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Sample records for human mda-mb-231 breast

  1. Cytotoxicity of Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Jeyaraj, Muniyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as an antimicrobial and disinfectant agents. However, there is limited information about antitumor potential. Therefore, this study focused on determining cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and its mechanism of cell death. Herein, we developed a green method for synthesis of AgNPs using culture supernatant of Bacillus funiculus, and synthesized AgNPs were characterized by various analytical techniques such as UV-visible spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The toxicity was evaluated using cell viability, metabolic activity, and oxidative stress. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of AgNPs (5 to 25 μg/mL) for 24 h. We found that AgNPs inhibited the growth in a dose-dependent manner using MTT assay. AgNPs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 cells through activation of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), caspase-3, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, eventually leading to induction of apoptosis which was further confirmed through resulting nuclear fragmentation. The present results showed that AgNPs might be a potential alternative agent for human breast cancer therapy. PMID:23936814

  2. Development of Resistance towards Artesunate in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bachmeier, Beatrice; Fichtner, Iduna; Killian, Peter H.; Kronski, Emanuel; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in industrialized countries. Systemic treatment of breast cancer is effective at the beginning of therapy. However, after a variable period of time, progression occurs due to therapy resistance. Artesunate, clinically used as anti-malarial agent, has recently revealed remarkable anti-tumor activity offering a role as novel candidate for cancer chemotherapy. We analyzed the anti-tumor effects of artesunate in metastasizing breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Unlike as expected, artesunate induced resistance in highly metastatic human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Likewise acquired resistance led to abolishment of apoptosis and cytotoxicity in pre-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, artesunate was more cytotoxic towards the less tumorigenic MDA-MB-468 cells without showing resistance. Unraveling the underlying molecular mechanisms, we found that resistance was induced due to activation of the tumor progression related transcription factors NFκB and AP-1. Thereby transcription, expression and activity of the matrix-degrading enzyme MMP-1, whose function is correlated with increased invasion and metastasis, was up-regulated upon acquisition of resistance. Additionally, activation of the apoptosis-related factor NFκB lead to increased expression of ant-apoptotic bcl2 and reduced expression of pro-apoptotic bax. Application of artesunate in vivo in a model of xenografted breast cancer showed, that tumors growth was not efficiently abolished as compared to the control drug doxorubicin. Taken together our in vitro and in vivo results correlate well showing for the first time that artesunate induces resistance in highly metastatic breast tumors. PMID:21637790

  3. Potential suppressive effects of gentian violet on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro: Comparison with gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Murata, Tomiyasu

    2016-01-01

    Gentian violet (GV), a cationic triphenylmethane dye, is used as an antifungal and antibacterial agent. Recently, attention has been focused on GV as a potential chemotherapeutic and antiangiogenic agent. The present study was undertaken to determine the suppressive effects of GV on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. The proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells was suppressed by culture with GV (1–200 nM). The suppressive effects of GV on cell proliferation were not potentiated in the presence of various inhibitors that induce cell cycle arrest in vitro. This finding suggested that GV inhibits G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. The suppressive effects of GV on proliferation are mediated through the inhibition of various signaling pathways or nuclear transcription in vitro. Moreover, the suppressive effects of GV on cell proliferation were compared with that of gemcitabine, a strong antitumor agent that induces nuclear DNA damage. Notably, the culture with gemcitabine >50 nM suppressed cell proliferation, while the effects of GV were observed at >1 nM. The suppressive effects of gemcitabine on cell proliferation were not potentiated by GV. Overall, the present study demonstrated that GV exhibits a potential suppressive effect on the proliferation of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. PMID:27446479

  4. Artichoke polyphenols induce apoptosis and decrease the invasive potential of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231.

    PubMed

    Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Venere, Donato; Linsalata, Vito; Fraioli, Rocco; Miccadei, Stefania

    2012-09-01

    The human breast cancer cell line, estrogen receptor negative, MDA-MB231, was used to evaluate the antitumor effect of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichokes (AEs). Treatment of cancer cells reduced cell viability and inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, AEs did not have any effect on normal breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A. Chlorogenic acid (ChA), the most representative component of the polyphenolic fraction of artichoke, had no prominent effects on the cell death rate of MDA-MB231 cells. The addition of AEs to the cells, rather than ChA, triggered apoptosis via a mitochondrial and a death-receptor pathway, as shown by the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-8, respectively. Furthermore, an increase of the Bax:Bcl2 ratio and up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(WAF1), crucial apoptotic players, were documented. According to our data on activation of caspase-9, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Ψ(m)) was shown. Cell motility and invasion capabilities were remarkably inhibited by AEs-treatment in highly invasive MDA-MB231 cells. In addition, a significant decrease of proteolytic activity of metalloproteinase-2 protein (MMP-2), involved in degrading components of the extracellular matrix, was detected. Our findings indicate that AEs reduced cell viability, inhibited cell growth, triggered apoptotic mechanisms, and showed inhibitory properties against the invasive behavior of MDA-MB231 cancer cell line. Altogether, these data indicate the potential chemopreventive activity of artichoke polyphenolic extracts. PMID:22170094

  5. Mechanisms of omega-3 fatty acid-induced growth inhibition in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schley, Patricia D; Jijon, Humberto B; Robinson, Lindsay E; Field, Catherine J

    2005-07-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells in animal models and cell lines, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not well understood. In order to explore possible mechanisms for the modulation of breast cancer cell growth by omega-3 fatty acids, we examined the effects of EPA and DHA on the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Omega-3 fatty acids (a combination of EPA and DHA) inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells by 30-40% (p<0.05) in both the presence and absence of linoleic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty acid. When provided individually, DHA was more potent than EPA in inhibiting the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells (p<0.05). EPA and DHA treatment decreased tumor cell proliferation (p<0.05), as estimated by decreased [methyl-(3)H]-thymidine uptake and expression of proliferation-associated proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA, and proliferation-related kinase, PRK). In addition, EPA and DHA induced apoptosis, as indicated by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased caspase activity and increased DNA fragmentation (p<0.05). Cells incubated with omega-3 fatty acids demonstrated decreased Akt phosphorylation, as well as NFkappaB DNA binding activity (p<0.05). The results of this study indicate that omega-3 fatty acids decrease cell proliferation and induce apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells, possibly by decreasing signal transduction through the Akt/NFkappaB cell survival pathway. PMID:15986129

  6. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A

    2014-06-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5 mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties <0.0183 mg/mL. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  7. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50) properties <0.0183 mg/ml. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja Twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite Clay, Bunge Root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea Fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder Root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane Root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi Root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree Fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis) and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth-root (Trillium Pendulum) and alkanet-root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (Speranskia tuberculata) which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of natural anti-mitotic resources effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  8. Curcumin inhibits intracellular fatty acid synthase and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huijin; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Li, Xiabing; Xun, Hang; Sun, Jia; He, Wei; Lau, Hay Tong; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2016-05-01

    High levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression have been found in many tumors, including prostate, breast, and ovarian cancers, and inhibition of FAS has been reported to obstruct tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin is one of the major active ingredients of Curcuma longa, which has been proven to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the potential activity of curcumin as a FAS inhibitor for chemoprevention of breast cancer. As a result, curcumin induced human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis with the half-inhibitory concentration value of 3.63 ± 0.26 µg/ml, and blocked FAS activity, expression and mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin also regulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax and p-Akt protein expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, FAS knockdown showed similar effect as curcumin. All these results suggested that curcumin may induce cell apoptosis via inhibiting FAS. PMID:26985864

  9. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Peter . E-mail: bchpcr@nus.edu.sg; Huang, Qing; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-12-01

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependant manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.

  10. Molecular deficiency (ies) in MT1 melatonin signaling pathway underlies the melatonin-unresponsive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Lulu; Yuan, Lin; Xiang, Shulin; Zeringue, Samantha B.; Dauchy, Robert T.; Blask, David E.; Hauch, Adam; Hill, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, has been shown repeatedly to inhibit the growth of human breast tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Its anti-proliferative effects have been well-studied in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and several other estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive human breast cancer cell lines. However, the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, an ERα negative cell line widely used in breast cancer research, has been shown to be unresponsive to melatonin’s growth-suppressive effect in vitro. Here we examined the effect of melatonin on the cell proliferation of several ERα-negative breast cancer cell lines including MDA-MB-231, BT-20 and SK-BR-3 cells. Although the MT1 G-protein-coupled receptor is expressed in all three cell lines, melatonin significantly suppressed the proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells without having any significant effect on the growth of MDA-MB-231 and BT-20 cells. We confirmed that the MT1-associated Gα proteins are expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Further studies demonstrated that the melatonin-unresponsiveness in MDA-MB-231 cells may be caused by aberrant signaling downstream of the Gαi proteins, resulting in differential regulation of ERK1/2 activity. PMID:24372669

  11. L-leucine transport in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231): kinetics, regulation by estrogen and molecular identity of the transporter.

    PubMed

    Shennan, D B; Thomson, J; Gow, I F; Travers, M T; Barber, M C

    2004-08-30

    The transport of L-leucine by two human breast cancer cell lines has been examined. L-leucine uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was via a BCH-sensitive, Na+ -independent pathway. L-leucine uptake by both cell lines was inhibited by L-alanine, D-leucine and to a lesser extent by L-lysine but not by L-proline. Estrogen (17beta-estradiol) stimulated L-leucine uptake by MCF-7 but not by MDA-MB-231 cells. L-leucine efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH in a dose-dependent fashion. The effect of external BCH on L-leucine efflux from both cell types was almost abolished by reducing the temperature from 37 to 4 degrees C. There was, however, a significant efflux of L-leucine under zero-trans conditions which was also temperature-sensitive. L-glutamine, L-leucine, D-leucine, L-alanine, AIB and L-lysine all trans-stimulated L-leucine release from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. In contrast, D-alanine and L-proline had little or no effect. The anti-cancer agent melphalan inhibited L-leucine uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells but had no effect on L-leucine efflux. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that LAT1 mRNA was approximately 200 times more abundant than LAT2 mRNA in MCF-7 cells and confirmed that MDA-MB-231 cells express LAT1 but not LAT2 mRNA. LAT1 mRNA levels were higher in MCF-7 cells than in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, LAT1 mRNA was more abundant than CD98hc mRNA in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results suggest that system L is the major transporter for L-leucine in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. It is possible that LAT1 may be the major molecular correlate of system L in both cell types. However, not all of the properties of system L reflected those of LAT1/LAT2/CD98hc. PMID:15328053

  12. Assessment of the anti-metastatic properties of sanguiin H-6 in HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Hwa; Park, Jun Yeon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Hye Lim

    2016-07-15

    The anti-metastatic properties of sanguiin H-6 were examined in human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. In HUVECs, sanguiin H-6 inhibited the density of migrated cells compared to that observed after treatment with the vehicle. In addition, sanguiin H-6 at a concentration of 6.25μM significantly blocked tube formation. Treatment with up to 25μM sanguiin H-6 had no effect on MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas treatment with 200μM sanguiin H-6 decreased cell viability. Sanguiin H-6 significantly decreased the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphorylated Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that sanguiin H-6 is potentially useful as an anti-metastatic agent. PMID:27237777

  13. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis data in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines treated with dioscin.

