary structural content. These data suggest that the structural differences result in mouse Ab recognition of soluble human but not mouse ?2-GPI and attenuated IR-induced injury. We conclude that caution should be exercised in interpreting results obtained by using human ?2-GPI in a mouse model. PMID:22750067

Tomasi, Maurizio; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Pope, Michael R.; Gudlur, Sushanth; Tomich, John M.; Fleming, Sherry D.

2012-01-01

255

Human ?2-glycoprotein I attenuates mouse intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induced injury and inflammation.  

PubMed

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury results from a complex cascade of inflammatory components. In the mouse model of intestinal IR, the serum protein, ?2-glycoprotein I (?2-GPI) binds to the cell surface early in the cascade. The bound ?2-GPI undergoes a conformational change which exposes a neoantigen recognized by naturally occurring antibodies and initiates the complement cascade. We hypothesized that providing additional antigen with exogenous ?2-GPI would alter IR-induced tissue injury. Administration of human but not mouse ?2-GPI attenuated IR-induced tissue damage and prostaglandin E(2) production indicating a physiological difference between ?2-GPI isolated from the two species. To investigate whether structural features were responsible for this physiological difference, we compared the chemical, physical and biochemical properties of the two proteins. Despite possessing 76% amino acid identity and 86% sequence homology, we found that mouse ?2-GPI differs from the human protein in size, carbohydrate chain location, heterogeneity and secondary structural content. These data suggest that the structural differences result in mouse Ab recognition of soluble human but not mouse ?2-GPI and attenuated IR-induced injury. We conclude that caution should be exercised in interpreting results obtained by using human ?2-GPI in a mouse model. PMID:22750067

Tomasi, Maurizio; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Pope, Michael R; Gudlur, Sushanth; Tomich, John M; Fleming, Sherry D

2012-10-01

256

Chemical and histochemical studies of normal and diseased human gastrointestinal tract. II. A comparison between histologically normal small intestine and Crohn's disease of the small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Comparative chemical and histochemical studies were performed on formalin-fixed, surgical specimens of human small intestine from cases of Crohn's disease and normal controls. The sialic acids of the crude glycoproteins isolated from normal ileum were significantly less neuraminidase-susceptible and more C4 substituted (Pm or 0.3m sodium chloride. Both fractions contained fucose, galactose, glucosamine and galactosamine in addition to sialic acids

P. E. Reid; C. F. A. Culling; W. L. Dunn; M. G. Clay

1984-01-01

257

The High Affinity IgE Receptor Fc?RI Is Expressed by Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIgE antibodies play a paramount role in the pathogenesis of various intestinal disorders. To gain insights in IgE-mediated pathophysiology of the gut, we investigated the expression of the high affinity IgE receptor Fc?RI in human intestinal epithelium.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsFc?RI ?-chain, as detected by immunohistochemistry, was positive in epithelial cells for eight of eleven (8\\/11) specimens from colon cancer patients and 5\\/11

Eva Untersmayr; Giovanna Bises; Philipp Starkl; Charles L. Bevins; Otto Scheiner; George Boltz-Nitulescu; Fritz Wrba; Erika Jensen-Jarolim; Stefan Bereswill

2010-01-01

258

Identification of NF-?B modulation capabilities within human intestinal commensal bacteria.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulation of mucosal immune responses. To seek interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and commensal bacteria, we screened 49 commensal strains for their capacity to modulate NF-?B. We used HT-29/kb-seap-25 and Caco-2/kb-seap-7 intestinal epithelial cells and monocyte-like THP-1 blue reporter cells to measure effects of commensal bacteria on cellular expression of a reporter system for NF-?B. Bacteria conditioned media (CM) were tested alone or together with an activator of NF-?B to explore its inhibitory potentials. CM from 8 or 10 different commensal species activated NF-?B expression on HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, respectively. On THP-1, CM from all but 5 commensal strains stimulated NF-?B. Upon challenge with TNF-? or IL-1?, some CM prevented induced NF-?B activation, whereas others enhanced it. Interestingly, the enhancing effect of some CM was correlated with the presence of butyrate and propionate. Characterization of the effects of the identified bacteria and their implications in human health awaits further investigations. PMID:21765633

Lakhdari, Omar; Tap, Julien; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; de Wouters, Tomas; Cultrone, Antonietta; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Lefèvre, Fabrice; Doré, Joël; Blottière, Hervé M

2011-01-01

259

Metabolism of the benzidine-based azo dye Direct Black 38 by human intestinal microbiota  

SciTech Connect

Benzidine-based azo dyes are proven mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer. Previous studies have indicated that their initial reduction is the result of the azo reductase activity of the intestinal microbiota. Metabolism of the benzidine-based dye Direct Black 38 was examined by using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the lumen of the human large intestine. The system was inoculated with freshly voided feces, and an active flora was maintained as evidenced by volatile fatty acid and gas production. Within 7 days after exposure to the dye, the following metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry: benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, monoacetylbenzidine, and acetylaminobiphenyl. Benzidine reached its peak level after 24 h, accounting for 39.1% of the added dye. Its level began to decline, and by day 7 the predominant metabolite was acetylaminobiphenyl, which accounted for 51.1% of the parent compound. Formation of the deaminated and N-acetylated analogs of benzidine, which have enhanced mutagenicity and lipophilicity, previously has not been attributed to the intestinal microbiota.

Manning, B.W.; Cerniglia, C.E.; Federle, T.W.

1985-07-01

260

A distinct array of proinflammatory cytokines is expressed in human colon epithelial cells in response to bacterial invasion.  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic bacteria that penetrate the intestinal epithelial barrier stimulate an inflammatory response in the adjacent intestinal mucosa. The present studies asked whether colon epithelial cells can provide signals that are important for the initiation and amplification of an acute mucosal inflammatory response. Infection of monolayers of human colon epithelial cell lines (T84, HT29, Caco-2) with invasive strains of bacteria (Salmonella dublin, Shigella dysenteriae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli) resulted in the coordinate expression and upregulation of a specific array of four proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, GM-CSF, and TNF alpha, as assessed by mRNA levels and cytokine secretion. Expression of the same cytokines was upregulated after TNF alpha or IL-1 stimulation of these cells. In contrast, cytokine gene expression was not altered after infection of colon epithelial cells with noninvasive bacteria or the noninvasive protozoan parasite, G. lamblia. Notably, none of the cell lines expressed mRNA for IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-gamma, or significant levels of IL-1 or IL-10 in response to the identical stimuli. The coordinate expression of IL-8, MCP-1, GM-CSF and TNF alpha appears to be a general property of human colon epithelial cells since an identical array of cytokines, as well as IL-6, also was expressed by freshly isolated human colon epithelial cells. Since the cytokines expressed in response to bacterial invasion or other proinflammatory agonists have a well documented role in chemotaxis and activation of inflammatory cells, colon epithelial cells appear to be programmed to provide a set of signals for the activation of the mucosal inflammatory response in the earliest phases after microbial invasion. Images PMID:7814646

Jung, H C; Eckmann, L; Yang, S K; Panja, A; Fierer, J; Morzycka-Wroblewska, E; Kagnoff, M F

1995-01-01

261

Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model.  

PubMed

Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24841635

Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Gras, Judith; Brors, Benedikt; Schwarz, Sonja; Szikszai, Timea; Lasitschka, Felix; Wabnitz, Guido; Heidtmann, Antje; Lee, Young-Seon; Schiessling, Serin; Leowardi, Christine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Ulrich, Alexis; Engelke, Antonia; Winter, Johannes; Samstag, Yvonne; Giese, Thomas; Meuer, Stefan

2014-01-01

262

Initiation of an Inflammatory Response in Resident Intestinal Lamina Propria Cells -Use of a Human Organ Culture Model  

PubMed Central

Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24841635

Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Gras, Judith; Brors, Benedikt; Schwarz, Sonja; Szikszai, Timea; Lasitschka, Felix; Wabnitz, Guido; Heidtmann, Antje; Lee, Young-Seon; Schiessling, Serin; Leowardi, Christine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Ulrich, Alexis; Engelke, Antonia; Winter, Johannes; Samstag, Yvonne; Giese, Thomas; Meuer, Stefan

2014-01-01

263

Colonisation bactérienne de l'intestin dans l'enfance : pourquoi y accorder autant d'importance ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The birth process allows the progressive formation of complex intestinal microflora composed of myriad bacteria, leading to this recently identified host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. This kind of cross-talk originating from birth is opportunistically used by the young host to initiate its own immune system. Recent epidemiogical data support the hypothesis that some increasing immune deviances observed in the

J.-P. Langhendries

2006-01-01

264

RGD-Dependent Epithelial Cell-Matrix Interactions in the Human Intestinal Crypt  

PubMed Central

Interactions between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and integrin receptors trigger structural and functional bonds between the cell microenvironment and the cytoskeleton. Such connections are essential for adhesion structure integrity and are key players in regulating transduction of specific intracellular signals, which in turn regulate the organization of the cell microenvironment and, consequently, cell function. The RGD peptide-dependent integrins represent a key subgroup of ECM receptors involved in the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis. Here we review recent findings on RGD-dependent ECM-integrin interactions and their roles in human intestinal epithelial crypt cells. PMID:22988499

Benoit, Yannick D.; Groulx, Jean-François; Gagné, David; Beaulieu, Jean-François

2012-01-01

265

Recellularization of acellular human small intestine using bone marrow stem cells.  

PubMed

We aimed to produce an acellular human tissue scaffold with a view to test the possibility of recellularization with bone marrow stem cells to produce a tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI). Human small-bowel specimens (n = 5) were obtained from cadaveric organ donors and treated sequentially with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide in hypotonic buffer, 1% Triton X-100, and DNase. Each small intestine (SI) piece (6 cm) was recellularized with EPCAM+ and CD133+ allogeneic bone marrow stem cells. Histological and molecular analysis demonstrated that after decellularization, all cellular components and nuclear material were removed. Our analysis also showed that the decellularized human SI tissue retained its histoarchitecture with intact villi and major structural proteins. Protein films of common extracellular matrix constituents (collagen I, laminin, and fibronectin) were found in abundance. Furthermore, several residual angiogenic factors were found in the decellularized SI. Following recellularization, we found viable mucin-positive goblet cells, CK18+ epithelial cells in villi adjacent to a muscularis mucosa with ?-actin+ smooth muscle cells, and a high repopulation of blood vessels with CD31+ endothelial cells. Our results show that in the future, such a TESI would be ideal for clinical purposes, because it can be derived from the recipient's own immunocompatible bone marrow cells, thus avoiding the use of immunosuppression. PMID:23486834

Patil, Pradeep B; Chougule, Priti B; Kumar, Vijay K; Almström, Stefan; Bäckdahl, Henrik; Banerjee, Debashish; Herlenius, Gustaf; Olausson, Michael; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

2013-04-01

266

Penetration of Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Salmonella: Molecular Cloning and Expression of Salmonella typhi Invasion Determinants in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, must invade the human gastrointestinal tract and multiply within the host to cause disease. We have cloned from S. typhi Ty2 a chromosomal region that confers upon Escherichia coli HB101 the ability to invade cultured human intestinal epithelial cells. Three invasion-positive recombinant cosmids were isolated and restriction endonuclease analyses of the inserts

Eric A. Elsinghorst; Louis S. Baron; Dennis J. Kopecko

1989-01-01

267

Species-specific Mycobacterium genavense DNA in intestinal tissues of individuals not infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium genavense species-specific DNA was detected in intestinal tissues from two of nine individuals not infected with human immunodeficiency virus. This newly described microorganism is well documented as a causative agent of disseminated infections in AIDS patients. Our results suggest that it may colonize the guts of individuals not infected with human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:7494064

Dumonceau, J M; Fonteyne, P A; Realini, L; Van Gossum, A; Van Vooren, J P; Portaels, F

1995-01-01

268

Comparative Study of Bacterial Groups within the Human Cecal and Fecal Microbiota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the human cecal microbiota is poorly known because of sampling difficulties. Samples of cecal fluid from eight subjects were collected via an intestinal tube. Feces were also collected. Total anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides were enumerated by culture methods, and the predom- inant phylogenetic groups were quantified by molecular hybridization using a set of six rRNA-targeted

PHILIPPE MARTEAU; PHILIPPE POCHART; JOEL DORE; CHRISTEL BERA-MAILLET; ANNICK BERNALIER; GERARD CORTHIER

2001-01-01

269

Characterization of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sulfatases from the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveals the first GAG-specific bacterial endosulfatase.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of the microbiota in human physiology, the molecular bases that govern the interactions between these commensal bacteria and their host remain poorly understood. We recently reported that sulfatases play a key role in the adaptation of a major human commensal bacterium, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, to its host (Benjdia, A., Martens, E. C., Gordon, J. I., and Berteau, O. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 25973-25982). We hypothesized that sulfatases are instrumental for this bacterium, and related Bacteroides species, to metabolize highly sulfated glycans (i.e. mucins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)) and to colonize the intestinal mucosal layer. Based on our previous study, we investigated 10 sulfatase genes induced in the presence of host glycans. Biochemical characterization of these potential sulfatases allowed the identification of GAG-specific sulfatases selective for the type of saccharide residue and the attachment position of the sulfate group. Although some GAG-specific bacterial sulfatase activities have been described in the literature, we report here for the first time the identity and the biochemical characterization of four GAG-specific sulfatases. Furthermore, contrary to the current paradigm, we discovered that B. thetaiotaomicron possesses an authentic GAG endosulfatase that is active at the polymer level. This type of sulfatase is the first one to be identified in a bacterium. Our study thus demonstrates that bacteria have evolved more sophisticated and diverse GAG sulfatases than anticipated and establishes how B. thetaiotaomicron, and other major human commensal bacteria, can metabolize and potentially tailor complex host glycans. PMID:25002587

Ulmer, Jonathan E; Vilén, Eric Morssing; Namburi, Ramesh Babu; Benjdia, Alhosna; Beneteau, Julie; Malleron, Annie; Bonnaffé, David; Driguez, Pierre-Alexandre; Descroix, Karine; Lassalle, Gilbert; Le Narvor, Christine; Sandström, Corine; Spillmann, Dorothe; Berteau, Olivier

2014-08-29

270

Characterization and Ecology of Carboxymethylcellulase-Producing Anaerobic Bacterial Communities Associated with the Intestinal Tract of the Pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides  

PubMed Central

Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase)-producing obligate anaerobes were isolated from the intestinal tract contents but not the feeding habitat of seagrass-consuming pinfish. Taxonomic characterization of these CMCase-producing strains revealed four taxonomic clusters; three were clostridial and one was of unknown taxonomic affinity. Our results demonstrated that the CMCase-producing obligate anaerobe community from pinfish differed from functionally similar microbial communities in terrestrial herbivores. PMID:16534945

Stellwag, E. J.; Smith, T. D.; Luczkovich, J. J.

1995-01-01

271

The Intestine Plays a Substantial Role in Human Vitamin B6 Metabolism: A Caco-2 Cell Model  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin B6 is present in various forms (vitamers) in the diet that need to be metabolized to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), the active cofactor form of vitamin B6. In literature, the liver has been reported to be the major site for this conversion, whereas the exact role of the intestine remains to be elucidated. Objective To gain insight into the role of the intestine in human vitamin B6 metabolism. Materials and Methods Expression of the enzymes pyridoxal kinase (PK), pyridox(am)ine phosphate oxidase (PNPO) and PLP-phosphatase was determined in Caco-2 cells and in lysates of human intestine. Vitamin B6 uptake, conversion and excretion were studied in polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. B6 vitamer concentrations (pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxal (PL), PLP, pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP)) and pyridoxic acid (PA) were quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Results The enzymatic system involved in vitamin B6 metabolism (PK, PNPO and PLP-phosphatase) is fully expressed in Caco-2 cells as well as in human intestine. We show uptake of PN, PM and PL by Caco-2 cells, conversion of PN and PM into PL and excretion of all three unphosphorylated B6 vitamers. Conclusion We demonstrate, in a Caco-2 cell model, that the intestine plays a substantial role in human vitamin B6 metabolism. PMID:23342087

Albersen, Monique; Bosma, Marjolein; Knoers, Nine V. V. A. M.; de Ruiter, Berna H. B.; Diekman, Eugène F.; de Ruijter, Jessica; Visser, Wouter F.; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.

2013-01-01

272

Inhibition of adhesion of Clostridium difficile to human intestinal cells after treatment with serum and intestinal fluid isolated from mice immunized with nontoxigenic C. difficile membrane fraction.  

