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Apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells after bacterial invasion.  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cells that line the human intestinal mucosa are the initial site of host invasion by bacterial pathogens. The studies herein define apoptosis as a new category of intestinal epithelial cell response to bacterial infection. Human colon epithelial cells are shown to undergo apoptosis following infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. In contrast to the rapid onset of apoptosis seen after bacterial infection of mouse monocyte-macrophage cell lines, the commitment of human intestinal epithelial cell lines to undergo apoptosis is delayed for at least 6 h after bacterial infection, requires bacterial entry and replication, and the ensuing phenotypic expression of apoptosis is delayed for 12-18 h after bacterial entry. TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, which are produced as components of the intestinal epithelial cell proinflammatory program in the early period after bacterial invasion, play an important role in the later induction and regulation of the epithelial cell apoptotic program. Apoptosis in response to bacterial infection may function to delete infected and damaged epithelial cells and restore epithelial cell growth regulation and epithelial integrity that are altered during the course of enteric infection. The delay in onset of epithelial cell apoptosis after bacterial infection may be important both to the host and the invading pathogen since it provides sufficient time for epithelial cells to generate signals important for the activation of mucosal inflammation and concurrently allows invading bacteria time to adapt to the intracellular environment before invading deeper mucosal layers. PMID:9819367

Kim, J M; Eckmann, L; Savidge, T C; Lowe, D C; Witthoft, T; Kagnoff, M F



Three-dimensional intestinal villi epithelium enhances protection of human intestinal cells from bacterial infection by inducing mucin expression.  


Current in vitro cell culture models do not reflect human physiology, and various efforts have been made to enhance existing models. Reconstitution of three-dimensional (3D) tissue structure has been one of the strategies, since 3D tissue structure provides essential cellular environmental cues for cell functions. Previously, we developed a novel hydrogel microfabrication technique for constructing an accurate 3D replica of human intestinal villi epithelium. In this study, genetic and physiological properties of the 3D villi model were examined to gain a better insight into the barrier function of gut epithelium and its interaction with microbes. Gene expression study of Caco-2 on the 3D villi scaffold revealed that expression of MUC17, which is one of the transmembrane mucins, was highly enhanced in the 3D villi model, compared to a monolayer culture. Cells on the scaffold were almost immune to bacterial infection, while MUC17 knockdown in Caco-2 cells restored bacterial infectivity. The 3D villi model also exhibited changes in the barrier function compared to the 2D model, manifested by changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability of FITC-dextran. Knockdown of MUC17 resulted in reduction of tight junction protein expression and further increase in permeability, suggesting an important role of MUC17 in the barrier function against pathogens and xenobiotics. Our study suggests that mimicking the 3D tissue architecture of the small intestine induces physiological changes in human intestinal cells. PMID:25200891

Kim, Si Hyun; Chi, Meiying; Yi, Banya; Kim, So Hyun; Oh, Seunghan; Kim, Younghoon; Park, Sungsu; Sung, Jong Hwan



Mucin Dynamics in Intestinal Bacterial Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue\\/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4,

Sara K. Lindén; Timothy H. J. Florin; Michael A. McGuckin; Nick Gay




PubMed Central

Background We sought to determine the quantitative expression of human leukocyte antigen–DR (HLA-DR) on monocytes in patients with acute intestinal bacterial infections and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods The quantitative expression of HLA-DR on monocytes was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis in patients with IBD, patients with acute intestinal bacterial infections (bact.), and healthy subjects (contr.). Results The quantitative expression of HLA-DR in patients with bact. (n = 20; 90,000 molecules per monocyte; confidence interval [CI], 79,000–102,000) was significantly higher than that in patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 40, 30,000; CI, 30,000–38,000; P < 0.0001), Crohn disease (n = 80, 31,000; CI, 32,000–39,000; P < 0.0001), or in contr. (n = 28, 39,000; CI, 36,000–46,000; P < 0.0001). In patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, HLA-DR expression was significantly decreased, as compared with contr. (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). With a cutoff point of 50,000, HLA-DR showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 92% in discriminating between bact. and active IBD. Conclusion The quantitative measurement of HLA-DR expression could serve as a valuable tool to discriminate between bact. and active IBD. PMID:23860582

Tillinger, Wolfgang; Jilch, Ruth; Waldhoer, Thomas; Reinisch, Walter; Junger, Wolfgang



Bacterial infections after intestine and multivisceral transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe frequency of bacterial infections (BI) in intestinal transplant (IT) patients is high with sepsis being the leading cause of death after this procedure. We herein report our experience with major BI to ascertain the incidence, microbiological and clinical factors, risk factors and outcome.

C Loinaz; T Kato; S Nishida; D Weppler; D Levi; L Dowdy; J Madariaga; J. R Nery; R Vianna; N Mittal; A Tzakis



Campylobacter jejuni Outer Membrane Vesicles Play an Important Role in Bacterial Interactions with Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C.; Inglis, Neil F.; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W.; Smith, David G. E.



Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential ``organ'' in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to

Paul B. Eckburg; Elisabeth M. Bik; Charles N. Bernstein; Elizabeth Purdom; Les Dethlefsen; Michael Sargent; Steven R. Gill; Karen E. Nelson; David A. Relman



A Model of Bacterial Intestinal Infections in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Serratia marcescens is an entomopathogenic bacterium that opportunistically infects a wide range of hosts, including humans. In a model of septic injury, if directly introduced into the body cavity of Drosophila, this pathogen is insensitive to the host's systemic immune response and kills flies in a day. We find that S. marcescens resistance to the Drosophila immune deficiency (imd)-mediated humoral response requires the bacterial lipopolysaccharide O-antigen. If ingested by Drosophila, bacteria cross the gut and penetrate the body cavity. During this passage, the bacteria can be observed within the cells of the intestinal epithelium. In such an oral infection model, the flies succumb to infection only after 6 days. We demonstrate that two complementary host defense mechanisms act together against such food-borne infection: an antimicrobial response in the intestine that is regulated by the imd pathway and phagocytosis by hemocytes of bacteria that have escaped into the hemolymph. Interestingly, bacteria present in the hemolymph elicit a systemic immune response only when phagocytosis is blocked. Our observations support a model wherein peptidoglycan fragments released during bacterial growth activate the imd pathway and do not back a proposed role for phagocytosis in the immune activation of the fat body. Thanks to the genetic tools available in both host and pathogen, the molecular dissection of the interactions between S. marcescens and Drosophila will provide a useful paradigm for deciphering intestinal pathogenesis. PMID:18039029

Nehme, Nadine T; Liegeois, Samuel; Kele, Beatrix; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Pradel, Elizabeth; Hoffmann, Jules A; Ewbank, Jonathan J; Ferrandon, Dominique



The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease.  


Parkinson's disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities favoring the occurrence of local infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to the pathophysiology of motor fluctuations. Thirty-three patients and 30 controls underwent glucose, lactulose, and urea breath tests to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients also underwent ultrasonography to evaluate gastric emptying. The clinical status and plasma concentration of levodopa were assessed after an acute drug challenge with a standard dose of levodopa, and motor complications were assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-IV and by 1-week diaries of motor conditions. Patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were treated with rifaximin and were clinically and instrumentally reevaluated 1 and 6 months later. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was significantly higher in patients than in controls (54.5% vs. 20.0%; P?=?.01), whereas the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was not (33.3% vs. 26.7%). Compared with patients without any infection, the prevalence of unpredictable fluctuations was significantly higher in patients with both infections (8.3% vs. 87.5%; P?=?.008). Gastric half-emptying time was significantly longer in patients than in healthy controls but did not differ in patients based on their infective status. Compared with patients without isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, patients with isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth had longer off time daily and more episodes of delayed-on and no-on. The eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth resulted in improvement in motor fluctuations without affecting the pharmacokinetics of levodopa. The relapse rate of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth at 6 months was 43%. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:23712625

Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Petracca, Martina; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Ragazzoni, Enzo; Barbaro, Federico; Piano, Carla; Fortuna, Serena; Tortora, Annalisa; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Campanale, Mariachiara; Gigante, Giovanni; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Navarra, Pierluigi; Marconi, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita



Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue  

PubMed Central

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn’s disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain Giardia infections may attenuate PMN accumulation by decreasing the expression of the mediators responsible for their recruitment. PMID:25289678

Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.



Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: Summary of a symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth

Vishnudutt Purohit; J. Christian Bode; Christiane Bode; David A. Brenner; Mashkoor A. Choudhry; Frank Hamilton; Y. James Kang; Ali Keshavarzian; Radhakrishna Rao; R. Balfour Sartor; Christine Swanson; Jerrold R. Turner



Human intestinal spirochetosis - a review  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is a condition defined histologically by the presence of spirochetal microorganisms attached to the apical cell membrane of the colorectal epithelium. Intestinal spirochetes comprise a heterogeneous group of bacteria. In humans, Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli predominate. Prevalence rates of IS are low where living standards are high, in contrast to poorly developed areas where IS is common. Homosexuals and HIV-infected individuals are at high risk of being colonized. Clinical significance in individual cases has remained unclear up to now. A review of the literature assumes that invasion of spirochetes beyond the surface epithelium may be associated with gastrointestinal symptoms which respond to antibiotic treatment (metronidazole), whereas individuals lacking this feature may be mostly asymptomatic. Of unknown reason, homosexual and HIV-positive men as well as children are more likely to be symptomatic irrespective of invasion. Rare cases of spirochetemia and multiple organ failure have been reported in critically ill patients with IS. PMID:20200654

Tsinganou, Efstathia; Gebbers, Jan-Olaf



Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of serious subnutrition, associated to intestinal bacterial overgrowth,\\u000a in two patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Two female patients (body mass index, 49 and 50 kg\\/m2, respectively) were submitted to Y-en-Roux gastric bypass. The first patient evolved a 52% loss of body weight within 21 months\\u000a after surgery; the other, a 34%

Juliana Deh Carvalho Machado; Camila Scalassara Campos; Carolina Lopes Dah Silva; Vivian Miguel Marques Suen; Carla Barbosa Nonino-Borges; José Ernesto Dos Santos; Reginaldo Ceneviva; Júlio Sérgio Marchini



Analysis of Intestinal Bacterial Community Diversity of Adult Dastarcus helophoroides  

PubMed Central

Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

Zhang, Z. Q.; He, C.; Li, M. L.



Emerging insights on intestinal dysbiosis during bacterial infections?  

PubMed Central

Infection of the gastrointestinal tract is commonly linked to pathological imbalances of the resident microbiota, termed dysbiosis. In recent years, advanced high-throughput genomic approaches have allowed us to examine the microbiota in an unprecedented manner, revealing novel biological insights about infection-associated dysbiosis at the community and individual species levels. A dysbiotic microbiota is typically reduced in taxonomic diversity and metabolic function, and can harbour pathobionts that exacerbate intestinal inflammation or manifest systemic disease. Dysbiosis can also promote pathogen genome evolution, while allowing the pathogens to persist at high density and transmit to new hosts. A deeper understanding of bacterial pathogenicity in the context of the intestinal microbiota should unveil new approaches for developing diagnostics and therapies for enteropathogens. PMID:24581695

Pham, Tu Anh N; Lawley, Trevor D



Bacterial Overgrowth in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Null Mouse Small Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported the inflammation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse small intestine, and we hypothesized bacterial overgrowth as a possible cause. Quantitative PCR of bacterial 16S genomic DNA in the CF mouse small intestine revealed an increase of greater than 40-fold compared to controls. Sequencing of 16S PCR products and Gram staining showed that the majority of bacteria in

Oxana Norkina; Tim G. Burnett; Robert C. De Lisle



High-Throughput Quantitative Analysis of the Human Intestinal Microbiota with a Phylogenetic Microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gut microbiota carry out key functions in health and participate in the pathogenesis of a growing number of diseases. The aim of this study was to develop a custom microarray that is able to identify hundreds of intestinal bacterial species. We used the Entrez nucleotide database to compile a data set of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences isolated from human

Oleg Paliy; Harshavardhan Kenche; Frank Abernathy; Sonia Michail



Infant intestinal Enterococcus faecalis down-regulates inflammatory responses in human intestinal cell lines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the ability of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to modulate inflammatory reaction in human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29 and HCT116). Different strains of LAB isolated from new born infants and fermented milk, together with the strains obtained from culture collections were tested. METHODS: LABs were treated with human intestinal cell lines. ELISA was used to detect IL-8 and TGF-? protein secretion. Cytokines and Toll like receptors (TLRs) gene expression were assessed using RT-PCR. Conditional medium, sonicated bacteria and UV killed bacteria were used to find the effecter molecules on the bacteria. Carbohydrate oxidation and protein digestion were applied to figure out the molecules’ residues. Adhesion assays were further carried out. RESULTS: It was found that Enterococcus faecalis is the main immune modulator among the LABs by downregulation of IL-8 secretion and upregulation of TGF-?. Strikingly, the effect was only observed in four strains of E. faecalis out of the 27 isolated and tested. This implies strain dependent immunomodulation in the host. In addition, E. faecalis may regulate inflammatory responses through TLR3, TLR4, TLR9 and TRAF6. Carbohydrates on the bacterial cell surface are involved in both its adhesion to intestinal cells and regulation of inflammatory responses in the host. CONCLUSION: These data provide a case for the modulation of intestinal mucosal immunity in which specific strains of E. faecalis have uniquely evolved to maintain colonic homeostasis and regulate inflammatory responses. PMID:18286689

Wang, Shugui; Ng, Lydia Hui Mei; Chow, Wai Ling; Lee, Yuan Kun



Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut



Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei



Normal bacterial floras in intestinal tract of ring-necked pheasant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal bacterial floras in intestinal tract of ring-necked pheasant were investigated. Eight age groups were chosen. Samples\\u000a of intestines were diluted in 10 fold series and incubated on different selective media. After incubation, aimed bacterial\\u000a colonies were counted then the number of CFU\\/g of gut inclusions was evaluated. The data were analyzed in statistics. The\\u000a physiological values of eight

Xu Shulin; Shen Xiuli



Bacterial Modulation of Small Intestinal Goblet Cells and Mucin Composition During Early Posthatch Development of Poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucins possess potential binding sites for both commensal and pathogenic organisms and may per- form a defensive role during establishment of the intesti- nal barrier. To observe the effects of bacteria on intestinal goblet cell mucin production during posthatch develop- ment, differences in the small intestine of conventionally reared (CR) and low bacterial load (LBL) broiler chicks were examined. Jejunal

R. E. A. Forder; G. S. Howarth; D. R. Tivey; R. J. Hughes



Scientists Grow, Implant Human Intestinal Tissue in Mice  


... this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Grow, Implant Human Intestinal Tissue in Mice Research may provide model ... used stem cells to grow "organoids" of functioning human intestinal tissue in a lab dish. They then ...


The human commensal Bacteroides fragilis binds intestinal mucin  

PubMed Central

The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a vast microbial ecosystem, known as the microbiota, which benefits host biology. Bacteroides fragilis is an important anaerobic gut commensal of humans that prevents and cures intestinal inflammation. We wished to elucidate aspects of gut colonization employed by B. fragilis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on colonic tissue sections from B. fragilis and Escherichia coli dual-colonized gnotobiotic mice. Epifluorescence imaging reveals that both E. coli and B. fragilis are found in the lumen of the colon, but only B. fragilis is found in the mucosal layer. This observation suggests that physical association with intestinal mucus could be a possible mechanism of gut colonization by B. fragilis. We investigated this potential interaction using an in vitro mucus binding assay and show here that B. fragilis binds to murine colonic mucus. We further demonstrate that B. fragilis specifically and quantitatively binds to highly purified mucins (the major constituent in intestinal mucus) using flow cytometry analysis of fluorescently labeled purified murine and porcine mucins. These results suggest that interactions between B. fragilis and intestinal mucin may play a critical role during host-bacterial symbiosis. PMID:21664470

Huang, Julie Y.; Lee, S. Melanie; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.



The human commensal Bacteroides fragilis binds intestinal mucin.  


The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a vast microbial ecosystem, known as the microbiota, which benefits host biology. Bacteroides fragilis is an important anaerobic gut commensal of humans that prevents and cures intestinal inflammation. We wished to elucidate aspects of gut colonization employed by B. fragilis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on colonic tissue sections from B. fragilis and Escherichia coli dual-colonized gnotobiotic mice. Epifluorescence imaging reveals that both E. coli and B. fragilis are found in the lumen of the colon, but only B. fragilis is found in the mucosal layer. This observation suggests that physical association with intestinal mucus could be a possible mechanism of gut colonization by B. fragilis. We investigated this potential interaction using an in vitro mucus binding assay and show here that B. fragilis binds to murine colonic mucus. We further demonstrate that B. fragilis specifically and quantitatively binds to highly purified mucins (the major constituent in intestinal mucus) using flow cytometry analysis of fluorescently labeled purified murine and porcine mucins. These results suggest that interactions between B. fragilis and intestinal mucin may play a critical role during host-bacterial symbiosis. PMID:21664470

Huang, Julie Y; Lee, S Melanie; Mazmanian, Sarkis K



Intestinal Bacterial Flora and Transit Time of Three Neotropical Bat Species  

PubMed Central

Klite, P. D. (Middle America Research Unit, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone). Intestinal bacterial flora and transit time of three neotropical bat species. J. Bacteriol. 90:375–379. 1965.—Quantitative studies on the intestinal bacterial flora of three neotropical bat species revealed the following average bacterial populations: Molossus major, 104.8 bacteria per intestinal contents; Carollia perspicillata, 103.3; Chilonycteris rubiginosa, 103.9. In comparison, laboratory mice had an average of 109.7 bacteria per intestinal contents. Of 236 bacterial isolates obtained from 60 bats, bacteria of the Klebsiella-Aerobacter-Serratia group were found most frequently, followed by enterococci and Proteus spp. Bacteria of eight other groups were less frequently recovered. A large intestine, cecum, or appendix was absent in all three bat species, and the intestinal length was one-third to one-fifth of that in a mouse of comparable weight. The transit time through the short bat intestine was 15 min. The possible relationship of these unusual anatomical and physiological phenomena to the ability of Histoplasma capsulatum to survive in bat feces is discussed. PMID:14329450

Klite, P. D.



Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and UC-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids.

Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.



Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length?=?442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara



Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets.  


Abstract The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou



Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets  

PubMed Central

The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou



The Human Intestinal Microbiome: A New Frontier of Human Biology  

PubMed Central

To analyze the vast number and variety of microorganisms inhabiting the human intestine, emerging metagenomic technologies are extremely powerful. The intestinal microbes are taxonomically complex and constitute an ecologically dynamic community (microbiota) that has long been believed to possess a strong impact on human physiology. Furthermore, they are heavily involved in the maturation and proliferation of human intestinal cells, helping to maintain their homeostasis and can be causative of various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. A simplified animal model system has provided the mechanistic basis for the molecular interactions that occur at the interface between such microbes and host intestinal epithelia. Through metagenomic analysis, it is now possible to comprehensively explore the genetic nature of the intestinal microbiome, the mutually interacting system comprising the host cells and the residing microbial community. The human microbiome project was recently launched as an international collaborative research effort to further promote this newly developing field and to pave the way to a new frontier of human biology, which will provide new strategies for the maintenance of human health. PMID:19147530

Hattori, Masahira; Taylor, Todd D.



The human intestinal microbiome: a new frontier of human biology.  


To analyze the vast number and variety of microorganisms inhabiting the human intestine, emerging metagenomic technologies are extremely powerful. The intestinal microbes are taxonomically complex and constitute an ecologically dynamic community (microbiota) that has long been believed to possess a strong impact on human physiology. Furthermore, they are heavily involved in the maturation and proliferation of human intestinal cells, helping to maintain their homeostasis and can be causative of various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. A simplified animal model system has provided the mechanistic basis for the molecular interactions that occur at the interface between such microbes and host intestinal epithelia. Through metagenomic analysis, it is now possible to comprehensively explore the genetic nature of the intestinal microbiome, the mutually interacting system comprising the host cells and the residing microbial community. The human microbiome project was recently launched as an international collaborative research effort to further promote this newly developing field and to pave the way to a new frontier of human biology, which will provide new strategies for the maintenance of human health. PMID:19147530

Hattori, Masahira; Taylor, Todd D



Local and Systemic Complement Activity in Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unknown whether bacteriolysis due toluminal complement activation contributes to localdefense mechanisms against small intestinal bacterialovergrowth, particularly with gramnegative bacteria.This study addressed this issue. Thirty adultsubjects were investigated with culture of luminalsecretions adherent to proximal small intestinal mucosa.Luminal and plasma concentrations of C3 and C3d andC3d\\/C3 ratios were determined. Activated terminalcomplement complex was sought in surface epithelium towhich aspirated

Vic M. Duncombe; Terry D. Bolin; Stephen M. Riordan; Christopher J. Mciver; Denis Wakefield; Phillip C. Andreopoulos; Mervyn C. Thomas



The study on the impact of glycated pea proteins on human intestinal bacteria.  


The traditionally perceived function of nutrition includes supplying the consumer with the appropriate quantity and quality of substrates. As nutritional substrates, proteins are prone to spontaneously occurring non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) which can alter their molecular structure, making them highly bioactive. Glycated food proteins are able to modify the bacterial intestinal ecosystem, which is of great importance for the optimal usage of nutrients and maintenance of both intestinal homeostasis and balanced health status of the consumer. This study aimed to determine the impact of glycated pea proteins on the intestinal bacteria from a healthy human. The analyses were conducted with the use of experimental batch-type simulator models imitating human intestinal conditions. The glycated pea proteins affected the growth of gut commensal bacteria, particularly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, whose levels increased significantly. There was a corresponding shift in the bacterial metabolites with increased levels of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs); acetate, propionate lactate and butyrate. Intestinal bacteria were able to utilize these pea proteins thus indicating that the energy encrypted in glycated pea proteins, partially inaccessible for gastric enzymes, may be salvaged by gut microbiota. Such changes in microbial composition may beneficially impact the intestinal environment and exert a health-promoting effect in humans. PMID:21276631

?wi?tecka, Dominika; Dominika, ?wi?tecka; Narbad, Arjan; Arjan, Narbad; Ridgway, Karyn P; Karyn, Ridgway P; Kostyra, Henryk; Henryk, Kostyra



Vitamin D Receptor Negatively Regulates Bacterial-Stimulated NF-?B Activity in Intestine  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays an essential role in gastrointestinal inflammation. Most investigations have focused on the immune response; however, how bacteria regulate VDR and how VDR modulates the nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway in intestinal epithelial cells remain unexplored. This study investigated the effects of VDR ablation on NF-?B activation in intestinal epithelia and the role of enteric bacteria on VDR expression. We found that VDR?/? mice exhibited a pro-inflammatory bias. After Salmonella infection, VDR?/? mice had increased bacterial burden and mortality. Serum interleukin-6 in noninfected VDR+/+ mice was undetectable, but was easily detectable in VDR?/? mice. NF-?B p65 formed a complex with VDR in noninfected wild-type mouse intestine. In contrast, deletion of VDR abolished VDR/P65 binding. P65 nuclear translocation occurred in colonic epithelial cells of untreated VDR?/? mice. VDR deletion also elevated NF-?B activity in intestinal epithelia. VDR was localized to the surface epithelia of germ-free mice, but to crypt epithelial cells in conventionalized mice. VDR expression, distribution, transcriptional activity, and target genes were regulated by Salmonella stimulation, independent of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Our study demonstrates that commensal and pathogenic bacteria directly regulate colonic epithelial VDR expression and location in vivo. VDR negatively regulates bacterial-induced intestinal NF-?B activation and attenuates response to infection. Therefore, VDR is an important contributor to intestinal homeostasis and host protection from bacterial invasion and infection. PMID:20566739

Wu, Shaoping; Liao, Anne P.; Xia, Yinglin; Li, Yan Chun; Li, Jian-Dong; Sartor, R. Balfour; Sun, Jun



The Role of Milk Sialyllactose in Intestinal Bacterial Colonization123  

PubMed Central

Milk oligosaccharides influence the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby mucosal inflammation. Some of the major milk oligosaccharides are ?2,3-sialyllactose (3SL) and ?2,6-sialyllactose, which are mainly produced by the sialyltransferases ST3GAL4 and ST6GAL1, respectively. Recently, we showed that mice fed milk deficient in 3SL were more resistant to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. By contrast, the exposure to milk containing or deficient in 3SL had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. Milk 3SL mainly affected the colonization of the intestine by clostridial cluster IV bacteria. PMID:22585928

Weiss, G. Adrienne; Hennet, Thierry



Bacterial Pollution Indicators in the Intestinal Tract of Freshwater Fish  

PubMed Central

A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and persistence of coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci in the intestinal tract of freshwater fish. A total of 132 fish representing 14 different species were used in various phases of these experiments. Examination of the intestinal contents of 78 fish from moderately polluted sections of the Little Miami River indicated that fecal coliform densities were lowest in bluegills (less than 20 per gram) and highest in catfish (1,090,000 per gram). Levels of fecal streptococci for these two species were 220 and 240,000 per gram, respectively. The occurrence of fecal coliforms in fish caught in this stream reflected the warm-blooded-animal-pollution level of the water. All fish used in this phase of the study were caught during July, August, and September when the water temperatures were between 13 and 18 C. The fate of fecal coliforms and Streptococcus faecalis in the fish intestine indicated that these organisms can probably survive and multiply when fish and water temperatures are 20 C or higher, but only when the organisms are retained in the gut for periods beyond 24 hr. Based on the biochemical reactions for 3,877 coliform strains isolated from 132 freshwater fish of 14 different species, 91.4% of all strains were composed of five IMViC types. In a similar study of the biochemical reactions of 850 streptococci isolated from the intestinal tract of 55 freshwater fish, the predominant strains included S. faecalis and various closely associated biotypes. No consistently recurring pattern for either coliforms or streptococci could be developed to identify species of fish investigated. The composition of the intestinal flora is, however, related in varying degree to the level of contamination of water and food in the environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6008184

Geldreich, Edwin E.; Clarke, Norman A.



In vitro activity of rifaximin against isolates from patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.  


Rifaximin, a non-absorbable rifamycin derivative, has published clinical efficacy in the alleviation of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with the pathogenesis of IBS. This study describes for the first time the antimicrobial effect of rifaximin against SIBO micro-organisms from humans. Fluid was aspirated from the third part of the duodenum from 567 consecutive patients; quantitative cultures diagnosed SIBO in 117 patients (20.6%). A total of 170 aerobic micro-organisms were isolated and the in vitro efficacy of rifaximin was studied by (i) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing by a microdilution technique and (ii) time-kill assays using bile to simulate the small intestinal environment. At a breakpoint of 32 ?g/mL, rifaximin inhibited in vitro 85.4% of Escherichia coli, 43.6% of Klebsiella spp., 34.8% of Enterobacter spp., 54.5% of other Enterobacteriaceae spp., 82.6% of non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative spp., 100% of Enterococcus faecalis, 100% of Enterococcus faecium and 100% of Staphylococcus aureus. For the time-kill assays, 11 E. coli, 15 non-E. coli Gram-negative enterobacteria and three E. faecalis isolates were studied. Rifaximin produced a >3 log10 decrease in the starting inoculum against most of the tested isolates at 500 ?g/mL after 24h of growth. The results indicate that rifaximin has a potent effect on specific small bowel flora associated with SIBO. This conclusion should be regarded in light of the considerable time-kill effect at concentrations lower than those achieved in the bowel lumen after administration of conventional doses in humans. PMID:24461710

Pistiki, Aikaterini; Galani, Irene; Pyleris, Emmanouel; Barbatzas, Charalambos; Pimentel, Mark; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J



A new approach to predict human intestinal absorption using porcine intestinal tissue and biorelevant matrices.  


A reliable prediction of the oral bioavailability in humans is crucial and of high interest for pharmaceutical and food industry. The predictive value of currently used in silico methods, in vitro cell lines, ex vivo intestinal tissue and/or in vivo animal studies for human intestinal absorption, however, is often insufficient, especially when food-drug interactions are evaluated. Ideally, for this purpose healthy human intestinal tissue is used, but due to its limited availability there is a need for alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of healthy porcine intestinal tissue mounted in a newly developed InTESTine™ system to predict human intestinal absorption of compounds with different chemical characteristics, and within biorelevant matrices. To that end, first, a representative set of compounds was chosen of which the apparent permeability (Papp) data in both Caco-2 cells and human intestinal tissue mounted in the Ussing chamber system, and absolute human oral bioavailability were reported. Thereafter, Papp values of the subset were determined in both porcine jejunal tissue and our own Caco-2 cells. In addition, the feasibility of this new approach to study regional differences (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) in permeability of compounds and to study the effects of luminal factors on permeability was also investigated. For the latter, a comparison was made between the compatibility of porcine intestinal tissue, Caco-2 cells, and Caco-2 cells co-cultured with the mucin producing HT29-MTX cells with biorelevant samples as collected from an in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM). The results demonstrated that for the paracellularly transported compounds atenolol, cimetidine, mannitol and ranitidine porcine Papp values are within 3-fold difference of human Papp values, whereas the Caco-2 Papp values are beyond 3-fold difference. Overall, the porcine intestinal tissue Papp values are more comparable to human Papp values (9 out of 12 are within 3-fold difference), compared to Caco-2 Papp values (4 out of 12 are within 3-fold difference). In addition, for the selected hydrophilic compounds a significant increase in the permeability was observed from duodenum to ileum. Finally, this study indicated that porcine jejunal tissue segments can be used with undiluted luminal samples to predict human intestinal permeability and the effect of biorelevant matrices on this. In conclusion, viable porcine intestinal tissue mounted in the InTESTine™ system can be applied as a reliable tool for the assessment of intestinal permeability in the absence and presence of biorelevant samples. This would enable an accessible opportunity for a reliable prediction of human intestinal absorption, and the effect of luminal compounds such as digested foods, early in drug development. PMID:25046168

Westerhout, Joost; van de Steeg, Evita; Grossouw, Dimitri; Zeijdner, Evelijn E; Krul, Cyrille A M; Verwei, Miriam; Wortelboer, Heleen M



A Case of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth with Peripheral Edema Caused by Intestinal Bypass Surgery and Relieved by Repair  

PubMed Central

Intestinal bypass surgery, particularly jejuno-ileal bypass surgery, performed for the purpose of weight reduction may cause an unexpected exacerbation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here, we report a case of NASH caused by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, which developed after jejuno-colic bypass surgery and resolved dramatically after surgical correction. PMID:23170161

Sung, Young Kyung; Gwak, Geum Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Koh, Kwang Chul; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul



The role of Innate Immunity in the Host Defense Against intestinal Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Eradication of infectious disease is our global health challenge. After encountering intestinal infection with a bacterial pathogen, the host defense program is initiated by local antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that eliminate invading pathogens by phagocytosis and establish localized inflammation by secreting cytokines and chemokines. These pathogen-experienced APCs migrate to the mesenteric lymph nodes, where host immune responses are precisely orchestrated. Initiation and regulation of this defense program appear to be largely dependent on innate immunity which is antigen non-specific and provides a rapid defense against broader targets. On the other hand, many bacterial enteropathogens have evoked abilities to modify the host defense program to their advantage. Therefore, better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions is essential to establish effective eradication strategies for enteric infectious diseases. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of innate immune regulation of the host defense mechanisms against intestinal infection by bacterial pathogens. PMID:22139594

Sotolongo, John; Ruiz, Jose; Fukata, Masayuki



Surface Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 9 Is Upregulated on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Response to Pathogenic Bacterial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonic epithelial cells are constantly exposed to high levels of bacterial DNA in the intestinal lumen and must recognize and respond appropriately to pathogens, while they maintain a tolerance to non- pathogenic commensal bacterial strains. Bacterial DNA is recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). The aim of this study was to investigate TLR9 expression and localization in colonic epithelial cells

Julia B. Ewaschuk; Jody L. Backer; Thomas A. Churchill; Florian Obermeier; Denis O. Krause; Karen L. Madsen



Human Intestinal Cells Modulate Conjugational Transfer of Multidrug Resistance Plasmids between Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates  

PubMed Central

Bacterial conjugation in the human gut microbiota is believed to play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence plasmids. However, the modulation of bacterial conjugation by the human host remains poorly understood and there is a need for controlled systems to study this process. We established an in vitro co-culture system to study the interaction between human intestinal cells and bacteria. We show that the conjugation efficiency of a plasmid encoding an extended spectrum beta-lactamase is reduced when clinical isolates of Escherichia coli are co-cultured with human intestinal cells. We show that filtered media from co-cultures contain a factor that reduces conjugation efficiency. Protease treatment of the filtered media eliminates this inhibition of conjugation. This data suggests that a peptide or protein based factor is secreted on the apical side of the intestinal cells exposed to bacteria leading to a two-fold reduction in conjugation efficiency. These results show that human gut epithelial cells can modulate bacterial conjugation and may have relevance to gene exchange in the gut. PMID:24955767

Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Sommer, Morten O. A.




PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) 3A, 2C, and 1A2 constitute the major “pieces” of the human liver P450 “pie” and account, on average, for 40, 25, and 18%, respectively, of total immunoquantified P450s (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 270:414–423, 1994). The P450 profile in the human small intestine has not been fully characterized. Therefore, microsomes prepared from mucosal scrapings from the duodenal/jejunal portion of 31 human donor small intestines were analyzed by Western blot using selective P450 antibodies. P450s 3A4, 2C9, 2C19, and 2J2 were detected in all individuals and ranged from 8.8 to 150, 2.9 to 27, <0.6 to 3.9, and <0.2 to 3.1 pmol/mg, respectively. CYP2D6 was detected in 29 individuals and ranged from <0.2 to 1.4 pmol/mg. CYP3A5 was detected readily in 11 individuals, with a range (average) of 4.9 to 25 (16) pmol/mg that represented from 3 to 50% of total CYP3A (CYP3A4 + CYP3A5) content. CYP1A1 was detected readily in three individuals, with a range (average) of 3.6 to 7.7 (5.6) pmol/mg. P450s 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, and 2E1 were not or only faintly detected. As anticipated, average CYP3A content (50 pmol/mg) was the highest. Excluding CYP1A1, the remaining enzymes had the following rank order: 2C9 > 2C19 > 2J2 > 2D6 (8.4, 1.1, 0.9, and 0.5 pmol/mg, respectively). Analysis of a pooled preparation of the 31 donor specimens substantiated these results. In summary, as in the liver, large interindividual variation exists in the expression levels of individual P450s. On average, CYP3A and CYP2C9 represents the major pieces of the intestinal P450 pie, accounting for 80 and 15%, respectively, of total immunoquantified P450s. PMID:16467132

Paine, Mary F.; Hart, Heather L.; Ludington, Shana S.; Haining, Robert L.; Rettie, Allan E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.



Metabolism of hibifolin by human intestinal bacteria.  


Hibifolin, the highest-content bioactive flavonoid of the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot, was incubated with human intestinal bacteria, and four metabolites (1-4) were obtained from the incubated solution by chromatographic methods. The structures of the four metabolites were elucidated as gossypetin 8-O-beta-D-4''-deoxy- Delta(4'')-glucuropyranoside (1), gossypetin (2), quercetin (3), and 8-methoxy-quercetin (4), respectively, on the basis of UV, NMR, and MS data. Metabolite 1 was obtained as a new compound with a specific beta-D-4''-deoxy-Delta(4'')-glucuropyranosyl moiety, which was formed through a unique and novel metabolic pathway that has not been reported previously. PMID:19235125

Xu, Tong-Tong; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Bin; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Qing-Ying



Intestinal secretagogues increase cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration and K + conductance in a human intestinal epithelial cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A human intestinal epithelial cell line (Intestine 407) is known to retain receptors for intestinal secretagogues such as acetylcholine (ACh), histamine, serotonin (5-HT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The cells were also found to possess separate receptors for secretin and ATP, the stimulation of which elicited transient hyperpolarizations coupled to decreased membrane resistances. These responses were reversed in polarity

Toshihiko Yada; Shigetoshi Oiki; Shunji Ueda; Yasunobu Okada



Adhesion of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus to Human Intestinal Mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal mucus layer provides a potential niche for colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). We therefore examined the ability of six VREF strains to adhere to human intestinal mucus and determined binding\\u000a kinetics. Four of six (67%) VREF strains demonstrated significant adhesion to immobilized intestinal mucus compared with a\\u000a Salmonella typhimurium–negative control strain, but the level of adherence was

Nicole J. Pultz; Satu Vesterlund; Arthur C. Ouwehand; Curtis J. Donskey



A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine  

SciTech Connect

A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson



Transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin modulates the intestinal flora in piglets.  


Lactoferrin (LF) is a beneficial multifunctional protein in milk. The objective of this study was to determine whether bovine transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) can modulate intestinal flora in the neonatal pig as an animal model for the human infant. We fed 7-day-old piglets (i) ordinary whole milk (OM), (ii) a 1:1 mixture of OM and rhLF milk (MM), or (iii) rhLF milk (LFM). LFM provided better average daily mass gain than OM (P = 0.007). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the LFM piglets exhibited more diversity of the intestinal flora than the OM group. Except for the colon in the LFM group, an increasing trend in microbial diversity occurred from the duodenum to the colon. Fecal flora was not different across different ages or different treatment groups, but a cluster analysis showed that the fecal flora of OM- and MM-fed piglets had a higher degree of similarity than that of LFM-fed piglets. Based on culture-based bacterial counts of intestinal content samples, concentrations of Salmonella spp. in the colon and of Escherichia coli throughout the intestine were reduced with LFM (P < 0.01). Concentrations of Bifidobacterium spp. in the ileum and of Lactobacillus spp. throughout the intestine were also increased with LFM (P ? 0.01). We suggest that rhLF can modulate the intestinal flora in piglets. PMID:22400985

Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Yu, Tian; Wang, Jing; Li, Ning



[The aerobic bacterial intestinal flora of various wintering geese species].  


The aerobic fecal flora of wintering Brent Goos (Branta bernicla), Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), Greylag Goose (Anser anser), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), and Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) was studied. There were no specific differences between the various geese. Bacterial counts were in the range of 10(5)-10(7) CPU per gram of feces. Neither pathogenic bacteria nor rotavirus could be detected in the fecal samples of the wintering geese, so that a contamination of the environment with those pathogenic organisms could be excluded. The majority of the isolated bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas; enterobacteria and streptococci were less common. The observations are discussed regarding their epidemiological and ecological significance. PMID:7136353

Holländer, R



Molecular analysis of intestinal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens fed diets containing fermented cottonseed meal.  


The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of fermented cottonseed meal (FCM) on the ileal and cecal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens. A total of 300 newborn yellow-feathered broiler chickens were randomly divided into 2 treatments with 3 replicates each (50 birds per replicate): control and 80 g/kg of FCM group. The feeding trial lasted for 42 d. Ileal and cecal digesta samples were collected from 8 chicks per replicate at 21 and 42 d of age to determine the composition of bacterial microbiota using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, sequencing, and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The results demonstrated that the microbial composition in the ileum and cecum were considerably affected by the diet. The similarity dendrogram of banding profiles showed a more rapid stabilization of intestinal bacterial microbiota in broilers fed diets supplemented with FCM, compared with that of the birds fed the control diet. No significant difference was observed in total number of bands and Shannon-Weaver index, indicating that FCM had no effects on bacterial diversity. However, enumeration of bacteria in the ileal and cecal contents by quantitative PCR showed an increased (P < 0.05) population of lactobacilli, as well as a decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli number by the dietary inclusion of FCM. In summary, dietary inclusion of FCM did not affect the intestinal microbial diversity but shifted intestinal microbiota, with a more homogenous population and an increased colonization of lactobacilli. The results also support the concept that dietary FCM inclusion could promote the beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract. PMID:23300306

Sun, H; Tang, J W; Fang, C L; Yao, X H; Wu, Y F; Wang, X; Feng, J



Evolution of symbiotic bacteria in the distal human intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult human intestine contains trillions of bacteria, representing hundreds of species and thousands of subspecies. Little is known about the selective pressures that have shaped and are shaping this community's component species, which are dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes divisions. To examine how the intestinal environment affects microbial genome evolution, we have sequenced the genomes of

Jian Xu; Michael A. Mahowald; Ruth E. Ley; Catherine A. Lozupone; Micah Hamady; Eric C. Martens; Bernard Henrissat; Pedro M. Coutinho; Patrick Minx; Philippe Latreille; Holland Cordum; Andrew Van Brunt; Kyung Kim; Robert S. Fulton; Lucinda A. Fulton; Sandra W. Clifton; Richard K. Wilson; Robin D. Knight; Jeffrey I. Gordon



Evolution of Symbiotic Bacteria in the Distal Human Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult human intestine contains trillions of bacteria, representing hundreds of species and thousands of subspecies. Little is known about the selective pressures that have shaped and are shaping this community's component species, which are dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes divisions. To examine how the intestinal environment affects microbial genome evolution, we have sequenced the genomes of

Jian Xu; Michael A Mahowald; Ruth E Ley; Catherine A Lozupone; Micah Hamady; Eric C Martens; Bernard Henrissat; Pedro M Coutinho; Patrick Minx; Philippe Latreille; Holland Cordum; Andrew Van Brunt; Kyung Kim; Robert S Fulton; Lucinda A Fulton; Sandra W Clifton; Richard K Wilson; Robin D Knight; Jeffrey I Gordon



Development of Fatal Intestinal Inflammation in MyD88 Deficient Mice Co-infected with Helminth and Bacterial Enteropathogens  

PubMed Central

Infections with intestinal helminth and bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, continue to be a major global health threat for children. To determine whether and how an intestinal helminth parasite, Heligomosomoides polygyrus, might impact the TLR signaling pathway during the response to a bacterial enteropathogen, MyD88 knockout and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. polygyrus, the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium, or both. We found that MyD88 knockout mice co-infected with H. polygyrus and C. rodentium developed more severe intestinal inflammation and elevated mortality compared to the wild-type mice. The enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium, intestinal injury and mortality of the co-infected MyD88 knockout mice were found to be associated with markedly reduced intestinal phagocyte recruitment, decreased expression of the chemoattractant KC, and a significant increase in bacterial translocation. Moreover, the increase in bacterial infection and disease severity were found to be correlated with a significant downregulation of antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal tissue in co-infected MyD88 knockout mice. Our results suggest that the MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role for host defense and survival during helminth and enteric bacterial co-infection. PMID:25010669

Su, Libo; Qi, Yujuan; Zhang, Mei; Weng, Meiqian; Zhang, Xichen; Su, Chienwen; Shi, Hai Ning



The murine lung microbiome in relation to the intestinal and vaginal bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

Background This work provides the first description of the bacterial population of the lung microbiota in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the lung microbiome in mice, the most used animal model for inflammatory lung diseases such as COPD, cystic fibrosis and asthma. Bacterial communities from broncho-alveolar lavage fluids and lung tissue were compared to samples taken from fecal matter (caecum) and vaginal lavage fluid from female BALB/cJ mice. Results Using a customized 16S rRNA sequencing protocol amplifying the V3-V4 region our study shows that the mice have a lung microbiome that cluster separately from mouse intestinal microbiome (caecum). The mouse lung microbiome is dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria overlapping the vaginal microbiome. We also show that removal of host tissue or cells from lung fluid during the DNA extraction step has an impact on the resulting bacterial community profile. Sample preparation needs to be considered when choosing an extraction method and interpreting data. Conclusions We have consistently amplified bacterial DNA from mouse lungs that is distinct from the intestinal microbiome in these mice. The gut microbiome has been extensively studied for its links to development of disease. Here we suggest that also the lung microbiome could be important in relation to inflammatory lung diseases. Further research is needed to understand the contribution of the lung microbiome and the gut-lung axis to the development of lung diseases such as COPD and asthma. PMID:24373613



In vitro evaluation of effects of gut region and fiber structure on the intestinal dominant bacterial diversity and functional bacterial species.  


Understanding the intestinal bacteria in ruminants and their population kinetics is essential for their ecological function, as well as their interaction with the host. In this in vitro study, we aimed to determine whether gut region and fiber structure can influence bacterial diversity and functional bacterial population, together with the kinetics of functional bacterial species in the cecal inocula using PCR-DGGE and qPCR. A split plot design was conducted with gut regions (jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) as main plot, and substrates (neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and cellulose (CEL)) as subplot. Incubation time and gut region affected dominant bacterial diversity. The numbers of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, genus Prevotella and amylolytic bacteria in the hindgut inocula were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the small intestinal inocula. Fiber structure did not significantly influence the dominant bacterial diversity and the numbers of most examined functional bacterial species. The greatest increase rate of cellulolytic bacteria occurred earlier than amylolytic bacteria except for R. albus incubated with NDF. Changes in cellulolytic bacterial populations were not coordinative with alteration of fiber disappearance as well as CMCase and xylanase activities. All these suggest that the hindgut contents have greater potential to digest fiber than small intestinal contents, and cellulolytic bacteria are of significant value at the initial stage of fiber digestion among the fiber digestive microbes in the intestine. PMID:24972096

Jiao, Jinzhen; Lu, Qi; Tan, Zhiliang; Guan, Leluo; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng



Intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases: from bacterial community structure and functions to species of pathophysiological relevance.  


The trillions of bacterial cells that colonize the mammalian digestive tract influence both host physiology and the fate of dietary compounds. Gnotobionts and fecal transplantation have been instrumental in revealing the causal role of intestinal bacteria in energy homeostasis and metabolic dysfunctions such as type-2 diabetes. However, the exact contribution of gut bacterial metabolism to host energy balance is still unclear and knowledge about underlying molecular mechanisms is scant. We have previously characterized cecal bacterial community functions and host responses in diet-induced obese mice using omics approaches. Based on these studies, we here discuss issues on the relevance of mouse models, give evidence that the metabolism of cholesterol-derived compounds by gut bacteria is of particular importance in the context of metabolic disorders and that dominant species of the family Coriobacteriaceae are good models to study these functions. PMID:25003516

Clavel, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Charles; Haller, Dirk; Gérard, Philippe; Rohn, Sascha; Lepage, Patricia; Daniel, Hannelore



Quantification of Intestinal Bacterial Populations by Real-Time PCR with a Universal Primer Set and Minor Groove Binder Probes: a Global Approach to the Enteric Flora  

PubMed Central

The composition of the human intestinal flora is important for the health status of the host. The global composition and the presence of specific pathogens are relevant to the effects of the flora. Therefore, accurate quantification of all major bacterial populations of the enteric flora is needed. A TaqMan real-time PCR-based method for the quantification of 20 dominant bacterial species and groups of the intestinal flora has been established on the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA taxonomy. A PCR with conserved primers was used for all reactions. In each real-time PCR, a universal probe for quantification of total bacteria and a specific probe for the species in question were included. PCR with conserved primers and the universal probe for total bacteria allowed relative and absolute quantification. Minor groove binder probes increased the sensitivity of the assays 10- to 100-fold. The method was evaluated by cross-reaction experiments and quantification of bacteria in complex clinical samples from healthy patients. A sensitivity of 101 to 103 bacterial cells per sample was achieved. No significant cross-reaction was observed. The real-time PCR assays presented may facilitate understanding of the intestinal bacterial flora through a normalized global estimation of the major contributing species. PMID:15184435

Ott, Stephan J.; Musfeldt, Meike; Ullmann, Uwe; Hampe, Jochen; Schreiber, Stefan



Three-Dimensional Coculture Of Human Small-Intestine Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex three-dimensional masses of normal human epithelial and mesenchymal small-intestine cells cocultured in process involving specially designed bioreactors. Useful as tissued models for studies of growth, regulatory, and differentiation processes in normal intestinal tissues; diseases of small intestine; and interactions between cells of small intestine and viruses causing disease both in small intestine and elsewhere in body. Process used to produce other tissue models, leading to advances in understanding of growth and differentiation in developing organisms, of renewal of tissue, and of treatment of myriad of clinical conditions. Prior articles describing design and use of rotating-wall culture vessels include "Growing And Assembling Cells Into Tissues" (MSC-21559), "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), and "In Vitro, Matrix-Free Formation Of Solid Tumor Spheroids" (MSC-21843).