    PubMed

    Aumsuwan, Pranapda; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2016-09-01

    Microarray technology (Human OneArray microarray, phylanxbiotech.com) was used to compare gene expression profiles of non-invasive MCF-7 and invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exposed to dioscin (DS), a steroidal saponin isolated from the roots of wild yam, (Dioscorea villosa). Initially the differential expression of genes (DEG) was identified which was followed by pathway enrichment analysis (PEA). Of the genes queried on OneArray, we identified 4641 DEG changed between MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (vehicle-treated) with cut-off log2 |fold change|≧1. Among these genes, 2439 genes were upregulated and 2002 were downregulated. DS exposure (2.30 μM, 72 h) to these cells identified 801 (MCF-7) and 96 (MDA-MB-231) DEG that showed significant difference when compared with the untreated cells (p<0.05). Within these gene sets, DS was able to upregulate 395 genes and downregulate 406 genes in MCF-7 and upregulate 36 and downregulate 60 genes in MDA-MB-231 cells. Further comparison of DEG between MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to DS identified 3626 DEG of which 1700 were upregulated and 1926 were down-regulated. Regarding to PEA, 12 canonical pathways were significantly altered between these two cell lines. However, there was no alteration in any of these pathways in MCF-7 cells, while in MDA-MB-231 cells only MAPK pathway showed significant alteration. When PEA comparison was made on DS exposed cells, it was observed that only 2 pathways were significantly affected. Further, we identified the shared DEG, which were targeted by DS and overlapped in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, by intersection analysis (Venn diagram). We found that 7 DEG were overlapped of which six are reported in the database. This data highlight the diverse gene networks and pathways in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines treated with dioscin. PMID:27331101

  14. Chemotherapy cytotoxicity of human MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells is altered by osteoblast-derived growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Koutsilieris, M.; Reyes-Moreno, C.; Choki, I.; Sourla, A.; Doillon, C.; Pavlidis, N.

    1999-01-01

    One-third of women with breast cancer will develop bone metastases and eventually die from disease progression at these sites. Therefore, we analyzed the ability of human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 cells), MG-63 conditioned media (MG-63 CM), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) to alter the effects of adriamycin on cell cycle and apoptosis of estrogen receptor negative (ER-) MDA-MB-231 and positive (ER+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells, using cell count, trypan blue exclusion, flow cytometry, detection of DNA fragmentation by simple agarose gel, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated nick end-labeling method for apoptosis (TUNEL assay). Adriamycin arrested MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells at G2/M phase in the cell cycle and inhibited cell growth. In addition, adriamycin arrested the MCF-7 cells at G1/G0 phase and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Exogenous IGF-I partially neutralized the adriamycin cytotoxicity/cytostasis of cancer cells. MG-63 CM and TGF-beta1 partially neutralized the adriamycin cytotoxicity of MDA-MB-231 cells but enhanced adriamycin blockade of MCF-7 cells at G1/G0 phase. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells inhibited growth of MCF-7 cells while promoting growth and rescued MDA-MB-231 cells from adriamycin apoptosis in a collagen co-culture system. These data suggest that osteoblast-derived growth factors can alter the chemotherapy response of breast cancer cells. Conceivably, host tissue (bone)-tumor cell interactions can modify the clinical response to chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:10203574

  15. A potential peptide vector that allows targeted delivery of a desired fusion protein into the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WEI QING; YANG, JUN; HONG, MIN; GAO, CHANG E.; DONG, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    Effective control of breast cancer has been primarily hampered by a lack of tumor specificity in treatments. One potential way to improve targeting specificity is to develop novel vectors that specifically bind to and are internalized by tumor cells. Through a phage display library, an 11-L-amino acid peptide, PI (sequence, CASPSGALRSC), was selected. PI was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and named PI-FITC. Subsequently, the specific affinity of PI-FITC to MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and other cancer cell lines was observed by confocal microscopy. Our previous study established that PI-FITC also shows affinity to Calu-1 human lung carcinoma cells and major histocompatibility complex class I antigen molecules; therefore, the cytomembrane proteins of the cell lines were analyzed to determine those that were common to the two cell lines and may be associated with transmembrane transduction. To further test the delivery ability of PI to MDA-MB-231 cells, PI-glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was constructed and the internalization of this fusion protein was visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that PI exhibited specific affinity to MDA-MB-231 cells. Use of membrane transport inhibitors indicated that macropinocytosis and caveolin-mediated endocytosis may be involved in the endocytosis of PI. In addition, 11 membrane proteins common to MDA-MB-231 and Calu-1 may be associated with transmembrane transduction. In summary, PI was able to deliver PI-GST into MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, PI could be modified to be a potential vector, and may contribute to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies for breast cancer. PMID:27313722

  16. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aumsuwan, Pranapda; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Ali, Zulfiqar; Avula, Bharathi; Walker, Larry A; Shariat-Madar, Zia; Helferich, William G; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to find out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated in the absence/presence of various concentrations of DS and subjected to gene analysis by RT-qPCR, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. We determined the ability of MDA-MB-231 cells to migrate into wound area and examined the effects of DS on cellular invasion using invasion assay. DS reduced cell viability of both cell lines in a concentration and time-dependent manner. GATA3 expression was enhanced by DS (5.76 μM) in MDA-MB-231 cells. DS (5.76 μM)-treated MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited the morphological characteristic of epithelial-like cells; mRNA expression of DNMT3A, TET2, TET3, ZFPM2 and E-cad were increased while TET1, VIM and MMP9 were decreased. Cellular invasion of MDA-MB-231 was reduced by 65 ± 5% in the presence of 5.76 μM DS. Our data suggested that DS-mediated pathway could promote GATA3 expression at transcription and translation levels. We propose that DS has potential to be used as an anti-invasive agent in breast cancer. PMID:26682631

  17. Neohesperidin induces cellular apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells via activating the Bcl-2/Bax-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Zang, Jia; Chen, Daozhen; Zhang, Ting; Zhan, Huiying; Lu, Mudan; Zhuge, Hongxiang

    2012-11-01

    Neohesperidin, a flavonoid compound found in high amounts in Poncirus trifoliata, has free radical scavenging activity. For the first time, our study indicated that neohesperidin also induces cell apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, which was possibly mediated by regulating the P53/Bcl-2/Bax pathway. MDA-MB-231 cells were subjected to treatment with neohesperidin. MTT and Trypan blue exclusion assays were applied to assess the cell viability. The morphological changes of cells were observed using an inverted microscope, and cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoblot analysis was conducted to evaluate the protein expressions of apoptosis-related genes, including P53, Bcl-2 and Bax. Our results indicated that the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells was inhibited by the treatment with neohesperidin in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of neohesperidin at 24 and 48 h were 47.4 +/- 2.6 microM and 32.5 +/- 1.8 microM, respectively. The expressions of P53 and Bax in the neohesperidin-treated cells were significantly up-regulated, while that of Bcl-2 was down-regulated. Our study suggested that neohesperidin could induce apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells, a process which was associated with the activation of the Bcl-2/Bax-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:23285810

  18. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Kumar Jaganathan, Saravana; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184). The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract) and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL) and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL). The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated. PMID:27410459

  19. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Kumar Jaganathan, Saravana; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184). The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract) and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL) and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL). The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated. PMID:27410459

  20. Immunolocalization of MMP9 and MMP2 in osteolytic metastasis originating from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Jian; Sun, Jing; Li, Juan; Han, Xiuchun; Guo, Jie; Yi, Min; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 and MMP2, and their potential roles in bone metastasis nests using a well-standardized model of breast cancer bone metastasis in nude mice. BALB/c nu/nu mice (5-week-old; n=10) were subjected to intracardiac injection of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. After 4 weeks, the mice exhibiting radiolucent lesions in tibiae were sacrificed, and the tibiae were removed for histochemical analysis. The gene expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in the tumor cells, metaphysis and diaphysis of normal BALB/c nu/nu mice were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The metastatic tumor tissue occupied almost the entire bone marrow cavity. Numerous tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were found in the metastasized lesions. The invaded tumor cells positive for mammaglobin 1 exhibited different proliferation activities and apoptosis between the metaphysis and diaphysis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was expressed at high levels in the metaphyseal area, whereas TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were more evident in the diaphysis area. Of note, MMP9 was expressed predominantly in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen‑positive area, whereas the expression of MMP2 was observed predominantly in the diaphysis, which had more TUNEL‑positive cells. Taken together, the results suggested that MMP9 and MMP2 may have their own importance in extracellular matrix degradation and trabecular bone damage in different zones of bone metastasis, including the metaphysis and diaphysis. PMID:27278284

  1. Immunolocalization of MMP9 and MMP2 in osteolytic metastasis originating from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Jian; Sun, Jing; Li, Juan; Han, Xiuchun; Guo, Jie; Yi, Min; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 and MMP2, and their potential roles in bone metastasis nests using a well-standardized model of breast cancer bone metastasis in nude mice. BALB/c nu/nu mice (5-week-old; n=10) were subjected to intracardiac injection of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. After 4 weeks, the mice exhibiting radiolucent lesions in tibiae were sacrificed, and the tibiae were removed for histochemical analysis. The gene expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in the tumor cells, metaphysis and diaphysis of normal BALB/c nu/nu mice were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The metastatic tumor tissue occupied almost the entire bone marrow cavity. Numerous tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were found in the metastasized lesions. The invaded tumor cells positive for mammaglobin 1 exhibited different proliferation activities and apoptosis between the metaphysis and diaphysis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was expressed at high levels in the metaphyseal area, whereas TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were more evident in the diaphysis area. Of note, MMP9 was expressed predominantly in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive area, whereas the expression of MMP2 was observed predominantly in the diaphysis, which had more TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, the results suggested that MMP9 and MMP2 may have their own importance in extracellular matrix degradation and trabecular bone damage in different zones of bone metastasis, including the metaphysis and diaphysis. PMID:27278284

  2. An in vitro evaluation of graphene oxide reduced by Ganoderma spp. in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231)