PubMed

Diarrhea and pseudomembrane colitis caused by Clostridium difficile infection is a global health concern because of the high recurrence rate after standard antibiotic therapy. Vaccination presents a powerful countermeasure against disease recurrence. In this study, mice vaccinated with the nontoxigenic C. difficile membrane fraction generated a marked immune response to the antigen, as demonstrated by the serum IgG and intestinal fluid IgA levels. Significantly, pretreatment with harvested IgG- and IgA-containing fluids was sufficient to prevent in vitro adhesion of C. difficile to human Caco-2 intestinal cells. These results highlight the potential of nontoxigenic C. difficile membrane fraction as a vaccine candidate for C. difficile infection. PMID:25745878

Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Iwaki, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Kato, Haru; Fukuda, Tadashi; Shibayama, Keigo

2015-04-01

273

Bacterial Urease and its Role in Long-Lasting Human Diseases  

PubMed Central

Urease is a virulence factor found in various pathogenic bacteria. It is essential in colonization of a host organism and in maintenance of bacterial cells in tissues. Due to its enzymatic activity, urease has a toxic effect on human cells. The presence of ureolytic activity is an important marker of a number of bacterial infections. Urease is also an immunogenic protein and is recognized by antibodies present in human sera. The presence of such antibodies is connected with progress of several long-lasting diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis or urinary tract infections. In bacterial ureases, motives with a sequence and/or structure similar to human proteins may occur. This phenomenon, known as molecular mimicry, leads to the appearance of autoantibodies, which take part in host molecules destruction. Detection of antibodies-binding motives (epitopes) in bacterial proteins is a complex process. However, organic chemistry tools, such as synthetic peptide libraries, are helpful in both, epitope mapping as well as in serologic investigations. In this review, we present a synthetic report on a molecular organization of bacterial ureases - genetic as well as structural. We characterize methods used in detecting urease and ureolytic activity, including techniques applied in disease diagnostic processes and in chemical synthesis of urease epitopes. The review also provides a summary of knowledge about a toxic effect of bacterial ureases on human body and about occurrence of anti-urease antibodies in long-lasting diseases. PMID:23305365

Konieczna, Iwona; ?arnowiec, Paulina; Kwinkowski, Marek; Kolesi?ska, Beata; Fr?czyk, Justyna; Kami?ski, Zbigniew; Kaca, Wies?aw

2012-01-01

274

Antigenic and structural features of goblet-cell mucin of human small intestine.  

PubMed Central

With the use of a newly developed solid-phase radioimmunoassay method, the major antigenic determinants of human small-intestinal goblet-cell mucin were investigated and related to the overall tertiary structure of the mucin. Preliminary hapten inhibition studies with various oligosaccharides of known sequence and structure suggested that the determinants did not reside in carbohydrate. Exhaustive thiol reduction, however, almost abolished antigenicity, caused breakdown of the mucin into small heterogeneous glycopeptides, and liberated a 'link' peptide of Mr 118000. Western 'blots' of reduced mucin from polyacrylamide gels on to nitrocellulose sheets showed that a small amount of residual antigenicity remained in large-Mr glycopeptides (Mr greater than 200000). The 'link' peptide was not antigenic. Timed Pronase digestion of native mucin resulted in a progressive loss of antigenic determinants. Gel electrophoresis revealed that after 8h of digestion the 118000-Mr peptide had disappeared, whereas antigenicity, which was confined to large-Mr glycopeptides, was destroyed much more slowly with time (70% by 24h, 100% by 72h). Despite the loss of antigenicity, 72h-Pronase-digested glycopeptides retained all of the carbohydrate of the native mucin. Therefore the antibody to human small-intestinal mucin appears to recognize a 'naked' (non-glycosylated and Pronase-susceptible) peptide region(s) of mucin glycopeptides. For full antigenicity, however, disulphide bonds are required to stabilize a specific three-dimensional configuration of the 'naked' region. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:6199017

Mantle, M; Forstner, G G; Forstner, J F

1984-01-01

275

Sugars Increase Non-Heme Iron Bioavailability in Human Epithelial Intestinal and Liver Cells  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions. PMID:24340076

Christides, Tatiana; Sharp, Paul

2013-01-01

276

Vasoactive intestinal peptide maintains the nonpathogenic profile of human th17-polarized cells.  

PubMed

The cytokine microenvironment modulates CD4 T cell differentiation causing the shift of naïve CD4 T cells into different cell subsets. This process is also regulated by modulators such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide with known immunomodulatory properties on CD4 T cells that exert this action through specific receptors, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2. Our results show that the pattern of VIP receptors expression ratio is modified during Th17 differentiation. In this report, we evaluate the capacity of VIP to modulate naïve human cells into Th17 cells in vitro by analyzing their functional phenotype. The presence of VIP maintains the nonpathogenic profile of Th17-polarized cells, increases the proliferation rate, and decreases their Th1 potential. VIP induces the upregulation of the STAT3 gene interaction with the VPAC1 receptor during the onset of Th17 differentiation. Moreover, RAR-related orphan receptor C (RORC), RAR-related orphan receptor A (RORA), and interleukin (IL)-17A genes are upregulated in the presence of VIP through interaction with VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors. Interestingly, VIP induces the expression of the IL-23R gene through interaction with the VPAC2 receptor during the expansion phase. This is the first report that describes the differentiation of naïve human T cells to Th17-polarized cells in the presence of VIP and demonstrates how this differentiation regulates the expression of the VIP receptors. PMID:24805298

Jimeno, Rebeca; Leceta, Javier; Martínez, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Cañas, Irene; Carrión, Mar; Pérez-García, Selene; Garín, Marina; Mellado, Mario; Gomariz, Rosa P; Juarranz, Yasmina

2014-11-01

277

Maternal Stress is Associated With Bacterial Vaginosis in Human Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Maternal infection, particularly bacterial vaginosis (BV) in pregnancy, is one of the leading causes of adverse perinatal outcomes. The determinants of individual differences in susceptibility, or vulnerability, to maternal infections are poorly understood. This study examines whether chronic maternal stress predisposes women to infection during pregnancy, and if so, whether the effects of chronic stress on infection are independent

Jennifer F. Culhane; Virginia Rauh; Kelly Farley McCollum; Vijaya K. Hogan; Kathy Agnew; Pathik D. Wadhwa

2001-01-01

278

Interferon-? regulates growth and controls Fc? receptor expression and activation in human intestinal mast cells  

PubMed Central

Background Development and function of tissue resident mast cells (MCs) is tightly controlled by various cytokines, most of which belong to the typical T helper (Th) 2-type cytokines such as IL-3 and IL-4. The effects of the Th1-type cytokine IFN-? on human MCs is less clear. Results Here, we analyzed the effects of IFN-? on tissue-derived, mature human MCs. We found that INF-? decreases proliferation, without affecting apoptosis in human intestinal MCs cultured in the presence of optimal concentrations of stem cell factor (SCF) or SCF and IL-4. However, in the absence of growth factors or at suboptimal concentrations of SCF, INF-? promotes survival through inhibition of MC apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that INF-? has no effect on Fc?RI expression and Fc?RI-mediated release of histamine and leukotriene (LT)C4, while it has profound effects on Fc?R expression and activation. We show that intestinal MCs express Fc?RI, Fc?RIIa, and Fc?RIIc, whereas Fc?RIIb expression was found in only 40% of the isolates and Fc?RIII was never detectable. INF-? strongly increases Fc?RI and decreases Fc?RIIa expression. INF-?-naïve MCs produce LTC4 but fail to degranulate upon crosslinking of surface-bound monomeric IgG. In contrast, INF-?-treated MCs rapidly release granule-stored histamine in addition to de novo-synthesized LTC4. Conclusion In summary, we identify INF-? as an important regulator of tissue-resident human MCs. IFN-? displays a dual function by blocking extensive MC proliferation, while decreasing apoptosis in starving MCs and enhancing Fc?RI expression and activation. These results emphasize the involvement of mucosal MCs in Th1-mediated disorders. PMID:24996251

2014-01-01

279

Intestinal microbiology in early life: specific prebiotics can have similar functionalities as human-milk oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Human milk is generally accepted as the best nutrition for newborns and has been shown to support the optimal growth and development of infants. On the basis of scientific insights from human-milk research, a specific mixture of nondigestible oligosaccharides has been developed, with the aim to improve the intestinal microbiota in early life. The mixture has been extensively studied and has been shown to be safe and to have potential health benefits that are similar to those of human milk. The specific mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides has been found to affect the development of early microbiota and to increase the Bifidobacterium amounts as observed in human-milk-fed infants. The resulting gut ecophysiology is characterized by high concentrations of lactate, a slightly acidic pH, and specific short-chain fatty acid profiles, which are high in acetate and low in butyrate and propionate. Here, we have summarized the main findings of dietary interventions with these specific oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota in early life. The gut ecophysiology in early life may have consequences for the metabolic, immunologic, and even neurologic development of the child because reports increasingly substantiate the important function of gut microbes in human health. This review highlights major findings in the field of early gut colonization and the potential impact of early nutrition in healthy growth and development. PMID:23824728

Oozeer, Raish; van Limpt, Kees; Ludwig, Thomas; Ben Amor, Kaouther; Martin, Rocio; Wind, Richèle D; Boehm, Günther; Knol, Jan

2013-08-01

280

Characterization of Slackia exigua Isolated from Human Wound Infections, Including Abscesses of Intestinal Origin ?  

PubMed Central

Eleven clinical strains isolated from infected wound specimens were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all 11 strains were phylogenetically related to Slackia exigua. Additionally, conventional and biochemical tests of 6 of the 11 strains were performed as supplementary methods to obtain phenotypic identification by comparison with the phenotypes of the relevant type strains. S. exigua has been considered an oral bacterial species in the family Coriobacteriaceae. This organism is fastidious and grows poorly, so it may easily be overlooked. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and the biochemical characteristics of four of the S. exigua strains isolated for this study from various infections indicative of an intestinal source were almost identical to those of the validated S. exigua type strain from an oral source and two of the S. exigua strains from oral sources evaluated in this study. Thus, we show for the first time that S. exigua species can be isolated from extraoral infections as well as from oral infections. The profiles of susceptibility to selected antimicrobials of this species were also investigated for the first time. PMID:20107092

Kim, Keun-Sung; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Bennion, Robert; Liu, Chengxu; Talan, David; Summanen, Paula; Finegold, Sydney M.

2010-01-01

281

Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.  

PubMed Central

Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific muralytic enzyme, we conclude that systemic uptake of PG-PS derived from endogenous enteric bacteria contributes to hepatobiliary injury induced by SBBO in susceptible rat strains. PMID:1401067

Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

1992-01-01

282

Vitamin A metabolism in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line  

SciTech Connect

The human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, described as enterocyte-like in a number of studies, was examined for its ability to carry out the metabolism of vitamin A normally required in the absorptive process. Caco-2 cells contained cellular retinol-binding protein II, a protein which is abundant in human villus-associated enterocytes and may play an important role in the absorption of vitamin A. Microsomal preparations from Caco-2 cells contained retinal reductase, acyl-CoA-retinol acyltransferase (ARAT), and lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) activites, which have previously been proposed to be involved in the metabolism of dietary vitamin A in the enterocyte. When intact Caco-2 cells were provided with {beta}-carotene, retinyl acetate, or retinyl acetate, or retinol, synthesis of retinyl palmitoleate, oleate, palmitate, and small amounts of stearate resulted. However, exogenous retinyl palmitate or stearate was not used by Caco-2 cells as a source of retinol for ester synthesis. While there was a disproportionate synthesis of monoenoic fatty acid esters of retinol in Caco-2 cells compared to the retinyl esters typically found in human chylomicrons or the esters normally synthesized in rat intestine, the pattern was consistent with the substantial amount of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly 18:1 and 16:1, found in the sn-1 position of Caco-2 microsomal phosphatidylcholine, the fatty acyl donor for LRAT. Both ARAT and LRAT have been proposed to be responsible for retinyl ester synthesis in the enterocyte. These data suggest the LRAT may be the physiologically important enzyme for the esterification of retinol in Caco-2 cells.

Quick, T.C.; Ong, D.E. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

1990-12-01

283

Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda  

PubMed Central

We conducted a prospective study of bacterial transmission among humans, nonhuman primates (primates hereafter), and livestock in western Uganda. Humans living near forest fragments harbored Escherichia coli bacteria that were ?75% more similar to bacteria from primates in those fragments than to bacteria from primates in nearby undisturbed forests. Genetic similarity between human/livestock and primate bacteria increased ?3-fold as anthropogenic disturbance within forest fragments increased from moderate to high. Bacteria harbored by humans and livestock were approximately twice as similar to those of red-tailed guenons, which habitually enter human settlements to raid crops, than to bacteria of other primate species. Tending livestock, experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms, and residing near a disturbed forest fragment increased genetic similarity between a participant’s bacteria and those of nearby primates. Forest fragmentation, anthropogenic disturbance within fragments, primate ecology, and human behavior all influence bidirectional, interspecific bacterial transmission. Targeted interventions on any of these levels should reduce disease transmission and emergence. PMID:18760003

Gillespie, Thomas R.; Rwego, Innocent B.; Estoff, Elizabeth L.; Chapman, Colin A.

2008-01-01

284

Human intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 expression is associated with fat intake and polymorphisms.  

PubMed

The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) is involved in lipid metabolism whereby variations in the promoter (haplotypes A/B) and exon 2 (Ala54Thr) are associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To elucidate which factors determine FABP2 expression in human mucosa, we investigated the association between fat intake, genotypes, biochemical variables, and FABP2 expression. FABP2 gene expression was assessed in duodenal specimens from 100 participants who answered a FFQ and who were genotyped and characterized for traits of metabolic syndrome and further biochemical data. Homozygotes for haplotype A tended to have lower fat intake than B-allele carriers (P = 0.066). Searching for an explanation, we evaluated the orexigenic glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in a subset from the Metabolic Intervention Cohort Kiel. AA homozygotes had lower postprandial GIP concentrations than BB homozygotes. Duodenal FABP2 expression was correlated with (n-3) fatty acid (FA) intake in AA homozygotes (r = 0.49; P = 0.021). It was higher in AA homozygotes than in B-allele carriers after adjustment for (n-3) FA intake (P = 0.049) and was negatively correlated with serum FFA (r = -0.41; P < 0.01). Our data indicate that FABP2 expression depends on (n-3) FA intake and FABP2 genotypes. FABP2 might be involved in regulating food intake and intestinal FA utilization. PMID:20534879

Auinger, Annegret; Helwig, Ulf; Rubin, Diana; Herrmann, Julia; Jahreis, Gerhard; Pfeuffer, Maria; de Vrese, Michael; Foelsch, Ulrich Robert; Schreiber, Stefan; Doering, Frank; Schrezenmeir, Juergen

2010-08-01

285

Recombinant human interleukin-2-induced mitogenic proliferation of in vitro unstimulated bovine intestinal lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Recombinant human interleukin-2 (rHIL-2) in the absence or presence of additional stimuli, was able to induce and support the proliferation of lymphocytes isolated from the intra-epithelium, lamina propria and Peyer's patches of the small intestine of normal adult cows. Although dose-dependent effects of rHIL-2 were observed with all three cell populations, concentrations as low as 2.5 U/mL were able to induce DNA synthesis as measured by tritiated thymidine incorporation. Furthermore, rHIL-2 as low as 5.0 U/mL was shown to significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation. These proliferative responses to rHIL-2 were detected within two days of culture and peaked after five days. Although the extent of the blastogenic response was variable in individual animals, the general pattern of time-course and dose-response to rHIL-2 was similar in all animals tested. The response of all three leukocyte populations to rHIL-2 was dependent on the presence of adherent accessory cells and/or 2-mercaptoethanol. Both nylon wool nonadherent (T cells, null cells) and adherent cells (B cells) were shown to be responsive to rHIL-2. These studies demonstrate that bovine lymphocytes isolated from different anatomical locations of the small intestine are capable of proliferation in response to xenogenic IL-2 without in vitro preactivation signals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2783657

Nagi, A M; Babiuk, L A

1989-01-01

286

Intestinal ?-galactosidases  

PubMed Central

Previous studies based on work in the rat and preliminary experiments with human intestine have suggested that two ?-galactosidases are present in small intestine, and it is believed that only one of these enzymes is a lactase important for the digestion of dietary lactose. The high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in man prompted more complete study of these enzymes. Human intestinal ?-galactosidases were studied by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Biogel P-300 as well as by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Gel filtration produced partial separation into three peaks of enzyme activity, but much activity against synthetic substrates was lost. Only the trailing peak with specificity for synthetic ?-galactosides was completely separated from the other enzymes. Thus gel filtration was not a suitable preparative procedure for biochemical characterization. Density gradients separated the enzymes more completely, and they were designated according to their sedimentation rates and further characterized. Enzyme I has a molecular weight of 280,000, pH optimum of 6.0, and specificity for lactose of at least five times that for cellobiose or synthetic substrates. A second lactase, enzyme II, possesses slightly greater activity against lactose than for some synthetic substrates and is incapable of splitting cellobiose. Further, it has a lower pH optimum (4.5) and is present in two molecular species (molecular weights 156,000 and 660,000). Enzyme III shows specificity only for synthetic ?-galactosides but has a pH activity curve identical with enzyme I and a molecular weight of 80,000. Whereas human liver and kidney contain a ?-galactosidase with the same biochemical characteristics as intestinal enzyme II, enzymes I and III appear to be peculiar to intestine, and enzyme I most probably represents the lactase of importance in the mucosal digestion of dietary lactose. The following paper considers this further in terms of the biochemical change in intestinal lactase deficiency. PMID:5774109

Gray, Gary M.; Santiago, Nilda A.

1969-01-01

287

Gene expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors in human lung cancer.  