Wolf, David; Spaulding, Glen; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Prewett, Tracy



Effect of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal morphology in obstructive jaundice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the effects of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal villus histopathology in experimental obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups each including 10 animals: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and section of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, bile duct ligation followed by oral supplementation of honey (BDL + honey) 10 g/kg per day. Liver, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal samples were taken for microbiological, light and transmission electrone microscopic examination. RESULTS: Although the number of villi per centimeter and the height of the mucosa were higher in sham group, there was no statistically significant difference between sham and BDL + honey groups (P > 0.05). On the other hand, there was a statistically significant difference between BDL group and other groups (P < 0.05). The electron microscopic changes were also different between these groups. Sham and honey groups had similar incidence of bacterial translocation (P > 0.05). BDL group had significantly higher rates of bacterial translocation as compared with sham and honey groups. Bacterial translocation was predominantly detected in mesenteric lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of honey in presence of obstructive jaundice ameliorates bacterial translocation and improves ileal morphology. PMID:18528939

Gencay, Cem; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Muratoglu, Sabahattin; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Akkus, Mehmet Ali



Bacterial Overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human gastrointestinal tract typically contains 300–500 bacterial species. Most bacterial species are acquired during\\u000a the birth process and although some changes to the flora may occur during later stages of life, the composition of the intestinal\\u000a microflora remains relatively constant. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) is defined as an excessive increase in the\\u000a number of bacteria in the upper

Rosemary J. Young; Jon A. Vanderhoof


Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans.  


Almonds and almond skins are rich in fiber and other components that have potential prebiotic properties. In this study we investigated the prebiotic effects of almond and almond skin intake in healthy humans. A total of 48 healthy adult volunteers consumed a daily dose of roasted almonds (56 g), almond skins (10 g), or commercial fructooligosaccharides (8 g) (as positive control) for 6 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at defined time points and analyzed for microbiota composition and selected indicators of microbial activity. Different strains of intestinal bacteria had varying degrees of growth sensitivity to almonds or almond skins. Significant increases in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed in fecal samples as a consequence of almond or almond skin supplementation. However, the populations of Escherichia coli did not change significantly, while the growth of the pathogen Clostridum perfringens was significantly repressed. Modification of the intestinal microbiota composition induced changes in bacterial enzyme activities, specifically a significant increase in fecal ?-galactosidase activity and decreases in fecal ?-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and azoreductase activities. Our observations suggest that almond and almond skin ingestion may lead to an improvement in the intestinal microbiota profile and a modification of the intestinal bacterial activities, which would induce the promotion of health beneficial factors and the inhibition of harmful factors. Thus we believe that almonds and almond skins possess potential prebiotic properties. PMID:24315808

Liu, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuchun; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Pingfan; Ni, Li



Spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence patterns of human mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota.  


Human gut microbiota shows high inter-subject variations, but the actual spatial distribution and co-occurrence patterns of gut mucosa microbiota that occur within a healthy human instestinal tract remain poorly understood. In this study, we illustrated a model of this mucosa bacterial communities' biogeography, based on the largest data set so far, obtained via 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rDNAs associated with 77 matched biopsy tissue samples taken from terminal ileum, ileocecal valve, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 11 healthy adult subjects. Borrowing from macro-ecology, we used both Taylor's power law analysis and phylogeny-based beta-diversity metrics to uncover a highly heterogeneous distribution pattern of mucosa microbial inhabitants along the length of the intestinal tract. We then developed a spatial dispersion model with an R-squared value greater than 0.950 to map out the gut mucosa-associated flora's non-linear spatial distribution pattern for 51.60% of the 188 most abundant gut bacterial species. Furthermore, spatial co-occurring network analysis of mucosa microbial inhabitants together with occupancy (that is habitat generalists, specialists and opportunist) analyses implies that ecological relationships (both oppositional and symbiotic) between mucosa microbial inhabitants may be important contributors to the observed spatial heterogeneity of mucosa microbiota along the human intestine and may even potentially be associated with mutual cooperation within and functional stability of the gut ecosystem. PMID:24132077

Zhang, Zhigang; Geng, Jiawei; Tang, Xiaodan; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jinchao; Wen, Xiujun; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Shi, Peng



Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary bile acids, produced solely by intesti- nal bacteria, can accumulate to high levels in the enter- ohepatic circulation of some individuals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer, gallstones, and other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Bile salt hydrolysis and hy- droxy group dehydrogenation reactions are carried out by a broad spectrum of intestinal anaerobic bacteria, whereas bile acid

Jason M. Ridlon; Dae-Joong Kang; Phillip B. Hylemon



Methane production and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children living in a slum  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in school-aged children and the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in breath tests. METHODS: This transversal study included 85 children residing in a slum and 43 children from a private school, all aged between 6 and 10 years, in Osasco, Brazil. For characterization of the groups, data regarding the socioeconomic status and basic housing sanitary conditions were collected. Anthropometric data was obtained in children from both groups. All children completed the hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath test in order to assess small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO was diagnosed when there was an increase in H2 ? 20 ppm or CH4 ? 10 ppm with regard to the fasting value until 60 min after lactulose ingestion. RESULTS: Children from the slum group had worse living conditions and lower nutritional indices than children from the private school. SIBO was found in 30.9% (26/84) of the children from the slum group and in 2.4% (1/41) from the private school group (P = 0.0007). Greater hydrogen production in the small intestine was observed in children from the slum group when compared to children from the private school (P = 0.007). A higher concentration of hydrogen in the small intestine (P < 0.001) and in the colon (P < 0.001) was observed among the children from the slum group with SIBO when compared to children from the slum group without SIBO. Methane production was observed in 63.1% (53/84) of the children from the slum group and in 19.5% (8/41) of the children from the private school group (P < 0.0001). Methane production was observed in 38/58 (65.5%) of the children without SIBO and in 15/26 (57.7%) of the children with SIBO from the slum. Colonic production of hydrogen was lower in methane-producing children (P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Children who live in inadequate environmental conditions are at risk of bacterial overgrowth and methane production. Hydrogen is a substrate for methane production in the colon. PMID:23139610

Mello, Carolina Santos; Tahan, Soraia; Melli, Ligia Cristina FL; Rodrigues, Mirian Silva do Carmo; de Mello, Ricardo Martin Pereira; Scaletsky, Isabel Cristina Affonso; de Morais, Mauro Batista



Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).  

PubMed Central

The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs were slightly less than those from the other two groups of frogs. Another group of 14 summer frogs, after treatment to induce hibernation, showed a drop in bacterial counts accompanied by a change in the composition of the flora. In most frogs, Bacteroides was the dominant organism. Other bacteria repeatedly isolated at high dilutions were strict anaerobes, including butyrigenic and acetogenic helically coiled bacteria; fusobacteria; and acetogenic, small, gram-positive bacilli. These data indicate that the intestinal flora of frogs is similar to that of mammals and birds and that this flora can be maintained at temperatures close to freezing. PMID:6982025

Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W



Metronidazole improves intestinal microcirculation in septic rats independently of bacterial burden.  


To explore the effects of metronidazole (Me) on intestinal microcirculation in septic rats, intravital microscopy (IVM) following 16 hours of colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP model) was used. Four groups of animals were studied: control group (sham operation) and CASP group, each with and without Me treatment (10 mg/kg i.v.). In order to investigate the substance-specific effects of Me independently of the antibacterial effects within a pathologically altered microcirculation, a second experimental series with lipopolysaccharide challenge (LPS model) was carried out. The LPS model consisted of the four groups (control animals and LPS animals (15 mg/kg i.v. LPS from E. coli) with and without Me). IVM in the LPS experiments was performed following a two hour observation period. Me treated CASP or LPS animals, as compared with untreated, demonstrated significant improvement of functional capillary density (FCD) of the intestinal wall. The increase in the number of leukocytes firmly adhered to the endothelium (leukocyte sticking) in the untreated CASP or LPS animals within the V1 venules of the intestinal submucosal layer, was significantly reduced in the Me treated animals. In conclusion, Me exerts beneficial anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects within the septic microcirculation. PMID:16614467

Lehmann, Ch; Bac, V H; Pavlovic, D; Lustig, M; Maier, S; Feyerherd, F; Usichenko, T-I; Meissner, K; Haase, H; Jünger, M; Wendt, M; Heidecke, C-D; Gründling, M



Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria.  


Secondary bile acids, produced solely by intestinal bacteria, can accumulate to high levels in the enterohepatic circulation of some individuals and may contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer, gallstones, and other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Bile salt hydrolysis and hydroxy group dehydrogenation reactions are carried out by a broad spectrum of intestinal anaerobic bacteria, whereas bile acid 7-dehydroxylation appears restricted to a limited number of intestinal anaerobes representing a small fraction of the total colonic flora. Microbial enzymes modifying bile salts differ between species with respect to pH optima, enzyme kinetics, substrate specificity, cellular location, and possibly physiological function. Crystallization, site-directed mutagenesis, and comparisons of protein secondary structure have provided insight into the mechanisms of several bile acid-biotransforming enzymatic reactions. Molecular cloning of genes encoding bile salt-modifying enzymes has facilitated the understanding of the genetic organization of these pathways and is a means of developing probes for the detection of bile salt-modifying bacteria. The potential exists for altering the bile acid pool by targeting key enzymes in the 7alpha/beta-dehydroxylation pathway through the development of pharmaceuticals or sequestering bile acids biologically in probiotic bacteria, which may result in their effective removal from the host after excretion. PMID:16299351

Ridlon, Jason M; Kang, Dae-Joong; Hylemon, Phillip B



Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Human Intestinal Defensin 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defensins are antibiotic peptides expressed in human and animal myeloid and epithelial cells. Due to the limited availability of natural peptides, the properties of human epithelial defensins have not been studied. We assayed the microbicidal activity of recombinant human intestinal defensin 5 (rHD-5) in the presence of salt (0 to 150 mM NaCl) with varied pH (pH 5.5 to pH




Sensitivity of bile acid breath test in the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine with and without the stagnant (blind) loop syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bile acid breath test was studied to examine its sensitivity for establishing the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth in comparison to that of the Schilling test and small-intestinal cultures in 12 patients with a stagnant (blind) loop syndrome, as well as in 38 patients who had other conditions with suspected bacterial contamination of the small intestine. The presence of bile

Sirus Farivar; Hans Fromm; Detlef Schindler; Friedrich W. Schmidt



Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

Montoudis, Alain [Department of Nutrition, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Delvin, Edgard [Department of Biochemistry, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Health Research, Group of the Functional Development and Physiopathology of the Digestive Tract, and Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., Canada J1H 5N4 (Canada); Menard, Daniel [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Health Research, Group of the Functional Development and Physiopathology of the Digestive Tract, and Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., J1H 5N4 (Canada)] (and others)



Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies  

E-print Network

of the small and large intestines of mice, but the latter method was superior for logistical reasons. We alsoCharacterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal 2009 Keywords: Intestine Mucosa-associated bacteria Single-stranded artifacts T-RFLP Statistical

Selinger, Brent


Reprogramming of the human intestinal epigenome by surgical tissue transposition  

PubMed Central

Extracellular cues play critical roles in the establishment of the epigenome during development and may also contribute to epigenetic perturbations found in disease states. The direct role of the local tissue environment on the post-development human epigenome, however, remains unclear due to limitations in studies of human subjects. Here, we use an isogenic human ileal neobladder surgical model and compare global DNA methylation levels of intestinal epithelial cells pre- and post-neobladder construction using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Our study is the first to quantify the effect of environmental cues on the human epigenome and show that the local tissue environment directly modulates DNA methylation patterns in normal differentiated cells in vivo. In the neobladder, the intestinal epithelial cells lose their tissue-specific epigenetic landscape in a time-dependent manner following the tissue’s exposure to a bladder environment. We find that de novo methylation of many intestine-specific enhancers occurs at the rate of 0.41% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = 0.71), while demethylation of primarily non-intestine-specific transcribed regions occurs at the rate of ?0.37% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = ?0.57). The dynamic resetting of the DNA methylome in the neobladder not only implicates local environmental cues in the shaping and maintenance of the epigenome but also illustrates an unexpected cross-talk between the epigenome and the cellular environment. PMID:24515120

Lay, Fides D.; Triche, Timothy J.; Tsai, Yvonne C.; Su, Sheng-Fang; Martin, Sue Ellen; Daneshmand, Siamak; Skinner, Eila C.; Liang, Gangning; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Jones, Peter A.



Reprogramming of the human intestinal epigenome by surgical tissue transposition.  


Extracellular cues play critical roles in the establishment of the epigenome during development and may also contribute to epigenetic perturbations found in disease states. The direct role of the local tissue environment on the post-development human epigenome, however, remains unclear due to limitations in studies of human subjects. Here, we use an isogenic human ileal neobladder surgical model and compare global DNA methylation levels of intestinal epithelial cells pre- and post-neobladder construction using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Our study is the first to quantify the effect of environmental cues on the human epigenome and show that the local tissue environment directly modulates DNA methylation patterns in normal differentiated cells in vivo. In the neobladder, the intestinal epithelial cells lose their tissue-specific epigenetic landscape in a time-dependent manner following the tissue's exposure to a bladder environment. We find that de novo methylation of many intestine-specific enhancers occurs at the rate of 0.41% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = 0.71), while demethylation of primarily non-intestine-specific transcribed regions occurs at the rate of -0.37% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = -0.57). The dynamic resetting of the DNA methylome in the neobladder not only implicates local environmental cues in the shaping and maintenance of the epigenome but also illustrates an unexpected cross-talk between the epigenome and the cellular environment. PMID:24515120

Lay, Fides D; Triche, Timothy J; Tsai, Yvonne C; Su, Sheng-Fang; Martin, Sue Ellen; Daneshmand, Siamak; Skinner, Eila C; Liang, Gangning; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Jones, Peter A



Propolis reduces bacterial translocation and intestinal villus atrophy in experimental obstructive jaundice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of propolis on bacterial translocation and ultrastructure of intestinal morphology in experimental obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into three groups, each including 10 animals: groupI, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, BDL followed by oral supplementation of propolis 100 mg/kg per day. Liver, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal samples were taken for microbiological, light and transmission electron microscopic examination on postoperative 7th d after sacrification. RESULTS: The mean number of villi per centimeter and mean mucosal height of the propolis group were significantly different in the BDL group (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). The electron microscopic changes were also different between these groups. Sham and BDL + propolis groups had similar incidence of bacterial translocation (BT). The BDL group had significantly higher rates of BT as compared with sham and BDL + propolis groups. BT was predominantly detected in MLNs and the most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli. CONCLUSION: Propolis showed a significant protective effect on ileal mucosa and reduced bacterial translocation in the experimental obstructive jaundice model. Further studies should be carried out to explain the mechanisms of these effects. PMID:17876893

Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Muratoglu, Sabahattin; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Akkus, Mehmet Ali



Role of Ankaferd on bacterial translocation and inflammatory response in an experimental rat model of intestinal obstruction  

PubMed Central

Intestinal obstruction (IO) is an important risk factor for the development of bacteria translocation (BT), a serious condition associated with sepsis and potential mortality. Ankaferd is an herbal extract that is reported to exert anti-hemorrhagic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory, effects in the intestine. In this study, we employed an animal model of intestinal obstruction to evaluate the effects of Ankaferd in the prevention of bacterial translocation and the suppression of the inflammatory response. Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were allocated randomly to three groups: Group 1 (sham) underwent ileal manipulation alone; Group 2 (intestinal obstruction, IO) underwent complete ileal ligation; Group 3 (intestinal obstruction + Ankaferd blood stopper, ABS) underwent complete ileal ligation and intraperitoneal Ankaferd injection. All rats were euthanized after 24 hours. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum oxidative stress parameters and cytokine expression. In addition, liver, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and ileal specimens were obtained for microbiological culture to determine the rate of bacterial translocation. Liver and ileal tissues were collected for histopathological examination. A reduction in oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial translocation was observed in the ABS treatment group relative to the IO group (p<0.05). Furthermore, histopathological examination demonstrated a reduction in obstruction-induced mucosal injury in Ankaferd-treated rats. Data derived from this study provided the first evidence that Ankaferd treatment limits bacterial translocation and enhances intestinal barrier function in mice undergoing intestinal obstruction. Ankaferd may be useful in the prevention of BT associated with IO. PMID:25356125

Sen, Velat; Uluca, Unal; Ece, Ayd?n; Gunes, Ali; Zeytun, Hikmet; Arslan, Serkan; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Turkcu, Gul; Tekin, Recep



Diet and the development of the human intestinal microbiome  

PubMed Central

The important role of the gut microbiome in maintaining human health has necessitated a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of intestinal microbial communities as well as the host and environmental factors driving these dynamics. Genetics, mode of birth, infant feeding patterns, antibiotic usage, sanitary living conditions and long term dietary habits contribute to shaping the composition of the gut microbiome. This review focuses primarily on diet, as it is one of the most pivotal factors in the development of the human gut microbiome from infancy to the elderly. The infant gut microbiota is characterized by a high degree of instability, only reaching a state similar to that of adults by 2–3 years of age; consistent with the establishment of a varied solid food diet. The diet-related factors influencing the development of the infant gut microbiome include whether the child is breast or formula-fed as well as how and when solid foods are introduced. In contrast to the infant gut, the adult gut microbiome is resilient to large shifts in community structure. Several studies have shown that dietary changes induce transient fluctuations in the adult microbiome, sometimes in as little as 24 h; however, the microbial community rapidly returns to its stable state. Current knowledge of how long-term dietary habits shape the gut microbiome is limited by the lack of long-term feeding studies coupled with temporal gut microbiota characterization. However, long-term weight loss studies have been shown to alter the ratio of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, the two major bacterial phyla residing in the human gastrointestinal tract. With aging, diet-related factors such as malnutrition are associated with microbiome shifts, although the cause and effect relationship between these factors has not been established. Increased pharmaceutical usage is also more prevalent in the elderly and can contribute to reduced gut microbiota stability and diversity. Foods containing prebiotic oligosaccharide components that nurture beneficial commensals in the gut community and probiotic supplements are being explored as interventions to manipulate the gut microbiome, potentially improving health status. PMID:25295033

Voreades, Noah; Kozil, Anne; Weir, Tiffany L.



Quantitation of small intestinal permeability during normal human drug absorption  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the quantitative relationship between a drug’s physical chemical properties and its rate of intestinal absorption (QSAR) is critical for selecting candidate drugs. Because of limited experimental human small intestinal permeability data, approximate surrogates such as the fraction absorbed or Caco-2 permeability are used, both of which have limitations. Methods Given the blood concentration following an oral and intravenous dose, the time course of intestinal absorption in humans was determined by deconvolution and related to the intestinal permeability by the use of a new 3 parameter model function (“Averaged Model” (AM)). The theoretical validity of this AM model was evaluated by comparing it to the standard diffusion-convection model (DC). This analysis was applied to 90 drugs using previously published data. Only drugs that were administered in oral solution form to fasting subjects were considered so that the rate of gastric emptying was approximately known. All the calculations are carried out using the freely available routine PKQuest Java ( which has an easy to use, simple interface. Results Theoretically, the AM permeability provides an accurate estimate of the intestinal DC permeability for solutes whose absorption ranges from 1% to 99%. The experimental human AM permeabilities determined by deconvolution are similar to those determined by direct human jejunal perfusion. The small intestinal pH varies with position and the results are interpreted in terms of the pH dependent octanol partition. The permeability versus partition relations are presented separately for the uncharged, basic, acidic and charged solutes. The small uncharged solutes caffeine, acetaminophen and antipyrine have very high permeabilities (about 20 x 10-4?cm/sec) corresponding to an unstirred layer of only 45??m. The weak acid aspirin also has a large AM permeability despite its low octanol partition at pH?7.4, suggesting that it is nearly completely absorbed in the first part of the intestine where the pH is about 5.4. Conclusions The AM deconvolution method provides an accurate estimate of the human intestinal permeability. The results for these 90 drugs should provide a useful benchmark for evaluating QSAR models. PMID:23800230



Molecular monitoring of human intestinal Bifidobacterium strain diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predominant Bifidobacterium strains belonging to the intestinal flora of four human volunteers were isolated on selective medium before and after eight days of treatment with oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Augmentin). These antimicrobial agents are known to be strongly active against the genusBifidobacterium. A fifth volunteer did not receive the antibiotics and was considered as a control. Bifidobacteria were characterized by hybridizing

Irène Mangin; Yoram Bouhnik; Nathalie Bisetti; Bernard Decaris



Human Intestinal M Cells Display the Sialyl Lewis A Antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical features that distinguish human M cells from other intestinal epithelial cell types are important for understanding microbial pathogenesis and for targeting vaccines to the mucosal immune system. We applied a large panel of carbohydrate-specific monoclonal antibodies and lectins to Peyer's patch and cecum biopsy specimens from three normal individuals and a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The results




Exopolysaccharides produced by intestinal Bifidobacterium strains act as fermentable substrates for human intestinal bacteria.  


Eleven exopolysaccharides (EPS) isolated from different human intestinal Bifidobacterium strains were tested in fecal slurry batch cultures and compared with glucose and the prebiotic inulin for their abilities to act as fermentable substrates for intestinal bacteria. During incubation, the increases in levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were considerably more pronounced in cultures with EPS, glucose, and inulin than in controls without carbohydrates added, indicating that the substrates assayed were fermented by intestinal bacteria. Shifts in molar proportions of SCFA during incubation with EPS and inulin caused a decrease in the acetic acid-to-propionic acid ratio, a possible indicator of the hypolipidemic effect of prebiotics, with the lowest values for this parameter being obtained for EPS from the species Bifidobacterium longum and from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum strain C52. This behavior was contrary to that found with glucose, a carbohydrate not considered to be a prebiotic and for which a clear increase of this ratio was obtained during incubation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that EPS exerted a moderate bifidogenic effect, which was comparable to that of inulin for some polymers but which was lower than that found for glucose. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments using universal primers was employed to analyze microbial groups other than bifidobacteria. Changes in banding patterns during incubation with EPS indicated microbial rearrangements of Bacteroides and Escherichia coli relatives. Moreover, the use of EPS from B. pseudocatenulatum in fecal cultures from some individuals accounted for the prevalence of Desulfovibrio and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whereas incubation with EPS from B. longum supported populations close to Anaerostipes, Prevotella, and/or Oscillospira. Thus, EPS synthesized by intestinal bifidobacteria could act as fermentable substrates for microorganisms in the human gut environment, modifying interactions among intestinal populations. PMID:18539803

Salazar, Nuria; Gueimonde, Miguel; Hernández-Barranco, Ana María; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G



Trichuriasis is an infection of the large intestine caused by the human whipworm (Trichuris trichi-  

E-print Network

Trichuriasis is an infection of the large intestine caused by the human whipworm (Trichuris trichi which embed themselves in the lining of the large intestine and colon. Adult whipworms can live in the large intestine and attach themselves to the lining of the large intestine, causing abdominal upset

Davis, Richard E.


Molecular epidemiology of human intestinal amoebas in iran.  


Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran. PMID:23193500

Hooshyar, H; Rostamkhani, P; Rezaian, M



Impact of diet on human intestinal microbiota and health.  


Our intestinal microbiota is involved in the breakdown and bioconversion of dietary and host components that are not degraded and taken up by our own digestive system. The end products generated by our microbiota fuel our enterocytes and support growth but also have signaling functions that generate systemic immune and metabolic responses. Due to the immense metabolic capacity of the intestinal microbiota and its relatively high plasticity, there is great interest in identifying dietary approaches that allow intentional and predictable modulation of the microbiota. In this article, we review the current insights on dietary influence on the human intestinal microbiota based on recent high-throughput molecular studies and interconnections with health. We focus especially on the emerging data that identify the amount and type of dietary fat as significant modulators of the colonic microbiota and its metabolic output. PMID:24387608

Salonen, Anne; de Vos, Willem M



Campylobacter-Induced Interleukin8 Secretion in Polarized Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Requires Campylobacter-Secreted Cytolethal Distending Toxin and Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Activation of NF B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli colonize and infect the intestinal epithelium and cause acute inflammatory diarrhea. The intestinal epithelium serves as a physical barrier to, and a sensor of, bacterial infection by secreting proinflammatory cytokines. This study examined the mechanisms for Campylobacter- induced secretion of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by using polarized T84 human colonic epithelial cells as a

Jie Zheng; Jianghong Meng; Shaohua Zhao; Ruby Singh; Wenxia Song



Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.  


The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, ?- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-?) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. PMID:24612255

Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E



Colonization of Mucin by Human Intestinal Bacteria and Establishment of Biofilm Communities in a Two-Stage Continuous Culture System  

PubMed Central

The human large intestine is covered with a protective mucus coating, which is heavily colonized by complex bacterial populations that are distinct from those in the gut lumen. Little is known of the composition and metabolic activities of these biofilms, although they are likely to play an important role in mucus breakdown. The aims of this study were to determine how intestinal bacteria colonize mucus and to study physiologic and enzymatic factors involved in the destruction of this glycoprotein. Colonization of mucin gels by fecal bacteria was studied in vitro, using a two-stage continuous culture system, simulating conditions of nutrient availability and limitation characteristic of the proximal (vessel 1) and distal (vessel 2) colon. The establishment of bacterial communities in mucin gels was investigated by selective culture methods, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, in association with fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. Gel samples were also taken for analysis of mucin-degrading enzymes and measurements of residual mucin sugars. Mucin gels were rapidly colonized by heterogeneous bacterial populations, especially members of the Bacteroides fragilis group, enterobacteria, and clostridia. Intestinal bacterial populations growing on mucin surfaces were shown to be phylogenetically and metabolically distinct from their planktonic counterparts. PMID:16269790

Macfarlane, Sandra; Woodmansey, Emma J.; Macfarlane, George T.



Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract  

SciTech Connect

Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Zoetendal, Erwin G. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands



Factors Affecting Antigen Uptake by Human Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the role of size, solubility, and prophagocytic cytokines interferon-? (IFN-?), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF) in antigen uptake and kinetics by intestinal epithelial cells using keyhole limpet hemocyanin and ovalbumin. Both fluoresceinated keyhole limpet hemocyanin (3000–7500 kDa) and fluoresceinated ovalbumin (45 kDa) were internalized by human colonic epithelial cell lines, with kinetics similar to those of fluoresceinated

AgnesLaiping So; Gillian Small; Kirk Sperber; Kai Becker; Erwin Oei; Max Tyorkin; Lloyd Mayer



Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inactive Crohn's disease: Influence of thiopurine and biological treatment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the influence of thiopurines and biological drugs on the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: This was a prospective study in patients with CD in remission and without corticosteroid treatment, included consecutively from 2004 to 2010. SIBO was investigated using the hydrogen glucose breath test. RESULTS: One hundred and seven patients with CD in remission were included. Almost 58% of patients used maintenance immunosuppressant therapy and 19.6% used biological therapy. The prevalence of SIBO was 16.8%. No association was observed between SIBO and the use of thiopurine Immunosuppressant (12/62 patients), administration of biological drugs (2/21 patients), or with double treatment with an anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs plus thiopurine (1/13 patients). Half of the patients had symptoms that were suggestive of SIBO, though meteorism was the only symptom that was significantly associated with the presence of SIBO on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of meteorism and a fistulizing pattern were associated with the presence of SIBO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressants and/or biological drugs do not induce SIBO in inactive CD. Fistulizing disease pattern and meteorism are associated with SIBO. PMID:25320539

Sanchez-Montes, Cristina; Ortiz, Vicente; Bastida, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Ester; Yago, Maria; Beltran, Belen; Aguas, Mariam; Iborra, Marisa; Garrigues, Vicente; Ponce, Julio; Nos, Pilar



Long-term treatment with cisapride and antibiotics in liver cirrhosis: effect on small intestinal motility, bacterial overgrowth, and liver function  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Altered small-bowel motility, lengthening of the orocecal transit time, and small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth have been described in patients with liver cirrhosis. These changes might be related to the progressive course and poor prognosis of the disease. We investigated the effect of a long-term treatment with cisapride and an antibiotic regimen on small-intestinal motor activity, orocecal transit time, bacterial overgrowth, and

Ana Maria Madrid; Carmen Hurtado; Mauricio Venegas; Francisco Cumsille; Carlos Defilippi



A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine Anna Maria Spagnuolo a  

E-print Network

). The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although a large initialA model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine Anna Maria Spagnuolo a , Victor Di that has re-emerged as a new threat since the early 1990s. V. cholerae colonizes the upper, small intestine

Kirschner, Denise


Functional Metagenomic Investigations of the Human Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

The human intestinal microbiota encode multiple critical functions impacting human health, including metabolism of dietary substrate, prevention of pathogen invasion, immune system modulation, and provision of a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes accessible to pathogens. The complexity of this microbial community, its recalcitrance to standard cultivation, and the immense diversity of its encoded genes has necessitated the development of novel molecular, microbiological, and genomic tools. Functional metagenomics is one such culture-independent technique, used for decades to study environmental microorganisms, but relatively recently applied to the study of the human commensal microbiota. Metagenomic functional screens characterize the functional capacity of a microbial community, independent of identity to known genes, by subjecting the metagenome to functional assays in a genetically tractable host. Here we highlight recent work applying this technique to study the functional diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and discuss how an approach combining high-throughput sequencing, cultivation, and metagenomic functional screens can improve our understanding of interactions between this complex community and its human host. PMID:22022321

Moore, Aimee M.; Munck, Christian; Sommer, Morten O. A.; Dantas, Gautam



Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*  

PubMed Central

Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human ?-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human ?-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine H? D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.



Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms in Human Chronic Sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether bacterial biofilms exist on the sinus mucosa surfaces of human subjects with recalcitrant chronic sinusitis. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate patients with continued symptoms of chronic sinusitis despite prior appropriate medical and surgical management. Morphologic structures that confirm the presence of bacterial biofilms were identified on the sinus mucosa

Jonathan Cryer; Ioana Schipor; Joel R. Perloff; James N. Palmer



Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an /sup 111/In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal /sup 111/In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (/sup 75/Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis.

Bjarnason, I.; Zanelli, G.; Smith, T.; Prouse, P.; Williams, P.; Smethurst, P.; Delacey, G.; Gumpel, M.J.; Levi, A.J.



A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)  

PubMed Central

Background Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans. PMID:23020652



Strain-specific probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus) inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells.  


Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of enterocolitis in humans, leading to diarrhoea and chronic extraintestinal diseases. Although probiotics are effective in preventing other enteric infections, beneficial microorganisms have not been extensively studied with C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to delineate the ability of selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains to reduce epithelial cell invasion by C. jejuni. Human colon T84 and embryonic intestine 407 epithelial cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus strains and then infected with two prototypic C. jejuni pathogens. Lactobacillus helveticus, strain R0052 reduced C. jejuni invasion into T84 cells by 35-41%, whereas Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 did not reduce pathogen invasion. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 also decreased invasion of one C. jejuni isolate (strain 11168) into intestine 407 cells by 55%. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 adhered to both epithelial cell types, which suggest that competitive exclusion could contribute to protection by probiotics. Taken together, these findings indicate that the ability of selected probiotics to prevent C. jejuni-mediated disease pathogenesis depends on the pathogen strain, probiotic strain and the epithelial cell type selected. The data support the concept of probiotic strain selectivity, which is dependent on the setting in which it is being evaluated and tested. PMID:19765084

Wine, Eytan; Gareau, Mélanie G; Johnson-Henry, Kathene; Sherman, Philip M



Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.



Inhibition of Intestinal Bacterial Translocation with Rifaximin Modulates Lamina propria Monocytic Cells Reactivity and Protects against Inflammation in a Rodent Model of Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A modification of the intestinal flora and an increased bacterial translocation is a common finding in patients with inflammatory bowel disease as well as in animal model of colitis. Rifaximin, a non-absorbable derivative of rifamycin, is an effective antibiotic that acts by inhibiting bacterial ribonucleic acid synthesis. Aims: In the present study, we investigated the effect of the administration

Stefano Fiorucci; Eleonora Distrutti; Andrea Mencarelli; Miriam Barbanti; Ernesto Palazzini; Antonio Morelli



Comparison of DNA extraction kits for PCR-DGGE analysis of human intestinal microbial communities from fecal specimens  

PubMed Central

Background The influence of diet on intestinal microflora has been investigated mainly using conventional microbiological approaches. Although these studies have advanced knowledge on human intestinal microflora, it is imperative that new methods are applied to facilitate scientific progress. Culture-independent molecular fingerprinting method of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) has been used to study microbial communities in a variety of environmental samples. However, these protocols must be optimized prior to their application in order to enhance the quality and accuracy of downstream analyses. In this study, the relative efficacy of four commercial DNA extraction kits (Mobio Ultra Clean® Fecal DNA Isolation Kit, M; QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit, Q; FastDNA® SPIN Kit, FSp; FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil, FSo) were evaluated. Further, PCR-DGGE technique was also assessed for its feasibility in detecting differences in human intestinal bacterial fingerprint profiles. Method Total DNA was extracted from varying weights of human fecal specimens using four different kits, followed by PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and DGGE separation of the amplicons. Results Regardless of kit, maximum DNA yield was obtained using 10 to 50 mg (wet wt) of fecal specimens and similar DGGE profiles were obtained. However, kits FSp and FSo extracted significantly larger amounts of DNA per g dry fecal specimens and produced more bands on their DGGE profiles than kits M and Q due to their use of bead-containing lysing matrix and vigorous shaking step. DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR products was suitable for capturing the profiles of human intestinal microbial community and enabled rapid comparative assessment of inter- and intra-subject differences. Conclusion We conclude that extraction kits that incorporated bead-containing lysing matrix and vigorous shaking produced high quality DNA from human fecal specimens (10 to 50 mg, wet wt) that can be resolved as bacterial community fingerprints using PCR-DGGE technique. Subsequently, PCR-DGGE technique can be applied for studying variations in human intestinal microbial communities. PMID:20492702



Humans, Mice, and Mechanisms of Intestinal Atresias: A Window into Understanding Early Intestinal Development  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intestinal atresias have long been hypothesized to result from either failure of recanalization of the intestinal lumen or in utero vascular accidents. Recent work in animal models is now calling for a reassessment of these widely held paradigms. Purpose In this review, we will examine the data that led to the original hypotheses and then evaluate more recent work challenging these hypotheses. Furthermore, we will discuss how defining the mechanism of atresia formation in animal models may provide insight into early intestinal development and the mechanism of lengthwise intestinal growth. Conclusion Such insight will be critical in developing regenerative therapies for patients with intestinal failure. PMID:21116726

Nichol, Peter F.; Reeder, Amy; Botham, Robert



An in vivo model of human small intestine using pluripotent stem cells.  


Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into organ-specific subtypes offers an exciting avenue for the study of embryonic development and disease processes, for pharmacologic studies and as a potential resource for therapeutic transplant. To date, limited in vivo models exist for human intestine, all of which are dependent upon primary epithelial cultures or digested tissue from surgical biopsies that include mesenchymal cells transplanted on biodegradable scaffolds. Here, we generated human intestinal organoids (HIOs) produced in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that can engraft in vivo. These HIOs form mature human intestinal epithelium with intestinal stem cells contributing to the crypt-villus architecture and a laminated human mesenchyme, both supported by mouse vasculature ingrowth. In vivo transplantation resulted in marked expansion and maturation of the epithelium and mesenchyme, as demonstrated by differentiated intestinal cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, tuft cells and enteroendocrine cells), presence of functional brush-border enzymes (lactase, sucrase-isomaltase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4) and visible subepithelial and smooth muscle layers when compared with HIOs in vitro. Transplanted intestinal tissues demonstrated digestive functions as shown by permeability and peptide uptake studies. Furthermore, transplanted HIO-derived tissue was responsive to systemic signals from the host mouse following ileocecal resection, suggesting a role for circulating factors in the intestinal adaptive response. This model of the human small intestine may pave the way for studies of intestinal physiology, disease and translational studies. PMID:25326803

Watson, Carey L; Mahe, Maxime M; Múnera, Jorge; Howell, Jonathan C; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Poling, Holly M; Schweitzer, Jamie I; Vallance, Jefferson E; Mayhew, Christopher N; Sun, Ying; Grabowski, Gregory; Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Spence, Jason R; Shroyer, Noah F; Wells, James M; Helmrath, Michael A



Adherence and Cytokine Induction in Caco-2 Cells by Bacterial Populations from a Three-Stage Continuous-Culture Model of the Large Intestine?  

PubMed Central

Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells is an important step in colonization and immune modulation in the large bowel. The aims of this study were to use a three-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) to investigate how environmental factors affect bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells and modulation of cytokine expression by gut microorganisms, including a probiotic Bifidobacterium longum strain, DD2004. The CCS simulated environmental conditions in the proximal large intestine (vessel 1 [V1]) and distal colon (V2 and V3) at two different system retention times (R) within the range of normal colonic transits (20 and 60 h). The model was inoculated with human fecal material, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to characterize microbial populations and to assess bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was employed to measure cytokine gene expression following challenge with bacteria from different components of the CCS in the presence and absence of B. longum. At an R of 60 h, bacterial adherence increased from V1 to V3, but this trend was reversed at an R of 20 h. Atopobia were the predominant adherent organisms detected at both system retention times in each culture vessel. Modulation of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-18 gene expression by CCS bacteria was marked at an R of 60 h, while at an R of 20 h, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-?2, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were significantly affected. The addition of B. longum affected cytokine expression significantly at both retention times. This study demonstrates that environmental determinants regulate the adherence properties of intestinal bacteria and their abilities to regulate cytokine synthesis. PMID:21378047

Bahrami, Bahram; Child, Matthew W.; Macfarlane, Sandra; Macfarlane, George T.



Three dimensional human small intestine models for ADME-Tox studies.  


In vitro human small intestine models play a crucial part in preclinical drug development. Although conventional 2D systems possess many advantages, such as facile accessibility and high-throughput capability, they can also provide misleading results due to their relatively poor recapitulation of in vivo physiology. Significant progress has recently been made in developing 3D human small intestine models, suggesting that more-reliable preclinical results could be obtained by recreating the 3D intestinal microenvironment in vitro. Although there are still many challenges, 3D human small intestine models have the potential to facilitate drug screening and drug development. PMID:24853950

Yu, Jiajie; Carrier, Rebecca L; March, John C; Griffith, Linda G



Production of enterodiol from defatted flaxseeds through biotransformation by human intestinal bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of enterolignans, e.g., enterodiol (END) and particularly its oxidation product, enterolactone (ENL), on prevention of hormone-dependent diseases, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and menopausal syndrome, have attracted much attention. To date, the main way to obtain END and ENL is chemical synthesis, which is expensive and inevitably leads to environmental pollution. To explore a more economic and eco-friendly production method, we explored biotransformation of enterolignans from precursors contained in defatted flaxseeds by human intestinal bacteria. Results We cultured fecal specimens from healthy young adults in media containing defatted flaxseeds and detected END from the culture supernatant. Following selection through successive subcultures of the fecal microbiota with defatted flaxseeds as the only carbon source, we obtained a bacterial consortium, designated as END-49, which contained the smallest number of bacterial types still capable of metabolizing defatted flaxseeds to produce END. Based on analysis with pulsed field gel electrophoresis, END-49 was found to consist of five genomically distinct bacterial lineages, designated Group I-V, with Group I strains dominating the culture. None of the individual Group I-V strains produced END, demonstrating that the biotransformation of substrates in defatted flaxseeds into END is a joint work by different members of the END-49 bacterial consortium. Interestingly, Group I strains produced secoisolariciresinol, an important intermediate of END production; 16S rRNA analysis of one Group I strain established its close relatedness with Klebsiella. Genomic analysis is under way to identify all members in END-49 involved in the biotransformation and the actual pathway leading to END-production. Conclusion Biotransformation is a very economic, efficient and environmentally friendly way of mass-producing enterodiol from defatted flaxseeds. PMID:20398397



Effects of oat ?-glucan and barley ?-glucan on fecal characteristics, intestinal microflora, and intestinal bacterial metabolites in rats.  


The primary objective was to determine the beneficial effects of oat ?-glucan (OG) and barley ?-glucan (BG) on gut health. A total of 200 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 40 rats each, control group (CON), low-dose OG-administered group (OGL), high-dose OG-administered group (OGH), low-dose BG-administered group (BGL), and high-dose BG-administered group (BGH). OGL and OGH were administered oat ?-glucan by intragastric gavage at a dose of 0.35 g/kg of body weight (BW) and 0.70 g/kg of BW daily for 6 weeks, and BGL and BGH were administered barley ?-glucan. The CON received normal saline. Intestinal-health-related indexes were analyzed at baseline, week 3, week 6, and week 7. Cereal ?-glucan significantly influenced the fecal water content, pH value, ammonia levels, ?-glucuronidase activity, azoreductase activity, and colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations (p < 0.05). Moreover, the population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium increased (p < 0.05), whereas the number of Enterobacteriaceae decreased (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner during the period of cereal ?-glucan administration. These results suggested that cereal ?-glucan might exert favorable effects on improving intestinal functions and health but the gut-health-promoting effects of oat ?-glucan were better than those of barley ?-glucan. PMID:23113683

Shen, Rui-Ling; Dang, Xue-Ya; Dong, Ji-Lin; Hu, Xin-Zhong



Assessment of the canine intestinal microflora using molecular methods and serum markers  

E-print Network

in the intestine including secretion of gastric acid and antibacterial factors (i.e., pancreatic and biliary secretions) in the small intestine, and most importantly, intestinal motility. Most ingested bacteria are inactivated by gastric acid. Humans...). The pancreatic juice contains antimicrobial substances that suppress excessive bacterial growth in the proximal small intestine (108). Dogs with spontaneous exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) appear to have a higher incidence of duodenal bacterial...

Suchodolski, Jan S.



Bacterial expression of human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: solubility, activity, purification.  


Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an enzyme central to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. KMO has been implicated as a therapeutic target in several disease states, including Huntington's disease. Recombinant human KMO protein production is challenging due to the presence of transmembrane domains, which localise KMO to the outer mitochondrial membrane and render KMO insoluble in many in vitro expression systems. Efficient bacterial expression of human KMO would accelerate drug development of KMO inhibitors but until now this has not been achieved. Here we report the first successful bacterial (Escherichia coli) expression of active FLAG™-tagged human KMO enzyme expressed in the soluble fraction and progress towards its purification. PMID:24316190

Wilson, K; Mole, D J; Binnie, M; Homer, N Z M; Zheng, X; Yard, B A; Iredale, J P; Auer, M; Webster, S P



Human intestinal ischemia-reperfusion-induced inflammation characterized: experiences from a new translational model.  


Human intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is a frequent phenomenon carrying high morbidity and mortality. Although intestinal IR-induced inflammation has been studied extensively in animal models, human intestinal IR induced inflammatory responses remain to be characterized. Using a newly developed human intestinal IR model, we show that human small intestinal ischemia results in massive leakage of intracellular components from ischemically damaged cells, as indicated by increased arteriovenous concentration differences of intestinal fatty acid binding protein and soluble cytokeratin 18. IR-induced intestinal barrier integrity loss resulted in free exposure of the gut basal membrane (collagen IV staining) to intraluminal contents, which was accompanied by increased arteriovenous concentration differences of endotoxin. Western blot for complement activation product C3c and immunohistochemistry for activated C3 revealed complement activation after IR. In addition, intestinal IR resulted in enhanced tissue mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha, which was accompanied by IL-6 and IL-8 release into the circulation. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was markedly increased during reperfusion, facilitating influx of neutrophils into IR-damaged villus tips. In conclusion, this study for the first time shows the sequelae of human intestinal IR-induced inflammation, which is characterized by complement activation, production and release of cytokines into the circulation, endothelial activation, and neutrophil influx into IR-damaged tissue. PMID:20348235

Grootjans, Joep; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Derikx, Joep P M; Matthijsen, Robert A; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; van Bijnen, Annemarie A; van Dam, Ronald M; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Buurman, Wim A



Protection mechanism of probiotic combination against human pathogens: in vitro adhesion to human intestinal mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluated the ability of commercia l strains ( L. rhamnosus GG , L. rhamnosus LC705 , and P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS) in combination with B. breve 99 or B. lactis Bb12 to inhibit, displace and compete with model pathogens in order to test their influence on the adhesion of selected pathogens to immobilized human intestinal

Maria Carmen Collado; Lotta Jalonen; Jussi Meriluoto; Seppo Salminen



[Influencing factors on infections of human intestinal helminthes in suburb of Shangyu City].  


The infections of human intestinal helminthes and socioeconomic status were investigated in suburb of Shangyu City in 1990 and 2005, respectively. The results showed that the economic status, the save drinking water and latrines, working environment, and health habits and consciousness of the residents improved obviously. The infection rate of intestinal helminthes decreased significantly and the prevalence of intestinal helminthosis was controlled effectively. PMID:22164480

Song-Lin, Hu



Bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies indicate that bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common alteration of lower genital tract flora in women, is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Other recent studies show that HIV is detected more frequently and at higher levels in the lower genital tract of HIV-seropositive women with BV. In vitro studies show that genital tract secretions from women with BV or flora associated with BV induce HIV expression in infected cells. The increased HIV expression appears to be due at least in part to activation through Toll-like receptors (TLR), specifically TLR2. Further research is needed to elucidate how BV contributes to HIV acquisition and transmission. PMID:17953761

Spear, Gregory T; St John, Elizabeth; Zariffard, M Reza



Human and simulated intestinal fluids as solvent systems to explore food effects on intestinal solubility and permeability.  


The mixed micelles and vesicles present in the intraluminal environment of the postprandial state exhibit suitable solubilizing capacities for lipophilic drugs. This increase in solubility, however, is accompanied by a decrease in the free fraction caused by micellar entrapment of these lipophilic compounds. In this study, both simulated and aspirated human intestinal fluids of fasted and fed state conditions were used to evaluate the influence of food on the intestinal disposition of a series of structurally related ?-blockers, with varying logP values. Using the in situ intestinal perfusion technique with mesenteric blood sampling in rats, it was demonstrated that fed state conditions significantly decreased the absorptive flux of the more lipophilic compounds metoprolol, propranolol and carvedilol, whereas the influence on the flux of the hydrophilic ?-blocker atenolol was limited. The solubility of BCS class II compound carvedilol was found to increase significantly in simulated and aspirated media of the fed state. Intestinal perfusions using intestinal media saturated with carvedilol, revealed a higher flux in the fasted state compared to the fed state, despite the higher solubility in the fed state. This study underscores the importance of addressing the complex nature of the behavior of compounds in the intraluminal environment in fasted and fed state conditions. Moreover, our data point out the value of studying the effect of food on both solubility and permeability using biorelevant experimental conditions. PMID:25063035

Stappaerts, Jef; Wuyts, Benjamin; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick



Cloning and expression of the human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor  

SciTech Connect

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuroendocrine mediator found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Distinct subsets of neural, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and immune cells bear specific high-affinity receptors for VIP, which are associated with a guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein capable of activatingadenylate cyclase. A cDNA clone (GPRN1) encoding the human VIP receptor was identified in librares prepared from the Nalm 6 line of leukemic pre-B lymphoblasts and the HT-29 line of colon carcinoma cells. The deduced 362-amino acid polypeptide sequence encoded by GPRN1 shares a seven-transmembrane-segment hydropathicity profile with other G protein-coupled receptors. Northern blot analyses identified a 2.7-kilobase transcript of the VIP receptor in Nalm 6 and HT-29 cells as well as in tissues from rat brain, colon, heart, lung, kidney, spleen, and small intestine. COS-6 cells transfected with GPRN1 bound {sup 125}I-labeled VIP specifically with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 2.5 nM. VIP--and less effectively secretin, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), and glucagon competitively displaced bound {sup 125}I-VIP from transfected COS-6 cells, with potencies in the order VIP > secretin = PHI >> glucagon. VIP stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in stably transfected Chinese hanster ovary K1 cells, indicing a 3-fold increase in the intracellular level of cAMP. The VIP receptor cloned exhibits {le}24% homology with other receptors in the same superfamily and thus represents a subset of G protein-coupled receptors for peptide ligands.

