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Sample records for human intestinal bacterial

  1. Contributions of microbiome and mechanical deformation to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation in a human gut-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Li, Hu; Collins, James J; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    A human gut-on-a-chip microdevice was used to coculture multiple commensal microbes in contact with living human intestinal epithelial cells for more than a week in vitro and to analyze how gut microbiome, inflammatory cells, and peristalsis-associated mechanical deformations independently contribute to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation. This in vitro model replicated results from past animal and human studies, including demonstration that probiotic and antibiotic therapies can suppress villus injury induced by pathogenic bacteria. By ceasing peristalsis-like motions while maintaining luminal flow, lack of epithelial deformation was shown to trigger bacterial overgrowth similar to that observed in patients with ileus and inflammatory bowel disease. Analysis of intestinal inflammation on-chip revealed that immune cells and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin together stimulate epithelial cells to produce four proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1?, and TNF-?) that are necessary and sufficient to induce villus injury and compromise intestinal barrier function. Thus, this human gut-on-a-chip can be used to analyze contributions of microbiome to intestinal pathophysiology and dissect disease mechanisms in a controlled manner that is not possible using existing in vitro systems or animal models. PMID:26668389

  2. Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Darren

    Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia Yiorgos intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, mainte- nance, and metastasis elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas

  3. Campylobacter jejuni Outer Membrane Vesicles Play an Important Role in Bacterial Interactions with Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C.; Inglis, Neil F.; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W.; Smith, David G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

  4. Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane vesicles play an important role in bacterial interactions with human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Elmi, Abdi; Watson, Eleanor; Sandu, Pamela; Gundogdu, Ozan; Mills, Dominic C; Inglis, Neil F; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan W; Smith, David G E; Dorrell, Nick

    2012-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world; however, the molecular basis of pathogenesis is unclear. Secretion of virulence factors is a key mechanism by which enteric bacterial pathogens interact with host cells to enhance survival and/or damage the host. However, C. jejuni lacks the virulence-associated secretion systems possessed by other enteric pathogens. Many bacterial pathogens utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) for delivery of virulence factors into host cells. In the absence of prototypical virulence-associated secretion systems, OMVs could be an important alternative for the coordinated delivery of C. jejuni proteins into host cells. Proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 11168H OMVs identified 151 proteins, including periplasmic and outer membrane-associated proteins, but also many determinants known to be important in survival and pathogenesis, including the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). C. jejuni OMVs contained 16 N-linked glycoproteins, indicating a delivery mechanism by which these periplasm-located yet immunogenic glycoproteins can interact with host cells. C. jejuni OMVs possess cytotoxic activity and induce a host immune response from T84 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which was not reduced by OMV pretreatment with proteinase K or polymyxin B prior to coincubation with IECs. Pretreatment of IECs with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin partially blocks OMV-induced host immune responses, indicating a role for lipid rafts in host cell plasma membranes during interactions with C. jejuni OMVs. OMVs isolated from a C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the same extent as did wild-type OMVs, suggesting OMV induction of IL-8 is independent of CDT. PMID:22966047

  5. Bacterial census of poultry intestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wei, S; Morrison, M; Yu, Z

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate a phylogenetic diversity census of bacteria identified in the intestinal tract of chickens and turkeys using a naïve analysis of all the curated 16S rRNA gene sequences archived in public databases. High-quality sequences of chicken and turkey gastrointestinal origin (3,184 and 1,345, respectively) were collected from the GenBank, Ribosomal Database Project, and Silva comprehensive ribosomal RNA database. Through phylogenetic and statistical analysis, 915 and 464 species-equivalent operational taxonomic units (defined at 0.03 phylogenetic distance) were found in the chicken and the turkey sequence collections, respectively. Of the 13 bacterial phyla identified in both bird species, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the largest phyla, accounting for >90% of all the sequences. The chicken sequences represent 117 established bacterial genera, and the turkey sequences represent 69 genera. The most predominant genera found in both the chicken and the turkey sequence data sets were Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides, but with different distribution between the 2 bird species. The estimated coverage of bacterial diversity of chicken and turkey reached 89 and 68% at species-equivalent and 93 and 73% at genus-equivalent levels, respectively. Less than 7,000 bacterial sequences from each bird species from various locations would be needed to reach 99% coverage for either bird species. Based on annotation of the sequence records, cecum was the most sampled gut segment. Chickens and turkeys were shown to have distinct intestinal microbiomes, sharing only 16% similarity at the species-equivalent level. Besides identifying gaps in knowledge on bacterial diversity in poultry gastrointestinal tract, the bacterial census generated in this study may serve as a framework for future studies and development of analytic tools. PMID:23436518

  6. Metabolism of aloesin and related compounds by human intestinal bacteria: a bacterial cleavage of the C-glucosyl bond and the subsequent reduction of the acetonyl side chain.

    PubMed

    Che, Q M; Akao, T; Hattori, M; Kobashi, K; Namba, T

    1991-03-01

    By anaerobic incubation with a bacterial mixture from human feces, aloesin (aloeresin B; 1) was converted to 2-acetonyl-7-hydroxy-5-methylchromone (aloesone; 3) and dl-7-hydroxy-2-(2'-hydroxypropyl)-5-methylchromone (aloesol; 4a + 4b) through a cleavage of the C-glucosyl bond, followed by reduction of the acetonyl side chain. An analogous compound, aloeresin A (2), was converted to p-coumaric acid and aloesin (1), the latter being subsequently transformed to aloesone (3) and dl-aloesol (4a + 4b). On the other hand, 7-O-methylated derivatives (7, 5a and 5b) of aloesin and of 8-C-glucosylaloesol were not cleaved to the corresponding aglycones, suggesting the importance of a free hydroxy group adjacent to the C-glucosyl group in the molecule for the bacterial cleavage of aloesin derivatives. This is the first report on the cleavage of the C-glycosyl bond of chromone C-glucosides by intestinal bacteria. PMID:2070451

  7. The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Petracca, Martina; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Ragazzoni, Enzo; Barbaro, Federico; Piano, Carla; Fortuna, Serena; Tortora, Annalisa; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Campanale, Mariachiara; Gigante, Giovanni; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Navarra, Pierluigi; Marconi, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

    2013-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with gastrointestinal motility abnormalities favoring the occurrence of local infections. The aim of this study was to investigate whether small intestinal bacterial overgrowth contributes to the pathophysiology of motor fluctuations. Thirty-three patients and 30 controls underwent glucose, lactulose, and urea breath tests to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients also underwent ultrasonography to evaluate gastric emptying. The clinical status and plasma concentration of levodopa were assessed after an acute drug challenge with a standard dose of levodopa, and motor complications were assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-IV and by 1-week diaries of motor conditions. Patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were treated with rifaximin and were clinically and instrumentally reevaluated 1 and 6 months later. The prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was significantly higher in patients than in controls (54.5% vs. 20.0%; P?=?.01), whereas the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was not (33.3% vs. 26.7%). Compared with patients without any infection, the prevalence of unpredictable fluctuations was significantly higher in patients with both infections (8.3% vs. 87.5%; P?=?.008). Gastric half-emptying time was significantly longer in patients than in healthy controls but did not differ in patients based on their infective status. Compared with patients without isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, patients with isolated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth had longer off time daily and more episodes of delayed-on and no-on. The eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth resulted in improvement in motor fluctuations without affecting the pharmacokinetics of levodopa. The relapse rate of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth at 6 months was 43%. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:23712625

  8. Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn’s disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain Giardia infections may attenuate PMN accumulation by decreasing the expression of the mediators responsible for their recruitment. PMID:25289678

  9. Alcohol, intestinal bacterial growth, intestinal permeability to endotoxin, and medical consequences: summary of a symposium.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R

    2008-08-01

    This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine, which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram-negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan, which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, l-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc, thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram-negative bacteria and preserving intestinal permeability to endotoxin may attenuate alcoholic liver and other organ injuries. PMID:18504085

  10. Pediatric Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Low-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, Jeffrey R.; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when colonic quantities of commensal bacteria are present in the small bowel. SIBO is associated with conditions of disrupted GI motility leading to stasis of luminal contents. Recent data show that SIBO is also found in children living in unsanitary conditions that do not have access to clean water. SIBO leads to impaired micronutrient absorption and increased GI permeability, both of which may contribute to growth stunting in children. SIBO also disrupts mucosal immunity and has been implicated in oral vaccination underperformance and the development of celiac disease. SIBO in the setting of the impoverished human habitat may be an under recognized cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality in the developing world. PMID:25486880

  11. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions. PMID:26477048

  12. Vitamin B12 uptake by intestinal microorganisms: mechanism and relevance to syndromes of intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Giannella, R. A.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1971-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial uptake of vitamin B12, the spectrum of microorganisms capable of such uptake, and the factors involved were the subject of this study. Bacterial uptake of vitamin B12 was found to be at least a two stage process. A primary uptake phase which was rapid (1 min or less), pH dependent, nontemperature dependent, did not require viable organisms and was insensitive to either the metabolic inhibitor dinitrophenol or to the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethyl-maleimide. Protein denaturation (formalin treatment or autoclaving) abolished all B12 uptake. This primary uptake phase is thought to represent adsorption to binding or “receptor” sites on the cell wall. Second stage uptake was slower, pH and temperature dependent, required living bacteria, and was abolished by either dinitrophenol or N-ethyl-maleimide. This phase is dependent upon metabolic processes and may reflect transfer of B12 from surface “receptor” sites into the bacterial cell. Although differences among organisms were observed in total 1 hr uptake, number of surface “receptor” sites, and relative avidities for B12, all organisms except Streptococcus fecalis shared the two stage mechanism. Two Gram-positive organisms. Bacillus subtilis and Group A streptococcus, demonstrated the highest 1 hr vitamin B12 uptake values; Gram-negative bacteria required 2,000-10,000 the number of organisms for comparable uptake. Binding constants (Km) varied from 5.05 ±1.67 × 10-10M for B. subtilis to 6.18 ±3.08 × 10-9M for Klebsiella pneumoniae which approximate the Km for human intrinsic factor (0.38 × 10-10M). Competition between bacteria and intrinsic factor for vitamin B12 may be inferred from the similarity of these constants. These observations suggest that a variety of enteric and nonenteric organisms, not requiring exogenous B12, may play a role in the pathogenesis of the vitamin B12 malabsorption found in the intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndromes. PMID:4994753

  13. Curcumin utilizes the anti-inflammatory response pathway to protect the intestine against bacterial invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, a major component of the Curcuma species, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although it was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, the functional role of curcumin as well as its molecular mechanism in anti-inflammatory response, particularly in intestinal cells, has been less investigated. The intestine epithelial barrier is the first barrier and the most important location for the substrate coming from the lumen of the gut. SUBJECTS/METHODS We administered curcumin treatment in the human intestinal epithelial cell lines, T84 and Caco-2. We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response by thapsigargin, qPCR of XBP1 and BiP, electrophysiology by wild-type cholera toxin in the cells. RESULTS In this study, we showed that curcumin treatment reduces ER stress and thereby decreases inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, curcumin confers protection without damaging the membrane tight junction or actin skeleton change in intestine epithelial cells. Therefore, curcumin treatment protects the gut from bacterial invasion via reduction of ER stress and anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, our data demonstrate the important role of curcumin in protecting the intestine by modulating ER stress and inflammatory response post intoxication. PMID:25861416

  14. Analysis of Intestinal Bacterial Community Diversity of Adult Dastarcus helophoroides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z. Q.; He, C.; Li, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25200108

  15. Role of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor in bacterial translocation and intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dombrowicz, D; Nutten, S; Desreumaux, P; Neut, C; Torpier, G; Peeters, M; Colombel, J F; Capron, M

    2001-01-01

    A role for immunoglobulin E and its high affinity receptor (Fc epsilon RI) in the control of bacterial pathogenicity and intestinal inflammation has been suggested, but relevant animal models are lacking. Here we compare transgenic mice expressing a humanized Fc epsilon RI (hFc epsilon RI), with a cell distribution similar to that in humans, to Fc epsilon RI-deficient animals. In hFc epsilon RI transgenic mice, levels of colonic interleukin 4 were higher, the composition of fecal flora was greatly modified, and bacterial translocation towards mesenteric lymph nodes was increased. In hFc epsilon RI transgenic mice, 2,4,6-tri-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis was also more pronounced, whereas Fc epsilon RI-deficient animals were protected from colitis, demonstrating that Fc epsilon RI can affect the onset of intestinal inflammation. PMID:11136818

  16. Role of the High Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor in Bacterial Translocation and Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowicz, David; Nutten, Sophie; Desreumaux, Pierre; Neut, Christel; Torpier, Gérard; Peeters, Marc; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Capron, Monique

    2001-01-01

    A role for immunoglobulin E and its high affinity receptor (Fc?RI) in the control of bacterial pathogenicity and intestinal inflammation has been suggested, but relevant animal models are lacking. Here we compare transgenic mice expressing a humanized Fc?RI (hFc?RI), with a cell distribution similar to that in humans, to Fc?RI-deficient animals. In hFc?RI transgenic mice, levels of colonic interleukin 4 were higher, the composition of fecal flora was greatly modified, and bacterial translocation towards mesenteric lymph nodes was increased. In hFc?RI transgenic mice, 2,4,6-tri-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis was also more pronounced, whereas Fc?RI-deficient animals were protected from colitis, demonstrating that Fc?RI can affect the onset of intestinal inflammation. PMID:11136818

  17. Transfer of intestinal bacterial components to mammary secretions in the cow

    PubMed Central

    Young, Wayne; Hine, Brad C.; Wallace, Olivia A.M.; Callaghan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Results from large multicentre epidemiological studies suggest an association between the consumption of raw milk and a reduced incidence of allergy and asthma in children. Although the underlying mechanisms for this association are yet to be confirmed, researchers have investigated whether bacteria or bacterial components that naturally occur in cow’s milk are responsible for modulating the immune system to reduce the risk of allergic diseases. Previous research in human and mice suggests that bacterial components derived from the maternal intestine are transported to breast milk through the bloodstream. The aim of our study was to assess whether a similar mechanism of bacterial trafficking could occur in the cow. Through the application of culture-independent methodology, we investigated the microbial composition and diversity of milk, blood and feces of healthy lactating cows. We found that a small number of bacterial OTUs belonging to the genera Ruminococcus and Bifidobacterium, and the Peptostreptococcaceae family were present in all three samples from the same individual animals. Although these results do not confirm the hypothesis that trafficking of intestinal bacteria into mammary secretions does occur in the cow, they support the existence of an endogenous entero-mammary pathway for some bacterial components during lactation in the cow. Further research is required to define the specific mechanisms by which gut bacteria are transported into the mammary gland of the cow, and the health implications of such bacteria being present in milk. PMID:25922791

  18. Transfer of intestinal bacterial components to mammary secretions in the cow.

    PubMed

    Young, Wayne; Hine, Brad C; Wallace, Olivia A M; Callaghan, Megan; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Results from large multicentre epidemiological studies suggest an association between the consumption of raw milk and a reduced incidence of allergy and asthma in children. Although the underlying mechanisms for this association are yet to be confirmed, researchers have investigated whether bacteria or bacterial components that naturally occur in cow's milk are responsible for modulating the immune system to reduce the risk of allergic diseases. Previous research in human and mice suggests that bacterial components derived from the maternal intestine are transported to breast milk through the bloodstream. The aim of our study was to assess whether a similar mechanism of bacterial trafficking could occur in the cow. Through the application of culture-independent methodology, we investigated the microbial composition and diversity of milk, blood and feces of healthy lactating cows. We found that a small number of bacterial OTUs belonging to the genera Ruminococcus and Bifidobacterium, and the Peptostreptococcaceae family were present in all three samples from the same individual animals. Although these results do not confirm the hypothesis that trafficking of intestinal bacteria into mammary secretions does occur in the cow, they support the existence of an endogenous entero-mammary pathway for some bacterial components during lactation in the cow. Further research is required to define the specific mechanisms by which gut bacteria are transported into the mammary gland of the cow, and the health implications of such bacteria being present in milk. PMID:25922791

  19. Diagnosis and management of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Matthew; Siwiec, Robert M; Wo, John M

    2013-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can result from failure of the gastric acid barrier, failure of small intestinal motility, anatomic alterations, or impairment of systemic and local immunity. The current accepted criteria for the diagnosis of SIBO is the presence of coliform bacteria isolated from the proximal jejunum with >10(5) colony-forming units/mL. A major concern with luminal aspiration is that it is only one random sampling of the small intestine and may not always be representative of the underlying microbiota. A new approach to examine the underlying microbiota uses rapid molecular sequencing, but its clinical utilization is still under active investigation. Clinical manifestations of SIBO are variable and include bloating, flatulence, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Severe cases may present with nutrition deficiencies due to malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients. The current management strategies for SIBO center on identifying and correcting underlying causes, addressing nutrition deficiencies, and judicious utilization of antibiotics to treat symptomatic SIBO. PMID:23614961

  20. Intestinal bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity of patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Jin, Y H

    2001-12-01

    The fecal beta-glucuronidase activity of patients with colon cancer and healthy controls were measured to determine the relationship between the fluctuation of intestinal bacterial beta-glucuronidase and colon cancer. The fecal beta-glucuronidase activity of patients with colon cancer was 1.7 times higher than that of the healthy controls. However, when these fecal specimens were sonicated, the enzyme activity of patients with colon cancer was 12.1 times higher than that of the healthy controls. The fecal beta-glucuronidase activity of human intestinal bacteria was drastically induced by its substrate or the bile secreted after a subcutaneous injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and benzo[a]pyrene into rats. DMH- and benzo[a]pyrene-treated biles induced beta-glucuronidase activity in the human intestinal microflora by approximately 1.5- and 2.3-fold, respectively. They also induced beta-glucuronidase in E. coli HGU-3, which is a beta-glucuronidase-producing bacterium from the human intestine. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone similarly inhibited fecal beta-glucuronidase in several patients with colon cancer in addition to the healthy controls. This suggests that potent beta-glucuronidase activity is a prime factor in the etiology of colon cancer. PMID:11794536

  1. Human intestinal spirochetosis: right-side preference in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2015-12-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal bacterial infection, and its clinicopathologic features remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine its characteristics. We histologically reviewed paraffin-embedded section slides made in 2001, 2006, and 2011 at a single institution in Japan. Cases histologically exhibiting a distinct fringe formation were considered to have HIS. Information was obtained from pathology request forms. We identified 85 HIS cases among 4930 patients (7 cases [0.5%) in 2001, 29 [1.7%] in 2006, and 49 [2.8%] in 2011]. Gastrointestinal symptoms were observed in 7.1% of HIS cases. Human intestinal spirochetosis was more frequent in the right-side large intestine than in the left side. Among 224 samples from HIS cases, conventional (tubular, tubulovillous, and villous) adenomas were found in 148 samples. These adenomas were more frequent in the right side than in the left side, although neither their size nor morphology differed between the sides. Histopathologic evaluation suggested a year-upon-year increasing prevalence of HIS in Japan. A small number exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms. Both histologic sign of HIS and conventional adenomas were more frequent in the right-side large intestine. Therefore, a right-side preference may be a characteristic of HIS. PMID:26597024

  2. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2008-01-28

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

  3. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Saichua, Prasert; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. PMID:18203280

  4. Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anant D.

    2014-01-01

    Altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility is seen in many pathological conditions. Reduced motility is one of the risk factors for development of a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Hypothyroidism is associated with altered GI motility. The aim of this article was to study the link between hypothyroidism, altered GI motility and development of SIBO. Published literature was reviewed to study the association of altered GI motility, SIBO and hypothyroidism. Altered GI motility leads to SIBO. SIBO is common in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with chronic GI symptoms in hypothyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of SIBO. Both antibiotics and probiotics have been studied and found to be effective in management of SIBO. PMID:24944923

  5. The Mucin degrader Akkermansia muciniphila is an abundant resident of the human intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Muriel; Collado, M Carmen; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

    2008-03-01

    A 16S rRNA-targeted probe, MUC-1437, was designed and validated in order to determine the presence and numbers of cells of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, in the human intestinal tract. As determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, A. muciniphila accounted more than 1% of the total fecal cells and was shown to be a common bacterial component of the human intestinal tract. PMID:18083887

  6. Regulation of Bacterial Pathogenesis by Intestinal Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yvonne; O’Riordan, Mary X. D.

    2013-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is inextricably linked to health and disease. One important function of the commensal organisms living in the intestine is to provide colonization resistance against invading enteric pathogens. Because of the complex nature of the interaction between the microbiota and its host, multiple mechanisms likely contribute to resistance. In this review, we dissect the biological role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are fermentation end products of the intestinal microbiota, in host–pathogen interactions. SCFA exert an extensive influence on host physiology through nutritional, regulatory, and immunomodulatory functions and can also affect bacterial fitness as a form of acid stress. Moreover, SCFA act as a signal for virulence gene regulation in common enteric pathogens. Taken together, these studies highlight the importance of the chemical environment where the biology of the host, the microbiota, and the pathogen intersects, which provides a basis for designing effective infection prevention and control. PMID:23942149

  7. Blockage of protease-activated receptor 1 ameliorates heat-stress induced intestinal high permeability and bacterial translocation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiu-lin; Guo, Xiao-hua; Liu, Jing-xian; Chen, Bin; Liu, Zhi-feng; Su, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Accumulated evidences indicate intestinal lesions play an important role in the pathogenesis of heatstroke. However, the underlying mechanisms by which heat stress causes intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in heat stress-induced intestinal hyper-permeability and bacterial translocation. Intestinal permeability in heat stressed mouse was evaluated by determining plasma endotoxin concentration and urinal lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio with gastric administration of L/M solution. Venous blood, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node tissues were collected for bacterial load test. Real time PCR was used to determine ileum PAR1 mRNA expression. In vitro study, permeability was assessed by determining trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. RWJ-58259, a selective antagonist of PAR1, was used both in vivo and in vitro studies. The results showed that heat stress could increase ileum PAR1 mRNA level, urinal L/M ratio, plasma endotoxin concentration and bacterial load in the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Blocking PAR1 with RWJ-58259 (10?mg/kg) pretreatment could significantly reduce heat stress-induced above changes, but have no role to PAR1 mRNA level. In Caco-2 cells, heat stress-induced high permeability could also be reduced by RWJ-58259 (5-20?µmol/L). In summary, our results demonstrated that PAR1 signaling pathway may play an important role in the heat stress-induced elevation of intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and the occurrence of endotoxemia. PMID:25492552

  8. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  9. Breath testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: maximizing test accuracy.

    PubMed

    Saad, Richard J; Chey, William D

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has increased considerably owing to a growing recognition of its association with common bowel symptoms including chronic diarrhea, bloating, abdominal distention, and the irritable bowel syndrome. Ideally, an accurate and objective diagnosis of SIBO should be established before initiating antibiotic treatment. Unfortunately, no perfect test exists for the diagnosis of SIBO. The current gold standard, small-bowel aspiration and quantitative culture, is limited by its high cost, invasive nature, lack of standardization, sampling error, and need for dedicated infrastructure. Although not without shortcomings, hydrogen breath testing provides the simplest noninvasive and widely available diagnostic modality for suspected SIBO. Carbohydrates such as lactulose and glucose are the most widely used substrates in hydrogen breath testing, with glucose arguably providing greater testing accuracy. Lactose, fructose, and sorbitol should not be used as substrates in the assessment of suspected SIBO. The measurement of methane in addition to hydrogen can increase the sensitivity of breath testing for SIBO. Diagnostic accuracy of hydrogen breath testing in SIBO can be maximized by careful patient selection for testing, proper test preparation, and standardization of test performance as well as test interpretation. PMID:24095975

  10. Tipping elements in the human intestinal ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Salonen, Anne; Scheffer, Marten; de Vos, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial communities living in the human intestine can have profound impact on our well-being and health. However, we have limited understanding of the mechanisms that control this complex ecosystem. Here, based on a deep phylogenetic analysis of the intestinal microbiota in a thousand western adults, we identify groups of bacteria that exhibit robust bistable abundance distributions. These bacteria are either abundant or nearly absent in most individuals, and exhibit decreased temporal stability at the intermediate abundance range. The abundances of these bimodally distributed bacteria vary independently, and their abundance distributions are not affected by short-term dietary interventions. However, their contrasting alternative states are associated with host factors such as ageing and overweight. We propose that the bistable groups reflect tipping elements of the intestinal microbiota, whose critical transitions may have profound health implications and diagnostic potential. PMID:25003530

  11. Robust bioengineered 3D functional human intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lin, Yinan; Davis, Kimberly M.; Wang, Qianrui; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Li, Chunmei; Isberg, Ralph R.; Kumamoto, Carol A.; Mecsas, Joan; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal functions are central to human physiology, health and disease. Options to study these functions with direct relevance to the human condition remain severely limited when using conventional cell cultures, microfluidic systems, organoids, animal surrogates or human studies. To replicate in vitro the tissue architecture and microenvironments of native intestine, we developed a 3D porous protein scaffolding system, containing a geometrically-engineered hollow lumen, with adaptability to both large and small intestines. These intestinal tissues demonstrated representative human responses by permitting continuous accumulation of mucous secretions on the epithelial surface, establishing low oxygen tension in the lumen, and interacting with gut-colonizing bacteria. The newly developed 3D intestine model enabled months-long sustained access to these intestinal functions in vitro, readily integrable with a multitude of different organ mimics and will therefore ensure a reliable ex vivo tissue system for studies in a broad context of human intestinal diseases and treatments. PMID:26374193

  12. Composition, Diversity, and Origin of the Bacterial Community in Grass Carp Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R.; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  13. The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal permeability, endotoxaemia, and tumour necrosis factor ? in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, A; Roberts-Thomson, I; Dymock, R; McCarthy, P; Grose, R; Cummins, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may contribute to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, perhaps by increasing intestinal permeability and promoting the absorption of endotoxin or other enteric bacterial products.?AIMS—To investigate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased intestinal permeability, elevated endotoxin, and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) levels in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and in control subjects.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—Twenty two patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and 23 control subjects were studied. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was assessed by a combined 14C-D-xylose and lactulose breath test. Intestinal permeability was assessed by a dual lactulose-rhamnose sugar test. Serum endotoxin levels were determined using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and TNF-? levels using an ELISA.?RESULTS—Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in 50% of patients with non-alcoholic steatosis and 22% of control subjects (p=0.048). Mean TNF-? levels in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients and control subjects were 14.2 and 7.5 pg/ml, respectively (p=0.001). Intestinal permeability and serum endotoxin levels were similar in the two groups.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis have a higher prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, as assessed by the 14C-D-xylose-lactulose breath test, and higher TNF-? levels in comparison with control subjects. This is not accompanied by increased intestinal permeability or elevated endotoxin levels.???Keywords: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; intestinal permeability; endotoxin; tumour necrosis factor ? PMID:11156641

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  15. The study on the impact of glycated pea proteins on human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    ?wi?tecka, Dominika; Dominika, ?wi?tecka; Narbad, Arjan; Arjan, Narbad; Ridgway, Karyn P; Karyn, Ridgway P; Kostyra, Henryk; Henryk, Kostyra

    2011-01-31

    The traditionally perceived function of nutrition includes supplying the consumer with the appropriate quantity and quality of substrates. As nutritional substrates, proteins are prone to spontaneously occurring non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) which can alter their molecular structure, making them highly bioactive. Glycated food proteins are able to modify the bacterial intestinal ecosystem, which is of great importance for the optimal usage of nutrients and maintenance of both intestinal homeostasis and balanced health status of the consumer. This study aimed to determine the impact of glycated pea proteins on the intestinal bacteria from a healthy human. The analyses were conducted with the use of experimental batch-type simulator models imitating human intestinal conditions. The glycated pea proteins affected the growth of gut commensal bacteria, particularly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, whose levels increased significantly. There was a corresponding shift in the bacterial metabolites with increased levels of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs); acetate, propionate lactate and butyrate. Intestinal bacteria were able to utilize these pea proteins thus indicating that the energy encrypted in glycated pea proteins, partially inaccessible for gastric enzymes, may be salvaged by gut microbiota. Such changes in microbial composition may beneficially impact the intestinal environment and exert a health-promoting effect in humans. PMID:21276631

  16. Intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Zhong, R.; Wang, P.Z.; Chen, H.F.; Garcia, B.; Behme, R.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J. )

    1991-08-01

    In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. The present study evaluated gut barrier function following orthotopic (in continuity) intestinal grafting in rats. Graft histology, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to the grafted mesenteric lymph nodes, the host's liver, and the host's spleen were assessed on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days. The study group received no immunosuppression after allotransplantation. The two control groups included rats with isografts and rats with cyclosporine-treated allografts. On the 7th POD, the study animals had moderate transmural inflammation due to rejection, with normal histology in the isografts and CsA-treated allografts; increased intestinal permeability, measured by urinary excretion of oral 51Cr-EDTA (P less than 0.01); and increased number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen (P less than 0.05). The number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen of the study group positively correlated with the changes in intestinal permeability (P less than 0.05). Rejection of the orthotopic intestinal graft leads to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the lumen of the graft to the host's reticuloendothelial system. Measures to improve gut barrier function and antibiotic therapy during rejection episodes may help reduce the incidence of septic complications after intestinal grafting.

  17. Generating human intestinal tissue from pluripotent stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kyle W.; Howell, Jonathan C.; Wells, James M.; Spence, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a protocol to generate 3-dimensional human intestinal tissue (called organoids) in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells. To generate intestinal organoids, pluripotent stem cells are first differentiated into FOXA2+/SOX17+ endoderm by treating the cells with ActivinA for 3 days. Following endoderm induction, the pluripotent stem cells are patterned into CDX2+ mid/hindgut tissue using FGF4 and WNT3a. During this patterning step, 3-dimensional mid/hindgut spheroids bud from the monolayer epithelium attached to the tissue culture dish. The 3-dimensional spheroids are further cultured in matrigel along with pro-intestinal growth factors, and proliferate and expand over 1–3 months to give rise to intestinal tissue, complete with intestinal mesenchyme and epithelium consisting of all of the major intestinal cell types. To date, this is the only method to efficiently direct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into 3-dimensional human intestinal tissue in vitro. PMID:22082986

  18. Identification of a Core Bacterial Community within the Large Intestine of the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Dougal, Kirsty; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Harris, Patricia A.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Pinloche, Eric; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2013-01-01

    The horse has a rich and complex microbial community within its gastrointestinal tract that plays a central role in both health and disease. The horse receives much of its dietary energy through microbial hydrolysis and fermentation of fiber predominantly in the large intestine/hindgut. The presence of a possible core bacterial community in the equine large intestine was investigated in this study. Samples were taken from the terminal ileum and 7 regions of the large intestine from ten animals, DNA extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA 454-pyrosequenced. A specific group of OTUs clustered in all ileal samples and a distinct and different signature existed for the proximal regions of the large intestine and the distal regions. A core group of bacterial families were identified in all gut regions with clear differences shown between the ileum and the various large intestine regions. The core in the ileum accounted for 32% of all sequences and comprised of only seven OTUs of varying abundance; the core in the large intestine was much smaller (5-15% of all sequences) with a much larger number of OTUs present but in low abundance. The most abundant member of the core community in the ileum was Lactobacillaceae, in the proximal large intestine the Lachnospiraceae and in the distal large intestine the Prevotellaceae. In conclusion, the presence of a core bacterial community in the large intestine of the horse that is made up of many low abundance OTUs may explain in part the susceptibility of horses to digestive upset. PMID:24204908

  19. The intestinal bacterial community in the food waste-reducing larvae of Hermetia illucens.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyunbum; Park, Soyoung; Choi, Jiyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2011-05-01

    As it is known that food waste can be reduced by the larvae of Hermetia illucens (Black soldier fly, BSF), the scientific and commercial value of BSF larvae has increased recently. We hypothesised that the ability of catabolic degradation by BSF larvae might be due to intestinal microorganisms. Herein, we analysed the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae by pyrosequencing of extracting intestinal metagenomic DNA from larvae that had been fed three different diets. The 16S rRNA sequencing results produced 9737, 9723 and 5985 PCR products from larval samples fed food waste, cooked rice and calf forage, respectively. A BLAST search using the EzTaxon program showed that the bacterial community in the gut of larvae fed three different diets was mainly composed of the four phyla with dissimilar proportions. Although the composition of the bacterial communities depended on the different nutrient sources, the identified bacterial strains in the gut of BSF larvae represented unique bacterial species that were unlike the intestinal microflora of other insects. Thus, our study analysed the structure of the bacterial communities in the gut of BSF larvae after three different feedings and assessed the application of particular bacteria for the efficient degradation of organic compounds. PMID:21267722

  20. Bacterial diversity in the intestine of young farmed puffer fish Takifugu rubripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanyu; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Congyao; Zhu, Ying; Ding, Jianfeng; Ma, Yuexin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the bacterial community associated with the intestinal mucus of young farmed puffer fish Takifugu rubripes. Polymerase chain reaction and partial 16S rDNA sequencing was performed on DNA from bacteria cultivated on Zobell 2216E medium. All the isolates were classified into two phyla—Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Proteobacteria were the dominant, culturable intestinal microbiota (68.3%). At the genus level, Vibrio, Enterobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella were isolated from the intestine, with representatives of the genera Vibrio, Enterobacter and Bacillus accounting for 70.7% of the total. This is the first report of Enterobacter, Bacillus, Exiguobacterium and Staphylococcus as part of the intestinal bacterial microflora in T. rubripes. The profile of the culturable bacterial community differed between samples collected from the same tank at 2-month intervals, as indicated by Bray-Curtis and Sorensen indices, and the impact on the intestinal physiology and health of puffer fish requires further investigation.

  1. Common occurrence of antibacterial agents in human intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Drissi, Fatima; Buffet, Sylvain; Raoult, Didier; Merhej, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have revealed many active mechanisms by which bacteria can inhibit the growth of other organisms. Bacteriocins are a diverse group of natural ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by a wide range of bacteria and which seem to play an important role in mediating competition within bacterial communities. In this study, we have identified and established the structural classification of putative bacteriocins encoded by 317 microbial genomes in the human intestine. On the basis of homologies to available bacteriocin sequences, mainly from lactic acid bacteria, we report the widespread occurrence of bacteriocins across the gut microbiota: 175 bacteriocins were found to be encoded in Firmicutes, 79 in Proteobacteria, 34 in Bacteroidetes, and 25 in Actinobacteria. Bacteriocins from gut bacteria displayed wide differences among phyla with regard to class distribution, net positive charge, hydrophobicity and secondary structure, but the ?-helix was the most abundant structure. The peptide structures and physiochemical properties of bacteriocins produced by the most abundant bacteria in the gut, the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes, seem to ensure low antibiotic activity and participate in permanent intestinal host defense against the proliferation of harmful bacteria. Meanwhile, the potentially harmful bacteria, including the Proteobacteria, displayed highly effective bacteriocins, probably supporting the virulent character of diseases. These findings highlight the eventual role played by bacteriocins in gut microbial competition and their potential place in antibiotic therapy. PMID:25999943

  2. Plant innate immunity against human bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Melotto, Maeli; Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana

    2014-01-01

    Certain human bacterial pathogens such as the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are not proven to be plant pathogens yet. Nonetheless, under certain conditions they can survive on, penetrate into, and colonize internal plant tissues causing serious food borne disease outbreaks. In this review, we highlight current understanding on the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against human bacterial pathogens and discuss salient common and contrasting themes of plant interactions with phytopathogens or human pathogens. PMID:25157245

  3. A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

    2005-02-28

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

  4. Identification of Population Bottlenecks and Colonization Factors during Assembly of Bacterial Communities within the Zebrafish Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, W. Zac; Wiles, Travis J.; Martinez, Emily S.; Jemielita, Matthew; Burns, Adam R.; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a powerful model for studying bacterial colonization of the vertebrate intestine, but the genes required by commensal bacteria to colonize the zebrafish gut have not yet been interrogated on a genome-wide level. Here we apply a high-throughput transposon mutagenesis screen to Aeromonas veronii Hm21 and Vibrio sp. strain ZWU0020 during their colonization of the zebrafish intestine alone and in competition with each other, as well as in different colonization orders. We use these transposon-tagged libraries to track bacterial population sizes in different colonization regimes and to identify gene functions required during these processes. We show that intraspecific, but not interspecific, competition with a previously established bacterial population greatly reduces the ability of these two bacterial species to colonize. Further, using a simple binomial sampling model, we show that under conditions of interspecific competition, genes required for colonization cannot be identified because of the population bottleneck experienced by the second colonizer. When bacteria colonize the intestine alone or at the same time as the other species, we find shared suites of functional requirements for colonization by the two species, including a prominent role for chemotaxis and motility, regardless of the presence of another species. PMID:26507229

  5. State of the art; microbiology in health and disease. Intestinal bacterial flora in autism.

    PubMed

    Finegold, Sydney M

    2011-12-01

    Autism of the regressive variety is selected as an example of the importance of intestinal bacterial microflora in disease other than classical infection. Our studies have indicated that intestinal bacteria play a role in this disease since it responds to oral vancomycin, a drug that is not absorbed from the GI tract. Pyrosequencing studies document an abnormal gut microflora in regressive autism subjects as compared to controls. Finally, we present preliminary evidence suggesting that Desulfovibrio may play a key role in this disease. PMID:21524713

  6. Clusterin as a biomarker in murine and human intestinal neoplasia

    E-print Network

    Dove, William

    Clusterin as a biomarker in murine and human intestinal neoplasia Xiaodi Chen*, Richard B. Halberg, clusterin, was then subjected to a series of validation steps. In situ hybridization and immunohisto- chemistry were used to analyze clusterin expression at a cellular level on a series of murine intestinal

  7. Nitroreduction and formation of hemoglobin adducts in rats with a human intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Straetemans, M.M.E.; Koopman, J.P.; Bos, R.P.

    1994-10-01

    In the covalent binding of nitroarenes to macromolecules, nitroreduction is an important step. The intestinal microflora represents an enormous potential of bacterial nitroreductase activity. As a consequence, the in vivo nitroreduction of orally administerednitroarenes is primarily located in the intestine. In this study, we have investigated the nitroreduction of 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) by a human microflora in female Wistar rats. Germ-free (FG) rats were equipped with a bacterial flora derived from human feces. Nontreated GF rats and GF animals equipped with a conventional rat flora were used as controls. The composition of the human and the conventional microflora isolated from the rats were consistent with the microflora of the administered feces. In the rats receiving only sunflower seed oil, no adducts were detected. The animals equipped with a human or rat microflora that received 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) formed 2-AF hemoglobin (Hb)-adducts at average levels mean {+-} 0.003 and 0.043 {+-} 0.010 {mu}mole/g Hb, respectively. In the FG rats, an adduct level of 0.57 {+-} 0.09 was determined after 2-AF administration and non adducts were detected after 2-NF administration. The results show that nitroreduction by an acquired human intestinal microflora and subsequent adduct formation can be studied in the rate in vivo. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Rye Affects Bacterial Translocation, Intestinal Viscosity, Microbiota Composition and Bone Mineralization in Turkey Poults

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are currently being evaluated. PMID:25849537

  9. Efficient genetic engineering of human intestinal organoids using electroporation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masayuki; Matano, Mami; Nanki, Kosaku; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-10-01

    Gene modification in untransformed human intestinal cells is an attractive approach for studying gene function in intestinal diseases. However, because of the lack of practical tools, such studies have largely depended upon surrogates, such as gene-engineered mice or immortalized human cell lines. By taking advantage of the recently developed intestinal organoid culture method, we developed a methodology for modulating genes of interest in untransformed human colonic organoids via electroporation of gene vectors. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the generation of intestinal organoids by culture with essential growth factors in a basement membrane matrix. We also describe how to stably integrate genes via the piggyBac transposon, as well as precise genome editing using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Beginning with crypt isolation from a human colon sample, genetically modified organoids can be obtained in 3 weeks. PMID:26334867

  10. Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Brent

    Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal 2009 Keywords: Intestine Mucosa-associated bacteria Single-stranded artifacts T-RFLP Statistical for recovering bacterial community DNA associated with intestinal mucosa of mice (i.e. mechanical agitation

  11. Burn Injury Alters the Intestinal Microbiome and Increases Gut Permeability and Bacterial Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Zachary M.; Akhtar, Suhail; Green, Stefan J.; Naqib, Ankur; Khan, Omair; Cannon, Abigail R.; Hammer, Adam M.; Morris, Niya L.; Li, Xiaoling; Eberhardt, Joshua M.; Gamelli, Richard L; Kennedy, Richard H.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in burn patients who survive the initial insult of injury. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier has been shown after burn injury; this can lead to the translocation of bacteria or their products (e.g., endotoxin) from the intestinal lumen to the circulation, thereby increasing the risk for sepsis in immunocompromised individuals. Since the maintenance of the epithelial barrier is largely dependent on the intestinal microbiota, we examined the diversity of the intestinal microbiome of severely burned patients and a controlled mouse model of burn injury. We show that burn injury induces a dramatic dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome of both humans and mice and allows for similar overgrowths of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Furthermore, we show that the bacteria increasing in abundance have the potential to translocate to extra-intestinal sites. This study provides an insight into how the diversity of the intestinal microbiome changes after burn injury and some of the consequences these gut bacteria can have in the host. PMID:26154283

  12. Three-Dimensional Coculture Of Human Small-Intestine Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David; Spaulding, Glen; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Prewett, Tracy

    1994-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional masses of normal human epithelial and mesenchymal small-intestine cells cocultured in process involving specially designed bioreactors. Useful as tissued models for studies of growth, regulatory, and differentiation processes in normal intestinal tissues; diseases of small intestine; and interactions between cells of small intestine and viruses causing disease both in small intestine and elsewhere in body. Process used to produce other tissue models, leading to advances in understanding of growth and differentiation in developing organisms, of renewal of tissue, and of treatment of myriad of clinical conditions. Prior articles describing design and use of rotating-wall culture vessels include "Growing And Assembling Cells Into Tissues" (MSC-21559), "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), and "In Vitro, Matrix-Free Formation Of Solid Tumor Spheroids" (MSC-21843).

  13. Active Transport of Phosphorylated Carbohydrates Promotes Intestinal Colonization and Transmission of a Bacterial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Brandon; Crowley, Shauna M.; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Lai, Christine Chieh-Lin; Tang, Calvin; Hooda, Yogesh; Calmettes, Charles; Khambati, Husain; Ma, Caixia; Brumell, John H.; Schryvers, Anthony B.; Vallance, Bruce A.; Moraes, Trevor F.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient acquisition of extracellular nutrients is essential for bacterial pathogenesis, however the identities and mechanisms for transport of many of these substrates remain unclear. Here, we investigate the predicted iron-binding transporter AfuABC and its role in bacterial pathogenesis in vivo. By crystallographic, biophysical and in vivo approaches, we show that AfuABC is in fact a cyclic hexose/heptose-phosphate transporter with high selectivity and specificity for a set of ubiquitous metabolites (glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate). AfuABC is conserved across a wide range of bacterial genera, including the enteric pathogens EHEC O157:H7 and its murine-specific relative Citrobacter rodentium, where it lies adjacent to genes implicated in sugar sensing and acquisition. C. rodentium ?afuA was significantly impaired in an in vivo murine competitive assay as well as its ability to transmit infection from an afflicted to a naïve murine host. Sugar-phosphates were present in normal and infected intestinal mucus and stool samples, indicating that these metabolites are available within the intestinal lumen for enteric bacteria to import during infection. Our study shows that AfuABC-dependent uptake of sugar-phosphates plays a critical role during enteric bacterial infection and uncovers previously unrecognized roles for these metabolites as important contributors to successful pathogenesis. PMID:26295949

  14. The murine lung microbiome in relation to the intestinal and vaginal bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This work provides the first description of the bacterial population of the lung microbiota in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the lung microbiome in mice, the most used animal model for inflammatory lung diseases such as COPD, cystic fibrosis and asthma. Bacterial communities from broncho-alveolar lavage fluids and lung tissue were compared to samples taken from fecal matter (caecum) and vaginal lavage fluid from female BALB/cJ mice. Results Using a customized 16S rRNA sequencing protocol amplifying the V3-V4 region our study shows that the mice have a lung microbiome that cluster separately from mouse intestinal microbiome (caecum). The mouse lung microbiome is dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria overlapping the vaginal microbiome. We also show that removal of host tissue or cells from lung fluid during the DNA extraction step has an impact on the resulting bacterial community profile. Sample preparation needs to be considered when choosing an extraction method and interpreting data. Conclusions We have consistently amplified bacterial DNA from mouse lungs that is distinct from the intestinal microbiome in these mice. The gut microbiome has been extensively studied for its links to development of disease. Here we suggest that also the lung microbiome could be important in relation to inflammatory lung diseases. Further research is needed to understand the contribution of the lung microbiome and the gut-lung axis to the development of lung diseases such as COPD and asthma. PMID:24373613

  15. In vitro evaluation of effects of gut region and fiber structure on the intestinal dominant bacterial diversity and functional bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Lu, Qi; Tan, Zhiliang; Guan, Leluo; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the intestinal bacteria in ruminants and their population kinetics is essential for their ecological function, as well as their interaction with the host. In this in vitro study, we aimed to determine whether gut region and fiber structure can influence bacterial diversity and functional bacterial population, together with the kinetics of functional bacterial species in the cecal inocula using PCR-DGGE and qPCR. A split plot design was conducted with gut regions (jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) as main plot, and substrates (neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and cellulose (CEL)) as subplot. Incubation time and gut region affected dominant bacterial diversity. The numbers of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, genus Prevotella and amylolytic bacteria in the hindgut inocula were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the small intestinal inocula. Fiber structure did not significantly influence the dominant bacterial diversity and the numbers of most examined functional bacterial species. The greatest increase rate of cellulolytic bacteria occurred earlier than amylolytic bacteria except for R. albus incubated with NDF. Changes in cellulolytic bacterial populations were not coordinative with alteration of fiber disappearance as well as CMCase and xylanase activities. All these suggest that the hindgut contents have greater potential to digest fiber than small intestinal contents, and cellulolytic bacteria are of significant value at the initial stage of fiber digestion among the fiber digestive microbes in the intestine. PMID:24972096

  16. Interaction of Campylobacter spp. and human probiotics in chicken intestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Ganan, M; Martinez-Rodriguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V; Vesterlund, S; Salminen, S; Satokari, R

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. The principal risk of human contamination is handling and consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To colonize poultry, Campylobacter adheres to and persists in the mucus layer that covers the intestinal epithelium. Inhibiting adhesion to the mucus could prevent colonization of the intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the protective effect of defined commercial human probiotic strains on the adhesion of Campylobacter spp. to chicken intestinal mucus, in a search for alternatives to antibiotics to control this food-borne pathogen. The probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and a starter culture strain Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis adhered well to chicken intestinal mucus and were able to reduce the binding of Campylobacter spp. when the mucus was colonized with the probiotic strain before contacting the pathogen. Human-intended probiotics could be useful as prophylactics in poultry feeding for controlling Campylobacter spp. colonization. PMID:22672405

  17. Spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence patterns of human mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Geng, Jiawei; Tang, Xiaodan; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jinchao; Wen, Xiujun; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Shi, Peng

    2014-04-01

    Human gut microbiota shows high inter-subject variations, but the actual spatial distribution and co-occurrence patterns of gut mucosa microbiota that occur within a healthy human instestinal tract remain poorly understood. In this study, we illustrated a model of this mucosa bacterial communities' biogeography, based on the largest data set so far, obtained via 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rDNAs associated with 77 matched biopsy tissue samples taken from terminal ileum, ileocecal valve, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 11 healthy adult subjects. Borrowing from macro-ecology, we used both Taylor's power law analysis and phylogeny-based beta-diversity metrics to uncover a highly heterogeneous distribution pattern of mucosa microbial inhabitants along the length of the intestinal tract. We then developed a spatial dispersion model with an R-squared value greater than 0.950 to map out the gut mucosa-associated flora's non-linear spatial distribution pattern for 51.60% of the 188 most abundant gut bacterial species. Furthermore, spatial co-occurring network analysis of mucosa microbial inhabitants together with occupancy (that is habitat generalists, specialists and opportunist) analyses implies that ecological relationships (both oppositional and symbiotic) between mucosa microbial inhabitants may be important contributors to the observed spatial heterogeneity of mucosa microbiota along the human intestine and may even potentially be associated with mutual cooperation within and functional stability of the gut ecosystem. PMID:24132077

  18. Human zonulin, a potential modulator of intestinal tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Uzzau, S; Goldblum, S E; Fasano, A

    2000-12-01

    Intercellular tight junctions are dynamic structures involved in vectorial transport of water and electrolytes across the intestinal epithelium. Zonula occludens toxin derived from Vibrio cholerae interacts with a specific intestinal epithelial surface receptor, with subsequent activation of a complex intracellular cascade of events that regulate tight junction permeability. We postulated that this toxin may mimic the effect of a functionally and immunologically related endogenous modulator of intestinal tight junctions. Affinity-purified anti-zonula occludens toxin antibodies and the Ussing chamber assay were used to screen for one or more mammalian zonula occludens toxin analogues in both fetal and adult human intestine. A novel protein, zonulin, was identified that induces tight junction disassembly in non-human primate intestinal epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Comparison of amino acids in the active zonula occludens toxin fragment and zonulin permitted the identification of the putative receptor binding domain within the N-terminal region of the two proteins. Zonulin likely plays a pivotal role in tight junction regulation during developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including tissue morphogenesis, movement of fluid, macromolecules and leukocytes between the intestinal lumen and the interstitium, and inflammatory/autoimmune disorders. PMID:11082037

  19. Host-Microbe Interactions in the Neonatal Intestine: Role of Human Milk Oligosaccharides123

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Sharon M.; Wang, Mei; Li, Min; Friedberg, Iddo; Schwartz, Scott L.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The infant intestinal microbiota is shaped by genetics and environment, including the route of delivery and early dietary intake. Data from germ-free rodents and piglets support a critical role for the microbiota in regulating gastrointestinal and immune development. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) both directly and indirectly influence intestinal development by regulating cell proliferation, acting as prebiotics for beneficial bacteria and modulating immune development. We have shown that the gut microbiota, the microbial metatranscriptome, and metabolome differ between porcine milk–fed and formula-fed (FF) piglets. Our goal is to define how early nutrition, specifically HMO, shapes host-microbe interactions in breast-fed (BF) and FF human infants. We an established noninvasive method that uses stool samples containing intact sloughed epithelial cells to quantify intestinal gene expression profiles in human infants. We hypothesized that a systems biology approach, combining i) HMO composition of the mother’s milk with the infant’s gut gene expression and fecal bacterial composition, ii) gene expression, and iii short-chain fatty acid profiles would identify important mechanistic pathways affecting intestinal development of BF and FF infants in the first few months of life. HMO composition was analyzed by HLPC Chip/time-of-flight MS and 3 HMO clusters were identified using principle component analysis. Initial findings indicated that both host epithelial cell mRNA expression and the microbial phylogenetic profiles provided strong feature sets that distinctly classified the BF and FF infants. Ongoing analyses are designed to integrate the host transcriptome, bacterial phylogenetic profiles, and functional metagenomic data using multivariate statistical analyses. PMID:22585924

  20. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montoudis, Alain; Delvin, Edgard; Menard, Daniel

    2006-01-06

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

  1. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Human Intestinal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Dallin; Enda, Michael; Bond, Tanner; Moghaddam, Seyyed Pouya Hadipour; Conarton, Josh; Scaife, Courtney; Volckmann, Eric; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-11-01

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown transepithelial transport across intestinal epithelial barrier in rats and across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 models innately lack mucous barriers, and rat isolated intestinal tissue has been shown to overestimate human permeability. This study is the first report of transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated human intestinal epithelium. It was observed that FITC labeled G4-NH2 and G3.5-COOH PAMAM dendrimers at 1 mM concentration do not have a statistically higher permeability compared to free FITC controls in isolated human jejunum and colonic tissues. Mannitol permeability was increased at 10 mM concentrations of G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 dendrimers. Significant histological changes in human colonic and jejunal tissues were observed at G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 concentrations of 10 mM implying that dose limiting toxicity may occur at similar concentrations in vivo. The permeability through human isolated intestinal tissue in this study was compared to previous rat and Caco-2 permeability data. This study implicates that PAMAM dendrimer oral drug delivery may be feasible, but it may be limited to highly potent drugs. PMID:26414679

  2. Molecular Characterisation of Bacterial Community Structure along the Intestinal Tract of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chuan-Ching; Love, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial composition along the intestinal tract of Danio rerio was investigated by cultivation-independent analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Clone libraries were constructed for three compartments of the intestinal tract of individual fish. 566 individual clones were differentiated by amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA), and clone representatives from each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) were sequenced. As reported in other studies, we found that Proteobacteria was the most prominent phylum among clone libraries from different fish. Data generated from this pilot study indicated some compositional differences in bacterial communities. Two dominant classes, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli, displayed different levels of abundance in different compartments; Gammaproteobacteria increased along the intestinal tract, while Bacilli decreased its abundance along the proximal-distal axis. Less obvious spatial patterns were observed for other classes. In general, bacterial diversity in the intestinal bulb was greater than that in the posterior intestine. Interindividual differences in bacterial diversity and composition were also noted in this study. PMID:23724326

  3. Safety and risk assessment of the genetically modified Lactococci on rats intestinal bacterial flora.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kai-Chien; Liu, Chin-Feng; Lin, Tzu-Hsing; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-08-15

    The interaction between Lactococcus lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK and intestinal microflora was evaluated as a method to assess safety of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs). L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK is one kind of GMM and able to produce the intracellular subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) under induction with nisin. The host strain L. lactis NZ9000 was a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganism. Six groups of Wistar rats were orally administered with L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK and L. lactis NZ9000 for 6 weeks. Fecal and cecal contents were collected to determine the number of L. lactis NZ9000, L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK, Lactobacillus, coliform bacteria, beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and harmful bacteria Clostridium perfringens. The liver, spleen, kidney and blood were evaluated for the bacterial translocation. After 6 weeks consumption with GM and non-GM Lactococcus, no adverse effects were observed on the rat's body weight, hematological or serum biochemical parameters, or intestinal microflora. The bacterial translocation test showed that L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK did not translocate to any organ or blood. Bifidobacterium was significantly increased in feces after administration of both Lactococcus strains (L. lactis NZ9000 and L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK), while C. perfringens remained undetectable during the experiment. These results suggested that L. lactis NZ9000/pNZPNK could be safe in animal experiments and monitoring of the interaction between test strains and intestinal microflora might be applied as a method for other GMM safety assessments. PMID:20619909

  4. Human Ghrelin Mitigates Intestinal Injury and Mortality after Whole Body Irradiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Weng Lang; Jacob, Asha; Aziz, Monowar; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of ionizing radiation has led to the realization of the danger associated with radiation exposure. Although studies in radiation countermeasures were initiated a half century ago, an effective therapy for a radiomitigator has not been identified. Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone, and administration of ghrelin is protective in animal models of injuries including radiation combined injury. To test whether ghrelin can be protective in whole body irradiaton (WBI) alone, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with human ghrelin (20 nmol/rat) daily for 6 days starting at either 24 h or 48 h after 10 Gray (Gy) WBI and survival outcome was examined. The 10 Gy WBI produced a LD70/30 model in SD rats (30% survival in 30 days). The survival rate in rats treated with ghrelin starting at 24 h was significantly improved to 63% and when treatment was initiated at 48 h, the survival remained at 61%. At 7 days post WBI, plasma ghrelin was significantly reduced from the control value. Ghrelin treatment starting at 24 h after WBI daily for 6 days improved histological appearance of the intestine, reduced gut permeability, serum endotoxin levels and bacterial translocation to the liver by 38%, 42% and 61%, respectively at day 7 post WBI. Serum glucose and albumin were restored to near control levels with treatment. Ghrelin treatment also attenuated WBI-induced intestinal apoptosis by 62% as evidenced by TUNEL staining. The expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-xl was decreased by 38% in the vehicle and restored to 75% of the control with ghrelin treatment. Increased expression of intestinal CD73 and pAkt were observed with ghrelin treatment, indicating protection of the intestinal epithelium after WBI. These results indicate that human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI. Thus, human ghrelin can be developed as a novel mitigator for radiation injury. PMID:25671547

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Intestinal Bacterial and RNA Viral Communities from Sentinel Birds Placed on Selected Broiler Chicken Farms

    PubMed Central

    Day, J. Michael; Oakley, Brian B.; Seal, Bruce S.; Zsak, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing the poultry enteric virome have identified novel poultry viruses, but the roles these viruses play in disease and performance problems have yet to be fully characterized. The complex bacterial community present in the poultry gut influences gut development, immune status, and animal health, each of which can be an indicator of overall performance. The present metagenomic investigation was undertaken to provide insight into the colonization of specific pathogen free chickens by enteric microorganisms under field conditions and to compare the pre-contact intestinal microbiome with the altered microbiome following contact with poultry raised in the field. Analysis of the intestinal virome from contact birds (“sentinels”) placed on farms revealed colonization by members of the Picornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Reoviridae, and Astroviridae that were not present in pre-contact birds or present in proportionally lower numbers. Analysis of the sentinel gut bacterial community revealed an altered community in the post-contact birds, notably by members of the Lachnospiracea/Clostridium and Lactobacillus families and genera. Members of the avian enteric Reoviridae and Astroviridae have been well-characterized and have historically been implicated in poultry enteric disease; members of the Picobirnaviridae and Picornaviridae have only relatively recently been described in the poultry and avian gut, and their roles in the recognized disease syndromes and in poultry performance in general have not been determined. This metagenomic analysis has provided insight into the colonization of the poultry gut by enteric microbes circulating in commercial broiler flocks, and has identified enteric viruses and virus communities that warrant further study in order to understand their role(s) in avian gut health and disease. PMID:25635690

  6. Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial and RNA viral communities from sentinel birds placed on selected broiler chicken farms.

    PubMed

    Day, J Michael; Oakley, Brian B; Seal, Bruce S; Zsak, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing the poultry enteric virome have identified novel poultry viruses, but the roles these viruses play in disease and performance problems have yet to be fully characterized. The complex bacterial community present in the poultry gut influences gut development, immune status, and animal health, each of which can be an indicator of overall performance. The present metagenomic investigation was undertaken to provide insight into the colonization of specific pathogen free chickens by enteric microorganisms under field conditions and to compare the pre-contact intestinal microbiome with the altered microbiome following contact with poultry raised in the field. Analysis of the intestinal virome from contact birds ("sentinels") placed on farms revealed colonization by members of the Picornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Reoviridae, and Astroviridae that were not present in pre-contact birds or present in proportionally lower numbers. Analysis of the sentinel gut bacterial community revealed an altered community in the post-contact birds, notably by members of the Lachnospiracea/Clostridium and Lactobacillus families and genera. Members of the avian enteric Reoviridae and Astroviridae have been well-characterized and have historically been implicated in poultry enteric disease; members of the Picobirnaviridae and Picornaviridae have only relatively recently been described in the poultry and avian gut, and their roles in the recognized disease syndromes and in poultry performance in general have not been determined. This metagenomic analysis has provided insight into the colonization of the poultry gut by enteric microbes circulating in commercial broiler flocks, and has identified enteric viruses and virus communities that warrant further study in order to understand their role(s) in avian gut health and disease. PMID:25635690

  7. Staphylococcus aureus induces IL-8 expression through its lipoproteins in the human intestinal epithelial cell, Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok-Seong; Noh, Su Young; Park, Ok-Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause the intestinal inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of S. aureus infection in the intestine. In the present study, we investigated whether S. aureus could stimulate human intestinal epithelial cells triggering inflammation. When the human intestinal epithelial cell-line, Caco-2, and the primary colon cells were stimulated with ethanol-inactivated S. aureus, IL-8 expression was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The inactivated S. aureus preferentially stimulated Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 rather than TLR4. Lipoproteins, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN) are considered as potential TLR2 ligands of S. aureus. Interestingly, S aureus lipoproteins and Pam2CSK4 mimicking Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins, but not LTA and PGN of S. aureus, significantly induced IL-8 expression in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, lipoprotein-deficient S. aureus mutant strain failed to induce IL-8 production. Collectively, these results suggest that S. aureus stimulates the human intestinal epithelial cells to induce the chemokine IL-8 production through its lipoproteins, potentially contributing the development of intestinal inflammation. PMID:25982554

  8. Exopolysaccharides produced by intestinal Bifidobacterium strains act as fermentable substrates for human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Nuria; Gueimonde, Miguel; Hernández-Barranco, Ana María; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G

    2008-08-01

    Eleven exopolysaccharides (EPS) isolated from different human intestinal Bifidobacterium strains were tested in fecal slurry batch cultures and compared with glucose and the prebiotic inulin for their abilities to act as fermentable substrates for intestinal bacteria. During incubation, the increases in levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were considerably more pronounced in cultures with EPS, glucose, and inulin than in controls without carbohydrates added, indicating that the substrates assayed were fermented by intestinal bacteria. Shifts in molar proportions of SCFA during incubation with EPS and inulin caused a decrease in the acetic acid-to-propionic acid ratio, a possible indicator of the hypolipidemic effect of prebiotics, with the lowest values for this parameter being obtained for EPS from the species Bifidobacterium longum and from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum strain C52. This behavior was contrary to that found with glucose, a carbohydrate not considered to be a prebiotic and for which a clear increase of this ratio was obtained during incubation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that EPS exerted a moderate bifidogenic effect, which was comparable to that of inulin for some polymers but which was lower than that found for glucose. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments using universal primers was employed to analyze microbial groups other than bifidobacteria. Changes in banding patterns during incubation with EPS indicated microbial rearrangements of Bacteroides and Escherichia coli relatives. Moreover, the use of EPS from B. pseudocatenulatum in fecal cultures from some individuals accounted for the prevalence of Desulfovibrio and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whereas incubation with EPS from B. longum supported populations close to Anaerostipes, Prevotella, and/or Oscillospira. Thus, EPS synthesized by intestinal bifidobacteria could act as fermentable substrates for microorganisms in the human gut environment, modifying interactions among intestinal populations. PMID:18539803

  9. Exopolysaccharides Produced by Intestinal Bifidobacterium Strains Act as Fermentable Substrates for Human Intestinal Bacteria ?