PubMed

Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of various human carcinomas, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer remains below 20%. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important neuropeptide in the control of lung physiology, and exerts its functions mainly through two receptor subtypes, VPAC1 and VPAC2. Receptors for VPAC1 and VPAC2 are present in human lung cancer cells, but very limited information exists about the mRNA expression of these VIP receptor subtypes in lung cancer specimens. The aim of the present study was to investigate by RT-PCR the mRNA expression of the VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors in surgical specimens of 43 human lung cancer specimens and 7 normal lung samples. mRNA expression of the VPAC1 receptor was detected in 51% of the tumor specimens, while the incidence of mRNA expression for VPAC2 was 46%. Twenty-one percent of the tumor samples expressed only the VPAC1 receptor and 16% displayed only the VPAC2 receptor, while 13 samples (30%) expressed neither subtype. Thirteen cancer tissue specimens (30%), expressed both of these VIP receptor subtypes. Three normal lung tissue specimens also displayed gene expression for VPAC1 and/or VPAC2 receptors. Our results support the additional investigation of the role of VIP and its receptors in human lung cancer and suggest a further development of VIP analogs for therapeutic and imaging purposes in this malignancy. PMID:21769421

Szilasi, Maria; Buglyo, Armin; Treszl, Andrea; Kiss, Lili; Schally, Andrew V; Halmos, Gabor

2011-10-01

288

Humanized Mouse Model to Study Bacterial Infections Targeting the Microvasculature  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis causes a severe, frequently fatal sepsis when it enters the human blood stream. Infection leads to extensive damage of the blood vessels resulting in vascular leak, the development of purpuric rashes and eventual tissue necrosis. Studying the pathogenesis of this infection was previously limited by the human specificity of the bacteria, which makes in vivo models difficult. In this protocol, we describe a humanized model for this infection in which human skin, containing dermal microvessels, is grafted onto immunocompromised mice. These vessels anastomose with the mouse circulation while maintaining their human characteristics. Once introduced into this model, N. meningitidis adhere exclusively to the human vessels, resulting in extensive vascular damage, inflammation and in some cases the development of purpuric rash. This protocol describes the grafting, infection and evaluation steps of this model in the context of N. meningitidis infection. The technique may be applied to numerous human specific pathogens that infect the blood stream. PMID:24747976

Melican, Keira; Aubey, Flore; Duménil, Guillaume

2014-01-01

289

A quantitative immunoelectronmicroscopic study on soluble, membrane-associated and membrane-bound lysosomal enzymes in human intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have used quantitative immunoelectronmicroscopy to compare thein situ localization of acid -glucosidase, lysosomal acid phosphatase, -hexosaminidase and glucocerebrosidase in intestinal epithelial cells of the human duodenum. Differences between these four lysosomal enzymes were observed with respect to their presence at the apical cell surface. Transport to the apical membrane seems to be a more important intracellular route for lysosomal

R. Willemsen; R. Brünken; C. W. J. Sorber; A. T. Hoogeveen; H. A. Wisselaar; J. M. van Dongen; A. J. J. Reuser

1991-01-01

290

Prevalence of Campylobacter Species in Adult Crohn's Disease and the Preferential Colonization Sites of Campylobacter Species in the Human Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionCrohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus was previously detected in paediatric CD and adult UC. Currently, the prevalence of C. concisus in adult CD and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine are unknown. In this study, we examined

Vikneswari Mahendran; Stephen M. Riordan; Michael C. Grimm; Thi Anh Tuyet Tran; Joelene Major; Nadeem O. Kaakoush; Hazel Mitchell; Li Zhang; Markus M. Heimesaat

2011-01-01

291

GIARDIA LAMBLIA: STIMULATION OF GROWTH BY HUMAN INTESTINAL MUCUS AND EPITHELIAL CELLS IN SERUMFREE MEDIUM (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Giardia lamblia trophozoites specifically colonize the upper human small intestine which is normally serum-free, but grow in vitro only in medium supplemented with serum or serum fractions. Recently, biliary lipids were shown to support the growth of G. lamblia without serum. Now...

292

Localization of ABCG5 and ABCG8 proteins in human liver, gall bladder and intestine  

PubMed Central

Background The molecular mechanisms that regulate the entry of dietary sterols into the body and their removal via hepatobiliary secretion are now beginning to be defined. These processes are specifically disrupted in the rare autosomal recessive disease, Sitosterolemia (MIM 210250). Mutations in either, but not both, of two genes ABCG5 or ABCG8, comprising the STSL locus, are now known to cause this disease and their protein products are proposed to function as heterodimers. Under normal circumstances cholesterol, but not non-cholesterol sterols, is preferentially absorbed from the diet. Additionally, any small amounts of non-cholesterol sterols that are absorbed are rapidly taken up by the liver and preferentially excreted into bile. Based upon the defects in sitosterolemia, ABCG5 and ABCG8 serve specifically to exclude non-cholesterol sterol entry at the intestinal level and are involved in sterol excretion at the hepatobiliary level. Methods Here we report the biochemical and immuno-localization of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human liver, gallbladder and intestine using cell fractionation and immunohistochemical analyses. Results We raised peptide antibodies against ABCG5 and ABCG8 proteins. Using human liver samples, cell fractionation studies showed both proteins are found in membrane fractions, but they did not co-localize with caveolin-rafts, ER, Golgi or mitochondrial markers. Although their distribution in the sub-fractions was similar, they were not completely contiguous. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that while both proteins were readily detectable in the liver, ABCG5 was found predominately lining canalicular membranes, whereas ABCG8 was found in association with bile duct epithelia. At the cellular level, ABCG5 appeared to be apically expressed, whereas ABCG8 had a more diffuse expression pattern. Both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appeared to localize apically as shown by co-localization with MRP2. The distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the gallbladder were very similar to each other. In the small intestine both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appear to line the brush border. However, at the level of the enterocyte, the cellular distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 differed, such that ABCG5 was more diffuse, but ABCG8 was principally apical. Using standard deglycosylation methods, ABCG5 and ABCG8 do not appear to be glycosylated, suggesting a difference between human and mouse proteins. Conclusion We report the distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human tissues. Cell fractionation studies showed that both proteins co-fractionated in general, but could also be found independent of each other. As predicted, they are expressed apically in both intestine and liver, although their intracellular expression patterns are not completely congruent. These studies support the concept of heterodimerization of ABCG5 and ABCG8, but also support the notion that these proteins may have an independent function. PMID:15383151

Klett, Eric L; Lee, Mi-Hye; Adams, David B; Chavin, Kenneth D; Patel, Shailendra B

2004-01-01

293

Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells from leukoreduction system chambers after plateletpheresis are functional in an in vitro co-culture assay with intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The dendritic cells (DC) found in the intestine are involved both in the maintenance of tolerance towards commensal microbiota, and in the generation of protective immune responses against pathogens, thus contributing to gut immune homeostasis. There is an increasing interest in the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotics; among their beneficial effects we highlight the modulation of the immune system which is one of their fundamental properties. As these effects are strain-dependent, it is important to have in vitro systems that include DC and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), which are crucial for intestinal homeostasis, to identify candidates by means of bacterial screening. Obtaining enough human cells, necessary to simultaneously test several bacteria, is a major challenge for researchers. In this study we analyzed the usefulness of the cellular fraction retained in leukoreduction system chambers following plateletpheresis (PP) as a source of DC. We compared the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from buffy coats (BC) or PP to generate DC using a short differentiation protocol. The functionality of the DC obtained was analyzed in co-cultures together with intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells, stimulating with LPS alone or with two LAB commonly used in the food industry, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. DC surface markers CD86, HLA-DR and cytokine production were measured. The behavior of DC derived from PP was similar to the behavior observed for DC derived from BC. When we tested the response of DC to bacteria, we found significant differences in cytokine secretion, especially for IL-10, suggesting that the system has the ability to discriminate LAB with different immunomodulatory properties. We also found that DC derived from both sources displayed a similar ability to phagocyte bacteria. In conclusion, we hereby propose a modification of the two-day protocol for obtaining human DC previously described, using PP as an alternative source of PBMC, to be used in co-culture systems with IEC. The novelty of this protocol is the combination of the blood monocyte source with a simple and fast differentiation method to obtain DC, and their use in a combined culture with IEC and LAB to model microbial-host interaction. Since the initial PP volume is ten times lower than that of BC, the use of PP minimizes biological residue generation and reagent consumption. In addition, monocyte-derived DC from PP were suitable for use in co-culture assays as a first screening step to study the immunomodulatory properties of LAB. PMID:22841576

Tiscornia, Inés; Sánchez-Martins, Viviana; Hernández, Ana; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela

2012-10-31

294

Predicting the impact of diet and enzymopathies on human small intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs) have a significant share in whole body metabolism as they perform enzymatic digestion and absorption of nutrients. Furthermore, the diet plays a key role in a number of complex diseases including obesity and diabetes. The impact of diet and altered genetic backgrounds on human metabolism may be studied by using computational modeling. A metabolic reconstruction of human sIECs was manually assembled using the literature. The resulting sIEC model was subjected to two different diets to obtain condition-specific metabolic models. Fifty defined metabolic tasks evaluated the functionalities of these models, along with the respective secretion profiles, which distinguished between impacts of different dietary regimes. Under the average American diet, the sIEC model resulted in higher secretion flux for metabolites implicated in metabolic syndrome. In addition, enzymopathies were analyzed in the context of the sIEC metabolism. Computed results were compared with reported gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies and biochemical defects as well as with biomarker patterns used in their diagnosis. Based on our simulations, we propose that (i) sIEC metabolism is perturbed by numerous enzymopathies, which can be used to study cellular adaptive mechanisms specific for such disorders, and in the identification of novel co-morbidities, (ii) porphyrias are associated with both heme synthesis and degradation and (iii) disturbed intestinal gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis may be linked to neurological manifestations of various enzymopathies. Taken together, the sIEC model represents a comprehensive, biochemically accurate platform for studying the function of sIEC and their role in whole body metabolism. PMID:23492669

Sahoo, Swagatika; Thiele, Ines

2013-01-01

295

Transport of Aflatoxin M(1) in Human Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). After it is formed, it is secreted in the milk of mammals. Despite the potential risk of human exposure to AFM(1), data reported in literature on the metabolism, toxicity, and bioavailability of this molecule are limited and out of date. The aim of the present research was to study the absorption profile of AFM(1) and possible damage to tight junctions (TJ) of the intestinal Caco-2/TC7 clone grown on microporous filter supports. These inserts allowed for the separation of the apical and basolateral compartments which correspond to the in vivo lumen and the interstitial space/vascular systems of intestinal mucosa respectively. In this study, the Caco-2/TC7 cells were treated with different AFM(1) concentrations (10-10,000?ng/kg) for short (40?min) and long periods of time (48?h). The AFM(1) influx/efflux transport and effects on TJ were evaluated by measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance and observing TJ protein (Zonula occludens-1 and occludin) localization. The results showed that: (i) when introduced to the apical and basolateral compartments, AFM(1) was poorly absorbed by the Caco-2/TC7 cells but its transport across the cell monolayer occurred very quickly (P(app) value of 105.10?±?7.98?cm/s?×?10(-6)). (ii) The integrity of TJ was not permanently compromised after exposure to the mycotoxin. Viability impairment or barrier damage did not occur either. The present results contribute to the evaluation of human risk exposure to AFM(1), although the AFM(1) transport mechanism need to be clarified. PMID:22701428

Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; De Angelis, Isabella

2012-01-01

296

The yin and yang of bacterial resilience in the human gut microbiota.  

PubMed

The human gut is home to trillions of microbes that form a symbiotic relationship with the human host. During health, the intestinal microbiota provides many benefits to the host and is generally resistant to colonization by new species; however, disruption of this complex community can lead to pathogen invasion, inflammation, and disease. Restoration and maintenance of a healthy gut microbiota composition requires effective therapies to reduce and prevent colonization of harmful bacteria (pathogens) while simultaneously promoting growth of beneficial bacteria (probiotics). Here we review the mechanisms by which the host modulates the gut community composition during health and disease, and we discuss prospects for antibiotic and probiotic therapy for restoration of a healthy intestinal community following disruption. PMID:24911583

Gibson, Molly K; Pesesky, Mitchell W; Dantas, Gautam

2014-11-25

297

Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

2014-01-01

298

Identification of a Selective Inhibitor of Murine Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (ML260) by Concurrent Ultra-High Throughput Screening against Human and Mouse Isozymes  

PubMed Central

Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes are present in a wide range of species from bacteria to man and are capable of dephosphorylation and transphosphorylation of a wide spectrum of substrates in vitro. In humans, four AP isozymes have been identified—one tissue-nonspecific (TNAP) and three tissue-specific—named according to the tissue of their predominant expression: intestinal (IAP), placental (PLAP) and germ cell (GCAP) APs. Modulation of activity of the different AP isozymes may have therapeutic implications in distinct diseases and cellular processes. For instance, changes in the level of IAP activity can affect gut mucosa tolerance to microbial invasion due to the ability of IAP to detoxify bacterial endotoxins, alter the absorption of fatty acids and affect ectopurinergic regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion. To identify isozyme selective modulators of the human and mouse IAPs, we developed a series of murine duodenal IAP (Akp3-encoded dIAP isozyme), human IAP (hIAP), PLAP, and TNAP assays. High throughput screening and subsequent SAR efforts generated a potent inhibitor of dIAP, ML260, with specificity for the Akp3-, compared to the Akp5- and Akp6-encoded mouse isozymes. PMID:24412070

Brown, Brock; Ganji, Santhi; Zou, Jiwen; Pass, Ian; Narisawa, Sonoko; Iano, Flávia Godoy; Rosenstein, Craig; Cheltsov, Anton; Rascon, Justin; Hedrick, Michael; Gasior, Carlton; Forster, Anita; Shi, Shenghua; Dahl, Russell; Vasile, Stefan; Su, Ying; Sergienko, Eduard; Chung, Thomas D.Y.; Kaunitz, Jonathan; Hoylaerts, Marc F.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Millán, José Luis

2014-01-01

299

Conformational dynamics of bacterial and human cytoplasmic models of the ribosomal A-site.  

PubMed

The aminoacyl-tRNA binding site (A-site) is located in helix 44 of small ribosomal subunit. The mobile adenines 1492 and 1493 (Escherichia coli numbering), forming the A-site bulge, act as a functional switch that ensures mRNA decoding accuracy. Structural data on the oligonucleotide models mimicking the ribosomal A-site with sequences corresponding to bacterial and human cytoplasmic sites confirm that this RNA motif forms also without the ribosome context. We performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of these crystallographic A-site models to compare their conformational properties. We found that the human A-site bulge is more internally flexible than the bacterial one and has different base pairing preferences, which result in the overall different shapes of these bulges and cation density distributions. Also, in the human A-site model we observed repetitive destacking of A1492, while A1493 was more stably paired than in the bacterial variant. Based on the dynamics of the A-sites we suggest why aminoglycoside antibiotics, which target the bacterial A-site, have lower binding affinities and anti-translational activities toward the human variant. PMID:25748164

Panecka, Joanna; Šponer, Ji?í; Trylska, Joanna

2015-05-01

300

Bacterial vaginosis is associated with uterine cervical human papillomavirus infection: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), an alteration of vaginal flora involving a decrease in Lactobacilli and predominance of anaerobic bacteria, is among the most common cause of vaginal complaints for women of childbearing age. It is well known that BV has an influence in acquisition of certain genital infections. However, association between BV and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been

Evy Gillet; Joris FA Meys; Hans Verstraelen; Carolyne Bosire; Philippe De Sutter; Marleen Temmerman; Davy Vanden Broeck

2011-01-01

301

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal  

E-print Network

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal health. The relationship between antibiotic use and the development of resistance has been studied extensively, with some of this research aimed at identifying antibiotic treatment strategies that minimize the maintenance of resistance

Singer, Randall

302

Transport and epithelial secretion of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells have been used to investigate the transepithelial permeation of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. 2. Transepithelial basal to apical [3H]-digoxin flux exceeds apical to basal flux, a net secretion of [3H]-digoxin being observed. At 200 microM digoxin, net secretory flux (Jnet) was 10.8 +/- 0.6 nmol cm-2 h-1. Maximal secretory flux (Jmax) of vinblastine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 nmol cm-2 h-1. Cellular uptake of digoxin was different across apical and basal cell boundaries. It was greatest across the basal surface at 1 microM, whereas at 200 microM, apical uptake exceeded basal uptake. 3. Net secretion of [3H]-digoxin was subject to inhibition by digitoxin and bufalin but was not inhibited by ouabain, convallatoxin, and strophanthidin (all 100 microM). Inhibition was due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Uptake of [3H]-digoxin at the apical surface was increased by digitoxin and bufalin. All cardiac glycosides decreased [3H]-digoxin uptake at the basal cell surface (except for 100 microM digitoxin). 4. The competitive P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil (100 microM), nifedipine (50 microM) and vinblastine (50 microM) all abolished net secretion of [3H]-digoxin due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-digoxin was also increased across both the apical and basal cell surfaces. I-Chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene (10 microM), a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase and subsequent ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate secretion, failed to inhibit net secretion of [3H]-digoxin. The increase in absorptive permeability Pa-b (= Ja-b/Ca) and cellular [3H]-digoxin uptake upon P-glycoprotein inhibition, showed that the intestinal epithelium was rendered effectively impermeable by ATP-dependent extrusion at the apical surface. 5. A model for [3H]-digoxin secretion by the intestinal epithelium is likely to involve both diffusional uptake and Na(+)-K+ pump-mediated endocytosis, followed by active extrusion at the apical membrane. PMID:8832062

Cavet, M. E.; West, M.; Simmons, N. L.