Sreedharan, S.P.; Robichon, A.; Peterson, K.E.; Goetzl, E.J. (Univ. of California Medical Center, San Francisco (United States))




PubMed Central

Following intravenous injection, filtrates of young cultures of B. paratyphosus B often produce marked diarrhea in rabbits. A study was made of the effect of these toxic filtrates on the motility of the small intestines of the rabbit. The observations were made on a segment of the small intestines in situ, and in the living animal. It was found that an immediate slight rise of tone of the longitudinal muscles occurred following intravenous injection of sterile broth. The same rise was noted after the injection of the toxic filtrate; but with these it was followed later (10 minutes elapsing at least) by a very strong but gradual rise of the diastolic and systolic tone, i.e., by spasmodic contraction of the intestinal muscle, which persisted at times for as long as 2 hours. In order to record simultaneously the effect on the longitudinal and circular muscles, and the propulsive efficiency of the segment the Sollmann and Rademaekers modification of Baur's technique was employed. This arrangement showed that the stimulation of the longitudinal muscles is accompanied by a similarly strong stimulation of the circular muscles, by peristalsis, and therefore by a greatly increased propulsion of intestinal contents which was sufficient to overcome the inhibition that usually occurs after preparation of the animal. With this arrangement an instance of peristaltic spasm was also noted. Broth alone failed to produce the phenomenon. Isotonic magnesium chloride or sulfate added to the bath relaxed the muscles again. Animals under deep urethane anesthesia did not show the diarrhea occurring in the intact controls, but sometimes exhibited it after the effect of the anesthetic had disappeared. So far no effects have been observed on the isolated strip (Magnus method), and further studies are being made to localize the effect, to neutralize it with a specific antiserum, and to observe the effect of filtrates of other members of the bacterial group including the dysentery bacilli. PMID:19869160

Ecker, E. E.; Rademaekers, A.



Human colostrum oligosaccharides modulate major immunologic pathways of immature human intestine.  


The immature neonatal intestinal immune system hyperreacts to newly colonizing unfamiliar bacteria. The hypothesis that human milk oligosaccharides from colostrum (cHMOSs) can directly modulate the signaling pathways of the immature mucosa was tested. Modulation of cytokine immune signaling by HMOSs was measured ex vivo in intact immature (fetal) human intestinal mucosa. From the genes whose transcription was modulated by cHMOSs, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified networks controlling immune cell communication, intestinal mucosal immune system differentiation, and homeostasis. cHMOSs attenuate pathogen-associated molecular pattern-stimulated acute phase inflammatory cytokine protein levels (interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/2 and IL-1?), while elevating cytokines involved in tissue repair and homeostasis. In all, 3'-, 4-, and 6'-galactosyllactoses of cHMOSs account for specific immunomodulation of polyinosinic:polycytodylic acid-induced IL-8 levels. cHMOSs attenuate mucosal responses to surface inflammatory stimuli during early development, while enhancing signals that support maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system. PMID:24691111

He, Y; Liu, S; Leone, S; Newburg, D S



Human Cytomegalovirus Infects Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells Basolaterally Regardless of the Differentiation State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes severe disease in immunosuppressed patients and notably infects the gastrointestinal tract. To understand the interaction of CMV with intestinal epithelial cells, which are highly susceptible to CMV infection in vivo, we used the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 and demonstrated that CMV enters predominantly through the basolateral surface of polarized Caco-2 cells. As shown by expression




The effect of probiotic bacteria on the adhesion of pathogens to human intestinal mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human intestinal glycoproteins extracted from faeces were used as a model for intestinal mucus to investigate adhesion of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains, and the effect of probiotics on this adhesion. S-fimbriated E. coli expressed relatively high adhesion in the mucus model, but the other tested pathogens adhered less effectively. Probiotic strains Lactobacillus GG and L. rhamnosus LC-705 as

Elina M Tuomola; Arthur C Ouwehand; Seppo J Salminen



Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction as an Unusual Gastrointestinal Presentation in Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a condition in which the intestine’s ability to push food through is reduced. It often leads to the dilation of the various parts of the bowel. It can be idiopathic or inherited from a parent, or caused by another disease. We report a rare case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a 3-year-old boy who referred with acute abdominal pain, and was later diagnosed as having intestinal pseudo-obstruction caused by HIV. The underlying causes of intestinal pseudo-obstruction should be taken into account. HIV induced pseudo-obstruction may be considered in the differential diagnosis of pediatric intestinal pseudo-obstruction in order to provide a timely diagnosis and optimal care of children with HIV. PMID:24453397

Zahmatkeshan, Mozhgan; Haghighat, Mahmood; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi



Role of TLR4/NF-?B in Damage to Intestinal Mucosa Barrier Function and Bacterial Translocation in Rats Exposed to Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

The role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-?B) in intestinal mucosal barrier damage and bacterial translocation under hypoxic exposure is unclear. Here, we investigated their role using an acute hypobaric hypoxia model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (C), hypoxia (H), hypoxia+NF-?B inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) (100 mg. kg) (HP), hypoxia+0.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (HPL), and hypoxia+PDTC+LPS (HPL) group. Except control group, other four groups were placed in a hypobaric chamber set at 7000 m. Samples were collected at 72 h after pressure reduction. Damage in ultrastructure of the intestinal tract was examined by transmission electron microscopy and bacterial translocation was detected by cultivation. Kinetic turbidimetric assay was used to measure the serum LPS. ELISA was performed to detect TNF-? and IL-6 serum concentrations. Fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure TLR4 mRNA levels was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and protein of NF-?B p65 was measured by western blotting. Different degrees of intestinal mucosa damage were observed in groups H and HL. The damage was significantly alleviated after blockage of the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway. PDTC- treatment also reversed hyoxia- and LPS-induced bacterial translocation rate and increased serum levels of LPS, TNF-?, and IL-6. TLR4 mRNA levels and NF-?B p65 expression were consistent with the serum factor results. This study suggested that TLR4 and NF-?B expression increased in rat intestinal tissues after acute hypoxia exposure. PDTC-treatment reversed TLR4 and NF-?B upregulation and alleviated damage to the intestinal tract and bacterial translocation. Thus, the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway may be critical to the mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced damage to intestinal barrier function and bacterial translocation. PMID:23082119

Luo, Han; Guo, Ping; Zhou, Qiquan



Exploration of bacterial community classes in major human habitats  

PubMed Central

Background Determining bacterial abundance variation is the first step in understanding bacterial similarity between individuals. Categorization of bacterial communities into groups or community classes is the subsequent step in describing microbial distribution based on abundance patterns. Here, we present an analysis of the groupings of bacterial communities in stool, nasal, skin, vaginal and oral habitats in a healthy cohort of 236 subjects from the Human Microbiome Project. Results We identify distinct community group patterns in the anterior nares, four skin sites, and vagina at the genus level. We also confirm three enterotypes previously identified in stools. We identify two clusters with low silhouette values in most oral sites, in which bacterial communities are more homogeneous. Subjects sharing a community class in one habitat do not necessarily share a community class in another, except in the three vaginal sites and the symmetric habitats of the left and right retroauricular creases. Demographic factors, including gender, age, and ethnicity, significantly influence community composition in several habitats. Community classes in the vagina, retroauricular crease and stool are stable over approximately 200 days. Conclusion The community composition, association of demographic factors with community classes, and demonstration of community stability deepen our understanding of the variability and dynamics of human microbiomes. This also has significant implications for experimental designs that seek microbial correlations with clinical phenotypes. PMID:24887286



Focused specificity of intestinal TH17 cells towards commensal bacterial antigens.  


T-helper-17 (TH17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defence and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria, where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce TH17 cells and to promote TH17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models. However, the specificity of TH17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal TH17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4(+) T cells and that most TH17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into ROR?t-expressing TH17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harboured a strong TH1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T-cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines. PMID:24739972

Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J; Jenkins, Marc K; Lafaille, Juan J; Littman, Dan R



Effects of glutamine on intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation in TPN-rats with endotoxemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the protective effect and mechanism of glutamine on the intestinal barrier function in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) rats with trauma or endotoxemia. METHODS: To perform prospective, randomized and controlled animal experimentation of rats with surgical trauma, TPN and endotoxemia, thirty-four male, adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control group (n=8), TPN group (n=9), trauma

Lian-An Ding; Jie-Show Li


Proinflammatory V?2+ T cells populate the human intestinal mucosa and enhance IFN-? production by colonic ?? T cells.  


In nonhuman primates, V?9V?2(+) (V?2)T cells proliferate and accumulate in mucosal tissues following microbial activation. Human V?2T cells produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial species that colonize the gut, but the role played by V?2T cells in intestinal immunity is unknown. We hypothesized that circulating V?2T cells can populate the human intestine and contribute to mucosal inflammation. Cell suspensions prepared from peripheral blood and intestinal biopsies were stimulated with microbial phosphoantigen (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-4-yl 4-diphosphate [HDMAPP]) and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine V?2T cell phenotype, cytokine production, and proliferative potential. Circulating V?2T cells expressed gut-homing integrin ?4?7 (>70%), which was coexpressed with skin-associated cutaneous leukocyte Ag by up to 15% of the total population. However, V?2T cell activation with HDMAPP and exposure to retinoic acid (signaling via retinoic acid receptor ?) increased ?4?7 expression and enhanced binding to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in vitro while simultaneously suppressing cutaneous leukocyte Ag, thereby generating a committed gut-tropic phenotype. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry identified frequent V?2T cells that migrated out of human intestinal biopsies and comprised both CD103(+) and CD103(-) subsets that produced TNF-? and IFN-? upon phosphoantigen exposure, with more frequent cytokine-producing cells in the CD103(-) population. Activated intestinal V?2T cells expressed CD70 and HLA-DR but were unable to drive the proliferation of allogeneic naive CD4(+) T cells. Instead, phosphoantigen-activated CD103(-) V?2T cells increased T-bet expression and enhanced IFN-? production by autologous colonic ?? T cells via an IFN-?-dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate that circulating V?2T cells display enhanced gut-homing potential upon microbial activation and populate the human intestinal mucosa, generating functionally distinct CD103(+) and CD103(-) subsets that can promote inflammation by colonic ?? T cells. PMID:23904167

McCarthy, Neil E; Bashir, Zora; Vossenkämper, Anna; Hedin, Charlotte R; Giles, Edward M; Bhattacharjee, Shaumick; Brown, Sabrina G; Sanders, Theodore J; Whelan, Kevin; MacDonald, Thomas T; Lindsay, James O; Stagg, Andrew J



Sampling of Intestinal Microbiota and Targeted Amplification of Bacterial 16S rRNA Genes for Microbial Ecologic Analysis.  


Dysbiosis of host-associated commensal microbiota is emerging as an important factor in risk and phenotype of immunologic, metabolic, and behavioral diseases. Accurate analysis of microbial composition and functional state in humans or mice requires appropriate collection and pre-processing of biospecimens. Methods to sample luminal and mucosal microbiota from human or mouse intestines and to profile microbial phylogenetic composition using 16S rRNA sequencing are presented here. Data generated using the methods in this unit can be used for downstream quantitative analysis of microbial ecology. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25367129

Tong, Maomeng; Jacobs, Jonathan P; McHardy, Ian H; Braun, Jonathan



Pseudomonas reactans, a bacterial strain isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica with anti-Beauveria bassiana activity.  


Anti-Beauveria bassiana activity of aqueous fecal extracts from conventional German cockroaches [Blattella germanica (L.)] was detected, but was not detected in samples from germ-free German cockroaches. Subsequently, bacterial strain BGI-14 was isolated from the gut of conventional German cockroaches and was identified as Pseudomonas reactans based on 16S rDNA sequence. The strain BGI-14 not only inhibited the germination of conidia, but also inhibited the growth of B. bassiana hyphae. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-14 fermentation were significantly weakened. Compared with the control group, the cumulative mortality rate of treatment group was reduced by 10.3% at 20 d postinoculation. These studies imply that intestinal flora with anti-B. bassiana activity might contribute to resistance of infection by entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:23726054

Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yan Hong; Liu, Shu Zhen; Zhang, Lei; Li, Bo Tai; Zhao, Xiao Xu; Fu, Ying; Liu, Jian Jun; Zhang, Xue Xia



Topographic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in human skin.  


Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the microbial landscape of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases, including athlete's foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms and provides a home for diverse commensal microbiota. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also have major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with those that are available for bacteria. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes. Here we sequenced and analysed fungal communities of 14?skin sites in 10?healthy adults. Eleven core-body and arm sites were dominated by fungi of the genus Malassezia, with only species-level classifications revealing fungal-community composition differences between sites. By contrast, three foot sites--plantar heel, toenail and toe web--showed high fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that physiologic attributes and topography of skin differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of the contribution of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities to the maintainenace of human health and to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H; Segre, Julia A



High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by Ligase Detection Reaction - Universal Array approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation. RESULTS: In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array) for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of

Marco Candela; Clarissa Consolandi; Marco Severgnini; Elena Biagi; Bianca Castiglioni; Beatrice Vitali; Gianluca De Bellis; Patrizia Brigidi



Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was purified 30-fold. The enzyme had a MW of 75,000 by gel filtration, was optimally active at pH 4.5, and had an isoelectric point at pH 8.0. In contrast to brush border PPH, intracellular PPH was unstable at increasing temperatures, was unaffected by dialysis against chelating agents and showed no requirement for Zn/sup 2 +/. Using PteGlu/sub 2/(/sup 14/C)Glu as substrate, they demonstrated a K/sub m/ of 1.2 and increasing affinity for folates with longer glutamate chains. Intracellular PPH required the complete folic acid (PteGlu) moiety and a ..gamma..-glutamyl linkage for activity. Using ion exchange chromatography and an HPLC method to determine the hydrolytic products of the reaction, they found intracellular PPH could cleave both internal and terminal ..gamma..-glutamyl linkages, with PteGlu as an end product. After subcellular fractionation of the mucosa, PPH was found in the lysosomes. In summary, the distinct characteristics of brush border and intracellular PPH suggest that the two hydrolases serve different roles in folate metabolism.

Wang, T.T.Y.; Chandler, C.J.; Halsted, C.H.



Genetic evidence for a protective role of the peritrophic matrix against intestinal bacterial infection in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The peritrophic matrix (PM) forms a layer composed of chitin and glycoproteins that lines the insect intestinal lumen. This physical barrier plays a role analogous to that of mucous secretions of the vertebrate digestive tract and is thought to protect the midgut epithelium from abrasive food particles and microbes. Almost nothing is known about PM functions in Drosophila, and its function as an immune barrier has never been addressed by a genetic approach. Here we show that the Drosocrystallin (Dcy) protein, a putative component of the eye lens of Drosophila, contributes to adult PM formation. A loss-of-function mutation in the dcy gene results in a reduction of PM width and an increase of its permeability. Upon bacterial ingestion a higher level of expression of antibacterial peptides was observed in dcy mutants, pointing to an influence of this matrix on bacteria sensing by the Imd immune pathway. Moreover, dcy-deficient flies show an increased susceptibility to oral infections with the entomopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas entomophila and Serratia marcescens. Dcy mutant flies also succumb faster than wild type upon ingestion of a P. entomophila toxic extract. We show that this lethality is due in part to an increased deleterious action of Monalysin, a pore-forming toxin produced by P. entomophila. Collectively, our analysis of the dcy immune phenotype indicates that the PM plays an important role in Drosophila host defense against enteric pathogens, preventing the damaging action of pore-forming toxins on intestinal cells. PMID:21896728

Kuraishi, Takayuki; Binggeli, Olivier; Opota, Onya; Buchon, Nicolas; Lemaitre, Bruno



Butyrate produced by commensal bacteria potentiates phorbol esters induced AP-1 response in human intestinal epithelial cells.  


The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M



The Intestinal Archaea Methanosphaera stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter smithii Activate Human Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

The methanoarchaea Methanosphaera stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter smithii are known to be part of the indigenous human gut microbiota. Although the immunomodulatory effects of bacterial gut commensals have been studied extensively in the last decade, the impact of methanoarchaea in human's health and disease was rarely examined. Consequently, we studied and report here on the effects of M. stadtmanae and M. smithii on human immune cells. Whereas exposure to M. stadtmanae leads to substantial release of proinflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), only weak activation was detected after incubation with M. smithii. Phagocytosis of M. stadtmanae by moDCs was demonstrated by confocal microscopy as well as transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and shown to be crucial for cellular activation by using specific inhibitors. Both strains, albeit to different extents, initiate a maturation program in moDCs as revealed by up-regulation of the cell-surface receptors CD86 and CD197 suggesting additional activation of adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, M. stadtmanae and M. smithii were capable to alter the gene expression of antimicrobial peptides in moDCs to different extents. Taken together, our findings strongly argue that the archaeal gut inhabitants M. stadtmanae and M. smithii are specifically recognized by the human innate immune system. Moreover, both strains are capable of inducing an inflammatory cytokine response to different extents arguing that they might have diverse immunomodulatory functions. In conclusion, we propose that the impact of intestinal methanoarchaea on pathological conditions involving the gut microbiota has been underestimated until now. PMID:24915454

Bang, Corinna; Weidenbach, Katrin; Gutsmann, Thomas



Nerveless and gutsy: intestinal nutrient sensing from invertebrates to humans  

PubMed Central

The increasingly recognized role of gastrointestinal signals in the regulation of food intake, insulin production and peripheral nutrient storage has prompted a surge of interest in studying how the gastrointestinal tract senses and responds to nutritional information. Identification of metabolically important intestinal nutrient sensors could provide potential new drug targets for the treatment of diabetes, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders. From a more fundamental perspective, the study of intestinal chemosensation is revealing novel, non-neuronal modes of communication involving differentiated epithelial cells. It is also identifying signalling mechanisms downstream of not only canonical receptors but also nutrient transporters, thereby supporting a chemosensory role for “transceptors” in the intestine. This review describes known and proposed mechanisms of intestinal carbohydrate, protein and lipid sensing, best characterized in mammalian systems. It also highlights the potential of invertebrate model systems such as C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster by summarizing known examples of molecular evolutionary conservation. Recently developed genetic tools in Drosophila, an emerging model system for the study of physiology and metabolism, allow the temporal, spatial and high-throughput manipulation of putative intestinal sensors. Hence, fruit flies may prove particularly suited to the study of the link between intestinal nutrient sensing and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:22248674

Miguel-Aliaga, Irene



Orchestration of Neutrophil Movement by Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Response to Salmonella typhimurium Can Be Uncoupled from Bacterial Internalization  

PubMed Central

Intestinal epithelial cells respond to Salmonella typhimurium by internalizing this pathogen and secreting, in a polarized manner, an array of chemokines which direct polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) movement. Notably, interleukin-8 (IL-8) is secreted basolaterally and directs PMN through the lamina propria, whereas pathogen-elicited epithelial chemoattractant (PEEC) is secreted apically and directs PMN migration across the epithelial monolayer to the intestinal lumen. While most studies of S. typhimurium pathogenicity have focused on the mechanism by which this bacterium invades its host, the enteritis characteristically associated with salmonellosis appears to be more directly attributable to the PMN movement that occurs in response to this pathogen. Therefore, we sought to better understand the relationship between S. typhimurium invasion and epithelial promotion of PMN movement. First, we investigated whether S. typhimurium becoming intracellular was necessary or sufficient to induce epithelial promotion of PMN movement. Blocking S. typhimurium invasion by preventing, with cytochalasin D, the epithelial cytoskeletal rearrangements which mediate internalization did not reduce the epithelial promotion of PMN movement. Conversely, bacterial attainment of an intracellular position was not sufficient to induce model epithelia to direct PMN transmigration, since neither basolateral invasion by S. typhimurium nor apical internalization of an invasion-deficient mutant (achieved by inducing membrane ruffling with epidermal growth factor) induced this epithelial cell response. These results indicate that specific interactions between the apical surface of epithelial cells and S. typhimurium, rather than simply bacterial invasion, mediate the epithelial direction of PMN transmigration. To further investigate the means by which S. typhimurium induces epithelia to direct PMN movement, we investigated whether the same signaling pathways regulate secretion of IL-8 and PEEC. IL-8 secretion, but not PEEC secretion, was activated by phorbol myristate acetate and blocked by an inhibitor (mg-132) of the proteosome which mediates NF-?? activation. Further, secretion of IL-8, but not PEEC, was activated by an entry-deficient (Hil?) S. typhimurium mutant or by basolateral invasion of a wild-type strain. Together, these results indicate that distinct signaling pathways mediate S. typhimurium invasion, induction of IL-8 secretion, and induction of PEEC secretion in model intestinal epithelia. PMID:9916066

Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Siber, Andrew M.; Madara, James L.; McCormick, Beth A.



Scale-up of in vitro permeation assay data to human intestinal permeability using pore theory.  


The aim of this study is to establish a theoretical method for the prediction of human intestinal permeability from in vitro permeation assay. Pore radius and porosity/length and ion selectivity of the paracellular pathway were calculated using the Renkin function using permeabilities of mannitol and urea and potential difference study to evaluate paracellular permeability in Caco-2 cell monolayer; they were calculated to be 5.91 ?, 7.51 cm(-1) and 2.75, respectively. These values in the human epithelium were calculated from the reported intestinal permeability. The area factor, which can correct the difference in the transcellular permeability between Caco-2 cell monolayer and human epithelium, was obtained using the ratio of permeability of high lipophilicity compounds (human/Caco-2) and was calculated to be 13.3. Paracellular and transcellular permeabilities of 9 compounds in human epithelium were estimated on the basis of the characteristics of the paracellular pathway using physicochemical properties of compounds and the area factor, respectively. Human intestinal permeabilities were predicted by the sum of estimated transcellular and paracellular permeabilities. A linear correlation whose slope and intercept were nearly 1 and 0, respectively, was observed between predicted and reported human intestinal permeabilities. We successfully predicted human intestinal permeability from in vitro data. PMID:21596118

Kataoka, Makoto; Iwai, Katsuaki; Masaoka, Yoshie; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji



Seasonal Trends in Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Farm-Raised Channel Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial floras in the alimentary tracts of farm-raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were qualitatively examined. Fish were raised in six different earthen ponds in Mississippi stocked at three different densities. Fish stocking density had no detectable effect on the composition of the microflora. In total, 26 different species of bacteria from 20 different genera were isolated. Jaccard similarity indices

John R. Macmillan; Tim Santucci



Maternal 18:3n-3 favors piglet intestinal passage of LPS and promotes intestinal anti-inflammatory response to this bacterial ligand.  


We recently observed that maternal 18:3n-3 increases piglet jejunal permeability. We hypothesized that this would favor intestinal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) passage and alter gut immune system education toward this bacterial ligand. Sows were fed 18:3n-3 or 18:2n-6 diets throughout gestation and lactation. In each litter, two piglets were given oral Gram-negative spectrum antibiotic from post-natal day (PND) 14 to 28. All piglets were weaned on a regular diet at PND28. 18:3n-3 piglets exhibited greater jejunal permeability to FITC-LPS at PND28. Levels of 18:3n-3 but neither 20:5n-3 nor 20:4n-6 were greater in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of 18:3n-3 piglets. Jejunal explant or MLN cell cytokine responses to LPS were not influenced by the maternal diet. Antibiotic increased jejunal permeability to FITC-LPS and lowered the level of 20:5n-3 in MLN, irrespective of the maternal diet. At PND52, no long-lasting effect of the maternal diet or antibiotic treatment on jejunal permeability was noticed. 18:3n-3 and 20:4n-6 levels were greater and lower, respectively, in MLN of 18:3n-3 compared to 18:2n-6 piglets. IL-10 production by MLN cells in response to LPS was greater in the 18:3n-3 group, irrespective of the neonatal antibiotic treatment. IL-8 secretion by jejunal explants in response to LPS was lower in antibiotic-treated 18:3n-3 compared to 18:2n-6 piglets. Finally, proportion of MHC class II(+) antigen-presenting cells was greater in 18:3n-3 than 18:2n-6 MLN cells. In conclusion, maternal 18:3n-3 directs the intestinal immune response to LPS toward an anti-inflammatory profile beyond the breastfeeding period; microbiota involvement seems dependent of the immune cells considered. PMID:25087993

Desaldeleer, Cécile; Ferret-Bernard, Stéphanie; de Quelen, Francine; Le Normand, Laurence; Perrier, Cécile; Savary, Gérard; Romé, Véronique; Michel, Catherine; Mourot, Jacques; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Boudry, Gaëlle



Effect of Human Milk Fortifiers on Bacterial Growth in Human Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:As a component in human milk fortifiers (HMF), iron may equilibrate with human milk for as long as 24 hours, bind important bacteriostatic proteins, and potentially affect the host defense properties of human milk.OBJECTIVE:We compared bacterial growth in human milk prepared with each of two HMF differing in their content of iron.STUDY DESIGN:Samples of human milk obtained from mothers of

Myla S Santiago; Champa N Codipilly; Debra C Potak; Richard J Schanler



Diversity and Succession of the Intestinal Bacterial Community of the Maturing Broiler Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of bacterial floras in the ilea and ceca of chickens that were fed a vegetarian corn-soy broiler diet devoid of feed additives was examined by analysis of 1,230 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nearly 70% of sequences from the ileum were related to those of Lactobacillus, with the majority of the rest being related to Clostridiaceae (11%), Streptococcus

Jiangrang Lu; Umelaalim Idris; Barry Harmon; Charles Hofacre; John J. Maurer; Margie D. Lee



Characterization of two cysteine proteases secreted by Blastocystis ST7, a human intestinal parasite.  


Blastocystis spp. are unicellular anaerobic intestinal parasites of both humans and animals and the most prevalent ones found in human stool samples. Their association with various gastrointestinal disorders raises the questions of its pathogenicity and of the molecular mechanisms involved. Since secreted proteases are well-known to be implicated in intestinal parasite virulence, we intended to determine whether Blastocystis spp. possess such pathogenic factors. In silico analysis of the Blastocystis subtype 7 (ST7) genome sequence highlighted 22 genes coding proteases which were predicted to be secreted. We characterized the proteolytic activities in the secretory products of Blastocystis ST7 using specific protease inhibitors. Two cysteine proteases, a cathepsin B and a legumain, were identified in the parasite culture supernatant by gelatin zymographic SDS-PAGE gel and MS/MS analysis. These proteases might act on intestinal cells and disturb gut function. This work provides serious molecular candidates to link Blastocystis spp. and intestinal disorders. PMID:22402106

Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Texier, Catherine; Poirier, Philippe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Tan, Kevin S W; Delbac, Frédéric; El Alaoui, Hicham



Mechanism of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid formation in human faecal suspensions and pure cultures of intestinal bacteria.  


Faecal bacteria from four human donors and six species of human intestinal bacteria known to metabolize linoleic acid (LA) were incubated with LA in deuterium oxide-enriched medium to investigate the mechanisms of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA) formation. The main CLA products in faecal suspensions, rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-CLA; RA) and trans-9,trans-11-CLA, were labelled at C-13, as were other 9,11 geometric isomers. Traces of trans-10,cis-12-CLA formed were labelled to a much lower extent. In pure culture, Bifidobacterium breve NCFB 2258 formed labelled RA and trans-9,trans-11-CLA, while Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 16.4, Roseburia hominis A2-183T, Roseburia inulinivorans A2-192T and Ruminococcus obeum-like strain A2-162 converted LA to VA, labelled in a manner indicating that VA was formed via C-13-labelled RA. Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii DSM 4902T, a possible probiotic, formed mainly RA with smaller amounts of trans-10,cis-12-CLA and trans-9,trans-11-CLA, labelled the same as in the mixed microbiota. Ricinoleic acid (12-OH-cis-9-18 : 1) did not form CLA in the mixed microbiota, in contrast to CLA formation described for Lactobacillus plantarum. These results were similar to those reported for the mixed microbiota of the rumen. Thus, although the bacterial genera and species responsible for biohydrogenation in the rumen and the human intestine differ, and a second route of RA formation via a 10-OH-18 : 1 is present in the intestine, the overall labelling patterns of different CLA isomers formation are common to both gut ecosystems. A hydrogen-abstraction enzymic mechanism is proposed that may explain the role of a 10-OH-18 : 1 intermediate in 9,11-CLA formation in pure and mixed cultures. PMID:19118369

McIntosh, Freda M; Shingfield, Kevin J; Devillard, Estelle; Russell, Wendy R; Wallace, R John



Estimation of the human intestinal permeability of butyltin species using the Caco-2 cell line model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the work was the setup of the Caco-2 human intestinal cell-line model for the study of the intestinal permeation of monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT). The study was focused in gathering information on (a) the relative permeability of butyltins, (b) their possible permeation routes (paracellular\\/transcellular) and (c) the eventual interactions between the different butyltins

M. A. Azenha; R. Evangelista; F. Martel; M. T. Vasconcelos



Carrageenan Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple studies in animal models have shown that the commonly used food additive carrageenan (CGN) induces inflammation and intestinal neoplasia. We performed the first studies to determine the effects of CGN exposure on human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in tissue culture and tested the effect of very low concentrations (1-10 mg\\/L) of undegraded, high-molecular weight CGN. These concentrations of CGN

Sumit Bhattacharyya; Alip Borthakur; Pradeep K. Dudeja; Joanne K. Tobacman


The oligopeptide transporter (Pept-1) in human intestine: Biology and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oligopeptide transporter (Pept-1), which is located in the intestinal brush border membrane, provides a major mechanism for protein absorption in the human intestine. Expression cloning of the gene encoding Pept-1 has predicted a 78,810-kilodalton protein consisting of 708 amino acid residues and possessing 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. The characterization of its function by in vivo and in vitro studies

SA Adibi



Notch2-dependent classical dendritic cells orchestrate intestinal immunity against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Defense against attaching and effacing (A/E) bacteria requires the sequential generation of interleukin 23 (IL-23) and IL-22 to induce protective mucosal responses. While CD4+ and NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the critical source of IL-22 during infection, the precise source of IL-23 is unclear. We used genetic techniques to deplete specific subsets of classical dendritic cells (cDCs) and analyzed immunity to the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. We found that Notch2 controlled the terminal stage of cDC differentiation. Notch2-dependent intestinal CD11b+ cDCs, but not Batf3-dependent CD103+ cDCs, were an obligate source of IL-23 required to survive C. rodentium infection. These results provide the first demonstration of a non-redundant function of CD11b+ cDCs in response to pathogens in vivo. PMID:23913046

Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Briseno, Carlos G.; Lee, Jacob S.; Ng, Dennis; Manieri, Nicholas A.; KC, Wumesh; Wu, Xiaodi; Thomas, Stephanie R.; Lee, Wan-Ling; Turkoz, Mustafa; McDonald, Keely G.; Meredith, Matthew M.; Song, Christina; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Newberry, Rodney D.; Ouyang, Wenjun; Murphy, Theresa L.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Colonna, Marco; Kopan, Raphael; Murphy, Kenneth M.



Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 promotes bacterial phagocytosis by human macrophages.  


LL-37/hCAP-18 is the only human member of the cathelicidin family and plays an important role in killing various pathogens, as well as in immune modulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of LL-37 on bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages and demonstrate that LL-37 enhances phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in a dose- and time-dependent manner by dTHP-1 cells. In addition, LL-37 enhanced phagocytosis of nonopsonized Escherichia coli by human macrophages. Consistently, LL-37 elevated the expression of Fc?Rs on macrophages but not the complement receptors CD11b and -c. Further studies revealed that the expression of TLR4 and CD14 is also increased on LL-37-treated macrophages. Several lines of evidence indicated that the FPR2/ALX receptor mediated LL-37-induced phagocytosis. However, TLR4 signaling was also coupled to the phagocytic response, as a specific TLR4 antibody significantly suppressed phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized E. coli and nonopsonized E. coli by dTHP-1 cells. Finally, macrophages from Cnlp(-/-) mice exhibited diminished bacterial phagocytosis compared with macrophages from their WT littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel, immune-modulatory mechanism of LL-37, which may contribute to bacterial clearance. PMID:24550523

Wan, Min; van der Does, Anne M; Tang, Xiao; Lindbom, Lennart; Agerberth, Birgitta; Haeggström, Jesper Z



First-pass metabolism of midazolam by the human intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo intestinal metabolism of the CYP3A probe midazolam to its principal metabolite, 1?-hydroxymidazolam, was investigated during surgery in 10 liver transplant recipients. After removal of the diseased liver, five subjects received 2 mg midazolam intraduodenally, and the other five received 1 mg midazolam intravenously. Simultaneous arterial and hepatic portal venous blood samples were collected during the anhepatic phase;

Mary F. Paine; Danny D. Shen; Kent L. Kunze; James D. Perkins; Christopher L. Marsh; John P. McVicar; Darlene M. Barr; Bruce S. Gillies; Kenneth E. Thummel



Intestinal Immune Response to Human Cryptosporidium sp. Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptosporidium is an obligate intracellular protozoan para- site that is a major cause of diarrheal illness worldwide. Cryp- tosporidium primarily infects the distal small intestine. Immu- nocompetent hosts control and eliminate the infection, which typically causes acute, self-limited watery diarrhea lasting 5 to 10 days. However, in patients with defects in cellular immune responses (e.g., AIDS, malnutrition, or defects in

Birte Pantenburg; Sara M. Dann; Heuy-Ching Wang; Prema Robinson; Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez; Dorothy E. Lewis; A. Clinton White



Human small intestinal motor activity and postprandial glycemia after dietary  

E-print Network

the following properties: A global motility index was automatically cal- culated by dividing the quantity and IS reduced the motility index and the sta- tionary electrical activity in the small intestine. In addition postprandial glycemic response than GL and WB. The postprandial glycemic re- sponses were significantly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Survival of Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Stomach and Adhesion to Intestinal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of four strains of lactic acid bacteria in human gastric juice, in vivo and in vitro, and in buffered saline, pH 1 to 5, has been investigated. The strains studied include two Lactobacillus acidophilus strains, Lactobacillus bul- garicus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. In addition, the adhesion of these strains to freshly collected human and pig small intestinal cells and

P. L. Conway; S. L. Gorbach; B. R. Goldin



Human intestinal epithelial and smooth muscle cells are potent producers of IL-6.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pluripotent cytokine, has traditionally been considered the product of proinflammatory cells. However, many other cell types have been shown to produce IL-6. Since intestinal inflammation is commonly associated with a vigorous systemic inflammatory response, we hypothesized that intestinal epithelial and smooth muscle cells might contribute to that response by producing IL-6. We therefore studied the capacity of differentiated human intestinal epithelial and smooth muscle cell lines to produce IL-6 in response to various proinflammatory stimuli. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCL-241, a human intestinal epithelial cell line, and HISM, a human intestinal muscle cell line, were grown to confluency and then treated for 24 h with various concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, Clostridium difficile culture extract containing both toxin A and toxin B, recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta). Supernatants were then collected for IL-6 determination using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell numbers were determined using a Coulter counter. For comparison, parallel studies were performed using phorbol ester-primed U-937 and THP-1 human macrophage cell lines. RESULTS: Both human intestinal epithelial and smooth muscle cells produced IL-6 under basal conditions. In HISM cells, but not in CCL-241 cells, IL-6 release was increased slightly by treatment with C. difficile culture extract containing both toxin A and toxin B and with lipopolysaccharide. In both cell lines, IL-6 production was profoundly stimulated by treatment with IL-1beta and less so with TNF-alpha. Combinations of high-dose TNF-alpha and IL-1beta may have a slightly additive, but not synergistic, effect on IL-6 release. The amount of IL-6 produced by IL-1-stimulated intestinal cell lines was 70-fold higher than that produced by stimulated macrophage cell lines. CONCLUSIONS; Both intestinal epithelial and smooth muscle cells demonstrate the ability to release significant amounts of IL-6. The profound response to IL-1beta and TNF-alpha stimulation by both cell lines suggests that human intestinal parenchymal cells, influenced by paracrine mediators liberated from proinflammatory cells, might significantly contribute to the overall systemic inflammatory response by producing IL-6. PMID:12745542

Ng, Edmond K; Panesar, Ninder; Longo, Walter E; Shapiro, Marc J; Kaminski, Donald L; Tolman, Kym C; Mazuski, John E



Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.  


A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L



Effects of chronic protein-calorie malnutrition on small intestinal repair after an acute bacterial enteritis: a study in infant rabbits.  


The aim of this study was to determine if recovery of intestinal function in infant rabbits subjected to protein-calorie malnutrition was delayed as a result of inflammatory injury induced by an experimental bacterial enteritis. Rabbits were malnourished by expanding litter size at 7 days of age and infecting undernourished animals and dietary controls with Yersinia enterocolitica at either 17 or 21 days of age. Intestinal morphology and function were evaluated in infected and noninfected animals from both dietary groups at 27 days of age. Undernutrition alone significantly reduced animal weight, small intestinal weight, segmental jejunal and ileal mucosal weight, villus height, crypt depth, disaccharidase activities, mucosal protein and DNA contents, but increased ileal short-circuited glucose-stimulated Na+ absorption compared to controls. The jejunum of undernourished rabbits at 6 days postinfection exhibited an intestinal injury, as evidenced by a mild inflammatory infiltrate and further reductions in villus height, mucosal weight, lactase activity, protein and DNA content, not seen in infected dietary controls. Jejunal recovery was complete by 10 days postinfection. In the ileum of infected animals of both dietary groups at 6 days post-infection, a severe inflammatory response, decreased villus height, elongated crypts, and depressed stimulation of Na+ absorption by glucose was observed. By 10 days after infection, while recovery was nearly complete in dietary controls, intestinal damage persisted in the undernourished rabbits, as evidenced by absent glucose-stimulated Na+ absorption, continued severe inflammation and microabscess formation. We conclude that intestinal injury is more severe and chronic in the undernourished, compared to dietary control infant rabbits subjected to an acute bacterial enteritis. PMID:3131727

Butzner, J D; Gall, D G



Culture-based and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the bacterial community structure from the intestinal tracts of earthworms(Eisenia fetida).  


The bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of earthworm were investigated by culture-dependent and - independent approaches. In total, 72 and 55 pure cultures were isolated from the intestinal tracts of earthworms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Aerobic bacteria were classified as Aeromonas (40%), Bacillus (37%), Photobacterium (10%), Pseudomonas (7%), and Shewanella (6%). Anaerobic bacteria were classified as Aeromonas (52%), Bacillus (27%), Shewanella (12%), Paenibacillus (5%), Clostridium (2%), and Cellulosimicrobium (2%). The dominant microorganisms were Aeromonas and Bacillus species under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In all, 39 DNA fragments were identified by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. Aeromonas sp. was the dominant microorganism in feeds, intestinal tracts, and casts of earthworms. The DGGE band intensity of Aeromonas from feeds, intestinal tracts, and casts of earthworms was 12.8%, 14.7%, and 15.1%, respectively. The other strains identified were Bacillus, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Photobacterium, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Streptomyces, uncultured Chloroflexi bacterium, and uncultured bacterium. These results suggest that PCR-DGGE analysis was more efficient than the culture-dependent approach for the investigation of bacterial diversity and the identification of unculturable microorganisms. PMID:21952364

Hong, Sung Wook; Kim, In Su; Lee, Ju Sam; Chung, Kun Sub



Effect of ceftobiprole on the normal human intestinal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceftobiprole is a new broad-spectrum pyrrolidinone cephem active against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of administration of ceftobiprole on the normal intestinal microflora. Twelve healthy subjects (six males and six females) aged 20–31 years received ceftobiprole 500mg by intravenous

Tobias Bäckström; Georgios Panagiotidis; Olof Beck; Charlotte Asker-Hagelberg; Mamun-Ur Rashid; Andrej Weintraub; Carl Erik Nord



Phase-variable expression of a family of glycoproteins imparts a dynamic surface to a symbiont in its human intestinal ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The recent report of the synthesis of glycoproteins by the abundant intestinal symbionts Bacteroides showed that these organisms use a novel bacterial enzyme to decorate their surfaces with a sugar residue derived from their environment. As a first step in understanding the importance of these glycoproteins to the bacteria and to the bacterial–host symbiosis, we identified and characterized the abundant glycoproteins of Bacteroides distasonis (proposed reclassification as Parabacteroides distasonis) [Sakamoto M, Benno Y (2006) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:1599–1605]. Using lectin-affinity purification followed by tandem mass spectrometry, we identified a family of at least nine glycoproteins, similar only to the S-layer glycoproteins of Tannerella forsythia. Analysis of one of these purified glycoproteins demonstrated that the glycan is primarily a polymer of xylose, a monosaccharide rarely found in bacterial glycans. Even more unexpected was the finding that seven of nine of the glycoprotein promoters undergo DNA inversion, a process that we show is active in their endogenous human environment. Using cross-species functional assays, we show that a single serine family site-specific recombinase globally mediates the inversions of these glycoprotein promoters. This regulatory mechanism is similar to that of the Bacteroides fragilis capsular polysaccharides and establishes DNA inversion as a general and ancient means of regulation of glycan-containing surface molecules of these important human intestinal symbionts. PMID:17284602

Fletcher, C. Mark; Coyne, Michael J.; Bentley, David L.; Villa, Otto F.; Comstock, Laurie E.



Staphylococcus aureus adheres to human intestinal mucus but can be displaced by certain lactic acid bacteria.  


There is increasing evidence that Staphylococcus aureus may colonize the intestinal tract, especially among hospitalized patients. As Staph. aureus has been found to be associated with certain gastrointestinal diseases, it has become important to study whether this bacterium can colonize the intestinal tract and if so, whether it is possible to prevent colonization. Adhesion is the first step in colonization; this study shows that Staph. aureus adheres to mucus from resected human intestinal tissue. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly commercial probiotics, were able to reduce adhesion and viability of adherent Staph. aureus. In displacement assays the amount of adherent Staph. aureus in human intestinal mucus was reduced 39-44% by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Moreover, adherent Lactobacillus reuteri, Lc. lactis and P. freudenreichii reduced viability of adherent Staph. aureus by 27-36%, depending on the strain, after 2 h incubation. This was probably due to the production of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide and possibly in the case of L. reuteri to the production of reuterin. This study shows for the first time that Staph. aureus can adhere to human intestinal mucus and adherent bacteria can be displaced and killed by certain LAB strains via in situ production of antimicrobial substances. PMID:16735744

Vesterlund, Satu; Karp, Matti; Salminen, Seppo; Ouwehand, Arthur C



Linking membrane trafficking and intestinal homeostasis.  


A major challenge for the human body is to maintain symbiotic relationships with bacterial communities that colonize their intestines. Although several molecules important for intestinal homeostasis have been discovered, the vast array still needs to be identified. We approached this task using a forward genetic approach, which revealed several molecules essential for intestinal homeostasis. One recently identified molecule is Ypt1p-interacting protein 1 domain family, member 6 (Yipf6). Mice with a null mutation in Yipf6 are hypersensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis and develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation. Members of the Yip1 family are believed to be involved in ER to Golgi membrane transport.   In this review we summarize recent advances in the understanding of genes involved in intestinal homeostasis with a specific focus on the Yip family members. We speculate on how deficiency or dysfunction of Yip molecules may dysregulate intestinal homeostasis leading to pathogenic states. PMID:24665373

Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Brandl, Katharina



Getting the bugs out of the immune system: do bacterial microbiota "fix" intestinal T cell responses?  


Proinflammatory T helper 17 (Th17) cells control infections caused by microbial pathogens. Surprisingly, several recent reports now reveal that symbiotic gut bacteria modulate Th17 cell differentiation and function in the gastrointestinal tract. As various autoimmune and allergic disorders are mediated by uncontrolled T cell responses, immune regulation by the microbiota may have direct implications for human health. PMID:19154983

Chow, Janet; Mazmanian, Sarkis K



Research paper Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using  

E-print Network

Research paper Investigation of bacterial biofilm in the human middle ear using optical coherence of a bacterial biofilm behind the tympanic membrane (TM). Here we investigate the acoustic effects of bacterial biofilms, confirmed using optical coherence tomography (OCT), in adult ears. Non-invasive OCT images

Allen, Jont


Evaluation of rat intestinal absorption data and correlation with human intestinal absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of 111 drug and drug-like compounds was evaluated from 111 references based on the ratio of urinary excretion of drugs following oral and intravenous administration to intact rats and biliary excretion of bile duct-cannulated rats. Ninety-eight drug compounds for which both human and rat absorption data were available were selected for correlation analysis between the human and rat

Yuan H Zhao; Michael H Abraham; Joelle Le; Anne Hersey; Chris N Luscombe; Gordon Beck; Brad Sherborne; Ian Cooper



Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine. PMID:18681965

Troost, Freddy J; van Baarlen, Peter; Lindsey, Patrick; Kodde, Andrea; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert-Jan M



Immunohistochemical characterization of putative primary afferent (sensory) myenteric neurons in human small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudouni- or multiaxonal Dogiel type II neurons are the intrinsic primary afferent (sensory) neurons (IPANs) in the guinea pig small intestine. Our aim was to decipher the chemical code of human myenteric type II neurons and to establish their putative vertical projections, i.e., from the myenteric plexus to the submucosa\\/mucosa. Additionally, we tried to distinguish them chemically from uniaxonal, dendritic

Axel Brehmer; Roland Croner; Arno Dimmler; Thomas Papadopoulos; Falk Schrödl; Winfried Neuhuber



Assessment of adhesion properties of novel probiotic strains to human intestinal mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential new probiotic strains Lactobacillus brevis PEL1, L. reuteri ING1, L. rhamnosus VTT E-800 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were assessed for their adhesion properties using the human intestinal mucus model. The effect on the adhesion of exposure to acid and pepsin and to milk were tested to simulate gastric and food processing conditions, and the effect of different growth media

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Elina M. Tuomola; Satu Tölkkö; Seppo Salminen



A Layered Model of a Virtual Human Intestine for Surgery Simulation  

E-print Network

A Layered Model of a Virtual Human Intestine for Surgery Simulation L. France a , J. Lenoir b , A point skeletons while the sec- ond uses local convolution surfaces. Using these models, we obtained good:// . Key words: Surgical simulation, virtual reality, physically based simulation, real

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Short chain fatty acids in human large intestine, portal, hepatic and venous blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for the occurrence of microbial breakdown of carbohydrate in the human colon has been sought by measuring short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the contents of all regions of the large intestine and in portal, hepatic and peripheral venous blood obtained at autopsy of sudden death victims within four hours of death. Total SCFA concentration (mmol\\/kg) was low

J H Cummings; E W Pomare; W J Branch; C P Naylor; G T Macfarlane



Environmental contaminants and intestinal function  

PubMed Central

The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

Banwell, John G.



Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Association with Colon Motility, Bowel Symptoms, and Psychological Distress  

PubMed Central

Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although with significant controversy. Aims To determine the prevalence of SIBO in IBS and its association with colonic motility, bowel symptoms and psychological distress. Methods Sucrose hydrogen and methane breath tests were performed in 158 IBS and 34 healthy controls (HC). Thresholds for pain and urgency were tested by barostat in the descending colon. The motility index (MI) was calculated as the average area under the curve for all phasic contractions. Questionnaires assessed psychological distress, IBS symptom severity (IBSSS), IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) and self reported bowel symptoms. Results 52/158 (32.9%) IBS patients had abnormal breath tests compared with 6/34 (17.9%) HC (?2=0.079). SIBO (SIBO+) and Non-SIBO (SIBO?) did not differ in the prevalence of IBS-subtypes, IBS-SS, IBS-QOL and psychological distress variables. IBS had a greater post-distension increase in MI than HC, but there was no difference between SIBO+ and SIBO?. Predominant methane producers had higher urge thresholds (28.4 vs. 18.3, p<0.05) and higher baseline MI (461 vs. 301.45, p<0.05) than SIBO? IBS, and they reported more “hard or lumpy stools” when compared to predominant hydrogen producers (p<0.05) and SIBO? IBS (p< 0.05). Conclusions SIBO is unlikely to contribute significantly in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methane production is associated with constipation. PMID:18482250

Grover, Madhusudan; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Palsson, Olafur S.; Chitkara, Denesh K.; Gangarosa, Lisa M.; Drossman, Douglas A.; Whitehead, William E.



Human ecology and behavior and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.  


The three direct determinants of the rate of spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are sexual behaviors, the mean duration of infectiousness, and the mean efficiency of sexual transmission of each STD. Underlying ecological and behavioral factors that operate through one or more of these direct determinants lie on a continuum, ranging from those most proximate back to those more remote (in time or mechanism) from the direct determinants. Most remote and least modifiable are the historical stages of economic development that even today conspicuously influence patterns of sexual behavior. Next are the distribution and changing patterns of climate, hygiene, and population density; the global population explosion and stages of the demographic transition; and ongoing changes in human physiology (e.g., menarche at younger age) and culture (e.g., later marriage). More proximate on the continuum are war, migration, and travel; and current policies for economic development and social welfare. Most recent or modifiable are technologic and commercial product development (e.g., oral contraceptives); circumcision, condom, spermicide, and contraception practices; patterns of illicit drug use that influence sexual behaviors; and the accessibility, quality, and use of STD health care. These underlying factors help explain why the curable bacterial STDs are epidemic in developing countries and why the United States is the only industrialized country that has failed to control bacterial STDs during the AIDS era. PMID:8146138

Holmes, K K



Bacterial delivery of TALEN proteins for human genome editing.  


Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) are a novel class of sequence-specific nucleases that have recently gained prominence for its ease of production and high efficiency in genome editing. A TALEN pair recognizes specific DNA sequences and introduce double-strand break in the target site, triggering non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Current methods of TALEN delivery involves introduction of foreign genetic materials, such as plasmid DNA or mRNA, through transfection. Here, we show an alternative way of TALEN delivery, bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) mediated direct injection of the TALEN proteins into human cells. Bacterially injected TALEN was shown to efficiently target host cell nucleus where it persists for almost 12 hours. Using a pair of TALENs targeting venus gene, such injected nuclear TALENs were shown functional in introducing DNA mutation in the target site. Interestingly, S-phase cells seem to show greater sensitivity to the TALEN mediated target gene modification. Accordingly, efficiency of such genome editing can easily be manipulated by the infection dose, number of repeated infections as well as enrichment of S phase cells. This work further extends the utility of T3SS in the delivery of functional proteins into mammalian cells to alter their characters for biomedical applications. PMID:24618838

Jia, Jingyue; Jin, Yongxin; Bian, Ting; Wu, Donghai; Yang, Lijun; Terada, Naohiro; Wu, Weihui; Jin, Shouguang



Pharmacokinetic evidence on the contribution of intestinal bacterial conversion to beneficial effects of astragaloside IV, a marker compound of astragali radix, in traditional oral use of the herb.  


Astragaloside IV (AIV) is the most abundant saponin and a marker compound in Astragali Radix, a Chinese herb notable for its anti-aging and immune-enhancing effects. The present study investigated the role of intestinal bacterial conversion in the in vivo fate of AIV administered through a traditional oral route for the first time. When incubated anaerobically with rat intestinal bacteria, AIV generated five metabolites with three [monoglycosides brachyoside B and cyclogaleginoside B, the aglycone cycloastragenol (CA)] via stepwise deglycosylation and two from further epimerization (CA-iso) and dehydrogenation (CA-2H). Hydrolytic removal of C-6 glucose was a rate-limiting step for formations of CA and its derivatives. When AIV was orally administered to the rat, CA and CA-iso presented as the main components in plasma following AIV, and the AUC(0-?) were 88.60 ± 9.66 (CA), 179.06 ± 28.53 (CA-iso) and 452.28 ± 43.33 nM·h (AIV). CA-2H was the predominant form in feces but was not detected in urine or plasma. This agreed well with in vitro data including rapid hepatic metabolism of CA-2H to form CA and CA-iso and reversible conversions between CA-2H and CA/CA-iso by intestinal bacteria. These findings support a crucial role of gut bacterial conversion of AIV in the traditional application of Astragali herb and warrant further investigational emphasis on CA and CA-iso. PMID:22673033

Zhou, Rui-Na; Song, Yue-Lin; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wang, Yi-Tao; Yan, Ru



Th2 Cytokines Down-Regulate TLR Expression and Function in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

TLRs serve important immune and nonimmune functions in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Proinflammatory Th1 cytokines have been shown to promote TLR expression and function in IECs, but the effect of key Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) on TLR signaling in IECs has not been elucidated so far. We stimulated human model IECs with Th2 cytokines and examined TLR mRNA

Tobias Mueller; Tomohiro Terada; Ian M. Rosenberg; Oren Shibolet; Daniel K. Podolsky


Metabolism of ginsenoside Re by human intestinal microflora and its estrogenic effect.  


To understand the relationship between the metabolism and biological activity of ginsenoside Re, a main protopanaxatriol saponin in Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER, its metabolic pathway and estrogenic effect by human intestinal microflora were investigated. All human fecal specimens metabolized ginsenoside Re, mainly to ginsenoside Rh1 and ginsenoside F1, via ginsenoside Rg1, with protopanaxadiol as a minor component. Almost all isolated ginsenoside Re-metabolizing intestinal bacteria (GHIB) also metabolized ginsenoside Re, mainly to ginsenosides Rh1 and F1, via ginsenoside Rg1. Alpha-Rhamnosidase and beta-glucosidase, partially purified from the most potent GHIB, Bacteroides JY-6, hydrolyzed ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rg1, respectively; however, they did not hydrolyze ginsenosides Rh1 and F1. These findings suggest that the ginsenosides Rh1 and/or F1 may not be suitable substrates of intestinal bacteria, particularly Bacteroides JY-6. The estrogenic effects of ginsenoside Re and its main metabolites, ginsenosides Rg1 and Rh1, were also investigated. Ginsenoside Rh1 showed the greatest estrogenic effect in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. Based on these findings, the estrogenic effect of ginsenoside Re may be expressed by intestinal microflora. PMID:16204943

Bae, Eun-Ah; Shin, Ji-Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun



Human milk oligosaccharides influence maturation of human intestinal Caco-2Bbe and HT-29 cell lines.  


Stimulation of gastrointestinal tract maturation is 1 of the many benefits of human milk. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundant in human milk and are reported to promote enterocyte differentiation in vitro. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of 3 predominant HMOs on multiple aspects of enterocyte maturation in vitro. Ranging from crypt-like to differentiated enterocytes, we used the well-characterized intestinal cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe to model early and late stages of differentiation, respectively. With this model of the crypt-villus axis made up of preconfluent HT-29, preconfluent Caco-2Bbe, and postconfluent Caco-2Bbe cultures, we characterized the impact of lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), and 6'-sialyllactose on epithelial cell kinetics and function. All 3 HMOs dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in undifferentiated HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe cultures (P < 0.05). In contrast to previous reports, only treatment with 2'FL at concentrations similar to human milk increased alkaline phosphatase activity by 31% (P = 0.044) in HT-29 cultures and increased sucrase activity by 54% (P = 0.005) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cultures. LNnT at concentrations similar to that reported for human milk increased transepithelial resistance by 21% (P = 0.002) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cells. In summary, all 3 HMOs reduced cell proliferation in an epithelial cell model of the crypt-villus axis. However, effects on differentiation, digestive function, and epithelial barrier function differed between the HMOs tested. These results suggest differential roles for specific HMOs in maturation of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24572036

Holscher, Hannah D; Davis, Steven R; Tappenden, Kelly A



Detection of Intracellular Bacterial Communities in Human Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). While UTIs are typically considered extracellular infections, it has been recently demonstrated that UPEC bind to, invade, and replicate within the murine bladder urothelium to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). These IBCs dissociate and bacteria flux out of bladder facet cells, some with filamentous morphology, and ultimately establish quiescent intracellular reservoirs that can seed recurrent infection. This IBC pathogenic cycle has not yet been investigated in humans. In this study we sought to determine whether evidence of an IBC pathway could be found in urine specimens from women with acute UTI. Methods and Findings We collected midstream, clean-catch urine specimens from 80 young healthy women with acute uncomplicated cystitis and 20 asymptomatic women with a history of UTI. Investigators were blinded to culture results and clinical history. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy for evidence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria. Evidence of IBCs was found in 14 of 80 (18%) urines from women with UTI. Filamentous bacteria were found in 33 of 80 (41%) urines from women with UTI. None of the 20 urines from the asymptomatic comparative group showed evidence of IBCs or filaments. Filamentous bacteria were present in all 14 of the urines with IBCs compared to 19 (29%) of 66 samples with no evidence of IBCs (p < 0.001). Of 65 urines from patients with E. coli infections, 14 (22%) had evidence of IBCs and 29 (45%) had filamentous bacteria, while none of the gram-positive infections had IBCs or filamentous bacteria. Conclusions The presence of exfoliated IBCs and filamentous bacteria in the urines of women with acute cystitis suggests that the IBC pathogenic pathway characterized in the murine model may occur in humans. The findings support the occurrence of an intracellular bacterial niche in some women with cystitis that may have important implications for UTI recurrence and treatment. PMID:18092884

Rosen, David A; Hooton, Thomas M; Stamm, Walter E; Humphrey, Peter A; Hultgren, Scott J



Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)



Detection of fastidious mycobacteria in human intestines by the polymerase chain reaction.  


The aim of this study was to determine whether difficult-to-grow mycobacteria are present in human intestines. Intestinal tissue samples were subjected to both mycobacterial culture and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. After detection by PCR, species identity was determined by hybridizing the amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments with species-specific oligonucleotides. Intestinal biopsies from 63 patients with noninflammatory bowel diseases (n = 22), Crohn's disease (n = 31), or ulcerative colitis (n = 10) were analyzed. Culture and PCR revealed mycobacteria in four (6%) and 25 (40%) samples, respectively. Samples positive by PCR were negative with all probes specific to nine common cultivable species but were positive with Mycobacterium genavense-specific probe in 68% of cases. Mycobacterial isolates were identified as Mycobacterium gordonae and Mycobacterium chelonae. Findings were similar in Crohn's disease samples compared to non-Chron's disease samples. This study shows that difficult-to-grow mycobacteria can be detected by PCR in large and similar proportions of inflamed intestinal tissue from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal tissue that appears normal from patients with noninflammatory bowel disease. PMID:9228475

Dumonceau, J M; Van Gossum, A; Adler, M; Van Vooren, J P; Fonteyne, P A; De Beenhouwer, H; Portaels, F



Human small intestinal epithelial cells differentiated from adult intestinal stem cells as a novel system for predicting oral drug absorption in humans.  


Adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs) possess both a long-term proliferation ability and differentiation capability into enterocytes. As a novel in vitro system for the evaluation of drug absorption, we characterized a human small intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) monolayer that differentiated from adult ISCs. Continuous proliferation/differentiation from ISCs consistently conferred the capability of maturation of enterocytes to HIECs over 25 passages. The morphologically matured HIEC monolayer consisted of polarized columnar epithelia with dense microvilli, tight junctions, and desmosomes 8 days after seeding onto culture inserts. Transepithelial electrical resistance across the monolayer was 9-fold lower in HIECs (98.9 ? × cm(2)) than in Caco-2 cells (900 ? × cm(2)), which indicated that the looseness of the tight junctions in the HIEC monolayer was similar to that in the human small intestine (approximately 40 ? × cm(2)). No significant differences were observed in the overall gene expression patterns of the major drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters between the HIEC and Caco-2 cell monolayers. Furthermore, the functions of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein in the HIEC monolayer were confirmed by the vectorial transport of marker substrates and their disappearance in the presence of specific inhibitors. The apparent drug permeability values of paracellularly transported compounds (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000, atenolol, and terbutaline) and nucleoside transporter substrates (didanosine, ribavirin, and doxifluridine) in the HIEC monolayer were markedly higher than those of Caco-2 cells, whereas transcellularly transported drugs (pindolol and midazolam) were equally well permeated. In conclusion, the HIEC monolayer can serve as a novel and superior alternative to the conventional Caco-2 cell monolayer for predicting oral absorption in humans. PMID:25200868

Takenaka, Toru; Harada, Naomoto; Kuze, Jiro; Chiba, Masato; Iwao, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Tamihide



Bacterial diversity within the equine large intestine as revealed by molecular analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of the microflora present within the equine large intestine was investigated through the analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Total genomic DNA, recovered from samples of large intestinal wall tissue and lumen contents, was used to generate 272 random clones that were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analysis. The 272 sequences were classified into 168 operational

Kristian Daly; Colin S. Stewart; Harry J. Flint; Soraya P. Shirazi-Beechey



Electromagnetic radiation from ingested sources in the human intestine between 150 MHz and 1.2 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional method of diagnosing disorders of the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is by sensors embedded in cannulae that are inserted through the anus, mouth, or nose. However, these cannulae cause significant patient discomfort and cannot be used in the small intestine. As a result, there is considerable ongoing work in developing wireless sensors that can be used in the

Lawrence C. Chirwa; Paul A. Hammond; Scott Roy; David R. S. Cumming



Quantitative estimation and chemical coding of spiny type I neurons in human intestines.  


Previous studies have shown that most human myenteric neurons co-staining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and neurofilaments (NF) display the morphology of spiny type I neurons displaying a descending projection pattern. Here, we estimated the proportions of spiny neurons in human intestines, the amount of congruence of VIP/nNOS-immunoreactive with spiny neurons and whether galanin (GAL) is co-localized with VIP. Three sets of colchicine-pretreated and fixed whole mounts of 21 patients or body donors (median age 65 years; 10 female, 11 male) were stained for VIP, nNOS and NF, for VIP, nNOS and the human neuronal protein Hu C/D (HU) as well as for VIP, nNOS and GAL. The majority of VIP/nNOS-co-reactive neurons were spiny neurons (79/80% in small/large intestine, respectively) and the majority of spiny neurons co-stained for VIP and nNOS (82/69%). Neurons co-immunoreactive for VIP/nNOS/HU amounted to 7 and 4%, respectively. GAL/VIP-co-immunoreactivity was demonstrated in 69 and 27% of spiny neurons, respectively. We conclude that the number of neurons displaying co-reactivity for VIP and nNOS is a quantitative indicator of spiny neurons in both small and large intestine and that the proportion of spiny neurons is about 7% in small and 4% in large intestines. Since nerve fibres co-staining for NF/VIP/nNOS were found mainly in the circular muscle layer but not the surrounding perikarya of spiny neurons, we suggest that they may represent inhibitory motor neurons rather than descending interneurons. PMID:20975253

Schuy, Julia; Schlabrakowski, Anne; Neuhuber, Winfried; Brehmer, Axel



Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases  

SciTech Connect

Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are {approx} 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts ({approx} 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected. Together, these results demonstrate that extrahepatic esterolytic metabolism of specific pyrethroids may be significant. Moreover, hepatic cytosolic and microsomal hydrolytic metabolism should each be considered during the development of pharmacokinetic models that predict the disposition of pyrethroids and other esterified compounds.

Crow, J. Allen [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 6100 Mississippi State, MS 39762-6100 (United States); Borazjani, Abdolsamad [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 6100 Mississippi State, MS 39762-6100 (United States); Potter, Philip M. [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Ross, Matthew K. [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 6100 Mississippi State, MS 39762-6100 (United States)]. E-mail:



Hot Spices Influence Permeability of Human Intestinal Epithelial Monolayers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect evidence suggests that hot spices may interact with epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract to modulate their transport properties. Using HCT-8 cells, a cell line from a human ileocoecal carcinoma, we studied the effects of spices on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), permeability for fluorescein isothiocya- nate (FITC)-labeled dextrans with graded molecular weight, and morphological alterations of tight junctions by

Erika Jensen-Jarolim; Leszek Gajdzik; Ines Haberl; Dietrich Kraft; Otto Scheiner; Jurg Graf


Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells  

PubMed Central

Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko



Bacterial replacement therapy: adapting ‘germ warfare’ to infection prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The individual bacterial members of our indigeneous microbiota are actively engaged in an on-going battle to prevent colonisation and overgrowth of their terrain by competing microbes, some of which might have pathogenic potential for the host. Humans have long attempted to intervene in these bacterial interactions. Ingestion of probiotic bacteria, particularly lactobacilli, is commonly practiced to promote well-balanced intestinal microflora.

John R. Tagg; Karen P. Dierksen



Human intestinal epithelial cells promote the differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:In mice, a subpopulation of gut dendritic cells (DCs) expressing CD103 drives the development of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Further, it was recently described that the cross-talk between human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and DCs helps in maintaining gut immune homeostasis via the induction of non-inflammatory DCs. In this study, an analysis was carried out to determine whether IECs could

I D Iliev; I Spadoni; E Mileti; G Matteoli; A Sonzogni; G M Sampietro; D Foschi; F Caprioli; G Viale; M Rescigno



Definite spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity and Hnk-1 cells in the human large intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (SCMC) and the marker of natural killer (NK) cells mediating SCMC of the human large\\u000a intestine were studied. Lamina proprial lymphoid cells (LPL) were isolated by sequential dithiothreitol-EDTA-collagenase treatment\\u000a of the gut specimen. SCMC was measured by the chromium release method. Target cells included P4788 in monolayer, a cell line\\u000a derived from colon cancer, Chang cells in

Mitsuro Chiba; Hiromasa Ohta; Osamu Masamune; Yutaka Yoshida



Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from

Peter Schierack; Kristina Kadlec; Sebastian Guenther; Matthias Filter; Stefan Schwarz; Christa Ewers; Lothar H Wieler



Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1.  


The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration-time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E



Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1  

PubMed Central

The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration–time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process.

Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E.



Generation of leukotrienes and lipoxygenase factors from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes during bacterial phagocytosis and interaction with bacterial exotoxins.  


The generation and release of lipoxygenase factors and leukotrienes from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes is demonstrated during bacterial phagocytosis and interaction with bacterial exotoxins (alpha-toxin, enterotoxin, lipase from Staph. aureus; Streptolysin O; cytotoxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The leukotrienes released during stimulation exert chemotactic properties for human neutrophils and guinea pig eosinophils (leukotriene B4) and show the characteristic profile of slow reacting substance activity which is induced by leukotriene C4, D4 and E4. The toxin induced spasmogenic activity obtained from human PMNs was inhibited in the presence of the SRS-antagonist FPL 55712. The generation of lipoxygenase factors is also demonstrated by autoradiography using 14C arachidonic acid prelabelled granulocytes. PMID:6326424

Bremm, K D; Brom, J; König, W; Spur, B; Crea, A; Bhakdi, S; Lutz, F; Fehrenbach, F J



Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption by Ezetimibe in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Ezetimibe has been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption in animal models, but studies on cholesterol absorption in humans have not been performed thus far. Methods and Results—The effect of ezetimibe (10 mg\\/d) on cholesterol absorption and synthesis, sterol excretion, and plasma concentrations of cholesterol and noncholesterol sterols was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 18 patients with

Thomas Sudhop; Dieter Lütjohann; Annette Kodal; Michael Igel; Diane L. Tribble; Sukrut Shah; Inna Perevozskaya; Klaus von Bergmann


Short chain fatty acid absorption by the human large intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short chain fatty acid absorption from the human rectum has been studied in 46 subjects attending an obesity clinic, using a dialysis bag technique. From a mixed electrolyte solution, acetate concentrations fell from 97.0 to 64.2 mmol\\/l, and sodium from 97.8 to 85.1 mmol\\/l with respective net absorption rates of 8.1 and 5.2 mumol\\/cm2\\/h. From a solution with mixed short

N I McNeil; J H Cummings; W P James



Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis of Human Intestinal Spirochetosis by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization?  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is associated with overgrowth of the large intestine by spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira. The microbiological diagnosis of HIS is hampered by the fastidious nature and slow growth of Brachyspira spp. In clinical practice, HIS is diagnosed histopathologically, and a significant portion of cases may be missed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular method that allows the visualization and identification of single bacteria within tissue sections. In this study, we analyzed intestinal biopsy samples from five patients with possible HIS. All specimens yielded positive results by histopathological techniques. PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were performed. Sequences of two isolates clustered in the group of Brachyspira aalborgi, whereas in three cases, the sequences were highly similar to that of Brachyspira pilosicoli. Three phylotypes showed mismatches at distinct nucleotide positions with Brachyspira sp. sequences published previously. In addition, culture for Brachyspira was successful in three cases. On the basis of these data, we designed and evaluated a Brachyspira genus-specific 16S rRNA-directed FISH probe that detects all of the Brachyspira spp. published to date. FISH of biopsy samples resulted in strong, unequivocal signals of brush-like formations at the crypt surfaces. This technique allowed simultaneous visualization of single spirochetes and their identification as Brachyspira spp. In conclusion, FISH provides a fast and accurate technique for the visualization and identification of intestinal spirochetes in tissue sections. It therefore represents a valuable tool for routine diagnosis of HIS. PMID:19279178

Schmiedel, Dinah; Epple, Hans-Jorg; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Ignatius, Ralf; Wagner, Jutta; Hammer, Bettina; Petrich, Annett; Stein, Harald; Gobel, Ulf B.; Schneider, Thomas; Moter, Annette



Human uridine phosphorylase-1 inhibitors: a new approach to ameliorate 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis.  


Purpose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been broadly used to treat solid tumors for more than 50 years. One of the major side effects of fluoropyrimidines therapy is oral and intestinal mucositis. Human uridine phosphorylase (hUP) inhibitors have been suggested as modulators of 5-FU toxicity. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the ability of hUP blockers in preventing mucositis induced by 5-FU. Methods We induced intestinal mucositis in Wistar rats with 5-FU, and the intestinal damage was evaluated in presence or absence of two hUP1 inhibitors previously characterized. We examined the loss of weight and diarrhea following the treatment, the villus integrity, uridine levels in plasma, and the neutrophil migration by MPO activity. Results We found that one of the compounds, 6-hydroxy-4-methyl-1H-pyridin-2-one-3-carbonitrile was efficient to promote intestinal mucosa protection and to inhibit the hUP1 enzyme, increasing the uridine levels in the plasma of animals. However, the loss of body weight, diarrhea intensity or neutrophil migration remained unaffected. Conclusion Our results bring support to the hUP1 inhibitor strategy as a novel possibility of prevention and treatment of mucositis during the 5-FU chemotherapy, based on the approach of uridine accumulation in plasma and tissues. PMID:25052233

Renck, Daiana; Santos, André A; Machado, Pablo; Petersen, Guilherme O; Lopes, Tiago G; Santos, Diógenes S; Campos, Maria M; Basso, Luiz A



L-Arginine modulates CXC chemokines in the human intestinal epithelial cell line HCT8 by the NO pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arginine has immunomodulating properties in different animal models but its effects in human intestine remain unknown. This study examined whether arginine modulates inflammatory mediators as chemokines and nitric oxide (NO) in the human intestinal epithelial cell line HCT-8 induced by cytokines. Under basal conditions, arginine did not influence iNOS protein expression, NO and chemokine production and mRNA levels (P>0.05 for

Rachel Marion; Moïse Coëffier; Sabrina Lemoulan; Gilles Gargala; Philippe Ducrotté; Pierre Déchelotte



Interleukin 23 production by intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells in response to bacterial flagellin enhances mucosal innate immune defense.  


Microbial penetration of the intestinal epithelial barrier triggers inflammatory responses that include induction of the bactericidal C-type lectin RegIII?. Systemic administration of flagellin, a bacterial protein that stimulates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), induces epithelial expression of RegIII? and protects mice from intestinal colonization with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Flagellin-induced RegIII? expression is IL-22 dependent, but how TLR signaling leads to IL-22 expression is incompletely defined. By using conditional depletion of lamina propria dendritic cell (LPDC) subsets, we demonstrated that CD103(+)CD11b(+) LPDCs, but not monocyte-derived CD103(-)CD11b(+) LPDCs, expressed high amounts of IL-23 after bacterial flagellin administration and drove IL-22-dependent RegIII? production. Maximal expression of IL-23 subunits IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 occurred within 60 min of exposure to flagellin. IL-23 subsequently induced a burst of IL-22 followed by sustained RegIII? expression. Thus, CD103(+)CD11b(+) LPDCs, in addition to promoting long-term tolerance to ingested antigens, also rapidly produce IL-23 in response to detection of flagellin in the lamina propria. PMID:22306017

Kinnebrew, Melissa A; Buffie, Charlie G; Diehl, Gretchen E; Zenewicz, Lauren A; Leiner, Ingrid; Hohl, Tobias M; Flavell, Richard A; Littman, Dan R; Pamer, Eric G



Functional Genomic Studies of the Intestinal Response to a Foodborne Enteropathogen in a Humanized Gnotobiotic  

E-print Network

(InlA) and its species-specific host receptor, E-cadherin, whereas translocation across Peyer's patches the human enterocyte-associated E-cadherin receptor with wild- type (WT) or mutant L. monocytogenes strains. innocua, expresses internalin (InlA), a surface protein that is sufficient to promote bacterial i

Sonnenburg, Justin L.


16S rRNA survey revealed complex bacterial communities and evidence of bacterial interference on human adenoids.  


Adenoid microbiota plays an important role in the development of various infectious and non-infectious diseases of the upper airways, such as otitis media, adenotonsillitis, rhinosinusitis and adenoid hypertrophy. Studies have suggested that adenoids could act as a potential reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. However, previous bacterial surveys of adenoids were mainly culture based and therefore might only provide an incomplete and potentially biased assessment of the microbial diversity. To develop an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the adenoid microbial communities and test the 'pathogen reservoir hypothesis', we carried out a 16S rRNA based, culture-independent survey of bacterial communities on 67 human adenoids removed by surgery. Our survey revealed highly diverse adenoid bacterial communities distinct from those of other body habitats. Despite large interpersonal variations, adenoid microbiota shared a core set of taxa and can be classified into at least five major types based on its bacterial species composition. Our results support the 'pathogen reservoir hypothesis' as we found common pathogens of otitis media to be both prevalent and abundant. Co-occurrence analyses revealed evidence consistent with the bacterial interference theory in that multiple common pathogens showed 'non-coexistence' relationships with non-pathogenic members of the commensal microflora. PMID:23113966

Ren, Tiantian; Glatt, Dominique Ulrike; Nguyen, Tam Nhu; Allen, Emma Kaitlynn; Early, Stephen V; Sale, Michele; Winther, Birgit; Wu, Martin



Carrageenan induces cell cycle arrest in human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.  


Multiple studies in animal models have shown that the commonly used food additive carrageenan (CGN) induces inflammation and intestinal neoplasia. We performed the first studies to determine the effects of CGN exposure on human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in tissue culture and tested the effect of very low concentrations (1-10 mg/L) of undegraded, high-molecular weight CGN. These concentrations of CGN are less than the anticipated exposure of the human colon to CGN from the average Western diet. In the human colonic epithelial cell line NCM460 and in primary human colonic epithelial cells that were exposed to CGN for 1-8 d, we found increased cell death, reduced cell proliferation, and cell cycle arrest compared with unexposed control cells. After 6-8 d of CGN exposure, the percentage of cells reentering G0-G1 significantly decreased and the percentages of cells in S and G2-M phases significantly increased. Increases in activated p53, p21, and p15 followed CGN exposure, consistent with CGN-induced cell cycle arrest. Additional data, including DNA ladder, poly ADP ribose polymerase Western blot, nuclear DNA staining, and activities of caspases 3 and 7, indicated no evidence of increased apoptosis following CGN exposure and were consistent with CGN-induced necrotic cell death. These data document for the first time, to our knowledge, marked adverse effects of low concentrations of CGN on survival of normal human IEC and suggest that CGN exposure may have a role in development of human intestinal pathology. PMID:18287351

Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Tobacman, Joanne K



Impact of Intestinal PepT1 on the Kinetics and Dynamics of N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, a Bacterially-Produced Chemotactic Peptide  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the intestinal permeability (Peff) of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe), a bacterially derived chemotactic tripeptide, in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon of wild-type and PepT1 knockout mice. A secondary purpose was to determine if the presence of intestinal PepT1 translated into fMet-Leu-Phe directed neutrophil migration in these animals. Using an in situ single pass perfusion technique, the Peff of [3H]fMet-Leu-Phe was substantially reduced in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of PepT1 knockout mice as compared to wild-type animals. In contrast, the Peff of [3H]fMet-Leu-Phe in colon was unchanged between genotypes and about 5% of that in small intestine. Jejunal uptake of [3H]fMet-Leu-Phe was specific for PepT1 and saturable with an intrinsic K0.5 of 1.6 mM. The peptide/histidine transporters PhT1 and PhT2 were not involved in [3H]fMet-Leu-Phe uptake. Myeloperoxidase activity (a measure of neutrophil migration) was significantly increased following 4 h perfusions of 10 ?M fMet-Leu-Phe in the jejunum of wild-type mice and was abolished by 50 mM glycylglycine; no change was observed in the jejunum of PepT1 knockout mice. Likewise, fMet-Leu-Phe perfusions had no effect on myeloperoxidase activity in the colon of either genotype. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that PepT1 had a major influence on the permeability of fMet-Leu-Phe in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in wild-type mice and on inflammatory response in intestinal regions that expressed PepT1. PMID:23259992

Wu, Shu-Pei; Smith, David E.



TNF--Independent IL-8 Expression: Alterations in Bacterial Challenge Dose Cause Differential Human Monocytic Cytokine  

E-print Network

of different bacterial doses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on the cytokine response of primary human mono- cytes. The Journal of Immunology, 2006, 177: 1314­1322. N eisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea

Stein, Daniel C.


Transport of thalidomide by the human intestinal caco-2 monolayers.  


Studies in patients have indicated that the oral absorption of thalidomide is considerably variable at high doses (>200 mg/day). The aim of this study was to investigate the transport of racemic thalidomide using human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) monolayers, which have been widely used to investigate drug permeability. A typical 21-day protocol was used to prepare Caco-2 monolayers. Thalidomide was determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection. The integrity of Caco-2 monolayer was confirmed when the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) exceeded 300 Ohmz . cm2, and the leakage of 14C-manitol was <1% per hour. Uptake of thalidomide by Caco-2 cells was very limited (up to 2.1%). The transport of thalidomide appeared to be linear up to 1 hr. Our study indicated that the permeability coefficients (Papp) of thalidomide at 2.5-300 microM from the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) and from BL to AP side was 2-6 x 10(-5) cm/sec, with a marked decrease in Papp values from AP to BL at increased thalidomide concentration. The transport of thalidomide was sodium-, temperature- and pH-dependent, as replacement of extracellular sodium chloride or reducing temperature and apical pH can result in significant decreases in the Papp values. Additional data indicated that transport of thalidomide is energy-dependent, as it was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by the ATP inhibitors, sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, DL-glutamic acid, cytidine, diprodomole, papaverine, quinidine, and cyclophosphamide significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the transport of thalidomide, while the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil and other nucleosides and nucleotides such as thymidine and guanine had no effect. These results indicated that thalidomide was rapidly transported by Caco-2 monolayers, and this might involve a saturable energy-dependent transporter. PMID:16010862

Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Yan; Kestell, Phillip; Schafer, Peter; Chan, Eli; Paxton, James W



Human intestinal acyl-CoA synthetase 5 is sensitive to the inhibitor triacsin C  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether human acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) is sensitive to the ACSL inhibitor triacsin C. METHODS: The ACSL isoforms ACSL1 and ACSL5 from rat as well as human ACSL5 were cloned and recombinantly expressed as 6xHis-tagged enzymes. Ni2+-affinity purified recombinant enzymes were assayed at pH 7.5 or pH 9.5 in the presence or absence of triacsin C. In addition, ACSL5 transfected CaCo2 cells and intestinal human mucosa were monitored. ACSL5 expression in cellular systems was verified using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The ACSL assay mix included TrisHCl (pH 7.4), ATP, CoA, EDTA, DTT, MgCl2, [9,10-3H] palmitic acid, and triton X-100. The 200 ?L reaction was initiated with the addition of solubilized, purified recombinant proteins or cellular lysates. Reactions were terminated after 10, 30 or 60 min of incubation with Doles medium. RESULTS: Expression of soluble recombinant ACSL proteins was found after incubation with isopropyl beta-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside and after ultracentrifugation these were further purified to near homogeneity with Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Triacsin C selectively and strongly inhibited recombinant human ACSL5 protein at pH 7.5 and pH 9.5, as well as recombinant rat ACSL1 (sensitive control), but not recombinant rat ACSL5 (insensitive control). The IC50 for human ACSL5 was about 10 ?mol/L. The inhibitory triacsin C effect was similar for different incubation times (10, 30 and 60 min) and was not modified by the N- or C-terminal location of the 6xHis-tag. In order to evaluate ACSL5 sensitivity to triacsin C in a cellular environment, stable human ACSL5 CaCo2 transfectants and mechanically dissected normal human intestinal mucosa with high physiological expression of ACSL5 were analyzed. In both models, ACSL5 peak activity was found at pH 7.5 and pH 9.5, corresponding to the properties of recombinant human ACSL5 protein. In the presence of triacsin C (25 ?mol/L), total ACSL activity was dramatically diminished in human ACSL5 transfectants as well as in ACSL5-rich human intestinal mucosa. CONCLUSION: The data strongly indicate that human ACSL5 is sensitive to triacsin C and does not compensate for other triacsin C-sensitive ACSL isoforms. PMID:22171129

Kaemmerer, Elke; Peuscher, Anne; Reinartz, Andrea; Liedtke, Christian; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Kopitz, Jurgen; Gassler, Nikolaus



Tea Catechin Auto-oxidation Dimers are Accumulated and Retained by Caco-2 Human Intestinal Cells  

PubMed Central

Despite the presence of bioactive catechin B-ring auto-oxidation dimers in tea, little is known regarding their absorption in humans. Our hypothesis for this research is that catechin auto-oxidation dimers are present in teas and are absorbable by human intestinal epithelial cells. Dimers [theasinensins (THSNs) and P-2 analogs) were quantified in commercial teas by HPLC-MS. (?)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (?)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) homodimers were present at 10–43 and 0–62 µmol/g leaf, respectively. EGC-EGCG heterodimers were present at 0–79 µmol/g. The potential intestinal absorption of these dimers was assessed using Caco-2 intestinal cells. Catechin monomers and dimers were detected in cells exposed to media containing monomers and preformed dimers. Accumulation of dimers was significantly greater than monomers from test media. Three h accumulation of EGC and EGCG was 0.19– 0.55% and 1.24–1.35% respectively. Comparatively, 3h accumulation of the EGC P-2 analog, and THSNs C/E was 0.89 ± 0.28% and 1.53 ± 0.36%. Accumulation of P-2, and THSNs A/D was 6.93 ± 2.1%, and 10.1 ± 3.6%. EGCG-EGC heterodimer P-2 analog, and THSN B 3h accumulation was 4.87 ± 2.2%, and 4.65 ± 2.8% respectively. One h retention of P-2, and THSNs A/D was 171 ± 22%, and 29.6 ± 9.3% of accumulated amount suggesting intracellular oxidative conversion of THSNs to P-2. These data suggest that catechin dimers present in the gut lumen may be readily absorbed by intestinal epithelium. PMID:20579525

Neilson, Andrew P.; Song, Brian J.; Sapper, Teryn N.; Bomser, Joshua A.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.



Effects of Acute Hyperglucagonemia on Hepatic and Intestinal Lipoprotein Production and Clearance in Healthy Humans  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The metabolism of hepatic- and intestinally derived lipoproteins is regulated in a complex fashion by nutrients, hormones, and neurologic and other factors. Recent studies in animal models suggest an important role for glucagon acting via the glucagon receptor in regulating hepatic triglyceride (TG) secretion. Here we examined the direct effects of glucagon on regulation of hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight healthy men underwent two studies each, in random order, 4–6 weeks apart in which de novo lipogenesis, kinetics of larger VLDL1 TG, and kinetics of VLDL1 and smaller VLDL2 apolipoprotein (apo)B100 and B48 were studied using established stable isotope enrichment methods. Subjects were studied in the constant fed state under conditions of a pancreatic clamp (with infusion of somatostatin, insulin, and growth hormone) at either basal glucagon (BG study, 64.5 ± 2.1 pg/mL) or hyperglucagonemia (high glucagon [HG] study, 183.2 ± 5.1 pg/mL). RESULTS There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of VLDL1 or VLDL2 TG, apoB100 or apoB48 between BG and HG studies. There was, however, lower (P < 0.05) VLDL1 apoB100 fractional catabolic rate (?39%) and production rate (?30%) in HG versus BG, but no difference in de novo lipogenesis or TG turnover, and glucagon had no effect on intestinal (B48-containing) lipoprotein metabolism. CONCLUSIONS Glucagon acutely regulates hepatic but not intestinal lipoprotein particle metabolism in humans both by decreasing hepatic lipoprotein particle production as well as by inhibiting particle clearance, with no net effect on particle concentration. PMID:20980459

Xiao, Changting; Pavlic, Mirjana; Szeto, Linda; Patterson, Bruce W.; Lewis, Gary F.



Long-term monitoring of the human intestinal microbiota from the 2nd week to 13 years of age.  


Microbial contact begins prior to birth and continues rapidly thereafter. Few long term follow-up studies have been reported and we therefore characterized the development of intestinal microbiota of ten subjects from the 2nd week of life to 13 years of age. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with several bacterial group-specific primer sets demonstrated the colonization steps of defined bacterial groups in the microbiota. Bifidobacterium species were seen throughout the test period in all subjects. Bacteroides fragilis group and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group species were not detected in several subjects during the first 6 months of life but were commonly seen after 12 months of life. Streptococcus group appeared during early life but was not seen in several subjects at the age of 13 years. Although a few species were linked with the increasing age, major bacterial species in the groups did not change dramatically. Rather considerable changes were found in the relative abundances of each bacterial species. Clustering analysis of total bacterial flora indicated that the microbiota changed considerably between 6 months and 12 months of life, and, at the age of 12 months, the intestinal microbiota was already converted toward a profile characteristic of an adult microbiota. Probiotic supplementation in the beginning of life did not have major impacts on later microbiota development. PMID:24933584

Endo, Akihito; P?rtty, Anna; Kalliom?ki, Marko; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo



A small-scale, low-cost isolation system for the incubation and rearing of low bacterial load chicks as a model to study microbial-intestinal interactions.  


A small-scale, economical isolator system was adapted to hatch and raise chicks in a bacteria-free environment as a means to observe bacterial interactions with the intestinal mucosa during early development. The design and construction of flexible plastic isolators for incubation and brooding are described along with methodologies for preparation of eggs for entry into the isolators, incubation and hatching. Two trials were conducted, the first in August 2005 and the second in March 2006. Results from both trials showed no differences in body weights of chicks raised in isolation when compared with those raised conventionally. Growth of bacteria was detected from rectal swabs at day 2 post-hatch, with both trials, showing a light growth of Bacillus sp., coagulase-negative staphylococci and haemolytic streptococcus in trial 1, and a light growth of Bacillus cereus only in trial 2. Although not germfree, the growth of bacteria in chicks raised in isolation was decreased or absent when compared with chicks raised conventionally. Feed was negative for contamination and surface swabs of equipment were also negative until day 3 post-hatch, suggesting possible contamination within the eggs themselves. Despite the presence of bacterial species, the isolator system was successful in producing low bacterial load chicks for comparison studies with conventionally raised chicks. PMID:18435876

Forder, Rebecca E A; Firth, Gordon A; Tivey, David R; Howarth, Gordon S; Hughes, Robert J



Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine.  


Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells in the small intestine and action of 5-HT to degranulate the mast cells and release histamine in guinea pig small intestine and segments of human jejunum discarded during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries. Mast cells in human and guinea pig preparations expressed the 5-HT1A receptor. ELISA detected spontaneous release of histamine in guinea pig and human preparations. The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-PIPAT evoked release of histamine. A selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100135, suppressed stimulation of histamine release by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT. Mast cell-stabilizing drugs, doxantrazole and cromolyn sodium, suppressed the release of histamine evoked by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT in guinea pig and human preparations. Our results support the hypothesis that serotonergic degranulation of enteric mast cells and release of preformed mediators, including histamine, are mediated by the 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor. Association of 5-HT with the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome) underlies a question of whether selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists might have therapeutic application in disorders of this nature. PMID:23518679

Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Liu, Sumei; Fei, Guijun; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D



Meta-analysis of the turnover of intestinal epithelia in preclinical animal species and humans.  


Due to the rapid turnover of the small intestinal epithelia, the rate at which enterocyte renewal occurs plays an important role in determining the level of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the gut wall. Current physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models consider enzyme and enterocyte recovery as a lumped first-order rate. An assessment of enterocyte turnover would enable enzyme and enterocyte renewal to be modeled more mechanistically. A literature review together with statistical analysis was employed to establish enterocyte turnover in human and preclinical species. A total of 85 studies was identified reporting enterocyte turnover in 1602 subjects in six species. In mice, the geometric weighted combined mean (WX) enterocyte turnover was 2.81 ± 1.14 days (n = 169). In rats, the weighted arithmetic mean enterocyte turnover was determined to be 2.37 days (n = 501). Humans exhibited a geometric WX enterocyte turnover of 3.48 ± 1.55 days for the gastrointestinal epithelia (n = 265), displaying comparable turnover to that of cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro (0.96-4.33 days). Statistical analysis indicated humans to display longer enterocyte turnover as compared with preclinical species. Extracted data were too sparse to support regional differences in small intestinal enterocyte turnover in humans despite being indicated in mice. The utilization of enterocyte turnover data, together with in vitro enzyme turnover in PBPK modeling, may improve the predictions of metabolic drug-drug interactions dependent on enzyme turnover (e.g., mechanism-based inhibition and enzyme induction) as well as absorption of nanoparticle delivery systems and intestinal metabolism in special populations exhibiting altered enterocyte turnover. PMID:25233858

Darwich, Adam S; Aslam, Umair; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin



Staphylococcus aureus infection of intestinal epithelial cells induces human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell migration.  


There is a growing interest in umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cellular therapy in regenerative medicine. To aid in tissue repair, MSCs are recruited to sites of inflammation induced by a bacterial infection. The primary objective of this study was to explore the mechanisms of MSC recruitment to intestinal epithelial cells infected with Staphylococcus aureus. First, we isolated and characterized the UCB-derived MSCs used in our experiments. Next, we determined the ability of S. aureus infected intestinal epithelial cells to induce migration of UCB-derived MSCs. Expression analysis of cytokines secreted by infected epithelial cells indicated that MSC migration occurred predominately via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)-dependent signaling pathway. Altogether, our data provide the first evidence for a role of S. aureus infection in MSC migration and reveal the function of UCB-derived MSCs in intestinal pathophysiology. PMID:23123155

Li, Yang; Liu, Ya-hui; Li, Zhi-jie; Liu, Ming-yuan; Li, Ya-gang; Jin, Hu; Wang, Xue-lin; Han, Wen-yu; Suo, Jian



Small-intestinal dysfunction accompanies the complex endocrinopathy of human proprotein convertase 1 deficiency  

PubMed Central

We have previously described the only reported case of human proprotein convertase 1 (PC1) deficiency, in a female (Subject A) with obesity, hypogonadism, hypoadrenalism, and reactive hypoglycemia. We now report the second case of human PC1 deficiency (Subject B), also due to compound heterozygosity for novel missense and nonsense mutations. While both subjects shared the phenotypes of obesity, hypoadrenalism, reactive hypoglycemia, and elevated circulating levels of certain prohormones, the clinical presentation of Subject B was dominated by severe refractory neonatal diarrhea, malabsorptive in type. Subsequent investigation of Subject A revealed marked small-intestinal absorptive dysfunction, which was not previously clinically suspected. We postulate that PC1, presumably in the enteroendocrine cells, is essential for the normal absorptive function of the human small intestine. The differences in the nature and severity of presentation between the two cases cannot readily be explained on the basis of allelic heterogeneity, as the nonsense and missense mutations from both subjects had comparably severe effects on the catalytic activity of PC1. Despite Subject A’s negligible PC1 activity, some mature ACTH and glucagon-like peptide 17-36amide were detectable in her plasma, suggesting that the production of these hormones, at least in humans, does not have an absolute dependence on PC1. The presence of severe obesity and the absence of growth retardation in both subjects contrast markedly with the phenotype of mice lacking PC1 and suggest that the precise physiological repertoire of this enzyme may vary between mammalian species. PMID:14617756

Jackson, Robert S.; Creemers, John W.M.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Raffin-Sanson, Marie-Laure; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J.; Holst, Jens J.; Brubaker, Patricia L.; Corvol, Pierre; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Ostrega, Diane; Becker, Kenneth L.; Bertagna, Xavier; Hutton, John C.; White, Anne; Dattani, Mehul T.; Hussain, Khalid; Middleton, Stephen J.; Nicole, Thomasina M.; Milla, Peter J.; Lindley, Keith J.; O'Rahilly, Stephen



Card9 Mediates Intestinal Epithelial Cell Restitution, T-Helper 17 Responses, and Control of Bacterial Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) is an adaptor protein that integrates signals downstream of pattern recognition receptors. CARD9 has been associated with autoinflammatory disorders, and loss-of-function mutations have been associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the role of CARD9 in intestinal inflammation is unknown. We characterized the role of Card9 in mucosal immune responses to intestinal epithelial injury and infection. METHODS We induced intestinal inflammation in Card9-null mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or Citrobacter rodentium. We analyzed body weight, assessed inflammation by histology, and measured levels of cytokines and chemokines using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell populations were compared between wild-type and Card9-null mice by flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS Colon tissues and mesenteric lymph nodes of Card9-null mice had reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-?, and T-helper (Th)17 cytokines after administration of DSS, compared with wild-type mice. IL-17A and IL-22 expression were reduced in the recovery phase after DSS administration, coincident with decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (Ccl20). Although Card9-null mice had more intestinal fungi based on 18S analysis, their Th17 responses remained defective even when an antifungal agent was administered throughout DSS exposure. Moreover, Card9-null mice had impaired immune responses to C rodentium, characterized by decreased levels of colonic IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIII?), as well as fewer IL-22—producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in colon lamina propria. CONCLUSIONS The adaptor protein CARD9 coordinates Th17- and innate lymphoid cell-mediated intestinal immune responses after epithelial injury in mice. PMID:23732773




Transepithelial transport of macromolecular substances in IL-4 treated human intestinal T84 cell monolayers.  