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Nuria; Gueimonde, Miguel; Hernández-Barranco, Ana María; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2008-01-01

    Eleven exopolysaccharides (EPS) isolated from different human intestinal Bifidobacterium strains were tested in fecal slurry batch cultures and compared with glucose and the prebiotic inulin for their abilities to act as fermentable substrates for intestinal bacteria. During incubation, the increases in levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were considerably more pronounced in cultures with EPS, glucose, and inulin than in controls without carbohydrates added, indicating that the substrates assayed were fermented by intestinal bacteria. Shifts in molar proportions of SCFA during incubation with EPS and inulin caused a decrease in the acetic acid-to-propionic acid ratio, a possible indicator of the hypolipidemic effect of prebiotics, with the lowest values for this parameter being obtained for EPS from the species Bifidobacterium longum and from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum strain C52. This behavior was contrary to that found with glucose, a carbohydrate not considered to be a prebiotic and for which a clear increase of this ratio was obtained during incubation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that EPS exerted a moderate bifidogenic effect, which was comparable to that of inulin for some polymers but which was lower than that found for glucose. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments using universal primers was employed to analyze microbial groups other than bifidobacteria. Changes in banding patterns during incubation with EPS indicated microbial rearrangements of Bacteroides and Escherichia coli relatives. Moreover, the use of EPS from B. pseudocatenulatum in fecal cultures from some individuals accounted for the prevalence of Desulfovibrio and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whereas incubation with EPS from B. longum supported populations close to Anaerostipes, Prevotella, and/or Oscillospira. Thus, EPS synthesized by intestinal bifidobacteria could act as fermentable substrates for microorganisms in the human gut environment, modifying interactions among intestinal populations. PMID:18539803

  10. Diet and the development of the human intestinal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Voreades, Noah; Kozil, Anne; Weir, Tiffany L.

    2014-01-01

    The important role of the gut microbiome in maintaining human health has necessitated a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of intestinal microbial communities as well as the host and environmental factors driving these dynamics. Genetics, mode of birth, infant feeding patterns, antibiotic usage, sanitary living conditions and long term dietary habits contribute to shaping the composition of the gut microbiome. This review focuses primarily on diet, as it is one of the most pivotal factors in the development of the human gut microbiome from infancy to the elderly. The infant gut microbiota is characterized by a high degree of instability, only reaching a state similar to that of adults by 2–3 years of age; consistent with the establishment of a varied solid food diet. The diet-related factors influencing the development of the infant gut microbiome include whether the child is breast or formula-fed as well as how and when solid foods are introduced. In contrast to the infant gut, the adult gut microbiome is resilient to large shifts in community structure. Several studies have shown that dietary changes induce transient fluctuations in the adult microbiome, sometimes in as little as 24 h; however, the microbial community rapidly returns to its stable state. Current knowledge of how long-term dietary habits shape the gut microbiome is limited by the lack of long-term feeding studies coupled with temporal gut microbiota characterization. However, long-term weight loss studies have been shown to alter the ratio of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, the two major bacterial phyla residing in the human gastrointestinal tract. With aging, diet-related factors such as malnutrition are associated with microbiome shifts, although the cause and effect relationship between these factors has not been established. Increased pharmaceutical usage is also more prevalent in the elderly and can contribute to reduced gut microbiota stability and diversity. Foods containing prebiotic oligosaccharide components that nurture beneficial commensals in the gut community and probiotic supplements are being explored as interventions to manipulate the gut microbiome, potentially improving health status. PMID:25295033

  11. Bacterial protein toxins in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Rosadi, Francesca; Fiorentini, Carla; Fabbri, Alessia

    2016-02-01

    Many bacteria causing persistent infections produce toxins whose mechanisms of action indicate that they could have a role in carcinogenesis. Some toxins, like CDT and colibactin, directly attack the genome by damaging DNA whereas others, as for example CNF1, CagA and BFT, impinge on key eukaryotic processes, such as cellular signalling and cell death. These bacterial toxins, together with other less known toxins, mimic carcinogens and tumour promoters. The aim of this review is to fulfil an up-to-date analysis of toxins with carcinogenic potential that have been already correlated to human cancers. Bacterial toxins-induced carcinogenesis represents an emerging aspect in bacteriology, and its significance is increasingly recognized. PMID:26534910

  12. Colonic bacterial metabolites and human health.

    PubMed

    Russell, Wendy R; Hoyles, Lesley; Flint, Harry J; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the microbial-mammalian metabolic axis is becoming increasingly important for human health. Bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (CHOs) and proteins produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and a range of other metabolites including those from aromatic amino acid (AAA) fermentation. SCFA influence host health as energy sources and via multiple signalling mechanisms. Bacterial transformation of fibre-related phytochemicals is associated with a reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. The 'gut-liver axis' is an emerging area of study. Microbial deconjugation of xenobiotics and release of aromatic moieties into the colon can have a wide range of physiological consequences. In addition, the role of the gut microbiota in choline deficiency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance is receiving increased attention. PMID:23880135

  13. Effect of intestinal resection on human small bowel motility.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, T; Pfeiffer, A; Hackelsberger, N; Widmer, R; Meisel, C; Kaess, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few data are available on adaptive changes of human small bowel motility after intestinal resection. AIM: To characterise jejunal motility after extensive and limited distal intestinal resection. METHODS: Seven patients with a short bowel syndrome after total ileal and partial jejunal resection (residual jejunal segments between 60 and 100 cm) and six patients with limited distal ileal resection (resected segment between 30 and 70 cm) underwent ambulatory 24 hour jejunal manometry 15 (6-24) months after the operation. Normal values were obtained from 50 healthy subjects. Fasting motility and the motor response to a 600 kcal solid meal were analysed visually and by a computer program. RESULTS: Limited ileal resection did not result in changed jejunal motility. After extensive distal resection, patients had a significantly shorter migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle and a significantly shorter duration of the postprandial motor response compared with controls (p < 0.005). Intestinal resection had no influence on jejunal contraction frequency and amplitude and did not lead to any abnormal motor pattern. CONCLUSION: Extensive distal resection of the small intestine produces distinct abnormalities of fasting and postprandial motility in the intestinal remnant. The shortening of digestive motility and the increased frequency of MMC cycling could contribute to malabsorption and diarrhoea in the short bowel syndrome. PMID:8984024

  14. Application of the Human Intestinal Tract Chip to the non-human primate gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bello González, T D J; van Passel, M W J; Tims, S; Fuentes, S; De Vos, W M; Smidt, H; Belzer, C

    2015-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota is responsible for various health-related functions, and its diversity can be readily mapped with the 16S ribosomal RNA targeting Human Intestinal Tract (HIT) Chip. Here we characterise distal gut samples from chimpanzees, gorillas and marmosets, and compare them with human gut samples. Our results indicated applicability of the HITChip platform can be extended to chimpanzee and gorilla faecal samples for analysis of microbiota composition and enterotypes, but not to the evolutionary more distant marmosets. PMID:25519524

  15. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Diagnosed by Glucose Hydrogen Breath Test in Post-cholecystectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hea Jung; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Yang, Jin-Mo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients undergoing cholecystectomy may have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of SIBO in patients with intestinal symptoms following cholecystectomy. Methods Sixty-two patients following cholecystectomy, 145 with functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs), and 30 healthy controls undergoing hydrogen (H2)-methane (CH4) glucose breath test (GBT) were included in the study. Before performing GBT, all patients were interrogated using bowel symptom questionnaire. The positivity to GBT indicating the presence of SIBO, gas types and bowel symptoms were surveyed. Results Post-cholecystectomy patients more often had SIBO as evidenced by a positive (+) GBT than those with FGID and controls (29/62, 46.8% vs 38/145, 26.2% vs 4/30, 13.3%, respectively; P = 0.010). In the gas types, the GBT (H2) + post-cholecystectomy patients was significantly higher than those in FGIDs patients (P = 0.017). Especially, positivity to fasting GBT (H2) among the GBT (H2)+ post-cholecystectomy patients was high, as diagnosed by elevated fasting H2 level. The GBT+ group had higher symptom scores of significance or tendency in abdominal discomfort, bloating, chest discomfort, early satiety, nausea, and tenesmus than those of the GBT negative group. The status of cholecystectomy was the only significant independent factor for predicting SIBO. Conclusions The SIBO with high levels of baseline H2 might be the important etiologic factor of upper GI symptoms for post-cholecystectomy patients. PMID:26351251

  16. [Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

    2015-02-01

    Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD. PMID:25566836

  17. In Silico Modelling of the Human Intestinal Derk Jan Kamerman and Michael H.F. Wilkinson

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    In Silico Modelling of the Human Intestinal Microflora Derk Jan Kamerman and Michael H.F. Wilkinson, The Netherlands Abstract. The ecology of the human intestinal microflora and its inter- action with the host of the intestinal microflora. In this paper the design, possibilities and relevance of this simulator including

  18. Dual oxidase in the intestinal epithelium of zebrafish larvae has anti-bacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Flores, Maria Vega; Crawford, Katie C; Pullin, Lisa M; Hall, Christopher J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2010-09-10

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) function in a range of physiological processes such as growth, metabolism and signaling, and also have a pathological role. Recent research highlighted the requirement for ROS generated by dual oxidase (DUOX) in host-defence responses in innate immunity and inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but in vivo evidence to support this has, to date, been lacking. In order to investigate the involvement of Duox in gut immunity, we characterized the zebrafish ortholog of the human DUOX genes. Zebrafish duox is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. Knockdown of Duox impaired larval capacity to control enteric Salmonella infection. PMID:20709024

  19. Consumption of partially hydrolysed guar gum stimulates Bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing bacteria in the human large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Y; Sumitani, K; Tokunaga, M; Ishihara, N; Okubo, T; Fujisawa, T

    2015-01-01

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) is a water-soluble dietary fibre that is non-digestible in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is believed that PHGG benefits the health of hosts by altering the colonic microbiota and stimulating short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. However, it remains unclear which bacteria ferment PHGG in the human large intestine. In this study, the effect of PHGG on faecal bacteria was analysed to specify the bacteria that contribute to the fermentation of PHGG in the human large intestine. Ten healthy volunteers consumed PHGG (6 g/day) for 2 weeks. Faeces were collected at 2 weeks prior to consumption, at the end of 2 weeks of consumption, and 2 weeks after consumption of PHGG. Bacterial DNA was extracted from these collected faeces and subjected to real-time PCR using bacterial group- or species-specific primers. The copy number of the butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene and the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Bifidobacterium, the Clostridium coccoides group, the Roseburia/ Eubacterium rectale group, Eubacterium hallii, and butyrate-producing bacterium strain SS2/1 were significantly increased by the intake of PHGG. Other bacteria and bacterial groups were not significantly influenced by the intake of PHGG. It was believed that the Roseburia/E. rectale group bacteria, Bifidobacterium, the lactate-utilising, butyrate-producing bacteria, E. hallii and bacterium strain SS2/1, would contribute to the fermentation of PHGG in the human large intestine. PHGG may benefit health by stimulating Bifidobacterium and butyrate-producing bacteria in the human large intestine. PMID:25519526

  20. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPAR? Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M; Guédon, Eric; Lapaque, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-?B) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPAR? transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPAR? activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPAR?-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health. PMID:25946041

  1. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPAR? Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-?B) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPAR? transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPAR? activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPAR?-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health. PMID:25946041

  2. The contribution of human small intestine to chlorpyrifos biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Claudia; Balduzzi, Maria; Buratti, Franca Maria; Testai, Emanuela

    2012-11-23

    Despite the oral intake is the major route of exposure to chlorpyrifos for the general population, few data are available on human intestine biotransformation. In this study the contribution of chlorpyrifos (CPF) metabolism in human small intestine was investigated in microsomes from duodenum (HDM) and ileum/jejunum (HS2M) from 11 individual donors. Samples were characterized for testosterone hydroxylated metabolite formation and CYP content quantification by means of Western blotting. The two methods gave consistent results, evidencing the presence of CY3A4 and its-related activity in 10/11 samples, among which one showed also the presence of CYP2C9. Analogously, although with high interindividual variability (about 10 fold), CPF bioactivation to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPFO) was observed in 10/11 HDM: intrinsic clearance highest value was 0.75 pmolCPFO/(mgproteinmin?M). Detoxication to 3,5,6-trichloropyrin-2-ol formation was negligible. The comparison between HDM and HS2M indicates that most CPF bioactivation was confined in the duodenum, declining toward the distal ileum. Results suggest that following oral exposure, the small intestine CPF bioactivation, although much lower when compared to the total hepatic metabolism, could play a role in the pre-systemic CPF clearance, with CPFO transported into the lumen by the efflux P-glycoprotein and further metabolized by esterases. PMID:23036741

  3. Ultrastructural study of adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to erythrocytes and human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Knutton, S; Lloyd, D R; Candy, D C; McNeish, A S

    1984-05-01

    The adhesion to erythrocytes and human intestinal epithelial cells of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains H10407, B2C, and H10407P, expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and type 1 fimbriae, respectively, was examined by electron microscopy. CFA and type 1 fimbriae were visualized by negative staining in thin sections after en bloc staining with ruthenium red and by immune labeling with antisera raised against purified fimbriae. By negative and ruthenium red staining, CFA/I, CFA/II, and type 1 fimbriae were indistinguishable and appeared as approximately 7-nm-diameter hollow cylindrical structures up to 1.5 micron in length; strain B2C also produced 2- to 3-nm-diameter flexible fibrillar fimbriae. Bacteria producing CFA/I, CFA/II, and type 1 fimbriae adhered to and agglutinated human, bovine, and guinea pig erythrocytes, respectively; CFA/I and CFA/II also mediated attachment of bacteria to the brush border of isolated human duodenal enterocytes. Electron microscopy of agglutinated erythrocytes and enterocytes with adherent bacteria showed, in each case, that bacterial adhesion involved the formation of many interactions between the tips of fimbriae and receptors on the erythrocyte or enterocyte brush border membrane. Immune labeling allowed different fimbrial antigens mediating bacterial attachment to human enterocytes to be identified. PMID:6143731

  4. Bifidobacteria isolated from infants and cultured on human milk oligosaccharides affect intestinal epithelial function

    PubMed Central

    Chichlowski, Maciej; De Lartigue, Guillaume; German, J. Bruce; Raybould, Helen E.; Mills, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant component of breast milk. Our laboratory has previously revealed gene clusters specifically linked to HMO metabolism in select bifidobacteria isolated from fecal samples of infants. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that growth of select bifidobacteria on HMO stimulates the intestinal epithelium. Methods Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were incubated with lactose (LAC) or HMO-grown Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) or B. bifidum. Bacterial adhesion and translocation was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and tight junction proteins was analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase. Distribution of tight junction proteins was measured using immunofluorescent microscopy. Results We showed that HMO-grown B. infantis had significantly higher rate of adhesion to HT-29 cells compared to B. bifidum. B. infantis also induced expression of a cell membrane glycoprotein, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand -1. Both B. infantis and B. bifidum grown on HMO caused less occludin relocalization and higher expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10 compared to LAC-grown bacteria in Caco-2 cells. B. bifidum grown on HMO showed higher expression of junctional adhesion molecule and occludin in Caco-2 cell and HT-29 cells. There were no significant differences between LAC or HMO treatments in bacterial translocation. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the specific relationship between HMO-grown bifidobacteria and intestinal epithelial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing HMO-induced changes in the bifidobacteria-intestinal cells interaction. PMID:22383026

  5. Trichuriasis is an infection of the large intestine caused by the human whipworm (Trichuris trichi-

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    Trichuriasis is an infection of the large intestine caused by the human whipworm (Trichuris trichi feces. Once inside the body, whipworm eggs migrate to the small intestine and hatch into adult worms which embed themselves in the lining of the large intestine and colon. Adult whipworms can live

  6. Age-associated modifications of intestinal permeability and innate immunity in human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Man, Angela L; Bertelli, Eugenio; Rentini, Silvia; Regoli, Mari; Briars, Graham; Marini, Mario; Watson, Alastair J M; Nicoletti, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    The physical and immunological properties of the human intestinal epithelial barrier in aging are largely unknown. Ileal biopsies from young (7-12 years), adult (20-40 years) and aging (67-77 years) individuals not showing symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies were used to assess levels of inflammatory cytokines, barrier integrity and cytokine production in response to microbial challenges. Increased expression of interleukin (IL)-6, but not interferon (IFN)?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-1? was observed during aging; further analysis showed that cluster of differentiation (CD)11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the major sources of IL-6 in the aging gut and expressed higher levels of CD40. Up-regulated production of IL-6 was accompanied by increased expression of claudin-2 leading to reduced transepithelial electric resistance (TEER); TEER could be restored in in vitro and ex vivo cultures by neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody. In contrast, expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and junctional-adhesion molecule-A1 did not vary with age and overall permeability to macromolecules was not affected. Finally, cytokine production in response to different microbial stimuli was assessed in a polarized in vitro organ culture (IVOC). IL-8 production in response to flagellin declined progressively with age although the expression and distribution of toll-like receptor (TLR)-5 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remained unchanged. Also, flagellin-induced production of IL-6 was less pronounced in aging individuals. In contrast, TNF-? production in response to probiotics (VSL#3) did not decline with age; however, in our experimental model probiotics did not down-regulate the production of IL-6 and expression of claudin-2. These data suggested that aging affects properties of the intestinal barrier likely to impact on age-associated disturbances, both locally and systemically. PMID:25948052

  7. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of the Human Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Aimee M.; Munck, Christian; Sommer, Morten O. A.; Dantas, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota encode multiple critical functions impacting human health, including metabolism of dietary substrate, prevention of pathogen invasion, immune system modulation, and provision of a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes accessible to pathogens. The complexity of this microbial community, its recalcitrance to standard cultivation, and the immense diversity of its encoded genes has necessitated the development of novel molecular, microbiological, and genomic tools. Functional metagenomics is one such culture-independent technique, used for decades to study environmental microorganisms, but relatively recently applied to the study of the human commensal microbiota. Metagenomic functional screens characterize the functional capacity of a microbial community, independent of identity to known genes, by subjecting the metagenome to functional assays in a genetically tractable host. Here we highlight recent work applying this technique to study the functional diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and discuss how an approach combining high-throughput sequencing, cultivation, and metagenomic functional screens can improve our understanding of interactions between this complex community and its human host. PMID:22022321

  8. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human ?-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human ?-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine H? D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  9. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, I.; Zanelli, G.; Smith, T.; Prouse, P.; Williams, P.; Smethurst, P.; Delacey, G.; Gumpel, M.J.; Levi, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an /sup 111/In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal /sup 111/In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (/sup 75/Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis.

  10. Intestinal Microbiota Modulates Gluten-Induced Immunopathology in Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Galipeau, Heather J; McCarville, Justin L; Huebener, Sina; Litwin, Owen; Meisel, Marlies; Jabri, Bana; Sanz, Yolanda; Murray, Joseph A; Jordana, Manel; Alaedini, Armin; Chirdo, Fernando G; Verdu, Elena F

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The recent increase in CD incidence suggests that additional environmental factors, such as intestinal microbiota alterations, are involved in its pathogenesis. However, there is no direct evidence of modulation of gluten-induced immunopathology by the microbiota. We investigated whether specific microbiota compositions influence immune responses to gluten in mice expressing the human DQ8 gene, which confers moderate CD genetic susceptibility. Germ-free mice, clean specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice colonized with a microbiota devoid of opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria, and conventional SPF mice that harbor a complex microbiota that includes opportunistic pathogens were used. Clean SPF mice had attenuated responses to gluten compared to germ-free and conventional SPF mice. Germ-free mice developed increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, markers of intraepithelial lymphocyte cytotoxicity, gliadin-specific antibodies, and a proinflammatory gliadin-specific T-cell response. Antibiotic treatment, leading to Proteobacteria expansion, further enhanced gluten-induced immunopathology in conventional SPF mice. Protection against gluten-induced immunopathology in clean SPF mice was reversed after supplementation with a member of the Proteobacteria phylum, an enteroadherent Escherichia coli isolated from a CD patient. The intestinal microbiota can both positively and negatively modulate gluten-induced immunopathology in mice. In subjects with moderate genetic susceptibility, intestinal microbiota changes may be a factor that increases CD risk. PMID:26456581

  11. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Refractory Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Shino; Ishimura, Norihisa; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Uno, Goichi; Tamagawa, Yuji; Aimi, Masahito; Oshima, Naoki; Sato, Shuichi; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). However, the prevalence and clinical conditions of SIBO in patients with FGID remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the frequency of SIBO in patients with refractory FGID. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with refractory FGID based on Rome III criteria. A glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) was performed using a gas analyzer after an overnight fast, with breath hydrogen concentration measured at baseline and every 15 minutes after administration of glucose for a total of 3 hours. A peak hydrogen value ? 10 ppm above the basal value between 60 and 120 minutes after administration of glucose was diagnosed as SIBO. Results A total of 38 FGID patients, including 11 with functional dyspepsia (FD), 10 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 17 with overlapping with FD and IBS, were enrolled. Of those, 2 (5.3%) were diagnosed with SIBO (one patient diagnosed with FD; the other with overlapping FD and IBS). Their symptoms were clearly improved and breath hydrogen levels decreased to normal following levofloxacin administration for 7 days. Conclusions Two patients initially diagnosed with FD and IBS were also diagnosed with SIBO as assessed by GHBT. Although the frequency of SIBO is low among patients with FGID, it may be important to be aware of SIBO as differential diagnosis when examining patients with refractory gastrointestinal symptoms, especially bloating, as a part of routine clinical care. PMID:26554916

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Meaningful association or unnecessary hype

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 105 colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dorsam, Glenn Paul; Benton, Keith; Failing, Jarrett; Batra, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling axis constitutes a master “communication coordinator” between cells of the nervous and immune systems. To date, VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2, mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity, including arresting CD4 T cells in G1 of the cell cycle, protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mucosa associated lymphoid compartment of the gastrointestinal tissues. Since the discovery of VIP in 1970, followed by the cloning of VPAC1 and VPAC2 in the early 1990s, this signaling axis has been associated with common human cancers, including leukemia. This review highlights the present day knowledge of the VIP ligand and its receptor expression profile in T cell leukemia and cell lines. Also, there will be a discussion describing how the anti-leukemic DNA binding transcription factor, Ikaros, regulates VIP receptor expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and T cell lymphoblastic cell lines (e.g. Hut-78). Lastly, future goals will be mentioned that are expected to uncover the role of how the VIP signaling axis contributes to human leukemogenesis, and to establish whether the VIP receptor signature expressed by leukemic blasts can provide therapeutic and/or diagnostic information. PMID:21765981

  14. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans. PMID:23020652

  15. Human Intestinal M Cells Display the Sialyl Lewis A Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Giannasca, Paul J.; Giannasca, Karen T.; Leichtner, Alan M.; Neutra, Marian R.

    1999-01-01

    The biochemical features that distinguish human M cells from other intestinal epithelial cell types are important for understanding microbial pathogenesis and for targeting vaccines to the mucosal immune system. We applied a large panel of carbohydrate-specific monoclonal antibodies and lectins to Peyer’s patch and cecum biopsy specimens from three normal individuals and a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The results show that human M-cell glycosylation patterns are distinct from those of other species examined and that human M cells preferentially display the sialyl Lewis A antigen. This carbohydrate epitope is also present in a small subpopulation of enterocytes in the follicle-associated epithelium and in goblet cell mucins. PMID:9916113

  16. Human intestinal epithelial cells produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to infection in a SCID mouse-human intestinal xenograft model of amebiasis.

    PubMed

    Seydel, K B; Li, E; Swanson, P E; Stanley, S L

    1997-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess, diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. E. histolytica infection appears to involve the initial attachment of amebic trophozoites to intestinal epithelial cells, followed by lysis of these cells and subsequent invasion into the submucosa. A recent in vitro study (L. Eckmann, S. L. Reed, J. R. Smith, and M. F. Kagnoff, J. Clin. Invest. 96:1269-1279, 1995) demonstrated that incubation of E. histolytica trophozoites with epithelial cell lines results in epithelial cell production of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-8, suggesting that intestinal epithelial cell production of cytokines might play a role in the inflammatory response and tissue damage seen in intestinal amebiasis. To determine whether intestinal epithelial cell production of IL-1 and IL-8 occurs in response to E. histolytica infection in vivo and as an approach to studying the specific interactions between amebic trophozoites and human intestine, we used a SCID mouse-human intestinal xenograft (SCID-HU-INT) model of disease, where human intestinal xenografts were infected with virulent E. histolytica trophozoites. Infection of xenografts with E. histolytica trophozoites resulted in extensive tissue damage, which was associated with the development of an early inflammatory response composed primarily of neutrophils. Using oligonucleotide primers that specifically amplify human IL-1beta and IL-8, we could demonstrate by reverse transcription PCR that mRNA for both IL-1beta and IL-8 is produced by human intestinal xenografts in response to amebic infection. The increase in human intestinal IL-1beta and IL-8 in response to invasive amebiasis was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays specific for human IL-1beta and IL-8. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that human intestinal epithelial cells were the source of IL-8 in infected xenografts and established that IL-8 production can occur at sites distal to areas of intestinal mucosal damage. These results demonstrate that human intestinal epithelial cells can produce inflammatory cytokines in response to infection in vivo and establish the SCID-HU-INT model as a system for studying the interactions between E. histolytica and human intestine. PMID:9125540

  17. Multiscale analysis of the murine intestine for modeling human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Jesse; Herring, Charles A.; Banerjee, Amrita; Simmons, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    When functioning properly, the intestine is one of the key interfaces between the human body and its environment. It is responsible for extracting nutrients from our food and excreting our waste products. It provides an environment for a host of healthful microbes and serves as a first defense against pathogenic ones. These processes require tight homeostatic controls, which are provided by the interactions of a complex mix of epithelial, stromal, neural and immune cells, as well as the resident microflora. This homeostasis can be disrupted by invasive microbes, genetic lesions, and carcinogens, resulting in diseases such Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cancer. Enormous strides have been made in understanding how this important organ functions in health and disease using everything from cell culture systems to animal models to human tissue samples. This has resulted in better therapies for all of these diseases, but there is still significant room for improvement. In the United States alone, 14000 people per year die of C. difficile, up to 1.6 million people suffer from IBD, and more than 50000 people die every year from colon cancer. Because these and other intestinal diseases arise from complex interactions between the different components of the gut ecosystem, we propose that systems approaches that address this complexity in an integrative manner may eventually lead to improved therapeutics that deliver lasting cures. This review will discuss the use of systems biology for studying intestinal diseases in vivo with particular emphasis on mouse models. Additionally, it will focus on established experimental techniques that have been used to drive this systems-level analysis, and emerging techniques that will push this field forward in the future. PMID:26040649

  18. Expression of arylamine N-acetyltransferase in human intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, D; Pope, J; Patil, S; Fakis, G; Smelt, V; Stanley, L; Payton, M; Unadkat, J; Sim, E

    1998-01-01

    Background—Arylamine N-acetyltransferases in humans (NAT1 and NAT2) catalyse the acetylation of arylamines including food derived heterocyclic arylamine carcinogens. Other substrates include the sulphonamide 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is an NAT1 specific substrate; N-acetylation of 5-ASA is a major route of metabolism. NAT1 and NAT2 are both polymorphic. ?Aims—To investigate NAT expression in apparently healthy human intestines in order to understand the possible role of NAT in colorectal cancer and in the therapeutic response to 5-ASA. ?Methods—The intestines of four organ donors were divided into eight sections. DNA was prepared for genotyping NAT1 and NAT2 and enzymic activities of NAT1 and NAT2 were determined in cytosols prepared from each section. Tissue was fixed for immunohistochemistry with specific NAT antibodies. Western blotting was carried out on all samples of cytosol and on homogenates of separated muscle and villi after microdissection. ?Results—NAT1 activity of all cytosols was greater than NAT2 activity. NAT1 and NAT2 activities correlated with the genotypes of NAT1 and NAT2 and with the levels of NAT1 staining determined by western blotting. The ratio of NAT1:NAT2 activities showed interindividual variations from 2 to 70. NAT1 antigenic activity was greater in villi than in muscle. NAT1 was detected along the length of the villi in the small intestine. In colon samples there was less NAT1 at the base of the crypts with intense staining at the tips. ?Conclusions—The interindividual variation in NAT1 and NAT2 in the colon could affect how individuals respond to exposure to specific NAT substrates including carcinogens and 5-ASA. ?? Keywords: arylamine N-acetyltransferase; 5-aminosalicylate; colorectal cancer; drug metabolism; inflammatory bowel disease; diet PMID:9577349

  19. Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

    2007-09-01

    The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine. PMID:17615175

  20. Salmonella interactions with polarized human intestinal Caco-2 epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

    1990-11-01

    Polarized monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line were grown on permeable filters and infected apically with either Salmonella choleraesuis or Salmonella typhimurium. Both Salmonella species penetrated through the monolayer, requiring 2 h before appearing in the basolateral medium. Both species caused a loss in transepithelial resistance by 3-4 h, and the monolayer's integrity was completely disrupted by 6 h. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria interacted with well-defined apical microvilli and caused disruptions in the brush border, including elongation and denuding of the microvilli. The cytoplasm was also disrupted locally, with blebs protruding from the apical surface. The bacteria entered (invaded) these cells and were enclosed in membrane-bound vacuoles within the cytoplasm. By 6 h there were many bacteria within most Caco-2 cells, and these organisms caused serious cytopathic consequences. These morphologic observations correlated well with animal infection models, indicating that this in vitro system will be useful to study pathogens that interact with human intestinal epithelia. PMID:2230236

  1. Herbal Therapy Is Equivalent to Rifaximin for the Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chedid, Victor; Dhalla, Sameer; Clarke, John O.; Roland, Bani Chander; Dunbar, Kerry B.; Koh, Joyce; Justino, Edmundo; Tomakin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have chronic intestinal and extraintestinal symptomatology which adversely affects their quality of life. Present treatment of SIBO is limited to oral antibiotics with variable success. A growing number of patients are interested in using complementary and alternative therapies for their gastrointestinal health. The objective was to determine the remission rate of SIBO using either the antibiotic rifaximin or herbals in a tertiary care referral gastroenterology practice. Design: One hundred and four patients who tested positive for newly diagnosed SIBO by lactulose breath testing (LBT) were offered either rifaximin 1200 mg daily vs herbal therapy for 4 weeks with repeat LBT post-treatment. Results: Three hundred ninety-six patients underwent LBT for suspected SIBO, of which 251 (63.4%) were positive 165 underwent treatment and 104 had a follow-up LBT. Of the 37 patients who received herbal therapy, 17 (46%) had a negative follow-up LBT compared to 23/67 (34%) of rifaximin users (P=.24). The odds ratio of having a negative LBT after taking herbal therapy as compared to rifaximin was 1.85 (CI=0.77-4.41, P=.17) once adjusted for age, gender, SIBO risk factors and IBS status. Fourteen of the 44 (31.8%) rifaximin non-responders were offered herbal rescue therapy, with 8 of the 14 (57.1%) having a negative LBT after completing the rescue herbal therapy, while 10 non-responders were offered triple antibiotics with 6 responding (60%, P=.89). Adverse effects were reported among the rifaximin treated arm including 1 case of anaphylaxis, 2 cases of hives, 2 cases of diarrhea and 1 case of Clostridium difficile. Only one case of diarrhea was reported in the herbal therapy arm, which did not reach statistical significance (P=.22). Conclusion: SIBO is widely prevalent in a tertiary referral gastroenterology practice. Herbal therapies are at least as effective as rifaximin for resolution of SIBO by LBT. Herbals also appear to be as effective as triple antibiotic therapy for SIBO rescue therapy for rifaximin non-responders. Further, prospective studies are needed to validate these findings and explore additional alternative therapies in patients with refractory SIBO. PMID:24891990

  2. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  3. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2015-04-15

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells. PMID:25573173

  4. Cdx2 modulates proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells

    SciTech Connect

    Escaffit, Fabrice; Pare, Frederic; Gauthier, Remy; Rivard, Nathalie; Boudreau, Francois; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois . E-mail: Jean-Francois.Beaulieu@USherbrooke.ca

    2006-03-31

    The homeobox gene Cdx2 is involved in the regulation of the expression of intestine specific markers such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Previous studies performed with immortalized or transformed intestinal cell lines have provided evidence that Cdx2 can promote morphological and functional differentiation in these experimental models. However, no data exist concerning the implication of this factor in normal human intestinal cell physiology. In the present work, we have investigated the role of Cdx2 in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cells that lack this transcription factor. The establishment of HIEC cells expressing Cdx2 in an inducible manner shows that forced expression of Cdx2 significantly alters the proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and stimulates dipeptidylpeptidase IV expression but is not sufficient to trigger intestinal terminal differentiation. These observations suggest that Cdx2 requires additional factors to activate the enterocyte differentiation program in normal undifferentiated cells.

  5. Lipoteichoic acid from Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits Pam2CSK4-induced IL-8 production in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Noh, Su Young; Kang, Seok-Seong; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacilli are probiotic bacteria that are considered to be beneficial in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Although lactobacilli are well known to alleviate intestinal inflammation, the molecular basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA), which is a major cell wall component of this species, on the production of interleukin (IL)-8 in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Treatment with Pam2CSK4, a synthetic lipopeptide that is known to mimic Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins as an important virulence factor, significantly induced IL-8 expression in Caco-2 cells. However, neither heat-inactivated L. plantarum nor L. plantarum peptidoglycan inhibited Pam2CSK4-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. In addition, both a deacylated form and a dealanylated form of Lp.LTA failed to inhibit Pam2CSK4-induced IL-8 expression, indicating that the lipid and D-alanine moieties are critical for Lp.LTA-mediated inhibition. Moreover, Lp.LTA inhibited Pam2CSK4-induced activation of p38 kinase, JNK, and NF-?B transcription factor by suppressing toll-like receptor 2 activation. Collectively, these results suggest that Lp.LTA exerts anti-inflammatory effects on human intestinal epithelial cells by blocking IL-8 production. PMID:25481370

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p?=?0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p?=?0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p?

  7. Precision-cut rat, mouse, and human intestinal slices as novel models for the early-onset of intestinal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Bao Tung; van Haaften, Wouter Tobias; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Nieken, Judith; de Graaf, Inge Anne Maria; Olinga, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis (IF) is a major complication of inflammatory bowel disease. IF research is limited by the lack of relevant in vitro and in vivo models. We evaluated precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) prepared from human, rat, and mouse intestine as ex vivo models mimicking the early-onset of (human) IF. Precision-cut intestinal slices prepared from human (h), rat (r), and mouse (m) jejunum, were incubated up to 72 h, the viability of PCIS was assessed by ATP content and morphology, and the gene expression of several fibrosis markers was determined. The viability of rPCIS decreased after 24 h of incubation, whereas mPCIS and hPCIS were viable up to 72 h of culturing. Furthermore, during this period, gene expression of heat shock protein 47 and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 increased in all PCIS in addition to augmented expression of synaptophysin in hPCIS, fibronectin (Fn2) and TGF-?1 in rPCIS, and Fn2 and connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf) in mPCIS. Addition of TGF-?1 to rPCIS or mPCIS induced the gene expression of the fibrosis markers Pro-collagen1a1, Fn2, and Ctgf in both species. However, none of the fibrosis markers was further elevated in hPCIS. We successfully developed a novel ex vivo model that can mimic the early-onset of fibrosis in the intestine using human, rat, and mouse PCIS. Furthermore, in rat and mouse PCIS, TGF-?1 was able to even further increase the gene expression of fibrosis markers. This indicates that PCIS can be used as a model for the early-onset of IF. PMID:25907784

  8. Low dietary iron intake restrains the intestinal inflammatory response and pathology of enteric infection by food-borne bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kortman, Guus A M; Mulder, Michelle L M; Richters, Thijs J W; Shanmugam, Nanda K N; Trebicka, Estela; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Roelofs, Rian; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Laarakkers, Coby M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Bolhuis, Albert; Cherayil, Bobby J; Tjalsma, Harold

    2015-09-01

    Orally administrated iron is suspected to increase susceptibility to enteric infections among children in infection endemic regions. Here we investigated the effect of dietary iron on the pathology and local immune responses in intestinal infection models. Mice were held on iron-deficient, normal iron, or high iron diets and after 2 weeks they were orally challenged with the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Microbiome analysis by pyrosequencing revealed profound iron- and infection-induced shifts in microbiota composition. Fecal levels of the innate defensive molecules and markers of inflammation lipocalin-2 and calprotectin were not influenced by dietary iron intervention alone, but were markedly lower in mice on the iron-deficient diet after infection. Next, mice on the iron-deficient diet tended to gain more weight and to have a lower grade of colon pathology. Furthermore, survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was prolonged after iron deprivation. Together, these data show that iron limitation restricts disease pathology upon bacterial infection. However, our data also showed decreased intestinal inflammatory responses of mice fed on high iron diets. Thus additionally, our study indicates that the effects of iron on processes at the intestinal host-pathogen interface may highly depend on host iron status, immune status, and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26046550

  9. Involvement of Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 in Intestinal Absorption of Trifluridine Using Human Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Yoshisue, Kunihiro; Chiba, Masato; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-09-01

    TAS-102, which is effective for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer, is a combination drug of anticancer trifluridine (FTD; which is derived from pyrimidine nucleoside) and FTD-metabolizing enzyme inhibitor tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) at a molecular ratio of 1:0.5. To evaluate the intestinal absorption mechanism of FTD, the uptake and transcellular transport of FTD by human small intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) monolayer as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. The uptake and membrane permeability of FTD by HIEC monolayers were saturable, Na(+) -dependent, and inhibited by nucleosides. These transport characteristics are mostly comparable with those of concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs). Moreover, the uptake of FTD by CNT1-expressing Xenopus oocytes was the highest among human CNT transporters. The obtained Km and Vmax values of FTD by CNT1 were 69.0 ?M and 516 pmol/oocyte/30 min, respectively. The transcellular transport of FTD by Caco-2 cells, where CNT1 is heterologously expressed, from apical to basolateral side was greater than that by Mock cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that FTD exhibits high oral absorption by the contribution of human CNT1. PMID:25900515

  10. An in vivo model of human small intestine using pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Carey L; Mahe, Maxime M; Múnera, Jorge; Howell, Jonathan C; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Poling, Holly M; Schweitzer, Jamie I; Vallance, Jefferson E; Mayhew, Christopher N; Sun, Ying; Grabowski, Gregory; Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Spence, Jason R; Shroyer, Noah F; Wells, James M; Helmrath, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into organ-specific subtypes offers an exciting avenue for the study of embryonic development and disease processes, for pharmacologic studies and as a potential resource for therapeutic transplant1,2. To date, limited in vivo models exist for human intestine, all of which are dependent upon primary epithelial cultures or digested tissue from surgical biopsies that include mesenchymal cells transplanted on biodegradable scaffolds3,4. Here, we generated human intestinal organoids (HIOs) produced in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)5,6 that can engraft in vivo. These HIOs form mature human intestinal epithelium with intestinal stem cells contributing to the cryptvillus architecture and a laminated human mesenchyme, both supported by mouse vasculature ingrowth. In vivo transplantation resulted in marked expansion and maturation of the epithelium and mesenchyme, as demonstrated by differentiated intestinal cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, tuft cells and enteroendocrine cells), presence of functional brush-border enzymes (lactase, sucrase-isomaltase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4) and visible subepithelial and smooth muscle layers when compared with HIOs in vitro. Transplanted intestinal tissues demonstrated digestive functions as shown by permeability and peptide uptake studies. Furthermore, transplanted HIO-derived tissue was responsive to systemic signals from the host mouse following ileocecal resection, suggesting a role for circulating factors in the intestinal adaptive response7–9. This model of the human small intestine may pave the way for studies of intestinal physiology, disease and translational studies. PMID:25326803

  11. Initial insights into bacterial succession during human decomposition.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Petrosino, Joseph F; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-05-01

    Decomposition is a dynamic ecological process dependent upon many factors such as environment, climate, and bacterial, insect, and vertebrate activity in addition to intrinsic properties inherent to individual cadavers. Although largely attributed to microbial metabolism, very little is known about the bacterial basis of human decomposition. To assess the change in bacterial community structure through time, bacterial samples were collected from several sites across two cadavers placed outdoors to decompose and analyzed through 454 pyrosequencing and analysis of variable regions 3-5 of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Each cadaver was characterized by a change in bacterial community structure for all sites sampled as time, and decomposition, progressed. Bacteria community structure is variable at placement and before purge for all body sites. At bloat and purge and until tissues began to dehydrate or were removed, bacteria associated with flies, such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtimonas, were common. After dehydration and skeletonization, bacteria associated with soil, such as Acinetobacter, were common at most body sites sampled. However, more cadavers sampled through multiple seasons are necessary to assess major trends in bacterial succession. PMID:25431049

  12. Protective effect of glutamine on intestinal injury and bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun-Lan; Sun, Rui; Qiao, Xiang-Jin; Xu, Cui-Cui; Shang, Xiao-Ya; Niu, Wei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of glutamine (Gln) on intestinal injury and the bacterial community in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia environment. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and hypobaric hypoxia + Gln (5.0 g/kg BW·d) (HG) groups. On the first 3 d, all rats were placed in a normal environment. After the third day, the HH and HG groups were transferred into a hypobaric chamber at a simulated elevation of 7000 m for 5 d. The rats in the HG group were given Gln by gavage daily for 8 d. The rats in the control and HH groups were treated with the same volume of saline. The intestinal morphology, serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and diamino oxidase (DAO) were examined. We also evaluated the expression levels of occludin, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-?B p65 (NF-?B p65) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and examined the bacterial community in caecal contents. RESULTS: Hypobaric hypoxia induced the enlargement of the heart, liver, lung and kidney, and caused spleen atrophy. Intestinal villi damage was also observed in the HH group. Supplementation with Gln significantly alleviated hypobaric-induced damage to main organs including the intestine, increased serum SOD (1.14 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) and MDA (8.35 ± 1.60, P < 0.01) levels and decreased serum IL-6 (1172.13±30.49 vs 1407.05 ± 34.36, P < 0.05), TNF-? (77.46 ± 0.78 vs 123.70 ± 3.03, P < 0.001), IFN-? (1355.42 ± 72.80 vs 1830.16 ± 42.07, P < 0.01) and DAO (629.30 ± 9.15 vs 524.10 ± 13.34, P < 0.001) levels. Moreover, Gln significantly increased occludin (0.72 ± 0.05 vs 0.09 ± 0.01, P < 0.001), TLR4 (0.15 ± 0.05 vs 0.30 ±0.09, P < 0.05), MyD88 (0.32 ± 0.08 vs 0.71 ± 0.06, P < 0.01), and NF-?B p65 (0.16 ± 0.04 vs 0.44 ± 0.03, P < 0.01) expression levels and improved the intestinal bacterial community. CONCLUSION: Gln treatment protects from intestinal injury and regulates the gut flora imbalance in hypoxia environment. These effects may be related to the TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24782618

  13. Exploration of bacterial community classes in major human habitats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Determining bacterial abundance variation is the first step in understanding bacterial similarity between individuals. Categorization of bacterial communities into groups or community classes is the subsequent step in describing microbial distribution based on abundance patterns. Here, we present an analysis of the groupings of bacterial communities in stool, nasal, skin, vaginal and oral habitats in a healthy cohort of 236 subjects from the Human Microbiome Project. Results We identify distinct community group patterns in the anterior nares, four skin sites, and vagina at the genus level. We also confirm three enterotypes previously identified in stools. We identify two clusters with low silhouette values in most oral sites, in which bacterial communities are more homogeneous. Subjects sharing a community class in one habitat do not necessarily share a community class in another, except in the three vaginal sites and the symmetric habitats of the left and right retroauricular creases. Demographic factors, including gender, age, and ethnicity, significantly influence community composition in several habitats. Community classes in the vagina, retroauricular crease and stool are stable over approximately 200 days. Conclusion The community composition, association of demographic factors with community classes, and demonstration of community stability deepen our understanding of the variability and dynamics of human microbiomes. This also has significant implications for experimental designs that seek microbial correlations with clinical phenotypes. PMID:24887286

  14. A breakdown in communication? Understanding the effects of aging on the human small intestine epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells sealed together at their apical surfaces by tight junctions helps to prevent the luminal commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms and their toxins from entering host tissues. The intestinal epithelium also helps to maintain homoeostasis in the mucosal immune system by expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the steady state and inflammatory cytokines in response to pathogens. Although the function of the mucosal immune system is impaired in elderly humans, the molecular mechanisms which cause this dramatic functional decline are poorly understood. Our current understanding of the effects of aging on the physical and immunological properties of the intestinal epithelial barrier is also very limited. In this issue of Clinical Science, Man et al. provide further insight into the effects of aging on small intestinal barrier function in humans and the influence that gut luminal micro-organisms may have on it. Using human terminal ileal biopsy tissues they show that intestinal permeability to solutes, but not macromolecules, was significantly increased in the intestines of elderly humans. This was accompanied by elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 which appeared to modulate claudin-2 expression and solute permeability in the epithelium. Conversely, IL-8 synthesis in response to flagellin stimulation was reduced in intestines of the elderly subjects, but was not associated with effects on Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression. These data provide an important advance in our understanding on the effects of aging on intestinal permeability and innate mucosal immune responsiveness in elderly humans. PMID:26186738

  15. A breakdown in communication? Understanding the effects of aging on the human small intestine epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Neil A

    2015-10-01

    In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells sealed together at their apical surfaces by tight junctions helps to prevent the luminal commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms and their toxins from entering host tissues. The intestinal epithelium also helps to maintain homoeostasis in the mucosal immune system by expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the steady state and inflammatory cytokines in response to pathogens. Although the function of the mucosal immune system is impaired in elderly humans, the molecular mechanisms which cause this dramatic functional decline are poorly understood. Our current understanding of the effects of aging on the physical and immunological properties of the intestinal epithelial barrier is also very limited. In this issue of Clinical Science, Man et al. provide further insight into the effects of aging on small intestinal barrier function in humans and the influence that gut luminal micro-organisms may have on it. Using human terminal ileal biopsy tissues they show that intestinal permeability to solutes, but not macromolecules, was significantly increased in the intestines of elderly humans. This was accompanied by elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 which appeared to modulate claudin-2 expression and solute permeability in the epithelium. Conversely, IL-8 synthesis in response to flagellin stimulation was reduced in intestines of the elderly subjects, but was not associated with effects on Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression. These data provide an important advance in our understanding on the effects of aging on intestinal permeability and innate mucosal immune responsiveness in elderly humans. PMID:26186738

  16. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Henthorn, P.S.; Raducha, M.; Edwards, Y.H.; Weiss, M.J.; Slaughter, C.; Lafferty, M.A.; Harris, H.

    1987-03-01

    A cDNA clone for human adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum); EC 3.1.3.1) was isolated from a lambdagt11 expression library. The cDNA insert of this clone is 2513 base pairs in length and contains an open reading frame that encodes a 528-amino acid polypeptide. This deduced polypeptide contains the first 40 amino acids of human intestinal ALP, as determined by direct protein sequencing. Intestinal ALP shows 86.5% amino acid identity to placental (type 1) ALP and 56.6% amino acid identity to liver/bone/kidney ALP. In the 3'-untranslated regions, intestinal and placental ALP cDNAs are 73.5% identical (excluding gaps). The evolution of this multigene enzyme family is discussed.

  17. Certain canine weakly beta-hemolytic intestinal spirochetes are phenotypically and genotypically related to spirochetes associated with human and porcine intestinal spirochetosis.

    PubMed Central

    Duhamel, G E; Muniappa, N; Mathiesen, M R; Johnson, J L; Toth, J; Elder, R O; Doster, A R

    1995-01-01

    Four canine weakly beta-hemolytic intestinal spirochetes associated with intestinal spirochetosis (IS-associated WBHIS) were compared with IS-associated human and porcine WBHIS and the type species for Serpulina hyodysenteriae and S. innocens by using phenotypic and genotypic parameters. The IS-associated canine, human, and porcine WBHIS belonged to a phyletic group distinct from but related to previously described Serpulina type species. PMID:7559984

  18. The role of disulphide bonds in human intestinal mucin

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, Janet F.; Jabbal, Inderjit; Qureshi, Rauf; Kells, David I. C.; Forstner, Gordon G.

    1979-01-01

    Goblet-cell mucin (mucin 1) was isolated and purified from human small-intestinal scrapings. After application of mucin 1 to DEAE-Bio-Gel (A) columns, most of the glycoprotein (76–94% of hexoses) was eluted in the first peak (designated mucin 2). Minor amounts of acidic glycoproteins were eluted with 0.2m- and 0.4m-NaCl in later peaks. Analyses of mucin 1 and mucin 2 revealed mucin 2 to be a monodisperse highly glycosylated glycoprotein containing 6.3% by wt. of protein, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucose. Mucin 1 was similar in composition, but was polydisperse and contained more protein (12.3% by wt.) as well as N-acetylneuraminic acid. Analytical CsCl-gradient ultracentrifugation showed both mucin 1 and mucin 2 to have a major component with an average buoyant density of 1.47000g/ml. Mucin 1 also contained a slightly less-dense minor glycoprotein component. After exhaustive reduction and alkylation mucin 1 retained its major component, but partly dissociated into two lighter glycoprotein components. Mucin 2, in contrast, did not change its density distribution after reduction. Band ultracentrifugation in 2H2O-containing iso-osmotic buffers showed that mucin 1 contained a major fast-sedimenting component (so=37±2S), and a minor amount of a slower-sedimenting component. After reduction there was an increased quantity of the latter component, for which an so value of 14.5S was calculated. In contrast, mucin 2 was unaltered by reduction (so=33±2S). These findings indicate that the major component of goblet-cell mucin (mucin 2) does not dissociate after S–S-bond reduction, and thus does not apparently rely for its polymeric structure on the association of subunits through covalent disulphide bonds. However, the effects of reduction on mucin 1 suggest that in the native mucin intramolecular disulphide bonds in the minor glycoproteins may stabilize their structure, permitting secondary non-covalent interactions to develop with the major dense mucin (mucin 2) protein. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:518552

  19. Fecal microbiota transplantation and bacterial consortium transplantation have comparable effects on the re-establishment of mucosal barrier function in mice with intestinal dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Liang, Pin; Li, Zhenzhen; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Guobin; Gao, Hongwei; Wen, Shu; Tang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapy, despite some reports of adverse side effects. Bacterial consortia transplantation (BCT) for targeted restoration of the intestinal ecosystem is considered a relatively safe and simple procedure. However, no systematic research has assessed the effects of FMT and BCT on immune responses of intestinal mucosal barrier in patients. We conducted complementary studies in animal models on the effects of FMT and BCT, and provide recommendations for improving the clinical outcomes of these treatments. To establish the dysbiosis model, male BALB/c mice were treated with ceftriaxone intra-gastrically for 7 days. After that, FMT and BCT were performed on ceftriaxone-treated mice for 3 consecutive days to rebuild the intestinal ecosystem. Post-FMT and post-BCT changes of the intestinal microbial community and mucosal barrier functions were investigated and compared. Disruption of intestinal microbial homeostasis impacted the integrity of mucosal epithelial layer, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. These outcomes were accompanied by overexpression of Muc2, significant decrease of SIgA secretion, and overproduction of defensins and inflammatory cytokines. After FMT and BCT, the intestinal microbiota recovered quickly, this was associated with better reconstruction of mucosal barriers and re-establishment of immune networks compared with spontaneous recovery (SR). Although based on a short-term study, our results suggest that FMT and BCT promote the re-establishment of intestinal microbial communities in mice with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, and contribute to the temporal and spatial interactions between microbiota and mucosal barriers. The effects of BCT are comparable to that of FMT, especially in normalizing the intestinal levels of Muc2, SIgA, and defensins. PMID:26217323

  20. Lactic acid bacteria protect human intestinal epithelial cells from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Affhan, S; Dachang, W; Xin, Y; Shang, D

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and food-borne infections. They promote intestinal diseases. Gastrointestinal colonization by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa has rarely been researched. These organisms spread to extra gastrointestinal niches, resulting in increasingly progressive infections. Lactic acid bacteria are Gram-positive bacteria that produce lactic acid as the major end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. These bacteria inhibit pathogen colonization and modulate the host immune response. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus on enteric infections caused by the paradigmatic human pathogens S. aureus ATCC25923 and P. aeruginosa ATCC27853. The effect of whole cells and neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of the lactobacilli on LoVo human carcinoma enterocyte (ATCC CCL-229) infection was analyzed by co-exposure, pre-exposure, and post-exposure studies. Simultaneous application of whole cells and CFS of the lactobacilli significantly eradicated enterocyte infection (P < 0.05); however, this effect was not seen when the whole cells and CFS were added after or prior to the infection (P > 0.05). This result could be attributed to interference by extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in the development of a pathogen that did not form colonies. Furthermore, results of the plate count and LIVE/ DEAD BacLight bacterial viability staining attributed this inhibition to a non-bacteriocin-like substance, which acted independently of organic acid and H2O2 production. Based on these results, the cell-free supernatant derived from lactobacilli was concluded to restrain the development of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa enteric infections. PMID:26681052

  1. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  2. Study of the Biotransformation of Tongmai Formula by Human Intestinal Flora and Its Intestinal Permeability across the Caco-2 Cell Monolayer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuai; Xu, Wei; Wang, Fu-Rong; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tongmai formula (TMF) is a well-known Chinese medicinal preparation that contains isoflavones as its major bioactive constituents. As traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are usually used by oral administration, their fate inside the intestinal lumen, including their biotransformation by human intestinal flora (HIF) and intestinal absorption deserves study. In this work TMF extract was incubated with human intestinal bacteria under anaerobic conditions and the changes in the twelve main constituents of TMF were then investigated. Their intestinal permeabilities, i.e., the transport capability across the intestinal brush border were investigated with a human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2) cell monolayer model to predict the absorption mechanism. Meanwhile, rapid HPLC-DAD methods were established for the assay. According to the biotransformation curves of the twelve constituents and the permeability coefficients, the intestinal absorption capacity of the typical compounds was elevated from the levels of 10(-7) cm/s to 10(-5) cm/s from those of the original compounds in TMF. Among them the main isoflavone glycosides puerarin (4), mirificin (6) and daidzin (7) were transformed into the same aglycone, daidzein (10). Therefore it was predicted that the aglycone compounds might be the real active ingredients in TMF. The models used can represent a novel path for the TCM studies. PMID:26501241

  3. A Comparative Study of Bacterial and Parasitic Intestinal Infections in India

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Beena; Perween, Naz; Kumar, Shyam Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infectious diarrhea causes a major health problem in developing countries with significant morbidity and mortality. Very often, rehydration therapy alone does not suffice, mandating the use of antimicrobial agents. However, rapidly decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility is complicating the matters. Materials and Methods: The study aimed to determine the prevalent bacterial and parasitic agents of diarrhea in India. A cross-sectional study was done at Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, during 2012-14. Stool samples were received from patients of all age groups and processed for bacteriological and parasitological identification by microscopy, bacterial culture, biochemical identification, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The study also aimed to identify the recent papers (after year 2000) reporting aetiology of infectious diarrhea in India involving the general population as a whole and compare them with present findings. Results: Out of 6527 samples, 581 (8.90%) were positive for bacterial pathogens. A total of 280 samples (of 3823 under-five year children) were positive for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Other organisms like Vibrio cholera were found in 159 (2.44%) cases, Shigella spp. in 126 (1.93%), Salmonella Typhi in 7 (0.11%), Salmonella Typhimurium in 6 (0.10%), Aeromonas hydrophila in 3 (0.05%) cases. Levels of resistance to nalidixic acid, amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin were alarmingly high. Third generation cephalosporins were seen to be moderately active except against E. coli. Parasites were identified in 312 (4.78%) cases. Giardia intestinalis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica were identified in 2.27%, 1.15% and 0.64% cases respectively. Conclusion: Analysis of recent nationwide studies revealed V. cholerae was the most common bacterial/parasitic agent of diarrhea across all populations, being followed by diarrheagenic E. coli and Giardia intestinalis. Periodic laboratory monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is essential, as is formulation of effective antibiotic use policy. PMID:25954615

  4. Human Intestinal Tissue with Adult Stem Cell Properties Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Ryan; Chiba, Kunitoshi; Schaeffer, Lorian; Regalado, Samuel G.; Lai, Christine S.; Gao, Qing; Kiani, Samira; Farin, Henner F.; Clevers, Hans; Cost, Gregory J.; Chan, Andy; Rebar, Edward J.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Gregory, Philip D.; Pachter, Lior; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Hockemeyer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been proposed as a source for transplantation therapies and are rapidly becoming valuable tools for human disease modeling. However, many applications are limited due to the lack of robust differentiation paradigms that allow for the isolation of defined functional tissues. Here, using an endogenous LGR5-GFP reporter, we derived adult stem cells from hPSCs that gave rise to functional human intestinal tissue comprising all major cell types of the intestine. Histological and functional analyses revealed that such human organoid cultures could be derived with high purity and with a composition and morphology similar to those of cultures obtained from human biopsies. Importantly, hPSC-derived organoids responded to the canonical signaling pathways that control self-renewal and differentiation in the adult human intestinal stem cell compartment. This adult stem cell system provides a platform for studying human intestinal disease in vitro using genetically engineered hPSCs. PMID:24936470

  5. Human intestinal tissue with adult stem cell properties derived from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Forster, Ryan; Chiba, Kunitoshi; Schaeffer, Lorian; Regalado, Samuel G; Lai, Christine S; Gao, Qing; Kiani, Samira; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans; Cost, Gregory J; Chan, Andy; Rebar, Edward J; Urnov, Fyodor D; Gregory, Philip D; Pachter, Lior; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Hockemeyer, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been proposed as a source for transplantation therapies and are rapidly becoming valuable tools for human disease modeling. However, many applications are limited due to the lack of robust differentiation paradigms that allow for the isolation of defined functional tissues. Here, using an endogenous LGR5-GFP reporter, we derived adult stem cells from hPSCs that gave rise to functional human intestinal tissue comprising all major cell types of the intestine. Histological and functional analyses revealed that such human organoid cultures could be derived with high purity and with a composition and morphology similar to those of cultures obtained from human biopsies. Importantly, hPSC-derived organoids responded to the canonical signaling pathways that control self-renewal and differentiation in the adult human intestinal stem cell compartment. This adult stem cell system provides a platform for studying human intestinal disease in vitro using genetically engineered hPSCs. PMID:24936470

  6. Bacterial Community Associated with the Intestinal Tract of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Farmed in Lake Tai, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal ?95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

  7. Bacterial community associated with the intestinal tract of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) farmed in Lake Tai, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal ?95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

  8. Diversity and succession of the intestinal bacterial community of the maturing broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiangrang; Idris, Umelaalim; Harmon, Barry; Hofacre, Charles; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2003-11-01