1996-01-01

303

Type 1 pili-mediated adherence of Escherichia coli strain LF82 isolated from Crohn's disease is involved in bacterial invasion of intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

We previously characterized the invasive ability of Escherichia coli strain LF82, isolated from an ileal biopsy of a patient with Crohn's disease. In the present study, we performed TnphoA insertion mutagenesis to identify genes involved in LF82 invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. Most of the non-invasive mutants had an insertion mutation within the type 1 pili-encoding operon. Two non-invasive fim mutants, which harboured an insertion within the fimI and fimF genes, still adhered but had lost the ability to induce host cell membrane elongations at the sites of contact with the epithelial cells. Transcomplementation experiments with a fim operon cloned from E. coli K-12 restored both invasive ability and the ability to induce host cell membrane elongations. Expression of the cloned LF82 or K-12 fim operon into the non-invasive laboratory strain JM109 did not confer invasive properties. Thus, these findings showed that: (i) type 1 pili-mediated adherence is involved in LF82-induced perturbation of host cell signalling responsible for membrane elongations; (ii) native shafts are required for type 1 pilus-mediated induction of membrane elongations; (iii) this active phenomenon is a key step in the establishment of the invasive process; and (iv) type 1 pili alone are not sufficient to trigger bacterial internalization. PMID:11251843

Boudeau, J; Barnich, N; Darfeuille-Michaud, A

2001-03-01

304

Immunomodulation of human intestinal T cells by the synthetic CD80 antagonist RhuDex®.  

PubMed

Deregulated activation of mucosal lamina propria T cells plays a central role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. One of the means to attenuate T cell activation is by blocking the CD28/CD80 co-stimulatory pathway. Here we investigate RhuDex®, a small molecule that binds to human CD80, for its effects on the activation of lamina propria T cells employing a gut-culture model of inflammation. To this end, lamina propria leukocytes (LPL) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were stimulated either through the CD3/T-cell-receptor complex or the CD2-receptor (CD2) employing agonistic monoclonal antibodies. Co-stimulatory signals were provided by CD80/CD86 present on lamina propria myeloid cells or LPS-activated peripheral blood monocytes. Results show that RhuDex® caused a profound reduction of LPL and PBL proliferation, while Abatacept (CTLA-4-Ig) inhibited LPL proliferation to a small degree, and had no effect on PBL proliferation. Furthermore, Abatacept significantly inhibited IL-2, TNF-?, and IFN-? release from LPL, primarily produced by CD4(+) T cells, where IL-2 blockage was surprisingly strong, suggesting a down-regulating effect on regulatory T cells. In contrast, in the presence of RhuDex®, secretion of IL-17, again mostly by CD4(+) T cells, and IFN-? was inhibited in LPL and PBL, yet IL-2 remained unaffected. Thus, RhuDex® efficiently inhibited lamina propria and peripheral blood T-cell activation in this pre-clinical study making it a promising drug candidate for the treatment of intestinal inflammation. PMID:25505551

Heninger, Anne-Kristin; Wentrup, Sabine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Schiessling, Serin; Giese, Thomas; Wartha, Florian; Meuer, Stefan; Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta

2014-11-01

305

Immunomodulation of human intestinal T cells by the synthetic CD80 antagonist RhuDex®  

PubMed Central

Deregulated activation of mucosal lamina propria T cells plays a central role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. One of the means to attenuate T cell activation is by blocking the CD28/CD80 co-stimulatory pathway. Here we investigate RhuDex®, a small molecule that binds to human CD80, for its effects on the activation of lamina propria T cells employing a gut-culture model of inflammation. To this end, lamina propria leukocytes (LPL) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were stimulated either through the CD3/T-cell-receptor complex or the CD2-receptor (CD2) employing agonistic monoclonal antibodies. Co-stimulatory signals were provided by CD80/CD86 present on lamina propria myeloid cells or LPS-activated peripheral blood monocytes. Results show that RhuDex® caused a profound reduction of LPL and PBL proliferation, while Abatacept (CTLA-4-Ig) inhibited LPL proliferation to a small degree, and had no effect on PBL proliferation. Furthermore, Abatacept significantly inhibited IL-2, TNF-?, and IFN-? release from LPL, primarily produced by CD4+ T cells, where IL-2 blockage was surprisingly strong, suggesting a down-regulating effect on regulatory T cells. In contrast, in the presence of RhuDex®, secretion of IL-17, again mostly by CD4+ T cells, and IFN-? was inhibited in LPL and PBL, yet IL-2 remained unaffected. Thus, RhuDex® efficiently inhibited lamina propria and peripheral blood T-cell activation in this pre-clinical study making it a promising drug candidate for the treatment of intestinal inflammation. PMID:25505551

Heninger, Anne-Kristin; Wentrup, Sabine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Schiessling, Serin; Giese, Thomas; Wartha, Florian; Meuer, Stefan; Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta

2014-01-01

306

Activation of Intestinal Epithelial Stat3 Orchestrates Tissue Defense during Gastrointestinal Infection  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium – a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIII? and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25799189

Wittkopf, Nadine; Pickert, Geethanjali; Billmeier, Ulrike; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Wirtz, Stefan; Martini, Eva; Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Becker, Christoph

2015-01-01

307

Activation of Intestinal Epithelial Stat3 Orchestrates Tissue Defense during Gastrointestinal Infection.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium - a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIII? and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25799189

Wittkopf, Nadine; Pickert, Geethanjali; Billmeier, Ulrike; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Wirtz, Stefan; Martini, Eva; Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Becker, Christoph

2015-01-01

308

Metabolism of Methadone and levo--Acetylmethadol (LAAM) by Human Intestinal Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)  

E-print Network

Metabolism of Methadone and levo- -Acetylmethadol (LAAM) by Human Intestinal Cytochrome P450 3A4; CYP3A4 is the predominant cyto- chrome P450 isoform; CYP3A4-catalyzed methadone, LAAM, and nor (CYP3A4): Potential Contribution of Intestinal Metabolism to Presystemic Clearance and Bioactivation

Steinbach, Joe Henry

309

CXCL8 modulates human intestinal epithelial cells through a CXCR1 dependent pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: CXCL8 (previously known as Interleukin-8), a member of the ?-chemokine family of chemotactic cytokines, stimulates intestinal neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. As intestinal epithelial cells have been recently shown to produce CXCL8, the aim of this study was to identify functional activities of CXCL8 on intestinal epithelial cells. Methods: The expression of CXCL8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 was assessed by

Andreas Sturm; Daniel C. Baumgart; Johanna Harder d'Heureuse; Angelika Hotz; Bertram Wiedenmann; Axel U. Dignass

2005-01-01

310

Challenges of Culturing Human Norovirus in Three-Dimensional Organoid Intestinal Cell Culture Models  

PubMed Central

Human noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, cell culture systems have been described using either human embryonic intestinal epithelial cells (Int-407) or human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) growing on collagen-I porous micro carrier beads in a rotating bioreactor under conditions of physiological fluid shear. Here, we describe the efforts from two independent laboratories to implement this three dimensional (3D) cell culture system for the replication of norovirus. Int-407 and Caco-2 were grown in a rotating bioreactor for up to 28 days. Prior to infection, cells were screened for the presence of microvilli by electron microscopy and stained for junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, and ?-catenin). Differentiated 3D cells were transferred to 24-well plates and infected with bacteria-free filtrates of various norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GI.3, GI.8, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, and GII.8). At 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h post inoculation, viral RNA from both cells and supernatants were collected and analyzed for norovirus RNA by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Despite observations of high expression of junction proteins and microvilli development in stained thin sections, our data suggest no significant increase in viral titer based on norovirus RNA copy number during the first 48 h after inoculation for the different samples and virus culture conditions tested. Our combined efforts demonstrate that 3D cell culture models using Int-407 or Caco-2 cells do not support norovirus replication and highlight the complexity and difficulty of developing a reproducible in vitro cell culture system for human norovirus. PMID:23755105

Papafragkou, Efstathia; Hewitt, Joanne; Park, Geun Woo; Greening, Gail; Vinjé, Jan

2013-01-01

311

Assessment of the mode of action underlying development of rodent small intestinal tumors following oral exposure to hexavalent chromium and relevance to humans  

PubMed Central

Chronic exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water causes intestinal adenomas and carcinomas in mice, but not in rats. Cr(VI) causes damage to intestinal villi and crypt hyperplasia in mice after only one week of exposure. After two years of exposure, intestinal damage and crypt hyperplasia are evident in mice (but not rats), as are intestinal tumors. Although Cr(VI) has genotoxic properties, these findings suggest that intestinal tumors in mice arise as a result of chronic mucosal injury. To better understand the mode of action (MOA) of Cr(VI) in the intestine, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted to collect histological, biochemical, toxicogenomic and pharmacokinetic data in intestinal tissues. Using MOA analyses and human relevance frameworks proposed by national and international regulatory agencies, the weight of evidence supports a cytotoxic MOA with the following key events: (a) absorption of Cr(VI) from the intestinal lumen, (b) toxicity to intestinal villi, (c) crypt regenerative hyperplasia and (d) clonal expansion of mutations within the crypt stem cells, resulting in late onset tumorigenesis. This article summarizes the data supporting each key event in the MOA, as well as data that argue against a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors. PMID:23445218

Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Kirman, Christopher R.; Harris, Mark A.

2013-01-01

312

Microbiota/Host Crosstalk Biomarkers: Regulatory Response of Human Intestinal Dendritic Cells Exposed to Lactobacillus Extracellular Encrypted Peptide  

PubMed Central

The human gastrointestinal tract is exposed to a huge variety of microorganisms, either commensal or pathogenic; at this site, a balance between immunity and immune tolerance is required. Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) control the mechanisms of immune response/tolerance in the gut. In this paper we have identified a peptide (STp) secreted by Lactobacillus plantarum, characterized by the abundance of serine and threonine residues within its sequence. STp is encoded in one of the main extracellular proteins produced by such species, which includes some probiotic strains, and lacks cleavage sites for the major intestinal proteases. When studied in vitro, STp expanded the ongoing production of regulatory IL-10 in human intestinal DCs from healthy controls. STp-primed DC induced an immunoregulatory cytokine profile and skin-homing profile on stimulated T-cells. Our data suggest that some of the molecular dialogue between intestinal bacteria and DCs may be mediated by immunomodulatory peptides, encoded in larger extracellular proteins, secreted by commensal bacteria. These peptides may be used for the development of nutraceutical products for patients with IBD. In addition, this kind of peptides seem to be absent in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease patients, suggesting a potential role as biomarker of gut homeostasis. PMID:22606249

Al-Hassi, Hafid O.; Mann, Elizabeth R.; Urdaci, María C.; Knight, Stella C.; Margolles, Abelardo

2012-01-01

313

Human and mouse mitochondrial orthologs of bacterial ClpX  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We have determined the cDNA sequence and exon\\/intron structure of the human CLPX gene encoding a human ortholog of the E. coli ClpX chaperone and protease subunit. The CLPX gene comprises 14 exons and encodes a 633-amino acid-long precursor polypeptide.\\u000a The polypeptide contains an N-terminal putative mitochondrial transit peptide, and expression of a full-length ClpX cDNA tagged\\u000a at its

Thomas J. Corydon; Mette Wilsbech; Cathrine Jespersgaard; Brage S. Andresen; Anders D. Børglum; Søren Pedersen; Lars Bolund; Niels Gregersen; Peter Bross

2000-01-01

314

Construction and Characterization of a Human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed an arrayed human genomic BAC library with approximately 4× coverage that is represented by 96,000 BAC clones with average insert size of nearly 140 kb. A new BAC vector that allows color-based positive screening to identify transformants with inserts has increased BAC cloning efficiency. The library was gridded onto hybridization filters at high density for efficient identification

Ung-Jin Kim; Bruce W. Birren; Tatiana Slepak; Valeria Mancino; Cecilie Boysen; Hyung-Lyun Kang; Melvin I. Simon; Hiroaki Shizuya

1996-01-01

315

Flagellated bacterial nanorobots for medical interventions in the human body  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that a combination of various types of nanorobots will prove to be more important as we attend to enhance targeting in the smallest blood vessels found in the human microvasculature. As such, various interdependent concepts for the implementation of these different types of medical bio-nanorobots including nanorobots propelled in the microvasculature by flagellated bacteria to target deep regions

Sylvain Martel; Ouajdi Felfoul; M. Mohammadi

2008-01-01

316

Construction and identification of bacterial plasmids containing nucleotide sequence for human leukocyte interferon.  

PubMed

Bacterial plasmids containing human leukocyte interferon sequences were constructed and identified. Identification was confirmed by correspondence of the nucleotide sequence with out amino acid sequence of human leukocyte interferon. The finding of bacterial recombinants containing distinct leukocyte interferon sequences is consistent with our purification of different leukocyte interferon species. We conclude that what has been designated human leukocyte interferon is, indeed, a class of homologous proteins. Preliminary indications suggest that their diversity appears to be represented by individual genomic equivalents. Each of the individual species exhibits characteristic activities. The structural modulation of these biological activities has immense significance for understanding the natural role of the interferons and for refining and developing their ultimate therapeutic potential. PMID:6164056

Maeda, S; McCandliss, R; Gross, M; Sloma, A; Familletti, P C; Tabor, J M; Evinger, M; Levy, W P; Pestka, S

1980-12-01

317

Construction and identification of bacterial plasmids containing nucleotide sequence for human leukocyte interferon.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial plasmids containing human leukocyte interferon sequences were constructed and identified. Identification was confirmed by correspondence of the nucleotide sequence with out amino acid sequence of human leukocyte interferon. The finding of bacterial recombinants containing distinct leukocyte interferon sequences is consistent with our purification of different leukocyte interferon species. We conclude that what has been designated human leukocyte interferon is, indeed, a class of homologous proteins. Preliminary indications suggest that their diversity appears to be represented by individual genomic equivalents. Each of the individual species exhibits characteristic activities. The structural modulation of these biological activities has immense significance for understanding the natural role of the interferons and for refining and developing their ultimate therapeutic potential. Images PMID:6164056

Maeda, S; McCandliss, R; Gross, M; Sloma, A; Familletti, P C; Tabor, J M; Evinger, M; Levy, W P; Pestka, S

1980-01-01

318

Direct effect of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) on intestinal epithelial cell differentiation: relationship to HIV-1 enteropathy.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients display severe impairments of gastrointestinal functions, including diarrhea and malabsorption, even in the absence of opportunistic infections. Since HIV-1 proteins and nucleic acids have been detected in several cell types of the intestinal mucosa, it has been postulated that HIV-1 itself could alter enterocytic functions. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of HIV-1 on the differentiation process of the epithelial intestinal cell clone HT-29-D4, which mimics the maturation of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis of the small intestine. We found that HIV-1 infection impairs cellular differentiation (i) by affecting the barrier function of the epithelium, as evidenced by a decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance, and (ii) by inhibiting the activity of one major glucose absorption function, i.e., sodium/glucose cotransport. At the morphological level, HIV-1 infection of HT-29-D4 cells was associated with the formation of lumina, which are representative of a defect in cellular organization. These morphofunctional perturbations induced by HIV-1 could be mimicked by nocodazole, a microtubule-disrupting agent. Correspondingly, HIV-1 exposure of HT-29-D4 cells evoked a massive disruption of microtubules, as revealed by alpha-tubulin indirect immunofluorescence staining. A similar effect was observed after incubation of the cells with either recombinant gp120 or a monoclonal antibody against galactosylceramide (GalCer), the intestinal receptor for HIV-1 gp120, suggesting that the effect of HIV-1 was mediated by the binding of gp120 to GalCer. Based on these data, we propose that HIV-1 may selectively alter enterocytic functions through a direct effect on the intracellular architecture of the cells. In contrast with previous theories for HIV-1 enteropathy, our data support the concept that HIV-1 may perturb intestinal functions without necessarily infecting intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:9400596

Delézay, O; Yahi, N; Tamalet, C; Baghdiguian, S; Boudier, J A; Fantini, J

1997-11-24

319

Generation of primary human intestinal T cell transcriptomes reveals differential expression at genetic risk loci for immune-mediated disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants within multiple risk loci as predisposing to intestinal inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and coeliac disease. Most risk variants affect regulation of transcription, but a critical challenge is to identify which genes and which cell types these variants affect. We aimed to characterise whole transcriptomes for each common T lymphocyte subset resident within the gut mucosa, and use these to infer biological insights and highlight candidate genes of interest within GWAS risk loci. Design We isolated the four major intestinal T cell populations from pinch biopsies from healthy subjects and generated transcriptomes for each. We computationally integrated these transcriptomes with GWAS data from immune-related diseases. Results Robust, high quality transcriptomic data were generated from 1?ng of RNA from precisely sorted cell subsets. Gene expression patterns clearly differentiated intestinal T cells from counterparts in peripheral blood and revealed distinct signalling pathways for each intestinal T cell subset. Intestinal-specific T cell transcripts were enriched in GWAS risk loci for Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and coeliac disease, but also specific extraintestinal immune-mediated diseases, allowing prediction of novel candidate genes. Conclusions This is the first report of transcriptomes for minimally manipulated intestinal T lymphocyte subsets in humans. We have demonstrated that careful processing of mucosal biopsies allows the generation of transcriptomes from as few as 1000 highly purified cells with minimal interindividual variation. Bioinformatic integration of transcriptomic data with recent GWAS data identified specific candidate genes and cell types for inflammatory pathologies. PMID:24799394

Raine, Tim; Liu, Jimmy Z; Anderson, Carl A; Parkes, Miles; Kaser, Arthur

2015-01-01

320

Novel Resveratrol-Based Substrates for Human Hepatic, Renal, and Intestinal UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Trans-Resveratrol (tRes) has been shown to have powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiaging properties; however, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited by its rapid metabolism into its conjugated forms by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the limited bioavailability of tRes can be improved by modifying its structure to create analogs which would be glucuronidated at a lower rate than tRes itself. In this work, three synthetic stilbenoids, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid (NI-12a), (E)-2,4-dimethoxy-6-(4-methoxystyryl)benzaldehyde oxime (NI-ST-05), and (E)-4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl)-2,6-dinitrophenol (DNR-1), have been designed based on the structure of tRes and synthesized in our laboratory. UGTs recognize and glucuronidate tRes at each of the 3 hydroxyl groups attached to its aromatic rings. Therefore, each of the above compounds was designed with the majority of the hydroxyl groups blocked by methylation and the addition of other novel functional groups as part of a drug optimization program. The activities of recombinant human UGTs from the 1A and 2B families were examined for their capacity to metabolize these compounds. Glucuronide formation was identified using HPLC and verified by ?-glucuronidase hydrolysis and LC–MS/MS analysis. NI-12a was glucuronidated at both the ?COOH and ?OH functions, NI-ST-05 formed a novel N–O-glucuronide, and no product was observed for DNR-1. NI-12a is primarily metabolized by the hepatic and renal enzyme UGT1A9, whereas NI-ST-05 is primarily metabolized by an extrahepatic enzyme, UGT1A10, with apparent Km values of 240 and 6.2 ?M, respectively. The involvement of hepatic and intestinal UGTs in the metabolism of both compounds was further confirmed using a panel of human liver and intestinal microsomes, and high individual variation in activity was demonstrated between donors. In summary, these studies clearly establish that modified, tRes-based stilbenoids may be preferable alternatives to tRes itself due to increased bioavailability via altered conjugation. PMID:24571610

2015-01-01

321

Novel resveratrol-based substrates for human hepatic, renal, and intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.  