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, graphene and graphene-related materials have attracted much attention due their unique properties, such as their physical, chemical, and biocompatibility properties. This study aimed to determine the cytotoxic effects of graphene oxide (GO) that is reduced biologically using Ganoderma spp. mushroom extracts in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods Herein, we describe a facile and green method for the reduction of GO using extracts of Ganoderma spp. as a reducing agent. GO was reduced without any hazardous chemicals in an aqueous solution, and the reduced GO was characterized using a range of analytical procedures. The Ganoderma extract (GE)-reduced GO (GE-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of GE-rGO was evaluated using a sequence of assays such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Results The preliminary characterization of reduction of GO was confirmed by the red-shifting of the absorption peak for GE-rGO to 265 nm from 230 nm. The size of GO and GE-rGO was found to be 1,880 and 3,200 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that reduction processes of GO and the processes of removing intercalated water molecules and the oxide groups. The surface functionalities and chemical natures of GO and GE-rGO were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface morphologies of the synthesized graphene were analyzed using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy revealed single- and multilayer properties of GE-rGO. Atomic force microscopy images provided evidence for the formation of graphene

  3. A comparative study of protein patterns of human estrogen receptor positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Flodrova, Dana; Toporova, Lucia; Macejova, Dana; Lastovickova, Marketa; Brtko, Julius; Bobalova, Janette

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the cell lysates of human tumour cell lines representing two major clinically different types of breast cancer. Our main goal was to show the differences between them on proteomic level. Gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis was used for proteins determination. Exactly 98 proteins were unequivocally identified and 60 of them were expressed differentially between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. Among the proteins reported here, some well-known breast cancer markers (e.g., annexin A1, annexin A2 and vimentin) were identified in the MDA-MB-231 cell line and thus we were able to distinguish both cell lines sufficiently. PMID:27174898

  4. Human ether à-gogo K(+) channel 1 (hEag1) regulates MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration through Orai1-dependent calcium entry.

    PubMed

    Hammadi, Mehdi; Chopin, Valérie; Matifat, Fabrice; Dhennin-Duthille, Isabelle; Chasseraud, Maud; Sevestre, Henri; Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) has a poor prognosis due to its strong metastatic ability. Accumulating data present ether à go-go (hEag1) K(+) channels as relevant player in controlling cell cycle and proliferation of non-invasive BC cells. However, the role of hEag1 in invasive BC cells migration is still unknown. In this study, we studied both the functional expression and the involvement in cell migration of hEag1 in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 human BC cells. We showed that hEag1 mRNA and proteins were expressed in human invasive ductal carcinoma tissues and BC cell lines. Functional activity of hEag1 channels in MDA-MB-231 cells was confirmed using astemizole, a hEag1 blocker, or siRNA. Blocking or silencing hEag1 depolarized the membrane potential and reduced both Ca(2+) entry and MDA-MB-231 cell migration without affecting cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that Ca(2+) entry through Orai1 channels is required for MDA-MB-231 cell migration. Down-regulation of hEag1 or Orai1 reduced Ca(2+) influx and cell migration with similar efficiency. Interestingly, no additive effects on Ca(2+) influx or cell migration were observed in cells co-transfected with sihEag1 and siOrai1. Finally, both Orai1 and hEag1 are expressed in invasive breast adenocarcinoma tissues and invaded metastatic lymph node samples (LNM(+)). In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that hEag1 channels are involved in the serum-induced migration of BC cells by controlling the Ca(2+) entry through Orai1 channels. hEag1 may therefore represent a potential target for the suppression of BC cell migration, and thus prevention of metastasis development. PMID:22495877

  5. MicroRNA-378-mediated suppression of Runx1 alleviates the aggressive phenotype of triple negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Gillian; Dragon, Julie A.; Hong, Deli; Messier, Terri L.; Gordon, Jonathan A. R.; Farina, Nicholas H.; Boyd, Joseph R.; VanOudenhove, Jennifer J.; Perez, Andrew W.; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Lian, Jane B.

    2016-01-01

    The Runx1 transcription factor, known for its essential role normal hematopoiesis, was reported in limited studies to be mutated or associated with human breast tumor tissues. Runx 1 increases concomitant with disease progression in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse model of breast cancer. Compelling questions relate to mechanisms that regulate Runx1 expression in breast cancer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dysregulation of Runx1-targeting microRNAs (miRNAs) allows for pathologic increase of Runx1 during breast cancer progression. Microarray profiling of the MMTV-PyMT model revealed significant down-regulation of numerous miRNAs predicted to target Runx1. One of these, miR-378, was inversely correlated with Runx1 expression during breast cancer progression in mouse, and in human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and triple negative MDA-MB-231 that represent early and late stage disease, respectively. MiR-378 is nearly absent in MDA-MB-231 cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-378 binds the Runx1 3′UTR and inhibits Runx1 expression. Functionally, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-378 in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited Runx1 and suppressed migration and invasion; while inhibition of miR-378 in MCF7 cells increased Runx1 levels and cell migration. Depletion of Runx1 in late stage breast cancer cells resulted in increased expression of both the miR-378 host gene PPARGC1B and pre-miR-378, suggesting a feedback loop. Taken together, our study identifies a novel and clinically relevant mechanism for regulation of Runx1 in breast cancer that is mediated by a PPARGC1B-miR-378-Runx1 regulatory pathway. Our results highlight the translational potential of miRNA replacement therapy for inhibiting Runx1 in breast cancer. PMID:26749280

  6. Effects and mechanism of recombinant human erythropoietin on the growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen; Lin, Zhiwu; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kong, Lingying; Yang, Li

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on the growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice, and investigate its functions in regulating tumor growth, angiogenesis and apoptosis. A tumor-bearing nude mice model was established by subcutaneous injection of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Two weeks later, the mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 for each group): negative control group, rhEPO group, EPO antibody group and EPO+EPO antibody group. Drugs were administered to the corresponding mice once every 3 days for five times. The size and weight of tumors were measured after the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The expression levels of EPO/EPOR, TNF-α, IL-10, and Bcl-2 in the tumor tissues were determined using RT-PCR and Western blot. The microvessel density (MVD) and expression of VEGF in the tumors were detected using immunohistochemistry. TUNEL assay was used to determine apoptosis in tumors. Results show that rhEPO significantly promoted the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice (P<0.05). Compared with the negative control group, the expression levels of EPO, EPOR, TNF-α, IL-10, and VEGF, as well as the MVD values, were significantly elevated in the rhEPO group. However, the apoptotic index was significantly reduced (P<0.05). The ability of rhEPO to promote tumor growth may be associated with its functions in promoting microvessel formation and inhibiting tumor cell apoptosis. PMID:26008780

  7. Knockdown of aberrantly upregulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor reduces tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Gennifer; Ballard, Billy R.; Manning, H Charles; Freeman, Michael L; Kang, Yibin; Eltom, Sakina E

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that belongs to the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH)–Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) superfamily of transcription factors, mediates toxic response induced by environmental chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). AhR is expressed at high levels in several human breast carcinoma cell lines in direct correlation with the degree of their malignancy. Recent studies suggest a possible role for AhR in cancer independent of PAH. Therefore, we established stable AhR knockdown cells of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and analyzed their tumorigenic properties in in vitro and in vivo model systems. In addition we analyzed their response to radiation and chemotherapeutic treatment. AhR knockdown attenuated these cells tumorigenic properties in vitro including proliferation, anchorage independent growth, migration and apoptosis and reduced orthotopic xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Notably, we observed that AhR knockdown enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis as well as significantly decreased cell clonogenic survival. Furthermore, AhR knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells sensitized them to paclitaxel treatment, evident by a decrease in the required cytotoxic dose. Subsequent analysis revealed AhR knockdown significantly reduced phosphorylation of AKT, which impacts cell proliferation and survival. Apoptosis-focused gene expression analyses revealed an altered expression of genes regulating apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Collectively, our data identify AhR as a potential novel therapeutic target in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:23733406

  8. Cytotoxic effects of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract on human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and bioactive constituents in the crude extract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterlily Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is thought to be antioxidant-rich, conferred by its functional phytochemicals. Methods The potential anticancer effects of the ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) using MTT, anti-proliferation, neutral red (NR) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were evaluated. Cytological studies on the breast cancer cells were also conducted, and phytochemical analyses of the extract were carried out to determine the likely bioactive compounds responsible for such effects. Results Results showed the extract induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 30 and 15 μg/mL, respectively. The extract showed significant toxicity towards both cell lines, with low toxicity to normal breast cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effects on the cells were further confirmed by the NR uptake, antiproliferative and LDH release assays. Bioactive analyses revealed that many bioactives were present in the extract although butylated hydroxytoluene, a potent antioxidant, was the most abundant with 44.65%. Conclusions M. indica extract appears to be more cytoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells. Synergistic effects of its antioxidant bioactives could have contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract. The extract of M. indica, therefore, has potential anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. This potential is worth studying further, and could have implications on future studies and eventually management of human breast cancers. PMID:24962691

  9. Estrogen and non-genomic upregulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channel activity in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells: role in adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Scott P; Ozerlat-Gunduz, Iley; Onkal, Rustem; Diss, James K J; Latchman, David S; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2010-08-01

    External (but not internal) application of beta-estradiol (E2) increased the current amplitude of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer (BCa) cells. The G-protein activator GTP-gamma-S, by itself, also increased the VGSC current whilst the G-protein inhibitor GDP-beta-S decreased the effect of E2. Expression of GPR30 (a G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor) in MDA-MB-231 cells was confirmed by PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Importantly, G-1, a specific agonist for GPR30, also increased the VGSC current amplitude in a dose-dependent manner. Transfection and siRNA-silencing of GPR30 expression resulted in corresponding changes in GPR30 protein expression but only internally, and the response to E2 was not affected. The protein kinase A inhibitor, PKI, abolished the effect of E2, whilst forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, by itself, increased VGSC activity. On the other hand, pre-incubation of the MDA-MB-231 cells with brefeldin A (a trans-Golgi protein trafficking inhibitor) had no effect on the E2-induced increase in VGSC amplitude, indicating that such trafficking ('externalisation') of VGSC was not involved. Finally, acute application of E2 decreased cell adhesion whilst the specific VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin increased it. Co-application of E2 and tetrodotoxin inhibited the effect of E2 on cell adhesion, suggesting that the effect of E2 was mainly through VGSC activity. Pre-treatment of the cells with PKI abolished the effect of E2 on adhesion, consistent with the proposed role of PKA. Potential implications of the E2-induced non-genomic upregulation of VGSC activity for BCa progression are discussed. PMID:20432453