The effect of interleukin-4 (IL-4), a cytokine associated with allergy and inflammation, on the permeability of the intestinal epithelium was investigated. IL-4 reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and increased permeation to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Lucifer Yellow (LY) of human intestinal T84 cell monolayers. The increased permeation due to IL-4 treatment was also observed at 4 degrees C. The permeability of T84 cell monolayers to beta-lactogulobulin (beta-Lg), ovalbumin (OVA), and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran of various molecular sizes was also high in the IL-4-treated cell monolayers. Sodium azide (NaN(3)), which inhibits ATP synthesis of the cells, did not inhibit the increases in these substances. Even 150 kDa FITC-dextran significantly permeated the T84 cells when the monolayers were treated with IL-4. These results suggest that fairly large molecules are able to permeate intestinal epithelial monolayers via the energy-independent paracellular pathway when the monolayers are exposed to excessive IL-4. PMID:19897912

Mochizuki, Tetsunosuke; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Shimizu, Makoto



Identification of NF-?B Modulation Capabilities within Human Intestinal Commensal Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulation of mucosal immune responses. To seek interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and commensal bacteria, we screened 49 commensal strains for their capacity to modulate NF-?B. We used HT-29/kb-seap-25 and Caco-2/kb-seap-7 intestinal epithelial cells and monocyte-like THP-1 blue reporter cells to measure effects of commensal bacteria on cellular expression of a reporter system for NF-?B. Bacteria conditioned media (CM) were tested alone or together with an activator of NF-?B to explore its inhibitory potentials. CM from 8 or 10 different commensal species activated NF-?B expression on HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, respectively. On THP-1, CM from all but 5 commensal strains stimulated NF-?B. Upon challenge with TNF-? or IL-1?, some CM prevented induced NF-?B activation, whereas others enhanced it. Interestingly, the enhancing effect of some CM was correlated with the presence of butyrate and propionate. Characterization of the effects of the identified bacteria and their implications in human health awaits further investigations. PMID:21765633

Lakhdari, Omar; Tap, Julien; Beguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; de Wouters, Tomas; Cultrone, Antonietta; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Lefevre, Fabrice; Dore, Joel; Blottiere, Herve M.



Metabolism of the benzidine-based azo dye Direct Black 38 by human intestinal microbiota.  

PubMed Central

Benzidine-based azo dyes are proven mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer. Previous studies have indicated that their initial reduction is the result of the azo reductase activity of the intestinal microbiota. Metabolism of the benzidine-based dye Direct Black 38 was examined by using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the lumen of the human large intestine. The system was inoculated with freshly voided feces, and an active flora was maintained as evidenced by volatile fatty acid and gas production. Within 7 days after exposure to the dye, the following metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry:benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, monoacetylbenzidine, and acetylaminobiphenyl. Benzidine reached its peak level after 24 h, accounting for 39.1% of the added dye. Its level began to decline, and by day 7 the predominant metabolite was acetylaminobiphenyl, which accounted for 51.1% of the parent compound. Formation of the deaminated and N-acetylated analogs of benzidine, which have enhanced mutagenicity and lipophilicity, previously has not been attributed to the intestinal microbiota. PMID:4026284

Manning, B W; Cerniglia, C E; Federle, T W



Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Evolution, Structures and Bioselectivity as Substrates for Intestinal Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Human milk contains a high concentration of diverse soluble oligosaccharides that are carbohydrate polymers formed from a relatively small number of different monosaccharides. Novel methods combining liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry have identified approximately 200 unique oligosaccharides structures varying from 3 to 22 sugars. The increasing structural complexity of oligosaccharides follows the general pattern of mammalian and primate evolution though the concentration and diversity of these structures in homo sapiens are strikingly more abundant. There is also considerable diversity among different human mothers in the structures of oligosaccharides. Milks from randomly selected mothers contain as few as 23 and as many as 130 different oligosaccharides. The functional implications of this diversity are not yet known. Despite the role of milk to serve as a sole nutrient source for mammalian infants, the majority of the oligosaccharides in milk are not digestible by human infants. This apparent paradox raises the obvious questions about the functions of these oligosaccharides and how their diverse molecular structures affect their functions. The nutritional function that is most frequently attributed to milk oligosaccharides is to serve as prebiotics –a form of indigestible carbohydrate that is selectively fermented by desirable gut microflora. This function was tested by purifying human milk oligosaccharides and providing these as the sole carbon source to various intestinal bacteria. Indeed, the selectively of providing the complex mixture of oligosaccharides pooled from dozens of human milk samples is remarkable. Among a variety of Bifidobacteria tested only Bifidobacteria longum biovar infantis was able to grow extensively on human milk oligosaccharides as sole carbon source. The genomic sequence of this strain revealed approximately 700 genes that are unique to infantis, including a variety of co-regulated glycosidases, relative to other Bifidobacteria, implying a co-evolution of human milk oligosaccharides and the genetic capability of select intestinal bacteria to utilize them. The goal of ongoing research is to assign specific functions to the combined oligosaccharide–bacteria–host interactions that emerged from this evolutionary pressure. PMID:18626202

German, J. Bruce; Freeman, Samara L.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.



The identification of a bacterial strain BGI-1 isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica, and its anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity.  


A bacterial strain BGI-1 was isolated from the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) and was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rDNA sequence and morphological, physiological, and biochemical characters. The strain BGI-1 inhibited the growth of Beauveria bassiana; the diameter of the inhibition zone exceeded 30 mm. Vesicles were observed in B. bassiana hyphae on the edge of the inhibition zone. Fermentation of BGI-1 reduced the conidial germination rate by 12%. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-1 fermentation were significantly weakened. Cumulative mortality rate was 49.5% in the treatment group at the 20 d, while that of the control group was 62.3%. The study intends to understand the relationship between the intestinal flora and the cockroach. Those microbes with anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity might contribute to resisting the infection of pathogenic fungi. PMID:23448013

Huang, Y H; Wang, X J; Zhang, F; Huo, X B; Fu, R S; Liu, J J; Sun, W B; Kang, D M; Jing, X



Active secretion of the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin by human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell layers.  

PubMed Central

The bidirectional transepithelial fluxes of ciprofloxacin, an antibacterial fluoroquinolone, across the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell-line show marked asymmetry. Basal-to-apical flux of ciprofloxacin (10 microM) exceeds apical-to-basal flux indicating net secretion. Net ciprofloxacin secretion is abolished by azide/2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment, displays saturation kinetics (Km = 0.89 +/- 0.23 mM, Vmax 44.3 +/- 4.9 nmol cm-2.h) and competition by other fluoroquinolones. A specific, active secretion in Caco-2 epithelia may explain the transintestinal elimination of ciprofloxacin observed in pharmacokinetic studies in man. PMID:8467353

Griffiths, N. M.; Hirst, B. H.; Simmons, N. L.



RGD-Dependent Epithelial Cell-Matrix Interactions in the Human Intestinal Crypt.  


Interactions between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and integrin receptors trigger structural and functional bonds between the cell microenvironment and the cytoskeleton. Such connections are essential for adhesion structure integrity and are key players in regulating transduction of specific intracellular signals, which in turn regulate the organization of the cell microenvironment and, consequently, cell function. The RGD peptide-dependent integrins represent a key subgroup of ECM receptors involved in the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis. Here we review recent findings on RGD-dependent ECM-integrin interactions and their roles in human intestinal epithelial crypt cells. PMID:22988499

Benoit, Yannick D; Groulx, Jean-François; Gagné, David; Beaulieu, Jean-François



RGD-Dependent Epithelial Cell-Matrix Interactions in the Human Intestinal Crypt  

PubMed Central

Interactions between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and integrin receptors trigger structural and functional bonds between the cell microenvironment and the cytoskeleton. Such connections are essential for adhesion structure integrity and are key players in regulating transduction of specific intracellular signals, which in turn regulate the organization of the cell microenvironment and, consequently, cell function. The RGD peptide-dependent integrins represent a key subgroup of ECM receptors involved in the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis. Here we review recent findings on RGD-dependent ECM-integrin interactions and their roles in human intestinal epithelial crypt cells. PMID:22988499

Benoit, Yannick D.; Groulx, Jean-Francois; Gagne, David; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois



Evaluation of human intestinal absorption data and subsequent derivation of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) with the Abraham descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human intestinal absorption of 241 drugs was evaluated. Three main methods were used to determine the human intestinal absorption: bioavailability, percentage of urinary excretion of drug-related material following oral administration, and the ratio of cumulative urinary excretion of drug-related material following oral and intravenous administration. The general solvation equation developed by Abraham's group was used to model the human

Yuan H. Zhao; Joelle Le; Michael H. Abraham; Anne Hersey; Peter J. Eddershaw; Chris N. Luscombe; Darko Boutina; Gordon Beck; Brad Sherborne; Ian Cooper; James A. Platts



Gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance, bacterial translocation and mortality following cholestasis depend on the genetic background of the host  

PubMed Central

Failure of the intestinal barrier is a characteristic feature of cholestasis. We have previously observed higher mortality in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We hypothesized the alteration in gut barrier function following cholestasis would vary by genetic background. Following one week of CBDL, jejunal TEER was significantly reduced in each ligated mouse compared with their sham counterparts; moreover, jejunal TEER was significantly lower in both sham and ligated C57BL/6J compared with sham and ligated A/J mice, respectively. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly increased in C57BL/6J mice vs. A/J mice. Four of 15 C57BL/6J mice were bacteremic; whereas, none of the 17 A/J mice were. Jejunal IFN-? mRNA expression was significantly elevated in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in occludin protein expression in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following both sham operation and CBDL. Only C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a marked decrease in ZO-1 protein expression following CBDL compared with shams. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in fecal samples showed a dysbiosis only in C57BL/6J mice following CBDL when compared with shams. This study provides evidence of strain differences in gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance and bacterial translocation which supports the notion of a genetic predisposition to exaggerated injury following cholestasis. PMID:23652772

Alaish, Samuel M.; Smith, Alexis D.; Timmons, Jennifer; Greenspon, Jose; Eyvazzadeh, Daniel; Murphy, Ebony; Shea-Donahue, Terez; Cirimotich, Shana; Mongodin, Emmanuel; Zhao, Aiping; Fasano, Alessio; Nataro, James P.; Cross, Alan S



Characterization of the intestinal cancer stem cell marker, CD166/ALCAM, in the human and mouse gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims CD166 (also called activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, ALCAM) is a marker of colorectal cancer (CRC) stem cells; it is expressed by aggressive tumors. Although the presence of CD166 at the tumor cell surface has been correlated with shortened survival, little is known about its function and expression in normal intestinal epithelia. Methods We characterized the expression pattern of CD166 in normal intestinal tissue samples from humans and mice using immunohistochemisty, flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Human and mouse intestinal tumors were also analyzed. Results CD166 was expressed on the surface of epithelial cells within the stem cell niche and along the length of the intestine; expression was conserved across species. In the small intestine, CD166 was observed on crypt-based Paneth cells and intervening crypt-based columnar cells (putative stem cells). A subset of CD166-positive, crypt-based columnar cells co-expressed the stem cell markers Lgr5, Musashi-1, or Dcamkl-1. CD166 was located in the cytoplasm and at the surface of cells within human CRC tumors. CD166-positive cells were also detected in benign adenomas in mice; rare cells co-expressed CD166 and CD44 or epithelial-specific antigen. Conclusions CD166 is highly expressed within the endogenous intestinal stem cell niche. CD166-positive cells appear at multiple stages of intestinal carcinoma progression, including benign and metastatic tumors. Further studies should investigate the function of CD166 in stem cells and the stem cell niche, which might have implications for normal intestinal homeostasis. CD166 has potential as a therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:20826154

Levin, Trevor G.; Powell, Anne E.; Davies, Paige S.; Silk, Alain D.; Dismuke, Adria D.; Anderson, Eric C.; Swain, John R.; Wong, Melissa H.



Characterization and Ecology of Carboxymethylcellulase-Producing Anaerobic Bacterial Communities Associated with the Intestinal Tract of the Pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides  

PubMed Central

Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase)-producing obligate anaerobes were isolated from the intestinal tract contents but not the feeding habitat of seagrass-consuming pinfish. Taxonomic characterization of these CMCase-producing strains revealed four taxonomic clusters; three were clostridial and one was of unknown taxonomic affinity. Our results demonstrated that the CMCase-producing obligate anaerobe community from pinfish differed from functionally similar microbial communities in terrestrial herbivores. PMID:16534945

Stellwag, E. J.; Smith, T. D.; Luczkovich, J. J.



May we strengthen the human natural defenses with bacterial lysates?  


During the last twenty years bacterial lysates have gained a new interest and their use has obtained a progressively larger consensus in the medical practice. They are commonly used as immunomodulators, in order to up-regulate immune responses against infectious damages. As a matter of fact, the role of these lysate seems relevant in upper and lower respiratory tract infections prevention, frequently observed both in paediatric and elder ages, and which represent a relevant problem also in terms of socio-economical implications. The effects of bacterial lysates as immunostimulatory agents have become the central point of many studies. The aim of those in vivo and in vitro studies was to understand and evaluate the capacity of this kind of treatments to create a better answer of the immune system against microbial infections, eventually leading to a reduction in their number. All the in vivo and in vitro findings analyzed support the evidence that bacterial lysates are powerful inducers of a specific immune response against bacterial infections. Both in paediatric and adult clinical trials, a positive trend has been found in terms of overall reduction of infection rates and duration, beneficial effect on symptoms, reduction in antibiotics use and possibility to improve the patient's quality of life in several diseases. Further well-designed trials in terms of blinding and randomization procedures and including a higher number of patients, selected according to the disease and its severity, are needed. PMID:23282746

Villa, Elisa; Garelli, Valentina; Braido, Fulvio; Melioli, Giovanni; Canonica, Giorgio Walter



Description of urolithin production capacity from ellagic acid of two human intestinal Gordonibacter species.  


Ellagitannin and ellagic acid metabolism to urolithins in the gut shows a large human interindividual variability and this has been associated with differences in the colon microbiota. In the present study we describe the isolation of one urolithin-producing strain from the human faeces of a healthy volunteer and the ellagic acid transformation to different urolithin metabolites by two species of intestinal bacteria. The isolate belongs to a new species described as Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, sp. nov. The type strain of the Gordonibacter genus, Gordonibacter pamelaeae DSM 19378(T), was also demonstrated to produce urolithins. Both human intestinal bacteria grew similarly in the presence and absence of ellagic acid at 30 ?M concentration. Ellagic acid catabolism and urolithin formation occurred during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-MS analyses showed the sequential production of pentahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-5), tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-6) and trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C), while dihydroxy-urolithins (urolithin A and isourolithin A), and monohydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not produced in pure cultures. Consequently, either other bacteria from the gut or the physiological conditions found in vivo are necessary for completing metabolism until the final urolithins (dihydroxy and monohydroxy urolithins) are produced. This is the first time that the urolithin production capacity of pure strains has been demonstrated. The identification of the urolithin-producing bacteria is a relevant outcome as urolithin implication in health (cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties) has been supported by different bioassays and urolithins can be used in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study represents an initial work that opens interesting possibilities of describing enzymatic activities involved in urolithin production that can help in understanding both the human interindividual differences in polyphenol metabolism, the microbial pathways involved, and the role of polyphenols in human health. The presence of urolithin producing bacteria can indirectly affect the health benefits of ellagitannin consumption. PMID:24909569

Selma, María V; Beltrán, David; García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A



The Intestine Plays a Substantial Role in Human Vitamin B6 Metabolism: A Caco-2 Cell Model  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin B6 is present in various forms (vitamers) in the diet that need to be metabolized to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), the active cofactor form of vitamin B6. In literature, the liver has been reported to be the major site for this conversion, whereas the exact role of the intestine remains to be elucidated. Objective To gain insight into the role of the intestine in human vitamin B6 metabolism. Materials and Methods Expression of the enzymes pyridoxal kinase (PK), pyridox(am)ine phosphate oxidase (PNPO) and PLP-phosphatase was determined in Caco-2 cells and in lysates of human intestine. Vitamin B6 uptake, conversion and excretion were studied in polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. B6 vitamer concentrations (pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxal (PL), PLP, pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP)) and pyridoxic acid (PA) were quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Results The enzymatic system involved in vitamin B6 metabolism (PK, PNPO and PLP-phosphatase) is fully expressed in Caco-2 cells as well as in human intestine. We show uptake of PN, PM and PL by Caco-2 cells, conversion of PN and PM into PL and excretion of all three unphosphorylated B6 vitamers. Conclusion We demonstrate, in a Caco-2 cell model, that the intestine plays a substantial role in human vitamin B6 metabolism. PMID:23342087

Albersen, Monique; Bosma, Marjolein; Knoers, Nine V. V. A. M.; de Ruiter, Berna H. B.; Diekman, Eugene F.; de Ruijter, Jessica; Visser, Wouter F.; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.



Bacterial Community Variation in Human Body Habitats Across Space and Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elucidating the biogeography of bacterial communities on the human body is critical for establishing healthy baselines from which to detect differences associated with diseases. To obtain an integrated view of the spatial and temporal distribution of the human microbiota, we surveyed bacteria from up to 27 sites in seven to nine healthy adults on four occasions. We found that community

Elizabeth K. Costello; Christian L. Lauber; Micah Hamady; Noah Fierer; Jeffrey I. Gordon; Rob Knight



Characterization of a Bacteroides species from human intestine that degrades glycosaminoglycans.  


Polysaccharide lyases that can degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were identified in an anaerobic strain living in the human intestine. The strain was isolated from the stool of a healthy male and identified as Bacteroides sp. strain HJ-15. A detailed taxonomical study indicated the species is a strain of Bacteroides stercoris. The isolate was cultured and the polysaccharide lyase activity was partially purified. This enzyme preparation could act on GAGs containing either glucosamine or galactosamine suggesting the presence of both heparinases and chondroitinases. Various GAGs were incubated with the partially purified enzyme and the products formed were analyzed by strong anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These studies demonstrated the presence of at least two types of polysaccharide lyases: heparin lyase and chondroitin sulfate lyase. The eliminative mechanism of these lyase enzymes was confirmed through the isolation of unsaturated disaccharide products. The heparin lyase acted on both heparin and acharan sulfate, a GAG recently isolated from Achatina fulica. The Bacteroides chondroitin lyase, acted on chondroitin sulfates A, B (dermatan sulfate), and C, resembling chondroitin lyase ABC. The presence of a GAG-degrading organism in human intestine may pose problems for the effective oral administration of GAG drugs. PMID:9699297

Ahn, M Y; Shin, K H; Kim, D H; Jung, E A; Toida, T; Linhardt, R J; Kim, Y S



Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.  


Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions. PMID:24340076

Christides, Tatiana; Sharp, Paul



Effect of Obstructive Jaundice and Nitric Oxide on the Profiles of Intestinal Bacterial Flora in Wild and iNOS?/? Mice  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that the plasma level of endotoxin and colonic expression of IgA in the mouse increased with obstructive jaundice induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). To elucidate the mechanism of the BDL-induced increase, we analyzed the effect of BDL on intestinal flora in wild type and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-deficient mice (iNOS?/?) using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA clone libraries. The amounts of bacterial DNA detected in fecal samples from both animal groups pretreated with antibiotics were extremely low as compared with untreated groups. We found that the profiles of enteric bacteria changed markedly after BDL. The bacterial composition is significantly different between not only wild type and iNOS?/? mice but also those before and after BDL, respectively. Among enteric bacteria examined, Lactobacillus murinus was found to increase markedly after BDL in rectum of both animal groups. However, Escherichia coli markedly increased after BDL in the iNOS?/? mice. These findings suggest that profiles of enteric flora change markedly in animals during obstructive jaundice by some mechanism that is affected by bile constituents and iNOS-derived NO. PMID:19308270

Hong, Ji-Young; F. Sato, Eisuke; Nishikawa, Tomoko; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Inoue, Masayasu



Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin  

SciTech Connect

AB{sub 5} toxins comprise an A subunit that corrupts essential eukaryotic cell functions, and pentameric B subunits that direct target-cell uptake after binding surface glycans. Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB{sub 5} toxin secreted by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), which causes serious gastrointestinal disease in humans. SubAB causes haemolytic uraemic syndrome-like pathology in mice through SubA-mediated cleavage of BiP/GRP78, an essential endoplasmic reticulum chaperone. Here we show that SubB has a strong preference for glycans terminating in the sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), a monosaccharide not synthesized in humans. Structures of SubB-Neu5Gc complexes revealed the basis for this specificity, and mutagenesis of key SubB residues abrogated in vitro glycan recognition, cell binding and cytotoxicity. SubAB specificity for Neu5Gc was confirmed using mouse tissues with a human-like deficiency of Neu5Gc and human cell lines fed with Neu5Gc. Despite lack of Neu5Gc biosynthesis in humans, assimilation of dietary Neu5Gc creates high-affinity receptors on human gut epithelia and kidney vasculature. This, and the lack of Neu5Gc-containing body fluid competitors in humans, confers susceptibility to the gastrointestinal and systemic toxicities of SubAB. Ironically, foods rich in Neu5Gc are the most common source of STEC contamination. Thus a bacterial toxin's receptor is generated by metabolic incorporation of an exogenous factor derived from food.

Byres, Emma; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Löfling, Jonas C.; Smith, David F.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Talbot, Ursula M.; Chong, Damien C.; Yu, Hai; Huang, Shengshu; Chen, Xi; Varki, Nissi M.; Varki, Ajit; Rossjohn, Jamie; Beddoe, Travis (Emory-MED); (UCD); (Adelaide); (Monash)



Interferon-? regulates growth and controls Fc? receptor expression and activation in human intestinal mast cells  

PubMed Central

Background Development and function of tissue resident mast cells (MCs) is tightly controlled by various cytokines, most of which belong to the typical T helper (Th) 2-type cytokines such as IL-3 and IL-4. The effects of the Th1-type cytokine IFN-? on human MCs is less clear. Results Here, we analyzed the effects of IFN-? on tissue-derived, mature human MCs. We found that INF-? decreases proliferation, without affecting apoptosis in human intestinal MCs cultured in the presence of optimal concentrations of stem cell factor (SCF) or SCF and IL-4. However, in the absence of growth factors or at suboptimal concentrations of SCF, INF-? promotes survival through inhibition of MC apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that INF-? has no effect on Fc?RI expression and Fc?RI-mediated release of histamine and leukotriene (LT)C4, while it has profound effects on Fc?R expression and activation. We show that intestinal MCs express Fc?RI, Fc?RIIa, and Fc?RIIc, whereas Fc?RIIb expression was found in only 40% of the isolates and Fc?RIII was never detectable. INF-? strongly increases Fc?RI and decreases Fc?RIIa expression. INF-?-naïve MCs produce LTC4 but fail to degranulate upon crosslinking of surface-bound monomeric IgG. In contrast, INF-?-treated MCs rapidly release granule-stored histamine in addition to de novo-synthesized LTC4. Conclusion In summary, we identify INF-? as an important regulator of tissue-resident human MCs. IFN-? displays a dual function by blocking extensive MC proliferation, while decreasing apoptosis in starving MCs and enhancing Fc?RI expression and activation. These results emphasize the involvement of mucosal MCs in Th1-mediated disorders. PMID:24996251



Chemically induced intestinal damage models in zebrafish larvae.  


Several intestinal damage models have been developed using zebrafish, with the aim of recapitulating aspects of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These experimentally induced inflammation models have utilized immersion exposure to an array of colitogenic agents (including live bacteria, bacterial products, and chemicals) to induce varying severity of inflammation. This technical report describes methods used to generate two chemically induced intestinal damage models using either dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Methods to monitor intestinal damage and inflammatory processes, and chemical-genetic methods to manipulate the host response to injury are also described. PMID:23448252

Oehlers, Stefan H; Flores, Maria Vega; Hall, Christopher J; Okuda, Kazuhide S; Sison, John Oliver; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S



Characterization of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-Antigen Deletion Mutant and Effect of the Deletion on Bacterial Persistence in the Mouse Intestine and Colonization at the Bovine Terminal Rectal Mucosa?  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and transiently colonizes healthy cattle at the terminal rectal mucosa. To investigate the role of the O antigen in persistence and colonization in the animal host, we generated an E. coli O157:H7 mutant defective in the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide side chain (O antigen) by deletion of a putative perosamine synthetase gene (per) in the rfb cluster. The lack of O antigen was confirmed by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and anti-O157 antibody. The growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the ?per mutant were similar to the growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the wild type. Changes in membrane and secreted proteins were observed, but the expression of intimin, EspA, and EspB, implicated in bacterial intestinal colonization, was not altered, as determined by immunoblotting and reverse transcription-PCR. Similar to other O-antigen deletion mutants, the ?per mutant was pleiotropic for autoaggregation and motility (it was FliC negative as determined by immunoblotting and flagellum negative as determined by electron microscopy). The abilities of the mutant and the wild type to persist in the murine intestine and to colonize the bovine terminal rectal mucosa were compared. Mice fed the ?per mutant shed lower numbers of bacteria (P < 0.05) over a shorter time than mice fed the wild-type or complemented strain. After rectal application in steers, lower numbers of the ?per mutant than of the wild type colonized the rectoanal junction mucosa, and the duration of the colonization was shorter (P < 0.05). Our previous work showed that flagella do not influence E. coli O157:H7 colonization at the bovine terminal rectal mucosa, so the current findings suggest that the O antigen contributes to efficient bovine colonization. PMID:18552194

Sheng, Haiqing; Lim, Ji Youn; Watkins, Maryann K.; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.



Quantitative evaluation of neurons in the mucosal plexus of adult human intestines.  


The consequence of presence versus absence of mucosal neurons is not consistently assessed. Here, we addressed two questions. First, based on resected gut specimens of 65 patients/body donors suffering from different diseases, counts of mucosal neurons per mm(2) were analysed with respect to age, gender and region. Second, we evaluated resected megacolonic specimens of four patients suffering from chronic Chagas' disease. Mucosal wholemounts were triple-stained for calretinin (CALR), peripherin (PER) and human neuronal protein Hu C/D (HU). Counts revealed no clear correlation between the presence of mucosal neurons and age, gender or region. Mucosal neurons were present in 30 of 36 specimens derived from males (83%) and in 20 of 29 from females (69%). The numbers per mm(2) increased from duodenum to ileum (1.7-10.8) and from ascending to sigmoid colon (3.2-9.9). Out of 149 small intestinal mucosal neurons, 47% were co-reactive for CALR, PER and HU (large intestine: 76% of 300 neurons) and 48% for PER and HU only (large intestine: 23%). In 12 megacolonic specimens (each 3 from 4 patients), all 23 mucosal neurons found (1.9 per mm(2)) displayed co-reactivity for CALR, PER and HU. We suggest that the presence or the absence of mucosal neurons is variable, ongoing studies will address our assumption that they correspond in their morphochemical characteristics to submucosal neurons. Furthermore, both the architecture and neuron number of the megacolonic mucosal plexus displayed no dramatic changes indicating that mucosal nerves might be less involved in chagasic/megacolonic neurodegeneration as known from the myenteric plexus. PMID:21461752

Kramer, Kerstin; da Silveira, Alexandre B M; Jabari, Samir; Kressel, Michael; Raab, Marion; Brehmer, Axel



Development of the intestinal bacterial composition in hospitalized preterm infants in comparison with breast-fed, full-term infants.  


The establishment and succession of bacterial communities in hospitalized preterm infants has not been extensively studied. Because earlier studies depended on classical cultural techniques, their results were limited. This study monitored the establishment and succession of the neonatal microbiota in the first weeks of life by analyzing the 16S rDNA variety in fecal samples applying PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Fecal samples from 29 preterm infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit, including samples from antibiotic-treated infants and one with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, were subjected to PCR-DGGE analysis. Daily DGGE profiles from all preterm infants during the first 4 wk were obtained and analyzed. In addition, feces of 15 breast-fed, full-term infants and a variety of clinical bacterial isolates were examined and compared with the PCR-DGGE profiles of the preterm infants. During the first days of life, the DGGE profiles were rather simple but increased in their complexity over time. It became obvious that not only the intraindividual band-pattern similarity increased over time, but also the interindividual. During the observation period, similarity values (Cs) increased in each preterm infant from 0 to 80%, whereas interindividual Cs increased from 18.1 to 57.4%, revealing the acquisition of a highly similar bacterial community in these infants. In contrast, Cs-values obtained for breast-fed, full-term infants were rather low (11.2%). Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the bacteria most commonly found in all preterm infants. The interindividual bacterial composition in hospitalized preterm infants is more similar in comparison with breast-fed, full-term infants and is not necessarily influenced by birth weight, diet, or antibiotic treatment. PMID:12788986

Schwiertz, Andreas; Gruhl, Bärbel; Löbnitz, Manuela; Michel, Peter; Radke, Michael; Blaut, Michael



Morphine Induces Bacterial Translocation in Mice by Compromising Intestinal Barrier Function in a TLR-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Opiates are among the most prescribed drugs for pain management. However, morphine use or abuse results in significant gut bacterial translocation and predisposes patients to serious infections with gut origin. The mechanism underlying this defect is still unknown. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms underlying compromised gut immune function and bacterial translocation following morphine treatment. We demonstrate significant bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and liver following morphine treatment in wild-type (WT) animals that was dramatically and significantly attenuated in Toll-like receptor (TLR2 and 4) knockout mice. We further observed significant disruption of tight junction protein organization only in the ileum but not in the colon of morphine treated WT animals. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) blocked the effects of both morphine and TLR ligands, suggesting the role of MLCK in tight junction modulation by TLR. This study conclusively demonstrates that morphine induced gut epithelial barrier dysfunction and subsequent bacteria translocation are mediated by TLR signaling and thus TLRs can be exploited as potential therapeutic targets for alleviating infections and even sepsis in morphine-using or abusing populations. PMID:23349783

Meng, Jingjing; Yu, Haidong; Ma, Jing; Wang, Jinghua; Banerjee, Santanu; Charboneau, Rick; Barke, Roderick A.; Roy, Sabita



Ultrafiltration to reject human interleukin-1-inducing substances derived from bacterial cultures.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a polypeptide cytokine, is an important mediator of host responses to infection and injury. Picogram per milliliter concentrations of bacterial products (endo- or exotoxins) stimulate human monocytes to produce IL-1 in vitro. The design of this study was based on the clinical model of bacterial contamination of fluid intended to be directly injected into humans. Physiologic saline contaminated with bacterial toxins was passed through a hollow fiber ultrafilter, and the ultrafiltrates were tested for their ability to induce human IL-1 production. The ultrafiltrates were added directly to freshly obtained human blood mononuclear cells, and after 24 h of incubation the supernatant media were assayed for the presence of IL-1. The results indicate that the IL-1-inducing material(s) present in bacterial cultures of gram-negative organisms is rejected by a factor of 100 to 100,000 by molecular size exclusion and by absorption; rejection is sustained for at least 32 liters of fluid; the rejection of Limulus-reactive material by the ultrafilter is greater for purified endotoxin than for native endotoxins derived from live bacterial cultures; and nonendotoxin IL-1-inducing toxins (molecular weight, 24,000) from Staphylococcus aureus are not rejected or absorbed. These results demonstrate that there is a considerable margin of safety with the ultrafiltration method and that it can be applied to clinical situations. Images PMID:3112179

Dinarello, C A; Lonnemann, G; Maxwell, R; Shaldon, S



Characterization of Slackia exigua Isolated from Human Wound Infections, Including Abscesses of Intestinal Origin ?  

PubMed Central

Eleven clinical strains isolated from infected wound specimens were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all 11 strains were phylogenetically related to Slackia exigua. Additionally, conventional and biochemical tests of 6 of the 11 strains were performed as supplementary methods to obtain phenotypic identification by comparison with the phenotypes of the relevant type strains. S. exigua has been considered an oral bacterial species in the family Coriobacteriaceae. This organism is fastidious and grows poorly, so it may easily be overlooked. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and the biochemical characteristics of four of the S. exigua strains isolated for this study from various infections indicative of an intestinal source were almost identical to those of the validated S. exigua type strain from an oral source and two of the S. exigua strains from oral sources evaluated in this study. Thus, we show for the first time that S. exigua species can be isolated from extraoral infections as well as from oral infections. The profiles of susceptibility to selected antimicrobials of this species were also investigated for the first time. PMID:20107092

Kim, Keun-Sung; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Bennion, Robert; Liu, Chengxu; Talan, David; Summanen, Paula; Finegold, Sydney M.



hTERT and TP53 deregulation in intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis in non-human primates.  


Despite the high incidence, the molecular events involved in intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis remains unclear. We previously established an intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis model in Cebus apella, a New World monkey. In the present study, we evaluated hTERT and TP53 mRNA expression, as well as their protein immunoreactivity, in normal mucosa, non-atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and intestinal-type gastric cancer samples of non-human primates treated with N-methyl-nitrosourea. In addition, we evaluated the number of TP53 copies in these samples. Although hTERT immunoreactivity was only detected in gastric cancer, a continuous increase of hTERT mRNA expression was observed from non-atrophic gastritis to gastric tumors. No sample presented p53 immunoreactivity. However, we also observed a continuous decrease of TP53 mRNA expression during the sequential steps of gastric carcinogenesis. Moreover, loss of TP53 copies was observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer samples. Our study highlights that hTERT and TP53 have a key role in intestinal-type gastric cancer initiation. PMID:22707033

Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Khayat, André Salim; Silva, Tanielly Cristina Raiol; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez



Effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on cyclic adenosine monophosphate production in enterocytes isolated from human duodenal biopsy specimens.  

PubMed Central

A modification of a cell isolation technique used in animal studies was developed to remove enterocytes from duodenal biopsy specimens. Citrate-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid treatment removed enterocytes from any underlying lamina propria and produced single cells and strips of cells. A mean (SEM) of 4.39 (2.06) x 10(6) cells was obtained from nine duodenal biopsy specimens. Enterocyte recovery was estimated enzymatically using alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to be 61%. Cytological assessment of the cells with CAM 5.2 showed that 98% of the cells isolated were enterocytes with an intact brush border. The cells responded well to vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulation in the absence of an exogenously added adenosine triphosphate regenerating system. The addition of vasoactive intestinal peptide to duodenal enterocytes produced a biphasic dose dependent increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate production. Stimulation of these cells with 10(-13)M vasoactive intestinal peptide resulted in a 50% stimulation over basal value while 10(-6)M vasoactive intestinal peptide led to a fivefold increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate production. We conclude that duodenal biopsy specimens are a good source of human intestinal cells for the study of enterocyte physiology. The cells were viable and highly responsive to vasoactive intestinal peptide. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2176169

Smith, J A; Griffin, M; Mireylees, S E; Long, R G



SREBP-2 negatively regulates FXR-dependent transcription of FGF19 in human intestinal cells.  


Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor that positively regulates transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. In the present study, we have investigated a possible involvement of SREBP-2 in human intestinal expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19, which is an endocrine hormone involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Overexpression of constitutively active SREBP-2 decreased FGF19 mRNA levels in human colon-derived LS174T cells. In reporter assays, active SREBP-2 overexpression suppressed GW4064/FXR-mediated increase in reporter activities in regions containing the IR-1 motif (+848 to +5200) in the FGF19 gene. The suppressive effect disappeared in reporter activities in the region containing the IR-1 motif when the mutation was introduced into the IR-1 motif. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, binding of the FXR/retinoid X receptor ? heterodimer to the IR-1 motif was attenuated by adding active SREBP-2, but SREBP-2 binding to the IR-1 motif was not observed. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, specific binding of FXR to the IR-1-containing region of the FGF19 gene (+3214 to +3404) was increased in LS174T cells by treatment with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol. Specific binding of SREBP-2 to FXR was observed in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays. These results suggest that SREBP-2 negatively regulates the FXR-mediated transcriptional activation of the FGF19 gene in human intestinal cells. PMID:24321096

Miyata, Masaaki; Hata, Tatsuya; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi



Human intestinal Vdelta1+ lymphocytes recognize tumor cells of epithelial origin  

PubMed Central

gammadelta T cells can be grouped into discrete subsets based upon their expression of T cell receptor (TCR) variable (V) region families, their tissue distribution, and their specificity. Vdelta2+ T cells constitute the majority of gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood whereas Vdelta1+T cells reside preferentially in skin epithelium and in the intestine. gammadelta T cells are envisioned as first line host defense mechanisms capable of providing a source of immune effector T cells and immunomodulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 4 or interferon (IFN) gamma. We describe here the fine specificity of three distinct gammadelta+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from patients with primary or metastatic colorectal cancer, that could be readily expanded in vitro in the presence of IL-1beta and IL-7. Irrespective of donor, these individual gammadelta T cells exhibited a similar pattern of reactivity defined by recognition of autologous and allogeneic colorectal cancer cells, renal cell cancer, pancreatic cancer, and a freshly isolated explant from human intestine as measured by cytolytic T cell responses and by IFN-gamma release. In contrast, tumors of alternate histologies were not lysed, including lung cancer, squamous cell cancer, as well as the natural/lymphocyte-activated killer cell-sensitive hematopoietic cell lines T2, C1R, or Daudi. The cell line K562 was only poorly lysed when compared with colorectal cancer targets. Target cell reactivity mediated by Vdelta1+ T cells was partially blocked with Abs directed against the TCR, the beta2 or beta7 integrin chains, or fibronectin receptor. Marker analysis using flow cytometry revealed that all three gammadelta T cell lines exhibit a similar phenotype. Analysis of the gammadelta TCR junctional suggested exclusive usage of the Vdelta1/Ddelta3/Jdelta1 TCR segments with extensive (< or = 29 bp) N/P region diversity. T cell recognition of target cells did not appear to be a major histocompatibility complex restricted or to be correlated with target cell expression of heat- shock proteins. Based on the ability of some epithelial tumors, including colorectal, pancreatic, and renal cell cancers to effectively cold target inhibit the lysis of colorectal cancer cell lines by these Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cells are capable of recognizing cell surface Ag(s) shared by tumors of epithelial origin. PMID:8666926



Glutamine and recombinant human growth hormone protect intestinal barrier function following portal hypertension surgery  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the effects of combined treatment of glutamine (Gln) and recombinant human growth hormone(rhGH) on intestinal barrier function following portal hypertension surgery. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective, randomized and controlled clinical trial. Forty two patients after portal hypertension surgery were randomly assigned into 2 groups: control group (n = 20) and supplemental group (adding Gln and rhGH, n = 22). Every patient received isocaloric and isonitrogenous standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) starting 3 d after surgery for 7 d. Blood samples were obtained before surgery and at the 3rd and 10th day postoperatively. Host immunity was evaluated by measuring levels of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, IgG, IgM and IgA, and the inflammatory responses were determined by assessing IL-2, TNF-? and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Intestinal permeability and integrity was evaluated by L/M test and histological examination, respectively. RESULTS: On postoperative d 10, CD4, CD4/CD8, IgG and IL-2 levels in supplemental group were significantly higher than those in control group (33.7 ± 5.5 vs 31.0± 5.4, P < 0.05, (1.17 ± 0.32 vs 1.05 ± 0.15, P < 0.05, 13.94 ± 1.09 vs 12.33 ± 1.33, P < 0.05, and 368.12± 59.25 vs 318.12 ± 45.65, P < 0.05, respectively), whereas the increase in serum TNF-? concentration was significantly reduced (41.02 ± 27.56 vs 160.09 ± 35.17, P < 0.05). The increase in L/M ratio was significantly lower in the supplemental group than in the control group (0.0166 ± 0.0017 vs 0.0339 ± 0.0028, P < 0.05). Moreover, mucosal integrity in the supplemental group was better than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Postoperative administration of TPN supplemented with Gln and rhGH in patients after portal hypertension surgery improves immune function, modulates inflammatory response, prevents the intestinal mucous membrane from atrophy and preserves intestinal integrity. PMID:17465506

Tang, Zhao-Feng; Ling, Yun-Biao; Lin, Nan; Hao, Zheng; Xu, Rui-Yun



An improved prediction of the human in vivo intestinal permeability and BCS class of drugs using the in vitro permeability ratio obtained for rat intestine using an Ussing chamber system.  


The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was developed to facilitate estimation of the in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drugs from human intestinal permeability and solubility. However, the measurement of human in vivo intestinal permeability, unlike that of solubility, is problematic and inefficient. Thus, rat in vitro intestinal permeability results obtained via the Ussing chamber technique are often used instead. However, these data could be unreliable due to difficulty in maintaining the viability of the dissected intestinal membrane in the Ussing chamber. Therefore, a more efficient method to obtain a reliable in vitro permeability is mandatory. Here, we propose a new approach by introducing a novel factor called the permeability ratio (PR). Basically, PR is a rat in vitro intestinal permeability obtained from the Ussing chamber, which is then corrected by the permeability of lucifer yellow, a paracellular permeability marker. To prove the validity of the method, 12 model drugs representing different BCS classes were tested, and the correlation with human in vivo intestinal permeability was high. More importantly, the new method perfectly classified all 12 model drugs. The results indicate that PR is a reliable factor with high correlation to human in vivo intestinal permeability, which can further be used to accurately predict the BCS classification. PMID:22934579

Li, Hong; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Shim, Won-Sik; Shim, Chang-Koo



Activation of Intestinal Human Pregnane X Receptor Protects against Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer.  


The role of intestinal human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in colon cancer was determined through investigation of the chemopreventive role of rifaximin, a specific agonist of intestinal human PXR, toward azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon cancer. Rifaximin treatment significantly decreased the number of colon tumors induced by AOM/DSS treatment in PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. Additionally, rifaximin treatment markedly increased the survival rate of PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. These data indicated a human PXR-dependent therapeutic chemoprevention of rifaximin toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer. Nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells-mediated inflammatory signaling was upregulated in AOM/DSS-treated mice, and inhibited by rifaximin in PXR-humanized mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were also modulated by rifaximin treatment in the AOM/DSS model. In vitro cell-based assays further revealed that rifaximin regulated cell apoptosis and cell cycle in a human PXR-dependent manner. These results suggested that specific activation of intestinal human PXR exhibited a chemopreventive role toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer by mediating anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, and proapoptotic events. PMID:25277138

Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Okamoto, Minoru; Qu, Aijuan; Tanaka, Naoki; Kimura, Shioko; Gonzalez, Frank J



Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed



Cholinergic interactions between donepezil and prucalopride in human colon: potential to treat severe intestinal dysmotility  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine are used for acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, but cardio-bronchial side-effects limit use. To minimize side-effects, lower doses could be combined with a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, which also facilitates intestinal cholinergic activity. However, safety concerns, especially in the elderly, require drugs with good selectivity of action. These include the AChE inhibitor donepezil (used for Alzheimer's disease, with reduced cardio-bronchial liability) and prucalopride, the first selective, clinically available 5-HT4 receptor agonist. This study examined their individual and potential synergistic activities in human colon. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Neuronally mediated muscle contractions and relaxations of human colon were evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and defined phenotypically as cholinergic, nitrergic or tachykinergic using pharmacological tools; the effects of drugs were determined as changes in ‘area under the curve’. KEY RESULTS Prucalopride increased cholinergically mediated contractions (EC50 855 nM; 33% maximum increase), consistent with its ability to stimulate intestinal motility; donepezil (477%) and neostigmine (2326%) had greater efficacy. Concentrations of donepezil (30–100 nM) found in venous plasma after therapeutic doses had minimal ability to enhance cholinergic activity. However, donepezil (30 nM) together with prucalopride (3, 10 ?M) markedly increased EFS-evoked contractions compared with prucalopride alone (P = 0.04). For example, the increases observed with donepezil and prucalopride 10 ?M together or alone were, respectively, 105 ± 35%, 4 ± 6% and 35 ± 21% (n = 3–7, each concentration). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Potential synergy between prucalopride and donepezil activity calls for exploration of this combination as a safer, more effective treatment of colonic pseudo-obstruction. PMID:24032987

Broad, J; Kung, V W S; Boundouki, G; Aziz, Q; De Maeyer, J H; Knowles, C H; Sanger, G J



Transport of Aflatoxin M1 in Human Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). After it is formed, it is secreted in the milk of mammals. Despite the potential risk of human exposure to AFM1, data reported in literature on the metabolism, toxicity, and bioavailability of this molecule are limited and out of date. The aim of the present research was to study the absorption profile of AFM1 and possible damage to tight junctions (TJ) of the intestinal Caco-2/TC7 clone grown on microporous filter supports. These inserts allowed for the separation of the apical and basolateral compartments which correspond to the in vivo lumen and the interstitial space/vascular systems of intestinal mucosa respectively. In this study, the Caco-2/TC7 cells were treated with different AFM1 concentrations (10–10,000?ng/kg) for short (40?min) and long periods of time (48?h). The AFM1 influx/efflux transport and effects on TJ were evaluated by measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance and observing TJ protein (Zonula occludens-1 and occludin) localization. The results showed that: (i) when introduced to the apical and basolateral compartments, AFM1 was poorly absorbed by the Caco-2/TC7 cells but its transport across the cell monolayer occurred very quickly (Papp value of 105.10?±?7.98?cm/s?×?10?6). (ii) The integrity of TJ was not permanently compromised after exposure to the mycotoxin. Viability impairment or barrier damage did not occur either. The present results contribute to the evaluation of human risk exposure to AFM1, although the AFM1 transport mechanism need to be clarified. PMID:22701428

Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; De Angelis, Isabella



Predicting the impact of diet and enzymopathies on human small intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal epithelial cells (sIECs) have a significant share in whole body metabolism as they perform enzymatic digestion and absorption of nutrients. Furthermore, the diet plays a key role in a number of complex diseases including obesity and diabetes. The impact of diet and altered genetic backgrounds on human metabolism may be studied by using computational modeling. A metabolic reconstruction of human sIECs was manually assembled using the literature. The resulting sIEC model was subjected to two different diets to obtain condition-specific metabolic models. Fifty defined metabolic tasks evaluated the functionalities of these models, along with the respective secretion profiles, which distinguished between impacts of different dietary regimes. Under the average American diet, the sIEC model resulted in higher secretion flux for metabolites implicated in metabolic syndrome. In addition, enzymopathies were analyzed in the context of the sIEC metabolism. Computed results were compared with reported gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies and biochemical defects as well as with biomarker patterns used in their diagnosis. Based on our simulations, we propose that (i) sIEC metabolism is perturbed by numerous enzymopathies, which can be used to study cellular adaptive mechanisms specific for such disorders, and in the identification of novel co-morbidities, (ii) porphyrias are associated with both heme synthesis and degradation and (iii) disturbed intestinal gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis may be linked to neurological manifestations of various enzymopathies. Taken together, the sIEC model represents a comprehensive, biochemically accurate platform for studying the function of sIEC and their role in whole body metabolism. PMID:23492669

Sahoo, Swagatika; Thiele, Ines



Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.  


Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca²? by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals. PMID:25147231

Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Meihua; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D



Interferon Gamma-Dependent Intestinal Pathology Contributes to the Lethality in Bacterial Superantigen-Induced Toxic Shock Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) caused by the superantigen exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes is characterized by robust T cell activation, profound elevation in systemic levels of multiple cytokines, including interferon-? (IFN-?), followed by multiple organ dysfunction and often death. As IFN-? possesses pro- as well as anti-inflammatory properties, we delineated its role in the pathogenesis of TSS. Antibody-mediated in vivo neutralization of IFN-? or targeted disruption of IFN-? gene conferred significant protection from lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. Following systemic high dose SEB challenge, whereas the HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ mice became sick and succumbed to TSS, HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? mice appeared healthy and were significantly protected from SEB-induced lethality. SEB-induced systemic cytokine storm was significantly blunted in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice. Serum concentrations of several cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40 and IL-17) and chemokines (KC, rantes, eotaxin and MCP-1) were significantly lower in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice. However, SEB-induced T cell expansion in the spleens was unaffected and expansion of SEB-reactive TCR V?8+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was even more pronounced in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice when compared to HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ mice. A systematic histopathological examination of several vital organs revealed that both HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ and HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice displayed comparable severe inflammatory changes in lungs, and liver during TSS. Remarkably, whereas the small intestines from HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ transgenic mice displayed significant pathological changes during TSS, the architecture of small intestines in HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? transgenic mice was preserved. In concordance with these histopathological changes, the gut permeability to macromolecules was dramatically increased in HLA-DR3.IFN-?+/+ but not HLA-DR3.IFN-??/? mice during TSS. Overall, IFN-? seemed to play a lethal role in the immunopathogenesis of TSS by inflicting fatal small bowel pathology. Our study thus identifies the important role for IFN-? in TSS. PMID:21304813

Tilahun, Ashenafi Y.; Holz, Marah; Wu, Tsung-Teh; David, Chella S.; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan



Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal  

E-print Network

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal health. The relationship between antibiotic use and the development of resistance has been studied extensively, with some of this research aimed at identifying antibiotic treatment strategies that minimize the maintenance of resistance

Singer, Randall


Parenteral long-acting amoxicillin reduces intestinal bacterial community diversity in piglets even 5 weeks after the administration.  