PubMed

Trans-Resveratrol (tRes) has been shown to have powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiaging properties; however, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited by its rapid metabolism into its conjugated forms by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the limited bioavailability of tRes can be improved by modifying its structure to create analogs which would be glucuronidated at a lower rate than tRes itself. In this work, three synthetic stilbenoids, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid (NI-12a), (E)-2,4-dimethoxy-6-(4-methoxystyryl)benzaldehyde oxime (NI-ST-05), and (E)-4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl)-2,6-dinitrophenol (DNR-1), have been designed based on the structure of tRes and synthesized in our laboratory. UGTs recognize and glucuronidate tRes at each of the 3 hydroxyl groups attached to its aromatic rings. Therefore, each of the above compounds was designed with the majority of the hydroxyl groups blocked by methylation and the addition of other novel functional groups as part of a drug optimization program. The activities of recombinant human UGTs from the 1A and 2B families were examined for their capacity to metabolize these compounds. Glucuronide formation was identified using HPLC and verified by ?-glucuronidase hydrolysis and LC-MS/MS analysis. NI-12a was glucuronidated at both the -COOH and -OH functions, NI-ST-05 formed a novel N-O-glucuronide, and no product was observed for DNR-1. NI-12a is primarily metabolized by the hepatic and renal enzyme UGT1A9, whereas NI-ST-05 is primarily metabolized by an extrahepatic enzyme, UGT1A10, with apparent Km values of 240 and 6.2 ?M, respectively. The involvement of hepatic and intestinal UGTs in the metabolism of both compounds was further confirmed using a panel of human liver and intestinal microsomes, and high individual variation in activity was demonstrated between donors. In summary, these studies clearly establish that modified, tRes-based stilbenoids may be preferable alternatives to tRes itself due to increased bioavailability via altered conjugation. PMID:24571610

Greer, Aleksandra K; Madadi, Nikhil R; Bratton, Stacie M; Eddy, Sarah D; Mazerska, Zofia; Hendrickson, Howard P; Crooks, Peter A; Radominska-Pandya, Anna

2014-04-21

322

Reduced expression of aquaporins in human intestinal mucosa in early stage inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aquaporin (AQP) water channel expression and the pathological features of early untreated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans. Methods Patients suspected to have IBD on the basis of predefined symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or blood in stool for more than 10 days, were examined at the local hospital. Colonoscopy with biopsies was performed and blood samples were taken. Patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for IBD and who displayed no evidence of infection or other pathology in the gut were included as symptomatic non-IBD controls. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in biopsies from the distal ileum and colon by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of selected AQPs was assessed by confocal microscopy. Through multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences, the putative three-dimensional structures of AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 were modeled. Results AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 mRNAs were detected in all parts of the intestinal mucosa. Notably, AQP1 and AQP3 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum of patients with Crohn’s disease, and AQP7 and AQP8 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum and the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed localization of AQP3, 7, and 8 at the mucosal epithelium, whereas the expression of AQP1 was mainly confined to the endothelial cells and erythrocytes. The reduction in the level of AQP3, 7, and 8 mRNA was confirmed by immunofluorescence, which also indicated a reduction of apical immunolabeling for AQP8 in the colonic surface epithelium and crypts of the IBD samples. This could indicate loss of epithelial polarity in IBD, leading to disrupted barrier function. Conclusion AQPs 1 and 8 and the aquaglyceroporins AQPs 3 and 7 are the AQPs predominantly expressed in the lower intestinal tract of humans. Their expression is significantly reduced in patients with IBD, and they are differentially expressed in specific bowel segments in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The data present a link between gut inflammation and water/solute homeostasis, suggesting that AQPs may play a significant role in IBD pathophysiology. PMID:25624769

Ricanek, Petr; Lunde, Lisa K; Frye, Stephan A; Støen, Mari; Nygård, Ståle; Morth, Jens P; Rydning, Andreas; Vatn, Morten H; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Tønjum, Tone

2015-01-01

323

Antibodies to bacterial vaccines demonstrating specificity for human choriogonadotropin (hCG) and immunochemical detection of hCG-like factor in subcellular bacterial fractions.  

PubMed Central

Investigations were done to determine whether vaccines prepared with chemically killed Staphylococcus haemolyticus RU1 and Streptococcus bovis AV46 (bacteria that have been demonstrated to express human choriogonadotropin [hCG]-like material on their surface) elicited antibodies in rabbits with specificity for hCG determinants. In addition, the anatomical locus of the hCG-like factor was determined by separation of bacterial subcellular fractions. The results demonstrated that these bacterial vaccines elicited antibodies immunologically similar to those antibodies produced in response to the whole human trophoblastic hormone, a similarity extending even to cross-reactivity with human luteinizing hormone. The bacterial hCG-like material appeared to be localized in the membranes of the cell wall, and most was present in the soluble membranous and cytoplasmic constituents. Its expression in bacteria was a strain characteristic and not a species characteristic. Images PMID:3721581

Domingue, G J; Acevedo, H F; Powell, J E; Stevens, V C

1986-01-01

324

Bacterial expression and functional reconstitution of human heparanase.  

PubMed

Human heparanase is a heparan sulfate degrading enzyme located in the extracellular matrix playing a decisive role in angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Translated as a 65 kDa inactive prae-form, the protein is processed into an 8 kDa and a 50 kDa subunit which form a non-covalently associated active heterodimer. We have expressed the two subunits separately in Escherichia coli which yielded active human heparanase upon reconstitution. The two purified subunits folded independently and secondary structure analysis by far-UV CD spectroscopy gave 33.1/11.1% ?/? content for the 50 kDa subunit and 6.9/49% ?/? content for the 8 kDa subunit. This heparanase expression system is easy and can be used for efficient screening for enzyme inhibitors. PMID:24656445

Winkler, Sophie; Schweiger, Daniela; Wei, Zheng; Rajkovic, Erich; Kungl, Andreas J

2014-05-01

325

Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial and RNA viral communities from sentinel birds placed on selected broiler chicken farms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing ...

326

Disease-Dependent Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to the Human Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Their adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered one of the main reasons for the beneficial health effects of specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, the influence of disease on the mucosal adhesion is largely unknown. Adhesion of selected LAB to resected colonic tissue and mucus was determined in patients with three major intestinal diseases (i.e., diverticulitis, rectal carcinoma, and

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Peter J. Roberts; Jari Ovaska; Eeva Salminen

2003-01-01

327

Variations in metabolism of the soy isoflavonoid daidzein by human intestinal microfloras from different individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoflavonoids found in legumes, such as soybeans, are converted by intestinal bacteria to metabolites that might have increased or decreased estrogenic activity. Variation in the effects of dietary isoflavonoids among individuals has been attributed to differences in their metabolism by intestinal bacteria. To investigate this variation, the metabolism of the isoflavonoid daidzein by bacteria from ten fecal samples, provided at

Fatemeh Rafii; Christy Davis; Thomas M. Heinze; Richard D. Beger

2003-01-01

328

Intestinal Absorption of Low Molecular Weight Heparin in Animals and Human Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We had previously shown that the use of bile salts, which act as surfactants, facilitates the intestinal absorption of large molecules such as those of heparin and insulin. However, the bioavailability of unfractionated heparin (UFH) administered through the large intestine was low. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the absorption of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)

Aviram Nissan; Ehud Ziv; Miriam Kidron; Hanoch Bar-On; Gideon Friedman; Esther Hyam; Amiram Eldor

2000-01-01

329

Bacterial DNA may integrate into human genome more readily in tumor tissue  

Cancer.gov

Bacterial DNA may integrate into the human genome more readily in tumors than in normal human tissue, according to a new study from the University of Maryland School of Medicine's Institute for Genome Sciences and the University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center. Researchers analyzed genomic sequencing data available from the Human Genome Project, the 1,000 Genomes Project and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). They considered the phenomenon of lateral gene transfer (LGT), the transmission of genetic material between organisms in the absence of sex.

330

Hemocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus are hosts for human bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Pediculus humanus humanus is an human ectoparasite which represents a serious public health threat because it is vector for pathogenic bacteria. It is important to understand and identify where bacteria reside in human body lice to define new strategies to counterstroke the capacity of vectorization of the bacterial pathogens by body lice. It is known that phagocytes from vertebrates can be hosts or reservoirs for several microbes. Therefore, we wondered if Pediculus humanus humanus phagocytes could hide pathogens. In this study, we characterized the phagocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus and evaluated their contribution as hosts for human pathogens such as Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella Quintana, and Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:25688336

Coulaud, Pierre-Julien; Lepolard, Catherine; Bechah, Yassina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Ghigo, Eric

2015-01-01

331

Bacterial flagellin induces IL-6 expression in human basophils.  

PubMed

Binding of allergen to IgE on basophils positively affects allergic inflammation by releasing inflammatory mediators. Recently, basophils were shown to express pattern-recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), for recognizing microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that are independent of allergen-IgE binding. In this study, we investigated whether MAMP alone can induce IL-6 production in a human basophil cell line, KU812. Stimulation with flagellin in the absence of allergen-IgE association induced IL-6 expression in KU812 cells, while stimulation with lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, or poly I:C did not under the same condition. Flagellin-induced IL-6 expression was also observed in human primary basophils. Flow cytometric analysis showed that KU812 cells expressed flagellin-recognizing TLR5 both on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm while TLR2 and TLR3 were observed only in the cytoplasm. We further demonstrated that although flagellin augmented the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases including p38 kinase, ERK, and JNK, flagellin-induced IL-6 production was attenuated by inhibitors for p38 kinase and ERK, but not by JNK inhibitors. In addition, flagellin enhanced phosphorylation of signaling molecules including CREB, PKC?, and AKT. The inhibitors for PKA and PKC also showed inhibitory effects. Interestingly, flagellin-induced IL-6 production was further enhanced by pretreatment with inhibitors for PI3K, implying that PI3K negatively affects the flagellin-induced IL-6 production. Furthermore, DNA binding activities of NF-?B, AP-1, and CREB, which play pivotal roles in the induction of IL-6 gene expression, were increased by flagellin. These results suggest that flagellin alone is sufficient to induce IL-6 gene expression via TLR5 signaling pathways in human basophils. PMID:25660969

Jeon, Jun Ho; Ahn, Ki Bum; Kim, Sun Kyung; Im, Jintaek; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

2015-05-01

332

An In Vitro Study on Bacterial Growth Interactions and Intestinal Epithelial Cell Adhesion Characteristics of Probiotic Combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to examine long-term growth interactions of five probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei 01, Lactobacillus plantarum HA8, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12) either alone or in combination with Propionibacterium jensenii 702 in a co-culture system and to determine their adhesion ability to human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. Growth\\u000a patterns

Mahta MoussaviMichelle; Michelle Catherine Adams

2010-01-01

333

Transcriptional and functional profiling of human intestinal dendritic cells reveals conserved specialization and a role for Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 in terminal subset differentiation  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) that orchestrate mucosal immunity have been studied in mice. Here we characterize human gut DC populations, and define their relationship to previously studied human and mouse DCs. CD103+Sirp?? DCs were related to human blood CD141+ and to mouse intestinal CD103+CD11b? DCs and expressed markers of cross-presenting DCs. CD103+Sirp?+ DCs aligned with human blood CD1c+ DCs and mouse intestinal CD103+CD11b+ DCs and supported regulatory T cell induction. Both CD103+ DC subsets induced TH17 cells, while CD103?Sirp?+ DCs induced TH1 cells. Comparative transcriptomics revealed conserved transcriptional programs among CD103+ DC subsets and uncovered a selective role for Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 in CD103+Sirp?? and intestinal CD103+CD11b+ DC specification, respectively. These results highlight evolutionarily conserved and divergent programming of intestinal DCs. PMID:24292363

Watchmaker, Payal B.; Lee, Mike; Baumjohann, Dirk; Morton, John; Kim, Sun Jung; Zeng, Ruizhu; Dent, Alexander; Ansel, K. Mark; Diamond, Betty; Hadeiba, Husein; Butcher, Eugene C.

2013-01-01

334

Interaction of dietary compounds, especially polyphenols, with the intestinal microbiota: a review.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in the metabolism of chemical compounds found within food. Bacterial metabolites are different from those that can be generated by human enzymes because bacterial processes occur under anaerobic conditions and are based mainly on reactions of reduction and/or hydrolysis. In most cases, bacterial metabolism reduces the activity of dietary compounds; however, sometimes a specific product of bacterial transformation exhibits enhanced properties. Studies on the metabolism of polyphenols by the intestinal microbiota are crucial for understanding the role of these compounds and their impact on our health. This review article presents possible pathways of polyphenol metabolism by intestinal bacteria and describes the diet-derived bioactive metabolites produced by gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on polyphenols and their potential impact on human health. Because the etiology of many diseases is largely correlated with the intestinal microbiome, a balance between the host immune system and the commensal gut microbiota is crucial for maintaining health. Diet-related and age-related changes in the human intestinal microbiome and their consequences are summarized in the paper. PMID:25672526

Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Tarko, Tomasz; Satora, Pawe?; Sroka, Pawe?

2015-04-01

335

Liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry-based structural analysis of new platycoside metabolites transformed by human intestinal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platycosides, the main active constituents of Platycodi Radix, have been thoroughly studied for the characterization of their potent biological activities. However, metabolism of platycosides has not yet been characterized. A HPLC electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC\\/ESI-MSn) approach was applied to new complex platycoside metabolites transformed by human intestinal bacteria to identify their structures and determine metabolic pathway. The molecular weights

Young Wan Ha; Yun-Cheol Na; In Jin Ha; Dong-Hyun Kim; Yeong Shik Kim

2010-01-01

336

Quantitative PCR with 16S rRNA-Gene-Targeted Species-Specific Primers for Analysis of Human Intestinal Bifidobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive quantitative PCR detection method has been developed and applied to the distribution analysis of human intestinal bifidobacteria by combining real-time PCR with Bifidobacterium genus- and species-specific primers. Real-time PCR detection of serially diluted DNA extracted from cultured bifidobac- teria was linear for cell counts ranging from 106 to 10 cells per PCR assay. It was also found

Takahiro Matsuki; Koichi Watanabe; Junji Fujimoto; Yukiko Kado; Toshihiko Takada; Kazumasa Matsumoto; Ryuichiro Tanaka

2004-01-01

337

Isolation of Nitrofurantoin-Resistant Mutants of Nitroreductase Producing Clostridium sp. Strains from the Human Intestinal Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five spontaneous nitrofurantoin-resistant mutants (one each of Clostridium leptum, Clostridium paraputrifi- cum, two other Clostridium spp. strains from the human intestinal microflora, and Clostridium perfringens ATCC 3626) were selected by growth on a nitrofurantoin-containing medium. All of the Clostridium wild-type and mutant strains produced nitroreductase, as was shown by the conversion of 4-nitrobenzoic acid to 4-aminobenzoic acid. High-performance liquid chromatography

FATEMEH RAFII

1998-01-01

338

Shared and distinct mechanisms of iron acquisition by bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans  

PubMed Central

Iron is the most abundant transition metal in the human body and its bioavailability is stringently controlled. In particular, iron is tightly bound to host proteins such as transferrin to maintain homeostasis, to limit potential damage caused by iron toxicity under physiological conditions and to restrict access by pathogens. Therefore, iron acquisition during infection of a human host is a challenge that must be surmounted by every successful pathogenic microorganism. Iron is essential for bacterial and fungal physiological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, metabolism, and energy generation via respiration. Hence, pathogenic bacteria and fungi have developed sophisticated strategies to gain access to iron from host sources. Indeed, siderophore production and transport, iron acquisition from heme and host iron-containing proteins such as hemoglobin and transferrin, and reduction of ferric to ferrous iron with subsequent transport are all strategies found in bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans. This review focuses on a comparison of these strategies between bacterial and fungal pathogens in the context of virulence and the iron limitation that occurs in the human body as a mechanism of innate nutritional defense. PMID:24312900

Caza, Mélissa; Kronstad, James W.