  10. Long Term Exposure to Polyphenols of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Exerts Induction of Senescence Driven Growth Arrest in the MDA-MB231 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Venere, Donato; Abbruzzese, Claudia; Miccadei, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) have been shown to be potential chemopreventive and anticancer dietary compounds. High doses of polyphenolic extracts (AEs) induce apoptosis and decrease the invasive potential of the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB231. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AEs antiproliferative effects is not completely understood. We demonstrate that chronic and low doses of AEs treatment at sublethal concentrations suppress human breast cancer cell growth via a caspases-independent mechanism. Furthermore, AEs exposure induces a significant increase of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining and upregulation of tumour suppressor genes, p16INK4a and p21Cip1/Waf1 in MDA-MB231 cells. AEs treatment leads to epigenetic alterations in cancer cells, modulating DNA hypomethylation and lysine acetylation levels in total proteins. Cell growth arrest correlates with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AEs treated breast cancer cells. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuates the antiproliferative effect. These findings demonstrate that chronic AEs treatment inhibits breast cancer cell growth via the induction of premature senescence through epigenetic and ROS-mediated mechanisms. Our results suggest that artichoke polyphenols could be a promising dietary tool either in cancer chemoprevention or/and in cancer treatment as a nonconventional, adjuvant therapy. PMID:26180585

  11. Long Term Exposure to Polyphenols of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Exerts Induction of Senescence Driven Growth Arrest in the MDA-MB231 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Venere, Donato; Abbruzzese, Claudia; Miccadei, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) have been shown to be potential chemopreventive and anticancer dietary compounds. High doses of polyphenolic extracts (AEs) induce apoptosis and decrease the invasive potential of the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB231. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AEs antiproliferative effects is not completely understood. We demonstrate that chronic and low doses of AEs treatment at sublethal concentrations suppress human breast cancer cell growth via a caspases-independent mechanism. Furthermore, AEs exposure induces a significant increase of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining and upregulation of tumour suppressor genes, p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1/Waf1) in MDA-MB231 cells. AEs treatment leads to epigenetic alterations in cancer cells, modulating DNA hypomethylation and lysine acetylation levels in total proteins. Cell growth arrest correlates with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AEs treated breast cancer cells. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuates the antiproliferative effect. These findings demonstrate that chronic AEs treatment inhibits breast cancer cell growth via the induction of premature senescence through epigenetic and ROS-mediated mechanisms. Our results suggest that artichoke polyphenols could be a promising dietary tool either in cancer chemoprevention or/and in cancer treatment as a nonconventional, adjuvant therapy. PMID:26180585

  12. Anticancer effects of tributyltin chloride and triphenyltin chloride in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Hunakova, Luba; Macejova, D; Toporova, L; Brtko, J

    2016-05-01

    Triorganotin compounds induce hormonal alterations, i.e., endocrine-disrupting effects in mammals, including humans. Tributyltin chloride (TBT-Cl) and triphenyltin chloride (TPT-Cl) are known to function as nuclear retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists. Their cytotoxic effects in ER(+) luminal human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and ER(-) basal-like human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 were examined. We observed significantly higher toxicity of TBT-Cl in comparison with TPT-Cl in both cell lines. Comparable apoptosis-inducing concentrations were 200 and 800 nM, respectively, as shown by PARP cleavage and FDA staining. Both compounds activated executive caspases in the concentration-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 cells, but the onset of TPT-Cl-induced caspase-3/7 activation was delayed in comparison with TBT-Cl. Both compounds slowed down the migration of these highly invasive cells, which was accompanied by RARbeta upregulation. Other RAR and RXR expressions were differentially modulated by studied organotins in both cell lines. PMID:26662104

  13. Hispolon inhibits TPA-induced invasion by reducing MMP-9 expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YI-SHENG; ZHAO, ZHAO; ZHU, HAN-PING

    2015-01-01

    Hispolon has been demonstrated to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, whether hispolon prevents the invasion of breast carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms of its action remain unknown. In the present study, various assays, including a matrigel-based Transwell invasion assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, were used to investigate the anti-invasion effect of hispolon and explore its mechanism of action. The results revealed that hispolon inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells at non-toxic concentrations. Hispolon also prevented the TPA-induced secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and reduced its expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of IκBα was reduced by hispolon, which resulted in the suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that NF-κB DNA-binding activity was induced by TPA and inhibited by hispolon. In addition, Bay 11–7082, which is a specific inhibitor of NF-κB, functioned in a similar manner as hispolon and blocked the secretion and expression of MMP-9. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that hispolon inhibited TPA-induced migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells by reducing the secretion and expression of MMP-9 through the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26171065

  14. Suppression of RAD21 Induces Senescence of MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells Through RB1 Pathway Activation Via c-Myc Downregulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shan; Zhao, Li; Li, Yueyang; Hou, Pingfu; Yao, Ruosi; Tan, Jiang; Liu, Dongxu; Han, Liping; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Cellular senescence impedes cancer progression by limiting uncontrolled cell proliferation. To identify new genetic events controlling senescence, we performed a small interfering RNA screening human cancer cells and identified a number of targets potentially involved in senescence of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Importantly, we showed that knockdown of RAD21 resulted in the appearance of several senescent markers, including enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and heterochromatin focus formation, as well as elevated p21 protein levels and RB1 pathway activation. Further biochemical analyses revealed that RAD21 knockdown led to the downregulation of c-Myc and its targets, including CDK4, a negative regulator of RB1, and blockedRB1 phosphorylation (pRB1), and the RB1-mediated transcriptional repression of E2F. Moreover, c-Myc downregulation was partially mediated by proteasome-dependent degradation within promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, which were found to be highly abundant during RAD21 knockdown-induced senescence. Exogenous c-Myc reconstitution rescued cells from RAD21 silencing-induced senescence. Altogether, data arising from this study implicate a novel function of RAD21 in cellular senescence in MDA-MB-231 cells that is mainly dependent onRB1 pathway activation via c-Myc downregulation. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1359-1369, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26529363

  15. (--)-Xanthatin selectively induces GADD45γ and stimulates caspase-independent cell death in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Matsuo, Kazumasa; Yaji, Kentaro; Okajima-Miyazaki, Shunsuke; Harada, Mari; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Shindo, Mitsuru; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2011-06-20

    exo-Methylene lactone group-containing compounds, such as (--)-xanthatin, are present in a large variety of biologically active natural products, including extracts of Xanthium strumarium (Cocklebur). These substances are reported to possess diverse functional activities, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and anticancer potential. In this study, we synthesized six structurally related xanthanolides containing exo-methylene lactone moieties, including (--)-xanthatin and (+)-8-epi-xanthatin, and examined the effects of these chemically defined substances on the highly aggressive and farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI)-resistant MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line. The results obtained demonstrate that (--)-xanthatin was a highly effective inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 cell growth, inducing caspase-independent cell death, and that these effects were independent of FTase inhibition. Further, our results show that among the GADD45 isoforms, GADD45γ was selectively induced by (--)-xanthatin and that GADD45γ-primed JNK and p38 signaling pathways are, at least in part, involved in mediating the growth inhibition and potential anticancer activities of this agent. Given that GADD45γ is becoming increasingly recognized for its tumor suppressor function, the results presented here suggest the novel possibility that (--)-xanthatin may have therapeutic value as a selective inducer of GADD45γ in human cancer cells, in particular in FTI-resistant aggressive breast cancers. PMID:21568272

  16. (−)-Xanthatin Selectively Induces GADD45γ and Stimulates Caspase-Independent Cell Death in Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuso; Matsuo, Kazumasa; Yaji, Kentaro; Okajima-Miyazaki, Shunsuke; Harada, Mari; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Shindo, Mitsuru; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    exo-Methylene lactone group-containing compounds, such as (−)-xanthatin, are present in a large variety of biologically active natural products, including extracts of Xanthium strumarium (Cocklebur). These substances are reported to possess diverse functional activities, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and anticancer potential. In this study, we synthesized six structurally related xanthanolides containing exo-methylene lactone moieties, including (−)-xanthatin and (+)-8-epi-xanthatin, and examined the effects of these chemically defined substances on the highly aggressive and farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI)-resistant MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line. The results obtained demonstrate that (−)-xanthatin was a highly effective inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 cell growth, inducing caspase-independent cell death, and that these effects were independent of FTase inhibition. Further, our results show that among the GADD45 isoforms, GADD45γ was selectively induced by (−)-xanthatin and that GADD45γ-primed JNK and p38 signaling pathways are, at least in part, involved in mediating the growth inhibition and potential anticancer activities of this agent. Given that GADD45γ is becoming increasingly recognized for its tumor suppressor function, the results presented here suggest the novel possibility that (−)-xanthatin may have therapeutic value as a selective inducer of GADD45γ in human cancer cells, in particular in FTI-resistant aggressive breast cancers. PMID:21568272

  17. Taiwan cobra cardiotoxin III suppresses EGF/EGFR-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Fu, Yaw-Syan; Chang, Long-Sen; Lin, Shinne-Ren

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a highly malignant carcinoma and most deaths of breast cancer are caused by metastasis. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a pivotal event in the development of the invasive and metastatic potentials of cancer progression. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor, EGFR, play roles in cancer metastasis. CTX III, a basic polypeptide isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has been shown to exhibit anticancer activity; however, the effect of CTX III on the EMT of cancer cells remains elusive. CTX III treatment resulted in morphological changes from elongated and spindle shape to rounded and epithelial-like shape, induced upregulation of E-cadherin and concurrent downregulation of N-cadherin and Vimentin protein levels, corresponding to observed decreases in cell migration and invasion. CTX III treatment also decreased the expression of Snail and Twist in EGF-induced MDA-MB-231 cells. Concurrently, CTX III efficiently inhibited the EGFR phosphorylation and downstream activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK1/2. The EGFR specific inhibitor AG1478 significantly suppressed ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, cell migration and invasion, as well as the expressional changes associated with EMT markers in EGF-induced MDA-MB-231 cells. CTX III inhibitory effect on EGF-evoked invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated through suppressing EGF/EGFR activation and EMT process. PMID:26774845

  18. Isoalantolactone inhibits the migration and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells via suppression of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Cui, Li; Feng, Liang; Zhang, Zhenhai; Song, Jie; Liu, Dan; Jia, Xiaobin

    2016-09-01

    Isoalantolactone is a bioactive sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the flowering plant Inula helenium L. This study was conducted to assess the anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of isoalantolactone in MDA-MB-231 cells, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Wound-healing and Transwell chambers assays demonstrated that isoalantolactone inhibited the adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. The activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were downregulated by isoalantolactone in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, isoalantolactone markedly decreased the p-p38 MAPK level, whereas no significant change in p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 was noted. The downregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression and suppression of in vitro invasion might be associated with the blockade of p38 MAPK activation. Furthermore, isoalantolactone blocked the translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. These results revealed that isoalantolactone inhibited the adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells via suppression of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and isoalantolactone might be an alternative treatment for breast cancer. PMID:27461575