    The diversity of bacterial floras in the ilea and ceca of chickens that were fed a vegetarian corn-soy broiler diet devoid of feed additives was examined by analysis of 1,230 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nearly 70% of sequences from the ileum were related to those of Lactobacillus, with the majority of the rest being related to Clostridiaceae (11%), Streptococcus (6.5%), and Enterococcus (6.5%). In contrast, Clostridiaceae-related sequences (65%) were the most abundant group detected in the cecum, with the other most abundant sequences being related to Fusobacterium (14%), Lactobacillus (8%), and Bacteroides (5%). Statistical analysis comparing the compositions of the different 16S rRNA libraries revealed that population succession occurred during some sampling periods. The significant differences among cecal libraries at 3 and 7 days of age, at 14 to 28 days of age, and at 49 days of age indicated that successions occurred from a transient community to one of increasing complexity as the birds aged. Similarly, the ileum had a stable bacterial community structure for birds at 7 to 21 days of age and between 21 to 28 days of age, but there was a very unique community structure at 3 and 49 days of age. It was also revealed that the composition of the ileal and cecal libraries did not significantly differ when the birds were 3 days old, and in fact during the first 14 days of age, the cecal microflora was a subset of the ileal microflora. After this time, the ileum and cecum had significantly different library compositions, suggesting that each region developed its own unique bacterial community as the bird matured. PMID:14602645

  9. Bacterial communities on classroom surfaces vary with human contact

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans can spend the majority of their time indoors, but little is known about the interactions between the human and built-environment microbiomes or the forces that drive microbial community assembly in the built environment. We sampled 16S rRNA genes from four different surface types throughout a university classroom to determine whether bacterial assemblages on each surface were best predicted by routine human interactions or by proximity to other surfaces within the classroom. We then analyzed our data with publicly-available datasets representing potential source environments. Results Bacterial assemblages from the four surface types, as well as individual taxa, were indicative of different source pools related to the type of human contact each surface routinely encounters. Spatial proximity to other surfaces in the classroom did not predict community composition. Conclusions Our results indicate that human-associated microbial communities can be transferred to indoor surfaces following contact, and that such transmission is possible even when contact is indirect, but that proximity to other surfaces in the classroom does not influence community composition. PMID:24602274

  10. Generating human intestinal tissues from pluripotent stem cells to study development and disease.

    PubMed

    Sinagoga, Katie L; Wells, James M

    2015-05-01

    As one of the largest and most functionally complex organs of the human body, the intestines are primarily responsible for the breakdown and uptake of macromolecules from the lumen and the subsequent excretion of waste from the body. However, the intestine is also an endocrine organ, regulating digestion, metabolism, and feeding behavior. Intricate neuronal, lymphatic, immune, and vascular systems are integrated into the intestine and are required for its digestive and endocrine functions. In addition, the gut houses an extensive population of microbes that play roles in digestion, global metabolism, barrier function, and host-parasite interactions. With such an extensive array of cell types working and performing in one essential organ, derivation of functional intestinal tissues from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represents a significant challenge. Here we will discuss the intricate developmental processes and cell types that are required for assembly of this highly complex organ and how embryonic processes, particularly morphogenesis, have been harnessed to direct differentiation of PSCs into 3-dimensional human intestinal organoids (HIOs) in vitro. We will further describe current uses of HIOs in development and disease research and how additional tissue complexity might be engineered into HIOs for better functionality and disease modeling. PMID:25792515

  11. Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 promotes bacterial phagocytosis by human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wan, Min; van der Does, Anne M; Tang, Xiao; Lindbom, Lennart; Agerberth, Birgitta; Haeggström, Jesper Z

    2014-06-01

    LL-37/hCAP-18 is the only human member of the cathelicidin family and plays an important role in killing various pathogens, as well as in immune modulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of LL-37 on bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages and demonstrate that LL-37 enhances phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in a dose- and time-dependent manner by dTHP-1 cells. In addition, LL-37 enhanced phagocytosis of nonopsonized Escherichia coli by human macrophages. Consistently, LL-37 elevated the expression of Fc?Rs on macrophages but not the complement receptors CD11b and -c. Further studies revealed that the expression of TLR4 and CD14 is also increased on LL-37-treated macrophages. Several lines of evidence indicated that the FPR2/ALX receptor mediated LL-37-induced phagocytosis. However, TLR4 signaling was also coupled to the phagocytic response, as a specific TLR4 antibody significantly suppressed phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized E. coli and nonopsonized E. coli by dTHP-1 cells. Finally, macrophages from Cnlp(-/-) mice exhibited diminished bacterial phagocytosis compared with macrophages from their WT littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel, immune-modulatory mechanism of LL-37, which may contribute to bacterial clearance. PMID:24550523

  12. Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Lodemann, Ulrike; Strahlendorf, Julia; Schierack, Peter; Klingspor, Shanti; Aschenbach, Jörg R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4?h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6?h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods. PMID:25883829

  13. Combining flagellin and human ?-defensin-3 to combat bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Sabag, Ofra; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

    2014-01-01

    The discovery and therapeutic use of antibiotics made a major contribution to the reduction of human morbidity and mortality. However, the growing resistance to antibiotics has become a matter of huge concern. In this study we aimed to develop an innovative approach to treat bacterial infections utilizing two components: the human antibacterial peptide ?-defensin-3 (BD3) and the bacterial protein flagellin (F). This combination was designed to provide an efficient weapon against bacterial infections with the peptide killing the bacteria directly, while the flagellin protein triggers the immune system and acts against bacteria escaping from the peptide’s action. We designed, expressed and purified the fusion protein flagellin BD3 (FBD3) and its two components, the F protein and the native BD3 peptide. FBD3 fusion protein and native BD3 peptide had antibacterial activity in vitro against various bacterial strains. FBD3 and F proteins could also recognize their receptor expressed on target cells and stimulated secretion of IL-8. In addition, F and FBD3 proteins had a partial protective effect in mice infected by pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria that cause a lethal disease. Moreover, we were able to show partial protection of mice infected with E. coli using a flagellin sequence from Salmonella. We also explored flagellin’s basic mechanisms of action, focusing on its effects on CD4+ T cells from healthy donors. We found that F stimulation caused an increase in the mRNA levels of the Th1 response cytokines IL12A and IFN?. In addition, F stimulation affected its own receptor. PMID:25538693

  14. 1 | P a g e Characterization of Bacterial Community Structure in Human Skin

    E-print Network

    Christner, Brent C.

    communities subsequently affects the health of the host. As described, the skin is a complex organ1 | P a g e Characterization of Bacterial Community Structure in Human Skin Chris Cefalu Bacteria-human interaction pertains to the bacterial ecology of the human skin. Skin serves as the largest organ in the human

  15. Slipping through the Cracks: Linking Low Immune Function and Intestinal Bacterial Imbalance to the Etiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Terato, Kuniaki

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are considered to be caused by the host immune system which attacks and destroys its own tissue by mistake. A widely accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenic mechanism of ADs is “molecular mimicry,” which states that antibodies against an infectious agent cross-react with a self-antigen sharing an identical or similar antigenic epitope. However, this hypothesis was most likely established based on misleading antibody assay data largely influenced by intense false positive reactions involved in immunoassay systems. Thus reinvestigation of this hypothesis using an appropriate blocking agent capable of eliminating all types of nonspecific reactions and proper assay design is strongly encouraged. In this review, we discuss the possibility that low immune function may be the fundamental, common defect in ADs, which increases the susceptibility to potential disease causative pathogens located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI), such as bacteria and their components or dietary components. In addition to these exogenous agents, aberrations in the host's physical condition may disrupt the host defense system, which is tightly orchestrated by “immune function,” “mucosal barrier function,” and “intestinal bacterial balance.” These disturbances may initiate a downward spiral, which can lead to chronic health problems that will evolve to an autoimmune disorder. PMID:25861466

  16. Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Troost, Freddy J; van Baarlen, Peter; Lindsey, Patrick; Kodde, Andrea; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Brummer, Robert-Jan M

    2008-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine. PMID:18681965

  17. Characteristics of carbonic anhydrase 9 expressing cells in human intestinal crypt base.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Yozo; Nishimura, Junichi; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Ohtsuka, Masahisa; Miyazaki, Susumu; Uemura, Mamoru; Hata, Taishi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Though recent studies have revealed that stem cells of many tissues are harbored in hypoxic microenvironment, little is known about the relationship between hypoxia and intestinal crypt base, where intestinal stem cells are supposed to exist. In this study, we focused on carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a hypoxia-inducible membrane-tethered protein, in normal intestinal crypt base, adenoma and early colorectal cancer. Using surgically resected human colorectal cancer specimen, we searched for the expression pattern and functional association of CA9 in human adult normal intestinal epithelia, adenoma and early colorectal cancer by immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction. We demonstrated that almost all crypt base slender cells in ileum and crypt base cells with eosinophilic structure in their basal cytoplasm in right and left colon were CA9+ with the ratio of 25 to 40%, and that adenoma and T1 colorectal cancer showed broad expression of CA9. Flow cytometrically sorted CA9+ population showed increased mRNA level of a Wnt signaling factor AXIN2. In conclusion, these observations indicate that CA9 expression in normal crypt base cells has association with intestinal epithelial stemness and CA9 may be involved in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. PMID:26648507

  18. Human Intestinal Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) Catalyzes Prasugrel as a Bioactivation Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Kazui, Miho; Ogura, Yuji; Hagihara, Katsunobu; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Prasugrel is a thienopyridine antiplatelet prodrug that undergoes rapid hydrolysis in vivo to a thiolactone metabolite by human carboxylesterase-2 (hCE2) during gastrointestinal absorption. The thiolactone metabolite is further converted to a pharmacologically active metabolite by cytochrome P450 isoforms. The aim of the current study was to elucidate hydrolases other than hCE2 involved in the bioactivation step of prasugrel in human intestine. Using size-exclusion column chromatography of a human small intestinal S9 fraction, another peak besides the hCE2 peak was observed to have prasugrel hydrolyzing activity, and this protein was found to have a molecular weight of about 20 kDa. This prasugrel hydrolyzing protein was successfully purified from a monkey small intestinal cytosolic fraction by successive four-step column chromatography and identified as Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Second, we evaluated the enzymatic kinetic parameters for prasugrel hydrolysis using recombinant human RKIP and hCE2 and estimated the contributions of these two hydrolyzing enzymes to the prasugrel hydrolysis reaction in human intestine, which were approximately 40% for hRKIP and 60% for hCE2. Moreover, prasugrel hydrolysis was inhibited by anti-hRKIP antibody and carboxylesterase-specific chemical inhibitor (bis p-nitrophenyl phosphate) by 30% and 60%, respectively. In conclusion, another protein capable of hydrolyzing prasugrel to its thiolactone metabolite was identified as RKIP, and this protein may play a significant role with hCE2 in prasugrel bioactivation in human intestine. RKIP is known to have diverse functions in many intracellular signaling cascades, but this is the first report describing RKIP as a hydrolase involved in drug metabolism. PMID:26558823

  19. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Zhang, Wenliang; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation. PMID:26501337

  20. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Zhang, Wenliang; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation. PMID:26501337

  1. Comparative transcriptional and functional profiling defines conserved programs of intestinal DC differentiation in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Watchmaker, Payal B; Lahl, Katharina; Lee, Mike; Baumjohann, Dirk; Morton, John; Kim, Sun Jung; Zeng, Ruizhu; Dent, Alexander; Ansel, K Mark; Diamond, Betty; Hadeiba, Husein; Butcher, Eugene C

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) that orchestrate mucosal immunity have been studied in mice. Here we characterized human gut DC populations and defined their relationship to previously studied human and mouse DCs. CD103(+)Sirp?(-) DCs were related to human blood CD141(+) DCs and to mouse intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs and expressed markers of cross-presenting DCs. CD103(+)Sirp?(+) DCs aligned with human blood CD1c(+) DCs and mouse intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs and supported the induction of regulatory T cells. Both CD103(+) DC subsets induced the TH17 subset of helper T cells, while CD103(-)Sirp?(+) DCs induced the TH1 subset of helper T cells. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes revealed conserved transcriptional programs among CD103(+) DC subsets and identified a selective role for the transcriptional repressors Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 in the specification of CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs and intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs, respectively. Our results highlight evolutionarily conserved and divergent programming of intestinal DCs. PMID:24292363

  2. Evidence of native starch degradation with human small intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (recombinant)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Action of human small intestinal brush border carbohydrate digesting enzymes is thought to involve only final hydrolysis reactions of oligosaccharides to monosaccharides. In vitro starch digestibility assays use fungal amyloglucosidase to provide this function. In this study, recombinant N-terminal ...

  3. From bacterial to human dihydrouridine synthase: automated structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Fiona Jenkins, Huw T.; Griffiths, Samuel C.; Byrne, Robert T.; Dodson, Eleanor J.; Antson, Alfred A.

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of a human dihydrouridine synthase, an enzyme associated with lung cancer, with 18% sequence identity to a T. maritima enzyme, has been determined at 1.9 Å resolution by molecular replacement after extensive molecular remodelling of the template. The reduction of uridine to dihydrouridine at specific positions in tRNA is catalysed by dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) enzymes. Increased expression of human dihydrouridine synthase 2 (hDus2) has been linked to pulmonary carcinogenesis, while its knockdown decreased cancer cell line viability, suggesting that it may serve as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of a construct of hDus2 encompassing the catalytic and tRNA-recognition domains (residues 1–340) determined at 1.9 Å resolution is presented. It is shown that the structure can be determined automatically by phenix.mr-rosetta starting from a bacterial Dus enzyme with only 18% sequence identity and a significantly divergent structure. The overall fold of the human Dus2 is similar to that of bacterial enzymes, but has a larger recognition domain and a unique three-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet insertion into the catalytic domain that packs next to the recognition domain, contributing to domain–domain interactions. The structure may inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the fight against lung cancer.

  4. Environmental contaminants and intestinal function

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, John G.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

  5. Transcriptomic profiling of intestinal epithelial cells in response to human, bovine and commercial bovine lactoferrins.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rulan; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in high concentration in human milk. It is a pleiotropic protein and involved in diverse bioactivities, such as stimulation of cell proliferation and immunomodulatory activities. Lf is partly resistant to proteolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, Lf may play important roles in intestinal development. Due to differences in amino acid sequences and isolation methods, Lfs from human and bovine milk as well as commercially available bovine Lf (CbLf) may differ functionally or exert their functions via various mechanisms. To provide a potential basis for further applications of CbLf, we compared effects of Lfs on intestinal transcriptomic profiling using an intestinal epithelial cell model, human intestinal epithelial crypt-like cells (HIEC). All Lfs significantly stimulated proliferation of HIEC and no significant differences were found among these three proteins. Microarray assays were used to investigate transcriptomic profiling of intestinal epithelial cells in response to Lfs. Selected genes were verified by RT-PCR with a high validation rate. Genes significantly regulated by hLf, bLf, and CbLf were 150, 395 and 453, respectively. Fifty-four genes were significantly regulated by both hLf and CbLf, whereas 129 genes were significantly modulated by bLf and CbLf. Although only a limited number of genes were regulated by all Lfs, the three Lfs positively influenced cellular development and immune functions based on pathway analysis using IPA (Ingenuity). Lfs stimulate cellular and intestinal development and immune functions via various signaling pathways, such as Wnt/?-catenin signaling, interferon signaling and IL-8 signaling. PMID:24831230

  6. Programmed cell death in a human intestinal parasite, Blastocystis hominis.

    PubMed

    Nasirudeen, A M; Tan, K S; Singh, M; Yap, E H

    2001-09-01

    Although programmed cell death (PCD) has been associated with multicellular organisms, there have been more reports of its presence in some protozoans. Our study shows the existence of PCD in an intestinal protozoan, Blastocystis hominis. Light and electron microscopy, biochemical and flow cytometry studies showed apoptosis-like death in B. hominis cells exposed to a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MAb 1D5). B. hominis cells displayed key morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis, namely, nuclear condensation and in situ fragmentation, reduced cytoplasmic volume, some externalization of phosphatidylserine and maintenance of plasma membrane integrity. No oligonucleosomal DNA laddering was observed in gel electrophoresis. This study supports earlier observations that the cellular machinery that is required to carry out PCD may have existed before the advent of multicellularity. Our study also ascribes a novel function for the B. hominis central vacuole in apoptosis; it acts as a repository where apoptotic bodies are stored before being released into the extracellular space. PMID:11578087

  7. Chromosomal localization of the human apolipoprotein B gene and detection of homologous RNA in monkey intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Deeb, S.S.; Disteche, C.; Motulsky, A.G.; Lebo, R.V.; Kan, Y.W.

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA clone of the human apolipoprotein B-100 was used as a hybridization probe to detect homologous sequences in both flow-sorted and in situ metaphase chromosomes. The results indicate that the gene encoding this protein is on the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p23-2p24). RNA isolated from monkey small intestine contained sequences (6.5 and 18 kilobases) homologous to the cDNA of apolipoprotein B-100. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that one gene codes for both the intestinal (B-48) and the hepatic (B-100) forms.

  8. Transcriptional Modulation of Intestinal Innate Defense/Inflammation Genes by Preterm Infant Microbiota in a Humanized Gnotobiotic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lei; Yu, Yueyue; Guo, Yuee; Wang, Yunwei; Chang, Eugene B.; Claud, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims It is known that postnatal functional maturation of the small intestine is facilitated by microbial colonization of the gut. Preterm infants exhibit defects in gut maturation, weak innate immunity against intestinal infection and increased susceptibility to inflammatory disorders, all of which may be related to the inappropriate microbial colonization of their immature intestines. The earliest microbes to colonize the preterm infant gut encounter a naïve, immature intestine. Thus this earliest microbiota potentially has the greatest opportunity to fundamentally influence intestinal development and immune function. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of early microbial colonization on global gene expression in the distal small intestine during postnatal gut development. Methods Gnotobiotic mouse models with experimental colonization by early (prior to two weeks of life) intestinal microbiota from preterm human infants were utilized. Microarray analysis was used to assess global gene expression in the intestinal epithelium. Results and Conclusion Multiple intestinal genes involved in metabolism, cell cycle regulation, cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix communication, and immune function are developmental- and intestinal microbiota- regulated. Using a humanized gnotobiotic mouse model, we demonstrate that certain early preterm infant microbiota from prior to 2 weeks of life specifically induce increased NF-?B activation and a phenotype of increased inflammation whereas other preterm microbiota specifically induce decreased NF-?B activation. These fundamental differences correlate with altered clinical outcomes and suggest the existence of optimal early microbial communities to improve health outcomes. PMID:25928420

  9. L-arginine supplementation prevents increases in intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation in male Swiss mice subjected to physical exercise under environmental heat stress.

    PubMed

    Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Wanner, Samuel Penna; Santos, Rosana das Graças Carvalho dos; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplementation with l-arginine has been shown to improve the intestinal barrier in many experimental models. This study investigated the effects of arginine supplementation on the intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation (BT) induced by prolonged physical exercise under heat stress. Under anesthesia, male Swiss mice (5-wk-old) were implanted with an abdominal sensor to record their core body temperature (T(core)). After recovering from surgery, the mice were divided into 3 groups: a non-supplemented group that was fed the standard diet formulated by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G; control), a non-supplemented group that was fed the AIN-93G diet and subjected to exertional hyperthermia (H-NS), and a group supplemented with l-arginine at 2% and subjected to exertional hyperthermia (H-Arg). After 7 d of treatment, the H-NS and H-Arg mice were forced to run on a treadmill (60 min, 8 m/min) in a warm environment (34°C). The control mice remained at 24°C. Thirty min before the exercise or control trials, the mice received a diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-DTPA) or (99m)Tc-Escherichia coli by gavage to assess intestinal permeability and BT, respectively. The H-NS mice terminated the exercise with T(core) values of ?40°C, and, 4 h later, presented a 12-fold increase in the blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA and higher bacterial contents in the blood and liver than the control mice. Although supplementation with arginine did not change the exercise-induced increase in T(core), it prevented the increases in intestinal permeability and BT caused by exertional hyperthermia. Our results indicate that dietary l-arginine supplementation preserves the integrity of the intestinal epithelium during exercise under heat stress, acting through mechanisms that are independent of T(core) regulation. PMID:24259555

  10. Human intestinal spirochetosis in an immunocompromised host: evaluation of eradication therapy by endoscopy, histopathology and bacteriology.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Takahito; Hayashi, Shunji; Adachi, Yoshikazu; Sunada, Keijiro; Hayashi, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Naoyuki; Yano, Tomonori; Miyata, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal infectious disease caused by Brachyspira species. We describe HIS in an immunocompromised, 62-year-old Japanese man who presented at Jichi Medical University Hospital with symptoms of diarrhea and bloody stool. He had rheumatoid arthritis that had been treated with immunosuppressive drugs for 10 years. Colonoscopy revealed multiple erythematous spots in the cecum and colon. A histopathological examination identified intestinal colonization by spirochetes, and Brachyspira pilosicoli was isolated from biopsy specimens, indicating a diagnosis of HIS. Metronidazole eradicated the spirochetes, the intestinal mucosa recovered to normal, and the clinical symptoms disappeared. This case suggests that it is important to keep in mind HIS in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with chronic diarrhea and bloody stool. PMID:26181879

  11. Dietary interactions with the bacterial sensing machinery in the intestine: the plant polyphenol case

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Nasef, Noha; Mehta, Sunali; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2014-01-01

    There are millions of microbes that live in the human gut. These are important in digestion as well as defense. The host immune system needs to be able to distinguish between the harmless bacteria and pathogens. The initial interaction between bacteria and the host happen through the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). As these receptors are in direct contact with the external environment, this makes them important candidates for regulation by dietary components and therefore potential targets for therapy. In this review, we introduce some of the main PRRs including a cellular process known as autophagy, and how they function. Additionally we review dietary phytochemicals from plants which are believed to be beneficial for humans. The purpose of this review was to give a better understanding of how these components work in order to create better awareness on how they could be explored in the future. PMID:24772116

  12. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  13. Characterization of carnosine uptake and its physiological function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Son, Dong Ok; Satsu, Hideo; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Shimizu, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    Carnosine (beta-Ala-L-His) is known to have the physiological functions of an antioxidant. Although dietary carnosine is thought to be absorbed across intestinal epithelial cells, the mechanism for this absorption is not yet well understood and its function in the intestinal tract is also obscure. The intestinal transport of carnosine was characterized in the present study by using human intestinal Caco-2 cells, and its physiological function in these cells was further examined. The carnosine uptake was proton-dependent, being activated by lowering the apical pH value. Its uptake was significantly inhibited by other dipeptides, whereas it was not inhibited by other amino acids. These characteristics of the carnosine uptake strongly suggest its transport into the cells via peptide transporter 1 (PepT1). Since carnosine has antioxidative activity, we studied its effect on the H2O2-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines in Caco-2 cells. The H2O2 induced increase in IL-8 secretion was inhibited by a pretreatment with carnosine for 3 h, this inhibition being presented in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that carnosine had a protective effect against oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:15630234

  14. Human, rat and chicken small intestinal Na+-Cl?-creatine transporter: functional, molecular characterization and localization

    PubMed Central

    Peral, M J; García-Delgado, M; Calonge, M L; Durán, J M; De La Horra, M C; Wallimann, T; Speer, O; Ilundáin, A A

    2002-01-01

    In spite of all the fascinating properties of oral creatine supplementation, the mechanism(s) mediating its intestinal absorption has(have) not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to characterize intestinal creatine transport. [14C]Creatine uptake was measured in chicken enterocytes and rat ileum, and expression of the creatine transporter CRT was examined in human, rat and chicken small intestine by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Northern blot, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Results show that enterocytes accumulate creatine against its concentration gradient. This accumulation was electrogenic, Na+- and Cl?-dependent, with a probable stoichiometry of 2 Na+: 1 Cl?: 1 creatine, and inhibited by ouabain and iodoacetic acid. The kinetic study revealed a Km for creatine of 29 ?m. [14C]Creatine uptake was efficiently antagonized by non-labelled creatine, guanidinopropionic acid and cyclocreatine. More distant structural analogues of creatine, such as GABA, choline, glycine, ?-alanine, taurine and betaine, had no effect on intestinal creatine uptake, indicating a high substrate specificity of the creatine transporter. Consistent with these functional data, messenger RNA for CRT was detected only in the cells lining the intestinal villus. The sequences of partial clones, and of the full-length cDNA clone, isolated from human and rat small intestine were identical to previously cloned CRT cDNAs. Immunological analysis revealed that CRT protein was mainly associated with the apical membrane of the enterocytes. This study reports for the first time that mammalian and avian enterocytes express CRT along the villus, where it mediates high-affinity, Na+- and Cl?-dependent, apical creatine uptake. PMID:12433955

  15. Mice lacking a Myc enhancer that includes human SNP rs6983267 are resistant to intestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Sur, Inderpreet Kaur; Hallikas, Outi; Vähärautio, Anna; Yan, Jian; Turunen, Mikko; Enge, Martin; Taipale, Minna; Karhu, Auli; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Taipale, Jussi

    2012-12-01

    Multiple cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been mapped to conserved sequences within a 500-kilobase region upstream of the MYC oncogene on human chromosome 8q24. These SNPs may affect cancer development through altered regulation of MYC expression, but this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm. We generated mice deficient in Myc-335, a putative MYC regulatory element that contains rs6983267, a SNP accounting for more human cancer-related morbidity than any other genetic variant or mutation. In Myc-335 null mice, Myc transcripts were expressed in the intestinal crypts in a pattern similar to that in wild-type mice but at modestly reduced levels. The mutant mice displayed no overt phenotype but were markedly resistant to intestinal tumorigenesis induced by the APCmin mutation. These results establish that a cancer-associated SNP identified in human genome-wide association studies has a functional effect in vivo. PMID:23118011

  16. Ardipusilloside-I Metabolites from Human Intestinal Bacteria and Their Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei-Yu; Wang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Lei, Wan; Feng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ardipusilloside-I (ADS-I) is a triterpenoid saponin extracted from Ardisia pusilla DC, and has been demonstrated to have potent antitumor activity. However, ADS-I metabolism in humans has not been investigated. In this study, we studied the biotransformation of ADS-I in human intestinal bacteria, and examined the in vitro antitumor activity of the major metabolites. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to detect ADS-I biotransformation products, and their chemical structures were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance (HPLC-NMR). The antitumor activity of the major metabolites was determined by the MTT assay. Here, we show that main reaction seen in the metabolism of ADS-I in human intestinal bacteria was deglycosylation, which produced a total of four metabolites. The structures of the two major metabolites M1 and M2 were confirmed by using NMR. MTT assay showed that ADS-I metabolites M1 and M2 have the same levels of inhibitory activities as ADS-I in cultured SMMC-7721 cells and MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates deglycosylation as a primary pathway of ADS-I metabolism in human intestinal bacteria, and suggests that the pharmacological activity of ADS-I may be mediated, at least in part, by its metabolites. PMID:26610438

  17. Transcriptome-wide Analysis Reveals Hallmarks of Human Intestine Development and Maturation In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Hill, David R.; Altheim, Christopher H.; Dedhia, Priya H.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Chin, Alana M.; Mahe, Maxime M.; Watson, Carey L.; Freeman, Jennifer J.; Nattiv, Roy; Thomson, Matthew; Klein, Ophir D.; Shroyer, Noah F.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Dempsey, Peter J.; Spence, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human intestinal organoids (HIOs) are a tissue culture model in which small intestine-like tissue is generated from pluripotent stem cells. By carrying out unsupervised hierarchical clustering of RNA-sequencing data, we demonstrate that HIOs most closely resemble human fetal intestine. We observed that genes involved in digestive tract development are enriched in both fetal intestine and HIOs compared to adult tissue, whereas genes related to digestive function and Paneth cell host defense are expressed at higher levels in adult intestine. Our study also revealed that the intestinal stem cell marker OLFM4 is expressed at very low levels in fetal intestine and in HIOs, but is robust in adult crypts. We validated our findings using in vivo transplantation to show that HIOs become more adult-like after transplantation. Our study emphasizes important maturation events that occur in the intestine during human development and demonstrates that HIOs can be used to model fetal-to-adult maturation. PMID:26050928

  18. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine. PMID:24386196

  19. Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, J. Allen; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K. . E-mail: mross@cvm.msstate.edu

    2007-05-15

    Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are {approx} 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts ({approx} 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected. Together, these results demonstrate that extrahepatic esterolytic metabolism of specific pyrethroids may be significant. Moreover, hepatic cytosolic and microsomal hydrolytic metabolism should each be considered during the development of pharmacokinetic models that predict the disposition of pyrethroids and other esterified compounds.

  20. Hydrolysis of Pyrethroids by Human and Rat Tissues: Examination of Intestinal, Liver and Serum Carboxylesterases

    PubMed Central

    Crow, J. Allen; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver, and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are ~2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts (~40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin, and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected. Together, these results demonstrate that extrahepatic esterolytic metabolism of specific pyrethroids may be significant. Moreover, hepatic cytosolic and microsomal hydrolytic metabolism should each be considered during the development of pharmacokinetic models that predict the disposition of pyrethroids and other esterified compounds. PMID:17442360

  1. Intestinal absorption of epoxy-beta-carotenes by humans.

    PubMed Central

    Barua, A B

    1999-01-01

    An increased intake of fruits and vegetables has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of cancer. In epidemiological studies, supplements of beta-carotene, which is abundant in fruits and vegetables, were not found to be beneficial in reducing the incidence of lung cancer in high-risk groups. Epoxycarotenoids are abundant in nature. 5,6-Epoxy-beta-carotene was much more active than beta-carotene in the induction of differentiation of NB4 cells [Duitsman, Becker, Barua and Olson (1996) FASEB J. 10, A732]. Epoxycarotenes may, therefore, have protective effects against cancer. In order to do this, however, epoxycarotenoids must be absorbed by the human body. There is no evidence that epoxycarotenoids, despite their abundance in dietary fruits and vegetables, are absorbed by humans. In this paper, it is demonstrated that orally administered dietary or synthetic epoxy-beta-carotenes are absorbed by humans, as indicated by their appearance in the circulating blood. PMID:10191267

  2. Generation of L-cells in mouse and human small intestine organoids

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; Bartfeld, Sina; Farin, Henner F.; Ringnalda, Femke C.; Vries, Robert G. J.; van den Brink, Stieneke; Clevers, Hans; Gribble, Fiona M.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Upon a nutrient challenge, L-cells produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a powerful stimulant of insulin release. Strategies to augment endogenous GLP-1 production include promoting L-cell differentiation and increasing L-cell number. Here we present a novel in vitro platform to generate functional L-cells from 3D cultures of mouse and human intestinal crypts. We show that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) selectively increase the number of L-cells resulting in an elevation of GLP-1 release. This is accompanied by up-regulation of transcription factors, associated with the endocrine lineage of intestinal stem cell development. Thus, our platform allows us to study and modulate the development of L-cells in mouse and human crypts as a potential basis for novel therapeutic strategies in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24130334

  3. Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

  4. Diagnosis of edema and inflammation in human intestines using ultrawideband radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sonny; Narayanan, Ram M.; Messaris, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    Human intestines are vital organs, which are often subjected to chronic issues. In particular, Crohn's disease is a bowel aliment resulting in inflammation along the lining of one's digestive tract. Moreover, such an inflammatory condition causes changes in the thickness of the intestines; and we posit induce changes in the dielectric properties detectable by radar. This detection hinges on the increase in fluid content in the afflicted area, which is described by effective medium approximations (EMA). In this paper, we consider one of the constitutive parameters (i.e. relative permittivity) of different human tissues and introduce a simple numerical, electromagnetic multilayer model. We observe how the increase in water content in one layer can be approximated to predict the effective permittivity of that layer. Moreover, we note trends in how such an accumulation can influence the total effective reflection coefficient of the multiple layers.

  5. Analysis of drug transporter expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Maubon, Nathalie; Le Vee, Marc; Fossati, Lina; Audry, Mathilde; Le Ferrec, Eric; Bolze, Sebastien; Fardel, Olivier

    2007-12-01

    Expression of drug transporters corresponds to a crucial parameter in intestinal Caco-2 cells widely used for investigating drug absorption. In order to characterize it in an accurate, reproducible and comparative manner, we analyzed mRNA levels of 19 influx and efflux drug transporters through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays combined with the use of a total RNA reference standard. Profiles of transporter expression were found to be significantly correlated in two independent Caco-2 cell clones and in human small intestine, which may support the use of Caco-2 cells for investigating intestinal drug transport. Several transporters were nevertheless quantitatively expressed at higher (MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, MRP5, MRP6, OATP-A, OATP-B, OCT1 and MCT1) or lower (BCRP) levels in Caco-2 cells comparatively to small intestine. Moreover, MDR1, MRP2, OATP-A and PEPT1 mRNA relative expression were found to differ in the two analyzed Caco-2 cell clones by at least a twofold factor, highlighting that some variations in transporter expression may occur in Caco-2 cells depending on cell origin, and therefore underlining the interest of carefully characterizing transporter levels in any Caco-2 cell clone before its use for drug transport assays. PMID:18034668

  6. Requirement of the MAP kinase cascade for cell cycle progression and differentiation of human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, J C; Deschênes, C; Beaulieu, J F; Calvo, E L; Rivard, N

    1999-09-01

    The intracellular signaling pathways responsible for cell cycle arrest and establishment of differentiated cells along the gut axis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the regulation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the process of proliferation and differentiation of human intestinal cells. In vitro studies were done in Caco-2/15 cells, a human colon cancer cell line that spontaneously differentiates into an enterocyte phenotype. In vivo studies were performed on cryostat sections of human fetal intestinal epithelium by indirect immunofluorescence. We found that inhibition of the p42/p44 MAPK signaling by the PD-98059 compound or by ectopic expression of the MAPK phosphatase-1 strongly attenuated E2F-dependent transcriptional activity in Caco-2/15 cells. p42/p44 MAPK activities dramatically decreased as soon as Caco-2/15 cells reached confluence. However, significant levels of activated p42 MAPK were detected in differentiated Caco-2/15 cells. Addition of PD-98059 during differentiation interfered with sustained activation of p42 MAPK and sucrase-isomaltase expression. Although p42/p44 MAPKs were expressed in both the villus tip and crypt cells, their phosphorylated and active forms were detected in the undifferentiated crypt cells. Our results indicate that elevated p42/p44 MAPK activities stimulate cell proliferation of intestinal cells, whereas low sustained levels of MAPK activities correlated with G1 arrest and increased expression of sucrase-isomaltase. PMID:10484389

  7. Safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing human serum albumin from urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profile.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Chen, Siyuan; Sheng, Yao; Guo, Mingzhang; Liu, Yifei; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2015-02-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice expressing human serum albumin (HSA) is used for non-food purposes; however, its food safety assessment should be conducted due to the probability of accidental mixture with conventional food. In this research, Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing 50% (wt/wt) GM rice expressing HSA or non-GM rice for 90 days. Urine metabolites were detected by (1)H NMR to examine the changes of the metabolites in the dynamic process of metabolism. Fecal bacterial profiles were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to reflect intestinal health. Additionally, short chain fatty acids and fecal enzymes were investigated. The results showed that compared with rats fed the non-GM rice, some significant differences were observed in rats fed with the GM rice; however, these changes were not significantly different from the control diet group. Additionally, the gut microbiota was associated with blood indexes and urine metabolites. In conclusion, the GM rice diet is as safe as the traditional daily diet. Furthermore, urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profiles provide a non-invasive food safety assessment rat model for genetically modified crops that are used for non-food/feed purposes. Fecal bacterial profiles have the potential for predicting the change of blood indexes in future. PMID:25478734

  8. Testing of the Small Intestine (Intestinal Dysmotility)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bacterial overgrowth is most easily detected by the hydrogen breath test: The patient drinks a sugar solution ... amounts in the small intestine, they give off hydrogen, some of which is absorbed into the blood, ...

  9. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... intestine (bacterial overgrowth) N Liver disease due to TPN (Total Parenteral Nutrition) N Infections of the blood from the intravenous catheter used for TPN (continued on next page) Intestinal Failure continued N ...

  10. Anthocyanin Absorption and Metabolism by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van Camp, John

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins from different plant sources have been shown to possess health beneficial effects against a number of chronic diseases. To obtain any influence in a specific tissue or organ, these bioactive compounds must be bioavailable, i.e., effectively absorbed from the gut into the circulation and transferred to the appropriate location within the body while still maintaining their bioactivity. One of the key factors affecting the bioavailability of anthocyanins is their transport through the gut epithelium. The Caco-2 cell line, a human intestinal epithelial cell model derived from a colon carcinoma, has been proven to be a good alternative to animal studies for predicting intestinal absorption of anthocyanins. Studies investigating anthocyanin absorption by Caco-2 cells report very low absorption of these compounds. However, the bioavailability of anthocyanins may be underestimated since the metabolites formed in the course of digestion could be responsible for the health benefits associated with anthocyanins. In this review, we critically discuss recent findings reported on the anthocyanin absorption and metabolism by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. PMID:26370977

  11. Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

    2015-05-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NF?B signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NF?B signaling in epithelial cells through I?B? phosphorylation, NF?Bp65 nuclear translocation, and TNF? secretion. In addition, NF?B activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival. PMID:25269707

  12. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Inhibits Human Small-Cell Lung Cancer Proliferation in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruno, Kaname; Absood, Afaf; Said, Sami I.

    1998-11-01

    Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is an aggressive, rapidly growing and metastasizing, and highly fatal neoplasm. We report that vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits the proliferation of SCLC cells in culture and dramatically suppresses the growth of SCLC tumor-cell implants in athymic nude mice. In both cases, the inhibition was mediated apparently by a cAMP-dependent mechanism, because the inhibition was enhanced by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in proportion to increases in intracellular cAMP levels, and the inhibition was abolished by selective inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. If confirmed in clinical trials, this antiproliferative action of vasoactive intestinal peptide may offer a new and promising means of suppressing SCLC in human subjects, without the toxic side effects of chemotherapeutic agents.

  13. Intestinal Commitment and Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Is Independent of Exogenous FGF4 and R-spondin1

    PubMed Central

    Tamminen, Kaisa; Balboa, Diego; Toivonen, Sanna; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; Wiener, Zoltan; Alitalo, Kari; Otonkoski, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays a central role in guiding the differentiation of the posterior parts of the primitive gut tube into intestinal structures in vivo and some studies suggest that FGF4 is another crucial factor for intestinal development. The aim of this study was to define the effects of Wnt and FGF4 on intestinal commitment in vitro by establishing conditions for differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) into posterior endoderm (hindgut) and further to self-renewing intestinal-like organoids. The most prominent induction of the well-established intestinal marker gene CDX2 was achieved when hPSC-derived definitive endoderm cells were treated with Wnt agonist molecule CHIR99021 during differentiation to hindgut. FGF4 was found to be dispensable during intestinal commitment, but it had an early role in repressing development towards the hepatic lineage. When hindgut stage cells were further cultured in 3D, they formed self-renewing organoid structures containing all major intestinal cell types even without exogenous R-spondin1 (RSPO1), a crucial factor for the culture of epithelial organoids derived from adult intestine. This may be explained by the presence of a mesenchymal compartment in the hPSC-derived organoids. Addition of WNT3A increased the expression of the Paneth cell marker Lysozyme in hPSC-derived organoid cultures, whereas FGF4 inhibited both the formation and maturation of intestinal-like organoids. Similar hindgut and organoid cultures were established from human induced pluripotent stem cells, implying that this approach can be used to create patient-specific intestinal tissue models for disease modeling in vitro. PMID:26230325

  14. Alpinia katsumadai Extracts Inhibit Adhesion and Invasion of Campylobacter jejuni in Animal and Human Foetal Small Intestine Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Poga?ar, Maja Šiki?; Klan?nik, Anja; Bucar, Franz; Langerholc, Tomaž; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2015-10-01

    Alpinia katsumadai is used in traditional Chinese medicine for abdominal distention, pain, and diarrhoea. Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal illnesses worldwide. Adhesion to gut epithelium is a prerequisite in its pathogenesis. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and anti-adhesive activities of a chemically characterised extract (SEE) and its residual material of hydrodistillation (hdSEE-R) from A. katsumadai seeds were evaluated against C. jejuni. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for SEE and hdSEE-R were 0.5?mg/mL and 0.25?mg/mL, respectively, and there was no cytotoxic influence in the anti-adhesion tests, as these were performed at much lower concentrations of these tested plant extracts. Adhesion of C. jejuni to pig (PSI) and human foetal (H4) small-intestine cell lines was significantly decreased at lower concentrations (0.2 to 50?µg/mL). In the same concentration range, the invasiveness of C. jejuni in PSI cells was reduced by 45% to 65% when they were treated with SEE or hdSEE-R. The hdSEE-R represents a bioactive waste with a high phenolic content and an anti-adhesive activity against C. jejuni and thus has the potential for use in pharmaceutical and food products. PMID:26058384

  15. Transport of thalidomide by the human intestinal caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Yan; Kestell, Phillip; Schafer, Peter; Chan, Eli; Paxton, James W

    2005-01-01

    Studies in patients have indicated that the oral absorption of thalidomide is considerably variable at high doses (>200 mg/day). The aim of this study was to investigate the transport of racemic thalidomide using human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) monolayers, which have been widely used to investigate drug permeability. A typical 21-day protocol was used to prepare Caco-2 monolayers. Thalidomide was determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection. The integrity of Caco-2 monolayer was confirmed when the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) exceeded 300 Ohmz . cm2, and the leakage of 14C-manitol was <1% per hour. Uptake of thalidomide by Caco-2 cells was very limited (up to 2.1%). The transport of thalidomide appeared to be linear up to 1 hr. Our study indicated that the permeability coefficients (Papp) of thalidomide at 2.5-300 microM from the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) and from BL to AP side was 2-6 x 10(-5) cm/sec, with a marked decrease in Papp values from AP to BL at increased thalidomide concentration. The transport of thalidomide was sodium-, temperature- and pH-dependent, as replacement of extracellular sodium chloride or reducing temperature and apical pH can result in significant decreases in the Papp values. Additional data indicated that transport of thalidomide is energy-dependent, as it was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by the ATP inhibitors, sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, DL-glutamic acid, cytidine, diprodomole, papaverine, quinidine, and cyclophosphamide significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the transport of thalidomide, while the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil and other nucleosides and nucleotides such as thymidine and guanine had no effect. These results indicated that thalidomide was rapidly transported by Caco-2 monolayers, and this might involve a saturable energy-dependent transporter. PMID:16010862

  16. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus domination of intestinal microbiota is enabled by antibiotic treatment in mice and precedes bloodstream invasion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ubeda, Carles; Taur, Ying; Jenq, Robert R.; Equinda, Michele J.; Son, Tammy; Samstein, Miriam; Viale, Agnes; Socci, Nicholas D.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Kamboj, Mini; Pamer, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Bloodstream infection by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), is a growing clinical problem that increasingly defies medical intervention. Identifying patients at high risk for bacterial sepsis remains an important clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that antibiotics can alter microbial diversity in the intestine. Here, we characterized these effects using 16s rDNA pyrosequencing and demonstrated that antibiotic treatment of mice enabled exogenously administered VRE to efficiently and nearly completely displace the normal microbiota of the small and large intestine. In the clinical setting, we found that intestinal domination by VRE preceded bloodstream infection in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Our results demonstrate that antibiotics perturb the normal commensal microbiota and set the stage for intestinal domination by bacteria associated with hospital-acquired infections. Thus, high-throughput DNA sequencing of the intestinal microbiota could identify patients at high risk of developing bacterial sepsis. PMID:21099116

  17. Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta; Gras, Judith; Brors, Benedikt; Schwarz, Sonja; Szikszai, Timea; Lasitschka, Felix; Wabnitz, Guido; Heidtmann, Antje; Lee, Young-Seon; Schiessling, Serin; Leowardi, Christine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Ulrich, Alexis; Engelke, Antonia; Winter, Johannes; Samstag, Yvonne; Giese, Thomas; Meuer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24841635

  18. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 target Peyer's patches in humans and cause attaching/effacing lesions in both human and bovine intestine

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A; Navabpour, S; Hicks, S; Dougan, G; Wallis, T; Frankel, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) constitute a significant risk to human health worldwide, and infections, particularly with serogroup O157:H7, are associated with consumption of a variety of food and water vehicles, particularly food of bovine origin. EHEC cause acute gastroenteritis, bloody diarrhoea, and haemorrhagic colitis; up to 10% of cases develop severe complications, including the haemolytic uraemic syndrome, with a 5% case fatality. A virulence characteristic of enteropathogenic E coli, the attaching/effacing lesion, is considered to be important in EHEC. However, although EHEC produce this lesion on cultured human cells, this has not been demonstrated on human intestinal mucosal surfaces. In addition, the initial site(s) of colonisation of EHEC in humans is not known.?AIMS—To assess the association of EHEC O157:H7 with paediatric and bovine intestine using in vitro organ culture and determine if attaching/effacing lesions occur.?METHODS—Ultrastructural analysis of in vitro intestinal organ cultures of human small and large intestine was used to investigate adhesion of O157:H7 EHEC to intestinal surfaces. Bovine intestinal organ culture was used to examine the pathology produced by the same EHEC strain in cattle.?RESULTS—The study showed that EHEC O157:H7 adhered to human intestinal mucosa. Binding and attaching/effacing lesion formation of O157:H7 in humans was restricted to follicle associated epithelium of Peyer's patches. The same strain caused attaching/effacing lesions on bovine mucosa.?CONCLUSIONS—O157:H7 targets follicle associated epithelium in humans where it causes attaching/effacing lesions. The same human isolate can cause attaching/effacing lesions in cattle, indicating that similar pathogenic mechanisms operate across human and bovine species???Keywords: Escherichia coli; enterohaemorrhagic E coli O157:H7; Peyer's patches; attaching/effacing lesion PMID:10940275

  19. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  20. Card9 Mediates Intestinal Epithelial Cell Restitution, T-Helper 17 Responses, and Control of Bacterial Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    SOKOL, HARRY; CONWAY, KARA L.; ZHANG, MEI; CHOI, MYUNGHWAN; MORIN, BRET; CAO, ZHIFANG; VILLABLANCA, EDUARDO J.; LI, CHUN; WIJMENGA, CISCA; YUN, SEOK HYUN; SHI, HAI NING; XAVIER, RAMNIK J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) is an adaptor protein that integrates signals downstream of pattern recognition receptors. CARD9 has been associated with autoinflammatory disorders, and loss-of-function mutations have been associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the role of CARD9 in intestinal inflammation is unknown. We characterized the role of Card9 in mucosal immune responses to intestinal epithelial injury and infection. METHODS We induced intestinal inflammation in Card9-null mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or Citrobacter rodentium. We analyzed body weight, assessed inflammation by histology, and measured levels of cytokines and chemokines using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell populations were compared between wild-type and Card9-null mice by flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS Colon tissues and mesenteric lymph nodes of Card9-null mice had reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-?, and T-helper (Th)17 cytokines after administration of DSS, compared with wild-type mice. IL-17A and IL-22 expression were reduced in the recovery phase after DSS administration, coincident with decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (Ccl20). Although Card9-null mice had more intestinal fungi based on 18S analysis, their Th17 responses remained defective even when an antifungal agent was administered throughout DSS exposure. Moreover, Card9-null mice had impaired immune responses to C rodentium, characterized by decreased levels of colonic IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIII?), as well as fewer IL-22—producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in colon lamina propria. CONCLUSIONS The adaptor protein CARD9 coordinates Th17- and innate lymphoid cell-mediated intestinal immune responses after epithelial injury in mice. PMID:23732773

  1. Characterization and distribution of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Valet, P; Senard, J M; Devedjian, J C; Planat, V; Salomon, R; Voisin, T; Drean, G; Couvineau, A; Daviaud, D; Denis, C

    1993-01-01

    The subtype and the expression of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor were investigated in the normal mucosa from human intestine by means of radioligand binding, RNase mapping, and measurement of adenylate cyclase activity. The study of the binding of the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, [3H]RX821002, to epithelial cell membranes indicated the existence of a single class of noninteracting sites displaying a high affinity for the radioligand (Kd = 1.1 +/- 0.5 nM). The rank order of potency of antagonists to inhibit [3H]RX821002 binding (RX821002 > yohimbine = rauwolscine > phentolamine approximately idazoxan >> chlorpromazine > prazosin) suggested that the receptor is of the alpha 2A subtype. A conclusion which is confirmed by the fact that only alpha 2C10 transcripts were found in the human intestine mucosa. Competition curves with (-)-norepinephrine demonstrated that 60% of the receptor population exhibited high affinity for agonists. This high-affinity state was abolished by the addition of GTP plus Na+ or by prior treatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin indicating it corresponded to G protein-coupled receptors. [32P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting experiments identified two pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins corresponding to Gi2 and Gi3. The study of the distribution of the receptor indicated that (a) the proximal colon is the intestine segment exhibiting the highest receptor density and (b) the receptor is predominantly expressed in crypts and is preferentially located in the basolateral membrane of the polarized cell. The distribution of the receptor along the crypt-surface axis of the colon mucosa can be correlated with a higher level of alpha 2C10-specific mRNA and a higher efficiency of UK14304 to inhibit adenylate cyclase in crypt cells. Images PMID:8098045

  2. Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.

    PubMed

    Christides, Tatiana; Sharp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions. PMID:24340076

  3. A cost-effective system for differentiation of intestinal epithelium from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ogaki, Soichiro; Morooka, Mayu; Otera, Kaito; Kume, Shoen

    2015-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is a useful model for pharmacological studies of absorption, metabolism, drug interactions, and toxicology, as well as for studies of developmental biology. We established a rapid and cost effective system for differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into definitive endoderm (DE) cells. In the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a low concentration of Activin at 6.25?ng/ml is sufficient to give a similar differentiation efficiency with that using Activin at 100?ng/ml at the presence of Wnt activator. In the presence of DMSO, Activin at low concentration triggered hiPS cells to undergo differentiation through G1 arrest, reduce apoptosis, and potentiate activation of downstream targets, such as SMAD2 phosphorylation and SOX17 expression. This increased differentiation into CDX2?+?SOX17?+?DE cells. The present differentiation procedure therefore permits rapid and efficient derivation of DE cells, capable of differentiating into intestinal epithelium upon BIO and DAPT treatment and of giving rise to functional cells, such as enterocytes. PMID:26616277

  4. Sugars Increase Non-Heme Iron Bioavailability in Human Epithelial Intestinal and Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Christides, Tatiana; Sharp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions. PMID:24340076

  5. Transport of Chitosan-DNA nanoparticles in human intestinal M-cell model versus normal intestinal enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Irina; Loo, Yihua; Roy, Krishnendu; Rice, Janet; Leong, Kam W.

    2009-01-01

    Oral vaccination is one of the most promising applications of polymeric nanoparticles. Using two different in vitro cellular models to partially reproduce the characteristics of intestinal enterocytes and M-cells, this study demonstrates that nanoparticle transport through the M-cell co-culture model is 5 fold that of the intestinal epithelial monolayer, with at least 80% of the chitosan-DNA nanoparticles uptaken in the first 30 minutes. Among the properties of nanoparticles studied, ligand decoration has the most dramatic effect on the transcytosis rate: transferrin modification enhances transport through both models by 3–5 fold. The stability of the nanoparticles also affects transport kinetics. Factors which de-stabilize the nanoparticles, such as low charge (N/P) ratio and addition of serum, result in aggregation and in turn decreases transport efficiency. Of these stability factors, luminal pH is of great interest as an increase in pH from 5.5 to 6.4 and 7.4 leads to a 3 and 10 fold drop in nanoparticle transport respectively. Since soluble chitosan can act as an enhancer to increase paracellular transport by up to 60%, this decrease is partially attributed to the soluble chitosan precipitating near neutral pH. The implication that chitosan-DNA nanoparticles are more stable in the upper regions of the small intestine suggests that higher uptake rates may occur in the duodenum compared to the ileum and the colon. PMID:19913612

  6. Involvement of Vitamin D receptor in the intestinal induction of human ABCB1.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Shuko; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Chikada, Tsubasa; Toriyabe, Takayoshi; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2009-08-01

    ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) is an efflux transporter that limits the cellular uptake levels of various drugs in intestine, brain, and other tissues. The expression of human ABCB1 has recently been reported to be under the control of nuclear receptor NR1I subfamily members, pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3). Here, we have investigated the involvement of another NR1I member, vitamin D receptor (VDR, NR1I1), in ABCB1 expression. In the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line LS174T, which abundantly expresses VDR, both 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-VD3) and lithocholic acid (LCA) increased ABCB1 mRNA levels. Reporter gene assays in LS174T cells with constructs containing various lengths of the ABCB1 regulatory region revealed that the region containing multiple nuclear receptor binding motifs located at -7.8 kilobases [termed nuclear receptor-responsive module (NURREM)], to which PXR and CAR also bind, is essential for the VDR-mediated ABCB1 transactivation. Further reporter assays with constructs containing truncated NURREM and gel shift assays suggested simultaneous binding of multiple VDR/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimers to NURREM. Furthermore, knockdown of VDR expression in LS174T cells blocked the LCA- and the 1,25-VD3-induced transcription of ABCB1 reporter genes. In human hepatoma HepG2 cells, in contrast with LS174T cells, 1,25-VD3 activated the ABCB1 transcription only in the presence of ectopically expressed VDR. These results suggest that the NR1I subfamily members regulate the ABCB1 expression sharing the binding sites within NURREM and that the physiologically produced LCA and 1,25-VD3 may modulate the ABCB1 expression in human intestines, possibly associated with interindividual variations of ABCB1 expression. PMID:19460946

  7. Characterization of Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) Sulfatases from the Human Gut Symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Reveals the First GAG-specific Bacterial Endosulfatase*

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Jonathan E.; Vilén, Eric Morssing; Namburi, Ramesh Babu; Benjdia, Alhosna; Beneteau, Julie; Malleron, Annie; Bonnaffé, David; Driguez, Pierre-Alexandre; Descroix, Karine; Lassalle, Gilbert; Le Narvor, Christine; Sandström, Corine; Spillmann, Dorothe; Berteau, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of the microbiota in human physiology, the molecular bases that govern the interactions between these commensal bacteria and their host remain poorly understood. We recently reported that sulfatases play a key role in the adaptation of a major human commensal bacterium, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, to its host (Benjdia, A., Martens, E. C., Gordon, J. I., and Berteau, O. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 25973–25982). We hypothesized that sulfatases are instrumental for this bacterium, and related Bacteroides species, to metabolize highly sulfated glycans (i.e. mucins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)) and to colonize the intestinal mucosal layer. Based on our previous study, we investigated 10 sulfatase genes induced in the presence of host glycans. Biochemical characterization of these potential sulfatases allowed the identification of GAG-specific sulfatases selective for the type of saccharide residue and the attachment position of the sulfate group. Although some GAG-specific bacterial sulfatase activities have been described in the literature, we report here for the first time the identity and the biochemical characterization of four GAG-specific sulfatases. Furthermore, contrary to the current paradigm, we discovered that B. thetaiotaomicron possesses an authentic GAG endosulfatase that is active at the polymer level. This type of sulfatase is the first one to be identified in a bacterium. Our study thus demonstrates that bacteria have evolved more sophisticated and diverse GAG sulfatases than anticipated and establishes how B. thetaiotaomicron, and other major human commensal bacteria, can metabolize and potentially tailor complex host glycans. PMID:25002587

  8. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators by polyphenolic plant extracts in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Romier-Crouzet, Béatrice; Van De Walle, Jacqueline; During, Alexandrine; Joly, Aurélie; Rousseau, Charline; Henry, Olivier; Larondelle, Yvan; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2009-06-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) are involved in transduction cascades that play a key role in inflammatory response. We tested the ability of preselected natural polyphenolic extracts (grape seed, cocoa, sugar cane, oak, mangosteen and pomegranate) to modulate intestinal inflammation using human intestinal Caco-2 cells treated for 4h with these extracts and then stimulated by cytokines for 24 or 48h. The effect of polyphenolic extracts, at 50 micromol of gallic acid equivalent/l, was investigated on inflammation-related cellular events: (i) NF-kappaB activity (cells transfected with a NF-kappaB-luciferase construct), (ii) activation of Erk1/2 and JNK (western blotting), (iii) secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8) (ELISA), (iv) secretion of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) (ELISA), (v) production of NO (Griess method). Results show that: (i) sugar cane, oak and pomegranate extracts inhibited NF-kappaB activity (from 1.6 to 1.9-fold) (P<0.001); (ii) pomegranate slightly inhibited Erk1/2 activation (1.3-fold) (P=0.008); (iii) oak and pomegranate decreased NO synthesis by 1.5-fold (P<0.001) and that of IL-8 by 10.3 and 6.7-fold respectively; (iv) pomegranate and cocoa decreased PGE(2) synthesis by 4.6 (P<0.0001) and 2.2-fold (P=0.001), respectively. We suggest that pomegranate extract could be particularly promising in dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation. PMID:19233242

  9. The nitric oxide donor LA-419 [S-(6-Nitro-oxi-hexahydro-furo[3,2-b]furan-3-1-il)thioacetate] prevents intestinal dysmotility, bacterial translocation, and inflammation in a rat model of enteritis.