2013-01-01

339

Molecular Mechanisms of Superoxide Production by Complex III: A Bacterial versus Human Mitochondrial Comparative Case Study  

PubMed Central

In this minireview, we briefly survey the molecular processes that lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the respiratory complex III (CIII or cytochrome bc1). In particular, we discuss the “forward” and “reverse” electron transfer pathways that lead to superoxide generation at the quinol oxidation (Qo) site of CIII, and the components that affect these reactions. We then describe and compare the properties of a bacterial (Rhodobacter capsulatus) mutant enzyme producing ROS with its mitochondrial (human cybrids) counterpart associated with a disease. The mutation under study is located at a highly conserved tyrosine residue of cytochrome b (Y302 in R. capsulatus and Y278 in human mitochondria) that is at the heart of the quinol oxidation (Qo) site of CIII. Similarities of the major findings of bacterial and human mitochondrial cases, including decreased catalytic activity of CIII, enhanced ROS production and ensuing cellular responses and damages, are remarkable. This case illustrates the usefulness of undertaking parallel and complementary studies using biologically different yet evolutionarily related systems, such as ?-proteobacteria and human mitochondria. It progresses our understanding of CIII mechanism of function and ROS production, and underlines the possible importance of supra molecular organization of bacterial and mitochondrial respiratory chains (i. e., respirasomes) and their potential disease-associated protective roles. PMID:23542447

Lanciano, Pascal; Khalfaoui-Hassani, Bahia; Selamoglu, Nur; Ghelli, Anna; Rugolo, Michela; Daldal, Fevzi

2013-01-01

340

[Studies on biotransformation of chemical constituents of tongmai formula by human intestinal flora].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents in Tongmai formula (TMF) after biotransformation by human intestinal flora (HIF), water extract of TMF was anaerobically incubated with HIF at 37 degrees C. Column chromatographic methods over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography as well as recrystallization were used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents in TMF after biotransformation by HIF. The chemical structures of isolated compounds were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. Twenty-six compounds were obtained and identified as phenylpropionic acid (1), 6"-O-acetylpuerarin (2), formononetin(3), daidzein(4), p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (5), 3-indolepropionic acid (6), genistein (7), isoformononetin (8), isoononin (9), a mixture of (-)-puerol B-2"-O-glucopyranoside (10a) and (+) -puerol B-2"-O-glucopyranoside (10b), 8-hydroxydaidzein (11), puerol A (12), 3'-methoxy-6"-O-acetylpuerarin (13), 6"-O-acetyldaidzin (14), 3'-methoxydaidzin (15), puerol B (16), 3-methyluracil (17), genistin (18), daidzin (19), 3'-methoxypuerarin (20), mirificin (21), swertiamarin (22) , daidzein-7, 4'-O-glucoside (23), adenine (24), 3'-hydroxypuerarin (25), and puerarin (26). After biotransformation by HIF, the glycosides in TMF were transformed into aglycone and/or less glycosyl compounds along with some hydroxylation and demethylation reactions. Therefore, the glycosides in the TMF are the pro-drug. PMID:24490564

Wu, Shuai; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

2013-10-01

341

Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.  

PubMed

A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirda?), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites. PMID:19851968

Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

2009-01-01

342

Modulation of Chromatin Remodelling Induced by the Freshwater Cyanotoxin Cylindrospermopsin in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells  

PubMed Central

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin that has been recognised as an emerging potential public health risk. Although CYN toxicity has been demonstrated, the mechanisms involved have not been fully characterised. To identify some key pathways related to this toxicity, we studied the transcriptomic profile of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to a sub-toxic concentration of CYN (1.6 µM for 24hrs) using a non-targeted approach. CYN was shown to modulate different biological functions which were related to growth arrest (with down-regulation of cdkn1a and uhrf1 genes), and DNA recombination and repair (with up-regulation of aptx and pms2 genes). Our main results reported an increased expression of some histone-modifying enzymes (histone acetyl and methyltransferases MYST1, KAT5 and EHMT2) involved in chromatin remodelling, which is essential for initiating transcription. We also detected greater levels of acetylated histone H2A (Lys5) and dimethylated histone H3 (Lys4), two products of these enzymes. In conclusion, CYN overexpressed proteins involved in DNA damage repair and transcription, including modifications of nucleosomal histones. Our results highlighted some new cell processes induced by CYN. PMID:24921660

Huguet, Antoine; Hatton, Aurélie; Villot, Romain; Quenault, Hélène; Blanchard, Yannick; Fessard, Valérie

2014-01-01

343

Arsenic Thiolation and the Role of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from the Human Intestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Background: Arsenic (As) toxicity is primarily based on its chemical speciation. Although inorganic and methylated As species are well characterized in terms of metabolism and formation in the human body, the origin of thiolated methylarsenicals is still unclear. Objectives: We sought to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the human gut are actively involved in the thiolation of monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV). Methods: We incubated human fecal and colon microbiota in a batch incubator and in a dynamic gut simulator with a dose of 0.5 mg MMAV in the absence or presence of sodium molybdate, an SRB inhibitor. We monitored the conversion of MMAV into monomethyl monothioarsonate (MMMTAV) and other As species by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. We monitored the sulfate-reducing activity of the SRB by measuring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. We used molecular analysis to determine the dominant species of SRB responsible for As thiolation. Results: In the absence of sodium molybdate, the SRB activity—primarily derived from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (piger)—was specifically and proportionally correlated (p < 0.01) to MMAV conversion into MMMTAV. Inactivating the SRB with molybdate did not result in MMAV thiolation; however, we observed that the microbiota from a dynamic gut simulator were capable of demethylating 4% of the incubated MMAV into arsenous acid (iAsIII), the trivalent and more toxic form of arsenic acid (iAsV). Conclusion: We found that SRB of human gastrointestinal origin, through their ability to produce H2S, were necessary and sufficient to induce As thiolation. The toxicological consequences of this microbial As speciation change are not yet clear. However, given the efficient epithelial absorption of thiolated methylarsenicals, we conclude that the gut microbiome—and SRB activity in particular—should be incorporated into toxicokinetic analysis carried out after As exposure. Citation: DC.Rubin SS, Alava P, Zekker I, Du Laing G, Van de Wiele T. 2014. Arsenic thiolation and the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria from the human intestinal tract. Environ Health Perspect 122:817–822;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307759 PMID:24833621

Alava, Pradeep; Zekker, Ivar; Du Laing, Gijs

2014-01-01

344

Human colon fibroblasts induce differentiation and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells through the direct paracrine action of keratinocyte growth factor.  

PubMed

The effects exerted by the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) on intestinal epithelial cells cultured in vitro are influenced by cell confluence and differentiation through the modulation of keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) expression. In order to better define the contribution of KGF on the intestinal epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation, here we developed a coculture model, able to mimick in vitro the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions of the bowel. In consequence of its ability to produce KGF, demonstrated by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, the human colon fibroblast cell line CCD-18 has been selected as coculture partner for the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line. Analysis of the expression of the differentiation and proliferation markers CEA and Ki67, through double immunofluorescence assays, showed that either the coculture with CCD-18 cells or the incubation with primary colon fibroblast-derived conditioned media (CM-F and CM-F2) induced an increase in differentiation and proliferation of confluent intestinal epithelial Caco-2 or HT29 cells, parallel to that obtained by KGF treatment. Use of anti-KGF blocking antibodies and of a tyrosine kinase KGFR inhibitor demonstrated the contribution of KGF and the direct role of its receptor in the regulation of epithelial growth and differentiation, indicating that KGF is a crucial paracrine factor involved in promoting these effects. PMID:19326389

Visco, Vincenzo; Bava, Felice A; d'Alessandro, Federica; Cavallini, Marco; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria

2009-07-01

345

Intestinal MicrobiOMICS to define health and disease in human and mice.  

PubMed

Over the last five years an increasing effort has been made to understand the role of intestinal microbiota in health and disease, resulting in regarding to it as a new organ actively involved in the control of host metabolism, both in humans and mice. Amongst hundreds (up to thousand) germ species inhabiting the intestine, few of them are cultivable. Nevertheless, next-generation sequencing-based molecular technologies have been developed, allowing to overcome this problem and shed light on the way the gut microbiota undergoes dramatic changes during (patho)-physiological modifications of the host. Hence, the study of the overall gut germ genome (metagenome) and transcriptome (microbiome) has been launched. Thus, Genomics and Transcriptomics have begun to be increasingly used, opening the so called "Omics" era, including Proteomics and Metabolomics techniques as well. Taken together, the "Omics" allow the study of gut microbiota impact on whole host metabolism, resulting in the definition of new metabolic profiles (i.e. the presence of metabolites within the blood defines a metabolomic profile), others than those based on nucleic acid analyses only. Once demonstrated the involvement of gut microbiota within metabolic diseases, "Omics" analyses has allowed the identification of the obesity-induced gut microbiota imbalance, characterized by increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (metagenomics) and of the so called "core microbiome", focusing on the gut microbiota at a gene- rather than, solely, at a taxonomic-level. In addition, metabolomics studies revealed, for instance, the implication of gut microbiota to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in insulin-resistant mice. Additionally, the use of germ-free (axenic) mice has made possible the microflora transfer to investigate the mechanisms through which gut microbes modulate host metabolism, albeit the molecular actors of the host? ? ? gut-microbiota interplay remain to be fully determined. Here, we report the role of "Omics" in the multiple analyses of gut microbiota-driven metabolic modifications of the host, proposing also to focus on lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the Gram negative proinflammatory molecules we already showed to be the initiators of metabolic diseases. PMID:22122483

Serino, Matteo; Chabo, Chantal; Burcelin, Remy

2012-04-01

346

Reconstitution of Bacterial Expressed Human CD94: The Importance of the Stem Region for Dimer Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human CD94 is a subunit of the disulfide-linked, heterodimeric natural killer (NK) cell surface receptor CD94\\/NKG2. This receptor, a member of the C-type lectin superfamily, participates in regulating NK cell directed lysis through interaction with the major histocompatibility antigen HLA-E. Two forms of CD94 were expressed using a bacterial expression system and refolded in vitro. One form, residues 34–179, designated

Jeffrey C. Boyington; Aisha N. Raiz; Andrew G. Brooks; Apisit Patamawenu; Peter D. Sun

2000-01-01

347

Detection of antibody specificity of raw bovine and human milk to bacterial lipopolysaccharides using PCFIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw milk from non?immunized cows and raw human milk from lactating mothers were examined for specificity and antibody activity against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of five pathogenic bacteria, i.e. Escherichia coli O111:B4, E. coli O128:B12, Salmonella enteritidis, S. typhimurium and Shigella flexneri 1A in a particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA). Bacterial LPS was covalently coated on submicron polystyrene particles and used in

Jack N. Losso; Jyoti Dhar; Angela Kummer; Shuryo Nakai

1993-01-01

348

Reduced Set of Virulence Genes Allows High Accuracy Prediction of Bacterial Pathogenicity in Humans  

PubMed Central

Although there have been great advances in understanding bacterial pathogenesis, there is still a lack of integrative information about what makes a bacterium a human pathogen. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has dramatically increased the amount of completed bacterial genomes, for both known human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains; this information is now available to investigate genetic features that determine pathogenic phenotypes in bacteria. In this work we determined presence/absence patterns of different virulence-related genes among more than finished bacterial genomes from both human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, belonging to different taxonomic groups (i.e: Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, etc.). An accuracy of 95% using a cross-fold validation scheme with in-fold feature selection is obtained when classifying human pathogens and non-pathogens. A reduced subset of highly informative genes () is presented and applied to an external validation set. The statistical model was implemented in the BacFier v1.0 software (freely available at ), that displays not only the prediction (pathogen/non-pathogen) and an associated probability for pathogenicity, but also the presence/absence vector for the analyzed genes, so it is possible to decipher the subset of virulence genes responsible for the classification on the analyzed genome. Furthermore, we discuss the biological relevance for bacterial pathogenesis of the core set of genes, corresponding to eight functional categories, all with evident and documented association with the phenotypes of interest. Also, we analyze which functional categories of virulence genes were more distinctive for pathogenicity in each taxonomic group, which seems to be a completely new kind of information and could lead to important evolutionary conclusions. PMID:22916122

Iraola, Gregorio; Vazquez, Gustavo; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo

2012-01-01

349

Molecular analysis for screening human bacterial pathogens in municipal wastewater treatment and reuse.  

PubMed

Effective and sensitive monitoring of human pathogenic bacteria in municipal wastewater treatment is important not only for managing public health risk related to treated wastewater reuse, but also for ensuring proper functioning of the treatment plant. In this study, three different 16S rRNA gene molecular analysis methodologies were employed to screen bacterial pathogens in samples collected at three different stages of an activated sludge plant. Overall bacterial diversity was analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS) on the Illumina MiSeq platform, as well as PCR-DGGE followed by band sequencing. In addition, a microdiversity analysis was conducted using PCR-DGGE, targeting Escherichia coli. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using QIIME protocol by clustering sequences against the Human Pathogenic Bacteria Database. NGS data were also clustered against the Greengenes database for a genera-level diversity analysis. NGS proved to be the most effective approach screening the sequences of 21 potential human bacterial pathogens, while the E. coli microdiversity analysis yielded one (O157:H7 str. EDL933) out of the two E. coli strains picked up by NGS. Overall diversity using PCR-DGGE did not yield any pathogenic sequence matches even though a number of sequences matched the NGS results. Overall, sequences of Gram-negative pathogens decreased in relative abundance along the treatment train while those of Gram-positive pathogens increased. PMID:25181426

Kumaraswamy, Rajkumari; Amha, Yamrot M; Anwar, Muhammad Z; Henschel, Andreas; Rodríguez, Jorge; Ahmad, Farrukh

2014-10-01

350

NKX2-3 Transcriptional Regulation of Endothelin-1 and VEGF Signaling in Human Intestinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background NKX2-3 is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). NKX2-3 is expressed in microvascular endothelial cells and the muscularis mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs) are actively involved in the pathogenesis of IBD and IBD-associated microvascular dysfunction. To understand the cellular function of NKX2-3 and its potential role underlying IBD pathogenesis, we investigated the genes regulated by NKX2-3 in HIMEC using cDNA microarray. Methodology/Principal Findings NKX2-3 expression was suppressed by shRNA in two HIMEC lines and gene expression was profiled by cDNA microarray. Pathway Analysis was used to identify gene networks according to biological functions and associated pathways. Validation of microarray and genes expression in intestinal tissues was assessed by RT-PCR. NKX2-3 regulated genes are involved in immune and inflammatory response, cell proliferation and growth, metabolic process, and angiogenesis. Several inflammation and angiogenesis related signaling pathways that play important roles in IBD were regulated by NKX2-3, including endothelin-1 and VEGF-PI3K/AKT-eNOS. Expression levels of NKX2-3, VEGFA, PI3K, AKT, and eNOS are increased in intestinal tissues from IBD patients and expression levels of EDN1 are decreased in intestinal tissues from IBD patients. These results demonstrated the important roles of NKX2-3, VEGF, PI3K, AKT, eNOS, and EDN1 in IBD pathogenesis. Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between mRNA expression of NKX2-3 and VEGFA and a negative correlation between mRNA expression of NKX2-3 and EDN1 in intestinal tissues from IBD patients. Conclusion/Relevance NKX2-3 may play an important role in IBD pathogenesis by regulating endothelin-1 and VEGF signaling in HIMECs. PMID:21637825

Yu, Wei; Hegarty, John P.; Berg, Arthur; Chen, Xi; West, Gail; Kelly, Ashley A.; Wang, Yunhua; Poritz, Lisa S.; Koltun, Walter A.; Lin, Zhenwu

2011-01-01

351

Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Disruption through Altered Mucosal MicroRNA Expression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Epithelial barrier dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely been attributed to the rapid and severe depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although it is known that changes in mucosal gene expression contribute to intestinal enteropathy, the role of small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA), has not been investigated. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate model of HIV pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of viral infection on miRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. SIV infection led to a striking decrease in the expression of mucosal miRNA compared to that in uninfected controls. This decrease coincided with an increase in 5?-3?-exoribonuclease 2 protein and alterations in DICER1 and Argonaute 2 expression. Targets of depleted miRNA belonged to molecular pathways involved in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and immune response. Decreased expression of several miRNA involved in maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the gut was localized to the proliferative crypt region of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that SIV-induced decreased expression of miRNA involved in epithelial homeostasis, disrupted expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery, and increased expression of XRN2 are involved in the development of epithelial barrier dysfunction and gastroenteropathy. IMPORTANCE MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate the development and function of intestinal epithelial cells, and many viruses disrupt normal host miRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV and HIV disrupt expression of miRNA in the small intestine during infection. The depletion of several key miRNA is localized to the proliferative crypt region of the gut epithelium. These miRNA are known to control expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell death, and epithelial maturation. Our data indicate that this disruption might be caused by altered expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery during infection. These findings suggest that the disruption of miRNA in the small intestine likely plays a role in intestinal enteropathy during HIV infection. PMID:24672033

Gaulke, Christopher A.; Porter, Matthew; Han, Yan-Hong; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; George, Michael D.; Dang, Angeline T.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Jiang, Guochun; Korf, Ian

2014-01-01

352

The spatial arrangement of the human large intestinal wall blood circulation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to describe and depict the spatial arrangement of the colon microcirculatory bed as a whole. Various parts of the large intestine and terminal ileum were harvested from either cadaver or section material or gained peroperatively. Samples were then injected with India ink or methylmetacrylate Mercox resin for microdissection and corrosion casting for scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that extramural vasa recta ramified to form the subserous plexus, some of them passing underneath the colon taeniae. Branches of both short and long vasa recta merged in the colon wall, pierced the muscular layer and spread out as the submucous plexus, which extended throughout the whole intestine without any interruption. The muscular layer received blood via both the centrifugal branches of the submucous plexus and the minor branches sent off by the subserous plexus. The mucosa was supplied by the mucous plexus, which sent capillaries into the walls of intestinal glands. The hexagonal arrangement of the intestinal glands reflected their vascular bed. All three presumptive critical points are only gross anatomical points of no physiological relevance in healthy individuals. Neither microscopic weak points nor regional differences were proven within the wall of the whole large intestine. The corrosion casts showed a huge density of capillaries under the mucosa of the large intestine. A regular hexagonal pattern of the vascular bed on the inner surface was revealed. No microvascular critical point proofs were confirmed and a correlation model to various pathological states was created. PMID:20447248

Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Stingl, Josef

2010-03-01

353

Life in the human stomach: persistence strategies of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori has co-evolved with humans and colonizes roughly one half of the human population, but only causes overt gastric disease in a subset of infected hosts. In this Review, we discuss the pathogenesis of this bacterium and the mechanisms it uses to promote persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa, with a focus on recent insights into the role of the virulence factors VacA, CagA and CagL. We also describe the immunobiology of H. pylori infection and highlight how this bacterium manipulates the innate and adaptive immune systems of the host to promote its own persistence. PMID:23652324

Salama, Nina R.; Hartung, Mara L.; Müller, Anne

2013-01-01

354

Effects of microwaving human milk: changes in IgA content and bacterial count.  