We investigated the long-term effects of a single intramuscular administration of amoxicillin (15 mg kg(-1)) 1 day after birth, on piglet intestinal microbiota. Animals received no creep feed before weaning on day 28 of age. For the next 11 days, the piglets received a wheat-barley-based diet. Colon digesta samples were collected on day 39 and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. DGGE fingerprint diversity indices differed between the group treated with amoxicillin and the untreated group (0.8+/-0.19 and 1.03+/-0.17, respectively, P=0.012). Reamplification and sequencing of two bands present in all samples revealed that a Roseburia faecalis-related population was strongly reduced in relative abundance (98% identity) in the treated group, while an enterobacterial population with 100% identity to Shigella spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was enriched. A band corresponding to Lactobacillus sobrius was present only in the control group. The protective effect of prophylactic antibiotic administration may be outweighed by the long-lasting disturbance of the gut ecosystem. PMID:18043627

Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Souffrant, Wolfgang Bernhard; Bimczok, Diane; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Smidt, Hauke



A Human Mitochondrial ATP-Dependent Protease that is Highly Homologous to Bacterial Lon Protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned a human ATP-dependent protease that is highly homologous to members of the bacterial Lon protease family. The cloned gene encodes a protein of 963 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 106 kDa, slightly higher than that observed by Western blotting the protein from human tissues and cell lines (100 kDa). A single species of mRNA

Nan Wang; Susan Gottesman; Mark C. Willingham; Michael M. Gottesman; Michael R. Maurizi



Functional bacterial opsonic activity of human amniotic fluid  

SciTech Connect

There are some data to suggest that amniotic fluid protects the fetus from invasion by pathogenic bacteria. To examine methods by which amniotic fluid may offer such protection, quantitative antibody, complement activity, and functional opsonic capacity were measured. Immunoglobulins were measured by laser nephelometry and total hemolytic complement was determined by radial diffusion; results suggested activity adequate for bactericidal capacity. The chemiluminescence assay was used to quantitate the functional interaction between polymorphonuclear leukocytes and E. coli, group B streptococci (GBS), or zymosan particles preopsonized with amniotic fluid obtained at different stages of gestation. Results were compared to those for normal serum. Data were analyzed by evaluation of the initial slope, area under the curve, and peak chemiluminescence response. Opsonic activity of amniotic fluid for E. coli and GBS was demonstrated, with E. coli showing greater reactivity (maximum . 15,000 to 25,000 cpm) than GBS (10,000 to 20,000 cpm). Specific, as well as nonspecific, opsonic activity was demonstrated by absorption of amniotic fluid with killed bacteria. Concentration of amniotic fluid did not result in an increase in chemiluminescent activity, which demonstrates that optimal opsonic activity already exists. The classical and alternate pathways of complement were assessed for E. coli and GBS. Preterm amniotic fluid did not differ in response from that of amniotic fluid obtained from term pregnancies. This study demonstrates that amniotic fluid can provide the fetus with protection from bacterial pathogens and delineates mechanisms for such protection.

Cone, M.J.; Steele, R.W.; Marmer, D.J.; Hill, D.E.



Monocarboxylate Transporter-Mediated Transport of ?-Hydroxybutyric Acid in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) and to evaluate intestinal transport of the MCT substrates ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and d-lactate in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The presence of mRNA for MCT1, 2, 3, and 4 was observed in Caco-2 cells. The uptake of both GHB and d-lactate in Caco-2 cells was demonstrated to be pH- and concentration-dependent and sodium-independent. The uptake of GHB and d-lactate was best described by a Michaelis-Menten equation with passive diffusion (GHB: Km = 17.6 ± 10.5 mM, Vmax = 17.3 ± 11.7 nmol/min/mg, and P = 0.38 ± 0.15 ?l/min/mg; and d-lactate: Km = 6.0 ± 2.9 mM, Vmax = 35.0 ± 18.4 nmol/min/mg, and P = 1.3 ± 0.6 ?l/min/mg). The uptake of GHB and d-lactate was significantly decreased by the known MCT inhibitor ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and the MCT substrates GHB and d-lactate but not by the organic cation tetraethylammonium chloride. Directional flux studies with both GHB and d-lactate suggested the involvement of carrier-mediated transport with the permeability in the apical to basolateral direction higher than that in the basolateral to apical direction. These findings confirm the presence of MCT1–4 in Caco-2 cells and demonstrate GHB and d-lactate transport characteristics consistent with proton-dependent MCT-mediated transport. PMID:19952290

Lam, Wing Ki; Felmlee, Melanie A.



Toxic mechanisms induced by fumonisin b1 mycotoxin on human intestinal cell line.  


The gastrointestinal tract is the main target of exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1), common natural contaminant in food. Previous studies reported that proliferating cells are more sensitive than confluent cells to the toxic effect of FB1. This study aims to investigate, by dose- and time-dependent experiments on human colon proliferating intestinal cell line (HT-29), the modifications induced by FB1 at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 69 ?M. The choice of highest FB1 concentration considered the low toxicity previously reported on intestinal cell lines, whereas the lowest one corresponded to the lower FBs levels permitted by European Commission Regulation. Different functional parameters were tested such as cell proliferation, oxidative status, immunomodulatory effect and changes in membrane microviscosity. In addition FB1-FITC localization in this cell line was assessed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lipid peroxidation induction was the main and early (12 h) effect induced by FB1 at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 69 ?M, followed by inhibition of cell proliferation (up to 8.6 ?M), the immunomodulatory effect (up to 17.2 ?M), by assessing IL-8 secretion, and increase in membrane microviscosity (up to 34.5 ?M). The toxic effects observed in different functional parameters were not dose-dependent and could be the consequence of the FB1 intracytoplasmatic localization as confirmed by confocal microscopy results. The different timescales and concentrations active of different functional parameters could suggest different cellular targets of FB1. PMID:24549592

Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; D'Antuono, Isabella; Cardinali, Angela; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Debellis, Lucantonio; Visconti, Angelo



Construction and Characterization of a Human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed an arrayed human genomic BAC library with approximately 4× coverage that is represented by 96,000 BAC clones with average insert size of nearly 140 kb. A new BAC vector that allows color-based positive screening to identify transformants with inserts has increased BAC cloning efficiency. The library was gridded onto hybridization filters at high density for efficient identification

Ung-Jin Kim; Bruce W. Birren; Tatiana Slepak; Valeria Mancino; Cecilie Boysen; Hyung-Lyun Kang; Melvin I. Simon; Hiroaki Shizuya



Cytotoxicity of peptide-coated silver nanoparticles on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2.  


Silver nanoparticles are used in a wide range of consumer products such as clothing, cosmetics, household goods, articles of daily use and pesticides. Moreover, the use of a nanoscaled silver hydrosol has been requested in the European Union for even nutritional purposes. However, despite the wide applications of silver nanoparticles, there is a lack of information concerning their impact on human health. In order to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles on human intestinal cells, we used the Caco-2 cell line and peptide-coated silver nanoparticles with defined colloidal, structural and interfacial properties. The particles display core diameter of 20 and 40 nm and were coated with the small peptide L-cysteine L-lysine L-lysine. Cell viability and proliferation were measured using Promegas CellTiter-Blue® Cell Viability assay, DAPI staining and impedance measurements. Apoptosis was determined by Annexin-V/7AAD staining and FACS analysis, membrane damage with Promegas LDH assay and reactive oxygen species by dichlorofluorescein assay. Exposure of proliferating Caco-2 cells to silver nanoparticle induced decreasing adherence capacity and cytotoxicity, whereby the formation of reactive oxygen species could be the mode of action. The effects were dependent on particle size (20, 40 nm), doses (5-100 ?g/mL) and time of incubation (4-48 h). Apoptosis or membrane damage was not detected. PMID:22418598

Böhmert, Linda; Niemann, Birgit; Thünemann, Andreas F; Lampen, Alfonso



Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains  

PubMed Central

Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iniguez, Alena Mayo



Human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 gene expression in intestinal Caco-2 cells and in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Humans express two ACAT (acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase) genes, ACAT1 and ACAT2. ACAT1 is ubiquitously expressed, whereas ACAT2 is primarily expressed in intestinal mucosa and plays an important role in intestinal cholesterol absorption. To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the tissue-specific expression of ACAT2, we identified five cis-elements within the human ACAT2 promoter, four for the intestinal-specific transcription factor CDX2 (caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2), and one for the transcription factor HNF1? (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1?). Results of luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that CDX2 and HNF1? exert a synergistic effect, enhancing the ACAT2 promoter activity through binding to these cis-elements. In undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, the ACAT2 expression is increased when exogenous CDX2 and/or HNF1? are expressed by co-transfection. In differentiated Caco-2 cells, the ACAT2 expression significantly decreases when the endogenous CDX2 or HNF1? expression is suppressed by using RNAi (RNA interference) technology. The expression levels of CDX2, HNF1?, and ACAT2 are all greatly increased when the Caco-2 cells differentiate to become intestinal-like cells. These results provide a molecular mechanism for the tissue-specific expression of ACAT2 in intestine. In normal adult human liver, CDX2 expression is not detectable and the ACAT2 expression is very low. In the hepatoma cell line HepG2 the CDX2 expression is elevated, accounting for its elevated ACAT2 expression. A high percentage (seven of fourteen) of liver samples from patients affected with hepatocellular carcinoma exhibited elevated ACAT2 expression. Thus, the elevated ACAT2 expression may serve as a new biomarker for certain form(s) of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:16274362

Song, Bao-Liang; Wang, Can-Hua; Yao, Xiao-Min; Yang, Li; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Zhao, Xiao-Nan; Yang, Jin-Bo; Qi, Wei; Yang, Xin-Ying; Inoue, Kenji; Lin, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Hui-Zhan; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Chang, Catherine C. Y.; Liu, Yin-Kun; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang



Assessment of the mode of action underlying development of rodent small intestinal tumors following oral exposure to hexavalent chromium and relevance to humans  

PubMed Central

Chronic exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water causes intestinal adenomas and carcinomas in mice, but not in rats. Cr(VI) causes damage to intestinal villi and crypt hyperplasia in mice after only one week of exposure. After two years of exposure, intestinal damage and crypt hyperplasia are evident in mice (but not rats), as are intestinal tumors. Although Cr(VI) has genotoxic properties, these findings suggest that intestinal tumors in mice arise as a result of chronic mucosal injury. To better understand the mode of action (MOA) of Cr(VI) in the intestine, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted to collect histological, biochemical, toxicogenomic and pharmacokinetic data in intestinal tissues. Using MOA analyses and human relevance frameworks proposed by national and international regulatory agencies, the weight of evidence supports a cytotoxic MOA with the following key events: (a) absorption of Cr(VI) from the intestinal lumen, (b) toxicity to intestinal villi, (c) crypt regenerative hyperplasia and (d) clonal expansion of mutations within the crypt stem cells, resulting in late onset tumorigenesis. This article summarizes the data supporting each key event in the MOA, as well as data that argue against a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors. PMID:23445218

Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Kirman, Christopher R.; Harris, Mark A.



Bacterial DNA may integrate into human genome more readily in tumor tissue

Bacterial DNA may integrate into the human genome more readily in tumors than in normal human tissue, according to a new study from the University of Maryland School of Medicine's Institute for Genome Sciences and the University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center. Researchers analyzed genomic sequencing data available from the Human Genome Project, the 1,000 Genomes Project and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). They considered the phenomenon of lateral gene transfer (LGT), the transmission of genetic material between organisms in the absence of sex.


Production of corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin from human monocyte-derived dendritic cells is stimulated by commensal bacteria in intestine  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine whether commensal bacteria are a contributing cause of stress-related mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) were stimulated by commensal bacterial strains, including Escherichia coli, Clostridium clostridioforme, Bacteroides vulgatus (B. vulgatus), Fusobacterium varium (F. varium), and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. After incubation, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin 1 (UCN1) mRNA in the cells was examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Supernatants from the cells were tested for CRF and UCN1 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Both CRF and UCN1 were significantly augmented by B. vulgatus and F. varium at both the mRNA and protein levels. In particular, B. vulgatus stimulated human MoDCs, resulting in extremely high levels of CRF and UCN1. CONCLUSION: Stimulation of MoDCs by B. vulgatus and F. varium may be associated with CRF/UCN1-related intestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25339828

Koido, Shigeo; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Kan, Shin; Takakura, Kazuki; Saito, Keisuke; Komita, Hideo; Ito, Zensho; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Takami, Shinichiro; Uchiyama, Kan; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Ito, Masaki; Okamoto, Masato; Kajihara, Mikio; Homma, Sadamu; Tajiri, Hisao



The influence of rifabutin on human and bacterial membrane models: implications for its mechanism of action.  


This work focuses on the interaction of the antibiotic Rifabutin (RFB) with phospholipid membrane models using small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) to assess drug-membrane interactions. The effect of different concentrations of RFB on human and bacterial cell membrane models was studied using multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) at the physiological pH (7.4). In this context, MLVs of 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) were chosen to mimic the human cell membrane. To mimic the bacterial cell membrane, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) (DMPG) and a mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) (DPPG) (8:2 molar ratio) were used. The results support a perturbation of the lipid bilayers caused by RFB, especially in the bacterial membrane model, inducing phase separation that might compromise the integrity of the bacterial membrane. Therefore, the different effects of this antibiotic depending on the concentration, the charge of the phospholipid headgroup, and the membrane organization may be related with the RFB antibiotic activity and the side effects, and should be accounted for during the anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug design. PMID:23617457

Pinheiro, Marina; Nunes, Cláudia; Caio, João M; Moiteiro, Cristina; Lúcio, Marlene; Brezesinski, Gerald; Reis, Salette



Comparing the anterior nare bacterial community of two discrete human populations using Illumina amplicon sequencing.  


The anterior nares are an important reservoir for opportunistic pathogens and commensal microorganisms. A barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V1-2 hypervariable region was developed to compare the bacterial diversity of the anterior nares across distinct human populations (volunteers from Germany vs a Babongo Pygmy tribe, Africa). Of the 251 phylotypes detected, 231 could be classified to the genus level and 109 to the species level, including the unambiguous identification of the ubiquitous Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The global bacterial community of both adult populations revealed that they shared 85% of the phylotypes, suggesting that our global bacterial communities have likely been with us for thousands of years. Of the 34 phylotypes unique to the non-westernized population, most were related to members within the suborder Micrococcineae. There was an even more overwelming distinction between children and adults of the same population, suggesting a progression of a childhood community of high-diversity comprising species of Moraxellaceae and Streptococcaceae to an adult community of lower diversity comprising species of Propionibacteriaceae, Clostridiales?Incertae Sedis XI, Corynebacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae. Thus, age was a stronger factor for accounting for differing bacterial assemblages than the origin of the human population sampled. PMID:24354520

Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Jáuregui, Ruy; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Oxley, Andrew P A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Becker, Karsten; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Pieper, Dietmar H



Host Response to Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens as Identified by Integrated Analysis of Human Gene Expression Data  

PubMed Central

Respiratory bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of infectious death in the world and a major health concern complicated by the rise of multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Therapeutics that modulate host genes essential for pathogen infectivity could potentially avoid multi-drug resistance and provide a wider scope of treatment options. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of published human gene expression data generated under challenges from the gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. We applied a previously described differential gene and pathway enrichment analysis pipeline to publicly available host mRNA GEO datasets resulting from exposure to bacterial infection. We found 72 canonical human pathways common between four GEO datasets, representing P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae. Although the majority of these pathways are known to be involved with immune response, we found several interesting new interactions such as the SUMO1 pathway that might have a role in bacterial infections. Furthermore, 36 host-bacterial pathways were also shared with our previous results for respiratory virus host gene expression. Based on our pathway analysis we propose several drug-repurposing opportunities supported by the literature. PMID:24086587

Smith, Steven B.; Magid-Slav, Michal; Brown, James R.



The effect of tacrolimus (FK506) on intestinal barrier function and cellular energy production in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The maintenance of the intestinal mucosal barrier may be energy dependent. Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressive drug that decreases mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production and increases intestinal permeability in animals. Methods: Twelve liver graft recipients receiving tacrolimus, 9 healthy volunteers, and 5 liver graft recipients not receiving immunosuppression underwent a combined absorption-permeability-mitochondrial function test using 5 g lactulose,

Simon M. Gabe; Ingvar Bjarnason; J. Michael Tredger; Philip G. Johnson; G. Robin Barclay; Roger Williams; David B. A. Silk



Disease-Dependent Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to the Human Intestinal Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Their adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered one of the main reasons for the beneficial health effects of specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, the influence of disease on the mucosal adhesion is largely unknown. Adhesion of selected LAB to resected colonic tissue and mucus was determined in patients with three major intestinal diseases (i.e., diverticulitis, rectal carcinoma, and

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Seppo Salminen; Peter J. Roberts; Jari Ovaska; Eeva Salminen



Shared and distinct mechanisms of iron acquisition by bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans  

PubMed Central

Iron is the most abundant transition metal in the human body and its bioavailability is stringently controlled. In particular, iron is tightly bound to host proteins such as transferrin to maintain homeostasis, to limit potential damage caused by iron toxicity under physiological conditions and to restrict access by pathogens. Therefore, iron acquisition during infection of a human host is a challenge that must be surmounted by every successful pathogenic microorganism. Iron is essential for bacterial and fungal physiological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, metabolism, and energy generation via respiration. Hence, pathogenic bacteria and fungi have developed sophisticated strategies to gain access to iron from host sources. Indeed, siderophore production and transport, iron acquisition from heme and host iron-containing proteins such as hemoglobin and transferrin, and reduction of ferric to ferrous iron with subsequent transport are all strategies found in bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans. This review focuses on a comparison of these strategies between bacterial and fungal pathogens in the context of virulence and the iron limitation that occurs in the human body as a mechanism of innate nutritional defense. PMID:24312900

Caza, Mélissa; Kronstad, James W.



Effects of food lectins on the transport system of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.  


The effects of 16 lectins isolated from foodstuff on the transport system across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers were investigated by using four fluorescent markers: lucifer yellow (LY) for the paracellular pathway, fluorescein (FL) for the monocarboxylic acid transporter-mediated pathway, rhodamine 123 for the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux pathway, and calcein for the multidrug resistance associated protein-related efflux pathway. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) values for the monolayers were also measured. WGA from wheat germ, ABA from white mushroom, AOL from Aspergillus oryzae, and CSL3 from chum salmon eggs (each at 100 µg/mL) decreased the TER value by 20-40% which resulted in increased LY transport. These lectins, as well as such other lectins as SBA from soybean, RBA from rice bran, and Con A from jack bean, affected other transport pathways too. These results indicate that the lectins modulated the transepithelial transport system in different ways, probably because of their specific binding characteristics toward Caco-2 cell monolayers. PMID:24018688

Yamamoto, Shintaro; Tomiyama, Mai; Nemoto, Ryo; Naganuma, Takako; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji



Regulation of proliferation of human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts by mediators important in intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed Central

An increase in myofibroblast number may be necessary for wound healing but may also lead to postinflammatory scarring. We have, therefore, studied the role of mediators important in inflammatory bowel disease in regulating proliferation of human colonic myofibroblasts. Using primary cultures of these cells, we have shown increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation in response to platelet-derived growth factor (EC50 = 14 ng/ml), basic fibroblast growth factor (EC50 = 2.2 ng/ml), and epidermal growth factor (EC50 = 1.1 ng/ml). Coulter counting of cell suspensions demonstrated increases in cell number with these growth factors along with insulin-like growth factor-I and -II. In addition the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha produced increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation. IL-1beta and platelet-derived growth factor together produced an increase in [3H]thymidine greater than either agonist alone; this effect was not, however, seen when we examined changes in cell numbers. Finally, we demonstrate a mechanism whereby these responses may be downregulated: vasoactive intestinal peptide (1 microM) elevates cyclic AwMP in these cells 4. 2-fold over control and produces a dose-related inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor-driven proliferation with a maximum inhibition of 33% at 1 microM. PMID:9637698

Jobson, T M; Billington, C K; Hall, I P



[Human large intestine adenocarcinoma cells (CaCo-2) in the process of cultivation].  


Using cytomorphometry and cytophotometry cells of human large intestine adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) were studied under condition of a 10 day cultivation. A reverse dependence was established between proliferative activity and monolayer density. The increase of the latter inhibits proliferation and promotes the formation of islets of polymorph cells. 2c-cells could be seen only at the beginning of culture growth; a larger part of cells polyploidized by cell blocking in G2-phase. These cells do not divide, which is testified by the absence of 2c-cells, but some part of 4c-cells start the next cycle, accumulates 8c-DNA and then divides, replenishing the 4c-cells population. In the process of cultivation, we observed an increase in the number and total volume of nucleoli in the nuclei, and a rise in DNA amount in the peri-nucleolar chromatin. The formation of numerous 4c-cells with multi-nucleolar nuclei may define an increase of functional activity of CaCo-2 culture as the whole, whereas the formation of separated groups of such cells in the monolayer may denote a possible initiation of their differentiation. PMID:16841493

Karalova, E M; Abroian, L O; Akopian, L A; Gasparian, M G; Karalian, Z A; Dzhagatspanian, N G; Ter-Pogosian, Z R; Kamalian, L A; Magakian, Iu A



Human small-intestinal ?-galactosidases. Separation and characterization of one lactase and one hetero ?-galactosidase  

PubMed Central

1. Two ?-galactosidases from human small-intestinal mucosa were separated by gel-filtration chromatography and the properties of the two enzymes were studied. Lactose and four hetero ?-galactosides were used as substrates. 2. One of the enzymes was particle-bound and could be partially solubilized with papain. Of the substrates hydrolysed by this enzyme, lactose was hydrolysed most rapidly. This enzyme is thus essentially a disaccharidase and is named lactase. It is presumably identical with the `lactase 1' described earlier. 3. The other enzyme was mainly soluble and hydrolysed all artificial substrates used, whereas no lactase activity could be detected. This enzyme has therefore been designated hetero ?-galactosidase. 4. p-Chloromercuribenzoate (0·1mm) inhibited the hetero ?-galactosidase completely but did not influence the activity of the lactase. Tris was a competitive inhibitor of both enzymes. 5. The residual lactase activity in the mucosa of lactose-intolerant patients may be exerted by a small amount of remaining lactase as such, or possibly by a third enzyme with a more acid pH optimum. PMID:5822067

Asp, Nils-Georg; Dahlqvist, Arne; Koldovsky, Otakar



Pattern of lipofuscin pigmentation in nitrergic and non-nitrergic, neurofilament immunoreactive myenteric neuron types of human small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipofuscin, an autofluorescent age pigment, occurs in enteric neurons. Due to its broad excitation and emission spectra, it overlaps with commonly used fluorophores in immunohistochemistry. We investigated the pattern of lipofuscin pigmentation in neurofilament (NF)-reactive nitrergic and non-nitrergic human myenteric neuron types. Subsequently, we tested two methods for reduction of lipofuscin-like autofluorescence. Myenteric plexus\\/longitudinal muscle wholemounts of small intestines of

Axel Brehmer; Barbara Blaser; Gerhard Seitz; Falk Schrödl; Winfried Neuhuber



Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates cortisol secretion from the H295 human adrenocortical tumour cell line via VPAC1 receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) shows a wide tissue distribution and exerts numerous physiological actions. VIP was shown in a dose-dependent manner to increase cortisol secretion in the NCI-H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295) cell line (threshold dose 3·3×10?10 M, maximal dose 10?7 M), coupled with a parallel increase in cAMP accumulation. Receptor-specific agonists were employed to determine which of the two

M R Nicol; V J Cobb; B C Williams; S D Morley; S W Walker; J I Mason




Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected adults in Cameroon, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Detection of parasites was performed in 181 stool samples from 154 HIV-infected patients with a mean CD4 cell count of 238 cells\\/mm3. Only 35 patients (22%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of stool sampling,



Liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry-based structural analysis of new platycoside metabolites transformed by human intestinal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platycosides, the main active constituents of Platycodi Radix, have been thoroughly studied for the characterization of their potent biological activities. However, metabolism of platycosides has not yet been characterized. A HPLC electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC\\/ESI-MSn) approach was applied to new complex platycoside metabolites transformed by human intestinal bacteria to identify their structures and determine metabolic pathway. The molecular weights

Young Wan Ha; Yun-Cheol Na; In Jin Ha; Dong-Hyun Kim; Yeong Shik Kim



Human dental pulp stem cell behavior using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine.  


Adhesion and Viability study with human dental pulp stem cell using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine are presented at first time in this work. Nanotolith, are osteoinductors, i.e., they stimulate bone regeneration, enabling higher cells migration for bone tissue regeneration formation. This is mainly because nanotoliths are rich minerals present in the internal ear of bony fish. In addition, are part of a system which acts as a depth sensor and balance, acting as a sound vibrations detector and considered essential for the bone mineralization process, as in hydroxiapatites. Nanotoliths influence in bacterial cellulose was analyzed using transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results shows that fermentation process and nanotoliths agglomeration decrease initial human dental pulp stem cell adhesion however tested bionanocomposite behavior has cell viability increase over time. PMID:23926803

Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Acasigua, Gerson Arisoly Xavier; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Scher, Cristiane Regina; Xavier Filho, Lauro; Pranke, Patricia Helena Lucas; Basmaji, Pierre



Arsenic Thiolation and the Role of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from the Human Intestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Background: Arsenic (As) toxicity is primarily based on its chemical speciation. Although inorganic and methylated As species are well characterized in terms of metabolism and formation in the human body, the origin of thiolated methylarsenicals is still unclear. Objectives: We sought to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the human gut are actively involved in the thiolation of monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV). Methods: We incubated human fecal and colon microbiota in a batch incubator and in a dynamic gut simulator with a dose of 0.5 mg MMAV in the absence or presence of sodium molybdate, an SRB inhibitor. We monitored the conversion of MMAV into monomethyl monothioarsonate (MMMTAV) and other As species by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. We monitored the sulfate-reducing activity of the SRB by measuring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. We used molecular analysis to determine the dominant species of SRB responsible for As thiolation. Results: In the absence of sodium molybdate, the SRB activity—primarily derived from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (piger)—was specifically and proportionally correlated (p < 0.01) to MMAV conversion into MMMTAV. Inactivating the SRB with molybdate did not result in MMAV thiolation; however, we observed that the microbiota from a dynamic gut simulator were capable of demethylating 4% of the incubated MMAV into arsenous acid (iAsIII), the trivalent and more toxic form of arsenic acid (iAsV). Conclusion: We found that SRB of human gastrointestinal origin, through their ability to produce H2S, were necessary and sufficient to induce As thiolation. The toxicological consequences of this microbial As speciation change are not yet clear. However, given the efficient epithelial absorption of thiolated methylarsenicals, we conclude that the gut microbiome—and SRB activity in particular—should be incorporated into toxicokinetic analysis carried out after As exposure. Citation: DC.Rubin SS, Alava P, Zekker I, Du Laing G, Van de Wiele T. 2014. Arsenic thiolation and the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria from the human intestinal tract. Environ Health Perspect 122:817–822;? PMID:24833621

Alava, Pradeep; Zekker, Ivar; Du Laing, Gijs



Animal models of intestinal fibrosis: new tools for the understanding of pathogenesis and therapy of human disease  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is a serious condition complicating chronic inflammatory processes affecting the intestinal tract. Advances in this field that rely on human studies have been slow and seriously restricted by practical and logistic reasons. As a consequence, well-characterized animal models of intestinal fibrosis have emerged as logical and essential systems to better define and understand the pathophysiology of fibrosis. In point of fact, animal models allow the execution of mechanistic studies as well as the implementation of clinical trials with novel, pathophysiology-based therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the currently available animal models of intestinal fibrosis, taking into consideration the methods of induction, key characteristics of each model, and underlying mechanisms. Currently available models will be classified into seven categories: spontaneous, gene-targeted, chemical-, immune-, bacteria-, and radiation-induced as well as postoperative fibrosis. Each model will be discussed in regard to its potential to create research opportunities to gain insights into the mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis and stricture formation and assist in the development of effective and specific antifibrotic therapies. PMID:22878121

Rieder, Florian; Kessler, Sean; Sans, Miquel



Extracellular Matrix-associated Cytokines Regulate CD4+ Effector T-cell Responses in Human Intestinal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix (stroma) regulation of mucosal T-cell function is incompletely understood. Here we uncovered a role for intestinal stromal products in the innate regulation of effector T-cells. Stroma-conditioned media (S-CM) derived from normal human intestinal stroma (TGF-?hi/IL-6lo/IL-1?lo) significantly down-regulated T-cell proliferation and IFN-? production compared to S-CM derived from inflamed Crohn’s mucosa (TGF-?hi/IL-6hi/IL-1?hi). Antibody neutralization studies showed that TGF-? in normal S-CM inhibited T-cell proliferation and IFN-? production, whereas IL-6 plus IL-1? in Crohn’s S-CM promoted T-cell proliferation, and the IL-1? alone promoted IFN-? and IL-17 release. Importantly, normal S-CM inhibited T-bet expression, whereas Crohn’s S-CM activated STAT3, suggesting that discordant T-cell responses are regulated at the transcription factor and signaling levels. These findings implicate stromal TGF-? in the down-regulation of T-cell responses in normal intestinal mucosa but stromal IL-6 and IL-1? in the promotion of Th1 and Th17 responses in inflamed Crohn’s mucosa, suggesting innate regulatory function for the intestinal extracellular matrix. PMID:21228771

Huff, Kayci R.; Akhtar, Lisa Nowoslawski; Fox, Anna L.; Cannon, Jamie A.; Smith, Phillip D.; Smythies, Lesley E.



Direct bacterial protein PAMP recognition by human NK cells involves TLRs and triggers -defensin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although human CD56CD3 natural killer (NK) cells participate in immune re- sponses against microorganisms, their capacity to directly recognize and be acti- vated by pathogens remains unclear. These cells encode members of the Toll- like receptor (TLR) family, involved in innate cell activation on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). We therefore evaluated whether the 2 bacterial protein PAMPs, the

Anick Chalifour; Pascale Jeannin; Jean-Francois Gauchat; Aline Blaecke; Martine Malissard; Thien N'Guyen; Nathalie Thieblemont; Yves Delneste; CHU Angers; CNRS FRE



Reduced Set of Virulence Genes Allows High Accuracy Prediction of Bacterial Pathogenicity in Humans  

PubMed Central

Although there have been great advances in understanding bacterial pathogenesis, there is still a lack of integrative information about what makes a bacterium a human pathogen. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has dramatically increased the amount of completed bacterial genomes, for both known human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains; this information is now available to investigate genetic features that determine pathogenic phenotypes in bacteria. In this work we determined presence/absence patterns of different virulence-related genes among more than finished bacterial genomes from both human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, belonging to different taxonomic groups (i.e: Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, etc.). An accuracy of 95% using a cross-fold validation scheme with in-fold feature selection is obtained when classifying human pathogens and non-pathogens. A reduced subset of highly informative genes () is presented and applied to an external validation set. The statistical model was implemented in the BacFier v1.0 software (freely available at ), that displays not only the prediction (pathogen/non-pathogen) and an associated probability for pathogenicity, but also the presence/absence vector for the analyzed genes, so it is possible to decipher the subset of virulence genes responsible for the classification on the analyzed genome. Furthermore, we discuss the biological relevance for bacterial pathogenesis of the core set of genes, corresponding to eight functional categories, all with evident and documented association with the phenotypes of interest. Also, we analyze which functional categories of virulence genes were more distinctive for pathogenicity in each taxonomic group, which seems to be a completely new kind of information and could lead to important evolutionary conclusions. PMID:22916122

Iraola, Gregorio; Vazquez, Gustavo; Spangenberg, Lucia; Naya, Hugo



A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Sequencing the Complete Human Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 30-fold redundant human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library with a large average insert size (178 kb) has been constructed to provide the intermediate substrate for the international genome sequencing effort. The DNA was obtained from a single anonymous volunteer, whose identity was protected through a double-blind donor selection protocol. DNA fragments were generated by partial digestion with EcoRI (library

Kazutoyo Osoegawa; Aaron G. Mammoser; Chenyan Wu; Eirik Frengen; Changjiang Zeng; Joseph J. Catanese; Pieter J. de Jong



Demonstration of human apolipoprotien A in isolated mucosal cells from small intestine and isolated hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

Isolated mucosal cells from the human jejunum and stomach, cryostat sections from the jejunum, isolated parenchymal liver cells and lymphocytes were investigated for the presence of apolipoprotien A (apoA). Antisera against purified human apoA-I and apoA-II were raised in rabbits and conjugated with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC). Mucosal cells from jejunum and stomach were isolated with pronase from tissue obtained from operated patients. ApoA-I and apoA-II could be demonstrated in isolated mucosal cells as well as in cryostat sections from the jejunum. The fluorescence pattern in isolated jejunal cells was coarse granular. In the radial gel diffusion test the homogenate from mucosal cells of jejunum showed a single precipitation line with anti-apoA-I and with anti-apoA-II, respectively. The reaction was more intensive with anti-apoA-I than with anti-apoA-II. Isolated gastric cells were negative for apoA. Hepatocytes incubated with FITC anti-apoA-I showed a fine granular fluorescence pattern in the cytoplasm. Anti-apoA-II did not react with hepatocytes. There was no evidence for an in vivo fixation of serum-apoA at the surface of isolated mucosal cells from jejunum or isolated hepatocytes. The results support the hypotheses that in man apoA is synthesised in the epithelial cells of the small intestine and in parenchymal liver cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:108182

Hopf, U; Assmann, G; Schaefer, H E; Capurso, A



Changes in starch physical characteristics following digestion of foods in the human small intestine.  


Factors controlling the concentration of resistant starch (RS) in foods are of considerable interest on account of the potential for this type of fibre to deliver health benefits to consumers. The present study was aimed at establishing changes in starch granule morphology as a result of human small-intestinal digestion. Volunteers with ileostomy consumed six selected foods: breakfast cereal (muesli), white bread, oven-baked French fries, canned mixed beans and a custard containing either a low-amylose maize starch (LAMS) or a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS). Analysis showed that digesta total RS (as a fraction of ingested starch) was: muesli, 8.9 %; bread, 4.8 %; fries, 4.2 %; bean mix, 35.9 %; LAMS custard, 4.0 %; HAMS custard, 29.1 %. Chromatographic analysis showed that undigested food contained three major starch fractions. These had average molecular weights (MW) of 43,500 kDa, 420 kDa and 8.5 kDa and were rich in amylopectin, higher-MW amylose and low-MW amylose, respectively. The low-MW amylose fraction became enriched preferentially in the stomal effluent while the medium-MW starch fraction showed the greatest loss. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy showed that absorbance at 1022 per cm decreased after digestion while the absorbance band at 1047 per cm became greater. Such changes have been suggested to indicate shifts from less ordered to more ordered granule structures. Further analysis of amylose composition by scanning iodine spectra indicated that the MW of amylose in ileal digesta was lower than that of undigested amylose. It appears that high-MW amylose is preferentially digested and that MW, rather than amylose content alone, is associated with resistance of starch to digestion in the upper gut of humans. PMID:20412607

Zhou, Zhongkai; Topping, David L; Morell, Matthew K; Bird, Anthony R



Molecular analysis for screening human bacterial pathogens in municipal wastewater treatment and reuse.  


Effective and sensitive monitoring of human pathogenic bacteria in municipal wastewater treatment is important not only for managing public health risk related to treated wastewater reuse, but also for ensuring proper functioning of the treatment plant. In this study, three different 16S rRNA gene molecular analysis methodologies were employed to screen bacterial pathogens in samples collected at three different stages of an activated sludge plant. Overall bacterial diversity was analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS) on the Illumina MiSeq platform, as well as PCR-DGGE followed by band sequencing. In addition, a microdiversity analysis was conducted using PCR-DGGE, targeting Escherichia coli. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using QIIME protocol by clustering sequences against the Human Pathogenic Bacteria Database. NGS data were also clustered against the Greengenes database for a genera-level diversity analysis. NGS proved to be the most effective approach screening the sequences of 21 potential human bacterial pathogens, while the E. coli microdiversity analysis yielded one (O157:H7 str. EDL933) out of the two E. coli strains picked up by NGS. Overall diversity using PCR-DGGE did not yield any pathogenic sequence matches even though a number of sequences matched the NGS results. Overall, sequences of Gram-negative pathogens decreased in relative abundance along the treatment train while those of Gram-positive pathogens increased. PMID:25181426

Kumaraswamy, Rajkumari; Amha, Yamrot M; Anwar, Muhammad Z; Henschel, Andreas; Rodríguez, Jorge; Ahmad, Farrukh



Human Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase and Its Bacterial Homologue Have Different Membrane Topologies and Reaction Mechanisms*?  

PubMed Central

Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) is essential for the production of reduced vitamin K that is required for modification of vitamin K-dependent proteins. Three- and four-transmembrane domain (TMD) topology models have been proposed for VKOR. They are based on in vitro glycosylation mapping of the human enzyme and the crystal structure of a bacterial (Synechococcus) homologue, respectively. These two models place the functionally disputed conserved loop cysteines, Cys-43 and Cys-51, on different sides of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. In this study, we fused green fluorescent protein to the N or C terminus of human VKOR, expressed these fusions in HEK293 cells, and examined their topologies by fluorescence protease protection assays. Our results show that the N terminus of VKOR resides in the ER lumen, whereas its C terminus is in the cytoplasm. Selective modification of cysteines by polyethylene glycol maleimide confirms the cytoplasmic location of the conserved loop cysteines. Both results support a three-TMD model of VKOR. Interestingly, human VKOR can be changed to a four-TMD molecule by mutating the charged residues flanking the first TMD. Cell-based activity assays show that this four-TMD molecule is fully active. Furthermore, the conserved loop cysteines, which are essential for intramolecular electron transfer in the bacterial VKOR homologue, are not required for human VKOR whether they are located in the cytoplasm (three-TMD molecule) or the ER lumen (four-TMD molecule). Our results confirm that human VKOR is a three-TMD protein. Moreover, the conserved loop cysteines apparently play different roles in human VKOR and in its bacterial homologues. PMID:22923610

Tie, Jian-Ke; Jin, Da-Yun; Stafford, Darrel W.



Innate Immunity in the Small Intestine of the Preterm Infant  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract comprises the largest surface area of the human body. This area is constantly exposed to myriad antigens as well as the large number of bacteria that coexist in the intestinal lumen. To protect against this exposure and help distinguish “self ” from “foreign,” the intestinal tract has evolved a sophisticated barrier defense system that includes both innate and adaptive immune systems. However, infants who are born preterm do not have the benefit of an adequate immune response and, therefore, are more susceptible to bacterial injury, inflammation, and intestinal diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis. In this review, we discuss the components of innate immunity that help to protect the small intestine as well as current knowledge about the role of these components in the pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:22639551

McElroy, Steven J.; Weitkamp, Jorn-Hendrik



Water and solute absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions in the human proximal small intestine: a review and statistical analysis.  


The purpose of this study is to summarize water, carbohydrate (CHO), and electrolyte absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solutions based on all of the triple-lumen-perfusion studies in humans since the early 1960s. The current statistical analysis included 30 reports from which were obtained information on water absorption, CHO absorption, total solute absorption, CHO concentration, CHO type, osmolality, sodium concentration, and sodium absorption in the different gut segments during exercise and at rest. Mean differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Exploratory multiple-regression analyses were conducted to create prediction models for intestinal water absorption. The factors influencing water and solute absorption are carefully evaluated and extensively discussed. The authors suggest that in the human proximal small intestine, water absorption is related to both total solute and CHO absorption; osmolality exerts various impacts on water absorption in the different segments; the multiple types of CHO in the ingested CHO-E solutions play a critical role in stimulating CHO, sodium, total solute, and water absorption; CHO concentration is negatively related to water absorption; and exercise may result in greater water absorption than rest. A potential regression model for predicting water absorption is also proposed for future research and practical application. In conclusion, water absorption in the human small intestine is influenced by osmolality, solute absorption, and the anatomical structures of gut segments. Multiple types of CHO in a CHO-E solution facilitate water absorption by stimulating CHO and solute absorption and lowering osmolality in the intestinal lumen. PMID:20975111

Shi, Xiaocai; Passe, Dennis H



Life in the human stomach: persistence strategies of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori has co-evolved with humans and colonizes roughly one half of the human population, but only causes overt gastric disease in a subset of infected hosts. In this Review, we discuss the pathogenesis of this bacterium and the mechanisms it uses to promote persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa, with a focus on recent insights into the role of the virulence factors VacA, CagA and CagL. We also describe the immunobiology of H. pylori infection and highlight how this bacterium manipulates the innate and adaptive immune systems of the host to promote its own persistence. PMID:23652324

Salama, Nina R.; Hartung, Mara L.; Muller, Anne



Expression and regulation of the bile acid transporter, OSTalpha-OSTbeta in rat and human intestine and liver.  


The regulation of the OSTalpha and OSTbeta expression was studied in the rat jejunum, ileum, colon and liver and in human ileum and liver by ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) using precision cut tissue slices. The gradient of protein and mRNA expression in segments of the intestine for rOSTalpha and rOSTbeta paralleled that of rASBT. OSTalpha and OSTbeta mRNA expression, quantified by qRT-PCR, in rat jejunum, ileum, colon and liver, and in human ileum and liver was positively regulated by FXR and GR ligands. In contrast, the VDR ligand, 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased the expression of rOSTalpha-rOSTbeta in rat intestine, but had no effect on human ileum, and rat and human liver slices. Lithocholic acid (LCA) decreased the expression of rOSTalpha and rOSTbeta in rat ileum but induced OSTalpha-OSTbeta expression in rat liver slices, and human ileum and liver slices. The PXR ligand, pregnenolone-16alpha carbonitrile (PCN) had no effect. This study suggest that, apart from FXR ligands, the OSTalpha and OSTbeta genes are also regulated by VDR and GR ligands and not by PXR ligands. This study show that VDR ligands exerted different effects on OSTalpha-OSTbeta in the rat and human intestine and liver compared with other nuclear receptors, FXR, PXR, and GR, pointing to species- and organ-specific differences in the regulation of OSTalpha-OSTbeta genes. PMID:19562681

Khan, Ansar A; Chow, Edwin C Y; Porte, Robert J; Pang, K Sandy; Groothuis, Geny M M



Development of an online-SPE-LC-MS method for the investigation of the intestinal absorption of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PHIP) and its bacterial metabolite PHIP-M1 in a Caco-2 Transwell system.  


Heterocyclic aromatic amines such as PHIP are formed during the heat processing of food. PHIP undergoes bacterial metabolism leading to 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PHIP-M1) as main metabolite. We developed an LC-MS method with automated sample preparation by online-solid-phase-extraction for the simultaneous quantification of PHIP and its mammalian and bacterial metabolites N-hydroxy-PHIP, 4-OH-PHIP and PHIP-M1 in biological samples. The method was used to investigate the transport of PHIP-M1 through a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The experiments show that PHIP-M1 rapidly crosses the cell monolayer and that PHIP-M1 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein and the multiple drug resistance 2 transporter. The intestinal absorption of PHIP-M1 is comparable with that of PHIP and a moderate to high bioavailability has to be expected. Thus, not only the human metabolites of PHIP but also the bacterial metabolite PHIP-M1 formed in the gut could contribute to the toxic effects of PhIP. PMID:25053091

Willenberg, Ina; von Elsner, Leonie; Steinberg, Pablo; Schebb, Nils Helge



Effects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors on the Intestinal Absorption of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate In Vitro?  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors (PIs) modestly affect the plasma pharmacokinetics of tenofovir (TFV; ?15% to +37% change in exposure) following coadministration with the oral prodrug TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF) by a previously undefined mechanism. TDF permeation was found to be reduced by the combined action of ester cleavage and efflux transport in vitro. Saturable TDF efflux observed in Caco-2 cells suggests that at pharmacologically relevant intestinal concentrations, transport has only a limited effect on TDF absorption, thus minimizing the magnitude of potential intestinal drug interactions. Most tested PIs increased apical-to-basolateral TDF permeation and decreased secretory transport in MDCKII cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp; MDCKII-MDR1 cells) and Caco-2 cells. PIs were found to cause a multifactorial effect on the barriers to TDF absorption. All PIs showed similar levels of inhibition of esterase-dependent degradation of TDF in an intestinal subcellular fraction, except for amprenavir, which was found to be a weaker inhibitor. All PIs caused a dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of a model Pgp substrate in MDCKII-MDR1 cells. Pgp inhibition constants ranged from 10.3 ?M (lopinavir) to >100 ?M (amprenavir, indinavir, and darunavir). Analogous to hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug interactions, we propose that the relative differences in perturbations in TFV plasma levels when TDF is coadministered with PIs are based in part on the net effect of inhibition and induction of intestinal Pgp by PIs. Combined with prior studies, these findings indicate that intestinal absorption is the mechanism for changes in TFV plasma levels when TDF is coadministered with PIs. PMID:17664327

Tong, Leah; Phan, Truc K.; Robinson, Kelly L.; Babusis, Darius; Strab, Robert; Bhoopathy, Siddhartha; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Rhodes, Gerald R.; Ray, Adrian S.