    PubMed

    Porras, Mónica; Martín, Maria Teresa; Terán, Evangelina; Mourelle, Marisabel; Vergara, Patri

    2008-02-01

    Indomethacin induces a chronic model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by spontaneous relapses of inflammation, bacterial translocation, and long-lasting motor disturbances derived from cyclical up-regulated inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and sustained down-regulated neuronal NOS (nNOS). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether LA-419 [S-(6-nitro-oxi-hexahydro-furo[3,2-b]furan-3-1-il)thioacetate], a NO-donor drug, could re-establish the normal expression of NOS and, hence, prevent the development of intestinal dysmotility, bacterial translocation, and relapses of inflammation associated to this model. Enteritis was induced in rats by administration of indomethacin with and without treatment with a novel NO-donor: LA-419 (0.5 mg/ml in the drinking water). Inflammatory reaction was evaluated by measuring blood leukocytes, serum tumor necrosis factor, and tissue myeloperoxidase. Intestinal motor activity was evaluated using strain-gauges. Ileal expression of iNOS and nNOS mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Bacterial translocation was evaluated in cultures from mesenteric lymph nodes. The indomethacin-induced acute inflammatory reaction was associated with a rise in blood leukocytes and tumor necrosis factor. In the chronic stage, blood leukocyte monitoring allowed the selection of animals in active and inactive phases. Active phase was associated with iNOS up-regulation, high myeloperoxidase levels, hypomotility, and bacterial translocation. In contrast, inactive phase was associated with hypermotility and absence of bacterial translocation. LA-419 treatment restored nitric-oxide synthase isoenzyme expression and prevented the oscillation of both inflammatory and motor parameters that could be cyclically observed in inflamed rats. LA-419 also prevented intestinal dysmotility, bacterial translocation, and relapses of intestinal inflammation. LA-419 might be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent acute inflammatory relapses in patients with IBD. PMID:17959746

  10. Stereomicroscopic 3D-pattern profiling of murine and human intestinal inflammation reveals unique structural phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; Kodani, Tomohiro; Kaydo, Lindsey; Pietropaoli, Davide; Corridoni, Daniele; Howell, Scott; Katz, Jeffry; Xin, Wei; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Cominelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Histology is fundamental to assess two-dimensional intestinal inflammation; however, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are often indistinguishable microscopically on the basis of mucosal biopsies. Here, we use stereomicroscopy (SM) to rapidly profile the entire intestinal topography and assess inflammation. We examine the mucosal surface of >700 mice (encompassing >16 strains and various IBD-models), create a profiling catalogue of 3D-stereomicroscopic abnormalities and demonstrate that mice with comparable histological scores display unique sub-clusters of 3D-structure-patterns of IBD pathology, which we call 3D-stereoenterotypes, and which are otherwise indiscernible histologically. We show that two ileal IBD-stereoenterotypes (‘cobblestones' versus ‘villous mini-aggregation') cluster separately within two distinct mouse lines of spontaneous ileitis, suggesting that host genetics drive unique and divergent inflammatory 3D-structural patterns in the gut. In humans, stereomicroscopy reveals ‘liquefaction' lesions and hierarchical fistulous complexes, enriched with clostridia/segmented filamentous bacteria, running under healthy mucosa in Crohn's disease. We suggest that stereomicroscopic (3D-SMAPgut) profiling can be easily implemented and enable the comprehensive study of inflammatory 3D structures, genetics and flora in IBD. PMID:26154811

  11. Stereomicroscopic 3D-pattern profiling of murine and human intestinal inflammation reveals unique structural phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; Kodani, Tomohiro; Kaydo, Lindsey; Pietropaoli, Davide; Corridoni, Daniele; Howell, Scott; Katz, Jeffry; Xin, Wei; Pizarro, Theresa T; Cominelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Histology is fundamental to assess two-dimensional intestinal inflammation; however, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are often indistinguishable microscopically on the basis of mucosal biopsies. Here, we use stereomicroscopy (SM) to rapidly profile the entire intestinal topography and assess inflammation. We examine the mucosal surface of >700 mice (encompassing >16 strains and various IBD-models), create a profiling catalogue of 3D-stereomicroscopic abnormalities and demonstrate that mice with comparable histological scores display unique sub-clusters of 3D-structure-patterns of IBD pathology, which we call 3D-stereoenterotypes, and which are otherwise indiscernible histologically. We show that two ileal IBD-stereoenterotypes ('cobblestones' versus 'villous mini-aggregation') cluster separately within two distinct mouse lines of spontaneous ileitis, suggesting that host genetics drive unique and divergent inflammatory 3D-structural patterns in the gut. In humans, stereomicroscopy reveals 'liquefaction' lesions and hierarchical fistulous complexes, enriched with clostridia/segmented filamentous bacteria, running under healthy mucosa in Crohn's disease. We suggest that stereomicroscopic (3D-SMAPgut) profiling can be easily implemented and enable the comprehensive study of inflammatory 3D structures, genetics and flora in IBD. PMID:26154811

  12. Glutamine and recombinant human growth hormone protect intestinal barrier function following portal hypertension surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhao-Feng; Ling, Yun-Biao; Lin, Nan; Hao, Zheng; Xu, Rui-Yun

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of combined treatment of glutamine (Gln) and recombinant human growth hormone(rhGH) on intestinal barrier function following portal hypertension surgery. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective, randomized and controlled clinical trial. Forty two patients after portal hypertension surgery were randomly assigned into 2 groups: control group (n = 20) and supplemental group (adding Gln and rhGH, n = 22). Every patient received isocaloric and isonitrogenous standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) starting 3 d after surgery for 7 d. Blood samples were obtained before surgery and at the 3rd and 10th day postoperatively. Host immunity was evaluated by measuring levels of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, IgG, IgM and IgA, and the inflammatory responses were determined by assessing IL-2, TNF-? and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Intestinal permeability and integrity was evaluated by L/M test and histological examination, respectively. RESULTS: On postoperative d 10, CD4, CD4/CD8, IgG and IL-2 levels in supplemental group were significantly higher than those in control group (33.7 ± 5.5 vs 31.0± 5.4, P < 0.05, (1.17 ± 0.32 vs 1.05 ± 0.15, P < 0.05, 13.94 ± 1.09 vs 12.33 ± 1.33, P < 0.05, and 368.12± 59.25 vs 318.12 ± 45.65, P < 0.05, respectively), whereas the increase in serum TNF-? concentration was significantly reduced (41.02 ± 27.56 vs 160.09 ± 35.17, P < 0.05). The increase in L/M ratio was significantly lower in the supplemental group than in the control group (0.0166 ± 0.0017 vs 0.0339 ± 0.0028, P < 0.05). Moreover, mucosal integrity in the supplemental group was better than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Postoperative administration of TPN supplemented with Gln and rhGH in patients after portal hypertension surgery improves immune function, modulates inflammatory response, prevents the intestinal mucous membrane from atrophy and preserves intestinal integrity. PMID:17465506

  13. Human intestinal Vdelta1+ lymphocytes recognize tumor cells of epithelial origin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    gammadelta T cells can be grouped into discrete subsets based upon their expression of T cell receptor (TCR) variable (V) region families, their tissue distribution, and their specificity. Vdelta2+ T cells constitute the majority of gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood whereas Vdelta1+T cells reside preferentially in skin epithelium and in the intestine. gammadelta T cells are envisioned as first line host defense mechanisms capable of providing a source of immune effector T cells and immunomodulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 4 or interferon (IFN) gamma. We describe here the fine specificity of three distinct gammadelta+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from patients with primary or metastatic colorectal cancer, that could be readily expanded in vitro in the presence of IL-1beta and IL-7. Irrespective of donor, these individual gammadelta T cells exhibited a similar pattern of reactivity defined by recognition of autologous and allogeneic colorectal cancer cells, renal cell cancer, pancreatic cancer, and a freshly isolated explant from human intestine as measured by cytolytic T cell responses and by IFN-gamma release. In contrast, tumors of alternate histologies were not lysed, including lung cancer, squamous cell cancer, as well as the natural/lymphocyte-activated killer cell-sensitive hematopoietic cell lines T2, C1R, or Daudi. The cell line K562 was only poorly lysed when compared with colorectal cancer targets. Target cell reactivity mediated by Vdelta1+ T cells was partially blocked with Abs directed against the TCR, the beta2 or beta7 integrin chains, or fibronectin receptor. Marker analysis using flow cytometry revealed that all three gammadelta T cell lines exhibit a similar phenotype. Analysis of the gammadelta TCR junctional suggested exclusive usage of the Vdelta1/Ddelta3/Jdelta1 TCR segments with extensive (< or = 29 bp) N/P region diversity. T cell recognition of target cells did not appear to be a major histocompatibility complex restricted or to be correlated with target cell expression of heat- shock proteins. Based on the ability of some epithelial tumors, including colorectal, pancreatic, and renal cell cancers to effectively cold target inhibit the lysis of colorectal cancer cell lines by these Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cells are capable of recognizing cell surface Ag(s) shared by tumors of epithelial origin. PMID:8666926

  14. Degradation of transgenic DNA from genetically modified soya and maize in human intestinal simulations.

    PubMed

    Martín-Orúe, Susana M; O'Donnell, Anthony G; Ariño, Joaquin; Netherwood, Trudy; Gilbert, Harry J; Mathers, John C

    2002-06-01

    The inclusion of genetically modified (GM) foods in the human diet has caused considerable debate. There is concern that the transfer of plant-derived transgenes to the resident intestinal microflora could have safety implications. For these gene transfer events to occur, the nucleic acid would need to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rate at which transgenes, contained within GM soya and maize, are degraded in gastric and small bowel simulations. The data showed that 80 % of the transgene in naked GM soya DNA was degraded in the gastric simulations, while no degradation of the transgenes contained within GM soya and maize were observed in these acidic conditions. In the small intestinal simulations, transgenes in naked soya DNA were degraded at a similar rate to the material in the soya protein. After incubation for 30 min, the transgenes remaining in soya protein and naked DNA were 52 (sem 13.1) % and 34 (sem 17.5) %, respectively, and at the completion of the experiment (3 h) these values were 5 % and 3 %, respectively. In contrast to the soya transgene, the maize nucleic acid was hydrolysed in the small intestinal simulations in a biphasic process in which approximately 85 % was rapidly degraded, while the rest of the DNA was cleaved at a rate similar to that in the soya material. Guar gum and tannic acid, molecules that are known to inhibit digestive enzymes, did not influence the rate of transgene degradation in soya protein. In contrast guar gum reduced the rate of transgene degradation in naked soya DNA in the initial stages, but the polysaccharide did not influence the amount of nucleic acid remaining at the end of the experiment. Tannic acid reduced the rate of DNA degradation throughout the small bowel simulations, with 21 (sem 5.4) % and 2 (sem 1.8) % of the naked soya DNA remaining in the presence and absence of the phenolic acid, respectively. These data indicate that some transgenes in GM foods may survive passage through the small intestine. PMID:12067423

  15. Potential Use of Bacterial Community Succession in Decaying Human Bone for Estimating Postmortem Interval.

    PubMed

    Damann, Franklin E; Williams, Daniel E; Layton, Alice C

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria are taphonomic agents of human decomposition, potentially useful for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) in late-stage decomposition. Bone samples from 12 individuals and three soil samples were analyzed to assess the effects of decomposition and advancing time on bacterial communities. Results indicated that partially skeletonized remains maintained a presence of bacteria associated with the human gut, whereas bacterial composition of dry skeletal remains maintained a community profile similar to soil communities. Variation in the UniFrac distances was significantly greater between groups than within groups (p < 0.001) for the unweighted metric and not the weighted metric. The members of the bacterial communities were more similar within than between decomposition stages. The oligotrophic environment of bone relative to soft tissue and the physical protection of organic substrates may preclude bacterial blooms during the first years of skeletonization. Therefore, community membership (unweighted) may be better for estimating PMI from skeletonized remains than community structure (weighted). PMID:25808627

  16. Characterization of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-Antigen Deletion Mutant and Effect of the Deletion on Bacterial Persistence in the Mouse Intestine and Colonization at the Bovine Terminal Rectal Mucosa?

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Haiqing; Lim, Ji Youn; Watkins, Maryann K.; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and transiently colonizes healthy cattle at the terminal rectal mucosa. To investigate the role of the O antigen in persistence and colonization in the animal host, we generated an E. coli O157:H7 mutant defective in the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide side chain (O antigen) by deletion of a putative perosamine synthetase gene (per) in the rfb cluster. The lack of O antigen was confirmed by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and anti-O157 antibody. The growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the ?per mutant were similar to the growth rate and cell membrane permeability of the wild type. Changes in membrane and secreted proteins were observed, but the expression of intimin, EspA, and EspB, implicated in bacterial intestinal colonization, was not altered, as determined by immunoblotting and reverse transcription-PCR. Similar to other O-antigen deletion mutants, the ?per mutant was pleiotropic for autoaggregation and motility (it was FliC negative as determined by immunoblotting and flagellum negative as determined by electron microscopy). The abilities of the mutant and the wild type to persist in the murine intestine and to colonize the bovine terminal rectal mucosa were compared. Mice fed the ?per mutant shed lower numbers of bacteria (P < 0.05) over a shorter time than mice fed the wild-type or complemented strain. After rectal application in steers, lower numbers of the ?per mutant than of the wild type colonized the rectoanal junction mucosa, and the duration of the colonization was shorter (P < 0.05). Our previous work showed that flagella do not influence E. coli O157:H7 colonization at the bovine terminal rectal mucosa, so the current findings suggest that the O antigen contributes to efficient bovine colonization. PMID:18552194

  17. Activation of intestinal human pregnane X receptor protects against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Okamoto, Minoru; Qu, Aijuan; Tanaka, Naoki; Kimura, Shioko; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-12-01

    The role of intestinal human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in colon cancer was determined through investigation of the chemopreventive role of rifaximin, a specific agonist of intestinal human PXR, toward azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon cancer. Rifaximin treatment significantly decreased the number of colon tumors induced by AOM/DSS treatment in PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. Additionally, rifaximin treatment markedly increased the survival rate of PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. These data indicated a human PXR-dependent therapeutic chemoprevention of rifaximin toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer. Nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells-mediated inflammatory signaling was upregulated in AOM/DSS-treated mice, and inhibited by rifaximin in PXR-humanized mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were also modulated by rifaximin treatment in the AOM/DSS model. In vitro cell-based assays further revealed that rifaximin regulated cell apoptosis and cell cycle in a human PXR-dependent manner. These results suggested that specific activation of intestinal human PXR exhibited a chemopreventive role toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer by mediating anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, and proapoptotic events. PMID:25277138

  18. Influence of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain on selected bacterial groups in the small intestine of growing turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Vahjen, W; Jadamus, Anke; Simon, O

    2002-12-01

    A feeding trial was carried out with turkey poults, which were fed a diet containing 10(10) viable probiotic E. faecium NCIB 10415 cells/kg feed. Samples of the intestinal tract were analyzed for lactate, colony forming units of total anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria and enterococci. Furthermore, metabolic activity of total eubacterial, lactobacilli and enterococci was recorded in selected RNA-extracts with specific ribosomal RNA oligonucleotide probes. Animals fed the probiotic diet showed continously increasing lactate concentrations throughout the sampling period up to day 42 of life. No correlation was found for colony forming units (cfu) of lactic acid bacteria, but metabolic activity of lactobacilli showed very close relation to continously increasing lactate concentrations. Throughout the feeding trial, enterococci in the control group continously increased to a maximum of 10(4) cfu/g wet weight, but 10-fold higher enterococci cfu were generally found in the treated group. However, rRNA content as measure for metabolic activity showed a drastic decline in both groups after high metabolic activities on day 7. This study shows that E. faecium NCIB 10415 (E. faecium SF68) stimulates other lactic acid bacteria in the small intestine, especially lactobacilli. PMID:12553692

  19. Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Byres, Emma; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Löfling, Jonas C.; Smith, David F.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Talbot, Ursula M.; Chong, Damien C.; Yu, Hai; Huang, Shengshu; Chen, Xi; Varki, Nissi M.; Varki, Ajit; Rossjohn, Jamie; Beddoe, Travis

    2009-01-30

    AB{sub 5} toxins comprise an A subunit that corrupts essential eukaryotic cell functions, and pentameric B subunits that direct target-cell uptake after binding surface glycans. Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is an AB{sub 5} toxin secreted by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), which causes serious gastrointestinal disease in humans. SubAB causes haemolytic uraemic syndrome-like pathology in mice through SubA-mediated cleavage of BiP/GRP78, an essential endoplasmic reticulum chaperone. Here we show that SubB has a strong preference for glycans terminating in the sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), a monosaccharide not synthesized in humans. Structures of SubB-Neu5Gc complexes revealed the basis for this specificity, and mutagenesis of key SubB residues abrogated in vitro glycan recognition, cell binding and cytotoxicity. SubAB specificity for Neu5Gc was confirmed using mouse tissues with a human-like deficiency of Neu5Gc and human cell lines fed with Neu5Gc. Despite lack of Neu5Gc biosynthesis in humans, assimilation of dietary Neu5Gc creates high-affinity receptors on human gut epithelia and kidney vasculature. This, and the lack of Neu5Gc-containing body fluid competitors in humans, confers susceptibility to the gastrointestinal and systemic toxicities of SubAB. Ironically, foods rich in Neu5Gc are the most common source of STEC contamination. Thus a bacterial toxin's receptor is generated by metabolic incorporation of an exogenous factor derived from food.

  20. Human chorionic gonadotropin promotes expression of protein absorption factors in the intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Hao, G; Zhong, H; Wu, Q; Lu, S Q; Zhao, Q; Liu, Z

    2015-01-01

    Protein use is crucial for the ovulation and spawning of fish. Currently, limited information is available regarding the expression of protein absorption factors during the breeding seasons of teleosts and thus how various proteins involved in this process is not well-understood. The expression of CDX2, CREB, gluatamate dehydrogenase, LAT2, aminopeptidase N, PepT1, and SP1 were significantly elevated from the non-breeding season to the breeding season in female goldfish, and all proteins except PepT1 and SP1 were elevated in male goldfish. Injection of human chorionic gonadotropin upregulated the expression of all proteins except for aminopeptidase N in female goldfish and SP1 in male goldfish, suggesting a luteinizing hormone-inductive effect on protein absorption factors. Protein use in the intestine is increased during the breeding seasons as a result of increased luteinizing hormone. PMID:26345757

  1. GIARDIA LAMBLIA: STIMULATION OF GROWTH BY HUMAN INTESTINAL MUCUS AND EPITHELIAL CELLS IN SERUMFREE MEDIUM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites specifically colonize the upper human small intestine which is normally serum-free, but grow in vitro only in medium supplemented with serum or serum fractions. Recently, biliary lipids were shown to support the growth of G. lamblia without serum. Now...

  2. Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

    1992-01-01

    Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific muralytic enzyme, we conclude that systemic uptake of PG-PS derived from endogenous enteric bacteria contributes to hepatobiliary injury induced by SBBO in susceptible rat strains. PMID:1401067

  3. Transport of Aflatoxin M1 in Human Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; De Angelis, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). After it is formed, it is secreted in the milk of mammals. Despite the potential risk of human exposure to AFM1, data reported in literature on the metabolism, toxicity, and bioavailability of this molecule are limited and out of date. The aim of the present research was to study the absorption profile of AFM1 and possible damage to tight junctions (TJ) of the intestinal Caco-2/TC7 clone grown on microporous filter supports. These inserts allowed for the separation of the apical and basolateral compartments which correspond to the in vivo lumen and the interstitial space/vascular systems of intestinal mucosa respectively. In this study, the Caco-2/TC7 cells were treated with different AFM1 concentrations (10–10,000?ng/kg) for short (40?min) and long periods of time (48?h). The AFM1 influx/efflux transport and effects on TJ were evaluated by measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance and observing TJ protein (Zonula occludens-1 and occludin) localization. The results showed that: (i) when introduced to the apical and basolateral compartments, AFM1 was poorly absorbed by the Caco-2/TC7 cells but its transport across the cell monolayer occurred very quickly (Papp value of 105.10?±?7.98?cm/s?×?10?6). (ii) The integrity of TJ was not permanently compromised after exposure to the mycotoxin. Viability impairment or barrier damage did not occur either. The present results contribute to the evaluation of human risk exposure to AFM1, although the AFM1 transport mechanism need to be clarified. PMID:22701428

  4. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Meihua; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2014-10-01

    Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca²? by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals. PMID:25147231

  5. SHP-2 Mediates Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Eunice A.; Kasper, Susan; Anneken, Emily M.; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2015-01-01

    The parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, induces human gastroenteritis through infection of host epithelial cells in the small intestine. During the initial stage of infection, C. parvum is reported to engage host mechanisms at the host cell-parasite interface to form a parasitophorous vacuole. We determined that upon infection, the larger molecular weight proteins in human small intestinal epithelial host cells (FHs 74 Int) appeared to globally undergo tyrosine dephosphorylation. In parallel, expression of the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) increased in a time-dependent manner. SHP-2 co-localized with the C. parvum sporozoite and this interaction increased the rate of C. parvum infectivity through SH2-mediated SHP-2 activity. Furthermore, we show that one potential target that SHP-2 acts upon is the focal adhesion protein, paxillin, which undergoes moderate dephosphorylation following infection, with inhibition of SHP-2 rescuing paxillin phosphorylation. Importantly, treatment with an inhibitor to SHP-2 and with an inhibitor to paxillin and Src family kinases, effectively decreased the multiplicity of C. parvum infection in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our study reveals an important role for SHP-2 in the pathogenesis of C. parvum. Furthermore, while host proteins can be recruited to participate in the development of the electron dense band at the host cell-parasite interface, our study implies for the first time that SHP-2 appears to be recruited by the C. parvum sporozoite to regulate infectivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHP-2 and its down-stream target paxillin could serve as targets for intervention. PMID:26556238

  6. Human Pathogens Abundant in the Bacterial Metagenome of Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Berger, Sibel; Vogel, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Many studies have evaluated chemical, heavy metal, and other abiotic substances present in cigarettes and their roles in the development of lung cancer and other diseases, yet no studies have comprehensively evaluated bacterial diversity of cigarettes and the possible impacts of these microbes on respiratory illnesses in smokers and exposed nonsmokers. Objectives The goal of this study was to explore the bacterial metagenomes of commercially available cigarettes. Methods A 16S rRNA-based taxonomic microarray and cloning and sequencing were used to evaluate total bacterial diversity of four brands of cigarettes. Normalized microarray data were compared using principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate potential differences in microbial diversity across cigarette brands. Results Fifteen different classes of bacteria and a broad range of potentially pathogenic organisms were detected in all cigarette samples. Most notably, we detected Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia in ? 90% of all cigarette samples. Other pathogenic bacteria detected included Campylobacter, Enterococcus, Proteus, and Staphylococcus. No significant variability in bacterial diversity was observed across the four different cigarette brands. Conclusions Previous studies have shown that smoking is associated with colonization by pathogenic bacteria and an increased risk of lung infections. However, this is the first study to show that cigarettes themselves could be the direct source of exposure to a wide array of potentially pathogenic microbes among smokers and other people exposed to secondhand smoke. The overall public health implications of these findings are unclear at this time, and future studies are necessary to determine whether bacteria in cigarettes could play important roles in the development of both infectious and chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:20064769

  7. Establishing Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis infection and intestinal colonization

    PubMed Central

    Everman, Jamie L.; Ziaie, Navid R.; Bechler, Jessica; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become a model system for studying the disease interaction between pathogens and the host. To determine whether the transparent nematode could serve as a useful model for Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) infection of the intestinal tract, worms were fed MAH and assayed for the effects of the bacterial infection on the worm. It was observed during feeding that viable MAH increases in the intestinal lumen in a time dependent manner. Ingestion of MAH was deemed non-toxic to worms as MAH-fed populations have similar survival curves to those fed E. coli strain OP50. Pulse-chase analysis using E. coli strain OP50 revealed that MAH colonize the intestinal tract, as viable MAH remain within the intestine after the assay. Visualization of intestinal MAH using histology and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that MAH localizes to the intestinal lumen, as well as establishes direct contact with intestinal epithelium. Bacterial colonization appears to have a detrimental effect on the microvilli of the intestinal epithelial cells. The MAH ?GPL/4B2 strain with a mutation in glycopeptidolipid production is deficient in binding to human epithelial cells (HEp-2), as well as deficient in its ability to bind to and colonize the intestinal tract of C. elegans as efficiently as wild-type MAH. These data indicate the C. elegans may serve as a useful model system for MAH pathogenesis and in determining the mechanisms used by MAH during infection and colonization of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:26405050

  8. Physical stress and bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface colonizers are subject to a variety of physical stresses. During the colonization of human epithelia such as on the skin or the intestinal mucosa, bacteria mainly have to withstand the mechanical stress of being removed by fluid flow, scraping, or epithelial turnover. To that end, they express a series of molecules to establish firm attachment to the epithelial surface, such as fibrillar protrusions (pili) and surface-anchored proteins that bind to human matrix proteins. In addition, some bacteria – in particular gut and urinary tract pathogens – use internalization by epithelial cells and other methods such as directed inhibition of epithelial turnover to ascertain continued association with the epithelial layer. Furthermore, many bacteria produce multi-layered agglomerations called biofilms with a sticky extracellular matrix, providing additional protection from removal. This review will give an overview over the mechanisms human bacterial colonizers have to withstand physical stresses with a focus on bacterial adhesion. PMID:25212723

  9. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  10. Transport and epithelial secretion of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, M. E.; West, M.; Simmons, N. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells have been used to investigate the transepithelial permeation of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. 2. Transepithelial basal to apical [3H]-digoxin flux exceeds apical to basal flux, a net secretion of [3H]-digoxin being observed. At 200 microM digoxin, net secretory flux (Jnet) was 10.8 +/- 0.6 nmol cm-2 h-1. Maximal secretory flux (Jmax) of vinblastine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 nmol cm-2 h-1. Cellular uptake of digoxin was different across apical and basal cell boundaries. It was greatest across the basal surface at 1 microM, whereas at 200 microM, apical uptake exceeded basal uptake. 3. Net secretion of [3H]-digoxin was subject to inhibition by digitoxin and bufalin but was not inhibited by ouabain, convallatoxin, and strophanthidin (all 100 microM). Inhibition was due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Uptake of [3H]-digoxin at the apical surface was increased by digitoxin and bufalin. All cardiac glycosides decreased [3H]-digoxin uptake at the basal cell surface (except for 100 microM digitoxin). 4. The competitive P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil (100 microM), nifedipine (50 microM) and vinblastine (50 microM) all abolished net secretion of [3H]-digoxin due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-digoxin was also increased across both the apical and basal cell surfaces. I-Chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene (10 microM), a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase and subsequent ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate secretion, failed to inhibit net secretion of [3H]-digoxin. The increase in absorptive permeability Pa-b (= Ja-b/Ca) and cellular [3H]-digoxin uptake upon P-glycoprotein inhibition, showed that the intestinal epithelium was rendered effectively impermeable by ATP-dependent extrusion at the apical surface. 5. A model for [3H]-digoxin secretion by the intestinal epithelium is likely to involve both diffusional uptake and Na(+)-K+ pump-mediated endocytosis, followed by active extrusion at the apical membrane. PMID:8832062

  11. An ex-vivo human intestinal model to study Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Devendra; Ave, Patrick; Kerneis, Sophie; Frileux, Pascal; Boché, Olivier; Baglin, Anne Catherine; Dubost, Geneviève; Leguern, Anne-Sophie; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Bracha, Rivka; Mirelman, David; Guillén, Nancy; Labruyère, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amoebiasis (a human intestinal infection affecting 50 million people every year) is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying human colon invasion by E. histolytica, we have set up an ex vivo human colon model to study the early steps in amoebiasis. Using scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses, we have established that E. histolytica caused the removal of the protective mucus coat during the first two hours of incubation, detached the enterocytes, and then penetrated into the lamina propria by following the crypts of Lieberkühn. Significant cell lysis (determined by the release of lactodehydrogenase) and inflammation (marked by the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin 1 beta, interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 8 and tumour necrosis factor) were detected after four hours of incubation. Entamoeba dispar (a closely related non-pathogenic amoeba that also colonizes the human colon) was unable to invade colonic mucosa, lyse cells or induce an inflammatory response. We also examined the behaviour of trophozoites in which genes coding for known virulent factors (such as amoebapores, the Gal/GalNAc lectin and the cysteine protease 5 (CP-A5), which have major roles in cell death, adhesion (to target cells or mucus) and mucus degradation, respectively) were silenced, together with the corresponding tissue responses. Our data revealed that the signalling via the heavy chain Hgl2 or via the light chain Lgl1 of the Gal/GalNAc lectin is not essential to penetrate the human colonic mucosa. In addition, our study demonstrates that E. histolytica silenced for CP-A5 does not penetrate the colonic lamina propria and does not induce the host's pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:19936071

  12. The Yin and Yang of Bacterial Resilience in the Human Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Molly K.; Pesesky, Mitchell W.; Dantas, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is home to trillions of microbes that form a symbiotic relationship with the human host. During health, the intestinal microbiota provides many benefits to the host and is generally resistant to colonization by new species; however, disruption of this complex community can lead to pathogen invasion, inflammation, and disease. Restoration and maintenance of a healthy gut microbiota composition requires effective therapies to reduce and prevent colonization of harmful bacteria (pathogens) while simultaneously promoting growth of beneficial bacteria (probiotics). Here we review the mechanisms by which the host modulates the gut community composition during health and disease, and discuss prospects for antibiotic and probiotic therapy for restoration of a healthy intestinal community following disruption. PMID:24911583

  13. Toxic mechanisms induced by fumonisin b1 mycotoxin on human intestinal cell line.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; D'Antuono, Isabella; Cardinali, Angela; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Debellis, Lucantonio; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the main target of exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1), common natural contaminant in food. Previous studies reported that proliferating cells are more sensitive than confluent cells to the toxic effect of FB1. This study aims to investigate, by dose- and time-dependent experiments on human colon proliferating intestinal cell line (HT-29), the modifications induced by FB1 at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 69 ?M. The choice of highest FB1 concentration considered the low toxicity previously reported on intestinal cell lines, whereas the lowest one corresponded to the lower FBs levels permitted by European Commission Regulation. Different functional parameters were tested such as cell proliferation, oxidative status, immunomodulatory effect and changes in membrane microviscosity. In addition FB1-FITC localization in this cell line was assessed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lipid peroxidation induction was the main and early (12 h) effect induced by FB1 at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 69 ?M, followed by inhibition of cell proliferation (up to 8.6 ?M), the immunomodulatory effect (up to 17.2 ?M), by assessing IL-8 secretion, and increase in membrane microviscosity (up to 34.5 ?M). The toxic effects observed in different functional parameters were not dose-dependent and could be the consequence of the FB1 intracytoplasmatic localization as confirmed by confocal microscopy results. The different timescales and concentrations active of different functional parameters could suggest different cellular targets of FB1. PMID:24549592

  14. The Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Stimulates Chloride/Hydroxyl Exchange Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Alip; Gill, Ravinder K.; Tyagi, Sangeeta; Koutsouris, Athanasia; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Hecht, Gail A.; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are viable nonpathogenic microorganisms that are considered to confer health benefits to the host. Recent studies indicated that some Lactobacillus species function as probiotics and have been used as alternative treatments for diarrhea, which occurs due to increased secretion, decreased absorption, or both. However, the direct effects of probiotics on intestinal electrolyte absorption are not known. Therefore, we examined the effects of Lactobacillus on luminal chloride/hydroxyl (Cl?/OH?) exchange activity in human intestinal epithelial cells. Postconfluent Caco-2 cells were treated with the Lactobacillus species Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) for 3 h at a multiplicity of infection of 50. Cl?/OH? exchange activity was measured as 4,4?-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2?-disulfonic acid-sensitive 36Cl uptake in base-loaded cells. Treatment with live, but not heat-killed, LA and LR significantly increased Cl?/OH? exchange activity (~50%), whereas other species were ineffective. Similarly, the conditioned medium (supernatant) of live LA increased Cl?/OH? exchange. The ability of LA or its conditioned culture medium to enhance Cl?/OH? exchange activity was blocked by PI-3 kinase inhibition but was unaffected by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Corresponding to the increased Cl?/OH? exchange activity, LA treatment increased the surface expression of the apical anion exchanger, SLC26A3 [Down Regulated in Adenoma (DRA)]. The increased DRA membrane localization might contribute to the increased Cl? absorption by LA. Our results suggest that LA secretes soluble effector molecule(s) into the culture medium that stimulate apical Cl?/OH? exchange activity via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase mediated mechanism. PMID:18567760

  15. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  16. Microbiota/Host Crosstalk Biomarkers: Regulatory Response of Human Intestinal Dendritic Cells Exposed to Lactobacillus Extracellular Encrypted Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hassi, Hafid O.; Mann, Elizabeth R.; Urdaci, María C.; Knight, Stella C.; Margolles, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is exposed to a huge variety of microorganisms, either commensal or pathogenic; at this site, a balance between immunity and immune tolerance is required. Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) control the mechanisms of immune response/tolerance in the gut. In this paper we have identified a peptide (STp) secreted by Lactobacillus plantarum, characterized by the abundance of serine and threonine residues within its sequence. STp is encoded in one of the main extracellular proteins produced by such species, which includes some probiotic strains, and lacks cleavage sites for the major intestinal proteases. When studied in vitro, STp expanded the ongoing production of regulatory IL-10 in human intestinal DCs from healthy controls. STp-primed DC induced an immunoregulatory cytokine profile and skin-homing profile on stimulated T-cells. Our data suggest that some of the molecular dialogue between intestinal bacteria and DCs may be mediated by immunomodulatory peptides, encoded in larger extracellular proteins, secreted by commensal bacteria. These peptides may be used for the development of nutraceutical products for patients with IBD. In addition, this kind of peptides seem to be absent in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease patients, suggesting a potential role as biomarker of gut homeostasis. PMID:22606249

  17. 4-Nonylphenol reduces cell viability and induces apoptosis and ER-stress in a human epithelial intestinal cell line.

    PubMed

    Lepretti, M; Paolella, G; Giordano, D; Marabotti, A; Gay, F; Capaldo, A; Esposito, C; Caputo, I

    2015-10-01

    4-Nonylphenol is a widely diffused and stable environmental contaminant, originating from the degradation of alkyl phenol ethoxylates, common surfactants employed in several industrial applications. Due to its hydrophobic nature, 4-nonylphenol can easily accumulate in living organisms, including humans, where it displays a wide range of toxic effects. Since the gastrointestinal tract represents the main route by which 4-nonylphenol enters the body, the intestine may be one of the first organs to be damaged by chronic exposure to this pollutant through the diet. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 4-nonylphenol on a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells). We demonstrated that 4-nonylphenol was cytotoxic to cells, as revealed by a decrease of the cell number and the decrement of mitochondrial functionality after 24 h of treatment. 4-Nonylphenol also reduced the number of cells entering into S-phase and interfered with epidermal growth factor signalling, with consequent negative effects on cell survival. In addition, 4-nonylphenol induced apoptosis, involving the activation of caspase-3, and triggered an endoplasmic reticulum-stress response, as revealed by over-expression of GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) and activation of XBP1 (X-box binding protein-1). Together, these findings support the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to 4-nonylphenol through the diet may lead to local damage at the level of intestinal mucosa, with potentially negative consequences for intestinal homeostasis and functionality. PMID:25998160

  18. Optical properties of human normal small intestine tissue determined by Kubelka-Munk method in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua-Jiang; Xing, Da; Wu, Guo-Yong; Jin, Ying; Gu, Huai-Min

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the optical properties of human normal small intestine tissue at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm, 514.5 nm, 532 nm, 808 nm wavelengths of laser irradiation. METHODS: A double-integrating-sphere system, the basic principle of measuring technology of light radiation, and an optical model of biological tissues were used in the study. RESULTS: The results of measurement showed that there were no significant differences in the absorption coefficients of human normal small intestine tissue at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm laser in the Kubelka-Munk two-flux model (P > 0.05). The absorption coefficients of the tissue at 514.5 nm, 532 nm, 808 nm laser irradiation were obviously increased with the decrease of these wavelengths. The scattering coefficients of the tissue at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm laser irradiation were increased with the decrease of these wavelengths. The scattering coefficients at 496.5 nm, 514.5 nm, 532 nm laser irradiation were obviously increased with the increase of these wavelengths. The scattering coefficient of the tissue at 532 nm laser irradiation was bigger than that at 808 nm. There were no significant differences in the total attenuation coefficient of the tissue at 476.5 nm and 488 nm laser irradiation (P > 0.05). The total attenuation coefficient of the tissue at 488 nm, 496.5 nm, 514.5 nm, 532 nm, 808 nm laser irradiation was obviously increased with the decrease of these wavelengths, and their effective attenuation coefficient revealed the same trend. There were no significant differences among the forward scattered photon fluxe, backward scattered photon fluxe, and total scattered photon fluxe of the tissue at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm laser irradiation. They were all obviously increased with attenuation of tissue thickness. The attenuations of forward and backward scattered photon fluxes, and the total scattered photon fluxe of the tissue at 514.5 nm laser irradiation were slower than those at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm laser irradiation respectively. The attenuations of forward and backward scattered photon fluxes, and total scattered photon fluxes at 532 nm laser irradiation were obviously slower than those at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm, 514.5 nm laser irradiation. The attenuations of forward and backward scattered photon fluxes, and total scattered photon fluxe at 808 nm laser irradiation were all obviously slower than those at 476.5 nm, 488 nm, 496.5 nm, 514.5 nm, 532 nm laser irradiation respectively. CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in optical parameters of human normal small intestine tissue in the Kubelka-Munk two-flux model at six different wavelengths of laser radiation. The results would provide a new method of information analysis for clinical diagnosis. PMID:12970908

  19. Comparison of the 1-gram (/sup 14/C)xylose, 10-gram lactulose-H/sub 2/, and 80-gram glucose-H/sub 2/ breath tests in patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.E.; Toskes, P.P.

    1986-12-01

    The sensitivity of three breath tests (1-g (/sup 14/C)xylose, 10-g lactulose-H/sub 2/, and 80-g glucose-H/sub 2/) was studied in 20 subjects with culture-documented small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Elevated breath /sup 14/CO2 levels were seen within 30 min of (/sup 14/C)xylose administration in 19 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 0 of 10 controls. In contrast, H/sub 2/ breath tests demonstrated uninterpretable tests (absence of H/sub 2/-generating bacteria) in 2 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 1 of 10 controls and nondiagnostic increases in H/sub 2/ production in 3 of 18 glucose-H/sub 2/ and 7 of 18 lactulose-H/sub 2/ breath tests in subjects with bacterial overgrowth. These findings demonstrate continued excellent reliability of the 1-g (/sup 14/C)xylose breath test as a diagnostic test for bacterial overgrowth, indicate inadequate sensitivity of H/sub 2/ breath tests in detecting bacterial overgrowth, and suggest the need for evaluation of a /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ breath test having the same characteristics as the (/sup 14/C)xylose test (avidly absorbed substrate having minimal contact with the colonic flora) for nonradioactive breath detection of bacterial overgrowth in children and reproductive-age women.

  20. Detecting human bacterial pathogens in wastewater treatment plants by a high-throughput shotgun sequencing technique.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Zhang, Tong

    2013-05-21

    Human pathogens are one of the major threats to global public health. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serve as city guts to receive and digest various human pathogens. Several techniques have been developed to detect human pathogens in WWTPs and to assess potential environmental risks. In this study, we employed 24 metagenomic DNA data sets derived from a high-throughput shotgun sequencing technique to more accurately and efficiently detect human bacterial pathogens in influent, activated sludge, and effluent of two Hong Kong WWTPs. Each data set was quality-filtered and normalized to 12,500,000 DNA sequences with a length of 150-190 bp. Then, a BLASTN search against Greengenes general 16S rRNA gene database and human pathogenic bacteria 16S rRNA gene database, a BLASTX search against human pathogenic bacteria virulence factor database, as well as MetaPhlAn analysis were conducted to survey the distribution, diversity, and abundance of human bacterial pathogens. The results revealed that (i) nine bacterial pathogens were detected; (ii) the overall pathogenic bacteria abundance was estimated as 0.06-3.20% in the total bacteria population using 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting; (iii) pathogenic bacteria detected in activated sludge and effluent shared similar profiles but were different from influent based on both 16S rRNA gene and virulence factor fingerprintings; (iv) Mycobacterium tuberculosis -like species may present potential pathogenic risks because it was detected with high abundance in both activated sludge and effluent. These findings provided a comprehensive profile of commonly concerned human pathogens in two Hong Kong WWTPs and demonstrated that the high-throughput shotgun sequencing technique is a feasible and effectual approach for environmental detection of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:23594284

  1. Generation of primary human intestinal T cell transcriptomes reveals differential expression at genetic risk loci for immune-mediated disease

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Tim; Liu, Jimmy Z; Anderson, Carl A; Parkes, Miles; Kaser, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants within multiple risk loci as predisposing to intestinal inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and coeliac disease. Most risk variants affect regulation of transcription, but a critical challenge is to identify which genes and which cell types these variants affect. We aimed to characterise whole transcriptomes for each common T lymphocyte subset resident within the gut mucosa, and use these to infer biological insights and highlight candidate genes of interest within GWAS risk loci. Design We isolated the four major intestinal T cell populations from pinch biopsies from healthy subjects and generated transcriptomes for each. We computationally integrated these transcriptomes with GWAS data from immune-related diseases. Results Robust, high quality transcriptomic data were generated from 1?ng of RNA from precisely sorted cell subsets. Gene expression patterns clearly differentiated intestinal T cells from counterparts in peripheral blood and revealed distinct signalling pathways for each intestinal T cell subset. Intestinal-specific T cell transcripts were enriched in GWAS risk loci for Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and coeliac disease, but also specific extraintestinal immune-mediated diseases, allowing prediction of novel candidate genes. Conclusions This is the first report of transcriptomes for minimally manipulated intestinal T lymphocyte subsets in humans. We have demonstrated that careful processing of mucosal biopsies allows the generation of transcriptomes from as few as 1000 highly purified cells with minimal interindividual variation. Bioinformatic integration of transcriptomic data with recent GWAS data identified specific candidate genes and cell types for inflammatory pathologies. PMID:24799394

  2. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal health. The relationship between antibiotic use and the development of resistance has been studied extensively, with some of this research aimed at identifying antibiotic treatment strategies that minimize the maintenance of resistance

  3. Structural and biochemical characterization of a novel aminopeptidase from human intestine.

    PubMed

    Tykvart, Jan; Ba?inka, Cyril; Svoboda, Michal; Navrátil, Václav; Sou?ek, Radko; Hubálek, Martin; Hradilek, Martin; Šácha, Pavel; Lubkowski, Jacek; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    N-acetylated ?-linked acidic dipeptidase-like protein (NAALADase L), encoded by the NAALADL1 gene, is a close homolog of glutamate carboxypeptidase II, a metallopeptidase that has been intensively studied as a target for imaging and therapy of solid malignancies and neuropathologies. However, neither the physiological functions nor structural features of NAALADase L are known at present. Here, we report a thorough characterization of the protein product of the human NAALADL1 gene, including heterologous overexpression and purification, structural and biochemical characterization, and analysis of its expression profile. By solving the NAALADase L x-ray structure, we provide the first experimental evidence that it is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase with a catalytic mechanism similar to that of glutamate carboxypeptidase II yet distinct substrate specificity. A proteome-based assay revealed that the NAALADL1 gene product possesses previously unrecognized aminopeptidase activity but no carboxy- or endopeptidase activity. These findings were corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis and identification of bestatin as a potent inhibitor of the enzyme. Analysis of NAALADL1 gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels revealed the small intestine as the major site of protein expression and points toward extensive alternative splicing of the NAALADL1 gene transcript. Taken together, our data imply that the NAALADL1 gene product's primary physiological function is associated with the final stages of protein/peptide digestion and absorption in the human digestive system. Based on these results, we suggest a new name for this enzyme: human ileal aminopeptidase (HILAP). PMID:25752612

  4. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the human cerebellum: qualitative and quantitative analyses.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Vincenzo; Flace, Paolo; Lorusso, Loredana; Rizzi, Anna; Bosco, Lorenzo; Cagiano, Raffaele; Ambrosi, Glauco

    2009-09-01

    Although autoradiographic, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the cerebellum of various species, immunohistochemistry has never shown immunoreactivity for VIP within cerebellar neuronal bodies and processes. The present study aimed to ascertain whether VIP immunoreactivity really does exist in the human cerebellum by making a systematic analysis of samples removed post-mortem from all of the cerebellar lobes. The study was carried out using light microscopy immunohistochemical techniques based on a set of four different antibodies (three polyclonal and one monoclonal) against VIP, carefully selected on the basis of control tests performed on human colon. All of the antibodies used showed VIP-immunoreactive neuronal bodies and processes distributed in the cerebellar cortex and subjacent white matter of all of the cerebellum lobes, having similar qualitative patterns of distribution. Immunoreactive neurons included subpopulations of the main neuron types of the cortex. Statistical analysis of the quantitative data on the VIP immunoreactivity revealed by the different antibodies in the different cerebellar lobes did not demonstrate any significant differences. In conclusion, using four different anti-VIP antibodies, the first evidence of VIP immunoreactivity is herein supplied in the human post-mortem cerebellum, with similar qualitative/quantitative patterns of distribution among the different cerebellum lobes. Owing to the function performed by VIP as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, it is a candidate for a role in intrinsic and extrinsic (projective) circuits of the cerebellum, in agreement with previous demonstrations of receptors for VIP in the cerebellar cortex and nuclei. As VIP signalling pathways are implicated in the regulation of cognitive and psychic functions, cerebral blood flow and metabolism, processes of histomorphogenesis, differentiation and outgrowth of nervous tissues, the results of this study could be applied to clinical neurology and psychiatry, opening new perspectives for the interpretation of neurodevelopment disorders and development of new therapeutic strategies in cerebellar diseases. PMID:19552726

  5. Improvement in Human Immune Function with Changes in Intestinal Microbiota by Salacia reticulata Extract Ingestion: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Utsuyama, Masanori; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko; Hirokawa, Katsuiku

    2015-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Salacia in the Hippocrateaceae family are known to inhibit sugar absorption. In a previous study, administration of Salacia reticulata extract in rats altered the intestinal microbiota and increased expression of immune-relevant genes in small intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of S. reticulata extract in human subjects by examining the gene expression profiles of blood cells, immunological indices, and intestinal microbiota. The results revealed an improvement in T-cell proliferation activity and some other immunological indices. In addition, the intestinal microbiota changed, with an increase in Bifidobacterium and a decrease in Clostridium bacteria. The expression levels of many immune-relevant genes were altered in blood cells. We concluded that S. reticulata extract ingestion in humans improved immune functions and changed the intestinal microbiota. Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000011732 PMID:26630568

  6. Functional alterations induced by the food contaminant furazolidone on the human tumoral intestinal cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Vincentini, O; De Angelis, I; Stammati, A; Zucco, F

    1993-07-01

    Caco-2 cells, which are derived from a human colon carcinoma and are able to differentiate in culture, have been used to study the effect of furazolidone (FZ), a chemical belonging to the nitrofuran family which is frequently used for the prevention of animal infections. Its potentially toxic residues could remain in some food products of animal origin and affect human health. Toxicity has been measured by different parameters, either in undifferentiated cells (day 7 of culture), or on differentiated cells (day 21 of culture). Our results indicate that FZ may seriously affect the proliferating portion of the intestinal mucosa, while the differentiated cells appear to be more resistant. However, the slight effect recorded on the aspecific and specific functions of the differentiated cells may suggest that the specialized portion of the intestine can also be compromised by the drug. Caco 2 cells seem a good model for a deeper investigation of the mechanism involved in the toxic action of FZ. PMID:20732223

  7. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    PubMed

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4?h after oral supplementation with 2?mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p?bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  8. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Cross, James H.; Bradbury, Richard S.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jallow, Amadou T.; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M.; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4?h after oral supplementation with 2?mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p?bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  9. Transepithelial transports of rare sugar D-psicose in human intestine.

    PubMed

    Hishiike, Takashi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Shigeru; Nakajima, Daichi; O'Charoen, Siwaporn; Ooshima, Hisaka; Sun, Yuanxia

    2013-07-31

    D-Psicose (Psi), the C3-epimer of D-fructose (Fru), is a noncalorie sugar with a lower glycemic response. The trans-cellular pathway of Psi in human enterocytes was investigated using a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The permeation rate of Psi across the monolayer was not affected by the addition of phlorizin, an inhibitor of sugar transporter SGLT1, whereas it was accelerated by treatment with forskolin, a GLUT5-gene inducer, clearly showing that GLUT5 is involved in the transport of Psi. The permeability of Psi was suppressed in the presence of D-glucose (Glc) and Fru, suggesting that the three monosaccharides are transported via the same transporter. Since GLUT2, the predominant sugar transporter on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes, mediates the transport of Glc and Fru, Psi might be mediated by GLUT2. The present study shows that Psi is incorporated from the intestinal lumen into enterocytes via GLUT5 and is released to the lamina propria via GLUT2. PMID:23844903

  10. Transcriptional and functional profiling of human intestinal dendritic cells reveals conserved specialization and a role for Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 in terminal subset differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Watchmaker, Payal B.; Lee, Mike; Baumjohann, Dirk; Morton, John; Kim, Sun Jung; Zeng, Ruizhu; Dent, Alexander; Ansel, K. Mark; Diamond, Betty; Hadeiba, Husein; Butcher, Eugene C.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) that orchestrate mucosal immunity have been studied in mice. Here we characterize human gut DC populations, and define their relationship to previously studied human and mouse DCs. CD103+Sirp?? DCs were related to human blood CD141+ and to mouse intestinal CD103+CD11b? DCs and expressed markers of cross-presenting DCs. CD103+Sirp?+ DCs aligned with human blood CD1c+ DCs and mouse intestinal CD103+CD11b+ DCs and supported regulatory T cell induction. Both CD103+ DC subsets induced TH17 cells, while CD103?Sirp?+ DCs induced TH1 cells. Comparative transcriptomics revealed conserved transcriptional programs among CD103+ DC subsets and uncovered a selective role for Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 in CD103+Sirp?? and intestinal CD103+CD11b+ DC specification, respectively. These results highlight evolutionarily conserved and divergent programming of intestinal DCs. PMID:24292363

  11. Arsenic Thiolation and the Role of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from the Human Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Alava, Pradeep; Zekker, Ivar; Du Laing, Gijs

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arsenic (As) toxicity is primarily based on its chemical speciation. Although inorganic and methylated As species are well characterized in terms of metabolism and formation in the human body, the origin of thiolated methylarsenicals is still unclear. Objectives: We sought to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the human gut are actively involved in the thiolation of monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV). Methods: We incubated human fecal and colon microbiota in a batch incubator and in a dynamic gut simulator with a dose of 0.5 mg MMAV in the absence or presence of sodium molybdate, an SRB inhibitor. We monitored the conversion of MMAV into monomethyl monothioarsonate (MMMTAV) and other As species by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. We monitored the sulfate-reducing activity of the SRB by measuring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. We used molecular analysis to determine the dominant species of SRB responsible for As thiolation. Results: In the absence of sodium molybdate, the SRB activity—primarily derived from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (piger)—was specifically and proportionally correlated (p < 0.01) to MMAV conversion into MMMTAV. Inactivating the SRB with molybdate did not result in MMAV thiolation; however, we observed that the microbiota from a dynamic gut simulator were capable of demethylating 4% of the incubated MMAV into arsenous acid (iAsIII), the trivalent and more toxic form of arsenic acid (iAsV). Conclusion: We found that SRB of human gastrointestinal origin, through their ability to produce H2S, were necessary and sufficient to induce As thiolation. The toxicological consequences of this microbial As speciation change are not yet clear. However, given the efficient epithelial absorption of thiolated methylarsenicals, we conclude that the gut microbiome—and SRB activity in particular—should be incorporated into toxicokinetic analysis carried out after As exposure. Citation: DC.Rubin SS, Alava P, Zekker I, Du Laing G, Van de Wiele T. 2014. Arsenic thiolation and the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria from the human intestinal tract. Environ Health Perspect 122:817–822;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307759 PMID:24833621

  12. Campylobacter-induced interleukin-8 secretion in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells requires Campylobacter-secreted cytolethal distending toxin- and Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Meng, Jianghong; Zhao, Shaohua; Singh, Ruby; Song, Wenxia

    2008-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli colonize and infect the intestinal epithelium and cause acute inflammatory diarrhea. The intestinal epithelium serves as a physical barrier to, and a sensor of, bacterial infection by secreting proinflammatory cytokines. This study examined the mechanisms for Campylobacter-induced secretion of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by using polarized T84 human colonic epithelial cells as a model. C. jejuni increased the secretion of both IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in polarized epithelial cells. However, the increase in IL-8 secretion was independent of Campylobacter-stimulated TNF-alpha secretion. Polarized T84 cells secreted IL-8 predominantly to the basolateral medium independently of the inoculation direction. While there was a significant correlation between the levels of IL-8 secretion and Campylobacter invasion, all 11 strains tested increased IL-8 secretion by polarized T84 cells despite their differences in adherence, invasion, and transcytosis efficiencies. Cell-free supernatants of Campylobacter-T84-cell culture increased IL-8 secretion to levels similar to those induced by live bacterial inoculation. The ability of the supernatant to induce IL-8 secretion was reduced by flagellum and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene mutants, treatment of the supernatant with protease K or heat, or treatment of T84 cells with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) inhibitor MyD88 inhibitory peptide or chloroquine. NF-kappaB inhibitors or cdtB mutation plus MyD88 inhibitor, but not flaA cdtB double mutations, abolished the ability of the supernatant to induce IL-8 secretion. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Campylobacter-induced IL-8 secretion requires functional flagella and CDT and depends on the activation of NF-kappaB through TLR signaling and CDT in human intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:18644884

  13. Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial and RNA viral communities from sentinel birds placed on selected broiler chicken farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the complex microbial communities in the poultry gut, and in understanding the effects of these dynamic communities on poultry performance, disease status, animal welfare, and microbes with human health significance. Investigations characterizing ...

  14. Fatty Acid- and Cholesterol Transporter Protein Expression along the Human Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Christiaan J.; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P.; Namiot, Andrzej; Kisielewski, Wojciech; Namiot, Zbigniew; Füllekrug, Joachim; Ehehalt, Robert; Glatz, Jan F. C.; Pelsers, Maurice M. A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Protein distribution profiles along the human intestinal tract of transporters involved in the absorption of cholesterol and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) have been scarcely evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings In post-mortem samples from 11 subjects, intestinal transporter distribution profiles were determined via Western Blot. Differences in transporter protein levels were statistically tested using ANOVA and Tukey's Post Hoc comparisons. Levels in all segments were expressed relative to those in duodenum. Except for ABCG5 and FATP4, levels (mean±SEM) were the highest in the ileum. For ABCA1, ileal levels (1.80±0.26) differed significantly from those in duodenum (P?=?0.049) and proximal colon (0.92±0.14; P?=?0.029). ABCG8 levels in ileum (1.91±0.30) differed from those in duodenum (P?=?0.041) and distal colon (0.84±0.22; P?=?0.010) and jejunum (1.64±0.26) tended to be higher than distal colon (0.84±0.22; P?=?0.087). Ileal NPC1L1 levels (2.56±0.51) differed from duodenum levels (P?=?0.019) and from distal colon (1.09±0.22; P?=?0.030). There was also a trend (P?=?0.098) for higher jejunal (2.23±0.37) than duodenal NPC1L1 levels. The levels of ABCG5 did not correlate with those of ABCG8. FAT/CD36 levels in ileum (2.03±0.42) differed from those in duodenum (P?=?0.017), and proximal and distal colon (0.89±0.13 and 0.97±0.15 respectively; P?=?0.011 and P?=?0.014). FABPpm levels in ileum (1.04±0.13) differed from proximal (0.64±0.07; P?=?0.026) and distal colon (0.66±0.09; P?=?0.037). Conclusions/Significance The distribution profiles showed a bell-shape pattern along the GI-tract with the highest levels in ileum for ABCA1, ABCG8, NPC1L1, FATCD36 and FABPm, suggesting a prominent role for ileum in transporter-mediated uptake of cholesterol and LCFAs. PMID:20454462

  15. Functional synergism of Human Defensin 5 and Human Defensin 6.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Aiping; Lu, Wuyuan; de Leeuw, Erik

    2015-11-27

    The gut epithelium is critically involved in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Acting as a physical barrier, it separates the intestinal microflora from cells of the immune system. In addition to its barrier function, the intestinal epithelium expresses defensins, natural, endogenous antimicrobial peptides. In humans, specialized epithelial cells, termed Paneth cells, located primarily in the small intestine express two defensins, Human Defensin-5 (HD-5) and Human Defensin-6 (HD-6). Previously, we have shown that HD-5 potently kills bacteria and induces secretion of interleukin-8 by intestinal epithelial cells. We show that HD-6 specifically and synergistically enhances the HD-5-induced IL-8 secretion, but does not alter its anti-bacterial activity. Further, we find that HD-5 decreases the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of intestinal epithelial cells and that HD-6 negates this effect of HD-5. PMID:26474700

  16. Antibodies to bacterial vaccines demonstrating specificity for human choriogonadotropin (hCG) and immunochemical detection of hCG-like factor in subcellular bacterial fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, G J; Acevedo, H F; Powell, J E; Stevens, V C

    1986-01-01

    Investigations were done to determine whether vaccines prepared with chemically killed Staphylococcus haemolyticus RU1 and Streptococcus bovis AV46 (bacteria that have been demonstrated to express human choriogonadotropin [hCG]-like material on their surface) elicited antibodies in rabbits with specificity for hCG determinants. In addition, the anatomical locus of the hCG-like factor was determined by separation of bacterial subcellular fractions. The results demonstrated that these bacterial vaccines elicited antibodies immunologically similar to those antibodies produced in response to the whole human trophoblastic hormone, a similarity extending even to cross-reactivity with human luteinizing hormone. The bacterial hCG-like material appeared to be localized in the membranes of the cell wall, and most was present in the soluble membranous and cytoplasmic constituents. Its expression in bacteria was a strain characteristic and not a species characteristic. Images PMID:3721581

  17. Dendritic cells are early cellular targets of Listeria monocytogenes after intestinal delivery and are involved in bacterial spread in the host.