  19. Synergistic anticancer effects of a bioactive subfraction of Strobilanthes crispus and tamoxifen on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of tumour resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and concerns over their toxic effects has led to the increased use of medicinal herbs or natural products by cancer patients. Strobilanthes crispus is a traditional remedy for many ailments including cancer. Its purported anticancer effects have led to the commercialization of the plant leaves as medicinal herbal tea, although the scientific basis for its use has not been established. We previously reported that a bioactive subfraction of Strobilanthes crispus leaves (SCS) exhibit potent cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell lines. The current study investigates the effect of this subfraction on cell death activities induced by the antiestrogen drug, tamoxifen, in estrogen receptor-responsive and nonresponsive breast cancer cells. Methods Cytotoxic activity of SCS and tamoxifen in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells was determined using lactate dehydrogenase release assay and synergism was evaluated using the CalcuSyn software. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry following Annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Cells were also stained with JC-1 dye to determine changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Fluorescence imaging using FAM-FLICA assay detects caspase-8 and caspase-9 activities. DNA damage in the non-malignant breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A, was evaluated using Comet assay. Results The combined SCS and tamoxifen treatment displayed strong synergistic inhibition of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell growth at low doses of the antiestrogen. SCS further promoted the tamoxifen-induced apoptosis that was associated with modulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. Interestingly, the non-malignant MCF-10A cells displayed no cytotoxicity or DNA damage when treated with either SCS or SCS-tamoxifen combination. Conclusions The combined use of

  20. Overexpression of neogenin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsong; Liang, Fang; Ke, Yang; Huo, Yanping; Li, Mingchuang; Li, Yanyan; Yue, Junmin

    2015-07-01

    Neogenin has been documented as playing an important role in cancer development. Although an elevated expression of neogenin has been detected in human breast cancer, the role of neogenin in breast cancer cells is not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated neogenin in breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. We found that neogenin overexpression markedly reduced the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells (P<0.05). Neogenin overexpression resulted in a reduction in the apoptosis rate. Inhibition of neogenin expression by neogenin siRNA dramatically promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells, whereas it inhibited cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that BMP-2-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 which was inhibited by neogenin overexpression. The present study demonstrates that neogenin may be a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Neogenin may serve as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:25998984

  1. Dillenia Suffruticosa extract inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) via induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Armania, Nurdin; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Tor, Yim Sim; Ishak, Nurshafini; Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah

    2013-01-01

    The present research was designed to evaluate the anticancer properties of Dillenia suffruticosa extract. Our focus was on the mode of cell death and cell cycle arrest induced in breast cancer cells by the active fractions (designated as D/F4, D/F5 and EA/P2) derived from chromatographic fractionation of D. suffruticosa extracts. The results showed that the active fractions are more cytotoxic towards MCF-7 (estrogen positive breast cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (estrogen negative breast cancer cells) as compared to other selected cancer cell lines that included HeLa, A459 and CaOV3. The induction of cell death through apoptosis by the active fractions on the breast cancer cells was confirmed by Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. Cell cycle analysis revealed that D/F4 and EA/P2 induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells. On the other hand, MDA-MB-231 cells treated with D/F4 and D/F5 accumulated in the sub-G1 phase without cell cycle arrest, suggesting the induction of cell death through apoptosis. The data suggest that the active fractions of D. suffruticosa extract eliminated breast cancer cells through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The reason why MCF-7 was more sensitive towards the treatment than MDA-MB-231 remains unclear. This warrants further work, especially on the role of hormones in response towards cytotoxic agents. In addition, more studies on the mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by the plant extract also need to be carried out. PMID:24172241

  2. Inhibition of silibinin on migration and adhesion capacity of human highly metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, by evaluation of β1-integrin and downstream molecules, Cdc42, Raf-1 and D4GDI.

    PubMed

    Dastpeyman, Mohadeseh; Motamed, Nasrin; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Kia, Vahid; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2012-12-01

    Metastasis is a property of malignant cancer cells that requires integrins which with their downstream molecules participate in a number of signaling events in cells with pivotal roles in malignancy, migration and invasion of tumor cells. Silibinin, a flavonoid antioxidant from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), has attracted attention in the last decades for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of tumor cells. In the present study, the effect of silibinin on migration and adhesion capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells, a highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line, was investigated by evaluation of β1-integrin and its important downstream molecules. MTT, migration and adhesion assays were performed to evaluate the silibinin effects on proliferation, migration and adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, the influence of the silibinin on the expression of β1-integrin, Raf-1, Cdc42 and D4-GDI mRNAs was assessed by RT-PCR. Results showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of silibinin on proliferation, migration and adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells. It significantly inhibited the expression of Cdc42 and D4-GDI mRNAs but had no statistically significant effect on the expression of β1-integrin and Raf-1 mRNAs although it indirectly but effectively modulated β1-integrin signaling pathway and RAF1 function. In conclusion, the results showed the silibinin effectson reducing the rate of metastasis, migration and adhesion of MDA-MB-231 to distant organs. PMID:22101790

  3. Induction of apoptosis by aqueous extract of Cordyceps militaris through activation of caspases and inactivation of Akt in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng-Yun; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2008-12-01

    Cordyceps militaris is well known as a traditional medicinal mushroom and has been shown to exhibit immunostimulatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis induced by an aqueous extract of C. militaris (AECM) via the activation of caspases and altered mitochondrial membrane permeability in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Exposure to AECM induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by a quantitative analysis of nuclear morphological change and a flow cytometric analysis. AECM increased hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and promoted the activation of caspases. Both the cytotoxic effect and apoptotic characteristics induced by AECM treatment were significantly inhibited by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, which demonstrates the important role of caspase-3 in the observed cytotoxic effect. AECM-induced apoptosis was associated with the inhibition of Akt activation in a time-dependent manner, and pretreatment with LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, significantly increased AECM-induced apoptosis. The results indicated that AECM-induced apoptosis may relate to the activation of caspase-3 and mitochondria dysfunctions that correlate with the inactivation of Akt. PMID:19131705

  4. Synergistic antitumor activity of vitamin D3 combined with metformin in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells involves m-TOR related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Shu; Li, Hong-Xia; Li, Chun-Yang; Zhang, Sheng-Yan; Chen, Jia; Wang, Qi-Long; Gao, Jing-Miao; Liang, Jia-Qi; Gao, Ming-Tang; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    Metformin is usually used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recently, many studies suggest that metformin and vitamin D have broad-spectrum antitumor activities. Our aim in this research was to study the effects of vitamin D3 combined with metformin on the apoptosis induction and its mechanisms in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Cell proliferation was measured by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The morphology of cell apoptosis was observed after Hoechst 33342 staining. Here we show that vitamin D3 280 μg/ml or vitamin D3 300 μg/ml or vitamin D3 320 μg/ml seperately combined with metformin 15000 μg/ml exhibited synergistic effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis. The underlying anti-tumor mechanisms may involve m-TOR related pathways, which are related to activating expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and p-AMPK, as well as inhibiting expressions of p-Bcl-2, c-Myc, p-IGF-IR, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K, p-S6. PMID:25997252

  5. Suicide HSVtk gene delivery by neurotensin-polyplex nanoparticles via the bloodstream and GCV Treatment specifically inhibit the growth of human MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer tumors xenografted in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia; Martínez-Fong, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis, as shown by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and Apostain immunoreactivity, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (55-60%) (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, the weight of tumors transfected with the HSVtk gene was 55% less than that of control tumors (P<0.05). The intravenous transfection did not induce apoptosis in peripheral organs. Our results offer a promising gene therapy for TNBC using the NTS-polyplex nanocarrier. PMID:24824754

  6. Suicide HSVtk Gene Delivery by Neurotensin-Polyplex Nanoparticles via the Bloodstream and GCV Treatment Specifically Inhibit the Growth of Human MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer Tumors Xenografted in Athymic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis, as shown by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and Apostain immunoreactivity, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (55–60%) (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, the weight of tumors transfected with the HSVtk gene was 55% less than that of control tumors (P<0.05). The intravenous transfection did not induce apoptosis in peripheral organs. Our results offer a promising gene therapy for TNBC using the NTS-polyplex nanocarrier. PMID:24824754

  7. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin and doxorubicin in combination on the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Esam M; Abdullah, Rasedee; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Naadja, Seïf-Eddine; Alitheen, Noorjahan B; Omar, Abdul-Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Patients with cancer often exhibit signs of anemia as the result of the disease. Thus, cancer chemotherapies often include erythropoietin (EPO) in the regime to improve the survival rate of these patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of EPO on doxorubicin-treated breast cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin alone or in combination with EPO against the MCF-7 and MDA-MB‑231 human breast cancer cells were determined using an MTT cell viability assay, neutral red (NR) uptake assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The estimated half maximal inhibitory concentration values for doxorubicin and the combination of doxorubicin with EPO were between 0.140 and 0.260 µg/ml for all cells treated for 72 h. Treatment with doxorubicin in combination with EPO led to no notable difference in cytotoxicity, compared with treatment with doxorubicin alone. The antiproliferative effect of doxorubicin at a concentration of 1 µg/ml on the MDA‑MB‑231 cells was demonstrated by the decrease in viable cells from 3.6x10(5) at 24 h to 2.1x10(5) at 72 h of treatment. In order to confirm apoptosis in the doxorubicin-treated cells, the activities of caspases-3/7 and ‑9 were determined using a TBE assay. The results indicated that the activities of caspases-3/7 and ‑9 were significantly elevated in the doxorubicin-treated MDA-MB-231 cells by 571 and 645%, respectively, and in the MCF 7 cells by 471 and 345%, respectively, compared with the control cells. EPO did not modify the effect of doxorubicin on these cell lines. The results of the present study suggested that EPO was safe for use in combination with doxorubicin in the treatment of patients with breast cancer and concurrent anemia. PMID:26987078

  8. Distinct Biochemical Pools of Golgi Phosphoprotein 3 in the Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, María J; Ross, Breyan H; Luchsinger, Charlotte; Rivera-Dictter, Andrés; Arriagada, Cecilia; Acuña, Diego; Aguilar, Marcelo; Cavieres, Viviana; Burgos, Patricia V; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Mardones, Gonzalo A