PubMed

On the basis of this study, IgA was best preserved in frozen human milk by thawing either overnight in the refrigerator or under warm running water. If either of those procedures are to be used, it is suggested that bacterial monitoring should be performed. Because current technology does not allow for accurate low internal temperature monitoring of liquids, it is concluded that use of the microwave oven for the treatment of human milk is inappropriate. However, because microwaving is as effective as holder pasteurization in killing bacteria, and because it would be less expensive and is faster, this process should be further investigated. PMID:2723294

Sigman, M; Burke, K I; Swarner, O W; Shavlik, G W

1989-05-01

355

Effects of microwaving human milk: Changes in IgA content and bacterial count  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of this study, IgA was best preserved in frozen human milk by thawing either overnight in the refrigerator or under warm running water. If either of those procedures are to be used, it is suggested that bacterial monitoring should be performed. Because current technology does not allow for accurate low internal temperature monitoring of liquids, it is concluded that use of the microwave oven for the treatment of human milk is inappropriate. However, because microwaving is as effective as holder pasteurization in killing bacteria, and because it would be less expensive and is faster, this process should be further investigated.

Sigman, M.; Burke, K.I.; Swarner, O.W.; Shavlik, G.W.

1989-05-01

356

1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy-Based Studies of the Metabolism of Food-Borne Carcinogen 2-Amino-3-Methylimidazo[4,5-f]Quinoline by Human Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a mutagenic/carcinogenic compound formed from meat and fish during cooking. Following ingestion, IQ is metabolized mainly by liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, but intestinal bacteria may also contribute to its biotransformation. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolism of IQ by the human intestinal microbiota. Following incubation of IQ (200 ?M) under anoxic conditions with 100-fold dilutions of stools freshly collected from three healthy volunteers, we quantified residual IQ by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and characterized the production of IQ metabolites by in situ 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopic analysis of crude incubation media. In addition, we looked for IQ-degrading bacteria by screening collection strains and by isolating new strains from the cecal contents of human-microbiota-associated rats gavaged with IQ on a regular basis. HPLC and 1H-NMR analyses showed that the three human microbiota degraded IQ with different efficiencies (range, 50 to 91% after 72 h of incubation) and converted it into a unique derivative, namely, 7-hydroxy-IQ. We found 10 bacterial strains that were able to perform this reaction: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (n = 2), Clostridium clostridiiforme (n = 3), Clostridium perfringens (n = 1), and Escherichia coli (n = 4). On the whole, our results indicate that bacteria belonging to the predominant communities of the human intestine are able to produce 7-hydroxy-IQ from IQ. They also suggest interindividual differences in the ability to perform this reaction. Whether it is a metabolic activation is still a matter of debate, since 7-hydroxy-IQ has been shown to be a direct-acting mutagen in the Ames assay but not carcinogenic in laboratory rodents. PMID:16151094

Humblot, Christèle; Combourieu, Bruno; Väisänen, Marja-Liisa; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Delort, Anne-Marie; Rabot, Sylvie

2005-01-01

357

For Application to Human Spaceflight and ISS Experiments: VESGEN Mapping of Microvascular Network Remodeling during Intestinal Inflammation.  

PubMed

Challenges to long-duration space exploration and colonization in microgravity and cosmic radiation environments by humans include poorly understood risks for gastrointestinal function and cancer. Nonetheless, constant remodeling of the intestinal microvasculature is critical for tissue viability, healthy wound healing, and successful prevention or recovery from vascular-mediated inflammatory or ischemic diseases such as cancer. Currently no automated image analysis programs provide quantitative assessments of the complex structure of the mucosal vascular system that are necessary for tracking disease development and tissue recovery. Increasing abnormalities to the microvascular network geometry were therefore mapped with VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software from 3D tissue reconstructions of developing intestinal inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model. By several VESGEN parameters and a novel vascular network linking analysis, inflammation strongly disrupted the regular, lattice-like geometry that defines the normal microvascular network, correlating positively with the increased recruitment of dendritic cells during mucosal defense responses. PMID:25143705

Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Reinecker, Hans-Christian

2012-10-01

358

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection and intestinal thiamin uptake: studies with intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers.  

PubMed

Infections with enteric pathogens like enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health issue worldwide and while diarrhea is the major problem, prolonged, severe, and dual infections with multiple pathogens may also compromise the nutritional status of the infected individuals. There is almost nothing currently known about the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal absorptions of water-soluble vitamins including thiamin. We examined the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal uptake of the thiamin using as a model the human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The results showed that infecting confluent Caco-2 monolayers with live ETEC (but not with boiled/killed ETEC or nonpathogenic E. coli) or treatment with bacterial culture supernatant led to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake. This inhibition appears to be caused by a heat-labile and -secreted ETEC component and is mediated via activation of the epithelial adenylate cyclase system. The inhibition in thiamin uptake by ETEC was associated with a significant reduction in expression of human thiamin transporter-1 and -2 (hTHTR1 and hTHTR2) at the protein and mRNA levels as well as in the activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters. Dual infection of Caco-2 cells with ETEC and EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli) led to compounded inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. These results show for the first time that infection of human intestinal epithelial cells with ETEC causes a significant inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. This inhibition is mediated by a secreted heat-labile toxin and is associated with a decrease in the expression of intestinal thiamin transporters. PMID:24133060

Ghosal, Abhisek; Chatterjee, Nabendu S; Chou, Tristan; Said, Hamid M

2013-12-01

359

Role of PTHrP in human intestinal Caco-2 cell response to oxidative stress.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) induces apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells but the effects of its tumoral analog PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) in this cell line are still unknown. In the present work we investigated whether PTHrP, as PTH, is able to induce Caco-2 cell apoptosis or if it exerts protective effects under apoptotic conditions. Using Caco-2 cells cultured under serum deprivation in the presence or absence of PTHrP we demonstrated that, differently to PTH, its analog employed at the same concentration (10(-8)M) is not a pro-apoptotic hormone. Cells were exposed to an oxidative insult in the form of hydrogen peroxide to induce apoptosis, which leads to a 50% loss of cell viability determined by MTS assay, morphological changes observed under fluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis. Herein we demonstrate, for the first time, that pre-treatment with PTHrP prior to H2O2 incubation, prevents cell death induced by the apoptotic inductor; and using specific inhibitors we evidenced that protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mediate this anti-apoptotic effect. Also, we found that PTHrP decreases the pro-apoptotic protein BAX levels and increases the protein expression of the anti-apoptotic HSP27. Immunoblot analysis revealed that H2O2 increases the phosphorylation levels of AKT and MAPKs, exhibiting a cellular defense response; and consequently increases phospho-BAD levels. The H2O2-induced activation of protein kinases is reverted when cells are pre-treated with PTHrP. Altogether these results evidence a protective effect of PTHrP under apoptotic conditions in intestinal cells, which may be mediated by AKT and MAPKs. PMID:23845990

Lezcano, Virginia; Gentili, Claudia; de Boland, Ana Russo

2013-12-01

360

Utilization of a human intestinal epithelial cell culture system (Caco-2) for evaluating cytoprotective agents.  

PubMed

Human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were cultured as confluent monolayers on polycarbonate membranes in Transwells for investigating their applicability in evaluating the cytoprotective activity of sucralfate. The control experiments established a reproducible chemical method (using 0.5 mM indomethacin in Hanks' balanced salt solution) for inducing damage to the Caco-2 cell monolayers. Damage was determined by measuring changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Twenty-day-old Caco-2 cell monolayers were significantly and reproducibly damaged (compared to buffer alone) (P < 0.001) by application of 0.5 mM indomethacin to the apical side for 1 hr. While sucralfate, at a 0.5, 2, or 5 mg/mL concentration in the buffer, was shown not to reverse (treat) the damage caused by indomethacin in this cellular model, it was able to protect (prevent) the cells from indomethacin-induced damage (P < 0.001). We observed that indomethacin-induced damage to the Caco-2 cell monolayers greatly affected the paracellular pathway since the percentage transport of [3H]methoxyinulin was significantly elevated. In contrast, protection of the Caco-2 cells with 5 mg/mL sucralfate in the presence of the damaging agent resulted in transport of the paracellular marker similar to that in the control (HBSS-treated) cell monolayers. This direct cytoprotective effect was thus independent of vascular factors at neutral pH and was observed to be dose dependent (0.5 to 5 mg/mL) when sucralfate was applied to the cells in the presence of the damaging agent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8290475

Tang, A S; Chikhale, P J; Shah, P K; Borchardt, R T

1993-11-01

361

The impact of Cysteine-Rich Intestinal Protein 1 (CRIP1) in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background CRIP1 (cysteine-rich intestinal protein 1) has been found in several tumor types, its prognostic impact and its role in cellular processes, particularly in breast cancer, are still unclear. Methods To elucidate the prognostic impact of CRIP1, we analyzed tissues from 113 primary invasive ductal breast carcinomas using immunohistochemistry. For the functional characterization of CRIP1, its endogenous expression was transiently downregulated in T47D and BT474 breast cancer cells and the effects analyzed by immunoblotting, WST-1 proliferation assay and invasion assay. Results We found a significant correlation between CRIP1 and HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) expression levels (p?=?0.016) in tumor tissues. In Kaplan Meier analyses, CRIP1 expression was significantly associated with the distant metastases-free survival of patients, revealing a better prognosis for high CRIP1 expression (p?=?0.039). Moreover, in multivariate survival analyses, the expression of CRIP1 was an independent negative prognostic factor, along with the positive prognosticators nodal status and tumor size (p?=?0.029). CRIP1 knockdown in the T47D and BT474 breast cancer cell lines led to the increased phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt, to the reduced phosphorylation of cdc2, and to a significantly elevated cell proliferation in vitro (p?

2013-01-01

362

Real-time cell analysis for monitoring cholera toxin-induced human intestinal epithelial cell response.  

PubMed

The pathogenic mechanism of Vibrio cholerae manifests as diarrhea and causes life-threatening dehydration. Here, we observe the human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC) response to Cholera toxin (CT) by a real-time cell analysis (RTCA) platform, and disclose the difference from CT-induced cytotoxicity and others in HIEC. An HIEC cell of 1.0 × 10(5) cells/mL was characterized as the suitable concentration for each well. For experimentation, the assay requires an inoculation of CT dissolved in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline with 0.1 % gelatin for a period of 18-25 h. The dimensionless impedance cell index curve presented characteristic dose- and time-dependent drop responses at the first stage, and the CT-induced cytotoxicity was the most remarkable following exposure for 18-25 h (P = 0.0002). Following the obvious cytotoxic reaction, the CI curve gradually increased over time until the original CI value, indicating that self-recovery occurred. The CT-induced CI curve for HIEC was different from that induced by other toxins, including diphtheria and Clostridium difficile toxin. Collectively, these results suggest that the CT-induced cytotoxicity in HIEC was absolutely different from that induced by C. difficile and other toxins because of the different pathogeneses that were correlated with the specific CI curve generated by the RTCA system. In summary, our data show that the assay described here is a convenient and rapid high-throughput tool for real-time monitoring of host cellular responses to CT on the basis of the characteristic CI curve. PMID:25510171

Ye, Julian; Luo, Yun; Fang, Weijia; Pan, Junhang; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yanjun; Chen, Zhiping; Jin, Dazhi

2015-04-01

363

Molecular characterization of intestinal bacteria in healthy cats and a comparison of the fecal bacterial flora between healthy cats and cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)  

E-print Network

of this study was to describe the microflora along the intestinal tract in healthy cats using comparative 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) analysis. Intestinal content from the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon was collected from 4 healthy cats and one...

Ritchie, Lauren Elizabeth

2009-05-15

364

Intestinal obstruction promotes gut translocation of bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Translocation of enteric organisms has been implicated as a possible source of sepsis in susceptible patients. Animal studies have suggested that intestinal obstruction promotes bacterial translocation from the gut lumen. The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of bacterial translocation in patients with and without intestinal obstruction. METHODS: Serosal scrapings, mesenteric lymph nodes, and peripheral blood

P. M. Sagar; J. MacFie; P. Sedman; J. May; B. Mancey-Jones; D. Johnstone

1995-01-01

365

Widespread occurrence of bacterial human virulence determinants in soil and freshwater environments.  

PubMed

The occurrence of 22 bacterial human virulence genes (encoding toxins, adhesins, secretion systems, regulators of virulence, inflammatory mediators, and bacterial resistance) in beech wood soil, roadside soil, organic agricultural soil, and freshwater biofilm was investigated by nested PCR. The presence of clinically relevant bacterial groups known to possess virulence genes was tested by PCR of 16S and 23S rRNA genes. For each of the virulence genes detected in the environments, sequencing and NCBI BLAST analysis confirmed the identity of the PCR products. The virulence genes showed widespread environmental occurrence, as 17 different genes were observed. Sixteen genes were detected in beech wood soil, and 14 were detected in roadside and organic agricultural soils, while 11 were detected in the freshwater biofilm. All types of virulence traits were represented in all environments; however, the frequency at which they were detected was variable. A principal-component analysis suggested that several factors influenced the presence of the virulence genes; however, their distribution was most likely related to the level of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pH. The occurrence of the virulence genes in the environments generally did not appear to be the result of the presence of clinically relevant bacteria, indicating an environmental origin of the virulence genes. The widespread occurrence of the virulence traits and the high degree of sequence conservation between the environmental and clinical sequences suggest that soil and freshwater environments may constitute reservoirs of virulence determinants normally associated with human disease. PMID:23835169

Søborg, Ditte A; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Kilian, Mogens; Kroer, Niels

2013-09-01

366

Infection Strategies of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens through Pathogen–Human Protein–Protein Interactions  

PubMed Central

Since ancient times, even in today’s modern world, infectious diseases cause lots of people to die. Infectious organisms, pathogens, cause diseases by physical interactions with human proteins. A thorough analysis of these interspecies interactions is required to provide insights about infection strategies of pathogens. Here we analyzed the most comprehensive available pathogen–human protein interaction data including 23,435 interactions, targeting 5,210 human proteins. The data were obtained from the newly developed pathogen–host interaction search tool, PHISTO. This is the first comprehensive attempt to get a comparison between bacterial and viral infections. We investigated human proteins that are targeted by bacteria and viruses to provide an overview of common and special infection strategies used by these pathogen types. We observed that in the human protein interaction network the proteins targeted by pathogens have higher connectivity and betweenness centrality values than those proteins not interacting with pathogens. The preference of interacting with hub and bottleneck proteins is found to be a common infection strategy of all types of pathogens to manipulate essential mechanisms in human. Compared to bacteria, viruses tend to interact with human proteins of much higher connectivity and centrality values in the human network. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the human proteins targeted by pathogens indicates crucial clues about the infection mechanisms of bacteria and viruses. As the main infection strategy, bacteria interact with human proteins that function in immune response to disrupt human defense mechanisms. Indispensable viral strategy, on the other hand, is the manipulation of human cellular processes in order to use that transcriptional machinery for their own genetic material transcription. A novel observation about pathogen–human systems is that the human proteins targeted by both pathogens are enriched in the regulation of metabolic processes. PMID:22347880

Durmu? Tekir, Saliha; Çakir, Tunahan; Ülgen, Kutlu Ö

2012-01-01

367

Large intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The large intestine is larger and shorter than the small intestine and connects to the small intestine and the anus. Nutrient deficient material from the small intestine travels through the large intestine to the anus. This material is called feces and is excreted. Feces is made up of material that our bodies cannot break down into smaller parts to be used by the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-08-18

368

Central Role of the Gut Epithelial Barrier in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Intestinal Inflammation: Lessons Learned from Animal Models and Human Genetics  

PubMed Central

The gut mucosa is constantly challenged by a bombardment of foreign antigens and environmental microorganisms. As such, the precise regulation of the intestinal barrier allows the maintenance of mucosal immune homeostasis and prevents the onset of uncontrolled inflammation. In support of this concept, emerging evidence points to defects in components of the epithelial barrier as etiologic factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In fact, the integrity of the intestinal barrier relies on different elements, including robust innate immune responses, epithelial paracellular permeability, epithelial cell integrity, as well as the production of mucus. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate how alterations in the aforementioned epithelial components can lead to the disruption of intestinal immune homeostasis, and subsequent inflammation. In this regard, the wealth of data from mouse models of intestinal inflammation and human genetics are pivotal in understanding pathogenic pathways, for example, that are initiated from the specific loss of function of a single protein leading to the onset of intestinal disease. On the other hand, several recently proposed therapeutic approaches to treat human IBD are targeted at enhancing different elements of gut barrier function, further supporting a primary role of the epithelium in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation and emphasizing the importance of maintaining a healthy and effective intestinal barrier. PMID:24062746

Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Mercado, Joseph R.; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pizarro, Theresa T.