    PubMed

    Pron, B; Boumaila, C; Jaubert, F; Berche, P; Milon, G; Geissmann, F; Gaillard, J L

    2001-05-01

    We studied the sequence of cellular events leading to the dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes from the gut to draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) by confocal microscopy of immunostained tissue sections from a rat ligated ileal loop system. OX-62-positive cells beneath the epithelial lining of Peyer's patches (PPs) were the first Listeria targets identified after intestinal inoculation. These cells had other features typical of dendritic cells (DCs): they were large, pleiomorphic and major histocompatibility complex class II(hi). Listeria were detected by microscopy in draining MLNs as early as 6 h after inoculation. Some 80-90% of bacteria were located in the deep paracortical regions, and 100% of the bacteria were present in OX-62-positive cells. Most infected cells contained more than five bacteria each, suggesting that they had arrived already loaded with bacteria. At later stages, the bacteria in these areas were mostly present in ED1-positive mononuclear phagocytes. These cells were also infected by an actA mutant defective in cell-to-cell spreading. This suggests that Listeria are transported by DCs from PPs to the deep paracortical regions of draining MLNs and are then transmitted to other cell populations by mechanisms independent of ActA. Another pathway of dissemination to MLNs was identified, probably involving free Listeria and leading to the infection of ED3-positive mononuclear phagocytes in the subcapsular sinus and adjacent paracortical areas. This study provides evidence that DCs are major cellular targets of L. monocytogenes in PPs and that DCs may be involved in the early dissemination of this pathogen. DCs were not sites of active bacterial replication, making these cells ideal vectors of infection. PMID:11298655

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of dietary phenolic compounds in an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sergent, Thérèse; Piront, Neil; Meurice, Julie; Toussaint, Olivier; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are considered to possess anti-inflammatory properties and therefore were proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat chronic inflammatory diseases. However their effects are not fully understood, particularly at the intestinal level. To further understand their mode of action at the molecular level during intestinal inflammation, an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium was established. Different representative dietary PCs, i.e. resveratrol, ellagic and ferulic acids, curcumin, quercetin, chrysin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and genistein, were selected. To mimic intestinal inflammation, differentiated Caco-2 cells cultivated in bicameral inserts, in a serum-free medium, were treated with a cocktail of pro-inflammatory substances: interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-? and lipopolysaccharides. The inflammatory state was characterized by a leaky epithelial barrier (attenuation of the transepithelial electrical resistance) and by an over-expression at the mRNA and protein levels for pro-inflammatory markers, i.e. IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), quantified by ELISA and by gene expression analysis using a low-density array allowing the evaluation of expression level for 46 genes relevant of the intestinal inflammation and functional metabolism. Treatment with PCs, used at a realistic intestinal concentration, did not affect cell permeability. In inflamed cells, the incubation with genistein reduced the IL-6 and MCP-1 overproduction, to ca. 50% of the control, whereas EGCG provoked a decrease in the IL-6 and IL-8 over-secretion, by 50 and 60%, respectively. This occurred for both flavonoids without any concomitant inhibition of the corresponding mRNA expression. All the PCs generated a specific gene expression profile, with genistein the most efficient in the downregulation of the expression, or over-expression, of inflammatory genes notably those linked to the arachidonic metabolism pathway. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that genistein and EGCG downregulate the inflammatory response in inflamed intestinal epithelial cells by a pathway implicating largely a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism. PMID:20816778

  19. Shared and distinct mechanisms of iron acquisition by bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans

    PubMed Central

    Caza, Mélissa; Kronstad, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is the most abundant transition metal in the human body and its bioavailability is stringently controlled. In particular, iron is tightly bound to host proteins such as transferrin to maintain homeostasis, to limit potential damage caused by iron toxicity under physiological conditions and to restrict access by pathogens. Therefore, iron acquisition during infection of a human host is a challenge that must be surmounted by every successful pathogenic microorganism. Iron is essential for bacterial and fungal physiological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, metabolism, and energy generation via respiration. Hence, pathogenic bacteria and fungi have developed sophisticated strategies to gain access to iron from host sources. Indeed, siderophore production and transport, iron acquisition from heme and host iron-containing proteins such as hemoglobin and transferrin, and reduction of ferric to ferrous iron with subsequent transport are all strategies found in bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans. This review focuses on a comparison of these strategies between bacterial and fungal pathogens in the context of virulence and the iron limitation that occurs in the human body as a mechanism of innate nutritional defense. PMID:24312900

  20. Novel GM1 ganglioside-like peptide mimics prevent the association of cholera toxin to human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Robert K; Usuki, Seigo; Itokazu, Yutaka; Wu, Han-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by infection in the gastrointestinal tract by the gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, and is a serious public health threat worldwide. There has not been any effective treatment for this infectious disease. Cholera toxin (CT), which is secreted by V. cholerae, can enter host cells by binding to GM1, a monosialoganglioside widely distributed on the plasma membrane surface of various animal epithelial cells. The present study was undertaken to generate peptides that are conformationally similar to the carbohydrate epitope of GM1 for use in the treatment of cholera and related bacterial infection. For this purpose, we used cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit to select CTB-binding peptides that structurally mimic GM1 from a dodecamer phage-display library. Six GM1-replica peptides were selected by biopanning based on CTB recognition. Five of the six peptides showed inhibitory activity for GM1 binding to CTB. To test the potential of employing the peptide mimics for intervening with the bacterial infection, those peptides were examined for their binding capacity, functional inhibitory activity and in vitro effects using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2 cells. One of the peptides, P3 (IPQVWRDWFKLP), was most effective in inhibiting cellular uptake of CTB and suppressing CT-stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate production in the cells. Our results thus provide convincing evidence that GM1-replica peptides could serve as novel agents to block CTB binding on epithelial cells and prevent the ensuing physiological effects of CT. PMID:26405107

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor transport in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, D T; Cavet, M; Hirst, B H; Simmons, N L

    1995-01-01

    1. The role of proton-linked solute transport in the absorption of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors captopril, enalapril maleate and lisinopril has been investigated in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cell monolayers. 2. In Caco-2 cell monolayers the transepithelial apical-to-basal transport and intracellular accumulation (across the apical membrane) of the hydrolysis-resistant dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar), were stimulated by acidification (pH 6.0) of the apical environment. In contrast, transport and intracellular accumulation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, lisinopril, were low (lower than the paracellular marker mannitol) and were not stimulated by apical acidification. Furthermore, [14C]-lisinopril transport showed little reduction when excess unlabelled lisinopril (20 mM) was added. 3. pH-dependent [14C]-Gly-Sar transport was inhibited by the orally-active ACE inhibitors, enalapril maleate and captopril (both at 20 mM). Lisinopril (20 mM) had a relatively small inhibitory effect on [14C]-Gly-Sar transport. pH-dependent [3H]-proline transport was not inhibited by captopril, enalapril maleate or lisinopril. 4. Experiments with BCECF[2',7',-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein]-loaded Caco-2 cells demonstrate that dipeptide transport across the apical membrane is associated with proton flow into the cell. The dipeptide, carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and the ACE inhibitors enalapril maleate and captopril, all lowered intracellular pH when perfused at the apical surface of Caco-2 cell monolayers. However, lisinopril was without effect. 5. The effects of enalapril maleate and captopril on [14C]-Gly-Sar transport and pHi suggest that these two ACE inhibitors share the H(+)-coupled mechanism involved in dipeptide transport.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7780654

  2. Akkermansia muciniphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a human intestinal mucin-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Muriel; Vaughan, Elaine E; Plugge, Caroline M; de Vos, Willem M

    2004-09-01

    The diversity of mucin-degrading bacteria in the human intestine was investigated by combining culture and 16S rRNA-dependent approaches. A dominant bacterium, strain MucT, was isolated by dilution to extinction of faeces in anaerobic medium containing gastric mucin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. A pure culture was obtained using the anaerobic soft agar technique. Strain MucT was a Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, oval-shaped bacterium that could grow singly and in pairs. When grown on mucin medium, cells produced a capsule and were found to aggregate. Strain MucT could grow on a limited number of sugars, including N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and glucose, but only when a protein source was provided and with a lower growth rate and final density than on mucin. The G + C content of DNA from strain MucT was 47.6 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate was part of the division Verrucomicrobia. The closest described relative of strain MucT was Verrucomicrobium spinosum (92 % sequence similarity). Remarkably, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MucT showed 99 % similarity to three uncultured colonic bacteria. According to the data obtained in this work, strain MucT represents a novel bacterium belonging to a new genus in subdivision 1 of the Verrucomicrobia; the name Akkermansia muciniphila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is MucT (= ATCC BAA-835T = CIP 107961T). PMID:15388697

  3. Ecological Effect of Ceftaroline-Avibactam on the Normal Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Rosenborg, Staffan; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Söderberg-Löfdal, Karin; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2015-08-01

    Ceftaroline-avibactam is a new combination of the antibiotic ceftaroline with a novel non-?-lactam ?-lactamase inhibitor, avibactam. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ceftaroline-avibactam on the human intestinal microbiota. Fourteen healthy volunteers received ceftaroline-avibactam (600 mg ceftaroline fosamil and 600 mg avibactam) intravenously over 2 h every 8 h on days 1 to 6 and as a single dose on day 7. Fecal samples were collected on day -1 (within 24 h of the first infusion on day 1) and on days 2, 5, 7, 9, 14, and 21. Escherichia coli numbers decreased during the study and normalized on day 21. An increased number of Klebsiella bacteria appeared on day 14 and normalized on day 21. The number of other enterobacteria decreased during the study, and the number of enterococci decreased from days 2 to 7 and normalized on day 9. Candida numbers increased from days 5 to 9 and normalized after day 14. The number of lactobacilli decreased during the study and recovered on day 14. The number of bifidobacteria decreased on day 2 and normalized on day 21. The number of Bacteroides bacteria was unchanged. Clostridium difficile numbers decreased on days 7 and 9 and increased on days 14 and 21. A toxigenic C. difficile strain was detected in one volunteer on day 21 with no reported adverse events. Plasma samples were collected on days -1, 2, 5, and 7. Ceftaroline and avibactam concentrations were 0 to 34.5 mg/liter and 0 to 61.6 mg/liter, respectively, in plasma and 0 to 35.4 mg/kg and 0 to 98.5 mg/kg, respectively, in feces. (This study is registered in the European Clinical Trials Database [https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/] under number EudraCT 2012 004921-25.). PMID:25987638

  4. Antioxidant activity of vasoactive intestinal peptide in HK2 human renal cells.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Eva; Bajo, Ana M; Schally, Andrew V; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2012-12-01

    Oxidative stress is a major mediator of tissue and cell injuries. The injury in chronic nephrotic syndrome, acute renal failure, myeloma kidney injury and other kidney diseases is initiated by oxidative stress. We have previously demonstrated that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) acts as an antiproliferative agent in renal cancer cells. This study was designed to evaluate the renoprotective activity of VIP against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in a proximal tubule kidney cell line (human, non-tumor, HK2 cells) in order to investigate the potential usefulness of this peptide in the treatment of oxidative-stress related kidney diseases. HK2 cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Propidium iodide was used to identify cells undergoing apoptosis. Western blotting was performed with anti-Bcl-2, anti-Bax and anti-formyl peptide receptor (low-affinity variant FPRL-1) monoclonal antibodies whereas 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used for measurement of levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). HK2 cells were injured with H(2)O(2) in order to induce apoptosis: the effect was time- and dose-dependent. VIP increased the levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased those of the proapoptotic protein Bax. VIP decreased the intracellular ROS levels reached by H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. VIP effect on ROS levels involved FPLR-1 but not VPAC(1,2) receptors as evidenced by the use of the respective antagonists WRW4 and JV-1-53. Thus, VIP protects HK2 cells from apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 levels and this effect is initiated through FPLR1 receptor. In conclusion, VIP might exert a renoprotective effect by the suppression of oxidative stress. PMID:23000305

  5. Sample preparation in separation of the extracellular chitinolytic enzymes of the human intestinal bacterium Clostridium paraputrificum J4 from the culture fluids.

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, Galina; Sim?nek, Ji?í; Barto?ová, Hana; Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Ponomareva, Evgenia; Tennikova, Tatiana

    2011-07-15

    Membrane ultrafiltration (UF) was used in sample preparation of the culture fluids of the human intestinal bacterium Clostridium paraputrificum strain J4 containing seven extracellular chitinolytic isoenzymes (38-90 kDa). The subsequent filtration of the bacteria-free supernatants was carried out through Millipore membranes with cut-off 100 and 30 kDa for separation of undigested components of the culture medium and bacterial metabolites with molecular weight higher and lower than that of the target enzymes. The chitinolytic enzymes, which were the minor components in the culture fluids, were concentrated at UF as well. The aim of the research consisted in evaluation of the effect of component composition of bacteria-free supernatants and the chemical nature of membrane active layer on partial fractionation of the chitinolytic enzymes, their recovery in retentates and purification degree. On the basis of the obtained experimental results, the sample preparation procedure of the culture fluids of C. paraputrificum J4 was established to be used further in chromatographic separations of the chitinolytic enzymes. PMID:21703948

  6. Human dental pulp stem cell behavior using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Acasigua, Gerson Arisoly Xavier; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Scher, Cristiane Regina; Xavier Filho, Lauro; Pranke, Patricia Helena Lucas; Basmaji, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Adhesion and Viability study with human dental pulp stem cell using natural nanotolith/bacterial cellulose scaffolds for regenerative medicine are presented at first time in this work. Nanotolith, are osteoinductors, i.e., they stimulate bone regeneration, enabling higher cells migration for bone tissue regeneration formation. This is mainly because nanotoliths are rich minerals present in the internal ear of bony fish. In addition, are part of a system which acts as a depth sensor and balance, acting as a sound vibrations detector and considered essential for the bone mineralization process, as in hydroxiapatites. Nanotoliths influence in bacterial cellulose was analyzed using transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results shows that fermentation process and nanotoliths agglomeration decrease initial human dental pulp stem cell adhesion however tested bionanocomposite behavior has cell viability increase over time. PMID:23926803

  7. From Environment to Man: Genome Evolution and Adaptation of Human Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aujoulat, Fabien; Roger, Frédéric; Bourdier, Alice; Lotthé, Anne; Lamy, Brigitte; Marchandin, Hélène; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    Environment is recognized as a huge reservoir for bacterial species and a source of human pathogens. Some environmental bacteria have an extraordinary range of activities that include promotion of plant growth or disease, breakdown of pollutants, production of original biomolecules, but also multidrug resistance and human pathogenicity. The versatility of bacterial life-style involves adaptation to various niches. Adaptation to both open environment and human specific niches is a major challenge that involves intermediate organisms allowing pre-adaptation to humans. The aim of this review is to analyze genomic features of environmental bacteria in order to explain their adaptation to human beings. The genera Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Ochrobactrum provide valuable examples of opportunistic behavior associated to particular genomic structure and evolution. Particularly, we performed original genomic comparisons among aeromonads and between the strictly intracellular pathogens Brucella spp. and the mild opportunistic pathogens Ochrobactrum spp. We conclude that the adaptation to human could coincide with a speciation in action revealed by modifications in both genomic and population structures. This adaptation-driven speciation could be a major mechanism for the emergence of true pathogens besides the acquisition of specialized virulence factors. PMID:24704914

  8. Molecular analysis for screening human bacterial pathogens in municipal wastewater treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, Rajkumari; Amha, Yamrot M; Anwar, Muhammad Z; Henschel, Andreas; Rodríguez, Jorge; Ahmad, Farrukh

    2014-10-01

    Effective and sensitive monitoring of human pathogenic bacteria in municipal wastewater treatment is important not only for managing public health risk related to treated wastewater reuse, but also for ensuring proper functioning of the treatment plant. In this study, three different 16S rRNA gene molecular analysis methodologies were employed to screen bacterial pathogens in samples collected at three different stages of an activated sludge plant. Overall bacterial diversity was analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS) on the Illumina MiSeq platform, as well as PCR-DGGE followed by band sequencing. In addition, a microdiversity analysis was conducted using PCR-DGGE, targeting Escherichia coli. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using QIIME protocol by clustering sequences against the Human Pathogenic Bacteria Database. NGS data were also clustered against the Greengenes database for a genera-level diversity analysis. NGS proved to be the most effective approach screening the sequences of 21 potential human bacterial pathogens, while the E. coli microdiversity analysis yielded one (O157:H7 str. EDL933) out of the two E. coli strains picked up by NGS. Overall diversity using PCR-DGGE did not yield any pathogenic sequence matches even though a number of sequences matched the NGS results. Overall, sequences of Gram-negative pathogens decreased in relative abundance along the treatment train while those of Gram-positive pathogens increased. PMID:25181426

  9. Integrative analysis of the microbiome and metabolome of the human intestinal mucosal surface reveals exquisite inter-relationships

    E-print Network

    2013-01-01

    other microbiome-associated intestinal diseases. Additionalthe intestinal microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease andmicrobiome reveals topological shifts associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Eid, Noura; Osmanova, Hristina; Natchez, Cecile; Walton, Gemma; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Rowland, Ian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-10-01

    The reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. A total of twenty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control group (maltodextrin-dextrose, 37·1 g) or an intervention group (seven dates, approximately 50 g). Each arm was of 21 d duration and was separated by a 14-d washout period in a cross-over manner. Changes in the growth of microbiota were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis, whereas SCFA levels were assessed using HPLC. Further, ammonia concentrations, faecal water genotoxicity and anti-proliferation ability were also assessed using different assays, which included cell work and the Comet assay. Accordingly, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and bowel movement assessment were also carried out. Although the consumption of dates did not induce significant changes in the growth of select bacterial groups or SCFA, there were significant increases in bowel movements and stool frequency (P<0·01; n 21) and significant reductions in stool ammonia concentration (P<0·05; n 21) after consumption of dates, relative to baseline. Furthermore, date fruit intake significantly reduced genotoxicity in human faecal water relative to control (P<0·01; n 21). Our data indicate that consumption of date fruit may reduce colon cancer risk without inducing changes in the microbiota. PMID:26428278

  11. Molecular characterization of intestinal bacteria in healthy cats and a comparison of the fecal bacterial flora between healthy cats and cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Lauren Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    of this study was to describe the microflora along the intestinal tract in healthy cats using comparative 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) analysis. Intestinal content from the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon was collected from 4 healthy cats and one...

  12. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  13. A bacterial regulatory RNA attenuates virulence, spread and human host cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Pabic, Hélène; Germain-Amiot, Noëlla; Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is directed by regulatory proteins and RNAs. We report the case of an RNA attenuating virulence and host uptake, possibly to sustain commensalism. A S. aureus sRNA, SprC (srn_3610), reduced virulence and bacterial loads in a mouse infection model. S. aureus deleted for sprC became more virulent and increased bacterial dissemination in colonized animals. Conversely, inducing SprC expression lowered virulence and the bacterial load. Without sprC, S. aureus phagocytosis by monocytes and macrophages was higher, whereas bacteria were internalized at lower yields when SprC expression was stimulated. Without sprC, higher internalization led to a greater number of extracellular bacteria, facilitating colonization. SprC expression decreased after phagocytosis, concurring with the facilitated growth of bacteria lacking the sRNA in the presence of an oxidant. The major staphylococcal autolysin facilitates S. aureus uptake by human phagocytes. ATL proved to be negatively regulated by SprC. The SprC domains involved in pairing with atl mRNA were analyzed. The addition of ATL reduced phagocytosis of bacteria lacking sprC with no effects on wild-type bacterial uptake, implying that SprC influences phagocytosis, at least in part, by controlling ATL. Since the control of SprC on ATL was modest, other factors must contribute to atl regulation. PMID:26240382

  14. Ontogeny of Human Hepatic and Intestinal Transporter Gene Expression during Childhood: Age Matters

    PubMed Central

    Mooij, Miriam G.; Schwarz, Ute I.; de Koning, Barbara A. E.; Leeder, J. Steven; Gaedigk, Roger; Samsom, Janneke N.; Spaans, Edwin; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Tibboel, Dick; Kim, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Many drugs prescribed to children are drug transporter substrates. Drug transporters are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of drugs and are important to drug absorption and elimination. Very limited data are available on the effect of age on transporter expression. Our study assessed age-related gene expression of hepatic and intestinal drug transporters. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and OATP1B3 expression was determined in postmortem liver samples (fetal n = 6, neonatal n = 19, infant n = 7, child n = 2, adult n = 11) and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) expression in 61 pediatric liver samples. Intestinal expression of MDR1, MRP2, and OATP2B1 was determined in surgical small bowel samples (neonates n = 15, infants n = 3, adults n = 14). Using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we measured fetal and pediatric gene expression relative to 18S rRNA (liver) and villin (intestines), and we compared it with adults using the 2???Ct method. Hepatic expression of MRP2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 in all pediatric age groups was significantly lower than in adults. Hepatic MDR1 mRNA expression in fetuses, neonates, and infants was significantly lower than in adults. Neonatal intestinal expressions of MDR1 and MRP2 were comparable to those in adults. Intestinal OATP2B1 expression in neonates was significantly higher than in adults. We provide new data that show organ- and transporter-dependent differences in hepatic and intestinal drug transporter expression in an age-dependent fashion. This suggests that substrate drug absorption mediated by these transporters may be subject to age-related variation in a transporter dependent pattern. PMID:24829289

  15. Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance in water habitats: searching the links with the human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2014-07-01

    Water is one of the most important bacterial habitats on Earth. As such, water represents also a major way of dissemination of bacteria between different environmental compartments. Human activities led to the creation of the so-called urban water cycle, comprising different sectors (waste, surface, drinking water), among which bacteria can hypothetically be exchanged. Therefore, bacteria can be mobilized between unclean water habitats (e.g. wastewater) and clean or pristine water environments (e.g. disinfected and spring drinking water) and eventually reach humans. In addition, bacteria can also transfer mobile genetic elements between different water types, other environments (e.g. soil) and humans. These processes may involve antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. In this review, the hypothesis that some bacteria may share different water compartments and be also hosted by humans is discussed based on the comparison of the bacterial diversity in different types of water and with the human-associated microbiome. The role of such bacteria as potential disseminators of antibiotic resistance and the inference that currently only a small fraction of the clinically relevant antibiotic resistome may be known is discussed. PMID:24484530

  16. Pro-Inflammatory Flagellin Proteins of Prevalent Motile Commensal Bacteria Are Variably Abundant in the Intestinal Microbiome of Elderly Humans

    PubMed Central

    Neville, B. Anne; Sheridan, Paul O.; Harris, Hugh M. B.; Coughlan, Simone; Flint, Harry J.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Jeffery, Ian B.; Claesson, Marcus J.; Ross, R. Paul; Scott, Karen P.; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Some Eubacterium and Roseburia species are among the most prevalent motile bacteria present in the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. These flagellate species contribute “cell motility” category genes to the intestinal microbiome and flagellin proteins to the intestinal proteome. We reviewed and revised the annotation of motility genes in the genomes of six Eubacterium and Roseburia species that occur in the human intestinal microbiota and examined their respective locus organization by comparative genomics. Motility gene order was generally conserved across these loci. Five of these species harbored multiple genes for predicted flagellins. Flagellin proteins were isolated from R. inulinivorans strain A2-194 and from E. rectale strains A1-86 and M104/1. The amino-termini sequences of the R. inulinivorans and E. rectale A1-86 proteins were almost identical. These protein preparations stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human intestinal epithelial cell lines, suggesting that these flagellins were pro-inflammatory. Flagellins from the other four species were predicted to be pro-inflammatory on the basis of alignment to the consensus sequence of pro-inflammatory flagellins from the ?- and ?- proteobacteria. Many fliC genes were deduced to be under the control of ?28. The relative abundance of the target Eubacterium and Roseburia species varied across shotgun metagenomes from 27 elderly individuals. Genes involved in the flagellum biogenesis pathways of these species were variably abundant in these metagenomes, suggesting that the current depth of coverage used for metagenomic sequencing (3.13–4.79 Gb total sequence in our study) insufficiently captures the functional diversity of genomes present at low (?1%) relative abundance. E. rectale and R. inulinivorans thus appear to synthesize complex flagella composed of flagellin proteins that stimulate IL-8 production. A greater depth of sequencing, improved evenness of sequencing and improved metagenome assembly from short reads will be required to facilitate in silico analyses of complete complex biochemical pathways for low-abundance target species from shotgun metagenomes. PMID:23935906

  17. Transcriptional regulation of the human Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger NHE3 by serotonin in intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Md Ruhul; Ghannad, Leda; Othman, Ahmad; Gill, Ravinder K.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Jesse Brown VAMC, Chicago, IL 60612 ; Malakooti, Jaleh

    2009-05-08

    Serotonin (5-HT) decreases NHE2 and NHE3 activities under acute conditions in human intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we have investigated the effects of 5-HT on expression of the human NHE3 gene and the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation in differentiated C2BBe1 cells. Treatment of the human intestinal epithelial cell line, C2BBe1, with 5-HT (20 {mu}M) resulted in a significant decrease in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression. In transient transfection studies, 5-HT repressed the NHE3 promoter activity by {approx}55%. The repression of the NHE3 promoter activity in response to 5-HT was accompanied by reduced DNA-binding activity of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to the NHE3 promoter without alteration in their nuclear levels. Pharmacological inhibitors of protein kinase C reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the promoter activity. Our data indicate that 5-HT suppresses the transcriptional activity of the NHE3 promoter and this effect may be mediated by PKC{alpha} and modulation of DNA-binding affinities of Sp1 and Sp3.

  18. Regulation of Glucose Transporter Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells following Exposure to an Anthocyanin-Rich Berry Extract

    PubMed Central

    Alzaid, Fawaz; Cheung, Hoi-Man; Preedy, Victor R.; Sharp, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols contained within plant tissues are consumed in significant amounts in the human diet and are known to influence a number of biological processes. This study investigated the effects of an anthocyanin-rich berry-extract on glucose uptake by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Acute exposure (15 min) to berry extract (0.125%, w/v) significantly decreased both sodium-dependent (Total uptake) and sodium-independent (facilitated uptake) 3H-D-glucose uptake. In longer-term studies, SGLT1 mRNA and GLUT2 mRNA expression were reduced significantly. Polyphenols are known to interact directly with glucose transporters to regulate the rate of glucose absorption. Our in vitro data support this mechanism and also suggest that berry flavonoids may modulate post-prandial glycaemia by decreasing glucose transporter expression. Further studies are warranted to investigate the longer term effects of berry flavonoids on the management of glycaemia in human volunteers. PMID:24236070

  19. The rule of unity for human intestinal absorption 2: application to pharmaceutical drugs that are marketed as salts.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj B; Admire, Brittany; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of the human intestinal absorption (HIA) of the 59 drugs which are marketed as salts is predicted using the rule of unity. Intrinsic aqueous solubilities and partition coefficients along with the drug dose are used to calculate modified absorption potential (MAP) values. These values are shown to be related to the fraction of the dose that is absorbed upon oral administration in humans (FA). It is shown that the MAP value can distinguish between drugs that are poorly absorbed (FA <0.5) and those that are well absorbed (FA ? 0.5). Inspection of the data as well as a receiver operative characteristic (ROC) plot shows that a single critical MAP value can be used for predicting efficient human absorption of drugs. This forms the basis of a simple rule of unity based solely on in vitro data for predicting whether or not a drug will be well absorbed at a given dose. PMID:25335986

  20. Regulation of glucose transporter expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells following exposure to an anthocyanin-rich berry extract.

    PubMed

    Alzaid, Fawaz; Cheung, Hoi-Man; Preedy, Victor R; Sharp, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols contained within plant tissues are consumed in significant amounts in the human diet and are known to influence a number of biological processes. This study investigated the effects of an anthocyanin-rich berry-extract on glucose uptake by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Acute exposure (15 min) to berry extract (0.125%, w/v) significantly decreased both sodium-dependent (Total uptake) and sodium-independent (facilitated uptake) ³H-D-glucose uptake. In longer-term studies, SGLT1 mRNA and GLUT2 mRNA expression were reduced significantly. Polyphenols are known to interact directly with glucose transporters to regulate the rate of glucose absorption. Our in vitro data support this mechanism and also suggest that berry flavonoids may modulate post-prandial glycaemia by decreasing glucose transporter expression. Further studies are warranted to investigate the longer term effects of berry flavonoids on the management of glycaemia in human volunteers. PMID:24236070

  1. Antibacterial screening of traditional herbal plants and standard antibiotics against some human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Awan, Uzma Azeem; Andleeb, Saiqa; Kiyani, Ayesha; Zafar, Atiya; Shafique, Irsa; Riaz, Nazia; Azhar, Muhammad Tehseen; Uddin, Hafeez

    2013-11-01

    Chloroformic and isoamyl alcohol extracts of Cinnnamomum zylanicum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma long Linn, Trachyspermum ammi and selected standard antibiotics were investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six human bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity was evaluated and based on the zone of inhibition using agar disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains were Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aurues, Serratia marcesnces, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin showed highly significant action against K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis while Ampicillin and Amoxicillin indicated lowest antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among the plants chloroform and isoamyl alcohol extracts of C. cyminum, S. aromaticum and C. long Linn had significant effect against P. aeruginosa, S. marcesnces and S. pyogenes. Comparison of antibacterial activity of medicinal herbs and standard antibiotics was also recorded via activity index. Used medicinal plants have various phytochemicals which reasonably justify their use as antibacterial agent. PMID:24191314

  2. Human defensins facilitate local unfolding of thermodynamically unstable regions of bacterial protein toxins.

    PubMed

    Kudryashova, Elena; Quintyn, Royston; Seveau, Stephanie; Lu, Wuyuan; Wysocki, Vicki H; Kudryashov, Dmitri S

    2014-11-20

    Defensins are short cationic, amphiphilic, cysteine-rich peptides that constitute the front-line immune defense against various pathogens. In addition to exerting direct antibacterial activities, defensins inactivate several classes of unrelated bacterial exotoxins. To date, no coherent mechanism has been proposed to explain defensins' enigmatic efficiency toward various toxins. In this study, we showed that binding of neutrophil ?-defensin HNP1 to affected bacterial toxins caused their local unfolding, potentiated their thermal melting and precipitation, exposed new regions for proteolysis, and increased susceptibility to collisional quenchers without causing similar effects on tested mammalian structural and enzymatic proteins. Enteric ?-defensin HD5 and ?-defensin hBD2 shared similar toxin-unfolding effects with HNP1, albeit to different degrees. We propose that protein susceptibility to inactivation by defensins is contingent to their thermolability and conformational plasticity and that defensin-induced unfolding is a key element in the general mechanism of toxin inactivation by human defensins. PMID:25517613

  3. VESGEN Mapping of Bioactive Protection against Intestinal Inflammation: Application to Human Spaceflight and ISS Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.; Chen, X.; Kelly, C. P.; Reinecker, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Challenges to successful space exploration and colonization include adverse physiological reactions to micro gravity and space radiation factors. Constant remodeling of the microvasculature is critical for tissue preservation, wound healing, and recovery after ischemia. Regulation of the vascular system in the intestine is particularly important to enable nutrient absorption while maintaining barrier function and mucosal defense against micro biota. Although tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular circuits regulating neovascularization, our knowledge of the adaptations of the vascular system to environmental challenges in the intestine remains incomplete. This is in part because of the lack of methods to observe and quantify the complex processes associated with vascular responses in vivo. Developed by GRC as a mature beta version, pre-release research software, VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) maps and quantifies the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching for novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and microvascular remodeling. Here we demonstrate that VESGEN can be used to characterize the dynamic vascular responses to acute intestinal inflammation and mucosal recovery from in vivo confocal microscopic 3D image series. We induced transient intestinal inflammation in mice by DSS treatment and investigated whether the ability of the pro biotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) to protect against intestinal inflammation was due to regulation of vascular remodeling. A primary characteristic of inflammation is excessive neovascularization (angiogenesis) resulting in fragile vessels prone to bleeding. Morphological parameters for triplicate specimens revealed that Sb treatment greatly reduced the inflammatory response of vascular networks by an average of 78%. This resulted from Sb inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling, a major angiogenesis signaling pathway. It needs to be determined whether pro biotic yeast represents a promising approach to GI protection in space. GRC performed only the VESGEN post-testing analysis.

  4. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. PMID:26346678

  5. Host-microbiota interactions in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Elson, Charles O; Alexander, Katie L

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive collection of bacterial species, termed microbiota, within human and other mammalian hosts has profound effects on both innate and adaptive immunity. Multiple host innate mechanisms contribute to intestinal homeostasis, including epithelial production of protective mucin layers maintaining spatial segregation in the intestine as well as epithelial cell secretion of a broad range of antimicrobial peptides. Additionally, epithelial cells employ autophagy to contain and eliminate invading bacteria; interestingly, genetic variants in specific autophagy genes are linked to susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Innate lymphoid cells, which rapidly respond to cytokine and microbial signals, have emerged as important regulators of the intestinal immune response to the microbiota. With regard to adaptive immunity, specific microbial species stimulate induction of regulatory T cells while others induce effector T cells within the gut. Such stimulation is subject to dysregulation during inflammation and disease, contributing to 'dysbiosis' or an abnormal microbiota composition that has been associated with a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, including celiac disease. The microbiota communicates with the immune system and vice versa; thus, an abnormal microbiota composition likely translates into an altered host immune response, though the exact mechanisms of such are not yet clear. Immunoglobulin A plays a critical role in limiting bacterial access to the host and in maintaining mutualism with the microbiota. Perturbation of the mucosal barrier via infection or other means can induce effector T cells reactive to the intestinal microbiota, and these cells can persist as memory cells for extended periods of time and potentially serve as pathogenic effector cells upon re-encounter with antigen. Health is associated with a diverse microbiota that functions to maintain the balance between T effector and T regulatory cells in the intestine. Whether dysbiosis can be reversed in immune-mediated disease, thus restoring health, is a question of intense interest for this active area of research. PMID:25925913

  6. Short-Chain Fructo-Oligosaccharides Modulate Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Parameters of Humanized Gnotobiotic Diet Induced Obesity Mice

    PubMed Central

    Respondek, Frederique; Gerard, Philippe; Bossis, Mathilde; Boschat, Laura; Bruneau, Aurélia; Rabot, Sylvie; Wagner, Anne; Martin, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Prebiotic fibres like short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) are known to selectively modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota and especially to stimulate Bifidobacteria. In parallel, the involvement of intestinal microbiota in host metabolic regulation has been recently highlighted. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of scFOS on the composition of the faecal microbiota and on metabolic parameters in an animal model of diet-induced obesity harbouring a human-type microbiota. Forty eight axenic C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with a sample of faecal human microbiota and randomly assigned to one of 3 diets for 7 weeks: a control diet, a high fat diet (HF, 60% of energy derived from fat)) or an isocaloric HF diet containing 10% of scFOS (HF-scFOS). Mice fed with the two HF gained at least 21% more weight than mice from the control group. Addition of scFOS partially abolished the deposition of fat mass but significantly increased the weight of the caecum. The analysis of the taxonomic composition of the faecal microbiota by FISH technique revealed that the addition of scFOS induced a significant increase of faecal Bifidobacteria and the Clostridium coccoides group whereas it decreased the Clostridium leptum group. In addition to modifying the composition of the faecal microbiota, scFOS most prominently affected the faecal metabolome (e.g. bile acids derivatives, hydroxyl monoenoic fatty acids) as well as urine, plasma hydrophilic and plasma lipid metabolomes. The increase in C. coccoides and the decrease in C. leptum, were highly correlated to these metabolic changes, including insulinaemia, as well as to the weight of the caecum (empty and full) but not the increase in Bifidobacteria. In conclusion scFOS induce profound metabolic changes by modulating the composition and the activity of the intestinal microbiota, that may partly explain their effect on the reduction of insulinaemia. PMID:23951074

  7. High resolution crystal structures of human cytosolic thiolase (CT): a comparison of the active sites of human CT, bacterial thiolase, and bacterial KAS I.

    PubMed

    Kursula, Petri; Sikkilä, Herkko; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Naomi; Wierenga, Rik K

    2005-03-18

    Thiolases belong to a superfamily of condensing enzymes that includes also beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthases (KAS enzymes), involved in fatty acid synthesis. Here, we describe the high resolution structure of human cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (CT), both unliganded (at 2.3 angstroms resolution) and in complex with CoA (at 1.6 angstroms resolution). CT catalyses the condensation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA, which is the first reaction of the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of cholesterol. CT is a homotetramer of exact 222 symmetry. There is an excess of positively charged residues at the interdimer surface leading towards the CoA-binding pocket, possibly important for the efficient capture of substrates. The geometry of the catalytic site, including the three catalytic residues Cys92, His 353, Cys383, and the two oxyanion holes, is highly conserved between the human and bacterial Zoogloea ramigera thiolase. In human CT, the first oxyanion hole is formed by Wat38 (stabilised by Asn321) and NE2(His353), and the second by N(Cys92) and N(Gly385). The active site of this superfamily is constructed on top of four active site loops, near Cys92, Asn321, His353, and Cys383, respectively. These loops were used for the superpositioning of CT on the bacterial thiolase and on the Escherichia coli KAS I. This comparison indicates that the two thiolase oxyanion holes also exist in KAS I at topologically equivalent positions. Interestingly, the hydrogen bonding interactions at the first oxyanion hole are different in thiolase and KAS I. In KAS I, the hydrogen bonding partners are two histidine NE2 atoms, instead of a water and a NE2 side-chain atom in thiolase. The second oxyanion hole is in both structures shaped by corresponding main chain peptide NH-groups. The possible importance of bound water molecules at the catalytic site of thiolase for the reaction mechanism is discussed. PMID:15733928

  8. Determination using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy of putative stem cells in human adenocarcinoma of the intestine: corresponding benign tissue as a template.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzai, Abdullah A; Patel, Imran I; Veronesi, Giulia; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Llabjani, Valon; Cotte, Marine; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial-cell layer lining the two morphologically and functionally distinct segments of the mammalian intestinal tract, small intestine, and colon is constantly being renewed. This renewal is necessitated by a harsh lumen environment and is hypothesized to be driven by a small population of stem cells (SCs) that are believed to reside at the base of intestinal crypts. A lack of specific markers has hampered previous attempts to identify their exact location. We obtained tissue sections containing small intestine and colon crypts derived from normal (benign) or adenocarcinoma (AC) human intestine. The samples were floated onto BaF2 windows and analyzed using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy via an aperture size of 10 × 10 ?m. Derived infrared (IR) spectral data was then analyzed using principal component analysis and/or linear discriminant analysis. Hypothesized cell types (as a function of aperture location along the length of individual crypts) within benign crypts were classed based on exploratory unsupervised IR spectral point clustering. Scores plots derived from individual small intestine crypts consistently generated one or two distinct spectra that clustered away from the remaining cell categories; these were retrospectively classed as "distinct base region" spectra. In these plots, a clear progression of locations along crypt lengths designated as from putative stem cells (SCs) to transit-amplifying (TA) cells to terminally differentiated (TD) cells was observed in benign small intestine and colon crypts. This progression of spectral points was crypt specific, pointing away from a unifying cell lineage model in human intestinal crypts. On comparison of AC-derived spectra versus corresponding benign, a subpopulation of AC-derived spectra suggested a putative SC-like spectral fingerprint; remaining IR spectra were classed as exhibiting TA cell-like or TD cell-like spectral characteristics. These observations could point to a cancer SC phenotype; an approach capable of identifying their in situ location has enormous therapeutic applications. PMID:25061782

  9. FOXA2 regulates a network of genes involved in critical functions of human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gosalia, Nehal; Yang, Rui; Kerschner, Jenny L; Harris, Ann

    2015-07-01

    The forkhead box A (FOXA) family of pioneer transcription factors is critical for the development of many endoderm-derived tissues. Their importance in regulating biological processes in the lung and liver is extensively characterized, though much less is known about their role in intestine. Here we investigate the contribution of FOXA2 to coordinating intestinal epithelial cell function using postconfluent Caco2 cells, differentiated into an enterocyte-like model. FOXA2 binding sites genome-wide were determined by ChIP-seq and direct targets of the factor were validated by ChIP-qPCR and siRNA-mediated depletion of FOXA1/2 followed by RT-qPCR. Peaks of FOXA2 occupancy were frequent at loci contributing to gene ontology pathways of regulation of cell migration, cell motion, and plasma membrane function. Depletion of both FOXA1 and FOXA2 led to a significant reduction in the expression of multiple transmembrane proteins including ion channels and transporters, which form a network that is essential for maintaining normal ion and solute transport. One of the targets was the adenosine A2B receptor, and reduced receptor mRNA levels were associated with a functional decrease in intracellular cyclic AMP. We also observed that 30% of FOXA2 binding sites contained a GATA motif and that FOXA1/A2 depletion reduced GATA-4, but not GATA-6 protein levels. These data show that FOXA2 plays a pivotal role in regulating intestinal epithelial cell function. Moreover, that the FOXA and GATA families of transcription factors may work cooperatively to regulate gene expression genome-wide in the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25921584

  10. Characterization of a large human transgene following invasin-mediated delivery in a bacterial artificial chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, Austin E.; Lucas, Catherine A.; Haussecker, Pei Ling; Kosak, Steven T.; Harris, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are widely used in transgenesis, particularly for the humanization of animal models. Moreover, due to their extensive capacity, BACs provide attractive tools to study distal regulatory elements associated with large gene loci. However, despite their widespread use, little is known about the integration dynamics of these large transgenes in mammalian cells. Here, we investigate the post-integration structure of a ~260 kb BAC carrying the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) locus following delivery by bacterial invasion and compare this to the outcome of a more routine lipid-based delivery method. We find substantial variability in integrated copy number and expression levels of the BAC CFTR transgene after bacterial invasion-mediated delivery. Furthermore, we frequently observed variation in the representation of different regions of the CFTR transgene within individual cell clones, indicative of BAC fragmentation. Finally, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we observed that the integrated BAC forms extended, megabase-scale structures in some clones that are apparently stably maintained at cell division. These data demonstrate that the utility of large BACs to investigate cis-regulatory elements in the genomic context may be limited by recombination events that complicate their use. PMID:23749207

  11. Immunomodulatory effect of a wild blueberry anthocyanin-rich extract in human Caco-2 intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Taverniti, Valentina; Fracassetti, Daniela; Del Bo', Cristian; Lanti, Claudia; Minuzzo, Mario; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-08-20

    Intestinal inflammation is a natural process crucial for the maintenance of gut functioning. However, abnormal or prolonged inflammatory responses may lead to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases, typically treated by means of pharmacological interventions. Dietary strategies for the prevention of inflammation are a safer alternative to pharmacotherapy. Anthocyanins and other polyphenols have been documented to display anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, three bioactive fractions (anthocyanin, phenolic, and water-soluble fractions) were extracted from a wild blueberry powder. The Caco-2 intestinal model was used to test the immunomodulatory effect of the above fractions. Only the anthocyanin-rich fraction reduced the activation of NF-?B, induced by IL-1? in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Specifically, concentrations of 50 and 100 ?g mL(-1) decreased NF-?B activation by 68.9 and 85.2%, respectively (p ? 0.05). These preliminary results provide further support for the role of food bioactives as potential dietary anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25075866

  12. Expression and Function of the Lipocalin-2 (24p3/NGAL) Receptor in Rodent and Human Intestinal Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Langelueddecke, Christian; Roussa, Eleni; Fenton, Robert A.; Thévenod, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The lipocalin 2//NGAL/24p3 receptor (NGAL-R/24p3-R) is expressed in rodent distal nephron where it mediates protein endocytosis. The mechanisms of apical endocytosis and transcytosis of proteins and peptides in the intestine are poorly understood. In the present study, the expression and localization of rodent 24p3-R (r24p3-R) and human NGAL-R (hNGAL-R) was investigated in intestinal segments by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. r24p3-R/hNGAL-R was also studied in human Caco-2 BBE cells and CHO cells transiently transfected with r24p3-R by immunofluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR and immunoblotting of plasma membrane enriched vesicles (PM). To assay function, endocytosis/transcytosis of putative ligands phytochelatin (PC3), metallothionein (MT) and transferrin (Tf) was assayed by measuring internalization of fluorescence-labelled ligands in Caco-2 BBE cells grown on plastic or as monolayers on Transwell inserts. The binding affinity of Alexa 488-PC3 to colon-like Caco-2 BBE PM was quantified by microscale thermophoresis (MST). r24p3-R/hNGAL-R expression was detected apically in all intestinal segments but showed the highest expression in ileum and colon. Colon-like, but not duodenum-like, Caco-2 BBE cells expressed hNGAL-R on their surface. Colon-like Caco-2 BBE cells or r24p3-R transfected CHO cells internalized fluorescence-labelled PC3 or MT with half-maximal saturation at submicromolar concentrations. Uptake of PC3 and MT (0.7 µM) by Caco-2 BBE cells was partially blocked by hNGAL (500 pM) and an EC50 of 18.6 ± 12.2 nM was determined for binding of Alexa 488-PC3 to PM vesicles by MST. Transwell experiments showed rapid (0.5-2 h) apical uptake and basolateral delivery of fluorescent PC3/MT/Tf (0.7 µM). Apical uptake of ligands was significantly blocked by 500 pM hNGAL. hNGAL-R dependent uptake was more prominent with MT but transcytosis efficiency was reduced compared to PC3 and Tf. Hence, r24p3-R/hNGAL-R may represent a high-affinity multi-ligand receptor for apical internalization and transcytosis of intact proteins/peptides by the lower intestine. PMID:23940770

  13. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  14. Human Neutrophil Lipocalin as a Superior Diagnostic Means To Distinguish between Acute Bacterial and Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Douhan-Håkansson, Lena; Garwicz, Daniel; Peterson, Christer; Xu, Shengyuan; Pauksen, Karlis

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between causes of acute infections is a major clinical challenge. Current biomarkers, however, are not sufficiently accurate. Human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) concentrations in serum or whole blood activated by formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) were shown to distinguish acute infections of bacterial or viral cause with high accuracy. The aim was therefore to compare the clinical performance of HNL with currently used biomarkers. Seven hundred twenty-five subjects (144 healthy controls and 581 patients with signs and symptoms of acute infections) were included in the study. C-reactive protein (CRP), the expression of CD64 on neutrophils, procalcitonin (PCT), and blood neutrophil counts were measured by established techniques, and HNL concentrations were measured in whole-blood samples after activation with fMLP. All tested biomarkers were elevated in bacterial as opposed to viral infections (P < 0.001). CRP, PCT, and CD64 expression in neutrophils was elevated in viral infections compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). In the distinction between healthy controls and patients with bacterial infections, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were >0.85 for all biomarkers, whereas for the distinction between bacterial and viral infections, only HNL concentration in fMLP-activated whole blood showed an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of >0.90 and superior clinical performance. The clinical performance of HNL in fMLP-activated whole blood was superior to current biomarkers and similar to previous results of HNL in serum. The procedure can be adopted for point-of-care testing with response times of <15 min. PMID:26135974

  15. Activated endothelial cells limit inflammatory response, but increase chemoattractant potential and bacterial clearance by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Herrera, Ismael; Alvarado-Moreno, José Antonio; Cérbulo-Vázquez, Arturo; Prieto-Chávez, Jessica L; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; López-Macías, Constantino; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Isibasi, Armando; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes

    2015-06-01

    Inflammation is the normal immune response of vascularized tissues to damage and bacterial products, for which leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is critical. The effects of cell-to-cell contact seen in both leukocyte and endothelial cells include cytoskeleton rearrangement, and dynamic expression of adhesion molecules and metalloproteinases. TEM induces expression of anti-apoptotic molecules, costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation, and pattern recognition receptors (PRR), such as TLR-4, in monocytes. However, little is known about how TLR-4 increment operates in monocytes during an inflammatory response. To understand it better, we used an in vitro model in which monocytes crossed a layer of IL-1? stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). After TEM, monocytes were tested for the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, their phenotype (CD14, CD16, TLR-4 expression), and TLR-4 canonical [Nuclear Factor kappa B, (NF-?B) pathway] and non-canonical [p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 pathway] signal transduction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Phagocytosis and bacterial clearance were also measured. There was diminished secretion of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?) and higher secretion of chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8 and CCL2/MCP-1) in supernatant of TEM monocytes. These changes were accompanied by increases in TLR-4, CD14 (surfaces expression), p38, and ERK1/2 phosphorylated cytoplasmic forms, without affecting NF-?B activation. It also increased bacterial clearance after TEM by an O2 -independent mechanism. The data suggest that interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes fine-tunes the inflammatory response and promotes bacterial elimination. PMID:25598193

  16. Sulphation of the heterocyclic amine 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline in the human liver and intestinal mucosa: interindividual variability.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, G M; D'alessandro, C; Gucci, A; Giuliani, L

    1997-01-01

    The sulphation rate of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) was measured in the human liver and in the intestinal mucosa isolated from the transverse colon, ileum and duodenum. The rate (mean +/- SD) of hepatic TIQ sulphation was 500 +/- 174 pmol/min per mg in women (n = 61) and 591 +/- 201 in men (n = 39; P = 0.0087), varying over one order of magnitude in men and women. The sulphation rate of testosterone showed the same sex-dependent pattern and was correlated (r = 0.6055; P < 0.001) with that of TIQ. The frequency distribution of TIQ sulphation rate in human liver was bimodal: 70% of the population fell into the low-activity subgroup and the remaining 30% feel into the high-activity subgroup. In the colon (n = 56), the rate of TIQ sulphation was 30.4 +/- 15.6 pmol/min per mg and the values were similar in men and women (29.8 and 30.9 pmol/min per mg, respectively) but, varied over one order of magnitude and correlated (r = 0.7231; P < 0.001) with that of 4-nitrophenol. The rate of TIQ sulphation changed along the human bowel and mean (+/-SD) estimates for duodenum, ileum and transverse colon were 444 +/- 25, 182 +/- 87 and 30.4 +/- 15.6 pmol/ min per mg, respectively. The present results are consistent with the view that the heterocyclic amine TIQ is sulphated in the human liver and intestinal mucosa. TIQ-sulphotransferase activity varies among subjects and is mostly associated with the liver and duodenum. PMID:9248624

  17. Understanding how commensal obligate anaerobic bacteria regulate immune functions in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  18. Understanding How Commensal Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Regulate Immune Functions in the Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  19. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges and bacterial revertants by organic extracts of airborne particles. [Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lockard, J.M.; Viau, C.J.; Lee-Stephens, C.; Caldwell, J.C.; Wojciechowski, J.P.; Enoch, H.G.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1981-01-01

    The genotoxicities of organic extracts of airborne particles have been studied extensively in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome (Ames) test, but in few other bioassays. In these studies, we tested benzene-acetone extracts of particulate pollutants collected in Lexington, Kentucky, for capacity to induce increases in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lumphocytes and V79 cells, as well as in the Ames assay. Extracts induced linear dose-related increases in SCE in human lumphocytes and in bacterial revertants.However, variable responses were observed in SCE assays in V79 cells with and without activation by rat liver S9 or feeder layers of irradiated Syrian hamster fetal cells. We conclude that the SCE assay in human lumphocytes may be a useful indicator of the potential risks to humans of airborne particulate pollutants, as it utilizes human cells recently taken from the host, is rapid and economical, and requires small quantities of test materials. However, thorough studies of the quantitative relationships between SCE induction and mutagenicity in human cells are needed.

  20. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP), hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO) is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy) and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose). We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before). Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests) during surveillance (2.8 years). Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99), p<0.05). In 38 patients (untreated (17) or on stable long-t½ IP-medication), the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85) mm, 54 (3, 104) mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177) Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.?l-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics). T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01) and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10) Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.?l-1, p=0.007). Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01). Effect-sizes were independent of IP-medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity). Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112) mm & 103 (38, 168) mm.s-1, each p=0.002) was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008). Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay. PMID:23083400

  1. [Intestinal microbiota and cardiometabolic risk: mechanisms and diet modulation].

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ana Carolina Franco de; Silva, Isis Tande da; Almeida-Pititto, Bianca de; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

    2014-06-01

    The gut microbiota obtained after birth is composed of a large range of bacteria that play different roles in the human host, such as nutrient uptake, protection against pathogens and immune modulation. The intestinal bacterial content is not completely known, but it is influenced by internal, and mainly by external factors, which modulate its composition and function. Studies indicate that the gut microbiota differs in lean and obese individuals, and in individuals with different food habits. There is evidence that the relationship between diet, inflammation, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic risk are, in part, mediated by the composition of intestinal bacteria. Knowledge about the gut microbiota may result in different strategies to manipulate bacterial populations and promote health. This review discusses the relevance of understanding the role of dietary factors or patterns in the composition of the microbiota, as well as pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic metabolic diseases, and the potential of prebiotics and probiotics on the cardiometabolic risk profile. PMID:24936725

  2. Use of the dynamic gastro-intestinal model TIM to explore the survival of the yogurt bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus and the metabolic activities induced in the simulated human gut.

    PubMed

    Uriot, Ophélie; Galia, Wessam; Awussi, Ahoefa Ablavi; Perrin, Clarisse; Denis, Sylvain; Chalancon, Sandrine; Lorson, Emilie; Poirson, Chantal; Junjua, Maira; Le Roux, Yves; Alric, Monique; Dary, Annie; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Roussel, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium used to produce yogurts and cheeses is more and more considered for its potential probiotic properties. This implies that additional information should be obtained regarding its survival and metabolic activity in the human Gastro-Intestinal Tract (GIT). In this study, we screened 30 S. thermophilus strains for urease, small heat shock protein, and amino-acid decarboxylase functions which may play a role in survival in the upper part of the GIT. The survival kinetics of 4 strains was investigated using the TIM, a physiologically relevant in vitro dynamic gastric and small intestinal model. The three strains LMD9, PB18O and EBLST20 showed significantly higher survival than CNRZ21 in all digestive compartments of the TIM, which may be related to the presence of urease and heat shock protein functions. When LMD9 bacterial cells were delivered in a fermented milk formula, a significant improvement of survival in the TIM was observed compared to non-fermented milk. With the RIVET (Recombinase In Vivo Expression Technology) method applied to the LMD9 strain, a promoter located upstream of hisS, responsible for the histidyl-transfer RNA synthesis, was found to be specifically activated in the artificial stomach. The data generated on S. thermophilus survival and its adaptation capacities to the digestive tract are essential to establish a list of biomarkers useful for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26611166

  3. Host-compound foraging by intestinal microbiota revealed by single-cell stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Stecher, Bärbel; Schintlmeister, Arno; Reichert, Jochen; Brugiroux, Sandrine; Wild, Birgit; Wanek, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael

    2013-03-19

    The animal and human intestinal mucosa secretes an assortment of compounds to establish a physical barrier between the host tissue and intestinal contents, a separation that is vital for health. Some pathogenic microorganisms as well as members of the commensal intestinal microbiota have been shown to be able to break down these secreted compounds. Our understanding of host-compound degradation by the commensal microbiota has been limited to knowledge about simplified model systems because of the difficulty in studying the complex intestinal ecosystem in vivo. In this study, we introduce an approach that overcomes previous technical limitations and allows us to observe which microbial cells in the intestine use host-derived compounds. We added stable isotope-labeled threonine i.v. to mice and combined fluorescence in situ hybridization with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging to characterize utilization of host proteins by individual bacterial cells. We show that two bacterial species, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila, are important host-protein foragers in vivo. Using gnotobiotic mice we show that microbiota composition determines the magnitude and pattern of foraging by these organisms, demonstrating that a complex microbiota is necessary in order for this niche to be fully exploited. These results underscore the importance of in vivo studies of intestinal microbiota, and the approach presented in this study will be a powerful tool to address many other key questions in animal and human microbiome research. PMID:23487774

  4. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 1014 cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

  5. Nano-enhanced food contact materials and the in vitro toxicity to human intestinal cells of nano-ZnO at low dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claonadh, Niall Ó.; Casey, Alan; Lyons, Sean; Higginbotham, Clement; Gupta Mukherjee, Sanchali; Chambers, Gordon

    2011-07-01

    Nano Zinc Oxide (nZnO) has been shown to display antimicrobial effects which have lead to its application in a number of areas such as antimicrobial surface coatings, anti bacterial wound dressings and more recently in polymer composite systems for use in food contact materials. Concerns have been raised due to the incorporation of nanoparticles in food packaging stemming from the possibility of repeated low dose direct exposure, through ingestion, primarily due to degradation and nanoparticle leaching from the polymer composite. To address these concerns, composites consisting of nZnO and polyethylene were formed using twin screw extrusion to mimic commercial methods of food contact material production. A leaching study was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in order to determine the concentration of nZnO leached from the composite. Composite stability studies were performed and a leached nZnO concentration was evaluated. This concentration range was then utilised in a series of tests aimed at determining the toxicity response associated with nZnO when exposed to an intestinal model. In this study two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines, HT29 (ATCC No: HTB-38) and SW480 (ATTC No: CCL-228), were employed as a model to represent areas exposed by ingestion. These lines were exposed to a concentration range of nZnO which incorporated the concentration leached from the composites. The cytotoxic effects of nZnO were evaluated using four cytotoxic endpoints namely the Neutral Red, Alamar Blue, Coomassie Blue and MTT assays. The results of these studies are presented and their implications for the use on nano ZnO in direct food contact surfaces will be discussed.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Human Intestinal Bacteria Capable of Transforming the Dietary Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]Pyridine?

    PubMed Central

    Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vercruysse, Filip; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Wachter, Marjan; De Vos, Paul; van de Wiele, Tom

    2008-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in meat products during cooking. Although the formation of hazardous PhIP metabolites by mammalian enzymes has been extensively reported, research on the putative involvement of the human intestinal microbiota in PhIP metabolism remains scarce. In this study, the in vitro conversion of PhIP into its microbial derivate, 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3?,2?:4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1), by fecal samples from 18 human volunteers was investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that all human fecal samples transformed PhIP but with efficiencies ranging from 1.8 to 96% after 72 h of incubation. Two PhIP-transforming strains, PhIP-M1-a and PhIP-M1-b, were isolated from human feces and identified by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism and pheS sequence analyses as Enterococcus faecium strains. Some strains from culture collections belonging to the species E. durans, E. avium, E. faecium, and Lactobacillus reuteri were also able to perform this transformation. Yeast extract, special peptone, and meat extract supported PhIP transformation by the enriched E. faecium strains, while tryptone, monomeric sugars, starch, and cellulose did not. Glycerol was identified as a fecal matrix constituent required for PhIP transformation. Abiotic synthesis of PhIP-M1 and quantification of the glycerol metabolite 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) confirmed that the anaerobic fermentation of glycerol via 3-HPA is the critical bacterial transformation process responsible for the formation of PhIP-M1. Whether it is a detoxification is still a matter of debate, since PhIP-M1 has been shown to be cytotoxic toward Caco-2 cells but is not mutagenic in the Ames assay. PMID:18192423

  7. Archaea and Fungi of the Human Gut Microbiome: Correlations with Diet and Bacterial Residents

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Christian; Dollive, Serena; Grunberg, Stephanie; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2013-01-01

    Diet influences health as a source of nutrients and toxins, and by shaping the composition of resident microbial populations. Previous studies have begun to map out associations between diet and the bacteria and viruses of the human gut microbiome. Here we investigate associations of diet with fungal and archaeal populations, taking advantage of samples from 98 well-characterized individuals. Diet was quantified using inventories scoring both long-term and recent diet, and archaea and fungi were characterized by deep sequencing of marker genes in DNA purified from stool. For fungi, we found 66 genera, with generally mutually exclusive presence of either the phyla Ascomycota or Basiodiomycota. For archaea, Methanobrevibacter was the most prevalent genus, present in 30% of samples. Several other archaeal genera were detected in lower abundance and frequency. Myriad associations were detected for fungi and archaea with diet, with each other, and with bacterial lineages. Methanobrevibacter and Candida were positively associated with diets high in carbohydrates, but negatively with diets high in amino acids, protein, and fatty acids. A previous study emphasized that bacterial population structure was associated primarily with long-term diet, but high Candida abundance was most strongly associated with the recent consumption of carbohydrates. Methobrevibacter abundance was associated with both long term and recent consumption of carbohydrates. These results confirm earlier targeted studies and provide a host of new associations to consider in modeling the effects of diet on the gut microbiome and human health. PMID:23799070

  8. The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Laam; Mendis, Nilmini; Trigui, Hana; Oliver, James D.; Faucher, Sebastien P.

    2014-01-01

    Many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state since its discovery in 1982. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. In this review, we present recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens. The characteristics of VBNC cells, including the similarities and differences to viable, culturable cells and dead cells, and different detection methods are discussed. Exposure to various stresses can induce the VBNC state, and VBNC cells may be resuscitated back to culturable cells under suitable stimuli. The conditions that trigger the induction of the VBNC state and resuscitation from it are summarized and the mechanisms underlying these two processes are discussed. Last but not least, the significance of VBNC cells and their potential influence on human health are also reviewed. PMID:24917854

  9. Bottlenecks in the Transferability of Antibiotic Resistance from Natural Ecosystems to Human Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, José L.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that resistance genes acquired by human pathogens through horizontal gene transfer originated in environmental, non-pathogenic bacteria. As a consequence, there is increasing concern on the roles that natural, non-clinical ecosystems, may play in the evolution of resistance. Recent studies have shown that the variability of determinants that can provide antibiotic resistance on their expression in a heterologous host is much larger than what is actually found in human pathogens, which implies the existence of bottlenecks modulating the transfer, spread, and stability of antibiotic resistance genes. In this review, the role that different factors such as founder effects, ecological connectivity, fitness costs, or second-order selection may have on the establishment of a specific resistance determinant in a population of bacterial pathogens is analyzed. PMID:22319513

  10. Localization of a bacterial group II intron-encoded protein in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso-Colacio, Mercedes; García-Rodríguez, Fernando Manuel; García-Cañadas, Marta; Amador-Cubero, Suyapa; Pérez, José Luis García; Toro, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Group II introns are mobile retroelements that self-splice from precursor RNAs to form ribonucleoparticles (RNP), which can invade new specific genomic DNA sites. This specificity can be reprogrammed, for insertion into any desired DNA site, making these introns useful tools for bacterial genetic engineering. However, previous studies have suggested that these elements may function inefficiently in eukaryotes. We investigated the subcellular distribution, in cultured human cells, of the protein encoded by the group II intron RmInt1 (IEP) and several mutants. We created fusions with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and with a FLAG epitope. We found that the IEP was localized in the nucleus and nucleolus of the cells. Remarkably, it also accumulated at the periphery of the nuclear matrix. We were also able to identify spliced lariat intron RNA, which co-immunoprecipitated with the IEP, suggesting that functional RmInt1 RNPs can be assembled in cultured human cells. PMID:26244523

  11. The BER necessities: the repair of DNA damage in human-adapted bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Stijn; Tang, Christoph M

    2015-02-01

    During colonization and disease, bacterial pathogens must survive the onslaught of the host immune system. A key component of the innate immune response is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by phagocytic cells, which target and disrupt pathogen molecules, particularly DNA, and the base excision repair (BER) pathway is the most important mechanism for the repair of such oxidative DNA damage. In this Review, we discuss how the human-specific pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori and Neisseria meningitidis have evolved specialized mechanisms of DNA repair, particularly their BER pathways, compared with model organisms such as Escherichia coli. This specialization in DNA repair is likely to reflect the distinct niches occupied by these important human pathogens in the host. PMID:25578955

  12. A Modular Organization of the Human Intestinal Mucosal Microbiota and Its Association with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Maomeng; Li, Xiaoxiao; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Roth, Bennett; Ippoliti, Andrew; Wei, Bo; Borneman, James; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Frank, Daniel N.; Li, Ellen; Horvath, Steve; Knight, Rob; Braun, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities of the intestinal microbiota are implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), two spectra of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the high complexity and low inter-individual overlap of intestinal microbial composition are formidable barriers to identifying microbial taxa representing this dysbiosis. These difficulties might be overcome by an ecologic analytic strategy to identify modules of interacting bacteria (rather than individual bacteria) as quantitative reproducible features of microbial composition in normal and IBD mucosa. We sequenced 16S ribosomal RNA genes from 179 endoscopic lavage samples from different intestinal regions in 64 subjects (32 controls, 16 CD and 16 UC patients in clinical remission). CD and UC patients showed a reduction in phylogenetic diversity and shifts in microbial composition, comparable to previous studies using conventional mucosal biopsies. Analysis of weighted co-occurrence network revealed 5 microbial modules. These modules were unprecedented, as they were detectable in all individuals, and their composition and abundance was recapitulated in an independent, biopsy-based mucosal dataset 2 modules were associated with healthy, CD, or UC disease states. Imputed metagenome analysis indicated that these modules displayed distinct metabolic functionality, specifically the enrichment of oxidative response and glycan metabolism pathways relevant to host-pathogen interaction in the disease-associated modules. The highly preserved microbial modules accurately classified IBD status of individual patients during disease quiescence, suggesting that microbial dysbiosis in IBD may be an underlying disorder independent of disease activity. Microbial modules thus provide an integrative view of microbial ecology relevant to IBD. PMID:24260458

  13. Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murano, Tatsuro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo ; Ito, Go; Nakata, Toru; Hibiya, Shuji; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo ; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Hes1 enhances IL-22-STAT3 signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. •Hes1 enhances REG family gene induction by IL-22-STAT3 signaling. •Protein level of Hes1 restricts the response to IL-22. •Present regulation of a cytokine signal represents a new mode of Hes1 function. -- Abstract: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a ?-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.

  14. The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (hFABP2) gene is regulated by HNF-4{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Klapper, Maja . E-mail: klapper@molnut.uni-kiel.de; Boehme, Mike; Nitz, Inke; Doering, Frank

    2007-04-27

    The cytosolic human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (hFABP2) is proposed to be involved in intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of hFABP2 by the endodermal hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF-4{alpha}), involved in regulation of genes of fatty acid metabolism and differentiation. Electromobility shift assays demonstrated that HNF-4{alpha} binds at position -324 to -336 within the hFABP2 promoter. Mutation of this HNF-4 binding site abolished the luciferase reporter activity of hFABP2 in postconfluent Caco-2 cells. In HeLa cells, this mutation reduced the activation of the hFABP2 promoter by HNF-4{alpha} by about 50%. Thus, binding element at position -336/-324 essentially determines the transcriptional activity of promoter and may be important in control of hFABP2 expression by dietary lipids and differentiation. Studying genotype interactions of hFABP2 and HNF-4{alpha}, that are both candidate genes for diabetes type 2, may be a powerful approach.