    2016-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been implicated in the development of carcinomas in many human tissues, and is currently considered a bona fide oncoprotein. Importantly, several tumor types show overexpression of GOLPH3, which is associated with tumor progress and poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that connect GOLPH3 function with tumorigenicity are poorly understood. Experimental evidence shows that depletion of GOLPH3 abolishes transformation and proliferation of tumor cells in GOLPH3-overexpressing cell lines. Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpression drives transformation of primary cell lines and enhances mouse xenograft tumor growth in vivo. This evidence suggests that overexpression of GOLPH3 could result in distinct features of GOLPH3 in tumor cells compared to that of non-tumorigenic cells. GOLPH3 is a peripheral membrane protein mostly localized at the trans-Golgi network, and its association with Golgi membranes depends on binding to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. GOLPH3 is also contained in a large cytosolic pool that rapidly exchanges with Golgi-associated pools. GOLPH3 has also been observed associated with vesicles and tubules arising from the Golgi, as well as other cellular compartments, and hence it has been implicated in several membrane trafficking events. Whether these and other features are typical to all different types of cells is unknown. Moreover, it remains undetermined how GOLPH3 acts as an oncoprotein at the Golgi. Therefore, to better understand the roles of GOLPH3 in cancer cells, we sought to compare some of its biochemical and cellular properties in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 with that of the non-tumorigenic breast human cell line MCF 10A. We found unexpected differences that support the notion that in different cancer cells, overexpression of GOLPH3 functions in diverse fashions, which may influence specific tumorigenic phenotypes. PMID:27123979

  9. Distinct Biochemical Pools of Golgi Phosphoprotein 3 in the Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Charlotte; Rivera-Dictter, Andrés; Arriagada, Cecilia; Acuña, Diego; Aguilar, Marcelo; Cavieres, Viviana; Burgos, Patricia V.; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Mardones, Gonzalo A.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been implicated in the development of carcinomas in many human tissues, and is currently considered a bona fide oncoprotein. Importantly, several tumor types show overexpression of GOLPH3, which is associated with tumor progress and poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that connect GOLPH3 function with tumorigenicity are poorly understood. Experimental evidence shows that depletion of GOLPH3 abolishes transformation and proliferation of tumor cells in GOLPH3-overexpressing cell lines. Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpression drives transformation of primary cell lines and enhances mouse xenograft tumor growth in vivo. This evidence suggests that overexpression of GOLPH3 could result in distinct features of GOLPH3 in tumor cells compared to that of non-tumorigenic cells. GOLPH3 is a peripheral membrane protein mostly localized at the trans-Golgi network, and its association with Golgi membranes depends on binding to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. GOLPH3 is also contained in a large cytosolic pool that rapidly exchanges with Golgi-associated pools. GOLPH3 has also been observed associated with vesicles and tubules arising from the Golgi, as well as other cellular compartments, and hence it has been implicated in several membrane trafficking events. Whether these and other features are typical to all different types of cells is unknown. Moreover, it remains undetermined how GOLPH3 acts as an oncoprotein at the Golgi. Therefore, to better understand the roles of GOLPH3 in cancer cells, we sought to compare some of its biochemical and cellular properties in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 with that of the non-tumorigenic breast human cell line MCF 10A. We found unexpected differences that support the notion that in different cancer cells, overexpression of GOLPH3 functions in diverse fashions, which may influence specific tumorigenic phenotypes. PMID:27123979

  10. Action and Signaling of Lysophosphatidylethanolamine in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Pil; Im, Dong-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), a lyso-type metabolite of phosphatidylethanolamine, can increase intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) via type 1 lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor (LPA1) and CD97, an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, LPE signaling was suggested as like LPA1/CD97-Gi/o proteins-phospholipase C-IP3-Ca2+ increase in these cells. In the present study, we further investigated actions of LPE not only in the [Ca2+]i increasing effect but also in cell proliferation and migration in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We utilized chemically different LPEs and a specific inhibitor of LPA1, AM-095 in comparison with responses in SK-OV3 ovarian cancer cells. It was found that LPE-induced Ca2+ response in MDA-MB-231 cells was evoked in a different manner to that in SK-OV3 cells in terms of structural requirements. AM-095 inhibited LPE-induced Ca2+ response and cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells, but not in SK-OV3 cells, supporting LPA1 involvement only in MDA-MB-231 cells. LPA had significant effects on cell proliferation and migration in MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas LPE had less or no significant effect. However, LPE modulations of MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK) was not different to those by LPA in the cells. These data support the involvement of LPA1 in LPE-induced Ca2+ response and cell proliferation in breast MDA-MB-231 cells but unknown GPCRs (not LPA1) in LPE-induced responses in SK-OV3 cells. Furthermore, although LPE and LPA utilized LPA1, LPA utilized more signaling cascades than LPE, resulting in stronger responses by LPA in proliferation and migration than LPE in MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:24753818

  11. A network of clinically and functionally relevant genes is involved in the reversion of the tumorigenic phenotype of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells after transfer of human chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Susanne; Frege, Renate; Jacobsen, Anja; Weimer, Jörg; Arnold, Wolfgang; von Haefen, Clarissa; Niederacher, Dieter; Schmutzler, Rita; Arnold, Norbert; Scherneck, Siegfried

    2005-01-27

    Several investigations have supposed that tumor suppressor genes might be located on human chromosome 8. We used microcell-mediated transfer of chromosome 8 into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and generated independent hybrids with strongly reduced tumorigenic potential. Loss of the transferred chromosome results in reappearance of the malignant phenotype. Expression analysis identified a set of 109 genes (CT8-ps) differentially expressed in microcell hybrids as compared to the tumorigenic MDA-MB-231 and rerevertant cells. Of these, 44.9% are differentially expressed in human breast tumors. The expression pattern of CT8-ps was associated with prognostic factors such as tumor size and grading as well as loss of heterozygosity at the short arm of chromosome 8. We identified CT8-ps networks suggesting that these genes act cooperatively to cause reversion of tumorigenicity in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings provide a conceptual basis and experimental system to identify and evaluate genes and gene networks involved in the development and/or progression of breast cancer. PMID:15580292

  12. Activation of microbubbles by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances the cytotoxicity of curcumin involving apoptosis induction and cell motility inhibition in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiang; Wang, Pan; Chen, Xiyang; Hu, Jianmin; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasound and microbubbles-mediated drug delivery has become a promising strategy to promote drug delivery and its therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of microbubbles (MBs)-combined low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LPUS) on the delivery and cytotoxicity of curcumin (Cur) to human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Under the experimental condition, MBs raised the level of acoustic cavitation and enhanced plasma membrane permeability; and cellular uptake of Cur was notably improved by LPUS-MBs treatment, aggravating Cur-induced MDA-MB-231 cells death. The combined treatment markedly caused more obvious changes of cell morphology, F-actin cytoskeleton damage and cell migration inhibition. Our results demonstrated that combination of MBs and LPUS may be an efficient strategy for improving anti-tumor effect of Cur, suggesting a potential effective method for antineoplastic therapy. PMID:27245953

  13. Platycodin D inhibits migration, invasion, and growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells via suppression of EGFR-mediated Akt and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jaemoo; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-10-01

    Platycodin D (PD), an active triterpenoid saponin from Platycodon grandiflorum, has been known to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of cancer cells, but the effect of PD on the invasiveness of cancer cells is largely unknown. In this study, we first determined the molecular mechanism by which PD inhibits the migratory and invasive abilities of the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. We demonstrated that a non-cytotoxic concentration of PD markedly suppressed wound healing migration, invasion through the matrigel, and adhesion to an ECM-coated substrate in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PD inhibited cell invasion by reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 enzyme activity and mRNA expression. Western blot analysis indicated that PD potently suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as blocked the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Furthermore, PD treatment inhibited the DNA binding activity of NF-κB, which is known to mediate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as observed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Specific mechanisms of action exerted by PD involved the downregulation of EGFR and the inhibition of EGF-induced activation of the EGFR, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt pathways. The in vivo studies showed that PD significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that PD might be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:23867902

  14. [Disparity of apoptotic response in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 after infection with recombinant adenovirus encoding the VP2 gene of infectious bursail disease virus].

    PubMed

    Shin, Tan Seok; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Lila, Mohd-Azmi Mohd; Rahman, Sheikh-Omar Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus encoding the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (ADV-VP2) has shown potent anti-tumour effects due to its capability of apoptotic induction in cancer cells. In the present study, human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were infected with ADV-VP2. The expression of VP2 protein was registered 4 h post-infection, particularly in MCF-7 cells. Multiple time-point DNA ladder assay demonstrated that ADV-VP2 infected MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells endured apoptosis as early as 8 and 12 h post-infection, respectively. Apoptosis induction in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, albeit different start points, lasted til 36 h post-infection. The induction of apoptosis by ADV-VP2 was further shown by the TUNEL assay, with dark brown discoloration of apoptotic cells. The present study also explored the different stages of apoptosis by Annexin V/PI double staining flow cytometry quantification. Treated MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively detected 25.58 +/- 9.02 and 14.51 +/- 3.12% of early apoptotic cells, 6.09 +/- 4.06 and 77.12 +/- 5.09% of late apoptotic cells. Results revealed that there were significant differences in the number of cells of both types which underwent early and late apoptosis. Significant differences were also observed among viable and apoptotic cells which have been post treated with ADV-VP2. The apoptotic effects of ADV-VP2 on human breast cancer cell lines were consistently demonstrated by three apoptosis detection methods. Therefore, a cancer vaccine basing on gene therapy could be developed in the near future using the present construct. PMID:25842834

  15. Polyphenols from Artemisia annua L Inhibit Adhesion and EMT of Highly Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Shin; Lee, Won Sup; Panchanathan, Radha; Joo, Young Nak; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Hye Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that polyphenolic compounds from plants have anti-invasion and anti-metastasis capabilities. The Korean annual weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Here, we isolated and characterized polyphenols from Korean A. annua L (pKAL). We investigated anti-metastatic effects of pKAL on the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells especially focusing on cancer cell adhesion to the endothelial cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Firstly, pKAL inhibited cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Polyphenols from Korean A. annua L inhibited the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to ECs through reducing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression of MDA-MB-231 and ECs, but not intracellular adhesion molecule-1 at the concentrations where pKAL did not influence the cell viability of either MDA-MB-231 cells nor EC. Further, pKAL inhibited tumor necrosis factor-activated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and EMT. Moreover, pKAL inhibited phosphorylation of Akt, but not that of protein kinase C. These results suggest that pKAL may serve as a therapeutic agent against cancer metastasis at least in part by inhibiting the cancer cell adhesion to ECs through suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and invasion through suppression of EMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27151203