The spatial arrangement of the human large intestinal wall blood circulation  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to describe and depict the spatial arrangement of the colon microcirculatory bed as a whole. Various parts of the large intestine and terminal ileum were harvested from either cadaver or section material or gained peroperatively. Samples were then injected with India ink or methylmetacrylate Mercox resin for microdissection and corrosion casting for scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that extramural vasa recta ramified to form the subserous plexus, some of them passing underneath the colon taeniae. Branches of both short and long vasa recta merged in the colon wall, pierced the muscular layer and spread out as the submucous plexus, which extended throughout the whole intestine without any interruption. The muscular layer received blood via both the centrifugal branches of the submucous plexus and the minor branches sent off by the subserous plexus. The mucosa was supplied by the mucous plexus, which sent capillaries into the walls of intestinal glands. The hexagonal arrangement of the intestinal glands reflected their vascular bed. All three presumptive critical points are only gross anatomical points of no physiological relevance in healthy individuals. Neither microscopic weak points nor regional differences were proven within the wall of the whole large intestine. The corrosion casts showed a huge density of capillaries under the mucosa of the large intestine. A regular hexagonal pattern of the vascular bed on the inner surface was revealed. No microvascular critical point proofs were confirmed and a correlation model to various pathological states was created. PMID:20447248

Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Stingl, Josef



1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy-Based Studies of the Metabolism of Food-Borne Carcinogen 2-Amino-3-Methylimidazo[4,5-f]Quinoline by Human Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a mutagenic/carcinogenic compound formed from meat and fish during cooking. Following ingestion, IQ is metabolized mainly by liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, but intestinal bacteria may also contribute to its biotransformation. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolism of IQ by the human intestinal microbiota. Following incubation of IQ (200 ?M) under anoxic conditions with 100-fold dilutions of stools freshly collected from three healthy volunteers, we quantified residual IQ by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and characterized the production of IQ metabolites by in situ 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopic analysis of crude incubation media. In addition, we looked for IQ-degrading bacteria by screening collection strains and by isolating new strains from the cecal contents of human-microbiota-associated rats gavaged with IQ on a regular basis. HPLC and 1H-NMR analyses showed that the three human microbiota degraded IQ with different efficiencies (range, 50 to 91% after 72 h of incubation) and converted it into a unique derivative, namely, 7-hydroxy-IQ. We found 10 bacterial strains that were able to perform this reaction: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (n = 2), Clostridium clostridiiforme (n = 3), Clostridium perfringens (n = 1), and Escherichia coli (n = 4). On the whole, our results indicate that bacteria belonging to the predominant communities of the human intestine are able to produce 7-hydroxy-IQ from IQ. They also suggest interindividual differences in the ability to perform this reaction. Whether it is a metabolic activation is still a matter of debate, since 7-hydroxy-IQ has been shown to be a direct-acting mutagen in the Ames assay but not carcinogenic in laboratory rodents. PMID:16151094

Humblot, Christele; Combourieu, Bruno; Vaisanen, Marja-Liisa; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Delort, Anne-Marie; Rabot, Sylvie



Widespread Occurrence of Bacterial Human Virulence Determinants in Soil and Freshwater Environments  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of 22 bacterial human virulence genes (encoding toxins, adhesins, secretion systems, regulators of virulence, inflammatory mediators, and bacterial resistance) in beech wood soil, roadside soil, organic agricultural soil, and freshwater biofilm was investigated by nested PCR. The presence of clinically relevant bacterial groups known to possess virulence genes was tested by PCR of 16S and 23S rRNA genes. For each of the virulence genes detected in the environments, sequencing and NCBI BLAST analysis confirmed the identity of the PCR products. The virulence genes showed widespread environmental occurrence, as 17 different genes were observed. Sixteen genes were detected in beech wood soil, and 14 were detected in roadside and organic agricultural soils, while 11 were detected in the freshwater biofilm. All types of virulence traits were represented in all environments; however, the frequency at which they were detected was variable. A principal-component analysis suggested that several factors influenced the presence of the virulence genes; however, their distribution was most likely related to the level of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pH. The occurrence of the virulence genes in the environments generally did not appear to be the result of the presence of clinically relevant bacteria, indicating an environmental origin of the virulence genes. The widespread occurrence of the virulence traits and the high degree of sequence conservation between the environmental and clinical sequences suggest that soil and freshwater environments may constitute reservoirs of virulence determinants normally associated with human disease. PMID:23835169

S?borg, Ditte A.; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Kilian, Mogens



Impact of Experimental Human Pneumococcal Carriage on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Densities in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a necessary precursor to pneumococcal diseases that result in morbidity and mortality worldwide. The nasopharynx is also host to other bacterial species, including the common pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. To better understand how these bacteria change in relation to pneumococcal colonization, we used species-specific quantitative PCR to examine bacterial densities in 52 subjects 7 days before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after controlled inoculation of healthy human adults with S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. Overall, 33 (63%) of subjects carried S. pneumoniae post-inoculation. The baseline presence and density of S. aureus, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were not statistically associated with likelihood of successful pneumococcal colonization at this study’s sample size, although a lower rate of pneumococcal colonization in the presence of S. aureus (7/14) was seen compared to that in the presence of H. influenzae (12/16). Among subjects colonized with pneumococci, the number also carrying either H. influenzae or S. aureus fell during the study and at 14 days post-inoculation, the proportion carrying S. aureus was significantly lower among those who were colonized with S. pneumoniae (p?=?0.008) compared to non-colonized subjects. These data on bacterial associations are the first to be reported surrounding experimental human pneumococcal colonization and show that co-colonizing effects are likely subtle rather than absolute. PMID:24915552

Shak, Joshua R.; Cremers, Amelieke J. H.; Gritzfeld, Jenna F.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Vidal, Jorge E.; Klugman, Keith P.; Gordon, Stephen B.



For Application to Human Spaceflight and ISS Experiments: VESGEN Mapping of Microvascular Network Remodeling during Intestinal Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Challenges to long-duration space exploration and colonization in microgravity and cosmic radiation environments by humans include poorly understood risks for gastrointestinal function and cancer. Nonetheless, constant remodeling of the intestinal microvasculature is critical for tissue viability, healthy wound healing, and successful prevention or recovery from vascular-mediated inflammatory or ischemic diseases such as cancer. Currently no automated image analysis programs provide quantitative assessments of the complex structure of the mucosal vascular system that are necessary for tracking disease development and tissue recovery. Increasing abnormalities to the microvascular network geometry were therefore mapped with VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software from 3D tissue reconstructions of developing intestinal inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model. By several VESGEN parameters and a novel vascular network linking analysis, inflammation strongly disrupted the regular, lattice-like geometry that defines the normal microvascular network, correlating positively with the increased recruitment of dendritic cells during mucosal defense responses. PMID:25143705

Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Reinecker, Hans-Christian



Current Concepts of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Infection  

PubMed Central

The human gastrointestinal tract is populated by a vast and diverse community of microbes. This gut microbiota participates in host metabolism, protects from invading microbes, and facilitates immune system development and function. In this review, we consider the contributions of intestinal microbes to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Key concepts of colonization resistance, host-commensal microbe interaction in immunity, antibiotics and gut bacterial communities, viral-gut bacterial interactions, and evolving methods for studying commensal microbes are explored. PMID:21308452

Wardwell, Leslie H.; Huttenhower, Curtis



Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide inhibits c-myc expression and growth of human gastric carcinoma cells.  


Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a gut neuroendocrine polypeptide that increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in cells with VIP receptors. Some gastrointestinal cancer cells possess functional receptors for VIP; however, the role of VIP in regulation of growth of gastric cancer cells has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether VIP and other agents that increase cAMP regulate growth of a human gastric cancer cell line (AGS) and whether these agents regulate expression of c-myc proto-oncogene, which is required for cell proliferation. We measured levels of cAMP by radioimmunoassay, and we used Northern blot analysis to examine c-myc messenger RNA expression. Cell-growth studies were carried out in media supplemented with 3% serum, and cells were counted with a Coulter counter. We found that VIP significantly increased cAMP production of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas secretin, glucagon, and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) did not stimulate cAMP production. Exogenous cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP) inhibited AGS cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. VIP acted synergistically with either isobutylmethyl-xanthine or forskolin to inhibit AGS cell proliferation. The increased c-myc expression, which was induced by serum, was inhibited by simultaneous treatment with VIP and isobutylmethyl-xanthine. We have found that AGS cells have specific, functional VIP receptors (activation of which are negatively correlated with cell growth) and that the mechanism by which VIP acts to inhibit cell growth appears to be due, in part, to cAMP-dependent regulation of c-myc proto-oncogene expression. PMID:1713357

Kim, S W; Beauchamp, R D; Townsend, C M; Thompson, J C



Characterization of two distinct modes of drug binding to human intestinal Fatty Acid binding protein.  


The aqueous cytoplasm of cells poses a potentially significant barrier for many lipophilic drugs to reach their sites of action. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) bind to poorly water-soluble fatty acids (FAs) and lipophilic compounds and facilitate their intracellular transport. Several structures of FA in complex with FABPs have been described, but data describing the binding sites of other lipophilic ligands including drugs are limited. Here the environmentally sensitive fluorophores, 1-anilinonapthalene 8-sulfonic acid (ANS), and 11-dansylamino undecanoic acid (DAUDA) were used to investigate drug binding to human intestinal FABP (hIFABP). Most drugs that bound hIFABP were able to displace both ANS and DAUDA. A notable exception was ketorolac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that bound to hIFABP and displaced DAUDA but failed to displace ANS. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that for the majority of ligands including FA, ANS, and DAUDA, binding to hIFABP was exothermic. In contrast, ketorolac binding to hIFABP was endothermic and entropy-driven. The X-ray crystal structure of DAUDA-hIFABP revealed a FA-like binding mode where the carboxylate of DAUDA formed a network of hydrogen bonds with residues at the bottom of the binding cavity and the dansyl group interacted with residues in the portal region. In contrast, NMR chemical shift perturbation (CSP) data suggested that ANS bound only toward the bottom of the hIFABP cavity, whereas ketorolac occupied only the portal region. The CSP data further suggested that ANS and ketorolac were able to bind simultaneously to hIFABP, consistent with the lack of displacement of ANS observed by fluorescence and supported by a model of the ternary complex. The NMR solution structure of the ketorolac-hIFABP complex therefore describes a newly characterized, hydrophobic ligand binding site in the portal region of hIFABP. PMID:25144524

Patil, Rahul; Laguerre, Aisha; Wielens, Jerome; Headey, Stephen J; Williams, Martin L; Hughes, Maria L R; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Porter, Christopher J H; Scanlon, Martin J



Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection and intestinal thiamin uptake: studies with intestinal epithelial Caco-2 monolayers.  


Infections with enteric pathogens like enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health issue worldwide and while diarrhea is the major problem, prolonged, severe, and dual infections with multiple pathogens may also compromise the nutritional status of the infected individuals. There is almost nothing currently known about the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal absorptions of water-soluble vitamins including thiamin. We examined the effect of ETEC infection on intestinal uptake of the thiamin using as a model the human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The results showed that infecting confluent Caco-2 monolayers with live ETEC (but not with boiled/killed ETEC or nonpathogenic E. coli) or treatment with bacterial culture supernatant led to a significant inhibition in thiamin uptake. This inhibition appears to be caused by a heat-labile and -secreted ETEC component and is mediated via activation of the epithelial adenylate cyclase system. The inhibition in thiamin uptake by ETEC was associated with a significant reduction in expression of human thiamin transporter-1 and -2 (hTHTR1 and hTHTR2) at the protein and mRNA levels as well as in the activity of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters. Dual infection of Caco-2 cells with ETEC and EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli) led to compounded inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. These results show for the first time that infection of human intestinal epithelial cells with ETEC causes a significant inhibition in intestinal thiamin uptake. This inhibition is mediated by a secreted heat-labile toxin and is associated with a decrease in the expression of intestinal thiamin transporters. PMID:24133060

Ghosal, Abhisek; Chatterjee, Nabendu S; Chou, Tristan; Said, Hamid M



Effects of gamma irradiation on bacterial microflora associated with human amniotic membrane.  


Human amniotic membrane is considered a promising allograft material for the treatment of ocular surface reconstruction, burns, and other skin defects. In order to avoid the transmission of any diseases, grafts should be perfectly sterile. Twenty-five amniotic sacs were collected to determine the microbiological quality of human amniotic membrane, to analyze the radiation sensitivity pattern of the microorganism, and to detect the radiation decimal reduction dose (D??) values. All the samples were found to be contaminated, and the bioburden was ranged from 3.4 × 10² to 1.2 × 10??cfu/g. Initially, a total fifty bacterial isolates were characterized according to their cultural, morphological, and biochemical characteristics and then tested for the radiation sensitivity in an incremental series of radiation doses from 1 to 10?KGy. The results depict gradual decline in bioburden with incline of radiation doses. Staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated bacterial contaminant in tissue samples (44%). The D?? values of the bacterial isolates were ranged from 0.6 to 1.27?KGy. Streptococcus spp. were found to be the highest radioresistant strain with the radiation sterilization dose (RSD) of 11.4?KGy for a bioburden level of 1000. To compare the differences, D?? values were also calculated by graphical evaluations of the data with two of the representative isolates of each bacterial species which showed no significant variations. Findings of this study indicate that lower radiation dose is quite satisfactory for the sterilization of amniotic membrane grafts. Therefore, these findings would be helpful to predict the efficacy of radiation doses for the processing of amniotic membrane for various purposes. PMID:24063009

Binte Atique, Fahmida; Ahmed, Kazi Tahsin; Asaduzzaman, S M; Hasan, Kazi Nadim



Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of viable indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites, such as the mesenteric-lymph-node complex, liver, spleen and bloodstream. Three major mechanisms promote bacterial translocation: intestinal bacterial overgrowth, deficiencies in host immune defenses and increased permeability or damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier.

Rodney D. Berg



Antitumor promotional effects of a novel intestinal bacterial metabolite (IH-901) derived from the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in mouse skin.  


Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ginseng intake decreases the risk of cancer. Ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) have been regarded as principal components responsible for the majority of pharmacological activities exerted by ginseng. IH-901 [20-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol], an intestinal bacterial metabolite derived from protopanaxadiol-type saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been reported to possess antitumor effects, including inhibition of invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Tumor promotion often accompanies an elevated ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, acute inflammation and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity. Here we examined the effects of IH-901 on tumor promotion and related molecular events in mouse skin in vivo. Mouse ear edema induced by the prototype tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was repressed by IH-901 pre-treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Topical application of IH-901 onto shaven backs of female ICR mice led to the inhibition of TPA-induced expression of COX-2 and production of prostaglandin E(2). The eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB has been involved in intracellular signaling pathways associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis. IH-901 pre-treatment inhibited TPA-induced epidermal NF-kappaB DNA binding in mouse skin, which appeared to be mediated by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IkappaBalpha. In an attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which IH-901 inactivates NF-kappaB, its effects on activation of upstream signaling kinases were explored. IH-901 also inhibited the activation of ERK1/2 and Akt signaling. When IH-901 was treated topically prior to TPA, expression and activity of ODC were inhibited dose-dependently. In addition, IH-901 given prior to each topical dose of TPA markedly lowered the number of papillomas in mouse skin induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Taken together, these findings suggest that IH-901 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting TPA-induced COX-2 expression, which may contribute to its antitumor-promoting effects on mouse skin carcinogenesis. PMID:15498788

Lee, Ji-Yoon; Shin, Jun-Wan; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Bang, Yung-Jue; Sung, Jong-Hwan; Surh, Young-Joon



Large intestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The large intestine is larger and shorter than the small intestine and connects to the small intestine and the anus. Nutrient deficient material from the small intestine travels through the large intestine to the anus. This material is called feces and is excreted. Feces is made up of material that our bodies cannot break down into smaller parts to be used by the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)



Transcriptional response of HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells to human and bovine milk oligosaccharides.  


Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been shown to interact directly with immune cells. However, large quantities of HMO are required for intervention or clinical studies, but these are unavailable in most cases. In this respect, bovine milk is potentially an excellent source of commercially viable analogues of these unique molecules. In the present study, we compared the transcriptional response of colonic epithelial cells (HT-29) to the entire pool of HMO and bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) to determine whether the oligosaccharides from bovine milk had effects on gene expression that were similar to those of their human counterparts. Gene set enrichment analysis of the transcriptional data revealed that there were a number of similar biological processes that may be influenced by both treatments including a response to stimulus, signalling, locomotion, and multicellular, developmental and immune system processes. For a more detailed insight into the effects of milk oligosaccharides, the effect on the expression of immune system-associated glycogenes was chosen as a case study when performing validation studies. Glycogenes in the current context are genes that are directly or indirectly regulated in the presence of glycans and/or glycoconjugates. RT-PCR analysis revealed that HMO and BCO influenced the expression of cytokines (IL-1?, IL-8, colony-stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage) (GM-CSF2), IL-17C and platelet factor 4 (PF4)), chemokines (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CXCL2) and cell surface receptors (interferon ? receptor 1 (IFNGR1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) and IL-10 receptor ? (IL10RA)). The present study suggests that milk oligosaccharides contribute to the development and maturation of the intestinal immune response and that bovine milk may be an attractive commercially viable source of oligosaccharides for such applications. PMID:23710626

Lane, Jonathan A; O'Callaghan, John; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M



Innate immune gene expression differentiates the early avian intestinal response between Salmonella and Campylobacter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni are major human pathogens, yet colonise chickens without causing pathology. The aim of this study was to compare intestinal innate immune responses to both bacterial species, in a 4-week-old broiler chicken model. Challenged and control birds were sacrificed and tissue samples taken for histopathology and RNA extraction. No significant clinical or pathological changes

Ronan G. Shaughnessy; Kieran G. Meade; Sarah Cahalane; Brenda Allan; Carla Reiman; John J. Callanan; Cliona O’Farrelly



In vivo gene expression profiling of human intestinal epithelial cells: analysis by laser microdissection of formalin fixed tissues  

PubMed Central

Background The small intestinal epithelium mediates vital functions of nutrient absorption and host defense. The spatial organization of the epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis segregates them into regions of specialized function. However, the differences in transcriptional programming and the molecular machinery that governs the migration, adhesion, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cell lineages in humans remain under-explored. To increase our understanding of these mechanisms, we have evaluated gene expression patterns of ileal epithelial cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from either the villus epithelial or crypt cell regions of healthy human small intestinal mucosa. Expression profiles in villus and crypt epithelium were determined by DNA microarray, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry based methods. The expression levels of selected epithelial biomarkers were also compared between gastrointestinal tissues. Results Previously established biomarkers as well as a novel and distinct set of genes believed to be linked to epithelial cell motility, adhesion, and differentiation were found to be enriched in each of the two corresponding cell populations (GEO accession: GSE10629). Additionally, high baseline expression levels of innate antimicrobials, alpha defensin 5 (HD5) and regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (Reg3A), were detected exclusively within the small bowel crypt, most notably in the ileum in comparison to other sites along the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion The elucidation of differential gene expression patterns between crypt and villus epithelial cell lineages in human ileal tissue provides novel insights into the molecular machinery that mediates their functions and spatial organization. Moreover, our findings establish an important framework of knowledge for future investigations of human gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:18457593

George, Michael D; Wehkamp, Jan; Kays, Robert J; Leutenegger, Christian M; Sabir, Sadiah; Grishina, Irina; Dandekar, Satya; Bevins, Charles L



Comparative analysis of the cytotoxic effects of okadaic acid-group toxins on human intestinal cell lines.  


The phycotoxin, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin 1 and 2 (DTX-1 and -2) are protein phosphatase PP2A and PP1 inhibitors involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Data on the toxicity of the OA-group toxins show some differences with respect to the in vivo acute toxicity between the toxin members. In order to investigate whether OA and congeners DTX-1 and -2 may induce different mechanisms of action during acute toxicity on the human intestine, we compared their toxicological effects in two in vitro intestinal cell models: the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and the intestinal muco-secreting cell line, HT29-MTX. Using a high content analysis approach, we evaluated various cytotoxicity parameters, including apoptosis (caspase-3 activation), DNA damage (phosphorylation of histone H2AX), inflammation (translocation of NF-?B) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 production). Investigation of the kinetics of the cellular responses demonstrated that the three toxins induced a pro-inflammatory response followed by cell cycle disruption in both cell lines, leading to apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the three toxins induce similar effects, as no major differences in the cytotoxic responses could be detected. However DTX-1 induced cytotoxic effects at five-fold lower concentrations than for OA and DTX-2. PMID:25196936

Ferron, Pierre-Jean; Hogeveen, Kevin; Fessard, Valérie; Le Hégarat, Ludovic



Comparative Analysis of the Cytotoxic Effects of Okadaic Acid-Group Toxins on Human Intestinal Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The phycotoxin, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin 1 and 2 (DTX-1 and -2) are protein phosphatase PP2A and PP1 inhibitors involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Data on the toxicity of the OA-group toxins show some differences with respect to the in vivo acute toxicity between the toxin members. In order to investigate whether OA and congeners DTX-1 and -2 may induce different mechanisms of action during acute toxicity on the human intestine, we compared their toxicological effects in two in vitro intestinal cell models: the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and the intestinal muco-secreting cell line, HT29-MTX. Using a high content analysis approach, we evaluated various cytotoxicity parameters, including apoptosis (caspase-3 activation), DNA damage (phosphorylation of histone H2AX), inflammation (translocation of NF-?B) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 production). Investigation of the kinetics of the cellular responses demonstrated that the three toxins induced a pro-inflammatory response followed by cell cycle disruption in both cell lines, leading to apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the three toxins induce similar effects, as no major differences in the cytotoxic responses could be detected. However DTX-1 induced cytotoxic effects at five-fold lower concentrations than for OA and DTX-2. PMID:25196936

Ferron, Pierre-Jean; Hogeveen, Kevin; Fessard, Valerie; Le Hegarat, Ludovic



Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG mono-association suppresses human rotavirus-induced autophagy in the gnotobiotic piglet intestine  

PubMed Central

Background Human rotavirus (HRV) is the most important cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) reduces rotavirus infection and diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms of LGG-mediated protection from rotavirus infection are poorly understood. Autophagy plays an essential role in responses to microbial pathogens. However, the role of autophagy in HRV infection and LGG treatment is unknown. We hypothesize that rotavirus gastroenteritis activates autophagy and that LGG suppresses virus-induced autophagy and prevents intestinal damage in infected piglets. Methods We used LGG feeding to combat viral gastroenteritis in the gnotobiotic pig model of virulent HRV infection. Results We found that LGG feeding did not increase autophagy, whereas virus infection induced autophagy in the piglet intestine. Virus infection increased the protein levels of the autophagy markers ATG16L1 and Beclin-1 and the autophagy regulator mTOR. LGG treatment during viral gastroenteritis reduced autophagy marker expression to normal levels, induced apoptosis and partially prevented virus-induced tissue damage. Conclusion Our study provides new insights into virus-induced autophagy and LGG suppression of uncontrolled autophagy and intestinal injury. A better understanding of the antiviral activity of LGG will lead to novel therapeutic strategies for infant infectious diseases. PMID:23924832



Intestinal Cancer  


... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...


Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein Expression in Human Small Intestinal Enterocytes and Hepatocytes: A Comparative Analysis in Paired Tissue Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our objectives were to determine the content of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, CYP3A5, and P-glycoprotein and to measure CYP3A4-dependent catalytic activity in paired human small intestinal and liver specimens.Methods: Samples of duodenum or proximal jejunum and liver wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from 15 patients undergoing a gastrointestinal operation. Enterocytes were isolated from the intestinal samples. The contents of

Oliver von Richter; Oliver Burk; Martin F. Fromm; Klaus P. Thon; Michel Eichelbaum; Kari T. Kivistö



Pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins of prevalent motile commensal bacteria are variably abundant in the intestinal microbiome of elderly humans.  


Some Eubacterium and Roseburia species are among the most prevalent motile bacteria present in the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. These flagellate species contribute "cell motility" category genes to the intestinal microbiome and flagellin proteins to the intestinal proteome. We reviewed and revised the annotation of motility genes in the genomes of six Eubacterium and Roseburia species that occur in the human intestinal microbiota and examined their respective locus organization by comparative genomics. Motility gene order was generally conserved across these loci. Five of these species harbored multiple genes for predicted flagellins. Flagellin proteins were isolated from R. inulinivorans strain A2-194 and from E. rectale strains A1-86 and M104/1. The amino-termini sequences of the R. inulinivorans and E. rectale A1-86 proteins were almost identical. These protein preparations stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human intestinal epithelial cell lines, suggesting that these flagellins were pro-inflammatory. Flagellins from the other four species were predicted to be pro-inflammatory on the basis of alignment to the consensus sequence of pro-inflammatory flagellins from the ?- and ?- proteobacteria. Many fliC genes were deduced to be under the control of ?(28). The relative abundance of the target Eubacterium and Roseburia species varied across shotgun metagenomes from 27 elderly individuals. Genes involved in the flagellum biogenesis pathways of these species were variably abundant in these metagenomes, suggesting that the current depth of coverage used for metagenomic sequencing (3.13-4.79 Gb total sequence in our study) insufficiently captures the functional diversity of genomes present at low (?1%) relative abundance. E. rectale and R. inulinivorans thus appear to synthesize complex flagella composed of flagellin proteins that stimulate IL-8 production. A greater depth of sequencing, improved evenness of sequencing and improved metagenome assembly from short reads will be required to facilitate in silico analyses of complete complex biochemical pathways for low-abundance target species from shotgun metagenomes. PMID:23935906

Neville, B Anne; Sheridan, Paul O; Harris, Hugh M B; Coughlan, Simone; Flint, Harry J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Jeffery, Ian B; Claesson, Marcus J; Ross, R Paul; Scott, Karen P; O'Toole, Paul W



Polarized secretion of newly synthesized lipoproteins by the Caco-2 human intestinal cell line  

SciTech Connect

Lipoprotein secretion by Caco-2 cells, a human intestinal cell line, was studied in cells grown on inserts containing a Millipore filter (0.45 micron), separating secretory products from the apical and basolateral membranes into separate chambers. Under these conditions, as observed by electron microscopy, the cells formed a monolayer of columnar epithelial cells with microvilli on the apical surface and tight junctions between cells. The electrical resistances of the cell monolayers were 250-500 ohms/cm2. Both /sup 14/C-labeled lipids and /sup 35/S-labeled proteins were used to assess lipoprotein secretion. After a 24-hr incubation with (/sup 14/C)oleic acid, 60-80% of the secreted triglyceride (TG) was in the basolateral chamber; 40% of the TG was present in the d less than 1.006 g/ml (chylomicron + VLDL) fraction and 50% in the 1.006 less than d less than 1.063 g/ml (LDL) fraction. After a 4-hr incubation with (/sup 35/S)methionine, apolipoproteins were found to be major secretory products with 75-100% secreted to the basolateral chamber. Apolipoproteins B-100, B-48, E, A-I, A-IV, and C-III were identified by immunoprecipitation. The d less than 1.006 g/ml fraction was found to contain all of the major apolipoproteins, while the LDL fraction contained primarily apoB-100 and apoE; the HDL (1.063 less than d less than 1.21 g/ml) fraction principally contained apoA-I and apoA-IV. Mn-heparin precipitated all of the (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled apoB-100 and B-48 and a majority of the other apolipoproteins, and 80% of the (/sup 14/C)oleic acid-labeled triglyceride, but only 15% of the phospholipid, demonstrating that Caco-2 cells secrete triglyceride-rich lipoproteins containing apoB.

Traber, M.G.; Kayden, H.J.; Rindler, M.J.



Porcine small intestinal submucosa sheets as a scaffold for human bone marrow stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native small intestinal submucosa (SIS) sheet was prepared by removal of inside and outside layer of porcine jejunum. The acid treated SIS sheet was also prepared by dipping of native SIS sheet in acetic acid solution. The native or acid treated SIS sheets exhibited elastic and soft property on touch. The surface of native SIS sheet appears to be covered

Hyun Hee Ahn; Kyung Sook Kim; Jung Hwa Lee; Min Suk Lee; In Bum Song; Mi Hee Cho; Yu Na Shin; Moon Suk Kim; Gilson Khang; Hai Bang Lee



Expression and functional contribution of hTHTR-2 in thiamin absorption in human intestine  

E-print Network

; polarized expression; small interfering RNA; Caco-2 cells VITAMIN B1 (THIAMIN) is a member of the water-soluble vitamin family of micronutrients. It plays an essential role in normal cellular functions, growth cannot synthesize thiamin and thus must obtain the vitamin from exogenous sources via intestinal

Marchant, Jonathan


Novel insights into human intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in health and disease using confocal microscopy.  

PubMed Central

Measurement of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation has provided important information concerning tissue responses in neoplasia, enteropathy, and adaptation. This study reexamined current concepts regarding intestinal proliferation by using a novel confocal microscopical technique to map mitotic figures accurately within the intact three dimensional framework of the crypts of Lieberkühn. The ability of confocal microscopy to simultaneously measure crypt morphology and internal detail, without disrupting spatial cell arrangements, has provided important new data. These question the ability of existing methods to accurately measure and interpret proliferative changes in the gut. This work investigates intestinal proliferation in children with coeliac disease, a well defined hyperproliferative disorder, in comparison with the healthy intestine. These results show that crypt cell division occurs with an equal probability in health and disease. In addition, increased crypt cell production rates are largely caused by a change in crypt size rather than a change in cell cycle time or crypt growth fraction and, as such, alter our understanding of kinetic responses in gastrointestinal disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7698694

Savidge, T C; Walker-Smith, J A; Phillips, A D



Prevalence of intestinal parasites in the human population of León, Nicaragua.  


Intestinal parasites appear to be prevalent in Nicaragua, which motivated a more extensive prevalence study in which socioeconomic conditions such as degree of crowding, quality of water supply, type of floor and disposal of excretion, were considered. The study was performed on 1267 stool samples from about 8% of the citizens of the city of León. The overall prevalence of intestinal pathogenic parasites among the 1267 individuals was found to be 47.2%. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was 18.6% followed by Giardia (15.9%) and Ascaris (13.4%). Other helminths such as hookworms and Strongyloides sp. were found at very low rates. Giardia, in contrast to worm infections, was prevalent already in children under 5 years of age. E. histolytica/dispar increased with age and remained high. Of 595 individuals with intestinal parasites 81% were living in 'poor' conditions and in 13 clusters of households, a lower prevalence of parasites was seen in households characterised as having good socioeconomic conditions. However, several variables appear to be important in determining the prevalence of the individual intestinal protozoa and helminths encountered. PMID:9210962

Téllez, A; Morales, W; Rivera, T; Meyer, E; Leiva, B; Linder, E



Metabolism of Methadone and levo--Acetylmethadol (LAAM) by Human Intestinal Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)  

E-print Network

Metabolism of Methadone and levo- -Acetylmethadol (LAAM) by Human Intestinal Cytochrome P450 3A4 8, 2001 This paper is available online at ABSTRACT Methadone and levo-N,N-dinormethadol (dinor-LAAM). Methadone and LAAM are metabolized by CYP3A4 in human liver. Since they are administered

Steinbach, Joe Henry


Effect of GHRH and peptides from the vasoactive intestinal peptide family on cAMP production of human cancer cell lines in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antagonistic analogs of GHRH inhibit growth of various human cancers both in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the mechanism of direct action of the antagonistic analogs of GHRH on tumor cells, cultured human cancer cells were exposed to GHRH, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), secretin, glucagon, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), and VIP analogs in a superfusion system,

V Csernus; A V Schally; K Groot



The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens.  


Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed. PMID:24917854

Li, Laam; Mendis, Nilmini; Trigui, Hana; Oliver, James D; Faucher, Sebastien P



A revised model for electron dosimetry in the human small intestine.  


In this study, the absorbed dose was calculated to the small intestine (SI) wall of an adult human from electrons in its lumen contents. The effects on dose due to variations in the lumen radius and wall-thickness also were studied. The SI model was based on values gleaned from anatomic and histologic reviews of the adult human SI. Histologic and radiological analyses of the SI suggested the microscopic intricacy of this walled organ could be avoided for dosimetric purposes and a set of concentric cylinders could be used to model the SI. The model was input into the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) version 4A computational package, which was used to simulate energy deposition in the SI by electrons of fifty discrete energies ranging 10-500 keV. The source electrons as well as all resulting particles, such as knock-on electrons, bremsstrahlung, and electrons created from bremsstrahlung interactions, were transported until the particle energies fell below the 1 keV low-energy cutoff. Detailed physics treatments for secondary photons were made. With a reasonable number of histories, appropriate variance reduction techniques were used to improve the precision of the Monte Carlo calculations. The model used very small tally regions, which ranged in thickness from 0.5 microm to 200 microm depending on the electron energy studied and tally location in the wall. Relative errors associated with these calculations were maintained at less than 5%. The large number of tally results across the wall for each of the energies studied enabled the construction of the energy-specific depth dose curves in the wall. Each of these curves was consistent with the anticipated energy deposition pattern. These curves showed that only a small fraction of the energy absorbed at the contents-mucus interface reaches the stem cell layers because the cells are located deep in the mucosa. This fraction was found to vary from 1.66 x 10(-6) to 1.21 x 10(-1) over the energy range 10-500 keV. These results demonstrated the interface dose, which has been routinely reported as the "wall" dose, is a significant overestimate of the actual dose to the stem cells. The dose uncertainties associated with variations of the critical cell depth were shown to be very high for electrons whose CSDA ranges in the soft tissue exceeded the depth of the critical cells. This study showed that the uncertainty in the wall-thickness had no effect on depth doses while variation in the lumen radius significantly changes depth doses. The results suggest that these changes could be approximated by the inverse square of the lumen radius. PMID:15596987

Bhuiyan, N U; Poston, J W



Bacterial community variation in human body habitats across space and time.  


Elucidating the biogeography of bacterial communities on the human body is critical for establishing healthy baselines from which to detect differences associated with diseases. To obtain an integrated view of the spatial and temporal distribution of the human microbiota, we surveyed bacteria from up to 27 sites in seven to nine healthy adults on four occasions. We found that community composition was determined primarily by body habitat. Within habitats, interpersonal variability was high, whereas individuals exhibited minimal temporal variability. Several skin locations harbored more diverse communities than the gut and mouth, and skin locations differed in their community assembly patterns. These results indicate that our microbiota, although personalized, varies systematically across body habitats and time; such trends may ultimately reveal how microbiome changes cause or prevent disease. PMID:19892944

Costello, Elizabeth K; Lauber, Christian L; Hamady, Micah; Fierer, Noah; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Knight, Rob



Bottlenecks in the Transferability of Antibiotic Resistance from Natural Ecosystems to Human Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that resistance genes acquired by human pathogens through horizontal gene transfer originated in environmental, non-pathogenic bacteria. As a consequence, there is increasing concern on the roles that natural, non-clinical ecosystems, may play in the evolution of resistance. Recent studies have shown that the variability of determinants that can provide antibiotic resistance on their expression in a heterologous host is much larger than what is actually found in human pathogens, which implies the existence of bottlenecks modulating the transfer, spread, and stability of antibiotic resistance genes. In this review, the role that different factors such as founder effects, ecological connectivity, fitness costs, or second-order selection may have on the establishment of a specific resistance determinant in a population of bacterial pathogens is analyzed. PMID:22319513

Martínez, José L.



Comparative metaproteomics and diversity analysis of human intestinal microbiota testifies for its temporal stability and expression of core functions.  


The human intestinal tract is colonized by microbial communities that show a subject-specific composition and a high-level temporal stability in healthy adults. To determine whether this is reflected at the functional level, we compared the faecal metaproteomes of healthy subjects over time using a novel high-throughput approach based on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed robust metaproteomics workflow and identification pipeline was used to study the composition and temporal stability of the intestinal metaproteome using faecal samples collected from 3 healthy subjects over a period of six to twelve months. The same samples were also subjected to DNA extraction and analysed for their microbial composition and diversity using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip, a validated phylogenetic microarray. Using metagenome and single genome sequence data out of the thousands of mass spectra generated per sample, approximately 1,000 peptides per sample were identified. Our results indicate that the faecal metaproteome is subject-specific and stable during a one-year period. A stable common core of approximately 1,000 proteins could be recognized in each of the subjects, indicating a common functional core that is mainly involved in carbohydrate transport and degradation. Additionally, a variety of surface proteins could be identified, including potential microbes-host interacting components such as flagellins and pili. Altogether, we observed a highly comparable subject-specific clustering of the metaproteomic and phylogenetic profiles, indicating that the distinct microbial activity is reflected by the individual composition. PMID:22279554

Kolmeder, Carolin A; de Been, Mark; Nikkilä, Janne; Ritamo, Ilja; Mättö, Jaana; Valmu, Leena; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Palva, Airi; Salonen, Anne; de Vos, Willem M



Piracy of decay-accelerating factor (CD55) signal transduction by the diffusely adhering strain Escherichia coli C1845 promotes cytoskeletal F-actin rearrangements in cultured human intestinal INT407 cells.  


Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 (clinical isolate) harboring the fimbrial adhesin F1845 can infect cultured human differentiated intestinal epithelial cells; this process is followed by the disassembly of the actin network in the apical domain. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism by which DAEC C1845 promotes F-actin rearrangements. For this purpose, we used a human embryonic intestinal cell line (INT407) expressing the membrane-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) protein-anchored decay-accelerating factor (DAF), the receptor of the F1845 adhesin. We show here that infection of INT407 cells by DAEC C1845 can provoke dramatic F-actin rearrangements without cell entry. Clustering of phosphotyrosines was observed, revealing that the DAEC C1845-DAF interaction involves the recruitment of signal transduction molecules. A pharmacological approach with a subset of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules was used to identify the cascade of signal transduction molecules that are coupled to the DAF, that are activated upon infection, and that promote the F-actin rearrangements. DAEC C1845-induced F-actin rearrangements can be blocked dose dependently by protein tyrosine kinase, phospholipase Cgamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and Ca2+ inhibitors. F-actin rearrangements and blocking by inhibitors were observed after infection of the cells with two E. coli recombinants carrying the plasmids containing the fimbrial adhesin F1845 or the fimbrial hemagglutinin Dr, belonging to the same family of adhesins. These findings show that the DAEC Dr family of pathogens promotes alterations in the intestinal cell cytoskeleton by piracy of the DAF-GPI signal cascade without bacterial cell entry. PMID:9712744

Peiffer, I; Servin, A L; Bernet-Camard, M F



Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study  

PubMed Central

Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), p<0.05). In 38 patients (untreated (17) or on stable long-t½ IP-medication), the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85) mm, 54 (3, 104) mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177) Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics). T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01) and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10) Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007). Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01). Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity). Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112) mm & 103 (38, 168) mm.s-1, each p=0.002) was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008). Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay. PMID:23083400



Small Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes Expressing CD8 and T Cell Receptor ?? Are Involved in Bacterial Clearance during Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection  

PubMed Central

The intestinal immune system is crucial for the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis and has evolved under the dual pressure of protecting the host from pathogenic infection and coexisting with the dense and diverse commensal organisms in the lumen. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) are the first element of the host T cell compartment available to respond to oral infection by pathogens. This study demonstrated that oral infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium promoted the expansion of iIELs, particularly CD8+ TCR??+ IELs, enhanced expression of NKG2D on iIELs, increased expression of MULT1, and decreased expression of Qa-1 by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), leading to activation of, particularly, CD8+ TCR??+ iIELs and cytolytic activity against S. Typhimurium-infected IECs. Blockade of NKG2D recognition or depletion of TCR??+ cells using a depleting monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated the clearance of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and other tissues. This study suggests that iIELs, particularly CD8+ TCR??+ iIELs, play important roles in the detection of pathogenic bacteria and eradication of infected epithelial cells and, thus, provide protection against invading pathogens. These data further our understanding of the mechanisms by which the immune system of the intestinal mucosa discriminates between pathogenic and commensal organisms. PMID:22144492

Li, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Zhixia; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jian



Cyanidin-3-Glucoside Suppresses Cytokine-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Intestinal Cells: Comparison with 5-Aminosalicylic Acid  

PubMed Central

The potential use of polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases has been extensively investigated although the mechanisms involved in cellular signaling need to be further elucidated. Cyanidin-3-glucoside is a typical anthocyanin of many pigmented fruits and vegetables widespread in the human diet. In the present study, the protection afforded by cyanidin-3-glucoside against cytokine-triggered inflammatory response was evaluated in the human intestinal HT-29 cell line, in comparison with 5-aminosalicylic acid, a well-established anti-inflammatory drug, used in inflammatory bowel disease. For this purpose, some key inflammatory mediators and inflammatory enzymes were examined. Our data showed that cyanidin-3-glucoside reduced cytokine-induced inflammation in intestinal cells, in terms of NO, PGE2 and IL-8 production and of iNOS and COX-2 expressions, at a much lower concentration than 5-aminosalicylic acid, suggesting a higher anti-inflammatory efficiency. Interestingly, cyanidin-3-glucoside and 5-aminosalicylic acid neither prevented IkB-? degradation nor the activation of NF-kB, but significantly reduced cytokine-induced levels of activated STAT1 accumulated in the cell nucleus. In addition, we established that phosphorylated p38 MAPK was not involved in the protective effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside or 5-aminosalicylic acid. Taking into account the high concentrations of dietary anthocyanins potentially reached in the gastrointestinal tract, cyanidin-3-glucoside may be envisaged as a promising nutraceutical giving complementary benefits in the context of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24039842

Serra, Diana; Paixao, Joana; Nunes, Carla; Dinis, Teresa C. P.; Almeida, Leonor M.



Study on human intestinal bacterium Blautia sp. AUH-JLD56 for the conversion of arctigenin to (-)-3'-desmethylarctigenin.  


Arctium lappa L. (A. lappa) is a popularly used vegetable as well as herbal medicine. Human intestinal microflora was reported to convert arctiin, the lignan compound with highest content in the dried fruits of Arctium lappa, to a series of metabolites. However, the specific bacterium responsible for the formation of 3'-desmethylarctigenin (3'-DMAG), the most predominant metabolite of arctiin by rat or human intestinal microflora, has not been isolated yet. In the present study, we isolated one single bacterium, which we named Blautia sp. AUH-JLD56, capable of solely biotransforming arctiin or arctigenin to (-)-3'-DMAG. The structure of the metabolite 3'-DMAG was elucidated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biotransforming kinetics and maximum biotransforming capacity of strain AUH-JLD56 was investigated. In addition, the metabolite 3'-DMAG showed significantly higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity than that of the substrate arctigenin at the concentrations tested. PMID:24236649

Liu, Ming-Yue; Li, Meng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Liu, Peng; Hao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Xiu-Mei



Pilot study of diet and microbiota: interactive associations of fibers and polyphenols with human intestinal bacteria.  


Several studies have addressed the use of dietary fibers in the modulation of intestinal microbiota; however, information about other highly correlated components in foods, such as polyphenols, is scarce. The aim of this work was to explore the association between the intake of fibers and polyphenols from a regular diet and fecal microbiota composition in 38 healthy adults. Food intake was recorded using an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Quantification of microbial populations in feces was performed by quantitative PCR. A negative association was found between the intake of pectins and flavanones from oranges and the levels of Blautia coccoides and Clostridium leptum. By contrast, white bread, providing hemicellulose and resistant starch, was directly associated with Lactobacillus. Because some effects on intestinal microbiota attributed to isolated fibers or polyphenols might be modified by other components present in the same food, future research should be focused on diet rather than individual compounds. PMID:24877654

Cuervo, Adriana; Valdés, Lorena; Salazar, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; González, Sonia



Determination using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy of putative stem cells in human adenocarcinoma of the intestine: corresponding benign tissue as a template.  


The epithelial-cell layer lining the two morphologically and functionally distinct segments of the mammalian intestinal tract, small intestine, and colon is constantly being renewed. This renewal is necessitated by a harsh lumen environment and is hypothesized to be driven by a small population of stem cells (SCs) that are believed to reside at the base of intestinal crypts. A lack of specific markers has hampered previous attempts to identify their exact location. We obtained tissue sections containing small intestine and colon crypts derived from normal (benign) or adenocarcinoma (AC) human intestine. The samples were floated onto BaF2 windows and analyzed using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy via an aperture size of 10 × 10 ?m. Derived infrared (IR) spectral data was then analyzed using principal component analysis and/or linear discriminant analysis. Hypothesized cell types (as a function of aperture location along the length of individual crypts) within benign crypts were classed based on exploratory unsupervised IR spectral point clustering. Scores plots derived from individual small intestine crypts consistently generated one or two distinct spectra that clustered away from the remaining cell categories; these were retrospectively classed as "distinct base region" spectra. In these plots, a clear progression of locations along crypt lengths designated as from putative stem cells (SCs) to transit-amplifying (TA) cells to terminally differentiated (TD) cells was observed in benign small intestine and colon crypts. This progression of spectral points was crypt specific, pointing away from a unifying cell lineage model in human intestinal crypts. On comparison of AC-derived spectra versus corresponding benign, a subpopulation of AC-derived spectra suggested a putative SC-like spectral fingerprint; remaining IR spectra were classed as exhibiting TA cell-like or TD cell-like spectral characteristics. These observations could point to a cancer SC phenotype; an approach capable of identifying their in situ location has enormous therapeutic applications. PMID:25061782

Ahmadzai, Abdullah A; Patel, Imran I; Veronesi, Giulia; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Llabjani, Valon; Cotte, Marine; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L



Modeling the human intestinal Mucin (MUC2) C-terminal cystine knot dimer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal mucus, a viscous secretion that lines the mucosa, is believed to be a barrier to absorption of many therapeutic\\u000a compounds and carriers, and is known to play an important physiological role in controlling pathogen invasion. Nevertheless,\\u000a there is as yet no clear understanding of the barrier properties of mucus, such as the nature of the molecular interactions\\u000a between drug

Vatsala D. Sadasivan; Sandeep R. Narpala; David E. Budil; Albert Sacco Jr; Rebecca L. Carrier


Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus HARMS extract on drug transport in human intestinal cell line Caco-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acanthopanax senticosus HARMS (AS) is used as a Chinese herbal medicine and as a health supplement in Japan. However, little is known about the interaction\\u000a between AS and other drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of AS extract on intestinal drug transporter (P-glycoprotein,\\u000a or P-gp) and peptide transporter activities in Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells were cultured on a

Tsunehisa Takahashi; Tomomi Kaku; Takashi Sato; Kazuhiro Watanabe; Juichi Sato



Polarity of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in a human intestinal cell line (CACO-2)  

SciTech Connect

Free fatty acids (ffa) can enter the intestinal cell via the apical (AP) or basolateral (BL) membrane. The authors are using the Caco-2 intestinal cell line to examine the polarity of ffa uptake and metabolism in the enterocyte. Cells are grown on permeable polycarbonate Transwell filters in order to obtain access to both AP and BL compartments. Differentiated Caco-2 cells form tight polarized monolayers which express small intestine-specific enzymes and are impermeable to the fluid phase marker Lucifer Yellow. Submicellar concentrations of {sup 3}H-palmitic acid (2uM) were added to AP or BL sides of Caco-2 monolayers at 37{degrees}C and cells were incubated for various times between 2 and 120 minutes. Total AP and BL uptake is similar; however, when relative membrane surface areas are accounted for, AP uptake is about 2-fold higher. The metabolism of AP and BL ffa is not significantly different: triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine account for most of the metabolites (32{plus minus}4 and 24{plus minus}2% respectively at 5 minutes). Little ffa oxidation is observed. Preincubation with albumin-bound 2-monoolein (100uM) and palmitate (50uM) increases the level of TG metabolites. The results suggest that in this cell line the uptake of AP ffa may be greater than BL ffa, but that AP (dietary) ffa and BL (plasma) ffa are metabolized similarly.

Trotter, P.J.; Storch, J. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))



Inhibitory Effect of Enterohepatic Helicobacter hepaticus on Innate Immune Responses of Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells?  

PubMed Central

Enterohepatic Helicobacter species infect the intestinal tracts and biliary trees of various mammals, including mice and humans, and are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine, gallstone formation, and malignant transformation. The recent analysis of the whole genome sequence of the mouse enterohepatic species Helicobacter hepaticus allowed us to perform a functional analysis of bacterial factors that may play a role in these diseases. We tested the hypothesis that H. hepaticus suppresses or evades innate immune responses of mouse intestinal epithelial cells, which allows this pathogen to induce or contribute to chronic inflammatory disease. We demonstrated in the present study that the innate immune responses of intestinal epithelial cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and to flagellin-mediated activation via TLR5 are reduced by H. hepaticus infection through soluble bacterial factors. In particular, H. hepaticus lysate and the soluble component LPS antagonized TLR4- and TLR5-mediated immune responses of intestinal epithelial cells. H. hepaticus lysate and LPS inhibited development of endotoxin tolerance to Escherichia coli LPS. Suppression of innate immune responses by H. hepaticus LPS thus may affect intestinal responses to the resident microbial flora, epithelial homeostasis, and intestinal inflammatory conditions. PMID:17371851

Sterzenbach, Torsten; Lee, Sae Kyung; Brenneke, Birgit; von Goetz, Franz; Schauer, David B.; Fox, James G.; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Josenhans, Christine



Substrate specificity of carboxylesterase isozymes and their contribution to hydrolase activity in human liver and small intestine.  