  15. Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  16. Interleukin-17 is a potent immuno-modulator and regulator of normal human intestinal epithelial cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.; Beaulieu, J.F. . E-mail: frank.ruemmele@nck.ap-hop-paris.fr

    2005-11-18

    Upregulation of the T-cell derived cytokine interleukin (IL-17) was reported in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disorders. In this study, we analyzed the effect of IL-17 on human intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) turnover and functions. Proliferation and apoptosis in response to IL-17 was monitored in HIEC (cell counts, [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation method, and annexinV-PI-apoptosis assay). Signalling pathways were analyzed by Western blots, electromobility shift assay, and immunofluorescence studies. IL-17 proved to be a potent inhibitor of HIEC proliferation without any pro-apoptotic/necrotic effect. The growth inhibitory effect of IL-17 was mediated via the p38 stress kinase. Consequently, the p38-SAPkinase-inhibitor SB203580 abrogated this anti-mitotic effect. In parallel, IL-17 provoked the degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, allowing nuclear translocation of the p65 NF-{kappa}B subunit and induction of the NF-{kappa}B-controlled genes IL-6 and -8. IL-17 potently blocks epithelial cell turnover while at the same time amplifying an inflammatory response in a positive feedback manner.

  17. Transport of a hydrophilic paclitaxel derivative, 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel, by human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shougang; Zu, Yuangang; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Jingtao

    2010-10-01

    7-Xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel is an active compound used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cancer. However, pharmacokinetic studies yielded low plasma concentrations of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel after its oral administration in preclinical trials. Therefore, we investigated whether the observed low oral bioavailability of this compound is due to poor absorption. We studied the transepithelial flux of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel using the human colonic cell line Caco-2 as a model and found out that its flux (at a concentration range of 0.5-20?µM) across the Caco-2 cell layer was linear with time for up to 3?hr. The apparent maximal concentration (K (M)) of the active efflux component was 93.4?µM. Verapamil (50?µM) and tetrandrine (25?µM) significantly decreased the active transport component. These data support the conclusion that rapid passive diffusion of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel through the intestinal epithelium is partially counteracted by the action of an outwardly directed efflux pump, presumably P-glycoprotein. The relatively high apparent permeability coefficient ( P(app)) for the apical to basolateral 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel transport (16.3?±?6.3?×?10 (-6)?cm/s; n?=?3) suggests that the drug may still be effectively absorbed in the intestinal tract. PMID:20414861

  18. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Therefore, Q40P/S47I/H93G is pharmacologically one of the most promising candidates for clinical applications for radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

  19. Loss of sigma factor RpoN increases intestinal colonization of vibrio parahaemolyticus in an adult mouse model"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of bacterial seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, yet little is known about how this pathogen colonizes the human intestine. The alternative sigma factor RpoN/sigma-54 is a global regulator that controls flagella synthesis as well as a wide range of ...

  20. DNA–Methylome Analysis of Mouse Intestinal Adenoma Identifies a Tumour-Specific Signature That Is Partly Conserved in Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Christina; Chavez, Lukas; Vilardell, Mireia; Farrall, Alexandra L.; Tierling, Sascha; Böhm, Julia W.; Grote, Phillip; Lienhard, Matthias; Dietrich, Jörn; Timmermann, Bernd; Walter, Jörn; Schweiger, Michal R.; Lehrach, Hans; Herwig, Ralf; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; Morkel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant CpG methylation is a universal epigenetic trait of cancer cell genomes. However, human cancer samples or cell lines preclude the investigation of epigenetic changes occurring early during tumour development. Here, we have used MeDIP-seq to analyse the DNA methylome of APCMin adenoma as a model for intestinal cancer initiation, and we present a list of more than 13,000 recurring differentially methylated regions (DMRs) characterizing intestinal adenoma of the mouse. We show that Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) targets are strongly enriched among hypermethylated DMRs, and several PRC2 components and DNA methyltransferases were up-regulated in adenoma. We further demonstrate by bisulfite pyrosequencing of purified cell populations that the DMR signature arises de novo in adenoma cells rather than by expansion of a pre-existing pattern in intestinal stem cells or undifferentiated crypt cells. We found that epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressors, which occurs frequently in colon cancer, was rare in adenoma. Quite strikingly, we identified a core set of DMRs, which is conserved between mouse adenoma and human colon cancer, thus possibly revealing a global panel of epigenetically modified genes for intestinal tumours. Our data allow a distinction between early conserved epigenetic alterations occurring in intestinal adenoma and late stochastic events promoting colon cancer progression, and may facilitate the selection of more specific clinical epigenetic biomarkers. PMID:23408899

  1. Surface Proteome Analysis of a Natural Isolate of Lactococcus lactis Reveals the Presence of Pili Able to Bind Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Meyrand, Mickael; Guillot, Alain; Goin, Mélodie; Furlan, Sylviane; Armalyte, Julija; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Cortes-Perez, Naima G.; Thomas, Ginette; Chat, Sophie; Péchoux, Christine; Dupres, Vincent; Hols, Pascal; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Trugnan, Germain; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria play crucial roles in bacterial adhesion to host tissues. Regarding commensal or probiotic bacteria, adhesion to intestinal mucosa may promote their persistence in the gastro-intestinal tract and their beneficial effects to the host. In this study, seven Lactococcus lactis strains exhibiting variable surface physico-chemical properties were compared for their adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. In this test, only one vegetal isolate TIL448 expressed a high-adhesion phenotype. A nonadhesive derivative was obtained by plasmid curing from TIL448, indicating that the adhesion determinants were plasmid-encoded. Surface-exposed proteins in TIL448 were analyzed by a proteomic approach consisting in shaving of the bacterial surface with trypsin and analysis of the released peptides by LC-MS/MS. As the TIL448 complete genome sequence was not available, the tryptic peptides were identified by a mass matching approach against a database including all Lactococcus protein sequences and the sequences deduced from partial DNA sequences of the TIL448 plasmids. Two surface proteins, encoded by plasmids in TIL448, were identified as candidate adhesins, the first one displaying pilin characteristics and the second one containing two mucus-binding domains. Inactivation of the pilin gene abolished adhesion to Caco-2 cells whereas inactivation of the mucus-binding protein gene had no effect on adhesion. The pilin gene is located inside a cluster of four genes encoding two other pilin-like proteins and one class-C sortase. Synthesis of pili was confirmed by immunoblotting detection of high molecular weight forms of pilins associated to the cell wall as well as by electron and atomic force microscopy observations. As a conclusion, surface proteome analysis allowed us to detect pilins at the surface of L. lactis TIL448. Moreover we showed that pili appendages are formed and involved in adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24002364

  2. Intestinal Malrotation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the intestines don't position themselves normally during fetal development and aren't attached inside properly as a result. The exact reason this occurs is unknown. When a fetus develops in the womb, the intestines start out ...

  3. TGF-?2 Suppresses Macrophage Cytokine Production and Mucosal Inflammatory Responses in the Developing Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Akhil; Kelly, David R.; Nicola, Teodora; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Jain, Sunil K.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne; Athar, Mohammad; Shimamura, Masako; Bhandari, Vineet; Aprahamian, Charles; Dimmitt, Reed A.; Serra, Rosa; Ohls, Robin K.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Premature neonates are predisposed to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), an idiopathic, inflammatory bowel necrosis. We investigated the hypothesis that NEC occurs in the preterm intestine due to incomplete ‘non-inflammatory’ differentiation of intestinal macrophages, which increases the risk of a severe mucosal inflammatory response to bacterial products. Methods We compared inflammatory properties of human/murine fetal, neonatal, and adult intestinal macrophages. To investigate gut-specific macrophage differentiation, we next treated monocyte-derived macrophages with conditioned media from ex planted human fetal and adult intestinal tissues. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) expression and bioactivity were measured in fetal/adult intestine and in NEC. Finally, we used wild-type and transgenic mice to investigate the effects of deficient TGF-? signaling on NEC-like inflammatory mucosal injury. Results Intestinal macrophages in the human preterm intestine (fetus/premature neonate), but not in full-term neonates and adults, expressed inflammatory cytokines. Macrophage cytokine production was suppressed in the developing intestine by TGF-?, particularly the TGF-?2 isoform. NEC was associated with decreased tissue expression of TGF-?2 and decreased TGF-? bioactivity. In mice, disruption of TGF-? signaling worsened NEC-like inflammatory mucosal injury, whereas enteral supplementation with recombinant TGF-?2 was protective. Conclusions Intestinal macrophages progressively acquire a non-inflammatory profile during gestational development. TGF-?, particularly the TGF-?2 isoform, suppresses macrophage inflammatory responses in the developing intestine and protects against inflammatory mucosal injury. Enterally-administered TGF-?2 protected mice from experimental NEC-like injury. PMID:20875417

  4. Release of small phenolic compounds from brewer's spent grain and its lignin fractions by human intestinal microbiota in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aura, Anna-Marja; Niemi, Piritta; Mattila, Ismo; Niemelä, Klaus; Smeds, Annika; Tamminen, Tarja; Faulds, Craig; Buchert, Johanna; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-10-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), the major side-stream from brewing, is rich in protein, lignin, and nonstarch polysaccharides. Lignin is a polyphenolic macromolecule considered resilient toward breakdown and utilization by colon microbiota, although some indications of release of small phenolic components from lignin in animals have been shown. The aim of this study was to investigate if the human intestinal microbiota can release lignans and small phenolic compounds from whole BSG, a lignin-enriched insoluble fraction from BSG and a deferuloylated fraction, in a metabolic in vitro colon model. The formation of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) was also investigated. More lignin-related monomers and dilignols were detected from the lignin-enriched fraction than from BSG or deferuloylated BSG. SCFA formation was not suppressed by any of the fractions. It was shown that small lignin-like compounds were released from these samples in the in vitro colon model, originating most likely from lignin. PMID:24028071

  5. METABOLISM OF 1-NITROPYRENE BY HUMAN, RAT, AND MOUSE INTESTINAL FLORA: NYTAGENICITY OF ISOLATED METABOLITES BY DIRECT ANALYSIS OF HPLC FRACTIONS WITH A MICROSUSPENSION REVERSE MUTATION ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified in environmental samples and known to be genotoxic, 1-nitropyrene is one of the most abundant. he biotransformation of 1-nitro[14C]pyrene by human, rat, and mouse intestinal microflora and the mutagenicity of...

  6. Acute Small-Bowel Obstruction From Intestinal Anisakiasis After the Ingestion of Raw Clams; Documenting a New Method of Marine-to-Human Parasitic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Rittenhouse, David W.; Ochoa, Joana E.; Punja, Viren P.; Zubair, Muhammad H.; Baliff, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Enteric anisakiasis is a known parasitic infection. To date, human infection has been reported as resulting from the inadvertent ingestion of the anisakis larvae when eating raw/undercooked fish, squid, or eel. We present a first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis, after the ingestion of raw clams. PMID:25734153

  7. Human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase: crystal structure of the N-terminal catalytic subunit and basis of inhibition and substrate specificity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) is one of the two enzymes responsible for catalyzing the last glucose-releasing step in starch digestion. MGAM is anchored to the small-intestinal brush-border epithelial cells and contains two homologous glycosyl hydrolase family 31 catalytic subunits: an N-termina...

  8. Characterizing a model human gut microbiota composed of members of its two dominant bacterial phyla

    SciTech Connect

    Mahowald, Michael; Rey, Frederico E.; Seedorf, Henning; Turnbaugh, Peter J.; Fulton, Robert S.; Wollam, Aye; Shah, Neha; Wang, Chunyan; Magrini, Vincent; Wilson, Richard K.; Cantarel, Brandi L.; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Crock, Lara W.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Erickson, Alison L; Gordon, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The adult human distal gut microbial community is typically dominated by 2 bacterial phyla (divisions), the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes. Little is known about the factors that govern the interactions between their members. Here, we examine the niches of representatives of both phyla in vivo. Finished genome sequences were generated from Eubacterium rectale and E. eligens, which belong to Clostridium Cluster XIVa, one of the most common gut Firmicute clades. Comparison of these and 25 other gut Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes indicated that the Firmicutes possess smaller genomes and a disproportionately smaller number of glycan-degrading enzymes. Germ-free mice were then colonized with E. rectale and/or a prominent human gut Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, followed by whole-genome transcriptional profiling, high-resolution proteomic analysis, and biochemical assays of microbial microbial and microbial host interactions. B. thetaiotaomicron adapts to E. rectale by up-regulating expression of a variety of polysaccharide utilization loci encoding numerous glycoside hydrolases, and by signaling the host to produce mucosal glycans that it, but not E. rectale, can access. E. rectale adapts to B. thetaiotaomicron by decreasing production of its glycan-degrading enzymes, increasing expression of selected amino acid and sugar transporters, and facilitating glycolysis by reducing levels of NADH, in part via generation of butyrate from acetate, which in turn is used by the gut epithelium. This simplified model of the human gut microbiota illustrates niche specialization and functional redundancy within members of its major bacterial phyla, and the importance of host glycans as a nutrient foundation that ensures ecosystem stability.

  9. Characterizing a model human gut microbiota composed of members of its two dominant bacterial phyla

    PubMed Central

    Mahowald, Michael A.; Rey, Federico E.; Seedorf, Henning; Turnbaugh, Peter J.; Fulton, Robert S.; Wollam, Aye; Shah, Neha; Wang, Chunyan; Magrini, Vincent; Wilson, Richard K.; Cantarel, Brandi L.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Crock, Lara W.; Russell, Alison; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Hettich, Robert L.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    The adult human distal gut microbial community is typically dominated by 2 bacterial phyla (divisions), the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes. Little is known about the factors that govern the interactions between their members. Here, we examine the niches of representatives of both phyla in vivo. Finished genome sequences were generated from Eubacterium rectale and E. eligens, which belong to Clostridium Cluster XIVa, one of the most common gut Firmicute clades. Comparison of these and 25 other gut Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes indicated that the Firmicutes possess smaller genomes and a disproportionately smaller number of glycan-degrading enzymes. Germ-free mice were then colonized with E. rectale and/or a prominent human gut Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, followed by whole-genome transcriptional profiling, high-resolution proteomic analysis, and biochemical assays of microbial–microbial and microbial–host interactions. B. thetaiotaomicron adapts to E. rectale by up-regulating expression of a variety of polysaccharide utilization loci encoding numerous glycoside hydrolases, and by signaling the host to produce mucosal glycans that it, but not E. rectale, can access. E. rectale adapts to B. thetaiotaomicron by decreasing production of its glycan-degrading enzymes, increasing expression of selected amino acid and sugar transporters, and facilitating glycolysis by reducing levels of NADH, in part via generation of butyrate from acetate, which in turn is used by the gut epithelium. This simplified model of the human gut microbiota illustrates niche specialization and functional redundancy within members of its major bacterial phyla, and the importance of host glycans as a nutrient foundation that ensures ecosystem stability. PMID:19321416

  10. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by a plant-derived dihydroisosteviol in human intestinal epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Muanprasat, Chatchai; Sirianant, Lalida; Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Homvisasevongsa, Sureeporn; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that dihydroisosteviol (DHIS), a derivative of stevioside isolated from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated transepithelial chloride secretion across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells and prevents cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in mouse closed loop models. In this study, we aimed to investigate a mechanism by which DHIS inhibits CFTR activity. Apical chloride current measurements in Fisher rat thyroid cells stably transfected with wild-type human CFTR (FRT-CFTR cells) and T84 cells were used to investigate mechanism of CFTR inhibition by DHIS. In addition, effect of DHIS on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was investigated using Western blot analysis. Surprisingly, it was found that DHIS failed to inhibit CFTR-mediated apical chloride current in FRT-CFTR cells. In contrast, DHIS effectively inhibited CFTR-mediated apical chloride current induced by a cell permeable cAMP analog CPT-cAMP and a direct CFTR activator genistein in T84 cell monolayers. Interestingly, this inhibitory effect of DHIS on CFTR was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. AICAR, a known AMPK activator, was able to inhibit CFTR activity in both FRT-CFTR and T84 cells. Western blot analysis showed that DHIS induced AMPK activation in T84 cells, but not in FRT-CFTR cells. Our results indicate that DHIS inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in T84 cells, in part, by activation of AMPK activity. DHIS therefore represents a novel candidate of AMPK activators. PMID:23343619

  11. Remote detection of human toxicants in real time using a human-optimized, bioluminescent bacterial luciferase gene cassette bioreporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Dan; Webb, James; Ripp, Steven; Patterson, Stacey; Sayler, Gary

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, human toxicant bioavailability screening has been forced to proceed in either a high throughput fashion using prokaryotic or lower eukaryotic targets with minimal applicability to humans, or in a more expensive, lower throughput manner that uses fluorescent or bioluminescent human cells to directly provide human bioavailability data. While these efforts are often sufficient for basic scientific research, they prevent the rapid and remote identification of potentially toxic chemicals required for modern biosecurity applications. To merge the advantages of high throughput, low cost screening regimens with the direct bioavailability assessment of human cell line use, we re-engineered the bioluminescent bacterial luciferase gene cassette to function autonomously (without exogenous stimulation) within human cells. Optimized cassette expression provides for fully endogenous bioluminescent production, allowing continuous, real time monitoring of the bioavailability and toxicology of various compounds in an automated fashion. To access the functionality of this system, two sets of bioluminescent human cells were developed. The first was programed to suspend bioluminescent production upon toxicological challenge to mimic the non-specific detection of a toxicant. The second induced bioluminescence upon detection of a specific compound to demonstrate autonomous remote target identification. These cells were capable of responding to ?M concentrations of the toxicant n-decanal, and allowed for continuous monitoring of cellular health throughout the treatment process. Induced bioluminescence was generated through treatment with doxycycline and was detectable upon dosage at a 100 ng/ml concentration. These results demonstrate that leveraging autonomous bioluminescence allows for low-cost, high throughput direct assessment of toxicant bioavailability.

  12. Human TLR8 senses UR/URR motifs in bacterial and mitochondrial RNA

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Anne; Oldenburg, Marina; Chebrolu, Chiranjeevi; Beisser, Daniela; Kolter, Julia; Sigmund, Anna M; Steinmann, Jörg; Schäfer, Simon; Hochrein, Hubertus; Rahmann, Sven; Wagner, Hermann; Henneke, Philipp; Hornung, Veit; Buer, Jan; Kirschning, Carsten J

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 13 and TLR2 are the major sensors of Gram-positive bacteria in mice. TLR13 recognizes Sa19, a specific 23S ribosomal (r) RNA-derived fragment and bacterial modification of Sa19 ablates binding to TLR13, and to antibiotics such as erythromycin. Similarly, RNase A-treated Staphylococcus aureus activate human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) only via TLR2, implying single-stranded (ss) RNA as major stimulant. Here, we identify human TLR8 as functional TLR13 equivalent that promiscuously senses ssRNA. Accordingly, Sa19 and mitochondrial (mt) 16S rRNA sequence-derived oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) stimulate PBMCs in a MyD88-dependent manner. These ORNs, as well as S. aureus-, Escherichia coli-, and mt-RNA, also activate differentiated human monocytoid THP-1 cells, provided they express TLR8. Moreover, Unc93b1?/?- and Tlr8?/?-THP-1 cells are refractory, while endogenous and ectopically expressed TLR8 confers responsiveness in a UR/URR RNA ligand consensus motif-dependent manner. If TLR8 function is inhibited by suppression of lysosomal function, antibiotic treatment efficiently blocks bacteria-driven inflammatory responses in infected human whole blood cultures. Sepsis therapy might thus benefit from interfering with TLR8 function. PMID:26545385

  13. Could bacteriophages transfer antibiotic resistance genes from environmental bacteria to human-body associated bacterial populations?

    PubMed Central

    Muniesa, Maite; Colomer-Lluch, Marta; Jofre, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Environments without any contact with anthropogenic antibiotics show a great abundance of antibiotic resistance genes that use to be chromosomal and are part of the core genes of the species that harbor them. Some of these genes are shared with human pathogens where they appear in mobile genetic elements. Diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in non-contaminated environments is much greater than in human and animal pathogens, and in environments contaminated with antibiotic from anthropogenic activities. This suggests the existence of some bottleneck effect for the mobilization of antibiotic resistance genes among different biomes. Bacteriophages have characteristics that make them suitable vectors between different biomes, and as well for transferring genes from biome to biome. Recent metagenomic studies and detection of bacterial genes by genomic techniques in the bacteriophage fraction of different microbiota provide indirect evidences that the mobilization of genes mediated by phages, including antibiotic resistance genes, is far more relevant than previously thought. Our hypothesis is that bacteriophages might be of critical importance for evading one of the bottlenecks, the lack of ecological connectivity that modulates the pass of antibiotic resistance genes from natural environments such as waters and soils, to animal and human microbiomes. This commentary concentrates on the potential importance of bacteriophages in transferring resistance genes from the environment to human and animal body microbiomes, but there is no doubt that transduction occurs also in body microbiomes. PMID:24195016

  14. A human mitochondrial ATP-dependent protease that is highly homologous to bacterial Lon protease.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, N; Gottesman, S; Willingham, M C; Gottesman, M M; Maurizi, M R

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned a human ATP-dependent protease that is highly homologous to members of the bacterial Lon protease family. The cloned gene encodes a protein of 963 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 106 kDa, slightly higher than that observed by Western blotting the protein from human tissues and cell lines (100 kDa). A single species of mRNA was found for this Lon protease in all human tissues examined. The protease is encoded in the nucleus, and the amino-terminal portion of the protein sequence contains a potential mitochondrial targeting presequence. Immunofluorescence microscopy suggested a predominantly mitochondrial localization for the Lon protease in cultured human cells. A truncated LON gene, in which translation was initiated at Met118 of the coding sequence, was expressed in Escherichia coli and produced a protease that degraded alpha-casein in vitro in an ATP-dependent manner and had other properties similar to E. coli Lon protease. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8248235

  15. Human TLR8 senses UR/URR motifs in bacterial and mitochondrial RNA.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Anne; Oldenburg, Marina; Chebrolu, Chiranjeevi; Beisser, Daniela; Kolter, Julia; Sigmund, Anna M; Steinmann, Jörg; Schäfer, Simon; Hochrein, Hubertus; Rahmann, Sven; Wagner, Hermann; Henneke, Philipp; Hornung, Veit; Buer, Jan; Kirschning, Carsten J

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 13 and TLR2 are the major sensors of Gram-positive bacteria in mice. TLR13 recognizes Sa19, a specific 23S ribosomal (r) RNA-derived fragment and bacterial modification of Sa19 ablates binding to TLR13, and to antibiotics such as erythromycin. Similarly, RNase A-treated Staphylococcus aureus activate human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) only via TLR2, implying single-stranded (ss) RNA as major stimulant. Here, we identify human TLR8 as functional TLR13 equivalent that promiscuously senses ssRNA. Accordingly, Sa19 and mitochondrial (mt) 16S rRNA sequence-derived oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) stimulate PBMCs in a MyD88-dependent manner. These ORNs, as well as S. aureus-, Escherichia coli-, and mt-RNA, also activate differentiated human monocytoid THP-1 cells, provided they express TLR8. Moreover, Unc93b1(-/-)- and Tlr8(-/-)-THP-1 cells are refractory, while endogenous and ectopically expressed TLR8 confers responsiveness in a UR/URR RNA ligand consensus motif-dependent manner. If TLR8 function is inhibited by suppression of lysosomal function, antibiotic treatment efficiently blocks bacteria-driven inflammatory responses in infected human whole blood cultures. Sepsis therapy might thus benefit from interfering with TLR8 function. PMID:26545385

  16. Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. PMID:20615381

  17. Detection of Puumala Hantavirus Antigen in Human Intestine during Acute Hantavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Latus, Joerg; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Racz, Paul; Kitterer, Daniel; Cadar, Daniel; Ott, German; Alscher, M. Dominik; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Braun, Niko

    2014-01-01

    Background Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most important hantavirus species in Central Europe. Nephropathia epidemica (NE), caused by PUUV, is characterized by acute renal injury (AKI) with thrombocytopenia and frequently gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods 456 patients with serologically and clinically confirmed NE were investigated at time of follow-up in a single clinic. The course of the NE was investigated using medical reports. We identified patients who had endoscopy with intestinal biopsy during acute phase of NE. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of the biopsies were performed. Results Thirteen patients underwent colonoscopy or gastroscopy for abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting during acute phase of NE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in 11 biopsies from 8 patients; 14 biopsies from 5 patients were negative for PUUV nucleocapsid antigen. IHC localized PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in endothelial cells of capillaries or larger vessels in the lamina propria. Rate of AKI was not higher and severity of AKI was not different in the PUUV-positive compared to the PUUV-negative group. All IHC positive biopsies were positive for PUUV RNA using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed clustering of all PUUV strains from this study with viruses previously detected from the South-West of Germany. Long-term outcome was favorable in both groups. Conclusions In patients with NE, PUUV nucleocapsid antigen and PUUV RNA was detected frequently in the intestine. This finding could explain frequent GI-symptoms in NE patients, thus demonstration of a more generalized PUUV infection. The RT-PCR was an effective and sensitive method to detect PUUV RNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, it can be used as a diagnostic and phylogenetic approach also for archival materials. AKI was not more often present in patients with PUUV-positive IHC. This last finding should be investigated in larger numbers of patients with PUUV infection. PMID:24857988

  18. Stability and disassembly properties of human naïve Hsp60 and bacterial GroEL chaperonins.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Caterina; Ortore, Maria Grazia; Vilasi, Silvia; Carrotta, Rita; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; Librizzi, Fabio; Spinozzi, Francesco; Burgio, Giosalba; Amenitsch, Heinz; San Biagio, Pier Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Human Hsp60 chaperonin and its bacterial homolog GroEL, in association with the corresponding co-chaperonins Hsp10 and GroES, constitute important chaperone systems promoting the proper folding of several mitochondrial proteins. Hsp60 is also currently described as a ubiquitous molecule with multiple roles both in health conditions and in several diseases. Naïve Hsp60 bearing the mitochondrial import signal has been recently demonstrated to present different oligomeric organizations with respect to GroEL, suggesting new possible physiological functions. Here we present a combined investigation with circular dichroism and small-angle X-ray scattering of structure, self-organization, and stability of naïve Hsp60 in solution in comparison with bacterial GroEL. Experiments have been performed in different concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride, monitoring the dissociation of tetradecamers into heptamers and monomers, until unfolding. GroEL is proved to be more stable with respect to Hsp60, and the unfolding free energy as well as its dependence on denaturant concentration is obtained. PMID:26259786

  19. PATRIC: the Comprehensive Bacterial Bioinformatics Resource with a Focus on Human Pathogenic Species ? ‡ #

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Wattam, Alice R.; Cammer, Stephen A.; Gabbard, Joseph L.; Shukla, Maulik P.; Dalay, Oral; Driscoll, Timothy; Hix, Deborah; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Mao, Chunhong; Nordberg, Eric K.; Scott, Mark; Schulman, Julie R.; Snyder, Eric E.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Wang, Chunxia; Warren, Andrew; Williams, Kelly P.; Xue, Tian; Seung Yoo, Hyun; Zhang, Chengdong; Zhang, Yan; Will, Rebecca; Kenyon, Ronald W.; Sobral, Bruno W.

    2011-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) is a genomics-centric relational database and bioinformatics resource designed to assist scientists in infectious-disease research. Specifically, PATRIC provides scientists with (i) a comprehensive bacterial genomics database, (ii) a plethora of associated data relevant to genomic analysis, and (iii) an extensive suite of computational tools and platforms for bioinformatics analysis. While the primary aim of PATRIC is to advance the knowledge underlying the biology of human pathogens, all publicly available genome-scale data for bacteria are compiled and continually updated, thereby enabling comparative analyses to reveal the basis for differences between infectious free-living and commensal species. Herein we summarize the major features available at PATRIC, dividing the resources into two major categories: (i) organisms, genomes, and comparative genomics and (ii) recurrent integration of community-derived associated data. Additionally, we present two experimental designs typical of bacterial genomics research and report on the execution of both projects using only PATRIC data and tools. These applications encompass a broad range of the data and analysis tools available, illustrating practical uses of PATRIC for the biologist. Finally, a summary of PATRIC's outreach activities, collaborative endeavors, and future research directions is provided. PMID:21896772

  20. Bacterial Peptide Recognition and Immune Activation Facilitated by Human Peptide Transporter PEPT2

    PubMed Central

    Swaan, Peter W.; Bensman, Timothy; Bahadduri, Praveen M.; Hall, Mark W.; Sarkar, Anasuya; Bao, Shengying; Khantwal, Chandra M.; Ekins, Sean; Knoell, Daren L.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial detection requires the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are distributed on the cell surface and within the cytosol. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family functions as an intracellular PRR that triggers the innate immune response. The mechanism by which PAMPs enter the cytosol to interact with NLRs, particularly muropeptides derived from the bacterial proteoglycan cell wall, is poorly understood. PEPT2 is a proton-dependent transporter that mediates the active translocation of di- and tripeptides across epithelial tissues, including the lung. Using computational tools, we initially established that bacterial dipeptides, particularly ?-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (?-iE-DAP), are suitable substrates for PEPT2. We then determined in primary cultures of human upper airway epithelia and transiently transfected CHO-PEPT2 cell lines that ?-iE-DAP uptake was mediated by PEPT2 with an affinity constant of approximately 193 ?M, whereas muramyl dipeptide was not transported. Exposure to ?-iE-DAP at the apical surface of differentiated, polarized cultures resulted in activation of the innate immune response in an NOD1- and RIP2-dependent manner, resulting in release of IL-6 and IL-8. Based on these findings we report that PEPT2 plays a vital role in microbial recognition by NLR proteins, particularly with regard to airborne pathogens, thereby participating in host defense in the lung. PMID:18474668

  1. Human Intestinal Tissue with Adult Stem Cell Properties Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Forster, Ryan

    Genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been proposed as a source for transplantation therapies and are rapidly becoming valuable tools for human disease modeling. However, many applications are ...

  2. Contributions of NanI sialidase to Caco-2 cell adherence by Clostridium perfringens type A and C strains causing human intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies showed that Clostridium perfringens type D animal disease strain CN3718 uses NanI sialidase for adhering to enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. The current study analyzed whether NanI is similarly important when type A and C human intestinal disease strains attach to Caco-2 cells. A PCR survey determined that the nanI gene was absent from typical type A food poisoning (FP) strains carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin (CPE) gene or the genetically related type C Darmbrand (Db) strains. However, the nanI gene was present in type A strains from healthy humans, type A strains causing CPE-associated antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) or sporadic diarrhea (SD), and type C Pig-Bel strains. Consistent with NanI sialidase being the major C. perfringens sialidase when produced, FP and Db strains had little supernatant sialidase activity compared to other type A or C human intestinal strains. All type A and C human intestinal strains bound to Caco-2 cells, but NanI-producing strains had higher attachment levels. When produced, NanI can contribute to host cell attachment of human intestinal disease strains, since a nanI null mutant constructed in type A SD strain F4969 had lower Caco-2 cell adhesion than wild-type F4969 or a complemented strain. Further supporting a role for NanI in host cell attachment, sialidase inhibitors reduced F4969 adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that NanI may contribute to the intestinal attachment and colonization needed for the chronic diarrhea of CPE-associated AAD and SD, but this sialidase appears to be dispensable for the acute pathogenesis of type A FP or type C enteritis necroticans. PMID:25135687

  3. The impact of in vitro digestion on bioaccessibility of polyphenols from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their influence on iron absorption by human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lisa; Deußer, Hannah; Evers, Danièle

    2013-11-01

    The composition of potatoes as determined by chemical extraction has been described extensively. It is thus quite well known that, among other compounds, potato is rich in polyphenols, vitamins and in some minerals. This paper underlines the important role of simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro digestion in the bioaccessibility of polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and derivatives, and rutin) from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their impact on iron uptake. Concentrations of polyphenols in the flesh of two potato cultivars (Nicola, white potato, and Vitelotte, purple potato) and sweet potato were measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography after boiling and after in vitro digestion. Chemical extraction underestimates polyphenol amounts that can be released during digestion and that are actually bioaccessible. Iron uptake, as evaluated by a ferritin assay, by intestinal human cells was decreased after incubation with the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion, presumably due to the presence of polyphenols. PMID:24056541

  4. Pyogenic Bacterial Infections in Humans with MyD88 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    von Bernuth, Horst; Picard, Capucine; Jin, Zhongbo; Pankla, Rungnapa; Xiao, Hui; Ku, Cheng-Lung; Chrabieh, Maya; Mustapha, Imen Ben; Ghandil, Pegah; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Sirvent, Nicolas; Guedes, Margarida; Vitor, Artur Bonito; Herrero-Mata, María José; Aróstegui, Juan Ignacio; Rodrigo, Carlos; Alsina, Laia; Ruiz-Ortiz, Estibaliz; Juan, Manel; Fortuny, Claudia; Yagüe, Jordi; Antón, Jordi; Pascal, Mariona; Chang, Huey-Hsuan; Janniere, Lucile; Rose, Yoann; Garty, Ben-Zion; Chapel, Helen; Issekutz, Andrew; Maródi, László; Rodriguez-Gallego, Carlos; Banchereau, Jacques; Abel, Laurent; Li, Xiaoxia; Chaussabel, Damien; Puel, Anne; Casanova1, Jean-Laurent

    2009-01-01

    MyD88 is a key downstream adapter for most Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). MyD88 deficiency in mice leads to susceptibility to a broad range of pathogens in experimental settings of infection. We describe a distinct situation in a natural setting of human infection. Nine children with autosomal recessive MyD88 deficiency suffered from life-threatening, often recurrent pyogenic bacterial infections, including invasive pneumococcal disease. However, these patients were otherwise healthy, with normal resistance to other microbes. Their clinical status improved with age, but not due to any cellular leakiness in MyD88 deficiency. The MyD88-dependent TLRs and IL-1Rs are therefore essential for protective immunity to a small number of pyogenic bacteria, but redundant for host defense to most natural infections. PMID:18669862

  5. Phage-based platforms for the clinical detection of human bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, David A.; Sharp, Natasha J.; Westwater, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) have been utilized for decades as a means for uniquely identifying their target bacteria. Due to their inherent natural specificity, ease of use, and straightforward production, phage possess a number of desirable attributes which makes them particularly suited as bacterial detectors. As a result, extensive research has been conducted into the development of phage, or phage-derived products to expedite the detection of human pathogens. However, very few phage-based diagnostics have transitioned from the research lab into a clinical diagnostic tool. Herein we review the phage-based platforms that are currently used for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis and Staphylococcus aureus in the clinical field. We briefly describe the disease, the current diagnostic options, and the role phage diagnostics play in identifying the cause of infection, and determining antibiotic susceptibility. PMID:23050221

  6. Interleukin-23 drives innate and T cell-mediated intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hue, Sophie; Ahern, Philip; Buonocore, Sofia; Kullberg, Marika C; Cua, Daniel J; McKenzie, Brent S; Powrie, Fiona; Maloy, Kevin J

    2006-10-30

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract involving aberrant activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. We have used two complementary models of IBD to examine the roles of interleukin (IL)-12 family cytokines in bacterially induced intestinal inflammation. Our results clearly show that IL-23, but not IL-12, is essential for the induction of chronic intestinal inflammation mediated by innate or adaptive immune mechanisms. Depletion of IL-23 was associated with decreased proinflammatory responses in the intestine but had little impact on systemic T cell inflammatory responses. These results newly identify IL-23 as a driver of innate immune pathology in the intestine and suggest that selective targeting of IL-23 represents an attractive therapeutic approach in human IBD. PMID:17030949

  7. The Human Skin Microbiome Associates with the Outcome of and Is Influenced by Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Rensburg, Julia J.; Lin, Huaiying; Gao, Xiang; Toh, Evelyn; Fortney, Kate R.; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Janowicz, Diane M.; Katz, Barry P.; Nelson, David E.; Dong, Qunfeng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influence of the skin microbiota on host susceptibility to infectious agents is largely unexplored. The skin harbors diverse bacterial species that may promote or antagonize the growth of an invading pathogen. We developed a human infection model for Haemophilus ducreyi in which human volunteers are inoculated on the upper arm. After inoculation, papules form and either spontaneously resolve or progress to pustules. To examine the role of the skin microbiota in the outcome of H. ducreyi infection, we analyzed the microbiomes of four dose-matched pairs of “resolvers” and “pustule formers” whose inoculation sites were swabbed at multiple time points. Bacteria present on the skin were identified by amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between the preinfection microbiomes of infected sites showed that sites from the same volunteer clustered together and that pustule formers segregated from resolvers (P = 0.001, permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA]), suggesting that the preinfection microbiomes were associated with outcome. NMDS using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of the endpoint samples showed that the pustule sites clustered together and were significantly different than the resolved sites (P = 0.001, PERMANOVA), suggesting that the microbiomes at the endpoint differed between the two groups. In addition to H. ducreyi, pustule-forming sites had a greater abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paracoccus, and Staphylococcus species, whereas resolved sites had higher levels of Actinobacteria and Propionibacterium species. These results suggest that at baseline, resolvers and pustule formers have distinct skin bacterial communities which change in response to infection and the resultant immune response. PMID:26374122

  8. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures - A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures. PMID:25857839

  9. Impact of probiotic drugs, based on Enterobacter faecium autostrains, on human intestinal microflora in confined habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Batov, Alexey; Usanova, Nonna

    The aim of research: Investigation of influence of probiotic drugs based on autostrains of Enter-obacter faecium, selected from the crew in long term isolation experiment in confined habitat. It is known that during long-term presence in confined habitat the risk of infectious diseases increases. One of the main infectious risk occurs during first 20 days of isolation as a result of exchange of strains and stress-mediated disbacterioses. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate activities of probiotics to avoid this risk. Furthermore, in case of super long term autonomous flight there should be possibilities of application of autochthonous microflora strains as pro-biotics to strengthen colonial resistance of crews. Materials and methods: In the experiment there were used probiotic drugs based on autostrains of E. faecium, selected from the crew before the experiment. Probiotic drugs were consumed during 30 days since the beginning of the experiment with the break of consumption between 10th to 19th day. Results: Comparing the state of intestinal microflora of the crew on the baseline and 14th day of experiment re-vealed remarkable changes of microflora: the increasing of concentration of bifidobacteria and E. faecium (approximately 10 times), elimination of hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, reduction of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative non-fermenting rods, lactobacilli and normal E.coli. On the 45th day of isolation, 15 days after finishing of auto-strains administration, there fere signs of restoration of disbacteriosis: the quantitative decreasing lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and normal E.coli, increasing of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. Conclusion: Thus we managed to avoid risk of pathogenicity potential growth in first 2 decades of isolation. Application of probiotic, based on the autostrains of E. faecium leads to insignificant changes of concentration of lactobacteries, bifidobacteries, normal E. coli and to pronounced reduction of concentration of . hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. This results give an opportunity to use this drug to prevent the violations in intestine microflora in altered habitat conditions.

  10. Molecular Epidemiology, Gastrointestinal Ecology and Development of Antibiotic Alternative Interventions for Commensal Human Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogens in Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Clostridium perfringens, the three leading causes of human bacterial food-borne illness, are commonly associated with normal poultry gastrointestinal flora. Our research unit correlated rep-PCR analysis to serological typing of Salmonella spp. and source-tra...

  11. Mucin-bacterial interactions in the human oral cavity and digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Muriel; van Passel, Mark Wj; van de Bovenkamp, Jeroen Hb; Schipper, Raymond G; de Vos, Willem M; Dekker, Jan

    2010-07-01

    Mucins are a family of heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major organic components of the mucus layer, the protective layer covering the epithelial cells in many human and animal organs, including the entire gastro-intestinal tract. Microbes that can associate with mucins benefit from this interaction since they can get available nutrients, experience physico-chemical protection and adhere, resulting in increased residence time. Mucin-degrading microorganisms, which often are found in consortia, have not been extensively characterized as mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins that are hard to study because of their size, complexity and heterogeneity. The purpose of this review is to discuss how advances in mucus and mucin research, and insight in the microbial ecology promoted our understanding of mucin degradation. Recent insight is presented in mucin structure and organization, the microorganisms known to use mucin as growth substrate, with a specific attention on Akkermansia muciniphila, and the molecular basis of microbial mucin degradation owing to availability of genome sequences. PMID:21327032

  12. Effect of absorbable and nonabsorbable sugars on intestinal calcium absorption in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Griessen, M.; Speich, P.V.; Infante, F.; Bartholdi, P.; Cochet, B.; Donath, A.; Courvoisier, B.; Bonjour, J.P.

    1989-03-01

    The effects of glucose, galactose, and lactitol on intestinal calcium absorption and gastric emptying were studied in 9, 8, and 20 healthy subjects, respectively. Calcium absorption was measured by using a double-isotope technique and the kinetic parameters were obtained by a deconvolution method. The gastric emptying rate was determined with /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and was expressed as the half-time of the emptying curve. Each subject was studied under two conditions: (a) with calcium alone and (b) with calcium plus sugar. Glucose and galactose increased the calcium mean transit time and improved the total fractional calcium absorption by 30% (p less than 0.02). Lactitol decreased the mean rate of absorption (p less than 0.001) and reduced the total fractional calcium absorption by 15% (p less than 0.001). The gastric emptying rate did not appear to influence directly the kinetic parameters of calcium absorption. These results show that both glucose and galactose exert the same stimulatory effect as lactose on calcium absorption in subjects with normal lactase whereas lactitol mimics the effects of lactose in lactase-deficient patients. Thus the absorbability of sugars determines their effect on calcium absorption.

  13. Human intestinal epithelial cell-derived molecule(s) increase enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Tarun; Kim, Dae Nyun; Slininger, Tim; Wood, Thomas K.; Jayaraman, Arul

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the role of host cell-derived molecules on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection, we studied EHEC virulence gene expression when exposed to cell-free spent (conditioned) medium (CM) from HCT-8 intestinal epithelial cells. Exposure to HCT-8 CM for 1 h and 3 h increased the expression of 32 out of 41 EHEC locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) virulence genes compared to fresh medium (FM). In addition, expression of the shiga toxin 1 (stx1B) gene was up-regulated at 1 h of exposure. Also, 17 genes encoded by prophage 933W, including those for Stx2, were also upregulated at both time-points. The increase in 933W prophage expression was mirrored by a 2.7-fold increase in phage titers. Consistent with the increase in virulence gene expression, we observed a 5-fold increase in EHEC attachment to epithelial cells when exposed to CM. The increase in EHEC attachment was abolished when CM was heated to 95°C or treated with proteinase-K to degrade the proteins. The host cell-derived molecule(s) was found to be larger than 3 kDa, which suggests that the molecule(s) that increase(s) EHEC virulence and attachment is protein-based. PMID:23163871

  14. Quantitation of human MAO A and B in liver, intestine and placenta: Reassessment of activity

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) oxidize a variety of exogenous and endogenous amines including neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine as well as the potent dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The two forms of MAO (A and B) differ in molecular weight and inhibitor selectivity, and are differentially expressed in the nervous system and many other tissues. Although some substrates are preferentially oxidized by one form of MAO, substrates that can be oxidized by only one MAO form have not been reported. How well each MAO oxidizes various substrates has not been thoroughly characterized because of difficulties in separating and quantitating MAO A and B active sites. By immunoblotting SDS-polyacrylamide gels of mitochondrial extracts with monoclonal antibodies specific for each form of MAO, MAO B protein was detected in intestine and placenta, tissues that have been reported to contain MAO A activity. An improved procedure was developed for quantitating the ratio and amounts of MAO A and B active sites, using the ligand ({sup 3}H)-pargyline to label MAO and specific monoclonal antibodies to separate MAO A from B. Data from liver, placenta and platelets were used to re-evaluate the molecular activity of both MAO A and B for six commonly studied substrates.

  15. Carrier-mediated uptake of nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxyflavonoid, in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Osamu; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Haraguchi, Koichi; Kato, Yoshihisa; Endo, Tetsuya

    2014-07-01

    The mechanism of intestinal absorption of nobiletin (NBL) was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The uptake of NBL from the apical membranes of Caco-2 cells was rapid and temperature-dependent and the presence of metabolic inhibitors, NaN3 and carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, did not cause a decrease in NBL uptake. The relationship between the initial uptake of NBL and its concentration was saturable, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated process. The Km and uptake clearance (Vmax/Km) values for NBL were 50.6 and 168.1?l/mg protein/min, respectively. This clearance value was about 9-fold greater than that of the non-saturable uptake clearance (Kd: 18.5?l/mg protein/min). The presence of structurally similar compounds, such as quercetin and luteolin, competitively inhibited NBL uptake. These results suggest that uptake of NBL from the apical membranes of Caco-2 cells is mainly mediated by an energy-independent facilitated diffusion process. PMID:24518326

  16. Differentiation-dependent induction of CYP1A1 in cultured rat small intestinal epithelial cells, colonocytes, and human colon carcinoma cells: basement membrane-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Kenneth M; Cutroneo, Kenneth R

    2002-01-01

    Rat small intestinal epithelial cells and human colon adenocarcinoma cells cultured on Matrigel expressed the differentiation specific enzyme, sucrase-isomaltase, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Rat small intestinal epithelial cells, rat colonocytes, and human colon adenocarcinoma cells developed an altered morphology when cultured on Matrigel and became apoptotic within 24-48 h. Benzo[a]pyrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin caused a 2- and 5-fold induction, respectively, of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity in rat small intestinal epithelial cells cultured on Matrigel. Benzo[a]pyrene- or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity in rat small intestinal epithelial cells cultured on plastic was not detected. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment caused a 14-fold induction of transfected, rat CYP1A1-promoter-luciferase activity in rat small intestinal epithelial cells cultured on Matrigel. Benzo[a]pyrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment induced ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity by 6- and 1.6-fold, respectively in rat colonocytes cultured on Matrigel. Induction of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity was not observed in rat colonocytes cultured on plastic. CYP1A1-promoter-luciferase activity was induced 3-fold by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rat colonocytes cultured on Matrigel. Induction of CYP1A1-promoter-luciferase activity in rat small intestinal epithelial cells or rat colonocytes cultured on plastic was not observed. Ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells, cultured on either plastic or Matrigel, was induced 7-fold by benzo[a]pyrene. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity was 2-fold greater in human colon adenocarcinoma cells cultured on Matrigel compared to cells cultured on plastic. Extracellular matrix-mediated differentiation and apoptosis of intestinal cells provide in vitro systems for study of the regulation of CYP1A1 expression, carcinogen activation in the gut and mechanism(s) of apoptosis of colon cancer cells. PMID:12210751

  17. The Fimbriae of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Induce Epithelial Inflammation In Vitro and in a Human Intestinal Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Boll, Erik J.; Struve, Carsten; Sander, Anja; Demma, Zachary; Nataro, James P.; McCormick, Beth A.; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background.Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are increasingly recognized as an important agent of inflammatory and often persistent diarrhea. Although previous studies report on the inflammatory aspects of EAEC pathogenesis, the mechanisms by which EAEC trigger these events are not well understood. Methods.EAEC strains harboring mutations in known EAEC virulence determinants were tested in an in vitro model of transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and in human intestinal xenografts in severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID-HU-INT) mice, a novel model for studying EAEC disease in vivo. Results.Expression of aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAFs), the principal adhesins of EAEC, was required for EAEC-induced PMN transepithelial migration in vitro. Moreover, constructed plasmids encoding AAF gene clusters demonstrated that the AAF adhesins are sufficient for triggering this event in a nonpathogenic E. coli background. Furthermore, with use of the SCID-HU-INT mouse model, severe tissue damage and infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the human tissue after EAEC infection. These pathological marks were strongly related to AAF expression, thus clearly confirming our in vitro findings. Conclusions.The present work establishes EAEC as an important inflammatory pathogen and the AAF adhesins as inducers of potentially detrimental immune responses. PMID:22723643

  18. LIN28 cooperates with WNT signaling to drive invasive intestinal and colorectal adenocarcinoma in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Ho-Chou; Schwitalla, Sarah; Qian, Zhirong; LaPier, Grace S.; Yermalovich, Alena; Ku, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Shann-Ching; Viswanathan, Srinivas R.; Zhu, Hao; Nishihara, Reiko; Inamura, Kentaro; Kim, Sun A.; Morikawa, Teppei; Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Yang, Juhong; Meredith, Gavin; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major contributor to cancer-related mortality. LIN28A and LIN28B are highly related RNA-binding protein paralogs that regulate biogenesis of let-7 microRNAs and influence development, metabolism, tissue regeneration, and oncogenesis. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of either LIN28 paralog cooperates with the Wnt pathway to promote invasive intestinal adenocarcinoma in murine models. When LIN28 alone is induced genetically, half of the resulting tumors harbor Ctnnb1 (?-catenin) mutation. When overexpressed in ApcMin/+ mice, LIN28 accelerates tumor formation and enhances proliferation and invasiveness. In conditional genetic models, enforced expression of a LIN28-resistant form of the let-7 microRNA reduces LIN28-induced tumor burden, while silencing of LIN28 expression reduces tumor volume and increases tumor differentiation, indicating that LIN28 contributes to tumor maintenance. We detected aberrant expression of LIN28A and/or LIN28B in 38% of a large series of human CRC samples (n = 595), where LIN28 expression levels were associated with invasive tumor growth. Our late-stage CRC murine models and analysis of primary human tumors demonstrate prominent roles for both LIN28 paralogs in promoting CRC growth and progression and implicate the LIN28/let-7 pathway as a therapeutic target. PMID:25956904

  19. Microbiota-Mediated Inflammation and Antimicrobial Defense in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Silvia; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    The diverse microbial populations constituting the intestinal microbiota promote immune development and differentiation, but because of their complex metabolic requirements and the consequent difficulty culturing them, they remained, until recently, largely uncharacterized and mysterious. In the last decade, deep nucleic acid sequencing platforms, new computational and bioinformatics tools, and full-genome characterization of several hundred commensal bacterial species facilitated studies of the microbiota and revealed that differences in microbiota composition can be associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and infectious diseases, that each human is colonized by a distinct bacterial flora, and that the microbiota can be manipulated to reduce and even cure some diseases. Different bacterial species induce distinct immune cell populations that can play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, and thus the composition of the microbiota determines, in part, the level of resistance to infection and susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent work characterizing commensal microbes that contribute to the antimicrobial defense/inflammation axis. PMID:25581310

  20. Hidden Selection of Bacterial Resistance to Fluoroquinolones In Vivo: The Case of Legionella pneumophila and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shadoud, Lubana; Almahmoud, Iyad; Jarraud, Sophie; Etienne, Jérôme; Larrat, Sylvie; Schwebel, Carole; Timsit, Jean-François; Schneider, Dominique; Maurin, Max

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases are the leading cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. One dramatic issue is the emergence of microbial resistance to antibiotics which is a major public health concern. Surprisingly however, such in vivo adaptive ability has not been reported yet for many intracellular human bacterial pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila. Methods We examined 82 unrelated patients with Legionnaire's disease from which 139 respiratory specimens were sampled during hospitalization and antibiotic therapy. We both developed a real time PCR assay and used deep-sequencing approaches to detect antibiotic resistance mutations in L. pneumophila and follow their selection and fate in these samples. Findings We identified the in vivo selection of fluoroquinolone resistance mutations in L. pneumophila in two infected patients treated with these antibiotics. By investigating the mutational dynamics in patients, we showed that antibiotic resistance occurred during hospitalization most likely after fluoroquinolone treatment. Interpretation In vivo selection of antibiotic resistances in L. pneumophila may be associated with treatment failures and poor prognosis. This hidden resistance must be carefully considered in the therapeutic management of legionellosis patients and in the control of the gradual loss of effectiveness of antibiotics. PMID:26501115

  1. Regulation of Chemerin Chemoattractant and Anti-bacterial Activity by Human Cysteine Cathepsins

    PubMed Central

    Kulig, Paulina; Kantyka, Tomasz; Zabel, Brian A.; Bana?, Magdalena; Chyra, Agnieszka; Stefa?ska, Anna; Tu, Hua; Allen, Samantha J.; Handel, Tracy M.; Kozik, Andrzej; Potempa, Jan; Butcher, Eugene C.; Cichy, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Chemerin, a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor CMKLR1 (chemokine-like receptor 1), requires C-terminal proteolytic processing to unleash its chemoattractant activity. Proteolytically-processed chemerin selectively attracts specific subsets of immunoregulatory antigen presenting cells, including CMKLR1+ immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). Chemerin is predicted to belong to the structural cathelicidin/cystatin family of proteins comprised of antibacterial polypeptide cathelicidins and inhibitors of cysteine proteinases (cystatins). We therefore hypothesized that chemerin may interact directly with cysteine proteases and that it might also function as an antibacterial agent. Here we show that chemerin does not inhibit human cysteine proteases, but rather is a new substrate for cathepsin K and L. Cathepsin K and L-cleaved chemerin triggered robust migration of human blood-derived pDC ex vivo. Furthermore, cathepsin K and L-truncated chemerin also displayed antibacterial activity against Enterobacteriaceae. Cathepsins may therefore contribute to host defense by activating chemerin to directly inhibit bacterial growth and to recruit pDC to sites of infection. PMID:21715684

  2. Coated capsules for drug targeting to proximal and distal part of human intestine.

    PubMed

    Dvorácková, Katerina; Rabisková, Miloslava; Gajdziok, Jan; Vetchý, David; Muselík, Jan; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Bajerová, Martina; Drottnerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    Coated hard capsules are becoming increasingly important for a number of reasons such as administration of new active ingredients, oral vaccination, colon drug delivery or their use in preclinical and clinical trials. The independency of coating composition on capsules filling is the major advantage of this dosage form. In our study, two types of hard capsules (gelatin and hypromellose) were coated by non-aqueous solutions of Eudragit L and S 12.5, respectively, to achieve intestinal and distal ileic drug delivery. Gelatin hard capsules were coated with Eudragit film either directly or using hydroxypropyl cellulose sub-coating prior to the final coating. Hypromellose capsules were coated directly. Coated capsules were evaluated for coating thickness by optical microscope and for dissolution in different pH media. Gelatin capsules do not seem to be suitable for direct coating with Eudragit due to insufficient film adhesion to the smooth capsule surface and a brittleness of formed films. These problems can be solved by hydroxypropyl celullose interlayer application. Hypromellose hard capsules could be directly easily coated with both Eudragit solutions. Dissolution of caffeine from coated capsules showed the potency for enteric delivery in gelatin capsules with interlayer and Eudragit L film in 7.5 and 10.0% concentrations and in hypromellose capsules coated with EudragitL in 5-17.5% coating levels. Gelatine capsules with interlayer and 10% Eudragit S film and hypromellose capsules only with high coating level (20%) provided potential distal ileum targeting of incorporated drug. Eudragit S film sprayed onto hypromellose capsules surface was brittle especially in the junction zone between capsule cap and body. Better plasticity of Eudragit S coating could be probably achieved using a different plasticizer. PMID:20369797

  3. Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Binds Pro-Inflammatory Bacterial Compounds and Prevents Immune Activation in an Intestinal Co-Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Horgan, Alan; Henderson, Abigail L.; Petschow, Bryon W.; Warner, Christopher D.; Maas, Kenneth J.; Weaver, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is associated with chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation and diseases such as IBD and IBS. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) is a specially formulated protein preparation (>90%) for oral administration. The composition of SBI is greater than 60% immunoglobulin including contributions from IgG, IgA, and IgM. Immunoglobulin within the lumen of the gut has been recognized to have anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in maintaining gut homeostasis. The binding of common intestinal antigens (LPS and Lipid A) and the ligand Pam3CSK4, by IgG, IgA, and IgM in SBI was shown using a modified ELISA technique. Each of these antigens stimulated IL-8 and TNF-? cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes. Immune exclusion occurred as SBI (?50 mg/mL) bound free antigen in a dose dependent manner that inhibited cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes in response to 10 ng/mL LPS or 200 ng/mL Lipid A. Conversely, Pam3CSK4 stimulation of THP-1 monocytes was unaffected by SBI/antigen binding. A co-culture model of the intestinal epithelium consisted of a C2BBe1 monolayer separating an apical compartment from a basal compartment containing THP-1 monocytes. The C2BBe1 monolayer was permeabilized with dimethyl palmitoyl ammonio propanesulfonate (PPS) to simulate a damaged epithelial barrier. Results indicate that Pam3CSK4 was able to translocate across the PPS-damaged C2BBe1 monolayer. However, binding of Pam3CSK4 by immunoglobulins in SBI prevented Pam3CSK4 translocation across the damaged C2BBe1 barrier. These results demonstrated steric exclusion of antigen by SBI which prevented apical to basal translocation of antigen due to changes in the physical properties of Pam3CSK4, most likely as a result of immunoglobulin binding. This study demonstrates that immunoglobulins in SBI can reduce antigen-associated inflammation through immune and steric exclusion mechanisms and furthers the mechanistic understanding of how SBI might improve immune status and reduce inflammation in various intestinal disease states. PMID:25830826

  4. Genes methylated by DNA methyltransferase 3b are similar in mouse intestine and human colon cancer

    E-print Network

    Steine, Eveline J.

    Human cancer cells frequently have regions of their DNA hypermethylated, which results in transcriptional silencing of affected genes and promotion of tumor formation. However, it is still unknown whether cancer-associated ...