  16. Genipin, a constituent of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sook; Jeong, Choon-Sik; Moon, Aree

    2012-02-01

    Genipin, a constituent of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is used in the treatment of hepatic disorders and inflammatory diseases in traditional medicine. Although mounting evidence suggests an anti-tumor activity of genipin in several cancer cell systems, the inhibitory effect of genipin on the growth of breast cancer cells has not been reported yet. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative activity of genipin in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Herein, we showed that genipin efficiently induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells by the down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and proteolytic activation of caspase-3. Activation of JNK and p38 MAPK also increased by genipin. Importantly, genipin significantly inhibited invasive and migratory phenotypes of MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, this study demonstrates that genipin induces apoptosis and inhibits invasive/migratory abilities of highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, suggesting a potential application of genipin as a chemopreventive agent that may prevent or alleviate metastatic breast cancer. PMID:22020372

  17. Modulation of septin and molecular motor recruitment in the microtubule environment of the Taxol-resistant human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Froidevaux-Klipfel, Laurence; Poirier, Florence; Boursier, Céline; Crépin, Ronan; Poüs, Christian; Baudin, Bruno; Baillet, Anita

    2011-10-01

    Cell resistance to low doses of paclitaxel (Taxol) involves a modulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics. We applied a proteomic approach based on 2-DE coupled with MS to identify changes in the MT environment of Taxol-resistant breast cancer cells. Having established a proteomic pattern of the microtubular proteins extracted from MDA-MB-231 cells, we verified by Western blotting that in resistant cells, α- and β-tubulins (more specifically the βIII and βIV isotypes) increased. Interestingly, four septins (SEPT2, 8, 9 and 11), which are GTPases involved in cytokinesis and in MT/actin cytoskeleton organization, were overexpressed and enriched in the MT environment of Taxol-resistant cells compared to their sensitive counterpart. Changes in the MT proteome of resistant cells also comprised increased kinesin-1 heavy chain expression and recruitment on MTs while dynein light chain-1 was downregulated. Modulation of motor protein recruitment around MTs might reflect their important role in controlling MT dynamics via the organization of signaling pathways. The identification of proteins previously unknown to be linked to taxane-resistance could also be valuable to identify new biological markers of resistance. PMID:21761557

  18. Assessment of Interactions between Cisplatin and Two Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines – An Isobolographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wawruszak, Anna; Luszczki, Jarogniew J.; Grabarska, Aneta; Gumbarewicz, Ewelina; Dmoszynska-Graniczka, Magdalena; Polberg, Krzysztof; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are promising anticancer drugs, which inhibit proliferation of a wide variety of cancer cells including breast carcinoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the influence of valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat), alone or in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle progression in MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cell lines. The type of interaction between HDIs and CDDP was determined by an isobolographic analysis. The isobolographic analysis is a very precise and rigorous pharmacodynamic method, to determine the presence of synergism, addition or antagonism between different drugs with using variety of fixed dose ratios. Our experiments show that the combinations of CDDP with SAHA or VPA at a fixed-ratio of 1:1 exerted additive interaction in the viability of MCF7 cells, while in T47D cells there was a tendency to synergy. In contrast, sub-additive (antagonistic) interaction was observed for the combination of CDDP with VPA in MDA-MB-231 “triple-negative” (i.e. estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and HER-2 negative) human breast cancer cells, whereas combination of CDDP with SAHA in the same MDA-MB-231 cell line yielded additive interaction. Additionally, combined HDIs/CDDP treatment resulted in increase in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in all tested breast cancer cell lines in comparison with a single therapy. In conclusion, the additive interaction of CDDP with SAHA or VPA suggests that HDIs could be combined with CDDP in order to optimize treatment regimen in some human breast cancers. PMID:26580554

  19. SILAC-Based Proteomic Profiling of the Human MDA-MB-231 Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell Line in Response to the Two Antitumoral Lactoferrin Isoforms: The Secreted Lactoferrin and the Intracellular Delta-Lactoferrin

    PubMed Central

    Hoedt, Esthelle; Chaoui, Karima; Huvent, Isabelle; Mariller, Christophe; Monsarrat, Bernard; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Pierce, Annick

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactoferrins exhibit antitumoral activities either as a secretory lactoferrin or an intracellular delta-lactoferrin isoform. These activities involve processes such as regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis. While lactoferrin has been shown to exert its function by activating different transduction pathways, delta-lactoferrin has been proven to act as a transcription factor. Like many tumor suppressors, these two proteins are under-expressed in several types of cancer, particularly in breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to compare the differential effects of the re-introduction of lactoferrin isoforms in breast cancer cells we chose the cancerous mammary gland MDA-MB-231 cell line as a model. We produced a cell line stably expressing delta-lactoferrin. We also treated these cells with fresh purified human breast lactoferrin. We performed two quantitative proteomic studies in parallel using SILAC coupled to mass spectrometry in order to compare the effects of different doses of the two lactoferrin isoforms. The proteome of untreated, delta-lactoferrin expressing and human lactoferrin treated MDA-MB-231 cells were compared. Overall, around 5300 proteins were identified and quantified using the in-house developed MFPaQ software. Among these, expression was increased by 1.5-fold or more for around 300 proteins in delta-lactoferrin expressing cells and 190 proteins in lactoferrin treated cells. At the same time, about 200 and 40 proteins were found to be downregulated (0-0.7-fold) in response to delta-lactoferrin and lactoferrin, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Re-introduction of delta-lactoferrin and lactoferrin expression in MDA-MB-231 mainly leads to modifications of protein profiles involved in processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, the ubiquitin pathway, translation and mRNA quality control. Moreover, this study identified new target genes of delta-lactoferrin transcriptional activity such as SelH, GTF

  20. Inorganic sulfur reduces cell proliferation by inhibiting of ErbB2 and ErbB3 protein and mRNA expression in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Hong, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hee Sun

    2013-01-01

    Dietary inorganic sulfur is the minor component in our diet, but some studies suggested that inorganic sulfur is maybe effective to treat cancer related illness. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effects of inorganic sulfur on cell proliferation and gene expression in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured the absence or presence of various concentrations (12.5, 25, or 50 µmol/L) of inorganic sulfur. Inorganic sulfur significantly decreased proliferation after 72 h of incubation (P < 0.05). The protein expression of ErbB2 and its active form, pErbB2, were significantly reduced at inorganic sulfur concentrations of 50 µmol/L and greater than 25 µmol/L, respectively (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of ErbB2 was significantly reduced at an inorganic sulfur concentration of 50 µmol/L (P < 0.05). The protein expression of ErbB3 and its active form, pErbB3, and the mRNA expression of ErbB3 were significantly reduced at inorganic sulfur concentrations greater than 25 µmol/L (P < 0.05). The protein and mRNA expression of Akt were significantly reduced at an inorganic sulfur concentration of 50 µmol/L (P < 0.05), but pAkt was not affected by inorganic sulfur treatment. The protein and mRNA expression of Bax were significantly increased with the addition of inorganic sulfur concentration of 50 µmol/L (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cell proliferation was suppressed by inorganic sulfur treatment through the ErbB-Akt pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:23610600

  1. Increased regucalcin gene expression extends survival in breast cancer patients: Overexpression of regucalcin suppresses the proliferation and metastatic bone activity in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Osuka, Satoru; Weitzmann, M Neale; Shoji, Mamoru; Murata, Tomiyasu

    2016-08-01

    Human breast cancer is highly metastatic to bone and drives bone turnover. Breast cancer metastases cause osteolytic lesions and skeletal damage that leads to bone fractures. Regucalcin, which plays a pivotal role as an inhibitor of signal transduction and transcription activity, has been suggested to act as a suppressor of human cancer. In the present study, we compared the clinical outcome between 44 breast cancer patients with higher regucalcin expression and 43 patients with lower regucalcin expression. Prolonged relapse-free survival was identified in the patients with increased regucalcin gene expression. We further demonstrated that overexpression of full length, but not alternatively spliced variants of regucalcin, induces G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, suppressing the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, a commonly used in vitro model of human breast cancer that metastasize to bone causing osteolytic lesions. Overexpression of regucalcin was found to suppress multiple signaling pathways including Akt, MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK, and NF-κB p65 and β-catenin along with increased p53, a tumor suppressor, and decreased K-ras, c-fos and c-jun. Moreover, we found that co-culture of regucalcin-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells with mouse bone marrow cells prevented enhanced osteoclastogenesis and suppressed mineralization in mouse bone marrow cells in vitro. Taken together, the present study suggests that regucalcin may have important anticancer properties in human breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, these effects are likely mediated through suppression of multiple signaling pathways, upregulation of p53 and downregulation of oncogenes leading to anti-proliferative effects and reduced metastases to bone, a phenotype associated with poor clinical outcome. PMID:27221776

  2. Doxorubicin-Hyaluronan Conjugated Super-Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (DOX-HA-SPION) Enhanced Cytoplasmic Uptake of Doxorubicin and Modulated Apoptosis, IL-6 Release and NF-kappaB Activity in Human MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Lopez-Hisijos, Nicolas; Gandhi, Sulakshana; El-Dakdouki, M; Basson, Marc D; Walsh, Mary F; Huang, X; Vyas, Arpita K; Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S

    2015-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancer exhibit increased IL-6 expression compared with matched healthy breast tissue and a strong link between inflammation and cancer progression and metastasis has been reported. We investigated whether doxorubicin-hyaluronan-super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (DOX-HA-SPION) would show greater therapeutic efficacy in human triple negative breast cancer cells (TNBC) MDA-MB-231, as was recently shown in drug-sensitive and multi-drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, we measured cellular DOX uptake via confocal microscopy; observed morphologic changes: mitochondrial and nuclear changes with electron microscopy, and quantitated apoptosis using FACS analysis after Annexin V and PI staining in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with either DOX alone or DOX-HA-SPION. We also measured both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines; IL-6, IL-10 respectively and also measured nitrate levels in the conditioned medium by ELISA. Inaddition, NF-κB activity was measured by luciferase assay. Confocal microscopy demonstrated greater cytoplasmic uptake of DOX-HA-SPION than free DOX. We also demonstrated reduction of Vimentin with DOX-HA-SPION which is significantly less than both control and DOX. DOX-HA-SPION enhanced apoptosis and significantly down regulated both pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6 and NF-κB in comparison to DOX alone. The secretion levels of anti-inflammatory mediators IL-10 and nitrate was not decreased in the DOX or DOX-HA-SPION treatment groups. Our data suggest that DOX-HA-SPION nanomedicine-based drug delivery could have promising potential in treating metastasized and chemoresistant breast cancer by enhancing the drug efficacy and minimizing off-target effects. PMID:26690867

  3. The telomerase template antagonist GRN163L alters MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell morphology, inhibits growth, and augments the effects of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Erin M; Gentry, Erin R; Fox, Melanie J; Gryaznov, Sergei M; Shen, Changyu; Herbert, Brittney-Shea