Hydrolase activity from human liver and small intestine microsomes was compared with that of recombinant human carboxylesterases, hCE-1 and hCE-2. Although both hCE-1 and hCE-2 are present in human liver, the dominant component was found to be hCE-1, whereas the hydrolase activity of the human small intestine was found to be predominantly hCE-2. hCE-2 has a limited ability to hydrolyze large acyl compound substrates. Interestingly, propranolol derivatives, good substrates for hCE-2, were easily hydrolyzed by substitution of the methyl group on the 2-position of the acyl moiety, but were barely hydrolyzed when the methyl group was substituted on the 3-position. These findings suggest that hCE-2 does not easily form acylated intermediates because of conformational interference in its active site. In contrast, hCE-1 could hydrolyze a variety of substrates. The hydrolytic activity of hCE-2 increased with increasing alcohol chain length in benzoic acid derivative substrates, whereas hCE-1 preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of substrates with short alcohol chains. Kinetic data showed that the determining factor for the rate of hydrolysis of p-aminobenzoic acid esters was V(max) for hCE-1 and K(m) for hCE-2. Furthermore, the addition of hydrophobic alcohols to the reaction mixture with p-aminobenzoic acid propyl ester induced high and low levels of transesterification by hCE-1 and hCE-2, respectively. When considering the substrate specificities of hCE-1, it is necessary to consider the transesterification ability of hCE-1, in addition to the binding structure of the substrate in the active site of the enzyme. PMID:16837570

Imai, Teruko; Taketani, Megumi; Shii, Mayumi; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Chiba, Kan



Characterizing a model human gut microbiota composed of members of its two dominant bacterial phyla  

SciTech Connect

The adult human distal gut microbial community is typically dominated by 2 bacterial phyla (divisions), the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes. Little is known about the factors that govern the interactions between their members. Here, we examine the niches of representatives of both phyla in vivo. Finished genome sequences were generated from Eubacterium rectale and E. eligens, which belong to Clostridium Cluster XIVa, one of the most common gut Firmicute clades. Comparison of these and 25 other gut Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes indicated that the Firmicutes possess smaller genomes and a disproportionately smaller number of glycan-degrading enzymes. Germ-free mice were then colonized with E. rectale and/or a prominent human gut Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, followed by whole-genome transcriptional profiling, high-resolution proteomic analysis, and biochemical assays of microbial microbial and microbial host interactions. B. thetaiotaomicron adapts to E. rectale by up-regulating expression of a variety of polysaccharide utilization loci encoding numerous glycoside hydrolases, and by signaling the host to produce mucosal glycans that it, but not E. rectale, can access. E. rectale adapts to B. thetaiotaomicron by decreasing production of its glycan-degrading enzymes, increasing expression of selected amino acid and sugar transporters, and facilitating glycolysis by reducing levels of NADH, in part via generation of butyrate from acetate, which in turn is used by the gut epithelium. This simplified model of the human gut microbiota illustrates niche specialization and functional redundancy within members of its major bacterial phyla, and the importance of host glycans as a nutrient foundation that ensures ecosystem stability.

Mahowald, Michael [Washington University, St. Louis; Rey, Frederico E. [Washington University, St. Louis; Seedorf, Henning [Washington University, St. Louis; Turnbaugh, Peter J. [Washington University, St. Louis; Fulton, Robert S. [Washington University, St. Louis; Wollam, Aye [Washington University, St. Louis; Shah, Neha [Washington University, St. Louis; Wang, Chunyan [Washington University, St. Louis; Magrini, Vincent [Washington University, St. Louis; Wilson, Richard K. [Washington University, St. Louis; Cantarel, Brandi L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche; Coutinho, Pedro M [Universite d'Aix-Marseille I & II; Henrissat, Bernard [Universite d'Aix-Marseille I & II; Crock, Lara W. [Washington University, St. Louis; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Erickson, Alison L [ORNL; Gordon, Jeffrey [Washington University, St. Louis



High yield soluble bacterial expression and streamlined purification of recombinant human interferon ?-2a.  


Interferon ?-2a (IFNA2) is a member of the Type I interferon cytokine family, known for its antiviral and anti-proliferative functions. The role of this family in the innate immune response makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of many viral and chronic immune-compromised diseases. Recombinant IFNA2 is clinically used to modulate hairy cell leukemia as well as hepatitis c. Historically, IFNA2 has been purified from human leukocytes as well as bacterial expression systems. In most cases, bacterial expression of IFNA2 resulted in inclusion body formation, or required numerous purification steps that decreased the protein yield. Here, we describe an expression and purification scheme for IFNA2 using a pET-SUMO bacterial expression system and a single purification step. Using the SUMO protein as the fusion tag achieved high soluble protein expression. The SUMO tag was cleaved with the Ulp1 protease leaving no additional amino acids on the fusion terminus following cleavage. Mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, 2D heteronuclear NMR, and analytical ultracentrifugation confirmed the amino acid sequence identity, secondary and tertiary protein structures, and the solution behavior of the purified IFNA2. The purified protein also had antiviral and anti-proliferative activities comparable to the WHO International Standard, NIBSC 95/650, and the IFNA2 standard available from PBL Assay Science. Combining the expression and purification protocols developed here to produce IFNA2 on a laboratory scale with the commercial fermenter technology commonly used in pharmaceutical industry may further enhance IFNA2 yields, which will promote the development of interferon-based protein drugs to treat various disorders. PMID:24794500

Bis, Regina L; Stauffer, Tara M; Singh, Surinder M; Lavoie, Thomas B; Mallela, Krishna M G



Comparison of the Flotac-400 dual technique and the formalin-ether concentration technique for diagnosis of human intestinal protozoon infection.  


There is a need for accurate diagnosis of intestinal parasite infections in humans, but currently available copromicroscopic techniques have shortcomings, such as low sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a further modified version of the recently developed Flotac technique with that of the widely used formalin-ether concentration technique (FECT) for the detection of intestinal protozoa in human stool samples. Formaldehyde-preserved stool samples from 108 individuals in Côte d'Ivoire were subjected to the Flotac-400 dual technique, using two different flotation solutions (FS), and to the FECT. Stool samples were examined according to computer-generated random lists by an experienced laboratory technician blinded for the results of each method. Both methods detected the same eight intestinal protozoon species. While the Flotac-400 dual technique (results from both FS combined) found higher prevalences of Entamoeba coli (77.8% versus 71.3%, P < 0.001), Blastocystis hominis (20.4% versus 13.0%, P = 0.458), and Giardia intestinalis (8.3% versus 6.5%, P < 0.001), the FECT detected higher prevalences of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (27.8% versus 20.4%, P = 0.019) and four species of nonpathogenic intestinal protozoa. The diagnostic agreement between the two methods differed considerably depending on the intestinal protozoon investigated (Cohen's kappa measures; range, 0.01 to 0.46). Our study confirmed that the Flotac-400 dual technique can be utilized for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoon infections in humans. Since Flotac is a sensitive technique for the detection of soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni, it might become a viable copromicroscopic technique for the concurrent diagnosis of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections. PMID:21525226

Becker, Sören L; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Speich, Benjamin; Rinaldi, Laura; Knopp, Stefanie; N'goran, Eliézer K; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Utzinger, Jürg



Soluble CD14 is essential for lipopolysaccharide-dependent activation of human intestinal mast cells from macroscopically normal as well as Crohn's disease tissue.  


Mast cells are now considered sentinels in immunity. Given their location underneath the gastrointestinal barrier, mast cells are entrusted with the task of tolerating commensal microorganisms and eliminating potential pathogens in the gut microbiota. The aim of our study was to analyse the responsiveness of mast cells isolated from macroscopically normal and Crohn's disease-affected intestine to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To determine the LPS-mediated signalling, human intestinal mast cells were treated with LPS alone or in combination with soluble CD14 due to their lack of surface CD14 expression. LPS alone failed to stimulate cytokine expression in human intestinal mast cells from both macroscopically normal and Crohn's disease tissue. Upon administration of LPS and soluble CD14, there was a dose- and time-dependent induction of cytokine and chemokine expression. Moreover, CXCL8 and interleukin-1? protein expression was induced in response to activation with LPS plus soluble CD14. Expression of cytokines and chemokines was at similar levels in mast cells from macroscopically normal and Crohn's disease-affected intestine after LPS/soluble CD14 treatment. In conclusion, human intestinal mast cells appear to tolerate LPS per se. The LPS-mediated activation in mast cells may be provoked by soluble CD14 distributed by other LPS-triggered cells at the gastrointestinal barrier. PMID:24697307

Brenner, Sibylle A; Zacheja, Steffi; Schäffer, Michael; Feilhauer, Katharina; Bischoff, Stephan C; Lorentz, Axel



Growth of bifidobacteria and clostridia on human and cow milk saccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

For healthy infants, which were born normally and fully breastfed, the dominant component of the intestinal microflora are bifidobacteria. However, infants born by caesarean section possess clostridia as a dominant intestinal bacterial group. The aim of the present study was to determine whether bifidobacteria and clostridia are able to grow on human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and other carbon sources -

Sarka Rockova; Vojtech Rada; Petr Marsik; Eva Vlkova; Vera Bunesova; Jan Sklenar; Igor Splichal



Breast Milk-Transforming Growth Factor-?2 Specifically Attenuates IL1?-Induced Inflammatory Responses in the Immature Human Intestine via an SMAD6- and ERK-Dependent Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Breast milk is known to protect the infant against infectious and immuno-inflammatory diseases, but the mechanisms of this protection are poorly understood. Objectives: We hypothesized that transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2), an immunoregulatory cytokine abundant in breast milk, may have a direct anti-inflammatory effect on immature human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Methods: Human fetal ileal organ culture, primary human fetal

Samuli Rautava; N. Nanda Nanthakumar; Alix Dubert-Ferrandon; Lei Lu; Jaana Rautava; W. Allan Walker



Differential interactions of rifabutin with human and bacterial membranes: implication for its therapeutic and toxic effects.  


This work focuses on the interaction of rifabutin (RFB), a naphthalenic ansamycin, with membrane models. Since the therapeutic and toxic effects of this class of drugs are strongly influenced by their lipid affinity, we concerned specifically on the ability of this antibiotic to affect the membrane biophysical properties. The extent of the interaction between RFB and membrane phospholipids was quantified by the partition coefficient (K(p)), using membrane model systems that mimic the human (liposomes of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine, DMPC) and the bacterial (liposomes of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol, DMPG) plasma membranes. To predict the drug location in the membranes, fluorescence quenching and lifetime measurements were carried out using the above-mentioned membrane models labeled with fluorescent probes. Steady-state anisotropy measurements were also performed to evaluate the effect of RFB on the microviscosity of the membranes. Overall, the results support that RFB has higher affinity for the bacterial membrane mediated by electrostatic interactions with the phospholipid head groups. PMID:23215016

Pinheiro, Marina; Arêde, Mariana; Nunes, Cláudia; Caio, João M; Moiteiro, Cristina; Lúcio, Marlene; Reis, Salette



Biophysical analysis of the interaction of the serum protein human ?2GPI with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.  


There are several human serum proteins for which no clear role is yet known. Among these is the abundant serum protein beta2-glycoprotein-I (?2GPI), which is known to bind to negatively charged phospholipids as well as to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and was therefore proposed to play a role in the immune response. To understand the details of these interactions, a biophysical analysis of the binding of ?2GPI to LPS and phosphatidylserine (PS) was performed. The data indicate only a moderate tendency of the protein (1) to influence the LPS-induced cytokine production in vitro, (2) to react exothermally with LPS in a non-saturable way, and (3) to change its local microenvironment upon LPS association. Additionally, we found that the protein binds more strongly to phosphatidylserine (PS) than to LPS. Furthermore, ?2GPI converts the LPS bilayer aggregates into a stronger multilamellar form, and reduces the fluidity of the hydrocarbon moiety of LPS due to a rigidification of the acyl chains. From these data it can be concluded that ?2GPI plays a role as an immune-modulating agent, but there is much less evidence for a role in immune defense against bacterial toxins such as LPS. PMID:24918058

Gries, Anna; Prassl, Ruth; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Rössle, Manfred; Kaconis, Yani; Heinbockel, Lena; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus



pH feedback and phenotypic diversity within bacterial functional groups of the human gut.  


Microbial diversity in the human colon is very high with apparently large functional redundancy such that within each bacterial functional group there are many coexisting strains. Modelling this mathematically is problematic since strains within a functional group are often competing for the same limited number of resources and therefore competitive exclusion theory predicts a loss of diversity over time. Here we investigate, through computer simulation, a fluctuation dependent mechanism for the promotion of diversity. A variable pH environment caused by acidic by-products of bacterial growth on a fluctuating substrate coupled with small differences in acid tolerance between strains promotes diversity under both equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium conditions. Under equilibrium conditions pH fluctuations and relative nonlinearity in pH limitation among strains combine to prevent complete competitive exclusion. Under far-from-equilibrium conditions, loss of diversity through extinctions is made more difficult because pH cycling leads to fluctuations in the competitive ranking of strains, thereby helping to equalise fitness. We assume a trade-off between acid tolerance and maximum growth rate so that our microbial system consists of strains ranging from specialists to generalists. By altering the magnitude of the effect of the system on its pH environment (e.g. the buffering capacity of the colon) and the pattern of incoming resource we explore the conditions that promote diversity. PMID:24211524

Kettle, Helen; Donnelly, Ruairi; Flint, Harry J; Marion, Glenn



PATRIC: the Comprehensive Bacterial Bioinformatics Resource with a Focus on Human Pathogenic Species ? ‡ #  

PubMed Central

Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) is a genomics-centric relational database and bioinformatics resource designed to assist scientists in infectious-disease research. Specifically, PATRIC provides scientists with (i) a comprehensive bacterial genomics database, (ii) a plethora of associated data relevant to genomic analysis, and (iii) an extensive suite of computational tools and platforms for bioinformatics analysis. While the primary aim of PATRIC is to advance the knowledge underlying the biology of human pathogens, all publicly available genome-scale data for bacteria are compiled and continually updated, thereby enabling comparative analyses to reveal the basis for differences between infectious free-living and commensal species. Herein we summarize the major features available at PATRIC, dividing the resources into two major categories: (i) organisms, genomes, and comparative genomics and (ii) recurrent integration of community-derived associated data. Additionally, we present two experimental designs typical of bacterial genomics research and report on the execution of both projects using only PATRIC data and tools. These applications encompass a broad range of the data and analysis tools available, illustrating practical uses of PATRIC for the biologist. Finally, a summary of PATRIC's outreach activities, collaborative endeavors, and future research directions is provided. PMID:21896772

Gillespie, Joseph J.; Wattam, Alice R.; Cammer, Stephen A.; Gabbard, Joseph L.; Shukla, Maulik P.; Dalay, Oral; Driscoll, Timothy; Hix, Deborah; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Mao, Chunhong; Nordberg, Eric K.; Scott, Mark; Schulman, Julie R.; Snyder, Eric E.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Wang, Chunxia; Warren, Andrew; Williams, Kelly P.; Xue, Tian; Seung Yoo, Hyun; Zhang, Chengdong; Zhang, Yan; Will, Rebecca; Kenyon, Ronald W.; Sobral, Bruno W.



Symbiotic bacteria direct expression of an intestinal bactericidal lectin.  


The mammalian intestine harbors complex societies of beneficial bacteria that are maintained in the lumen with minimal penetration of mucosal surfaces. Microbial colonization of germ-free mice triggers epithelial expression of RegIIIgamma, a secreted C-type lectin. RegIIIgamma binds intestinal bacteria but lacks the complement recruitment domains present in other microbe-binding mammalian C-type lectins. We show that RegIIIgamma and its human counterpart, HIP/PAP, are directly antimicrobial proteins that bind their bacterial targets via interactions with peptidoglycan carbohydrate. We propose that these proteins represent an evolutionarily primitive form of lectin-mediated innate immunity, and that they reveal intestinal strategies for maintaining symbiotic host-microbial relationships. PMID:16931762

Cash, Heather L; Whitham, Cecilia V; Behrendt, Cassie L; Hooper, Lora V



A gene-expression program reflecting the innate immune response of cultured intestinal epithelial cells to infection by Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative, intracellular bacterial pathogen found in soil, which occasionally causes serious food-borne disease in humans. The outcome of an infection is dependent on the state of the infected individual's immune system, neutrophils being key players in clearing the microorganism from the body. The first line of host defense, however, is the intestinal epithelium. RESULTS:

David N Baldwin; Veena Vanchinathan; Patrick O Brown; Julie A Theriot



Selective proliferation of intestinal Barnesiella under fucosyllactose supplementation in mice.  


The oligosaccharides 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose are major constituents of human breast milk but are not found in mouse milk. Milk oligosaccharides have a prebiotic action, thus affecting the colonisation of the infant intestine by microbiota. To determine the specific effect of fucosyllactose exposure on intestinal microbiota in mice, in the present study, we orally supplemented newborn mice with pure 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose. Exposure to 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose increased the levels of bacteria of the Porphyromonadaceae family in the intestinal gut, more precisely members of the genus Barnesiella as analysed by 16S pyrosequencing. The ability of Barnesiella to utilise fucosyllactose as energy source was confirmed in bacterial cultures. Whereas B. intestinihominis and B. viscericola did not grow on fucose alone, they proliferated in the presence of 2-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose following the secretion of linkage-specific fucosidase enzymes that liberated lactose. The change in the composition of intestinal microbiota mediated by fucosyllactose supplementation affected the susceptibility of mice to dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis, as indicated by increased resistance of mice subjected to 2-fucosyllactose supplementation for 6 weeks. The present study underlines the ability of specific milk oligosaccharides to change the composition of intestinal microbiota and thereby to shape an intestinal milieu resilient to inflammatory diseases. PMID:24411010

Weiss, Gisela A; Chassard, Christophe; Hennet, Thierry



Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.  


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young



Inflammation Anergy in Human Intestinal Macrophages Is Due to Smad-induced I?B? Expression and NF-?B Inactivation*  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal macrophages contribute to tissue homeostasis in noninflamed mucosa through profound down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Here, we show that this down-regulation extends to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced cytokine release, as intestinal macrophages expressed TLR3–TLR9 but did not release cytokines in response to TLR-specific ligands. Likely contributing to this unique functional profile, intestinal macrophages expressed markedly down-regulated adapter proteins MyD88 and Toll interleukin receptor 1 domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon ?, which together mediate all TLR MyD88-dependent and -independent NF-?B signaling, did not phosphorylate NF-?B p65 or Smad-induced I?B?, and did not translocate NF-?B into the nucleus. Importantly, transforming growth factor-? released from intestinal extracellular matrix (stroma) induced identical down-regulation in the NF-?B signaling and function of blood monocytes, the exclusive source of intestinal macrophages. Our findings implicate stromal transforming growth factor-?-induced dysregulation of NF-?B proteins and Smad signaling in the differentiation of pro-inflammatory blood monocytes into noninflammatory intestinal macrophages. PMID:20388715

Smythies, Lesley E.; Shen, Ruizhong; Bimczok, Diane; Novak, Lea; Clements, Ronald H.; Eckhoff, Devin E.; Bouchard, Phillipe; George, Michael D.; Hu, William K.; Dandekar, Satya; Smith, Phillip D.



A Modular Organization of the Human Intestinal Mucosal Microbiota and Its Association with Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities of the intestinal microbiota are implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), two spectra of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the high complexity and low inter-individual overlap of intestinal microbial composition are formidable barriers to identifying microbial taxa representing this dysbiosis. These difficulties might be overcome by an ecologic analytic strategy to identify modules of interacting bacteria (rather than individual bacteria) as quantitative reproducible features of microbial composition in normal and IBD mucosa. We sequenced 16S ribosomal RNA genes from 179 endoscopic lavage samples from different intestinal regions in 64 subjects (32 controls, 16 CD and 16 UC patients in clinical remission). CD and UC patients showed a reduction in phylogenetic diversity and shifts in microbial composition, comparable to previous studies using conventional mucosal biopsies. Analysis of weighted co-occurrence network revealed 5 microbial modules. These modules were unprecedented, as they were detectable in all individuals, and their composition and abundance was recapitulated in an independent, biopsy-based mucosal dataset 2 modules were associated with healthy, CD, or UC disease states. Imputed metagenome analysis indicated that these modules displayed distinct metabolic functionality, specifically the enrichment of oxidative response and glycan metabolism pathways relevant to host-pathogen interaction in the disease-associated modules. The highly preserved microbial modules accurately classified IBD status of individual patients during disease quiescence, suggesting that microbial dysbiosis in IBD may be an underlying disorder independent of disease activity. Microbial modules thus provide an integrative view of microbial ecology relevant to IBD. PMID:24260458

Tong, Maomeng; Li, Xiaoxiao; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Roth, Bennett; Ippoliti, Andrew; Wei, Bo; Borneman, James; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Frank, Daniel N.; Li, Ellen; Horvath, Steve; Knight, Rob; Braun, Jonathan



Induction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression by anaerobes associated with bacterial vaginosis.  


Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder characterized by increased levels of anaerobic bacteria in the genital tract. BV has been associated with an increased rate of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The effects of BV-associated anaerobic bacteria on HIV expression in monocytoid cells and T cells were examined. Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus and Prevotella bivia stimulated HIV expression in monocytoid cells, whereas Bacteroides ureolyticus, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Lactobacillus acidophilus did not enhance HIV expression. P. asaccharolyticus also enhanced HIV expression in T cells and activated HIV long-terminal-repeat transcription in U38 cells. This report suggests a mechanism by which disturbances in vaginal flora could lead to a higher rate of sexual transmission of HIV. Furthermore, this study supports the idea that treatment of BV might serve as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. PMID:10823756

Hashemi, F B; Ghassemi, M; Faro, S; Aroutcheva, A; Spear, G T



Bacterial replacement therapy: adapting 'germ warfare' to infection prevention.  


The individual bacterial members of our indigeneous microbiota are actively engaged in an on-going battle to prevent colonisation and overgrowth of their terrain by competing microbes, some of which might have pathogenic potential for the host. Humans have long attempted to intervene in these bacterial interactions. Ingestion of probiotic bacteria, particularly lactobacilli, is commonly practiced to promote well-balanced intestinal microflora. As bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has increased, so too has research into colonisation of human tissues with specific effector strains capable of out-competing known bacterial pathogens. Recent progress is particularly evident in the application of avirulent Streptococcus mutans to the control of dental caries, alpha hemolytic streptococci to reduction of otitis media recurrences and Streptococcus salivarius to streptococcal pharyngitis prevention. PMID:12727383

Tagg, John R; Dierksen, Karen P



Interleukin-17 is a potent immuno-modulator and regulator of normal human intestinal epithelial cell growth  

SciTech Connect

Upregulation of the T-cell derived cytokine interleukin (IL-17) was reported in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disorders. In this study, we analyzed the effect of IL-17 on human intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) turnover and functions. Proliferation and apoptosis in response to IL-17 was monitored in HIEC (cell counts, [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation method, and annexinV-PI-apoptosis assay). Signalling pathways were analyzed by Western blots, electromobility shift assay, and immunofluorescence studies. IL-17 proved to be a potent inhibitor of HIEC proliferation without any pro-apoptotic/necrotic effect. The growth inhibitory effect of IL-17 was mediated via the p38 stress kinase. Consequently, the p38-SAPkinase-inhibitor SB203580 abrogated this anti-mitotic effect. In parallel, IL-17 provoked the degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, allowing nuclear translocation of the p65 NF-{kappa}B subunit and induction of the NF-{kappa}B-controlled genes IL-6 and -8. IL-17 potently blocks epithelial cell turnover while at the same time amplifying an inflammatory response in a positive feedback manner.

Schwartz, S. [Children's Hospital, Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Beaulieu, J.F. [Department of Cell Biology/Anatomy, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke (Canada); Ruemmele, F.M. [Children's Hospital, Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany) and INSERM EMI0212, Faculte de Medecine Necker, University Paris V, Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance-Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France)]. E-mail:



Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Therefore, Q40P/S47I/H93G is pharmacologically one of the most promising candidates for clinical applications for radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zakrzewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland)] [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)



MPLA inhibits release of cytotoxic mediators from human neutrophils while preserving efficient bacterial killing.  


Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) is a lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derivative associated with neutrophil-dependent anti-inflammatory outcomes in animal models of sepsis. Little is known about the effect of MPLA on neutrophil function. This study sought to test the hypothesis that MPLA would reduce release of cytotoxic mediators from neutrophils without impairing bacterial clearance. Neutrophils were isolated from whole blood of healthy volunteers. The effects of MPLA and LPS on autologous serum-opsonised Pseudomonas aeruginosa killing by neutrophils and phagocytosis of autologous serum-opsonised zymosan were examined. Neutrophil oxidative burst, chemotaxis, enzyme and cytokine release as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression were assessed following exposure to LPS or MPLA. LPS, but not MPLA, induced significant release of superoxide and myeloperoxidase from neutrophils. However, MPLA did not impair neutrophil capacity to ingest microbial particles and kill P. aeruginosa efficiently. MPLA was directly chemotactic for neutrophils, involving TLR4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and tyrosine and alkaline phosphatases. LPS, but not MPLA, impaired N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine-directed migration of neutrophils, increased surface expression of TLR4, increased interleukin-8 release and strongly activated the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 pathway. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition significantly augmented IL-8 release from MPLA-treated neutrophils. The addition of MPLA to LPS-preincubated neutrophils led to a significant reduction in LPS-mediated superoxide release and TLR4 surface expression. Collectively, these findings suggest that MPLA directs efficient chemotaxis and bacterial killing in human neutrophils without inducing extracellular release of cytotoxic mediators and suggest that MPLA warrants further attention as a potential therapeutic in human sepsis. PMID:25001496

Ruchaud-Sparagano, Marie-Hélène; Mills, Ross; Scott, Jonathan; Simpson, A John



EphB2 isolates a human marrow stromal cell subpopulation with enhanced ability to contribute to the resident intestinal cellular pool  

PubMed Central

To identify human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) subsets with enhanced ability to engraft/contribute to the resident intestinal cellular pool, we transplanted clonally derived BMSCs into fetal sheep. Analysis at 75 d post-transplantation showed 2 of the 6 clones engrafting the intestine at 4- to 5-fold higher levels (5.03±0.089 and 5.04±0.15%, respectively) than the other clones (P<0.01), correlating with the percentage of donor-derived Musashi-1+ (12.01–14.17 vs. 1.2–3.8%; P<0.01) or leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5)+ cells within the intestinal stem cell (ISC) region. Phenotypic and transcriptome analysis determined that the clones with enhanced intestinal contribution expressed high levels of Ephrin type B receptor 2 (EphB2). Intestinal explants demonstrated proliferation of the engrafted cells and ability to generate crypt-like structures in vitro still expressing EphB2. Additional transplants based on BMSC EphB2 expression demonstrated that, at 7 d post-transplant, the EphB2high BMSCs engrafted in the ISC region at levels of 2.1 ± 0.2%, while control EphB2low BMSCs engrafted at 0.3 ± 0.1% (P<0.01). Therefore we identified a marker for isolating and culturing an expandable subpopulation of BMSCs with enhanced intestinal homing and contribution to the ISC region.—Colletti, E., El Shabrawy, D., Soland, M., Yamagami, T., Mokhtari, S., Osborne, C., Schlauch, K., Zanjani, E. D., Porada, C. D., Almeida-Porada, G. EphB2 isolates a human marrow stromal cell subpopulation with enhanced ability to contribute to the resident intestinal cellular pool. PMID:23413357

Colletti, Evan; El Shabrawy, Deena; Soland, Melisa; Yamagami, Takashi; Mokhtari, Saloomeh; Osborne, Craig; Schlauch, Karen; Zanjani, Esmail D.; Porada, Christopher D.; Almeida-Porada, Graca



The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  


Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T-cell count of ? 350 cells/mm(3). Regular provision of mass preventive chemotherapy and extended health education will curb the burden of intestinal parasitic infection in the community. Emphasis should also be given to laboratory diagnosis and identification of opportunistic intestinal parasites in patients with lower CD4-Tcell count. PMID:24603288

Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge



Expression of human beta-defensins 1 and 2 in kidneys with chronic bacterial infection  

PubMed Central

Background Constitutive expression and localization of antimicrobial human ?-defensin-1 (HBD-1) in human kidneys as a potential mechanism of antimicrobial defense has been previously reported. Inducible expression of human ?-defensin-2 (HBD-2) has been described in various epithelial organs but not for the urogenital tract. Methods We investigated the gene- and protein expression of HBD-1 and HBD-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry in 15 normal human kidney samples and 15 renal tissues with chronic bacterial infection. Additionally, cell culture experiments were performed to study HBD gene expression by real-time RT-PCR in response to inflammatory cytokines TNF? and IL-1? as well as lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria. Results Constitutive HBD-1 gene- and protein expression was detected in normal renal tissue and kidneys with chronic infection. As a novel finding, inducible HBD-2 gene- and protein expression was demonstrated in tubulus epithelia with chronic infection but not in normal renal tissue. In pyelonephritic kidneys HBD-1 and HBD-2 expression showed a similar pattern of localizaton in distal tubules, loops of Henle and in collecting ducts of the kidney. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR of kidney derived cell lines stimulated with inflammatory agents TNF-?, IL-1? and LPS revealed a strong increase in relative HBD-2 transcription level and also a slight increase in relative HBD-1 transcription level. Conclusions Upregulated HBD-2 expression in renal tubulus epithelium indicates a role of a wider range of human defensins for antimicrobial host defense in the urogenital tract than previously recognized. PMID:12238953

Lehmann, Jan; Retz, Margitta; Harder, Jurgen; Krams, Matthias; Kellner, Udo; Hartmann, Julia; Hohgrawe, Kerstin; Raffenberg, Uta; Gerber, Martin; Loch, Tillmann; Weichert-Jacobsen, Klaus; Stockle, Michael



Lectin-like Ox-LDL Receptor Is Expressed in Human INT-407 Intestinal Cells: Involvement in the Transcytosis of Pancreatic Bile Salt–dependent Lipase  

PubMed Central

We have recently shown that the pancreatic bile salt–dependent lipase (BSDL) can be taken up by intestinal cells and transported to the blood circulation. This mechanism likely involves (specific) receptor(s) able to bind BSDL and located at the apical intestinal cell membrane. In this study, using Int407 human intestinal cells cultured to form a tight epithelium, we attempted to characterize (the) BSDL receptor(s). We found that an apical 50-kDa protein was able to bind BSDL. Further, we have demonstrated that Int407 cells expressed the lectin-like oxidized-LDL receptor (LOX-1), the upregulation of which by oxidized-LDL potentiates the transcytosis of BSDL, whereas carrageenan and to a lesser extent polyinosinic acid and fucoidan decrease the enzyme transcytosis. The mAb JTX92, which blocks the LOX-1 receptor function, also impaired the BSDL transcytosis. To confirm these results, the cDNA encoding the human intestinal receptor LOX-1 has been cloned, inserted into vectors, and transfected into Int407 cells. Overexpression of LOX-1 by these cells leads to a substantial increase in the BSDL transcytosis. Globally, these data support the view that LOX-1 could be an intestinal receptor for BSDL, which is implicated in the transcytosis of this enzyme throughout Int407 cells. PMID:12857870

Bruneau, Nadine; Richard, Stéphane; Silvy, Françoise; Verine, Alain; Lombardo, Dominique



Description of a novel approach to engineer cartilage with porous bacterial nanocellulose for reconstruction of a human auricle.  


In this study, we investigated the effects of human primary chondrocytes, derived from routine septorhino- and otoplasties on a novel nondegradable biomaterial. This biomaterial, porous bacterial nanocellulose, is produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Porosity is generated by paraffin beads embedded during the fermentation process. Human primary chondrocytes were able to adhere to bacterial nanocellulose and produce cartilaginous matrix proteins such as aggrecan (after 14 days) and collagen type II (after 21 days) in the presence of differentiation medium. Cells were located within the pores and in a dense cell layer covering the surface of the biomaterial. Cells were able to re-differentiate, as cell shape and extra cellular matrix gene expression showed a chondrogenic phenotype in three-dimensional bacterial nanocellulose culture. Collagen type I and versican expression decreased during three-dimensional culture. Variations in pore sizes of 150-300 µm and 300-500 µm did not influence cartilaginous extra cellular matrix synthesis. Varying seeding densities from 9.95 × 10(2) to 1.99 × 10(3) cells/mm(2) and 3.98 × 10(3) cells/mm(2) did not result in differences in quality of extra cellular matrix neo-synthesis. Our results demonstrated that both nasal and auricular chondrocytes are equally suitable to synthesize new extra cellular matrix on bacterial nanocellulose. Therefore, we propose both cell sources in combination with bacterial nanocellulose as promising candidates for the special needs of auricular reconstruction. PMID:23413229

Feldmann, Eva-Maria; Sundberg, J F; Bobbili, B; Schwarz, S; Gatenholm, P; Rotter, N



Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith  

E-print Network

as many bacterial cells on our skin and in our large intestine as cells in our own body. We are nothing for insulin into bacteria and let them produce it in large industrial fermenters. So it is important

Smith, Hal


Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Replication, Intracellular Trafficking, and Pathogenicity in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Monolayers  

PubMed Central

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. Its transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. However, consuming milk products from infected livestock animals caused TBEV cases. To better understand TBEV transmission via the alimentary route, we studied viral infection of human intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were used to investigate pathological effects of TBEV infection. TBEV-infected Caco-2 monolayers showed morphological changes including cytoskeleton rearrangements and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Ultrastructural analysis revealed dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and further enlargement to TBEV containing caverns. Caco-2 monolayers maintained an intact epithelial barrier with stable transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) during early stage of infection. Concomitantly, viruses were detected in the basolateral medium, implying a transcytosis pathway. When Caco-2 cells were pre-treated with inhibitors of cellular pathways of endocytosis TBEV cell entry was efficiently blocked, suggesting that actin filaments (Cytochalasin) and microtubules (Nocodazole) are important for PI3K-dependent (LY294002) virus endocytosis. Moreover, experimental fluid uptake assay showed increased intracellular accumulation of FITC-dextran containing vesicles. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of TBEV with early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) as well as with sorting nexin-5 (SNX5), pointing to macropinocytosis as trafficking mechanism. In the late phase of infection, further evidence was found for translocation of virus via the paracellular pathway. Five days after infection TER was slightly decreased. Epithelial barrier integrity was impaired due to increased epithelial apoptosis, leading to passive viral translocation. These findings illuminate pathomechanisms in TBEV infection of human intestinal epithelial cells and viral transmission via the alimentary route. PMID:24820351

Moller, Lars; Schulzke, Joerg D.; Niedrig, Matthias; Bucker, Roland



Tick-borne encephalitis virus replication, intracellular trafficking, and pathogenicity in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.  


Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. Its transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. However, consuming milk products from infected livestock animals caused TBEV cases. To better understand TBEV transmission via the alimentary route, we studied viral infection of human intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were used to investigate pathological effects of TBEV infection. TBEV-infected Caco-2 monolayers showed morphological changes including cytoskeleton rearrangements and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Ultrastructural analysis revealed dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and further enlargement to TBEV containing caverns. Caco-2 monolayers maintained an intact epithelial barrier with stable transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) during early stage of infection. Concomitantly, viruses were detected in the basolateral medium, implying a transcytosis pathway. When Caco-2 cells were pre-treated with inhibitors of cellular pathways of endocytosis TBEV cell entry was efficiently blocked, suggesting that actin filaments (Cytochalasin) and microtubules (Nocodazole) are important for PI3K-dependent (LY294002) virus endocytosis. Moreover, experimental fluid uptake assay showed increased intracellular accumulation of FITC-dextran containing vesicles. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of TBEV with early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) as well as with sorting nexin-5 (SNX5), pointing to macropinocytosis as trafficking mechanism. In the late phase of infection, further evidence was found for translocation of virus via the paracellular pathway. Five days after infection TER was slightly decreased. Epithelial barrier integrity was impaired due to increased epithelial apoptosis, leading to passive viral translocation. These findings illuminate pathomechanisms in TBEV infection of human intestinal epithelial cells and viral transmission via the alimentary route. PMID:24820351

Yu, Chao; Achazi, Katharina; Möller, Lars; Schulzke, Joerg D; Niedrig, Matthias; Bücker, Roland



Epithelial secretion of vinblastine by human intestinal adenocarcinoma cell (HCT-8 and T84) layers expressing P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein expression was demonstrated in two human intestinal adenocarcinoma cell-lines (HCT-8, ileocaecal and T84, colonic) by immunoprecipitation of a 170-180 kDa protein with monoclonal antibody JSB-1. Both HCT-8 and T84 formed functional epithelial cell layers of high transepithelial electrical resistance (greater than 700 omega.cm2) when grown on permeable matrices. These epithelial layers demonstrated vectorial secretion (net vinblastine fluxes in the basal-to-apical direction of 0.135 and 0.452 pmol h-1 cm-2 in HCT-8 and T84 cell layers, respectively, from bathing solutions containing 10 nM vinblastine). These vectorial vinblastine secretions were sensitive to inhibition by verapamil. Passive transepithelial vinblastine permeation was limited by the presence of intercellular (tight) junctions, as demonstrated by the high transepithelial electrical resistance, and verapamil increased this passive vinblastine permeation concomitant with a reduction in the electrical resistance. Cellular vinblastine loading was significantly greater from the basal side, and this was also susceptible to inhibition by basal verapamil. The demonstration of vectorial transport of vinblastine in human intestinal colonic adenocarcinoma cell layers is direct evidence in favour of the hypothesis that the function of mdr1 in epithelial from the gastrointestinal tract is to promote detoxification by a process of epithelial secretion. This study also highlights that cellular vinblastine accumulation depends not only upon P-glycoprotein function, but also upon differential apparent membrane permeabilities and the presence of intercellular (tight) junctions that may restrict drug permeation and cellular accumulation to apical or basal membrane domains. Images Figure 5 PMID:1680366

Hunter, J.; Hirst, B. H.; Simmons, N. L.



Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by a plant-derived dihydroisosteviol in human intestinal epithelial cell.  


Our previous study has shown that dihydroisosteviol (DHIS), a derivative of stevioside isolated from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated transepithelial chloride secretion across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells and prevents cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in mouse closed loop models. In this study, we aimed to investigate a mechanism by which DHIS inhibits CFTR activity. Apical chloride current measurements in Fisher rat thyroid cells stably transfected with wild-type human CFTR (FRT-CFTR cells) and T84 cells were used to investigate mechanism of CFTR inhibition by DHIS. In addition, effect of DHIS on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was investigated using Western blot analysis. Surprisingly, it was found that DHIS failed to inhibit CFTR-mediated apical chloride current in FRT-CFTR cells. In contrast, DHIS effectively inhibited CFTR-mediated apical chloride current induced by a cell permeable cAMP analog CPT-cAMP and a direct CFTR activator genistein in T84 cell monolayers. Interestingly, this inhibitory effect of DHIS on CFTR was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. AICAR, a known AMPK activator, was able to inhibit CFTR activity in both FRT-CFTR and T84 cells. Western blot analysis showed that DHIS induced AMPK activation in T84 cells, but not in FRT-CFTR cells. Our results indicate that DHIS inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in T84 cells, in part, by activation of AMPK activity. DHIS therefore represents a novel candidate of AMPK activators. PMID:23343619

Muanprasat, Chatchai; Sirianant, Lalida; Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Homvisasevongsa, Sureeporn; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj



Human intestinal cell line Caco-2: a useful model for studying cellular and molecular regulation of biotin uptake.  


The mechanisms of enterocyte and molecular regulation of biotin uptake are poorly understood. An intestinal cell line processing the transport characteristics of native intestinal cells is highly desirable to investigate the finer details of the cellular processing and molecular regulation of biotin transport. In the present study, we investigated the uptake of the water-soluble vitamin biotin by a human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Uptake of both low (4 nM) and high (20 microM) concentrations of biotin by confluent monolayers of Caco-2 cells was appreciable and linear for up to 10 min of incubation. Replacement of Na+ in the incubation medium with other monovalent cations--K+, choline, Li+ and NH4(+)--caused a significant inhibition of biotin uptake; a relatively lesser inhibition was seen with Li+. Initial rate of uptake of biotin was temperature-dependent and saturable as a function of concentration at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. The Vmax and apparent Km of the temperature-dependent saturable process were 520 pmol/mg protein per min and 9.5 microM, respectively. The addition of unlabeled biotin and the structural analogue desthiobiotin to the incubation media caused a significant inhibition of the uptake of [3H]biotin. The inhibitory effect of desthiobiotin was competitive in nature with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 41 microM. Biocytin, on the other hand, was a weak inhibitor and biotin methyl ester and diaminobiotin did not have any effect. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with the monovalent cation ionophore gramicidin and the Na+, K+(-)ATPase inhibitor ouabain caused significant inhibition of biotin uptake. Pretreatment with the K+ ionophore valinomycin did not affect biotin uptake. Using the 'Activation Method', the stoichiometric ratio of biotin- to Na+ coupling was found to be 1:1. Growing confluent Caco-2 cells in a biotin-deficient environment resulted in rapid up-regulation of biotin transport with a marked increase (258%) in the Vmax of biotin uptake. These findings demonstrate that biotin uptake by Caco-2 cells is via a carrier-mediated system. This system is temperature-dependent, driven by Na(+)-gradient and is regulated by the substrate level. These in-vitro findings are very similar to and further confirm previous findings in human and animal studies and dispute other findings previously reported for Caco-2 cells; the present study also demonstrates the suitability of this system for further characterization of the cellular and molecular regulation of biotin uptake. PMID:7508263

Ma, T Y; Dyer, D L; Said, H M



Absorption of calcium measured by intubation and perfusion of the intact human small intestine  

PubMed Central

Absorption of calcium was measured by direct intubation and perfusion of the small intestine in 10 volunteer normal adult subjects, two adults with celiac-sprue, and one with a parathyroid adenoma. A total of 60 studies were completed using one of two different levels, duodenojejunum or ileum. Solutions containing stable calcium, radiocalcium47, and a nonabsorbable dilution-concentration marker, polyethylene glycol, were infused at a uniform rate via the proximal lumen of a triple-lumen polyvinyl tube. The mixed intraluminal contents were continuously sampled by siphonage from two distal sites, 10 and 60 cm below the point of infusion. Unidirectional flux rates, lumen to blood and blood to lumen, and net absorption of calcium for the 50 cm segment of small intestine between the two collection sites were calculated from the measured changes in concentration of stable calcium, calcium-47, and polyethylene glycol. Flux of calcium from lumen to blood in the duodenojejunum of normal subjects was appreciable even when the concentration of calcium in the perfusate was below that of extracellular fluid and, as the intraluminal concentration of calcium was increased through a range of 0.5-3.5 ?moles/ml, was positively correlated, ranging from 1.9 to 7.0 ?moles/min per 50 cm. Repeated studies of individual subjects demonstrated a consistent pattern of absorptive efficiency in each, but significant variability from person to person. Flux from lumen to blood in the ileal segment occurred at a much lower rate than that found in the proximal intestine, and there was not a significant dependence upon intraluminal calcium concentration. The opposite flux, from blood to lumen, was low both in the duodenojejunum and ileum (average 0.76 ?moles/min per 50 cm) and was independent of the intraluminal calcium concentration. Unidirectional flux, lumen to blood, from the duodenojejunum was not altered by parathyroid extract administered at the time of the infusion, but was accelerated in the subject with a parathyroid adenoma and markedly reduced in the two subjects with celiac-sprue. PMID:5822585

Wensel, Ronald H.; Rich, Clayton; Brown, Arthur C.; Volwiler, Wade



Microbial fingerprinting detects intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in Zebrafish models with chemically-induced enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves a breakdown in interactions between the host immune response and the resident commensal microbiota. Recent studies have suggested gut physiology and pathology relevant to human IBD can be rapidly modeled in zebrafish larvae. The aim of this study was to investigate the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in zebrafish models with IBD-like enterocolitis using culture-independent techniques. Results IBD-like enterocolitis was induced by exposing larval zebrafish to trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Pathology was assessed by histology and immunofluorescence. Changes in intestinal microbiota were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the predominant bacterial composition was determined with DNA sequencing and BLAST and confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Larval zebrafish exposed to TNBS displayed intestinal-fold architecture disruption and inflammation reminiscent of human IBD. In this study, we defined a reduced biodiversity of gut bacterial community in TNBS-induced coliitis. The intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in zebrafish larvae with IBD-like colitis was characterized by an increased proportion of Proteobacteria (especially Burkholderia) and a decreased of Firmicutes(Lactobacillus group), which were significantly correlated with enterocolitis severity(Pearson correlation p < 0.01). Conclusions This is the first description of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in zebrafish IBD-like models, and these changes correlate with TNBS-induced enterocolitis. Prevention or reversal of this dysbiosis may be a viable option for reducing the incidence and severity of human IBD. PMID:24325678



Bacterial Probiotic Modulation of Dendritic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal dendritic cells are continually exposed to ingested microorganisms and high concentrations of endogenous bacterial flora. These cells can be activated by infectious agents and other stimuli to induce T-cell responses and to produce chemokines which recruit other cells to the local environment. Bacterial probiotics are of increasing use against intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. They act as

Maureen Drakes; Thomas Blanchard; Steven Czinn



The impact of farnesoid X receptor activation on intestinal permeability in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

The most important function of the intestinal mucosa is to form a barrier that separates luminal contents from the intestine. Defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier have been observed in several intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have identified a number of factors that contribute to development of IBD including environmental triggers, genetic factors, immunoregulatory defects and microbial exposure. The current review focuses on the influence of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) on the inhibition of intestinal inflammation in patients with IBD. The development and investigation of FXR agonists provide strong support for the regulatory role of FXR in mucosal innate immunity. Activation of FXR in the intestinal tract decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 1-beta, IL-2, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, thus contributing to a reduction in inflammation and epithelial permeability. In addition, intestinal FXR activation induces the transcription of multiple genes involved in enteroprotection and the prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. These data suggest that FXR agonists are potential candidates for exploration as a novel therapeutic strategy for IBD in humans. PMID:22993736

Stojancevic, Maja; Stankov, Karmen; Mikov, Momir



Lactobacillus acidophilus Alleviates Platelet-Activating Factor-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Probiotics have been used as alternative prevention and therapy modalities in intestinal inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Pathophysiology of IBD and NEC includes the production of diverse lipid mediators, including platelet-activating factor (PAF) that mediate inflammatory responses in the disease. PAF is known to activate NF-?B, however, the mechanisms of PAF-induced inflammation are not fully defined. We have recently described a novel PAF-triggered pathway of NF-?B activation and IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), requiring the pivotal role of the adaptor protein Bcl10 and its interactions with CARMA3 and MALT1. The current studies examined the potential role of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in reversing the PAF-induced, Bcl10-dependent NF-?B activation and IL-8 production in IECs. PAF treatment (5 µM×24 h) of NCM460 and Caco-2 cells significantly increased nuclear p65 NF-?B levels and IL-8 secretion (2-3-fold, P<0.05), compared to control, which were blocked by pretreatment of the cells for 6 h with L. acidophilus (LA) or its culture supernatant (CS), followed by continued treatments with PAF for 24 h. LA-CS also attenuated PAF-induced increase in Bcl10 mRNA and protein levels and Bcl10 promoter activity. LA-CS did not alter PAF-induced interaction of Bcl10 with CARMA3, but attenuated Bcl1