  5. Fecal pollution source tracking in waters intended for human supply based on archaeal and bacterial genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Kayo; Barreto, Camila; Oliveira, Samara Sant'Anna; Pinto, Leonardo Henriques; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Miranda, Catia Chaia; Clementino, Maysa Mandetta

    2015-12-01

    The determination of fecal pollution sources in aquatic ecosystems is essential to estimate associated health risks. In this study, we evaluate eight microbial source tracking (MST) markers including host-specific Bacteroidales and Methanobrevibacter spp. for discrimination between human, bovine, equine, and swine fecal contamination in waters intended for human supply. Overall, the novel host-specific archaeal and bacterial primers proposed in this study demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. Markers for the Archaea domain were more prevalent in the fecal and water samples studied. We conclude that the investigations regarding the sources of fecal pollution in public water supplies can contribute to improve the quality of human health. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis using both archaeal and bacterial fecal MST markers on tropical water bodies of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. PMID:26608760

  6. Probiotics modify human intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiguang; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Renyuan; Zhu, Qingchao; Wu, Wen; Qin, Huanlong

    2015-10-01

    Studies using animal models have demonstrated that probiotics may have a beneficial role in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects of interventional probiotic treatment on gut microbiota has remained elusive. In the present study, pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was conducted in order to determine the extent to which probiotics alter the microbiota. The observations of the present study indicated that the microbial structure of cancerous tissue differed significantly from that of healthy individuals and that the CRC microbiota exhibited lower diversity. It was indicated that interventional treatment with probiotics increased the density and diversity of mucosal microbes, and altered the mucosa?associated microbiota. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that probiotics significantly reduced (5?fold) the abundance of a bacterial taxon assigned to the genus Fusobacterium, which had been previously suggested to be a contributing factor to increase tumorigenesis. Accordingly, interventional probiotic therapy is suggested to be able to improve the composition of the mucosal microbial flora and significantly reduce the abundance of mucosa-associated pathogens in patients with CRC. PMID:26238090

  7. Detection of bacterial indicators and human and bovine enteric viruses in surface water and groundwater sources potentially impacted by animal and human wastes in Lower Yakima Valley, Washington.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Kristen E; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2011-01-01

    Tangential flow ultrafiltration (UF) was used to concentrate and recover bacterial indicators and enteric viruses from 100 liters of groundwater (GW; n = 10) and surface water (SW; n = 11) samples collected in Lower Yakima Valley, WA. Human and bovine enteric viruses were analyzed in SW and GW concentrates by real-time PCR by using integrated inhibition detection. PMID:21075875

  8. Human-Specific Bacterial Pore-Forming Toxins Induce Programmed Necrosis in Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Timothy J.; Stivison, Elizabeth A.; Hod, Eldad A.; Spitalnik, Steven L.; Cowan, Peter J.; Randis, Tara M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A subgroup of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of pore-forming toxins (PFTs) has an unusually narrow host range due to a requirement for binding to human CD59 (hCD59), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked complement regulatory molecule. hCD59-specific CDCs are produced by several organisms that inhabit human mucosal surfaces and can act as pathogens, including Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus intermedius. The consequences and potential selective advantages of such PFT host limitation have remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that, in addition to species restriction, PFT ligation of hCD59 triggers a previously unrecognized pathway for programmed necrosis in primary erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]) from humans and transgenic mice expressing hCD59. Because they lack nuclei and mitochondria, RBCs have typically been thought to possess limited capacity to undergo programmed cell death. RBC programmed necrosis shares key molecular factors with nucleated cell necroptosis, including dependence on Fas/FasL signaling and RIP1 phosphorylation, necrosome assembly, and restriction by caspase-8. Death due to programmed necrosis in RBCs is executed by acid sphingomyelinase-dependent ceramide formation, NADPH oxidase- and iron-dependent reactive oxygen species formation, and glycolytic formation of advanced glycation end products. Bacterial PFTs that are hCD59 independent do not induce RBC programmed necrosis. RBC programmed necrosis is biochemically distinct from eryptosis, the only other known programmed cell death pathway in mature RBCs. Importantly, RBC programmed necrosis enhances the growth of PFT-producing pathogens during exposure to primary RBCs, consistent with a role for such signaling in microbial growth and pathogenesis. PMID:25161188

  9. In vitro adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to human intestinal epithelial cells from mucosal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Knutton, S; Lloyd, D R; Candy, D C; McNeish, A S

    1984-05-01

    An adhesion assay with isolated human enterocytes prepared from duodenal biopsies has been developed and tested by using human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli expressing colonization factor antigens I and II (CFA/I and CFA/II) and type 1 fimbriae. Enterotoxigenic E. coli strains H10407 (CFA/I) and B2C (CFA/II) bound to duodenal enterocytes to a much greater extent (mean of 4.6 and 4.0 bacteria per brush border) than did strain H10407P, a CFA/I- mutant of H10407 (mean of 0.1 bacteria per brush border). Type 1 fimbriae also promoted adhesion of strain H10407P to duodenal enterocytes but attachment was to basolateral rather than brush border surfaces. CFA/I and CFA/II, on the other hand, promoted adhesion only to human enterocyte brush borders. PMID:6370868

  10. Differential repair of etheno-DNA adducts by bacterial and human AlkB proteins.

    PubMed

    Zd?alik, Daria; Doma?ska, Anna; Prorok, Paulina; Kosicki, Konrad; van den Born, Erwin; Falnes, Pål Ø; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Guengerich, F Peter; Tudek, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    AlkB proteins are evolutionary conserved Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which remove alkyl and highly promutagenic etheno(?)-DNA adducts, but their substrate specificity has not been fully determined. We developed a novel assay for the repair of ?-adducts by AlkB enzymes using oligodeoxynucleotides with a single lesion and specific DNA glycosylases and AP-endonuclease for identification of the repair products. We compared the repair of three ?-adducts, 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (?A), 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (?C) and 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine (1,N(2)-?G) by nine bacterial and two human AlkBs, representing four different structural groups defined on the basis of conserved amino acids in the nucleotide recognition lid, engaged in the enzyme binding to the substrate. Two bacterial AlkB proteins, MT-2B (from Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and SC-2B (Streptomyces coelicolor) did not repair these lesions in either double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) DNA. Three proteins, RE-2A (Rhizobium etli), SA-2B (Streptomyces avermitilis), and XC-2B (Xanthomonas campestris) efficiently removed all three lesions from the DNA substrates. Interestingly, XC-2B and RE-2A are the first AlkB proteins shown to be specialized for ?-adducts, since they do not repair methylated bases. Three other proteins, EcAlkB (Escherichia coli), SA-1A, and XC-1B removed ?A and ?C from ds and ssDNA but were inactive toward 1,N(2)-?G. SC-1A repaired only ?A with the preference for dsDNA. The human enzyme ALKBH2 repaired all three ?-adducts in dsDNA, while only ?A and ?C in ssDNA and repair was less efficient in ssDNA. ALKBH3 repaired only ?C in ssDNA. Altogether, we have shown for the first time that some AlkB proteins, namely ALKBH2, RE-2A, SA-2B and XC-2B can repair 1,N(2)-?G and that ALKBH3 removes only ?C from ssDNA. Our results also suggest that the nucleotide recognition lid is not the sole determinant of the substrate specificity of AlkB proteins. PMID:25797601

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus hominis Strain CRBIP 24.179T, Isolated from Human Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Sylvie; Creno, Sophie; Ma, Laurence; Clermont, Dominique; Loux, Valentin; Bizet, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the strain Lactobacillus hominis CRBIP 24.179T, isolated from a human clinical sample. The total length of the 28 contigs is about 1.9 Mb, with a G+C content of 37% and 1,983 coding sequences. PMID:23969062

  12. Colon-targeted delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics including microencapsulated live bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Satya; Malgorzata Urbanska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    There has been an ample interest in delivery of therapeutic molecules using live cells. Oral delivery has been stipulated as best way to deliver live cells to humans for therapy. Colon, in particular, is a part of gastrointestinal (GI) tract that has been proposed to be an oral targeted site. The main objective of these oral therapy procedures is to deliver live cells not only to treat diseases like colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and other GI tract diseases like intestinal obstruction and gastritis, but also to deliver therapeutic molecules for overall therapy in various diseases such as renal failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and others. This review provides a comprehensive summary of recent advancement in colon targeted live bacterial cell biotherapeutics. Current status of bacterial cell therapy, principles of artificial cells and its potentials in oral delivery of live bacterial cell biotherapeutics for clinical applications as well as biotherapeutic future perspectives are also discussed in our review. PMID:19707368

  13. Microencapsulation of Probiotics by Calcium Alginate-gelatinized Starch with Chitosan Coating and Evaluation of Survival in Simulated Human Gastro-intestinal Condition.

    PubMed

    Khosravi Zanjani, Mohammad Ali; Ghiassi Tarzi, Babak; Sharifan, Anousheh; Mohammadi, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Microencapsulation as one of the most modern methods has considerable effects on probiotic survival. In this study Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 39392) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 29521) were encapsulated using calcium alginate-gelatinized starch, chitosan coating and inulin via emulsion technique, and were incubated in simulated gastric juice (along with pepsin, pH=1.5) and simulated intestinal juice (along with pancreatin and bile salts, pH = 8) for 2 hours at 37 (o)C. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron and optical microscopy. The results indicated that the survival of microencapsulated probiotic increased significantly in simulated gastro-intestinal condition (P < 0.05). Chitosan coating played a significant role in the protection of probiotic bacteria in simulated gastro-intestinal condition and the diameter of the microcapsules increased with the addition of chitosan coating. In general, this study indicated that microencapsulation with alginate-gelatinized starch coated with chitosan could successfully and significantly protect probiotic bacteria against adverse condition of simulated human gastro-intestinal condition. PMID:25276184

  14. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  15. Bacterial PAMPs and Allergens Trigger Increase in [Ca(2+)]i-induced Cytokine Expression in Human PDL Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Son, Ga-Yeon; Shin, Dong Min; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2015-05-01

    An oral environment is constantly exposed to environmental factors and microorganisms. The periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts within this environment are subject to bacterial infection and allergic reaction. However, how these condition affect PDL fibroblasts has yet to be elucidated. PDL fibroblasts were isolated from healthy donors. We examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and measuring the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). This study investigated the receptors activated by exogenous bacterial pathogens (Lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan) and allergens (German cockroach extract and house dust mite) as well as these pathogenic mediators-induced effects on the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in human PDL fibroblasts. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-8) and bone remodeling mediators (receptor activator of NF-?B ligand and osteoprotegerin) and intracellular Ca(2+)-involved effect. Bacterial pathogens and allergic mediators induced increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and these results are dependent on intracellular Ca(2+). However, bacterial pathogens and allergic mediators did not lead to increased expression of bone remodeling mediators, except lipopolysaccharide-induced effect on receptor activator of NF-?B ligand expression. These experiments provide evidence that a pathogens and allergens-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i affects the inflammatory response in human PDL fibroblasts. PMID:25954136

  16. Growth-Inhibiting and morphostructural effects of constituents identified in Asarum heterotropoides root on human intestinal bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The growth-inhibiting and morphostructural effects of seven constituents identified in Asarum heterotropoides root on 14 intestinal bacteria were compared with those of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Method A microtiter plate-based bioassay in sterile 96-well plates was used to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the test materials against the organisms. Results ?-3-Carene (5) exhibited the most potent growth inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium difficile ATCC 9689, Clostridium paraputrificum ATCC 25780, Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 and Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285) (minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 0.18–0.70 mg/mL) except for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 (MIC, 2.94 mg/mL). The MIC of methyleugenol (2), 1,8-cineole (3), ?-asarone (4), (?)-asarinin (6), and pellitorine (7) was between 1.47 and 2.94 mg/mL against all test bacteria (except for compound 2 against C. difficile (0.70 mg/mL); compounds 1 (23.50 mg/mL) and 4 (5.80 mg/mL) against C. paraputricum; compounds 2 (5.80 mg/mL), 4 (12.0 mg/mL), and 7 (0.70 mg/mL) against C. perfringens); compound 1 against E. coli (7.20 mg/mL) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (12.0 mg/mL). Overall, all of the constituents were less potent at inhibiting microbial growth than ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.063–0.25 mg/ mL). The lactic acid-producing bacteria (four bifidobacteria and two lactobacilli) and one acidulating bacterium Clostridium butyricum ATCC 25779 were less sensitive and more susceptible than the five harmful bacteria and two nonpathogenic bacteria (B. fragilis and E. coli) to the constituents and to ciprofloxacin, respectively. Beneficial Gram-positive bacteria and harmful and nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacteria were observed to have different degrees of antimicrobial susceptibility to the constituents, although the antimicrobial susceptibility of the harmful Gram-positive bacteria and the harmful and nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacteria was not observed. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed different degrees of physical damage and morphological alteration to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria treated with ?-asarone, ?-3-carene, pellitorine, or ciprofloxacin, indicating that they do not share a common mode of action. Conclusion A. heterotropoides root-derived materials described merit further study as potential antibacterial products or lead molecules for the prevention or eradication from humans from diseases caused by harmful intestinal bacteria. PMID:24083511

  17. Human tandem-repeat-type galectins bind bacterial non-?Gal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Knirel, Yu A; Gabius, H-J; Blixt, O; Rapoport, E M; Khasbiullina, N R; Shilova, N V; Bovin, N V

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are multifunctional effectors, for example acting as regulators of cell growth via protein-glycan interactions. The observation of capacity to kill bacteria for two tandem-repeat-type galectins, which target histo-blood epitopes toward this end (Stowell et al. Nat. Med. 16:295-301, 2010), prompted us to establish an array with bacterial polysaccharides. We addressed the question whether sugar determinants other than ?-galactosides may be docking sites, using human galectins-4, -8, and -9. Positive controls with histo-blood group ABH-epitopes and the E. coli 086 polysaccharide ascertained the suitability of the set-up. Significant signal generation, depending on type of galectin and polysacchride, was obtained. Presence of cognate ?-galactoside-related epitopes within a polysaccharide chain or its branch will not automatically establish binding properties, and structural constellations lacking galactosides, like rhamnan, were found to be active. These data establish the array as valuable screening tool, giving direction to further functional and structural studies. PMID:24065176

  18. A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Sequencing the Complete Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Mammoser, Aaron G.; Wu, Chenyan; Frengen, Eirik; Zeng, Changjiang; Catanese, Joseph J.; de Jong, Pieter J.

    2001-01-01

    A 30-fold redundant human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library with a large average insert size (178 kb) has been constructed to provide the intermediate substrate for the international genome sequencing effort. The DNA was obtained from a single anonymous volunteer, whose identity was protected through a double-blind donor selection protocol. DNA fragments were generated by partial digestion with EcoRI (library segments 1–4: 24-fold) and MboI (segment 5: sixfold) and cloned into the pBACe3.6 and pTARBAC1 vectors, respectively. The quality of the library was assessed by extensive analysis of 169 clones for rearrangements and artifacts. Eighteen BACs (11%) revealed minor insert rearrangements, and none was chimeric. This BAC library, designated as “RPCI-11,” has been used widely as the central resource for insert-end sequencing, clone fingerprinting, high-throughput sequence analysis and as a source of mapped clones for diagnostic and functional studies. The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession nos. AQ936150–AQ936491.] PMID:11230172

  19. Effects of phenol on barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line correlate with altered tight junction protein localization

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, Ingrid C.; Betanzos, Abigail; Weber, Dominique A.; Nava, Porfirio; Miller, Gary W.; Parkos, Charles A.

    2009-11-15

    Phenol contamination of soil and water has raised concerns among people living near phenol-producing factories and hazardous waste sites containing the chemical. Phenol, particularly in high concentrations, is an irritating and corrosive substance, making mucosal membranes targets of toxicity in humans. However, few data on the effects of phenol after oral exposure exist. We used an in vitro model employing human intestinal epithelial cells (SK-CO15) cultured on permeable supports to examine effects of phenol on epithelial barrier function. We hypothesized that phenol disrupts epithelial barrier by altering tight junction (TJ) protein expression. The dose-response effect of phenol on epithelial barrier function was determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran permeability measurements. We studied phenol-induced changes in cell morphology and expression of several tight junction proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Effects on cell viability were assessed by MTT, Trypan blue, propidium iodide and TUNEL staining. Exposure to phenol resulted in decreased TER and increased paracellular flux of FITC-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Delocalization of claudin-1 and ZO-1 from TJs to cytosol correlated with the observed increase in permeability after phenol treatment. Additionally, the decrease in TER correlated with changes in the distribution of a membrane raft marker, suggesting phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluidity. Such observations were independent of effects of phenol on cell viability as enhanced permeability occurred at doses of phenol that did not cause cell death. Overall, these findings suggest that phenol may affect transiently the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus destabilizing TJ-containing microdomains.

  20. Bacterial RTX Toxins Allow Acute ATP Release from Human Erythrocytes Directly through the Toxin Pore*

    PubMed Central

    Skals, Marianne; Bjaelde, Randi G.; Reinholdt, Jesper; Poulsen, Knud; Vad, Brian S.; Otzen, Daniel E.; Leipziger, Jens; Praetorius, Helle A.

    2014-01-01

    ATP is as an extracellular signaling molecule able to amplify the cell lysis inflicted by certain bacterial toxins including the two RTX toxins ?-hemolysin (HlyA) from Escherichia coli and leukotoxin A (LtxA) from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Inhibition of P2X receptors completely blocks the RTX toxin-induced hemolysis over a larger concentration range. It is, however, at present not known how the ATP that provides the amplification is released from the attacked cells. Here we show that both HlyA and LtxA trigger acute release of ATP from human erythrocytes that preceded and were not caused by cell lysis. This early ATP release did not occur via previously described ATP-release pathways in the erythrocyte. Both HlyA and LtxA were capable of triggering ATP release in the presence of the pannexin 1 blockers carbenoxolone and probenecid, and the HlyA-induced ATP release was found to be similar in erythrocytes from pannexin 1 wild type and knock-out mice. Moreover, the voltage-dependent anion channel antagonist TRO19622 had no effect on ATP release by either of the toxins. Finally, we showed that both HlyA and LtxA were able to release ATP from ATP-loaded lipid (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine) vesicles devoid of any erythrocyte channels or transporters. Again we were able to show that this happened in a non-lytic fashion, using calcein-containing vesicles as controls. These data show that both toxins incorporate into lipid vesicles and allow ATP to be released. We suggest that both toxins cause acute ATP release by letting ATP pass the toxin pores in both human erythrocytes and artificial membranes. PMID:24860098

  1. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current IClswell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The IClswell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 ?M curcumin modulates IClswell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 ?M curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 ?M curcumin increase, while 10 ?M curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect IClswell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on IClswell can be ruled out. Furthermore, we show that curcumin exposure induces apoptosis in human kidney cells, and at a concentration of 5.0–10 ?M induces the appearance of a sub-population of cells with a dramatically increased volume. In these cells the regulation of the cell volume seems to be impaired, most likely as a consequence of the IClswell blockade. Similarly, 50 ?M curcumin induced apoptosis, caused cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and increased the volume of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. The cell cycle arrest in G1 phase may be the mechanism underlying the volume increase observed in this cell line after exposure to curcumin. PMID:22178266

  2. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated with Inflammation History in Mice Experiencing Recurring Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Berry, David; Kuzyk, Orest; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Schwab, Clarissa; Hainzl, Eva; Decker, Thomas; Müller, Mathias; Strobl, Birgit; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim; Wagner, Michael; Kenner, Lukas; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Acute colitis causes alterations in the intestinal microbiota, but the microbiota is thought to recover after such events. Extreme microbiota alterations are characteristic of human chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, although alterations reported in different studies are divergent and sometimes even contradictory. To better understand the impact of periodic disturbances on the intestinal microbiota and its compositional difference between acute and relapsing colitis, we investigated the beginnings of recurrent inflammation using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model of chemically induced colitis. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing as well as quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization, we profiled the intestinal and stool microbiota of mice over the course of three rounds of DSS-induced colitis and recovery. We found that characteristic inflammation-associated microbiota could be detected in recovery-phase mice. Successive inflammation episodes further drove the microbiota into an increasingly altered composition post-inflammation, and signatures of colitis history were detectable in the microbiota more sensitively than by pathology analysis. Bacterial indicators of murine colitis history were identified in intestinal and stool samples, with a high degree of consistency between both sample types. Stool may therefore be a promising non-invasive source of bacterial biomarkers that are highly sensitive to inflammation state and history. PMID:26697002

  3. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated with Inflammation History in Mice Experiencing Recurring Colitis.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Kuzyk, Orest; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Schwab, Clarissa; Hainzl, Eva; Decker, Thomas; Müller, Mathias; Strobl, Birgit; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim; Wagner, Michael; Kenner, Lukas; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Acute colitis causes alterations in the intestinal microbiota, but the microbiota is thought to recover after such events. Extreme microbiota alterations are characteristic of human chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, although alterations reported in different studies are divergent and sometimes even contradictory. To better understand the impact of periodic disturbances on the intestinal microbiota and its compositional difference between acute and relapsing colitis, we investigated the beginnings of recurrent inflammation using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model of chemically induced colitis. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing as well as quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization, we profiled the intestinal and stool microbiota of mice over the course of three rounds of DSS-induced colitis and recovery. We found that characteristic inflammation-associated microbiota could be detected in recovery-phase mice. Successive inflammation episodes further drove the microbiota into an increasingly altered composition post-inflammation, and signatures of colitis history were detectable in the microbiota more sensitively than by pathology analysis. Bacterial indicators of murine colitis history were identified in intestinal and stool samples, with a high degree of consistency between both sample types. Stool may therefore be a promising non-invasive source of bacterial biomarkers that are highly sensitive to inflammation state and history. PMID:26697002

  4. Helicobacter pylori: Bacterial Strategy for Incipient Stage and Persistent Colonization in Human Gastric Niches

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Park, Jin-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) undergoes decades long colonization of the gastric mucosa of half the population in the world to produce acute and chronic gastritis at the beginning of infection, progressing to more severe disorders, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Prolonged carriage of H. pylori is the most crucial factor for the pathogenesis of gastric maladies. Bacterial persistence in the gastric mucosa depends on bacterial factors as well as host factors. Herein, the host and bacterial components responsible for the incipient stages of H. pylori infection are reviewed and discussed. Bacterial adhesion and adaptation is presented to explain the persistence of H. pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa, in which bacterial evasion of host defense systems and genomic diversity are included. PMID:25323880

  5. Effect of c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, on mediator release by human intestinal mast cells isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and controls.

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, S C; Schwengberg, S; Wordelmann, K; Weimann, A; Raab, R; Manns, M P

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of mediator release in human intestinal mast cells is largely unknown. Apart from IgE receptor crosslinking no secretagogues have been described so far. This study examined the effect of two cytokines (c-kit ligand and interleukin 3) and other agonists on human intestinal mast cell function. Cells were isolated from surgery specimens of 47 patients undergoing intestinal resection because of tumours or inflammatory bowel disease. Cell suspensions contained 3.6% mast cells (mean of 50 experiments). After preincubation without or with c-kit ligand or interleukin 3, cells were stimulated by IgE receptor crosslinking, C5a or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Histamine and sulphidoleukotriene release was measured in supernatants. The sequential stimulation of the cells with c-kit ligand and IgE receptor crosslinking induced the release of high amounts of histamine and leukotrienes, whereas each agonist by itself induced only marginal mediator release. Interleukin 3 induced no release by itself, but enhanced the IgE receptor dependent release, possibly by an indirect mechanism. No significant mediator release was seen in response to C5a and fMLP, even if the cells were pretreated with c-kit ligand. The mediator release, particularly that of leukotrienes, was higher in cells isolated from actively inflamed tissue from patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared with controls. In conclusion, it was found that, apart from IgE receptor crosslinking, c-kit ligand and interleukin 3 regulate mediator release in human intestinal mast cells. The enhancement of mediator release by cytokines may be of particular relevance in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and food intolerance reactions. PMID:8566835

  6. Ethanol Impairs Intestinal Barrier Function in Humans through Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Signaling: A Combined In Vivo and In Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Elamin, Elhaseen; Masclee, Ad; Troost, Freddy; Pieters, Harm-Jan; Keszthelyi, Daniel; Aleksa, Katarina; Dekker, Jan; Jonkers, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethanol-induced gut barrier disruption is associated with several gastrointestinal and liver disorders. Aim Since human data on effects of moderate ethanol consumption on intestinal barrier integrity and involved mechanisms are limited, the objectives of this study were to investigate effects of a single moderate ethanol dose on small and large intestinal permeability and to explore the role of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a primary signaling mechanism. Methods Intestinal permeability was assessed in 12 healthy volunteers after intraduodenal administration of either placebo or 20 g ethanol in a randomised cross-over trial. Localization of the tight junction (TJ) and gene expression, phosphorylation of the MAPK isoforms p38, ERK and JNK as indicative of activation were analyzed in duodenal biopsies. The role of MAPK was further examined in vitro using Caco-2 monolayers. Results Ethanol increased small and large intestinal permeability, paralleled by redistribution of ZO-1 and occludin, down-regulation of ZO-1 and up-regulation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA expression, and increased MAPK isoforms phosphorylation. In Caco-2 monolayers, ethanol increased permeability, induced redistribution of the junctional proteins and F-actin, and MAPK and MLCK activation, as indicated by phosphorylation of MAPK isoforms and myosin light chain (MLC), respectively, which could be reversed by pretreatment with either MAPK inhibitors or the anti-oxidant L-cysteine. Conclusions Administration of moderate ethanol dosage can increase both small and colon permeability. Furthermore, the data indicate a pivotal role for MAPK and its crosstalk with MLCK in ethanol-induced intestinal barrier disruption. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928733 PMID:25226407

  7. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-11-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-(2-TH)mannose or L-(5,6-TH)fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-(1,6-TH)glucosamine and L-(1- UC)fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced TH-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine.

  8. Distribution of beta 7 integrins in human intestinal mucosa and organized gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Farstad, I N; Halstensen, T S; Lien, B; Kilshaw, P J; Lazarovits, A I; Brandtzaeg, P; Lazarovitz, A I

    1996-01-01

    Two alternative integrins involved in mucosal homing (alpha 4 beta 7) or epithelial retention (alpha E beta 7) of lymphocytes were examined in the human gut. The distribution of the beta 7 subunit [monoclonal antibody (mAb) M301] was bimodal in that it was strongly expressed by alpha E beta 7 + cells but weakly by alpha 4 beta 7 + cells. More than 90% of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), including the minor subsets of CD4+, T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma/delta +, and CD3- cells, expressed alpha E beta 7 as did most lamina propria CD8+ (88%) and a fraction (36%) of CD4+ lymphocytes. Conversely, B-lineage cells (CD19+) and macrophages (CD68+) were negative. In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT: Peyer's patches and appendix) only a few (< 5%) cells were positive for alpha E beta 7 (confined to CD8+ lymphocytes and CD11c+ putative dendritic cells). A relatively small fraction of IEL (30-50%) expressed alpha 4 beta 7 (mAb Act-1), while most (70%) lamina propria T and B lymphocytes, blasts, plasma cells and macrophages were positive. In GALT, T lymphocytes expressed similar levels of alpha 4 beta 7 as in the lamina propria whereas relatively few B lymphocytes (< 50%) were positive. Isolated lamina propria CD8+, CD4+, CD19+, and CD38+ cells contained mRNA for alpha 4 and the former three subsets as well as appendix CD8+ cells also for beta 7 while only lamina propria CD8+ cells had mRNA for alpha E. Together, the results suggested that alpha E beta 7 and alpha 4 beta 7 are differentially regulated in inductive sites and effector sites of the human gut. Because lymphoid cells at both sites expressed mainly alpha 4 beta 7, this integrin may be a homing receptor on memory and effector cells bound for lamina propria as well as on naive lymphocytes extravasating in GALT. Conversely, because alpha E beta 7 was mainly expressed by CD8+ cells in epithelium and lamina propria, it was probably induced after extravasation, in agreement with the observation that IEL and a fraction of lamina propria T lymphocytes (mainly CD8+ cells) generally expressed higher levels of beta 7 than most CD4+ and B cells. Also a subset of putative dendritic cells located near the follicle-associated epithelium of GALT expressed alpha E beta 7, perhaps reflecting epithelial interaction during primary immune responses. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8943719

  9. Factors Determining Colorectal Cancer: The Role of the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Nistal, Esther; Fernández-Fernández, Nereida; Vivas, Santiago; Olcoz, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, in particular the colon, holds a complex community of microorganisms, which are essential for maintaining homeostasis. However, in recent years, many studies have implicated microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), with this disease considered a major cause of death in the western world. The mechanisms underlying bacterial contribution in its development are complex and are not yet fully understood. However, there is increasing evidence showing a connection between intestinal microbiota and CRC. Intestinal microorganisms cause the onset and progression of CRC using different mechanisms, such as the induction of a chronic inflammation state, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation, the production of toxic metabolites, or heterocyclic amine activation of pro-diet carcinogenic compounds. Despite these advances, additional studies in humans and animal models will further decipher the relationship between microbiota and CRC, and aid in developing alternate therapies based on microbiota manipulation. PMID:26528432

  10. Microbiota-mediated colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Buffie, Charlie G.; Pamer, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Commensal bacteria inhabit mucosal and epidermal surfaces in mice and humans, and have effects on metabolic and immune pathways in their hosts. Recent studies indicate that the commensal microbiota can be manipulated to prevent and even to cure infections that are caused by pathogenic bacteria, particularly pathogens that are broadly resistant to antibiotics, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile. In this Review, we discuss how immune- mediated colonization resistance against antibiotic-resistant intestinal pathogens is influenced by the composition of the commensal microbiota. We also review recent advances characterizing the ability of different commensal bacterial families, genera and species to restore colonization resistance to intestinal pathogens in antibiotic-treated hosts. PMID:24096337

  11. Toxic effects of a modified montmorillonite clay on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Maisanaba, Sara; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Pichardo, Silvia; Moreno, F Javier; Jordá, María; Cameán, Ana M; Aucejo, Susana; Jos, Angeles

    2014-06-01

    The incorporation of the natural mineral clay montmorillonite into polymeric systems enhances their barrier properties as well as their thermal and mechanical resistance, making them suitable for a wide range of industrial applications, e.g., in the food industry. Considering humans could easily be exposed to these clays due to migration into food, toxicological and health effects of clay exposure should be studied. In the present work, the cytotoxic effects induced by two different clays (the unmodified clay Cloisite(®) Na(+) , and the organically modified Cloisite(®) 30B) on Caco-2 cells were studied after 24 and 48 h of exposure. The basal cytotoxicity endpoints assessed were total protein content, neutral red uptake and a tetrazolium salt reduction. Our results showed that only Cloisite(®) 30B induced toxic effects. Therefore, the effects of subcytotoxic concentrations of this clay on the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, glutathione content and DNA damage (comet assay) were investigated. Results indicate that oxidative stress may be implicated in the toxicity induced by Closite(®) 30B, in regards of the increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species production and glutathione content at the highest concentration assayed, while no damage was observed in DNA. The most remarkable morphological alterations observed were dilated cisternae edge in the Golgi apparatus and nucleolar segregation, suggesting impairment in the secretory functions, which could be related to inhibition in the synthesis of proteins. PMID:24122917

  12. Human intestinal microbiota gene risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: perspectives for prevention. Risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    De La Cochetière, Marie France; Montassier, Emmanuel; Hardouin, Jean-Benoît; Carton, Thomas; Le Vacon, Françoise; Durand, Tony; Lalande, Valérie; Petit, Jean-Claude; Potel, Gilles; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is associated with altered intestinal microflora and other symptoms that may lead to possibly death. In critically ill patients, diarrhea increases rates of morbimortality. Assessing diarrhea risks is thus important for clinicians. For this reason, we conducted a hypothesis-generating study focused on antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) to provide insight into methods of prevention. We evaluated the hypothesis of predisposing factors within the resident intestinal microbiota in a cohort of outpatients receiving antibiotherapy. Among the pool of tested variables, only those related to bacterial 16S rRNA genes were found to be relevant. Complex statistical analyses provided further information: amid the bacteria 16S rRNA genes, eight were determined to be essential for diarrhea predisposition and characterized from the most important to the least. Using these markers, AAD risk could be estimated with an error of 2%. This molecular analysis offers new perspectives for clinical applications at the level of prevention. PMID:20186408

  13. Integrative analysis of the microbiome and metabolome of the human intestinal mucosal surface reveals exquisite inter-relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consistent compositional shifts in the gut microbiota are observed in IBD and other chronic intestinal disorders and may contribute to pathogenesis. The identities of microbial biomolecular mechanisms and metabolic products responsible for disease phenotypes remain to be determined, as do the means by which such microbial functions may be therapeutically modified. Results The composition of the microbiota and metabolites in gut microbiome samples in 47 subjects were determined. Samples were obtained by endoscopic mucosal lavage from the cecum and sigmoid colon regions, and each sample was sequenced using the 16S rRNA gene V4 region (Illumina-HiSeq 2000 platform) and assessed by UPLC mass spectroscopy. Spearman correlations were used to identify widespread, statistically significant microbial-metabolite relationships. Metagenomes for identified microbial OTUs were imputed using PICRUSt, and KEGG metabolic pathway modules for imputed genes were assigned using HUMAnN. The resulting metabolic pathway abundances were mostly concordant with metabolite data. Analysis of the metabolome-driven distribution of OTU phylogeny and function revealed clusters of clades that were both metabolically and metagenomically similar. Conclusions The results suggest that microbes are syntropic with mucosal metabolome composition and therefore may be the source of and/or dependent upon gut epithelial metabolites. The consistent relationship between inferred metagenomic function and assayed metabolites suggests that metagenomic composition is predictive to a reasonable degree of microbial community metabolite pools. The finding that certain metabolites strongly correlate with microbial community structure raises the possibility of targeting metabolites for monitoring and/or therapeutically manipulating microbial community function in IBD and other chronic diseases. PMID:24450808

  14. D-cycloserine transport in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells: mediation by a H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, D. T.; Armstrong, G.; Hirst, B. H.; Simmons, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    1. The ability of D-cycloserine to act as a substrate for H+/amino acid symport has been tested in epithelial layers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells. 2. In Na(+)-free media with the apical bathing media held at pH 6.0, D-cycloserine (20 mM) is an effective inhibitor of net transepithelial transport (Jnet) of L-alanine (100 microM) and its accumulation (across the apical membrane) in a similar manner to amino acid substrates (L-alanine, beta-alanine, L-proline and glycine). In contrast L-valine was ineffective as an inhibitor for H+/amino acid symport. Both inhibition of L-alanine Jnet and its accumulation by D-cycloserine were dose-dependent, maximal inhibition being achieved by 5-10 mM. 3. Both D-cycloserine and known substrates for H+/amino acid symport stimulated an inward short circuit current (Isc) when voltage-clamped monolayers of Caco-2 epithelia, mounted in Ussing chambers, were exposed to apical substrate in Na(+)-free media, with apical pH held at 6.0. The D-cycloserine dependent increase in Isc was dose-dependent with an apparent Km = 15.8 +/- 2.0 (mean +/- s.e. mean) mM, and Vmax = 373 +/- 21 nmol cm-2h-1. 4. D-Cycloserine (20 mM) induced a prompt acidification of Caco-2 cell cytosol when superfused at the apical surface in both Na+ and Na(+)-free conditions. Cytosolic acidification in response to D-cycloserine was dependent upon superfusate pH, being attenuated at pH 8 and enhanced in acidic media. 5. The increment in Isc with 20 mM D-cycloserine was non-additive with other amino acid substrates for H+/amino acid symport. PMID:8548174

  15. Differential multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 through 6 isoform expression and function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Prime-Chapman, Hannah M; Fearn, Richard A; Cooper, Anne E; Moore, Vanessa; Hirst, Barry H

    2004-11-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) isoforms 1 through 6 mRNA are expressed in the human intestine and Caco-2 cells. In Caco-2 cells, the rank order for mRNA expression was MRP2 > or = MRP6 > MRP4 > or = MRP3 > MRP1 = MRP5. The functional expression of MRP-like activity was quantified as the efflux of the fluorescent probe calcein from confluent, polarized monolayers of Caco-2 cells. Calcein efflux was sensitive to temperature, energy depletion, and the MRP antagonist MK571 [3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid]. Calcein efflux across the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells exceeded that across the basolateral by approximately 2-fold, correlating with the apical localization of MRP2 visualized by immunocytochemical staining. T84 cells do not express MRP2 and show a predominance of basolateral calcein efflux over apical efflux. MRP3 was localized by immunocytochemical staining to the basolateral membrane. MRP1 staining was not localized to either membrane domain and MRP5 staining was not detected. Thus, basolateral calcein efflux may reflect a function of MRP3 or MRP4 and 6 inferred by their basolateral localization in other tissues. Basolateral, but not apical, calcein efflux was sensitive to glutathione depletion with buthioninesulfoximine, indicating that whereas MRP2-mediated apical efflux is independent of glutathione, basolateral efflux is glutathione-dependent. Benzbromarone, probenecid, pravastatin, and diclofenac were able to inhibit both apical and basolateral calcein efflux. The apical calcein efflux in Caco-2 cells was selectively sensitive to indomethacin and propranolol, but not verapamil or erythromycin, whereas the converse was observed for basal efflux. The differential pharmacological sensitivity of apical (MRP2) and basolateral calcein efflux provides tools for dissecting MRP isoform functional roles. PMID:15210835

  16. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide/vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors in human normal mammary gland and breast cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, M Olga; Collado, Beatriz; Bodega, Guillermo; Cortés, Joaquin; Ruíz-Villaespesa, Antonio; Carmena, Maria J; Prieto, Juan Carlos

    2005-06-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) bind similarly to VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, whereas PACAP binds with higher affinity than VIP to PAC1 receptors. Here we demonstrate by different approaches the expression of the three subclasses of PACAP/VIP receptors in human normal and malignant breast tissue. At the mRNA level, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments showed VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors as well as various isoforms (null, hip/hop) of PAC1 receptors due to alternative splicing. At the protein level, Western blot experiments revealed the three subclasses of receptor although no conclusive differences could be established when comparing control, peritumoral and tumoral tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry showed the distribution of these receptors: they were located at epithelial cells in normal and cancer conditions but also in leukocytes at the stromal level in carcinomatous tissue. A weaker immunostaining of PAC1 receptors in normal tissue and a strong density of the three PACAP/VIP receptor subclasses in cancer tissue may be related to differential expression patterns during breast tumor progression but more samples need to be studied to validate this hypothesis. PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors were functional, as shown by their coupling to adenylate cyclase stimulation: VIP, PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 behaved similarly at this level, whereas both VPAC receptors acted alike as shown by means of specific peptide agonists and antagonists. The present results together with the known presence of PACAP and VIP in the mammary gland support a paracrine/autocrine involvement of both peptides at this level in physiological and pathological conditions, i.e. during malignant transformation. PMID:16019382

  17. Metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and prenylflavonoids by intestinal bacteria: producer phenotyping and relation with intestinal community.

    PubMed

    Possemiers, Sam; Bolca, Selin; Eeckhaut, Ellen; Depypere, Herman; Verstraete, Willy

    2007-08-01

    Many studies have investigated the importance of the intestinal bacterial activation of individual phytoestrogens. However, human nutrition contains different phytoestrogens and the final exposure depends on the microbial potential to activate all different groups within each individual. In this work, interindividual variations in the bacterial activation of the different phytoestrogens were assessed. Incubation of feces from 100 individuals using SoyLife EXTRA, LinumLife EXTRA and isoxanthohumol suggested that individuals could be separated into high, moderate and low O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), equol, enterodiol (END), enterolactone (ENL) or 8-prenylnaringenin producers, but that the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and prenylflavonoids follows separate, independent pathways. However, O-DMA and equol production correlated negatively, whereas a positive correlation was found between END and ENL production. In addition, END production correlated negatively with Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale counts. Furthermore, O-DMA production was correlated with the abundance of methanogens, whereas equol production correlated with sulfate-reducing bacteria, indicating that the metabolic fate of daidzein may be related to intestinal H(2) metabolism. PMID:17506823

  18. Identification and characterization of the minimal 5'-regulatory region of the human riboflavin transporter-3 (SLC52A3) in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Sabui, Subrata; Said, Hamid M

    2015-01-15

    The human riboflavin (RF) transporter-3 (product of the SLC52A3 gene) plays an important role in intestinal RF absorption. Our aims in this study were to identify the minimal 5'-regulatory region of the SLC52A3 gene and the regulatory element(s) involved in its activity in intestinal epithelial cells, as well as to confirm promoter activity and establish physiological relevance in vivo in transgenic mice. With the use of transiently transfected human intestinal epithelial HuTu 80 cells and 5'-deletion analysis, the minimal SLC52A3 promoter was found to be encoded between -199 and +8 bp (using the start of the transcription start site as position 1). Although several putative cis-regulatory elements were predicted in this region, only the stimulating protein-1 (Sp1) binding site (at position -74/-71 bp) was found to play a role in promoter activity, as indicated by mutational analysis. Binding of Sp1 to the minimal SLC52A3 promoter was demonstrated by means of EMSA and supershift assays and by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Studies with Drosophila SL2 cells (which lack Sp activity) confirmed the importance of Sp1 in driving the activity of the SLC52A3 minimal promoter; they further showed that Sp3 can also do the activation. Finally, with the use of luciferase gene fusions, the activity of the cloned SLC52A3 promoter was confirmed in vivo in transgenic mice. These studies report, for the first time, on the identification and characterization of the SLC52A3 promoter and also demonstrate the importance of Sp1 in regulating its activity in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:25394472

  19. The interaction of human peripheral blood eosinophils with bacterial lipopolysaccharide is CD14 dependent.

    PubMed

    Plötz, S G; Lentschat, A; Behrendt, H; Plötz, W; Hamann, L; Ring, J; Rietschel, E T; Flad, H D; Ulmer, A J

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a ubiquitous component of dust and air pollution and is suspected to contribute after inhalation to an activation of eosinophils in bronchial tissues of asthmatic patients, provoking inflammatory and allergic processes. We were therefore interested in the interaction of eosinophil granulocytes with LPS and have examined the activation of and uptake to human peripheral blood eosinophils by LPS. Eosinophils were stimulated by LPS and the endotoxic component lipid A and the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and of the eosinophil-specific granule protein eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was estimated. The results show induction of TNF-alpha and ECP-release by LPS and lipid A in a dose-dependent manner. Anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody (moAb) (clone MEM-18) and the synthetic lipid A partial structure 406 blocked the release of TNF-alpha and ECP by LPS-stimulated eosinophils. Studies with radioactively labeled LPS showed dose-dependent uptake of (3)H-LPS to eosinophils. The (3)H-LPS uptake was found to be specific because preincubation with unlabeled LPS, compound 406 and also anti-CD14 antibodies inhibited uptake of (3)H-LPS to eosinophil granulocytes. By flow cytometry using anti-CD14 moAb and by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique, CD14 expression was detectable. Furthermore, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and TLR 4 was detected, indicating the presence of these CD14 coreceptors. The results indicate that eosinophils can take up LPS and can be stimulated by LPS in a CD14-dependent manner. Hence, in addition to allergens, eosinophils interact with endotoxin, a process that possibly exacerbates ongoing inflammatory and allergic processes. PMID:11133766

  20. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Bacterial Growth on Human Ossicles Explanted from Cholesteatoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ostwald, Jürgen; Lindner, Tobias; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Arndt, Kathleen; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Podbielski, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment can eliminate cholesteatoma cells from explanted human ossicles prior to re-insertion. We analyzed the effects of HHP treatment on the microbial flora on ossicles and on the planktonic and biofilm states of selected isolates. Methodology Twenty-six ossicles were explanted from cholesteatoma patients. Five ossicles were directly analyzed for microbial growth without further treatment. Fifteen ossicles were cut into two pieces. One piece was exposed to HHP of 350 MPa for 10 minutes. Both the treated and untreated (control) pieces were then assessed semi-quantitatively. Three ossicles were cut into two pieces and exposed to identical pressure conditions with or without the addition of one of two different combinations of antibiotics to the medium. Differential effects of 10-minute in vitro exposure of planktonic and biofilm bacteria to pressures of 100 MPa, 250 MPa, 400 MPa and 540 MPa in isotonic and hypotonic media were analyzed using two patient isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Neisseria subflava. Bacterial cell inactivation and biofilm destruction were assessed by colony counting and electron microscopy. Principal Findings A variety of microorganisms were isolated from the ossicles. Irrespective of the medium, HHP treatment at 350 MPa for 10 minutes led to satisfying but incomplete inactivation especially of Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of antibiotics increased the efficacy of elimination. A comparison of HHP treatment of planktonic and biofilm cells showed that the effects of HPP were reduced by about one decadic logarithmic unit when HPP was applied to biofilms. High hydrostatic pressure conditions that are suitable to inactivate cholesteatoma cells fail to completely sterilize ossicles even if antibiotics are added. As a result of the reduced microbial load and the viability loss of surviving bacteria, however, there is a lower risk of re-infection after re-insertion. PMID:22291908

  1. Human Mitochondrial DNA and Endogenous Bacterial Surrogates for Risk Assessment of Graywater Reuse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous graywater risk assessment studies have focused on fecal contamination, yet the low density of fecal indicators may not provide the most useful approach to assess pathogen removal during graywater treatment. In this study, we employed high throughput bacterial sequencing ...

  2. Evolutionary remodeling of global regulatory networks during long-term bacterial adaptation to human hosts

    E-print Network

    Yang, Lei

    The genetic basis of bacterial adaptation to a natural environment has been investigated in a highly successful Pseudomonas aeruginosa lineage (DK2) that evolved within the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) for ...

  3. Intestinal absorption mechanism of mirabegron, a potent and selective ??-adrenoceptor agonist: involvement of human efflux and/or influx transport systems.

    PubMed

    Takusagawa, Shin; Ushigome, Fumihiko; Nemoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Li, Qun; Kerbusch, Virginie; Miyashita, Aiji; Iwatsubo, Takafumi; Usui, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Mirabegron, a weak-basic compound, is a potent and selective ?3-adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder. Mirabegron extended release formulation shows dose-dependent oral bioavailability in humans, which is likely attributable to saturation of intestinal efflux abilities leading to higher absorption with higher doses. This study evaluated the membrane permeability of mirabegron and investigated the involvement of human intestinal transport proteins in the membrane permeation of mirabegron. Transcellular transport and cellular/vesicular uptake assays were performed using Caco-2 cells and/or human intestinal efflux (P-glycoprotein [P-gp], breast cancer resistance protein [BCRP], and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 [MRP2]) and influx (peptide transporter 1 [PEPT1], OATP1A2, and OATP2B1) transporter-expressing cells, vesicles, or Xenopus laevis oocytes. The absorptive permeability coefficients of mirabegron in Caco-2 cells (1.68-1.83 × 10(-6) cm/s) at the apical and basal pH of 6.5 and 7.4, respectively, were slightly higher than those of nadolol (0.97-1.41 × 10(-6) cm/s), a low permeability reference standard, but lower than those of metoprolol and propranolol (both ranged from 8.49 to 11.6 × 10(-6) cm/s), low/high permeability boundary reference standards. Increasing buffer pH at the apical side from 5.5 to 8.0 gradually increased the absorptive permeation of mirabegron from 0.226 to 1.66 × 10(-6) cm/s, but was still less than the value in the opposite direction (11.0-14.2 × 10(-6) cm/s). The time- and concentration-dependent transport of mirabegron was observed in P-gp-expressing cells and OATP1A2-expressing oocytes with apparent Km values of 294 and 8.59 ?M, respectively. In contrast, no clear BCRP-, MRP2-, PEPT1-, or OATP2B1-mediated uptake of mirabegron was observed in their expressing vesicles or cells. These findings suggest that mirabegron has low-to-moderate membrane permeability and P-gp is likely to be involved in its efflux into the lumen in the intestinal absorption process. The results also suggest that mirabegron could possibly be transported by intestinal influx transporters as well as simple diffusion. PMID:23560393

  4. The human intestinal microbiome at extreme ages of life. Dietary intervention as a way to counteract alterations

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Nuria; Arboleya, Silvia; Valdés, Lorena; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, Paul; Ruiz, Lorena; Gueimonde, Miguel; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiome is defined as the assembly of genomes from microorganisms inhabiting the gut. This microbial ecosystem regulates important functions of the host and its correct composition and functionality is essential for a “healthy status.” Metagenomic studies have highlighted variations of the intestinal microbiota as a function of age and diet. Colonization of the infant gut starts at birth and is influenced by feeding habits (formula vs. breast-feeding), birth mode and antibiotic exposure. The intestinal microbiota of full-term vaginally delivered breast-fed infants is considered the gold-standard, representing the reference for studies of alterations in other pediatric populations. At 2–3 years of age, the intestinal microbiota reaches a composition similar to adults, remaining without noticeable variations until senescence, when microbial instability and changes reappear. Here we summarize the current knowledge on intestinal microbiota alterations at extreme stages of life and tools for designing differentiated nutritional strategies by the use of probiotics, prebiotics and specific nutrients in order to restore a balanced microbiota and to improve immune and nutritional status. PMID:25484891

  5. Human biokinetics of strontium--part II: Final data evaluation of intestinal absorption and urinary excretion of strontium in human subjects after stable tracer administration.

    PubMed

    Höllriegl, Vera; Li, Wei Bo; Oeh, Uwe

    2006-09-01

    Fractional intestinal absorption (f1 value) and urinary excretion of strontium in healthy human volunteers has been measured by simultaneous oral and intravenous administration of the stable isotopes 86Sr and 84Sr using the double-isotope method. Final evaluation of the complete data set confirmed that ingestion of different foodstuff and nutritional factors could influence the fractional gut uptake of strontium. In some cases, significant deviations from the f1 value adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were found. The arithmetic mean (+/- standard deviation) of the f1 values of all experiments performed was determined to be 0.46 (+/- 0.24). The probability distribution function of the f1 values is represented by a lognormal curve with a geometric mean of 0.38 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.06. Urinary excretion in all subjects varied depending on the administered foodstuff in a wide range and differs from the ICRP model, up to 2 days after tracer administration. No age or gender dependence of the absorbed strontium fraction and of the urinary excretion of strontium after an oral load was found. PMID:16897061

  6. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part II – contemporary contextual research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest concerning the ways in which the gastrointestinal tract – its functional integrity and microbial residents – might influence human mood (e.g. depression) and behavioral disorders. Once a hotbed of scientific interest in the early 20th century, this area lay dormant for decades, in part due to its association with the controversial term ‘autointoxication’. Here we review contemporary findings related to intestinal permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) exposure, D-lactic acid, propionic acid, and discuss their relevance to microbiota and mental health. In addition, we include the context of modern dietary habits as they relate to depression, anxiety and their potential interaction with intestinal microbiota. PMID:23497633

  7. Cladophora (Chlorophyta) spp. harbor human bacterial pathogens in nearshore water of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishii, S.; Yan, T.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Sadowsky, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Cladophora glomerata, a macrophytic green alga, is commonly found in the Great Lakes, and significant accumulations occur along shorelines during the summer months. Recently, Cladophora has been shown to harbor high densities of the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci. Cladophora may also harbor human pathogens; however, until now, no studies to address this question have been performed. In the present study, we determined whether attached Cladophora, obtained from the Lake Michigan and Burns Ditch (Little Calumet River, Indiana) sides of a breakwater during the summers of 2004 and 2005, harbored the bacterial pathogens Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter. The presence of potential pathogens and numbers of organisms were determined by using cultural methods and by using conventional PCR, most-probable-number PCR (MPN-PCR), and quantitative PCR (QPCR) performed with genus- and toxin-specific primers and probes. While Shigella and STEC were detected in 100% and 25%, respectively, of the algal samples obtained near Burns Ditch in 2004, the same pathogens were not detected in samples collected in 2005. MPN-PCR and QPCR allowed enumeration of Salmonella in 40 to 80% of the ditch- and lakeside samples, respectively, and the densities were up to 1.6 ?? 103 cells per g Cladophora. Similarly, these PCR methods allowed enumeration of up to 5.4 ?? 10 2 Campylobacter cells/g Cladophora in 60 to 100% of lake- and ditchside samples. The Campylobacter densities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the lakeside Cladophora samples than in the ditchside Cladophora samples. DNA fingerprint analyses indicated that genotypically identical Salmonella isolates were associated with geographically and temporally distinct Cladophora samples. However, Campylobacter isolates were genetically diverse. Since animal hosts are thought to be the primary habitat for Campylobacter and Salmonella species, our results suggest that Cladophora is a likely secondary habitat for pathogenic bacteria in Lake Michigan and that the association of these bacteria with Cladophora warrants additional studies to assess the potential health impact on beach users. Copyright ?? 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. A Rapid Crosstalk of Human ?? T Cells and Monocytes Drives the Acute Inflammation in Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Eberl, Matthias; Roberts, Gareth W.; Meuter, Simone; Williams, John D.; Topley, Nicholas; Moser, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    V?9/V?2 T cells are a minor subset of T cells in human blood and differ from other T cells by their immediate responsiveness to microbes. We previously demonstrated that the primary target for V?9/V?2 T cells is (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP), an essential metabolite produced by a large range of pathogens. Here we wished to study the consequence of this unique responsiveness in microbial infection. The majority of peripheral V?9/V?2 T cells shares migration properties with circulating monocytes, which explains the presence of these two distinct blood cell types in the inflammatory infiltrate at sites of infection and suggests that they synergize in anti-microbial immune responses. Our present findings demonstrate a rapid and HMB-PP-dependent crosstalk between V?9/V?2 T cells and autologous monocytes that results in the immediate production of inflammatory mediators including the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and oncostatin M (OSM); the chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, and CXCL10; and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Moreover, under these co-culture conditions monocytes differentiate within 18 hours into inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) with antigen-presenting functions. Addition of further microbial stimuli (lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan) induces CCR7 and enables these inflammatory DCs to trigger the generation of CD4+ effector ?? T cells expressing IFN-? and/or IL-17. Importantly, our in vitro model replicates the responsiveness to microbes of effluent cells from peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and translates directly to episodes of acute PD-associated bacterial peritonitis, where V?9/V?2 T cell numbers and soluble inflammatory mediators are elevated in patients infected with HMB-PP-producing pathogens. Collectively, these findings suggest a direct link between invading pathogens, microbe-responsive ?? T cells, and monocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate, which plays a crucial role in the early response and the generation of microbe-specific immunity. PMID:19229322

  9. Cladophora (Chlorophyta) spp. harbor human bacterial pathogens in nearshore water of Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Yan, Tao; Shively, Dawn A; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Whitman, Richard L; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Cladophora glomerata, a macrophytic green alga, is commonly found in the Great Lakes, and significant accumulations occur along shorelines during the summer months. Recently, Cladophora has been shown to harbor high densities of the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci. Cladophora may also harbor human pathogens; however, until now, no studies to address this question have been performed. In the present study, we determined whether attached Cladophora, obtained from the Lake Michigan and Burns Ditch (Little Calumet River, Indiana) sides of a breakwater during the summers of 2004 and 2005, harbored the bacterial pathogens Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter. The presence of potential pathogens and numbers of organisms were determined by using cultural methods and by using conventional PCR, most-probable-number PCR (MPN-PCR), and quantitative PCR (QPCR) performed with genus- and toxin-specific primers and probes. While Shigella and STEC were detected in 100% and 25%, respectively, of the algal samples obtained near Burns Ditch in 2004, the same pathogens were not detected in samples collected in 2005. MPN-PCR and QPCR allowed enumeration of Salmonella in 40 to 80% of the ditch- and lakeside samples, respectively, and the densities were up to 1.6 x 10(3) cells per g Cladophora. Similarly, these PCR methods allowed enumeration of up to 5.4 x 10(2) Campylobacter cells/g Cladophora in 60 to 100% of lake- and ditchside samples. The Campylobacter densities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the lakeside Cladophora samples than in the ditchside Cladophora samples. DNA fingerprint analyses indicated that genotypically identical Salmonella isolates were associated with geographically and temporally distinct Cladophora samples. However, Campylobacter isolates were genetically diverse. Since animal hosts are thought to be the primary habitat for Campylobacter and Salmonella species, our results suggest that Cladophora is a likely secondary habitat for pathogenic bacteria in Lake Michigan and that the association of these bacteria with Cladophora warrants additional studies to assess the potential health impact on beach users. PMID:16820442

  10. Dietary-fiber-degrading enzymes from a human intestinal Clostridium and their application to oligosaccharide production from nonstarchy polysaccharides using immobilized cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, N; Ishihara, K; Matsuura, Y

    2002-07-01

    The secretion of nonstarchy polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, Clostridium butyricum- beijerinckii (isolated from human feces), was investigated. Growth of the bacterium was found when laminarin, konjac glucomannan, and pectic acid were added separately to the culture media as sole carbon source. The corresponding degrading enzymes for these dietary fibers, laminarinase (endo-1,3- beta-glucanase), endo-1,4-beta-mannanase, endo- and exo-pectate lyases, and pectin methylesterase, were then purified and characterized. These extracelluar enzymes, which were secreted by the bacterium in the human large intestine, were considered to contribute to digestion of the ingested dietary fibers to their oligosaccharides, following by short-chain fatty acid fermentation by the bacterium. We have developed cell immobilization techniques of the bacterium on cellulose-foam carriers that are effective for continuous production of the oligosaccharides from the dietary fibers in a fed-batch reactor system. From 9 g of pectic acid, a total of 3.96 g of 4,5-unsaturated digalacturonic acid was produced over 40 h in four 500-ml batchcultures. In the same manner, the corresponding oligosaccharides were obtained from konjac glucomannan and laminarin with average conversion rates of around 30-40%. PMID:12111144

  11. Quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi Membrane Proteins in Human Serum: A New Concept for Detection of Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Crystal S F; Anderson, Kyle W; Benitez, Kenia Y Villatoro; Soloski, Mark J; Aucott, John N; Phinney, Karen W; Turko, Illarion V

    2015-11-17

    The Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the United States. The low abundance of bacterial proteins in human serum during infection imposes a challenge for early proteomic detection of Lyme disease. To address this challenge, we propose to detect membrane proteins released from bacteria due to disruption of their plasma membrane triggered by the innate immune system. These membrane proteins can be separated from the bulk of serum proteins by high-speed centrifugation causing substantial sample enrichment prior to targeted protein quantification using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. This new approach was first applied to detection of B. burgdorferi membrane proteins supplemented in human serum. Our results indicated that detection of B. burgdorferi membrane proteins, which are ?10(7) lower in abundance than major serum proteins, is feasible. Therefore, quantitative analysis was also carried out for serum samples from three patients with acute Lyme disease. We were able to demonstrate the detection of ospA, the major B. burgdorferi lipoprotein at the level of 4.0 fmol of ospA/mg of serum protein. The results confirm the concept and suggest that the proposed approach can be expanded to detect other bacterial infections in humans, particularly where existing diagnostics are unreliable. PMID:26491962

  12. Immune response and the intestinal microbiota in control of susceptibility to Heligmosomoides polygyrus 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, Lisa Anne

    2013-06-29

    The mammalian intestinal tract is highly colonised with a diverse bacterial microbiota. The importance of this bacterial presence is now recognised; these bacteria contribute both to the nutritional status of their hosts ...

  13. Spectral Markers in Preneoplastic Intestinal Mucosa: An Accurate Predictor of Tumor Risk in the MIN Mouse

    E-print Network

    Kim, Young L.

    Spectral Markers in Preneoplastic Intestinal Mucosa: An Accurate Predictor of Tumor Risk in the MIN intestinal tumorigenesis, thus replicating the human syn- drome, familial adenomatous polyposis. Spectral tumorigenesis. Additionally, these markers spatially correlated with future adenoma development (small intestine

  14. Insight into bacterial virulence mechanisms against host immune response via the Yersinia pestis-human protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiying; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Jian; Tan, Yafang; Myeni, Sebenzile K; Li, Dong; Shi, Qinghai; Yan, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Guo, Zhaobiao; Yuan, Yanzhi; Yang, Xiaoming; Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin

    2011-11-01

    A Yersinia pestis-human protein interaction network is reported here to improve our understanding of its pathogenesis. Up to 204 interactions between 66 Y. pestis bait proteins and 109 human proteins were identified by yeast two-hybrid assay and then combined with 23 previously published interactions to construct a protein-protein interaction network. Topological analysis of the interaction network revealed that human proteins targeted by Y. pestis were significantly enriched in the proteins that are central in the human protein-protein interaction network. Analysis of this network showed that signaling pathways important for host immune responses were preferentially targeted by Y. pestis, including the pathways involved in focal adhesion, regulation of cytoskeleton, leukocyte transendoepithelial migration, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Cellular pathways targeted by Y. pestis are highly relevant to its pathogenesis. Interactions with host proteins involved in focal adhesion and cytoskeketon regulation pathways could account for resistance of Y. pestis to phagocytosis. Interference with TLR and MAPK signaling pathways by Y. pestis reflects common characteristics of pathogen-host interaction that bacterial pathogens have evolved to evade host innate immune response by interacting with proteins in those signaling pathways. Interestingly, a large portion of human proteins interacting with Y. pestis (16/109) also interacted with viral proteins (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]), suggesting that viral and bacterial pathogens attack common cellular functions to facilitate infections. In addition, we identified vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a novel interaction partner of YpkA and showed that YpkA could inhibit in vitro actin assembly mediated by VASP. PMID:21911467

  15. Screening and identification of three typical phenylethanoid glycosides metabolites from Cistanches Herba by human intestinal bacteria using UPLC/Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhou, Guisheng; Peng, Ying; Tu, Pengfei; Li, Xiaobo

    2016-01-25

    Acteoside, isoacteoside, and 2'-acetylacteoside are three representative phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), which are widely distributed in many plants and also known as the active components of Cistanches Herba. However, the extremely low oral bioavailability of acteoside in rats implies that these structural similar components may go through multiple sequential routes of hydrolysis in gastrointestinal tract before they are absorbed into blood. Therefore, the metabolites of these three components and other PhGs from gastrointestinal tract such as echinacoside, are supposed to be the bioactive elements. In this study, we established an approach combining ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) with MS(E) technology and MetaboLynx™ software for the rapid metabolic profiling of acteoside, isoacteoside, and 2'-acetylacteoside by human intestinal bacteria. As a result, 11 metabolites of acteoside, 7 metabolites of isoacteoside, and 11 metabolites of 2'-acetylacteoside were identified respectively. 8 metabolic pathways including deglycosylation, de-rhamnose, de-hydroxytyrosol, de-caffeoyl, deacetylation, reduction, acetylation, and sulfate conjugation were proposed to involve in the generation of these metabolites. Furthermore, we found that the degraded metabolites hydroxytyrosol (HT) and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic (3-HPP) were transformed from acteoside, isoacteoside, and 2'-acetylacteoside by human intestinal bacteria and demonstrated similar bioactivities to their precursors. These findings are significant for our understanding of the metabolism of PhGs and the proposed metabolic pathways of bioactive components might be crucial for further pharmacokinetic evaluations of Cistanches Herba. PMID:26551535

  16. [Effect of orally administered lenampicillin and ampicillin on bacterial flora in human adult feces].