2013-01-01

369

Antibacterial screening of traditional herbal plants and standard antibiotics against some human bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Chloroformic and isoamyl alcohol extracts of Cinnnamomum zylanicum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma long Linn, Trachyspermum ammi and selected standard antibiotics were investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six human bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity was evaluated and based on the zone of inhibition using agar disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains were Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aurues, Serratia marcesnces, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin showed highly significant action against K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis while Ampicillin and Amoxicillin indicated lowest antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among the plants chloroform and isoamyl alcohol extracts of C. cyminum, S. aromaticum and C. long Linn had significant effect against P. aeruginosa, S. marcesnces and S. pyogenes. Comparison of antibacterial activity of medicinal herbs and standard antibiotics was also recorded via activity index. Used medicinal plants have various phytochemicals which reasonably justify their use as antibacterial agent. PMID:24191314

Awan, Uzma Azeem; Andleeb, Saiqa; Kiyani, Ayesha; Zafar, Atiya; Shafique, Irsa; Riaz, Nazia; Azhar, Muhammad Tehseen; Uddin, Hafeez

2013-11-01

370

Role of nitric oxide in activation of human T lymphocytes induced by bacterial superantigen.  

PubMed

The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of human T cell response to bacterial superantigen (staphylococcal enterotoxin B) was studied. It was shown that stimulated T lymphocytes are the main source of NO. This superantigen markedly increased NO production and triggered the proliferative response of mononuclear cells from healthy individuals; the degree of apoptosis was low. In patients with purulent surgical diseases with high spontaneous and induced NO production, superantigen enhanced apoptosis of lymphocytes and induced anergy of T cells to enterotoxins. Increasing the concentration of NO in cultured cells from healthy individuals in the presence of NO donors also stimulated apoptosis and inhibited proliferative activity. These data suggest that NO regulates T lymphocyte response to superantigens. The increased production of NO probably contributes to the development of immunosuppression during bacterial infection. PMID:11177292

Sakhno, L V; Leplina, O Y; Norkin, M N; Chernykh, E R; Ostanin, A A

2000-10-01

371

Human defensins facilitate local unfolding of thermodynamically unstable regions of bacterial protein toxins.  

PubMed

Defensins are short cationic, amphiphilic, cysteine-rich peptides that constitute the front-line immune defense against various pathogens. In addition to exerting direct antibacterial activities, defensins inactivate several classes of unrelated bacterial exotoxins. To date, no coherent mechanism has been proposed to explain defensins' enigmatic efficiency toward various toxins. In this study, we showed that binding of neutrophil ?-defensin HNP1 to affected bacterial toxins caused their local unfolding, potentiated their thermal melting and precipitation, exposed new regions for proteolysis, and increased susceptibility to collisional quenchers without causing similar effects on tested mammalian structural and enzymatic proteins. Enteric ?-defensin HD5 and ?-defensin hBD2 shared similar toxin-unfolding effects with HNP1, albeit to different degrees. We propose that protein susceptibility to inactivation by defensins is contingent to their thermolability and conformational plasticity and that defensin-induced unfolding is a key element in the general mechanism of toxin inactivation by human defensins. PMID:25517613

Kudryashova, Elena; Quintyn, Royston; Seveau, Stephanie; Lu, Wuyuan; Wysocki, Vicki H; Kudryashov, Dmitri S

2014-11-20

372

Highly polarized HLA class II antigen processing and presentation by human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

The high concentration of foreign antigen in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract is separated from the underlying lymphocytes by a single cell layer of polarized epithelium. Intestinal epithelial cells can express HLA class II antigens and may function as antigen-presenting cells to CD4(+) T cells within the intestinal mucosa. Using tetanus toxoid specific and HLA-DR-restricted T lymphocytes, we show that polarized intestinal epithelial cells directed to express HLA-DR molecules are able to initiate class II processing only after internalization of antigen from their apical surface. Coexpression of the class II transactivator CIITA in these cells, which stimulates highly efficient class II processing without the characteristic decline in barrier function seen in polarized monolayers treated with the proinflammatory cytokine gamma-IFN, facilitates antigen processing from the basolateral surface. In both cases, peptide presentation to T cells via class II molecules was restricted to the basolateral surface. These data indicate a highly polarized functional architecture for antigen processing and presentation by intestinal epithelial cells, and suggest that the functional outcome of antigen processing by the intestinal epithelium is both dependent on the cellular surface at which the foreign antigen is internalized and by the underlying degree of mucosal inflammation. PMID:9710448

Hershberg, R M; Cho, D H; Youakim, A; Bradley, M B; Lee, J S; Framson, P E; Nepom, G T

1998-01-01

373

Integrative analysis of the microbiome and metabolome of the human intestinal mucosal surface reveals exquisite inter-relationships  

E-print Network

other microbiome-associated intestinal diseases. Additionalthe intestinal microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease andmicrobiome reveals topological shifts associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

2013-01-01

374

Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Bacterial Microflora Associated with Human Amniotic Membrane  

PubMed Central

Human amniotic membrane is considered a promising allograft material for the treatment of ocular surface reconstruction, burns, and other skin defects. In order to avoid the transmission of any diseases, grafts should be perfectly sterile. Twenty-five amniotic sacs were collected to determine the microbiological quality of human amniotic membrane, to analyze the radiation sensitivity pattern of the microorganism, and to detect the radiation decimal reduction dose (D10) values. All the samples were found to be contaminated, and the bioburden was ranged from 3.4 × 102 to 1.2 × 105?cfu/g. Initially, a total fifty bacterial isolates were characterized according to their cultural, morphological, and biochemical characteristics and then tested for the radiation sensitivity in an incremental series of radiation doses from 1 to 10?KGy. The results depict gradual decline in bioburden with incline of radiation doses. Staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated bacterial contaminant in tissue samples (44%). The D10 values of the bacterial isolates were ranged from 0.6 to 1.27?KGy. Streptococcus spp. were found to be the highest radioresistant strain with the radiation sterilization dose (RSD) of 11.4?KGy for a bioburden level of 1000. To compare the differences, D10 values were also calculated by graphical evaluations of the data with two of the representative isolates of each bacterial species which showed no significant variations. Findings of this study indicate that lower radiation dose is quite satisfactory for the sterilization of amniotic membrane grafts. Therefore, these findings would be helpful to predict the efficacy of radiation doses for the processing of amniotic membrane for various purposes. PMID:24063009

Binte Atique, Fahmida; Ahmed, Kazi Tahsin; Asaduzzaman, S. M.; Hasan, Kazi Nadim

2013-01-01

375

Characterization of antigen and bacterial transport in the follicle-associated epithelium of human ileum.  

PubMed

The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE), covering Peyer's patches, provides a route of entry for antigens and microorganisms. Animal studies showed enhanced antigen and bacterial uptake in FAE, but no study on barrier function of human FAE has been reported. Our aim was to characterize the normal barrier properties of human FAE. Specimens of normal ileum were taken from 30 patients with noninflammatory colonic disease. Villus epithelium (VE) and FAE were identified and mounted in Ussing chambers. Permeability to 51Cr-EDTA, transmucosal flux of the protein antigen, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and transport of fluorescent Escherichia coli (chemically killed K-12 and live HB101) were measured. Uptake mechanisms were studied by confocal- and transmission electron microscopy, and by using pharmacological inhibitors in an in vitro coculture model of FAE and in human ileal FAE. HRP flux was substantially higher in FAE than in VE, and was reduced by an amiloride analog. Electron microscopy showed HRP-containing endosomes. Transport of E. coli K-12 and HB101 was also augmented in FAE and was confirmed by confocal microscopy. In vitro coculture experiments and electron microscopy revealed actin-dependent, mainly transcellular, uptake of E. coli K-12 into FAE. 51Cr-EDTA permeability was equal in FAE and VE. Augmented HRP flux and bacterial uptake but similar paracellular permeability, suggest functional variations of transcellular transport in the FAE. We show for the first time that FAE of human ileum is functionally distinct from regular VE, rendering the FAE more prone to bacterial-epithelial cell interactions and delivery of antigens to the mucosal immune system. PMID:16482102

Keita, Asa V; Gullberg, Elisabet; Ericson, Ann-Charlott; Salim, Sa'ad Y; Wallon, Conny; Kald, Anders; Artursson, Per; Söderholm, Johan D

2006-05-01

376

Detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus).  

PubMed

There are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern United States, which include: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. The black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. We investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). Eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in Louisiana from June 2010 to March 2011. All 4 common human-biting tick species were represented. Each tick was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting select bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Bacterial DNA was detected in 62% of ticks (n=53). Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of an emerging spotted fever group rickettsiosis, was identified in 66% of A. maculatum, 28% of D. variabilis, and 11% of I. scapularis. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, was detected in 2 I. scapularis, while one A. americanum was positive for Borrelia bissettii, a putative human pathogen. The rickettsial endosymbionts Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, rickettsial endosymbiont of I. scapularis, and Rickettsia amblyommii were detected in their common tick hosts at 21%, 39%, and 60%, respectively. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp., and Babesia microti. This is the first reported detection of R. parkeri in vector ticks in Louisiana; we also report the novel association of R. parkeri with I. scapularis. Detection of both R. parkeri and B. burgdorferi in their respective vectors in Louisiana demands further investigation to determine potential for human exposure to these pathogens. PMID:23415850

Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang-Ting

2013-04-01

377

Repetitive deformation activates Src-independent FAK-dependent ERK motogenic signals in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Repetitive deformation due to villous motility or peristalsis may support the intestinal mucosa, stimulating intestinal epithelial proliferation under normal circumstances and restitution in injured and inflamed mucosa rich in tissue fibronectin. Cyclic strain enhances Caco-2 and IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cell migration across fibronectin via ERK. However, the upstream mediators of ERK activation are unknown. We investigated whether Src and FAK mediate strain-induced ERK phosphorylation and migration in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells on fibronectin. Monolayers on tissue fibronectin-precoated membranes were subjected to an average 10% repetitive deformation at 10 cycles/min. Phosphorylation of Src-Tyr 418, FAK-Tyr 397-Tyr 576-Tyr 925, and ERK were significantly increased by deformation. The stimulation of wound closure by strain was prevented by Src blockade with PP2 (10 micromol/l) or specific short interfering (si)RNA. Src inhibition also prevented strain-induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr 397 and Tyr 576 but not FAK-Tyr 925 or ERK phosphorylation. Reducing FAK by siRNA inhibited strain-induced ERK phosphorylation. Transfection of NH2-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation-deficient FAK mutants Y397F, Y576F-Y577F, and Y397F-Y576F-Y577F did not prevent the activation of ERK2 by cyclic strain, but a FAK mutant at the COOH terminal (Y925F) prevented the strain-induced activation of ERK2. Although the Y397F-Y576F-Y577F FAK construct exhibited less basal FAK-Tyr 925 phosphorylation under static conditions, it nevertheless exhibited increased FAK-Tyr 925 phosphorylation in response to strain. These results suggest that repetitive deformation stimulates intestinal epithelial motility across fibronectin in a manner that requires both Src activation and a novel Src-independent FAK-Tyr 925-dependent pathway that activates ERK. This pathway may be an important target for interventions to promote mucosal healing in settings of intestinal ileus or fasting. PMID:18400991

Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S; Gayer, Christopher P; Marsh, Harold M; Basson, Marc D

2008-06-01

378

Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein Expression in Human Small Intestinal Enterocytes and Hepatocytes: A Comparative Analysis in Paired Tissue Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our objectives were to determine the content of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, CYP3A5, and P-glycoprotein and to measure CYP3A4-dependent catalytic activity in paired human small intestinal and liver specimens.Methods: Samples of duodenum or proximal jejunum and liver wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from 15 patients undergoing a gastrointestinal operation. Enterocytes were isolated from the intestinal samples. The contents of

Oliver von Richter; Oliver Burk; Martin F. Fromm; Klaus P. Thon; Michel Eichelbaum; Kari T. Kivistö

2004-01-01

379

Comparative Analysis of the Cytotoxic Effects of Okadaic Acid-Group Toxins on Human Intestinal Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The phycotoxin, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin 1 and 2 (DTX-1 and -2) are protein phosphatase PP2A and PP1 inhibitors involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Data on the toxicity of the OA-group toxins show some differences with respect to the in vivo acute toxicity between the toxin members. In order to investigate whether OA and congeners DTX-1 and -2 may induce different mechanisms of action during acute toxicity on the human intestine, we compared their toxicological effects in two in vitro intestinal cell models: the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and the intestinal muco-secreting cell line, HT29-MTX. Using a high content analysis approach, we evaluated various cytotoxicity parameters, including apoptosis (caspase-3 activation), DNA damage (phosphorylation of histone H2AX), inflammation (translocation of NF-?B) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 production). Investigation of the kinetics of the cellular responses demonstrated that the three toxins induced a pro-inflammatory response followed by cell cycle disruption in both cell lines, leading to apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the three toxins induce similar effects, as no major differences in the cytotoxic responses could be detected. However DTX-1 induced cytotoxic effects at five-fold lower concentrations than for OA and DTX-2. PMID:25196936

Ferron, Pierre-Jean; Hogeveen, Kevin; Fessard, Valérie; Le Hégarat, Ludovic

2014-01-01

380

Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting  

PubMed Central

Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data from 297 HIV-1–infected adults (mean age = 31.1 years, 69% female) living in Lusaka, Zambia to assess the prevalence and associated predictors of helminth infection. We found at least one type of intestinal helminth in 24.9% of HIV-infected adults. Thirty-nine (52.7%) were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 29 (39.2%) were infected with hookworm. More than 80% were light-intensity infections. A recent visit to a rural area, food shortage, and prior history of helminth infection were significant predictors of current helminth status. The high helminth prevalence and potential for adverse interactions between helminths and HIV suggests that helminth diagnosis and treatment should be part of routine HIV care. PMID:16222025

Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O.; Vermund, Sten H.

2009-01-01

381

Intestinal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

382

Intestinal beta-galactosidases. II. Biochemical alteration in human lactase deficiency.  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in some racial groups and in patients with intestinal disease, the biochemical defect has not been characterized. In the preceding paper normal intestine was found to have two lactases with distinctly different pH optima. Therefore, pH activity curves of homogenates from lactase-deficient intestine were studied, and the pH optimum was found to be shifted from the normal of 5.8 to 4.8. Density gradient ultracentrifugation of intestinal material from five lactase-deficient patients demonstrated absence of a lactase with pH optimum 6.0 and molecular weight 280,000. A second lactase with pH optimum 4.5 and molecular weights of 156,000 and 660,000 remained at normal levels accounting for the shift in the pH optimum in whole intestinal homogenates. In addition, three of the five patients had absence of a smaller beta-galactosidase (molecular weight 80,000) that had specificity only for synthetic substrates. Although not a lactase, this enzyme had a pH optimum identical with the missing lactase, and its activity was inhibited by lactose in a partially competitive manner suggesting that it is capable of binding lactose. It is possible that this enzyme is a precursor or fragment of the missing lactase.The residual lactase activity provided by the lactase with low pH optimum represents 20-70% of the activity of the missing enzyme, and yet these patients are not able to digest dietary lactose. Thus it appears that the residual enzyme plays no significant role in the hydrolysis of ingested lactose. PMID:5774110

Gray, G M; Santiago, N A; Colver, E H; Genel, M

1969-04-01

383

Ontogeny of human hepatic and intestinal transporter gene expression during childhood: age matters.  

PubMed

Many drugs prescribed to children are drug transporter substrates. Drug transporters are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of drugs and are important to drug absorption and elimination. Very limited data are available on the effect of age on transporter expression. Our study assessed age-related gene expression of hepatic and intestinal drug transporters. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and OATP1B3 expression was determined in postmortem liver samples (fetal n = 6, neonatal n = 19, infant n = 7, child n = 2, adult n = 11) and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) expression in 61 pediatric liver samples. Intestinal expression of MDR1, MRP2, and OATP2B1 was determined in surgical small bowel samples (neonates n = 15, infants n = 3, adults n = 14). Using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we measured fetal and pediatric gene expression relative to 18S rRNA (liver) and villin (intestines), and we compared it with adults using the 2(-??Ct) method. Hepatic expression of MRP2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 in all pediatric age groups was significantly lower than in adults. Hepatic MDR1 mRNA expression in fetuses, neonates, and infants was significantly lower than in adults. Neonatal intestinal expressions of MDR1 and MRP2 were comparable to those in adults. Intestinal OATP2B1 expression in neonates was significantly higher than in adults. We provide new data that show organ- and transporter-dependent differences in hepatic and intestinal drug transporter expression in an age-dependent fashion. This suggests that substrate drug absorption mediated by these transporters may be subject to age-related variation in a transporter dependent pattern. PMID:24829289

Mooij, Miriam G; Schwarz, Ute I; de Koning, Barbara A E; Leeder, J Steven; Gaedigk, Roger; Samsom, Janneke N; Spaans, Edwin; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Tibboel, Dick; Kim, Richard B; de Wildt, Saskia N