    PubMed

    Motohiro, T; Kawakami, A; Aramaki, M; Tanaka, K; Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Tomita, S; Sakata, Y; Fujimoto, T; Nishiyama, T

    1986-08-01

    Newly developed lenampicillin (LAPC) which is a prodrug of ampicillin (ABPC), and ampicillin (as the control) were each administered to 6 healthy male volunteers, aged from 21 to 25 years (mean 22.4 years) and weighing 57-78 kg (mean 67.0 kg) to study the effect of LAPC and ABPC on fecal bacterial flora. Each drug was given orally 3 times daily (after meals) with each dose of 250 mg for five days. Changes of the fecal bacterial flora caused by the antibiotic were investigated by determining fecal bacterial counts on the 3rd day before the treatment, 0 (the start of treatment), 3rd and 5th days (the final day of treatment) during treatment, and 3rd, 5th and 10th days after the treatment. Fecal concentrations of LAPC and the metabolites (ABPC, 2-aminobenzyl penicilloic acid (ABPA) and 5S-ABPA) for the LAPC group and ABPC for the ABPC group were assayed. A single dose of 500 mg of LAPC was administered orally after breakfast to additional 6 healthy male volunteers and concentrations of LAPC, metabolites (ABPC, ABPA and 5S-ABPA) in the entire stool were determined daily for 5 successive days after the administration. Clinical adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory-findings caused by either drug were studied in the 18 volunteers. The results obtained are summarized as follows. In the bacterial flora of the 6 volunteers to whom LAPC was administered (the LAPC group), the number of isolated E. coli showed no tend of decrease. Mean bacterial counts obtained 3 days before the treatment and at the day of the treatment were 10(9) and 10(8) cells/g, respectively. These values were compared to the counts obtained on the 3rd and the 5th days during the treatment and were found to be about 10(2)-folds as high as the latter. The decreased counts observed on the 3rd and the 5th days did not last and counts increased again to similar levels observed before the treatment. Klebsiella sp. was isolated from 1 or 2 samples before the treatment. It was isolated from as many as 5-6 cases with mean bacterial counts of 10(7)-10(11) cells/g during and up to 5 days after the treatment. The frequency of isolation then decreased to 4 cases on the 10th day after the treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3795477

  17. Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1beta effect and increase in the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Marc; Yahi, Nouara; Younès-Sakr, Lama; Boyron, Marilyn; Caporiccio, Bertrand; Fantini, Jacques

    2008-04-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites responsible of food-mediated intoxication in animals and humans. Deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin are the best known enteropathogenic mycotoxins able to alter intestinal functions resulting in malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Although their effects on intestinal barrier and transport activities have been extensively characterized, the mechanisms responsible for their pro-inflammatory effect are still poorly understood. Here we investigated if mycotoxin-induced intestinal inflammation results from a direct and/or indirect pro-inflammatory activity of these mycotoxins on human intestinal epithelial cells, using differentiated Caco-2 cells as model and interleukin 8 (IL-8) as an indicator of intestinal inflammation. Deoxynivalenol was the only mycotoxin able to directly increase IL-8 secretion (10- to 15-fold increase). We also investigated if these mycotoxins could indirectly stimulate IL-8 secretion through: (i) a modulation of the action of pro-inflammatory molecules such as the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and/or (ii) an increase in the transepithelial passage of non-invasive commensal Escherichia coli. We found that deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin all potentiated the effect of IL-1beta on IL-8 secretion (ranging from 35% to 138% increase) and increased the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria (ranging from 12- to 1544-fold increase). In addition to potentially exacerbate established intestinal inflammation, these mycotoxins may thus participate in the induction of sepsis and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins is mediated by both direct and indirect effects. PMID:18308354

  18. Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: Stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1{beta} effect and increase in the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, Marc; Yahi, Nouara; Younes-Sakr, Lama; Boyron, Marilyn; Caporiccio, Bertrand; Fantini, Jacques

    2008-04-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites responsible of food-mediated intoxication in animals and humans. Deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin are the best known enteropathogenic mycotoxins able to alter intestinal functions resulting in malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Although their effects on intestinal barrier and transport activities have been extensively characterized, the mechanisms responsible for their pro-inflammatory effect are still poorly understood. Here we investigated if mycotoxin-induced intestinal inflammation results from a direct and/or indirect pro-inflammatory activity of these mycotoxins on human intestinal epithelial cells, using differentiated Caco-2 cells as model and interleukin 8 (IL-8) as an indicator of intestinal inflammation. Deoxynivalenol was the only mycotoxin able to directly increase IL-8 secretion (10- to 15-fold increase). We also investigated if these mycotoxins could indirectly stimulate IL-8 secretion through: (i) a modulation of the action of pro-inflammatory molecules such as the interleukin-1beta (IL-1{beta}), and/or (ii) an increase in the transepithelial passage of non-invasive commensal Escherichia coli. We found that deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin all potentiated the effect of IL-1{beta} on IL-8 secretion (ranging from 35% to 138% increase) and increased the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria (ranging from 12- to 1544-fold increase). In addition to potentially exacerbate established intestinal inflammation, these mycotoxins may thus participate in the induction of sepsis and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins is mediated by both direct and indirect effects.

  19. Comparative MiRNA Expressional Profiles and Molecular Networks in Human Small Bowel Tissues of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Yuk Him; Ma, Terence Ping Yuen; Lam, Hugh Simon; Cheung, Hon Ming; Lee, Kim Hung; To, Ka Fai; Li, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) are acute intestinal conditions which could result in mortality and severe morbidity in preterm infants. Our objective was to identify dysregulated micro-RNAs (miRNAs) in small bowel tissues of NEC and SIP, and their possible roles in disease pathophysiology. Methods We performed differential miRNA arrays on tissues of NEC (n = 4), SIP (n = 4) and surgical-control (Surg-CTL; n = 4), and validated target miRNAs by qPCR (n = 10 each group). The association of target miRNAs with 52 dysregulated mRNAs was investigated by bioinformatics on functional and base-pair sequence algorithms, and correlation in same tissue samples. Results We presented the first miRNA profiles of NEC, SIP and Surg-CTL intestinal tissues in preterm infants. Of 28 validated miRNAs, 21 were significantly different between NEC or SIP and Surg-CTL. Limited overlapping in the aberrant expression of miRNAs between NEC and SIP indicated their distinct molecular mechanisms. A proposed network of dysregulated miRNA/mRNA pairs in NEC suggested interaction at bacterial receptor TLR4 (miR-31, miR-451, miR-203, miR-4793-3p), mediated via key transcription factors NFKB2 (miR-203), AP-1/FOSL1 (miR-194-3p), FOXA1 (miR-21-3p, miR-431 and miR-1290) and HIF1A (miR-31), and extended downstream to pathways of angiogenesis, arginine metabolism, cell adhesion and chemotaxis, extracellular matrix remodeling, hypoxia/oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle contraction. In contrast, upregulation of miR-451 and miR-223 in SIP suggested modulation of G-protein-mediated muscle contraction. Conclusions The robust response of miRNA dysregulation in NEC and SIP, and concerted involvement of specific miRNAs in the molecular networks indicated their crucial roles in mucosa integrity and disease pathophysiology. PMID:26274503

  20. Neutrophil primary granule proteins HBP and HNP1–3 boost bacterial phagocytosis by human and murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Soehnlein, Oliver; Kai-Larsen, Ylva; Frithiof, Robert; Sorensen, Ole E.; Kenne, Ellinor; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Eriksson, Einar E.; Herwald, Heiko; Agerberth, Birgitta; Lindbom, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    In acute inflammation, infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (also known as PMNs) release preformed granule proteins having multitudinous effects on the surrounding environment. Here we present what we believe to be a novel role for PMN-derived proteins in bacterial phagocytosis by both human and murine macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to PMN secretion markedly enhanced phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro and in murine models in vivo. PMN secretion activated macrophages, resulting in upregulation of the Fc? receptors CD32 and CD64, which then mediated the enhanced phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized bacteria. The phagocytosis-stimulating activity within the PMN secretion was found to be due to proteins released from PMN primary granules; thorough investigation revealed heparin-binding protein (HBP) and human neutrophil peptides 1–3 (HNP1–3) as the mediators of the macrophage response to PMN secretion. The use of blocking antibodies and knockout mice revealed that HBP acts via ?2 integrins, but the receptor for HNP1–3 remained unclear. Mechanistically, HBP and HNP1–3 triggered macrophage release of TNF-? and IFN-?, which acted in an autocrine loop to enhance expression of CD32 and CD64 and thereby enhance phagocytosis. Thus, we attribute what may be a novel role for PMN granule proteins in regulating the immune response to bacterial infections. PMID:18787642

  1. Bacterial Genetic Signatures of Human Social Phenomena among M. tuberculosis from an Aboriginal Canadian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, Caitlin; Hoeppner, Vernon H.; Lipatov, Mikhail; Wobeser, Wendy; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a widespread global distribution and highly variable disease phenotype, there is little DNA sequence diversity among isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, many regional population genetic surveys have revealed a stereotypical structure in which a single clone, lineage, or clade makes up the majority of the population. It is often assumed that dominant clones are highly adapted, that is, the overall structure of M. tuberculosis populations is the result of positive selection. In order to test this assumption, we analyzed genetic data from extant populations of bacteria circulating in Aboriginal communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Demographic parameters of the bacterial population were estimated from archival epidemiological data collected over ?130 years since the onset of epidemic tuberculosis in the host communities. Bacterial genetic data were tested against neutral theory expectations and the local evolutionary history of M. tuberculosis investigated by phylogenetic analysis. Our findings are not consistent with positive selection on the bacterial population. Instead, we uncovered founder effects persisting over decades and barriers to gene flow within the bacterial population. Simulation experiments suggested that a combination of these neutral influences could result in the stereotypical structure of M. tuberculosis populations. Some aspects of population structure were suggestive of background selection, and data were on the whole consistent with combined effects of population bottlenecks, subdivision, and background selection. Neutral phenomena, namely, bottlenecks and partitions within populations, are prominent influences on the evolution of M. tuberculosis and likely contribute to restricted genetic diversity observed within this species. Given these influences, a complex evolutionary model will be required to define the relative fitness of different M. tuberculosis lineages and, ultimately, to uncover the genetic basis for its success as a pathogen. PMID:19861642

  2. The human urinary microbiome; bacterial DNA in voided urine of asymptomatic adults

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Debbie A.; Brown, Richard; Williams, Jon; White, Paul; Jacobson, S. Kim; Marchesi, Julian R.; Drake, Marcus J.

    2013-01-01

    The urinary microbiome of healthy individuals and the way it alters with ageing have not been characterized and may influence disease processes. Conventional microbiological methods have limited scope to capture the full spectrum of urinary bacterial species. We studied the urinary microbiota from a population of healthy individuals, ranging from 26 to 90 years of age, by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, with resulting amplicons analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Mid-stream urine (MSU) was collected by the “clean-catch” method. Quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes in urine samples, allowed relative enumeration of the bacterial loads. Analysis of the samples indicates that females had a more heterogeneous mix of bacterial genera compared to the male samples and generally had representative members of the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Analysis of the data leads us to conclude that a “core” urinary microbiome could potentially exist, when samples are grouped by age with fluctuation in abundance between age groups. The study also revealed age-specific genera Jonquetella, Parvimonas, Proteiniphilum, and Saccharofermentans. In conclusion, conventional microbiological methods are inadequate to fully identify around two-thirds of the bacteria identified in this study. Whilst this proof-of-principle study has limitations due to the sample size, the discoveries evident in this sample data are strongly suggestive that a larger study on the urinary microbiome should be encouraged and that the identification of specific genera at particular ages may be relevant to pathogenesis of clinical conditions. PMID:23967406

  3. A four-organ-chip for interconnected long-term co-culture of human intestine, liver, skin and kidney equivalents.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Lorenz, Alexandra K; Schimek, Katharina; Hasenberg, Tobias; Ramme, Anja P; Hübner, Juliane; Lindner, Marcus; Drewell, Christopher; Bauer, Sophie; Thomas, Alexander; Sambo, Naomia Sisoli; Sonntag, Frank; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2015-06-21

    Systemic absorption and metabolism of drugs in the small intestine, metabolism by the liver as well as excretion by the kidney are key determinants of efficacy and safety for therapeutic candidates. However, these systemic responses of applied substances lack in most in vitro assays. In this study, a microphysiological system maintaining the functionality of four organs over 28 days in co-culture has been established at a minute but standardized microsystem scale. Preformed human intestine and skin models have been integrated into the four-organ-chip on standard cell culture inserts at a size 100,000-fold smaller than their human counterpart organs. A 3D-based spheroid, equivalent to ten liver lobules, mimics liver function. Finally, a barrier segregating the media flow through the organs from fluids excreted by the kidney has been generated by a polymeric membrane covered by a monolayer of human proximal tubule epithelial cells. A peristaltic on-chip micropump ensures pulsatile media flow interconnecting the four tissue culture compartments through microfluidic channels. A second microfluidic circuit ensures drainage of the fluid excreted through the kidney epithelial cell layer. This four-organ-chip system assures near to physiological fluid-to-tissue ratios. In-depth metabolic and gene analysis revealed the establishment of reproducible homeostasis among the co-cultures within two to four days, sustainable over at least 28 days independent of the individual human cell line or tissue donor background used for each organ equivalent. Lastly, 3D imaging two-photon microscopy visualised details of spatiotemporal segregation of the two microfluidic flows by proximal tubule epithelia. To our knowledge, this study is the first approach to establish a system for in vitro microfluidic ADME profiling and repeated dose systemic toxicity testing of drug candidates over 28 days. PMID:25996126

  4. Src-Mediated Cross-Talk between Farnesoid X and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Inhibits Human Intestinal Cell Proliferation and Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhongsheng; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Xie, Guofeng

    2012-01-01

    Besides its essential role in controlling bile acid and lipid metabolism, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protects against intestinal tumorigenesis by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms underlying these anti-proliferative actions of FXR remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effects of FXR activation (FXR overexpression and treatment with an FXR agonist GW4064) and inactivation (treatment with FXR siRNA and an FXR antagonist guggulsterone) on colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro using human colon cancer cell lines (H508, SNU-C4 and HT-29) and in vivo using xenografts in nude mice. Blocking FXR activity with guggulsterone stimulated time- and dose-dependent EGFR (Tyr845) phosphorylation and ERK activation. In contrast, FXR overexpression and activation with GW4064 attenuated cell proliferation by down-regulating EGFR (Tyr845) phosphorylation and ERK activation. Treatment with guggulsterone and GW4064 also caused dose-dependent changes in Src (Tyr416) phosphorylation. In stably-transfected human colon cancer cells, overexpression of FXR reduced EGFR, ERK, Src phosphorylation and cell proliferation, and in nude mice attenuated the growth of human colon cancer xenografts (64% reduction in tumor volume; 47% reduction in tumor weight; both P<0.01). Moreover, guggulsterone-induced EGFR and ERK phosphorylation and cell proliferation were abolished by inhibiting activation of Src, EGFR and MEK. Collectively these data support the novel conclusion that in human colon cancer cells Src-mediated cross-talk between FXR and EGFR modulates ERK phosphorylation, thereby regulating intestinal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. PMID:23119029

  5. Non-coding-regulatory regions of human brain genes delineated by bacterial artificial chromosome knock-in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The next big challenge in human genetics is understanding the 98% of the genome that comprises non-coding DNA. Hidden in this DNA are sequences critical for gene regulation, and new experimental strategies are needed to understand the functional role of gene-regulation sequences in health and disease. In this study, we build upon our HuGX ('high-throughput human genes on the X chromosome’) strategy to expand our understanding of human gene regulation in vivo. Results In all, ten human genes known to express in therapeutically important brain regions were chosen for study. For eight of these genes, human bacterial artificial chromosome clones were identified, retrofitted with a reporter, knocked single-copy into the Hprt locus in mouse embryonic stem cells, and mouse strains derived. Five of these human genes expressed in mouse, and all expressed in the adult brain region for which they were chosen. This defined the boundaries of the genomic DNA sufficient for brain expression, and refined our knowledge regarding the complexity of gene regulation. We also characterized for the first time the expression of human MAOA and NR2F2, two genes for which the mouse homologs have been extensively studied in the central nervous system (CNS), and AMOTL1 and NOV, for which roles in CNS have been unclear. Conclusions We have demonstrated the use of the HuGX strategy to functionally delineate non-coding-regulatory regions of therapeutically important human brain genes. Our results also show that a careful investigation, using publicly available resources and bioinformatics, can lead to accurate predictions of gene expression. PMID:24124870

  6. The human MUC2 mucin apoprotein appears to dimerize before O-glycosylation and shares epitopes with the 'insoluble' mucin of rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Asker, N; Baeckström, D; Axelsson, M A; Carlstedt, I; Hansson, G C

    1995-06-15

    Rabbit antiserum against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a tandemly repeated amino acid sequence in the human intestinal mucin apoprotein MUC2 was used in immunoprecipitation to study the biosynthesis of MUC2 in the colon-carcinoma cell line LS 174T. Under non-reducing conditions, two bands were precipitated, the smaller with an apparent size of about 700 kDa on SDS/PAGE. When analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis after reduction, the larger band migrated to the same position as the smaller band and was interpreted as a putative disulphide-bond-stabilized dimer. Pulse-chase experiments showed only the monomer after 5 min and the appearance of the putative dimer after 30 min. The MUC2 apoprotein was also precipitated by antisera against the HF-deglycosylated peptides of the two highly glycosylated domains of the 'insoluble' mucin complex of rat small intestine [Carlstedt, Herrmann, Karlsson, Sheehan, Fransson and Hansson (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, [18771-18781]. Endoprotease Lys-C cleavage of the immunopurified apoprotein gave a large fragment of about 250 kDa that was detected by both the antiserum against the MUC2 tandem repeat and one of the glycopeptide antisera. This supports the view that the 'insoluble' mucin of rat small intestine is encoded by the Muc2 gene, as recently indicated by a partial cDNA sequence [Hansson, Baeckström, Carlstedt and Klinga-Levan (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 198, 181-190] and that parts of the apoprotein are conserved between the species. A lectin from the snail Helix pomatia that detects terminal alpha-GalNAc residues did not bind to the monomer or putative dimer, suggesting that O-glycosylation starts after dimerization. The results indicate that the biosynthetic pathway of the MUC2 mucin may be similar to that of the von Willebrand factor with which MUC2 shares sequence similarities at its C- and N-termini. PMID:8948445

  7. The kiwi fruit peptide kissper displays anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in in-vitro and ex-vivo human intestinal models.

    PubMed

    Ciacci, C; Russo, I; Bucci, C; Iovino, P; Pellegrini, L; Giangrieco, I; Tamburrini, M; Ciardiello, M A

    2014-03-01

    Literature reports describe kiwi fruit as a food with significant effects on human health, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Fresh fruit or raw kiwi fruit extracts have been used so far to investigate these effects, but the molecule(s) responsible for these health-promoting activities have not yet been identified. Kissper is a kiwi fruit peptide displaying pore-forming activity in synthetic lipid bilayers, the composition of which is similar to that found in intestinal cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the kissper influence on intestinal inflammation using cultured cells and ex-vivo tissues from healthy subjects and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of kissper were tested on Caco-2 cells and on the colonic mucosa from 23 patients with CD, by challenging with the lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS) and monitoring the appropriate markers by Western blot and immunofluorescence. EC-LPS challenge determined an increase in the intracellular concentration of calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The peptide kissper was highly effective in preventing the increase of LPS-induced ROS levels in both the Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. Moreover, it controls the calcium increase, p65-nuclear factor (NF)-kB induction and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activation inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. Kissper efficiently counteracts the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in valuable model systems consisting of intestinal cells and CD colonic mucosa. This study reports the first evidence supporting a possible correlation between some beneficial effects of kiwi fruit and a specific protein molecule rather than generic nutrients. PMID:24168016

  8. The kiwi fruit peptide kissper displays anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in in-vitro and ex-vivo human intestinal models

    PubMed Central

    Ciacci, C; Russo, I; Bucci, C; Iovino, P; Pellegrini, L; Giangrieco, I; Tamburrini, M; Ciardiello, M A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Literature reports describe kiwi fruit as a food with significant effects on human health, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Fresh fruit or raw kiwi fruit extracts have been used so far to investigate these effects, but the molecule(s) responsible for these health-promoting activities have not yet been identified. Kissper is a kiwi fruit peptide displaying pore-forming activity in synthetic lipid bilayers, the composition of which is similar to that found in intestinal cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the kissper influence on intestinal inflammation using cultured cells and ex-vivo tissues from healthy subjects and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of kissper were tested on Caco-2 cells and on the colonic mucosa from 23 patients with CD, by challenging with the lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS) and monitoring the appropriate markers by Western blot and immunofluorescence. EC-LPS challenge determined an increase in the intracellular concentration of calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The peptide kissper was highly effective in preventing the increase of LPS-induced ROS levels in both the Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. Moreover, it controls the calcium increase, p65-nuclear factor (NF)-kB induction and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activation inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. Kissper efficiently counteracts the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in valuable model systems consisting of intestinal cells and CD colonic mucosa. This study reports the first evidence supporting a possible correlation between some beneficial effects of kiwi fruit and a specific protein molecule rather than generic nutrients. PMID:24168016

  9. Development of a serum-free co-culture of human intestinal epithelium cell-lines (Caco-2/HT29-5M21)

    PubMed Central

    Nollevaux, Géraldine; Devillé, Christelle; El Moualij, Benaïssa; Zorzi, Willy; Deloyer, Patricia; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Peulen, Olivier; Dandrifosse, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Background The absorptive and goblet cells are the main cellular types encountered in the intestine epithelium. The cell lineage Caco-2 is a model commonly used to reproduce the features of the bowel epithelium. However, there is a strong debate regarding the value of Caco-2 cell culture to mimick in vivo situation. Indeed, some authors report in Caco-2 a low paracellular permeability and an ease of access of highly diffusible small molecules to the microvilli, due to an almost complete lack of mucus. The HT29-5M21 intestinal cell lineage is a mucin-secreting cellular population. A co-culture system carried out in a serum-free medium and comprising both Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells was developed. The systematic use of a co-culture system requires the characterization of the monolayer under a given experimental procedure. Results In this study, we investigated the activity and localization of the alkaline phosphatase and the expression of IAP and MUC5AC genes to determine a correlation between these markers and the cellular composition of a differentiated monolayer obtained from a mixture of Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells. We observed that the culture conditions used (serum-free medium) did not change the phenotype of each cell type, and produced a reproducible model. The alkaline phosphatase expression characterizing Caco-2 cells was influenced by the presence of HT29-5M21 cells. Conclusion The culture formed by 75% Caco-2 and 25% HT29-5M21 produce a monolayer containing the two main cell types of human intestinal epithelium and characterized by a reduced permeability to macromolecules. PMID:16670004

  10. Promotion of intestinal carcinogenesis by Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed

    Ellmerich, S; Schöller, M; Duranton, B; Gossé, F; Galluser, M; Klein, J P; Raul, F

    2000-04-01

    The involvement of Streptococcus bovis, an member of the human gut flora, in colorectal neoplastic diseases is an object of controversy. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of S.bovis and of antigens extracted from the bacterial cell wall on early preneoplastic changes in the intestinal tract. Adult rats received i. p. injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight) once per week for 2 weeks. Fifteen days (week 4) after the last injection of the carcinogen, the rats received, by gavage twice per week during 5 weeks, either S.bovis (10(10) bacteria) or wall-extracted antigens (100 microg). One week after the last gavage (week 10), we found that administration of either S.bovis or of antigens from this bacterium promoted the progression of preneoplastic lesions through the increased formation of hyperproliferative aberrant colonic crypts, enhanced the expression of proliferation markers and increased the production of IL-8 in the colonic mucosa. Our study suggests that S.bovis acts as a promoter of early preneoplastic lesions in the colon of rats. The fact that bacterial wall proteins are more potent inducers of neoplastic transformation than the intact bacteria may have important implications in colon cancer prevention. PMID:10753212

  11. Intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. D.; Kraszewski, A.; Gordon, J.; Howie, J. G. R.; McSeveney, D.; Harland, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    An abnormal condition of the large intestine is described in which the surface epithelium is infested by short spirochaetes. Diagnosis can be made by light microscopy. A review of 14 cases diagnosed by rectal biopsy and 62 cases involving the appendix shows no consistent symptom complex. The possible significance is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1 PMID:5548558

  12. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25942314

  13. An endogenous nanomineral chaperones luminal antigen and peptidoglycan to intestinal immune cells.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jonathan J; Thomas-McKay, Emma; Thoree, Vinay; Robertson, Jack; Hewitt, Rachel E; Skepper, Jeremy N; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A; Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada; Grime, Geoffrey W; Kirkby, Karen J; Mabbott, Neil A; Donaldson, David S; Williams, Ifor R; Rios, Daniel; Girardin, Stephen E; Haas, Carolin T; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Laman, Jon D; Tanriver, Yakup; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lechler, Robert; Thompson, Richard P H; Pele, Laetitia C

    2015-04-01

    In humans and other mammals it is known that calcium and phosphate ions are secreted from the distal small intestine into the lumen. However, why this secretion occurs is unclear. Here, we show that the process leads to the formation of amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles that trap soluble macromolecules, such as bacterial peptidoglycan and orally fed protein antigens, in the lumen and transport them to immune cells of the intestinal tissue. The macromolecule-containing nanoparticles utilize epithelial M cells to enter Peyer's patches, small areas of the intestine concentrated with particle-scavenging immune cells. In wild-type mice, intestinal immune cells containing these naturally formed nanoparticles expressed the immune tolerance-associated molecule 'programmed death-ligand 1', whereas in NOD1/2 double knockout mice, which cannot recognize peptidoglycan, programmed death-ligand 1 was undetected. Our results explain a role for constitutively formed calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the gut lumen and show how this helps to shape intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:25751305

  14. An Endogenous Nanomineral Chaperones Luminal Antigen and Peptidoglycan to Intestinal Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan J; Thomas-McKay, Emma; Thoree, Vinay; Robertson, Jack; Hewitt, Rachel E; Skepper, Jeremy N; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A; Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada; Grime, Geoffrey W; Kirkby, Karen J; Mabbott, Neil A; Donaldson, David S; Williams, Ifor R; Rios, Daniel; Girardin, Stephen E; Haas, Carolin T; Bruggraber, Sylvaine FA; Laman, Jon D; Tanriver, Yakup; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lechler, Robert; Thompson, Richard P H; Pele, Laetitia C

    2015-01-01

    In humans and other mammals, it is known that calcium and phosphate ions are secreted from the distal small intestine into the lumen. However, why this secretion occurs is unclear. Here, we show that the process leads to the formation of amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles that trap soluble macromolecules, such as bacterial peptidoglycan and orally-fed protein antigens, in the lumen and transport them to immune cells of the intestinal tissue. The macromolecule-containing nanoparticles utilize epithelial M cells to enter Peyer’s patches - small areas of the intestine concentrated with particle-scavenging immune cells. In wild type mice, intestinal immune cells containing these naturally-formed nanoparticles expressed the immune tolerance-associated molecule ‘programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)’, whereas in NOD1/2 double knock-out mice, which cannot recognize peptidoglycan, PD-L1 was undetected. Our results explain a role for constitutively formed calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the gut lumen and how this helps to shape intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:25751305

  15. An endogenous nanomineral chaperones luminal antigen and peptidoglycan to intestinal immune cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jonathan J.; Thomas-McKay, Emma; Thoree, Vinay; Robertson, Jack; Hewitt, Rachel E.; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A.; Gomez-Morilla, Inmaculada; Grime, Geoffrey W.; Kirkby, Karen J.; Mabbott, Neil A.; Donaldson, David S.; Williams, Ifor R.; Rios, Daniel; Girardin, Stephen E.; Haas, Carolin T.; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F. A.; Laman, Jon D.; Tanriver, Yakup; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lechler, Robert; Thompson, Richard P. H.; Pele, Laetitia C.

    2015-05-01

    In humans and other mammals it is known that calcium and phosphate ions are secreted from the distal small intestine into the lumen. However, why this secretion occurs is unclear. Here, we show that the process leads to the formation of amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles that trap soluble macromolecules, such as bacterial peptidoglycan and orally fed protein antigens, in the lumen and transport them to immune cells of the intestinal tissue. The macromolecule-containing nanoparticles utilize epithelial M cells to enter Peyer's patches, small areas of the intestine concentrated with particle-scavenging immune cells. In wild-type mice, intestinal immune cells containing these naturally formed nanoparticles expressed the immune tolerance-associated molecule ‘programmed death-ligand 1’, whereas in NOD1/2 double knockout mice, which cannot recognize peptidoglycan, programmed death-ligand 1 was undetected. Our results explain a role for constitutively formed calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the gut lumen and show how this helps to shape intestinal immune homeostasis.

  16. Effect of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Contamination on Gutta Percha- versus Resilon-Induced Human Monocyte Cell Line Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hadjati, Jamshid; Assadian, Hadi; Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Nourizadeh, Maryam; Fattah, Tahereh; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cytotoxic effects of obturation materials were tested in presence and absence of endotoxin on human monocytes in vitro. Materials and Methods: Human monocytes from THP-1 cell line were cultured. Three millimeters from the tip of each Resilon and gutta percha points were cut and directly placed at the bottom of the culture wells. Cultured cells were exposed to gutta percha (groups G1 and G2) and Resilon (R1 and R2). Ten ?g/ml bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added to the culture wells in groups G1 and R1. Positive control included the bacterial LPS without the root canal filling material and the negative control contained the cells in culture medium only. Viability of cells was tested in all groups after 24, 48, and 72 hours using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for at least 3 times to obtain reproducible results. Optical density values were read and the data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and post hoc statistical test. Results: The results showed that cells in G2 had the lowest rate of viability at 24 hours, but the lowest rate of viable cells was recorded in G1 at 48 and 72 hours. The effect of LPS treatment was not statistically significant. Resilon groups showed cell viability values higher than those of gutta percha groups, although statistically non-significant (P=0.105). Cell viability values were lower in gutta percha than Resilon groups when LPS-treated and LPS-untreated groups were compared independently at each time point. Conclusion: It could be concluded that none of the tested root canal filling materials had toxic effects on cultured human monocyte cells whether in presence or absence of LPS contamination. PMID:26056523

  17. Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Koch-Nolte, F.; Haag, F.; Braren, R.

    1997-02-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is one of the posttranslational protein modifications regulating cellular metabolism, e.g., nitrogen fixation, in prokaryotes. Several bacterial toxins mono-ADP-ribosylate and inactivate specific proteins in their animal hosts. Recently, two mammalian GPI-anchored cell surface enzymes with similar activities were cloned (designated ART1 and ART2). We have now identified six related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public database and cloned the two novel human genes from which these are derived (designated ART3 and ART4). The deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products show 28% sequence identity to one another and 32-41% identity vs the muscle and T cell enzymes. They contain signal peptide sequences characteristic of GPI anchorage. Southern Zoo blot analyses suggest the presence of related genes in other mammalian species. By PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids and by in situ hybridization, we have mapped the two genes to human chromosomes 4p14-p15.l and 12q13.2- q13.3. Northern blot analyses show that these genes are specifically expressed in testis and spleen, respectively. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences reveals a conserved exon/intron structure, with an unusually large exon encoding the predicted mature membrane proteins. Secondary structure prediction analyses indicate conserved motifs and amino acid residues consistent with a common ancestry of this emerging mammalian enzyme family and bacterial mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. It is possible that the four human gene family members identified so far represent the {open_quotes}tip of an iceberg,{close_quote} i.e., a larger family of enzymes that influences the function of target proteins via mono-ADP-ribosylation. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  18. STORM: A General Model to Determine the Number and Adaptive Changes of Epithelial Stem Cells in Teleost, Murine and Human Intestinal Tracts

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhengyuan

    Intestinal stem cells play a pivotal role in the epithelial tissue renewal, homeostasis and cancer development. The lack of a general marker for intestinal stem cells across species has hampered analysis of stem cell number ...

  19. Using a continuum model to predict closure time of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell layers

    E-print Network

    Swigon, David

    Using a continuum model to predict closure time of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell layers Julia model of collective cell migration is used to predict the closure of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell the environment1 and injuries to the intestinal epithelial layer could result in bacterial sepsis. Tissue repair

  20. The Cystic Fibrosis Intestine

    PubMed Central

    De Lisle, Robert C.; Borowitz, Drucy

    2013-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) result from dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR). The majority of people with CF have a limited life span as a consequence of CFTR dysfunction in the respiratory tract. However, CFTR dysfunction in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract occurs earlier in ontogeny and is present in all patients, regardless of genotype. The same pathophysiologic triad of obstruction, infection, and inflammation that causes disease in the airways also causes disease in the intestines. This article describes the effects of CFTR dysfunction on the intestinal tissues and the intraluminal environment. Mouse models of CF have greatly advanced our understanding of the GI manifestations of CF, which can be directly applied to understanding CF disease in humans. PMID:23788646

  1. Thermodynamic properties distinguish human mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from bacterial homolog with same 3D architecture.

    PubMed

    Neuenfeldt, Anne; Lorber, Bernard; Ennifar, Eric; Gaudry, Agnès; Sauter, Claude; Sissler, Marie; Florentz, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    In the mammalian mitochondrial translation apparatus, the proteins and their partner RNAs are coded by two genomes. The proteins are nuclear-encoded and resemble their homologs, whereas the RNAs coming from the rapidly evolving mitochondrial genome have lost critical structural information. This raises the question of molecular adaptation of these proteins to their peculiar partner RNAs. The crystal structure of the homodimeric bacterial-type human mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DRS) confirmed a 3D architecture close to that of Escherichia coli DRS. However, the mitochondrial enzyme distinguishes by an enlarged catalytic groove, a more electropositive surface potential and an alternate interaction network at the subunits interface. It also presented a thermal stability reduced by as much as 12°C. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses revealed that the affinity of the mitochondrial enzyme for cognate and non-cognate tRNAs is one order of magnitude higher, but with different enthalpy and entropy contributions. They further indicated that both enzymes bind an adenylate analog by a cooperative allosteric mechanism with different thermodynamic contributions. The larger flexibility of the mitochondrial synthetase with respect to the bacterial enzyme, in combination with a preserved architecture, may represent an evolutionary process, allowing nuclear-encoded proteins to cooperate with degenerated organelle RNAs. PMID:23275545

  2. Calcium bioaccessibility and uptake by human intestinal like cells following in vitro digestion of casein phosphopeptide-calcium aggregates.

    PubMed

    Perego, Silvia; Del Favero, Elena; De Luca, Paola; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Fiorilli, Amelia; Cantu', Laura; Ferraretto, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), derived by casein proteolysis, can bind calcium ions and keep them in solution. In vitro studies have demonstrated CPP-induced cell calcium uptake, depending on the formation of (CPP + calcium) complexes and on the degree of differentiation of the intestinal cells. With the present study, we address the persistence of the complexes and of the CPP-induced calcium uptake in intestinal like cells after the digestion process, thus examining their eligibility to serve as nutraceuticals. A calcium-preloaded CPP preparation of commercial origin (Ca-CPPs) was subjected to in vitro digestion. The evolution of the supramolecular structure of the Ca-CPP complexes was studied using laser-light and X-ray scattering. The bioactivity of the pre- and post-digestion Ca-CPPs was determined in differentiated Caco2 and HT-29 cells by video imaging experiments using Fura-2. We found that Ca-CPP aggregates keep a complex supramolecular organization upon digestion, despite getting smaller in size and increasing internal calcium dispersion. Concomitantly and most interestingly, digested Ca-CPPs clearly enhance the uptake of calcium ions, especially in Caco2 cells. In contrast, digestion depletes the ability of post-loaded decalcified-CPPs (Ca-dekCPPs), with a weaker internal structure, to induce calcium uptake. The enhanced bioactivity reached upon digestion strongly suggests a recognized role of Ca-CPPs, in the form used here, as nutraceuticals. PMID:25927875

  3. Evidence for a non-MDR1 component in digoxin secretion by human intestinal Caco-2 epithelial layers.

    PubMed

    Lowes, Simon; Cavet, Megan E; Simmons, Nicholas L

    2003-01-01

    Caco-2 epithelial layers were used as a model to re-evaluate the mechanism(s) by which intestinal digoxin absorption is limited by its active secretion back into the lumen. It is widely recognised that intestinal secretion of digoxin is mediated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Multidrug Resistance 1, MDR1. In MDR1-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney, MDCKII, cell monolayers, digoxin secretion was reduced by the MDR1 inhibitor cyclosporin A, whereas no inhibition was seen in the presence of MK-571, 3-([(3-(2-[7-chloro-2-quinolinyl]ethyl)phenyl]-[(3-dimethylamino-3-oxoprphyl)-thio)-methyl]-thio) propanoic acid, a Multidrug Related Protein (MRP) inhibitor. In contrast, digoxin secretion by Caco-2 epithelia was significantly inhibited by both cyclosporin A and MK-571, suggesting that an additional non-MDR1 component may contribute to this transport. Since digoxin secretion by MRP2-transfected MDCKII monolayers was increased by only 1.2-fold relative to controls, it is likely that the contribution of MRP2 to digoxin secretion by Caco-2 cells is negligible. An additional MK-571-sensitive secretory pathway for digoxin, together with MDR1, is likely to mediate digoxin secretion in Caco-2 epithelia. PMID:12498906

  4. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis with Sepsis Caused by Enterococcus hirae

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jong Seop; Oh, Ki Jong; Park, Myung Soo; Jung, Eun Ju; Jung, Youn Joo; Kang, Dae Gil; Seo, Seung In; Kim, Won Jin; Jang, Myoung Kuk

    2012-01-01

    Selective intestinal decontamination (SID) with norfloxacin has been widely used for the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) because of a high recurrence rate and preventive effect of SID for SBP. However, it does select resistant gut flora and may lead to SBP caused by unusual pathogens such as quinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli or gram-positive cocci. Enterococcus hirae is known to cause infections mainly in animals, but is rarely encountered in humans. We report the first case of SBP by E. hirae in a cirrhotic patient who have previously received an oral administration of norfloxacin against SBP caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and presented in septic shock. PMID:23255866

  5. Activation of Pattern Recognition Receptors Upregulates Metallothioneins, Thereby Increasing Intracellular Accumulation of Zinc, Autophagy, and Bacterial Clearance by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Amit; Abraham, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Continuous stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) (variants in NOD2 have been associated with Crohn's disease), alters the phenotype of myeloid-derived cells, reducing production of inflammatory cytokines and increasing clearance of microbes. We investigated the mechanisms by which microbial clearance increases in macrophages under these conditions. METHODS Monocytes were purified from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and differentiated to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We also isolated human intestinal macrophages. Bacterial clearance by MDMs was assessed in gentamicin protection assays. Effects of intracellular zinc and autophagy were measured by flow cytometry, immunoblot, reverse transcription PCR, and microscopy experiments. Small interfering RNAs were used to knock down specific proteins in MDMs. NOD2–/– and C57BL/6J mice, maintained in a specific pathogen-free facility, were given antibiotics, muramyl dipeptide (to stimulate NOD2), or dextran sodium sulfate; intestinal lamina propria cells were collected and analyzed. RESULTS Chronic stimulation of human MDMs through NOD2 upregulated the expression of multiple genes encoding metallothioneins, which bind and regulate levels of intracellular zinc. Intestinal myeloid-derived cells are continually stimulated through PRRs; metallothionein expression was upregulated in human and mouse intestinal myeloid-derived cells. Continuous stimulation of NOD2 increased levels of intracellular zinc, thereby increasing autophagy and bacterial clearance. The metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) was required for regulation of metallothionein genes in human MDMs. Knockdown of MTF-1 did not affect baseline clearance of bacteria by MDMs. However, the increase in intracellular zinc, autophagy, and bacterial clearance observed with continuous NOD2 stimulation was impaired in MDMs upon MTF-1 knockdown. Addition of zinc or induction of autophagy restored bacterial clearance to MDMs following metallothionein knockdown. NOD2 synergized with the PRRs TLR5 and TLR9 to increase the effects of metallothioneins in MDMs. In mice, the intestinal microbiota contributed to the regulation in expression of metallothioneins, levels of zinc, autophagy, and bacterial clearance by intestinal macrophages. CONCLUSIONS In studies of human MDMs and in mice, continuous stimulation of PRRs induces expression of metallothioneins. This leads to increased levels of intracellular zinc and enhanced clearance of bacteria via autophagy in macrophages. PMID:24960189

  6. Synthesis of rhodamine B-benzenesulfonamide conjugates and their inhibitory activity against human ?- and bacterial/fungal ?-carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Rami, Marouan; Innocenti, Alessio; Montero, Jean-Louis; Scozzafava, Andrea; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-09-15

    A series of fluorescent sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors were obtained by attaching rhodamine B moieties to the scaffold of benzenesulfonamides. The new compounds have been investigated for the inhibition of 12 human ?-CA isoforms (hCA I-hCA XIV), three bacterial and one fungal ?-class enzymes from the pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. All types of inhibitory activities have been detected, with several compounds showing low nanomolar inhibition against the transmembrane isoforms hCA IX, XII (cancer-associated) and XIV. The ?-CAs were inhibited in the micromolar range by these compounds which may have applications for the imaging of hypoxic tumors or bacteria due to their fluorescent moieties. PMID:21821413

  7. Use of Recombination-Mediated Genetic Engineering for Construction of Rescue Human Cytomegalovirus Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones

    PubMed Central

    Dulal, Kalpana; Silver, Benjamin; Zhu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination system. A gene capture method, or gap repair cloning, to seize large fragments of DNA from the virus BAC in order to generate rescue viruses, is described in detail. Construction of rescue clones using gap repair cloning is highly efficient and provides a novel use of the homologous recombination-based method in E. coli for molecular cloning, known colloquially as recombineering, when rescuing large BAC deletions. This method of excising large fragments of DNA provides important prospects for in vitro homologous recombination for genetic cloning. PMID:22500089

  8. Breast milk, microbiota, and intestinal immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Walker, W Allan; Iyengar, Rajashri Shuba

    2015-01-01

    Newborns adjust to the extrauterine environment by developing intestinal immune homeostasis. Appropriate initial bacterial colonization is necessary for adequate intestinal immune development. An environmental determinant of adequate colonization is breast milk. Although the full-term infant is developmentally capable of mounting an immune response, the effector immune component requires bacterial stimulation. Breast milk stimulates the proliferation of a well-balanced and diverse microbiota, which initially influences a switch from an intrauterine TH2 predominant to a TH1/TH2 balanced response and with activation of T-regulatory cells by breast milk-stimulated specific organisms (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides). As an example of its effect, oligosaccharides in breast milk are fermented by colonic bacteria producing an acid milieu for bacterial proliferation. In addition, short-chain fatty acids in breast milk activate receptors on T-reg cells and bacterial genes, which preferentially mediate intestinal tight junction expression and anti-inflammation. Other components of breast milk (defensins, lactoferrin, etc.) inhibit pathogens and further contribute to microbiota composition. The breast milk influence on initial intestinal microbiota also prevents expression of immune-mediated diseases (asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes) later in life through a balanced initial immune response, underscoring the necessity of breastfeeding as the first source of nutrition. PMID:25310762

  9. The bacterial metabolite 2-aminoacetophenone promotes association of pathogenic bacteria with flies.

    PubMed

    Kapsetaki, Stefania-Elisavet; Tzelepis, Ilias; Avgousti, Kalodoti; Livadaras, Ioannis; Garantonakis, Nikos; Varikou, Kyriaki; Apidianakis, Yiorgos

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria contaminate insects and secrete metabolites that may affect insect behaviour and potentially fitness through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that the 'grape-like' odorant 2-aminoacetophenone (2AA), secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a ubiquitous opportunistic human pathogen), facilitates attraction to food for several fly species including Musca domestica, Ceratitis capitata and Drosophila melanogaster. Constant feeding on 2AA increases the level of long-term colonization of the flies' intestine by P. aeruginosa. Odour perception is necessary for enhanced attraction to food containing 2AA, and expression in the Drosophila olfactory organs of odorant receptors Or49b and Or10a potentiates, while expression of Or85a inhibits, preference for 2AA. Our study shows that 2AA lures the flies to the bacterial source and increases the extent of colonization of the fly intestine by the bacteria that produce it, as a means to facilitate bacterial dissemination to new locations. PMID:25043228

  10. Molecular Basis for Self-Assembly of a Human Host-Defense Peptide That Entraps Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human ?-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-aa cysteine-rich peptide of the innate immune system. Although HD6 is a member of an antimicrobial peptide family, it exhibits negligible antibacterial activity in vitro. Rather, HD6 possesses a unique innate immune mechanism whereby it self-assembles into oligomers that capture pathogens to prevent microbial invasion of the intestinal epithelium and subsequent dissemination. Molecular-level understanding for why HD6 functions differently from other human defensins remains unclear. To further elucidate the HD6 self-assembly process and its biological activity, we developed robust protocols for obtaining native and mutant HD6 in high purity from overexpression in Escherichia coli. We combined biophysical characterization with biological assays to probe HD6 structure and function. We report that native HD6 readily self-assembles into elongated fibrils observable by transmission electron microscopy, agglutinates both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, and prevents the human gastrointestinal pathogen Listeria monocytogenes from invading cultured mammalian cells. Mutation of hydrophobic residues (F2A, I22T, V25T, F29A) perturbs self-assembly and results in attenuated biological activity. In particular, the F2A and F29A mutants do not form fibrils under our experimental conditions and neither agglutinate bacteria nor prevent L. monocytogenes invasion. In total, our results demonstrate that the hydrophobic effect is essential for promoting HD6 self-assembly and innate immune function, and indicate that HD6 may provide host defense against Listeria in the gut. This investigation provides a timely description of how variations in amino acid sequence confer diverse physiological functions to members of the defensin family. PMID:25158166

  11. NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body

    Cancer.gov

    Microbes inhabit just about every part of the human body, living on the skin, in the gut, and up the nose. Sometimes they cause sickness, but most of the time, microorganisms live in harmony with their human hosts, providing vital functions essential for

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN FECAL POLLUTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used genome fragment enrichment and bioinformatics to identify several microbial DNA sequences with high potential for use as markers in PCR assays for detection of human fecal contamination in water. Following competitive solution-phase hybridization of total DNA from human a...

  13. Goat milk with and without increased concentrations of lysozyme improves repair of intestinal cell damage induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea, malnutrition and poor growth in children. Human breast milk decreases disease-causing bacteria by supplying nutrients and antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Goat milk with and without human lysozyme (HLZ) may improve the repair of intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC. This work investigates the effect of the milks on intestinal barrier function repair, bacterial adherence in Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, intestinal cell proliferation, migration, viability and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells in the absence or presence of EAEC. Methods Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6, ATCC, Rockville, MD) were used for proliferation, migration and viability assays and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) cells were used for bacterial adhesion assays. Goats expressing HLZ in their milk were generated and express HLZ in milk at concentration of 270 ?g/ml . Cells were incubated with pasteurized milk from either transgenic goats expressing HLZ or non-transgenic control goats in the presence and absence of EAEC strain 042 (O44:H18). Results Cellular proliferation was significantly greater in the presence of both HLZ transgenic and control goat milk compared to cells with no milk. Cellular migration was significantly decreased in the presence of EAEC alone but was restored in the presence of milk. Milk from HLZ transgenic goats had significantly more migration compared to control milk. Both milks significantly reduced EAEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells and transgenic milk resulted in less colonization than control milk using a HEp-2 assay. Both milks had significantly increased cellular viability as well as less apoptosis in both the absence and presence of EAEC. Conclusions These data demonstrated that goat milk is able to repair intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC and that goat milk with a higher concentration of lysozyme offers additional protection. PMID:22883300

  14. Noncanonical inflammasome activation of caspase-4/caspase-11 mediates epithelial defenses against enteric bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Knodler, Leigh A; Crowley, Shauna M; Sham, Ho Pan; Yang, Hyungjun; Wrande, Marie; Ma, Caixia; Ernst, Robert K; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Celli, Jean; Vallance, Bruce A

    2014-08-13

    Inflammasome-mediated host defenses have been extensively studied in innate immune cells. Whether inflammasomes function for innate defense in intestinal epithelial cells, which represent the first line of defense against enteric pathogens, remains unknown. We observed enhanced Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in the intestinal epithelium of caspase-11-deficient mice, but not at systemic sites. In polarized epithelial monolayers, siRNA-mediated depletion of caspase-4, a human ortholog of caspase-11, also led to increased bacterial colonization. Decreased rates of pyroptotic cell death, a host defense mechanism that extrudes S. Typhimurium-infected cells from the polarized epithelium, accounted for increased pathogen burdens. The caspase-4 inflammasome also governs activation of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-18, in response to intracellular (S. Typhimurium) and extracellular (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) enteric pathogens, via intracellular LPS sensing. Therefore, an epithelial cell-intrinsic noncanonical inflammasome plays a critical role in antimicrobial defense at the intestinal mucosal surface. PMID:25121752

  15. Two-stage anaerobic digestion process for complete inactivation of enteric bacterial pathogens in human night soil.

    PubMed

    Kunte, D P; Yeole, T Y; Ranade, D R

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers a good alternative for human waste treatment. However, the fate of enteric bacterial pathogens present in human night soil (HNS) remains a major concern for hygienic safety of the process. A two-stage anaerobic digestion process, consisting of separate acidogenic and methanogenic digesters, was designed and its efficacy in the inactivation of Salmonella typhi was compared to a single-stage digestion process. In a single-stage digestion, complete pathogen inactivation was achieved only in the digesters with high levels of volatile fatty acids (VFA approximately equal to 18,000 mg/l) and acidic pH (approximately equal to 6.0). These digesters, however, showed drastic reduction in methane yield. In the two-stage digestion process, S. typhi was completely inactivated in the acidogenic digester and the methanogenic digester was free from the pathogen even after receiving a daily dose of the pathogen. The process also achieved complete inactivation of other enteric pathogens, viz., Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae. The two-stage process was efficient in biogas generation from HNS. Thus, the two-stage process ensures complete hygienic safety in anaerobic digestion of human night soil. PMID:15536996

  16. Epidemiological Interactions between Urogenital and Intestinal Human Schistosomiasis in the Context of Praziquantel Treatment across Three West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Sarah C. L.; Webster, Bonnie L.; Garba, Amadou; Sacko, Moussa; Diaw, Oumar T.; Fenwick, Alan; Rollinson, David; Webster, Joanne P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis co-occur, and mixed species infections containing both Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni can be common. During co-infection, interactions between these two species are possible, yet the extent to which such interactions influence disease dynamics or the outcome of control efforts remains poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we analyse epidemiological data from three West African countries co-endemic for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis (Senegal, Niger and Mali) to test whether the impact of praziquantel (PZQ) treatment, subsequent levels of re-infection or long-term infection dynamics are altered by co-infection. In all countries, positive associations between the two species prevailed at baseline: infection by one species tended to predict infection intensity for the other, with the strength of association varying across sites. Encouragingly, we found little evidence that co-infection influenced PZQ efficacy: species-specific egg reduction rates (ERR) and cure rates (CR) did not differ significantly with co-infection, and variation in treatment success was largely geographical. In Senegal, despite positive associations at baseline, children with S. mansoni co-infection at the time of treatment were less intensely re-infected by S. haematobium than those with single infections, suggesting competition between the species may occur post-treatment. Furthermore, the proportion of schistosome infections attributable to S. mansoni increased over time in all three countries examined. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that while co-infection between urinary and intestinal schistosomes may not directly affect PZQ treatment efficacy, competitive interspecific interactions may influence epidemiological patterns of re-infection post-treatment. While re-infection patterns differed most strongly according to geographic location, interspecific interactions also seem to play a role, and could cause the community composition in mixed species settings to shift as disease control efforts intensify, a situation with implications for future disease management in this multi-species system. PMID:26469347

  17. Immune Antibodies and Helminth Products Drive CXCR2-Dependent Macrophage-Myofibroblast Crosstalk to Promote Intestinal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Volpe, Beatrice; Sutherland, Duncan B.; Bürgi, Jérôme; Verbeek, J. Sjef; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Urban, Joseph F.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/-) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3) by macrophages (M?) and myofibroblasts (MF) within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by M? in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human M? stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven M?-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing. PMID:25806513

  18. Austropeplea ollula (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): A new molluscan intermediate host of a human intestinal fluke, Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Younghun; Park, Yun-Kyu; Hwang, Myung-Ki

    2001-01-01

    Three freshwater snail species of the family Lymnaeidae have been reported from Korea, Radix auricularia coreana, Austropeplea ollula and Fossaria truncatula. Out of 3 lymnaeid snail species, A. ollula was naturally infected with the Echinostoma cinetorchis cercariae (infection rate = 0.7%). In the experiments with the laboratory-bred snails, F. truncatula as well as A. ollula was also susceptible to the E. cinetorchis miracidia with infection rates of 25% and 40%, respectively. All of three lymnaeid snail species exposed to the E. cinetorchis cercariae were infected with the E. cinetorchis metacercariae. It is evident that A. ollula acts as the first molluscan intermediate host of E. cinetorchis in Korea, and F. truncatula may be a possible candidate for the first intermediate host of this intestinal fluke. Also, three lymnaeid snail species targeted were experimentally infected with E. cinetorchis metacercariae. PMID:11590915

  19. Bioactive Dietary Polyphenols Inhibit Heme Iron Absorption in A Dose-Dependent Manner in Human Intestinal Caco-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianyi; Kim, Eun-Young; Lindsay, Elizabeth Ann; Han, Okhee

    2011-01-01

    Although heme iron is an important form of dietary iron, its intestinal absorption mechanism remains elusive. Our previous work revealed that (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and grape seed extract (GSE) markedly inhibited intestinal heme iron absorption by reducing the basolateral iron export in Caco-2 cells. The aims of this study were to examine whether small amounts of EGCG, GSE and green tea extract (GT) could inhibit heme iron absorption, and to test whether the inhibitory action of polyphenols could be offset by ascorbic acid. A heme-55Fe absorption study was conducted by adding various concentrations of EGCG, GSE and GT to Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid. Polyphenolic compounds significantly inhibited heme-55Fe absorption in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of ascorbic acid did not modulate the inhibitory effect of dietary polyphenols on heme iron absorption when the cells were treated with polyphenols at a concentration of 46 mg/L. However, ascorbic acid was able to offset or reverse the inhibitory effects of polyphenolic compounds when lower concentrations of polyphenols were added (? 4.6 mg/L). Ascorbic acid modulated the heme iron absorption without changing the apical heme uptake, the expression of the proteins involved in heme metabolism and basolateral iron transport, and heme oxygenase activity, indicating that ascorbic acid may enhance heme iron absorption by modulating the intracellular distribution of 55Fe. These results imply that the regular consumption of dietary ascorbic acid can easily counteract the inhibitory effects of low concentrations of dietary polyphenols on heme iron absorption but cannot counteract the inhibitory actions of high concentrations of polyphenols. PMID:22417433

  20. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-08-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  1. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  2. Effect of Clostridium difficile toxin A on human intestinal epithelial cells: induction of interleukin 8 production and apoptosis after cell detachment.

    PubMed Central

    Mahida, Y R; Makh, S; Hyde, S; Gray, T; Borriello, S P

    1996-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent of pseudomembranous colitis, and animal studies suggest the essential role of secreted toxin A in inducing disease. This study examined the biological responses to toxin A by human intestinal epithelial cells. Confluent monolayers of Caco2, HT29, and T84 cells and primary epithelial cells in organ cultures of human colonic biopsy specimens and after detachment with EDTA were studied. Interleukin 8 was assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purified C difficile toxin A induced cell rounding and detachment of monolayers of the epithelial cell lines. Cells in detached monolayers initially remained viable while adherent to each other. Subsequently, an increasing number of apoptotic cells appeared in suspension. Exposure to toxin A for 24 hours induced interleukin 8 production in T84 and HT29 cells. Toxin A also induced epithelial cell rounding, detachment, and apoptosis in organ cultures of human colonic biopsy specimens. During culture (in medium only), EDTA detached colonic epithelial cells produced interleukin 8 and cell death occurred by apoptosis. Colonic disease by C difficile may be initiated by toxin A mediated induction of epithelial cell interleukin 8 production and apoptosis after cell detachment from the basement membrane. Studies on isolated (toxin untreated) colonic epithelial cells suggest that interleukin 8 production and apoptosis occur as a consequence of cell injury and detachment. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8675084

  3. Dual stimulation with bacterial and viral components increases the expression of hepcidin in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ripley, Delia A; Morris, Roger H; Maddocks, Sarah E

    2014-10-01

    Hepcidin belongs to the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) family and is the key regulator of iron metabolism. It modulates iron homeostasis by binding to, and degrading the iron exporter molecule, ferroportin, thus inhibiting cellular iron efflux. Many antimicrobial peptides have a dual function; some are able to act directly as an antimicrobial agent as well as having an immunoregulatory role in the host. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) bind to components of microorganisms, activate cellular signal transduction pathways and stimulate innate immune responses. The effect of TLR3 (poly I:C) and TLR9 (CpG) co-stimulation of THP-1-derived monocytes using purified TLR ligands showed that 24 h after exposure poly I:C and CpG ligands in combination, hepcidin expression was significantly increased (10-fold) when compared to the untreated control. This combination of TLR ligands mimics simultaneous bacterial and viral infections, thus suggesting a potential key role for hepcidin in combined infections. Additionally, using a chequerboard assay, we have shown that hepcidin has an antagonistic effect in combination with the antibiotics rifampicin and tetracycline against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes, evidenced by a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) > 4. This finding has important implications for future treatment regimens especially in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance. PMID:25145495

  4. Synchrony in human, mouse and bacterial cell cultures--a comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen; Romero, Ana; Eward, K. Leigh

    2003-01-01

    Growth characteristics of synchronous human MOLT-4, human U-937 and mouse L1210 cultures produced with a new minimally-disturbing technology were compared to each other and to synchronous Escherichia coli B/r. Based on measurements of cell concentrations during synchronous growth, synchrony persisted in similar fashion for all cells. Cell size and DNA distributions in the mammalian cultures also progressed synchronously and reproducibly for multiple cell cycles. The results demonstrate that unambiguous multi-cycle synchrony, critical for verifying the absence of significant growth imbalances induced by the synchronization procedure, is feasible with these cell lines, and possibly others.

  5. The small regulatory RNA FasX controls pilus expression and adherence in the human bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuyun; Treviño, Jeanette; Ramirez-Peña, Esmeralda; Sumby, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacterial pathogens use cell-surface-associated adhesion molecules to promote host attachment and colonization, and the ability to modulate adhesion expression is critical to pathogen success. Here, we show that the human-specific pathogen the group A Streptococcus (GAS) uses a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) to regulate the expression of adhesive pili. The fibronectin / fibrinogen-binding / haemolytic-activity / streptokinase-regulator-X (FasX) sRNA, previously shown to positively regulate expression of the secreted virulence factor streptokinase (SKA), negatively regulates the production of pili on the GAS cell surface. FasX base-pairs to the extreme 5’ end of mRNA from the pilus biosynthesis operon, and this RNA:RNA interaction reduces the stability of the mRNA, while also inhibiting translation of at least the first gene in the pilus biosynthesis operon (cpa, which encodes a minor pilin protein). The negative regulation of pilus expression by FasX reduces the ability of GAS to adhere to human keratinocytes. Our findings cement FasX sRNA as an important regulator of virulence factor production in GAS and identify that FasX uses at least three distinct mechanisms, positive (ska mRNA) and negative (pilus operon mRNA) regulation of mRNA stability, and negative regulation of mRNA translation (cpa mRNA), to post-transcriptionally regulate target mRNAs during infection. PMID:22882718

  6. Optimization of the Bacterial Cytochrome P450 BM3 System for the Production of Human Drug Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Drug metabolism in human liver is a process involving many different enzymes. Among them, a number of cytochromes P450 isoforms catalyze the oxidation of most of the drugs commercially available. Each P450 isoform acts on more than one drug, and one drug may be oxidized by more than one enzyme. As a result, multiple products may be obtained from the same drug, and as the metabolites can be biologically active and may cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the metabolic profile of a new drug has to be known before this can be commercialized. Therefore, the metabolites of a certain drug must be identified, synthesized and tested for toxicity. Their synthesis must be in sufficient quantities to be used for metabolic tests. This review focuses on the progresses done in the field of the optimization of a bacterial self-sufficient and efficient cytochrome P450, P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium, used for the production of metabolites of human enzymes. The progress made in the improvement of its catalytic performance towards drugs, the substitution of the costly NADPH cofactor and its immobilization and scale-up of the process for industrial application are reported. PMID:23443101

  7. Silver nanoparticles synthesized