    2009-07-01

    Telomeres are repetitive (TTAGGG)(n) DNA sequences found at the end of chromosomes that protect the ends from recombination, end to end fusions, and recognition as damaged DNA. Telomerase activity can be detected in 85% to 90% of human tumors, which stabilizes telomeres to prevent apoptosis or cellular senescence. Previous reports showed the efficacy of the novel telomerase template antagonist, GRN163L, as a potential anticancer agent. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the molecular effects of GRN163L in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and to determine whether GRN163L could be used in mechanism-based combination therapy for breast cancer. We observed that GRN163L reduced MDA-MB-231 growth rates without a significant effect on breast cancer cell viability within the first 14 days in vitro. In addition, GRN163L altered cell morphology, actin filament organization, and focal adhesion formation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Importantly, the cellular response to GRN163L significantly augmented the effects of the microtubule stabilizer paclitaxel in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo compared with paclitaxel alone or a mismatch control oligonucleotide plus paclitaxel. Furthermore, in vitro MDA-MB-231 invasive potential was significantly inhibited with GRN163L and paclitaxel. These data support a rationale for potentially combining GRN163L with paclitaxel for the treatment of breast cancer in the clinical setting. PMID:19509275

  4. In vitro effects of phenytoin and DAPT on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Canan Cakir; Zeybek, N Dilara; Piskin, A Kevser

    2015-09-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) activity enhances cell behaviors related to metastasis, such as motility, invasion, and oncogene expression. Neonatal alternative splice form of Nav1.5 isoform is expressed in metastatic breast cancers. Furthermore, aberrant Notch signaling pathway can induce oncogenesis and may promote the progression of breast cancers. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of the nNav1.5 inhibitor phenytoin and Notch signal inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine-t-butyl ester (DAPT) on triple negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) via inhibition of nNav1.5 VGSC activity and Notch signaling, respectively. In order to determine the individual and combined effects of these inhibitors, the 4-[3-(4-iyodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1) test, wound healing assay, and zymography were performed to detect the proliferation, lateral motility, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) activity, respectively. The expressions of nNav1.5, Notch4, MMP9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP1) were also detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. DAPT caused an antiproliferative effect when the doses were higher than 10 µM, whereas phenytoin showed no inhibitory action either alone or in combination with DAPT on the MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, it was found that the lateral motility was inhibited by both inhibitors; however, this inhibitory effect was partially rescued when they were used in combination. Meanwhile, the results showed that the MMP9 activity and the ratio of MMP9 mRNA to TIMP1 mRNA were only decreased by DAPT. Thus, we conclude that the combined effect of DAPT and phenytoin is not as beneficial as using DAPT alone on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. PMID:26206582

  5. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  6. Comparative assessment of the apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Bacillus tequilensis and Calocybe indica in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells: targeting p53 for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Park, Jung Hyun; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    downregulation of Bcl-2. Cells pretreated with pifithrin-alpha were protected from p53-mediated AgNPs-induced toxicity. Conclusion We have demonstrated a simple approach for the synthesis of AgNPs using the novel strains B. tequilensis and C. indica, as well as their mechanism of cell death in a p53-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The present findings could provide insight for the future development of a suitable anticancer drug, which may lead to the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of cancers. PMID:26170659

  7. Src kinases catalytic activity regulates proliferation, migration and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bailón, María Pilar; Calcabrini, Annarica; Gómez-Domínguez, Daniel; Morte, Beatriz; Martín-Forero, Esther; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Molinari, Agnese; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Martín-Pérez, Jorge

    2012-06-01

    SFKs are frequently deregulated in cancer where they control cellular proliferation, migration, survival and metastasis. Here we study the role of SFKs catalytic activity in triple-negative/basal-like and metastatic human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells employing three well-established inhibitors: Dasatinib, PP2 and SU6656. These compounds inhibited migration and invasion. Concomitantly, they reduced Fak, paxillin, p130CAS, caveolin-1 phosphorylation and altered cytoskeletal structures. They also inhibited cell proliferation, but in different manners. Dasatinib and PP2 increased p27(Kip1) expression and reduced c-Myc levels, restraining G1–S transition. In contrast, SU6656 did not modify p27(Kip1) expression, slightly altered c-Myc levels and generated polyploid multinucleated cells, indicating inhibition of cytokinesis. These later effects were also observed in SYF fibroblasts, suggesting a SFKs-independent action. ZM447439, an Aurora B kinase inhibitor, produced similar cell cycle and morphological alterations in MDA-MB-231 cells, indicating that SU6656 blocked Aurora B kinase. This was confirmed by inhibition of histone H3 phosphorylation, the canonical Aurora B kinase substrate. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis of gene expression profiles showed that SU6656 defined a set of genes that differed from Dasatinib and PP2. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analyses revealed that SU6656 significantly reduces the Src pathway. Together, these results show the importance of SFKs catalytic activity for MDA-MB-231 proliferation, migration and invasiveness. They also illustrate that SU6656 acts as dual SFKs and Aurora B kinase inhibitor, suggesting its possible use as a therapeutic agent in breast cancer. PMID:22570868

  8. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines treated with dioscin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term goal of our study is to understand the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis in human and to discover new possible genetic markers for use in clinical practice. We have used microarray technology (Human OneArray microarray, phylanxbiotech.com) to compare gene ex...

  9. Benzo-[a]-pyrene induces FAK activation and cell migration in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Sanchez, Rocio; Villegas-Comonfort, Socrates; Galindo-Hernandez, Octavio; Gomez, Rocio; Salazar, Eduardo Perez

    2013-08-01

    Benzo-[a]-pyrene (B[a]P) is a family member of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and a widespread environmental pollutant. It is a mammary carcinogen in rodents and contributes to the development of human breast cancer. However, the signal transduction pathways induced by B[a]P and its role in breast cancer progression have not been studied in detail. Here, we demonstrate that B[a]P induces cell migration through a lipoxygenase- and Src-dependent pathway, as well as the activation of focal adhesion kinase, Src, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, B[a]P is not able to promote migration in the mammary nontumorigenic epithelial cells MCF12A. Moreover, B[a]P promotes an increase of αvβ3 integrin-cell surface levels and an increase of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 secretions. In summary, our findings demonstrate that B[a]P induces the activation of signal transduction pathways and biological processes involved in the invasion/metastasis process in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. PMID:23955088

  10. Resistin, a fat-derived secretory factor, promotes metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells through ERM activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ok; Kim, Nami; Lee, Hye Jeong; Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Resistin, an adipocyte-secreted factor, is known to be elevated in breast cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism by which resistin acts is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistin could stimulate invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Here, we report that resistin stimulated invasion and migration of breast cancer cells as well as phosphorylation of c-Src. Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Resistin increased intracellular calcium concentration, and chelation of intracellular calcium blocked resistin-mediated activation of Src. Resistin also induced phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-mediated PP2A phosphorylation. In addition, resistin increased phosphorylation of PKCα. Inhibition of PP2A enhanced resistin-induced PKCα phosphorylation, demonstrating that PP2A activity is critical for PKCα phosphorylation. Resistin also increased phosphorylation of ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM). Additionally, ezrin interacted with PKCα, and resistin promoted co-localization of ezrin and PKCα. Either inhibition of c-Src and PKCα or knock-down of ezrin blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cells invasion. Moreover, resistin increased expression of vimentin, a key molecule for cancer cell invasion. Knock-down of ezrin abrogated resistin-induced vimentin expression. These results suggest that resistin play as a critical regulator of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26729407

  11. Development of novel sophorolipids with improved cytotoxic activity toward MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabel A C; Faustino, Célia M C; Guerreiro, Patrícia S; Frade, Raquel F M; Bronze, M Rosário; Castro, Matilde F; Ribeiro, Maria H L

    2015-03-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipid biosurfactants, produced as a mixture of several compounds by some nonpathogenic yeast. In the current study, separation of individual SLs from mixtures with further evaluation of their surface properties and biologic activity on MDA-MB-321 breast cancer cell line were investigated. SLs were biosynthesized by Starmerella bombicola in a culture media supplemented with borage oil. A reverse-phase flash chromatography method with an automated system coupled with a prepacked cartridge was used to separate and purify the main SLs. Compositional analysis of SLs was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The following diacetylated lactonic SLs were isolated and purified: C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC (γCMC ) of the purified SLs showed an increase with the number of double bonds. High cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-231 cells was observed with C18:0 and C18:1 lactonic SLs. The cytotoxic effects of C18:3 lactonic SL on cancerous cells were for the first time studied. This cytotoxic effect was considerably higher than the promoted by acidic SLs; however, it induced a lower effect than the previously mentioned SLs, C18:0 and C18:1. To our knowledge, for the first time, C18:1 lactonic SL, in selected concentrations, proved to be able to inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell migration without compromising cell viability and to increase intracellular reactive oxygen species. PMID:25647712

  12. Effect of 3-bromopyruvate acid on the redox equilibrium in non-invasive MCF-7 and invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Wojtala, Martyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Soszyński, Mirosław; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela

    2016-02-01

    Novel approaches to cancer chemotherapy employ metabolic differences between normal and tumor cells, including the high dependence of cancer cells on glycolysis ("Warburg effect"). 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP), inhibitor of glycolysis, belongs to anticancer drugs basing on this principle. 3-BP was tested for its capacity to kill human non-invasive MCF-7 and invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We found that 3-BP was more toxic for MDA-MB-231 cells than for MCF-7 cells. In both cell lines, a statistically significant decrease of ATP and glutathione was observed in a time- and 3-BP concentration-dependent manner. Transient increases in the level of reactive oxygen species and reactive oxygen species was observed, more pronounced in MCF-7 cells, followed by a decreasing tendency. Activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased in 3-BP treated MDA-MB-231 cells. For MCF-7 cells decreases of GR and GST activities were noted only at the highest concentration of 3-BP.These results point to induction of oxidative stress by 3-BP via depletion of antioxidants and inactivation of antioxidant enzymes, more pronounced in MDA-MB-231 cells, more sensitive to 3-BP. PMID:26715289

  13. Unusual roles of caspase-8 in triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Anna; Di Fiore, Riccardo; Morreale, Marco; Carlisi, Daniela; Drago-Ferrante, Rosa; Montalbano, Mauro; Scerri, Christian; Tesoriere, Giovanni; Vento, Renza

    2016-06-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a clinically aggressive form of breast cancer that is unresponsive to endocrine agents or trastuzumab. TNBC accounts for ~10-20% of all breast cancer cases and represents the form with the poorest prognosis. Patients with TNBC are at higher risk of early recurrence, mainly in the lungs, brain and soft tissue, therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapies. The present study was carried out in MDA-MB-231 cells, where we assessed the role of caspase-8 (casp-8), a critical effector of death receptors, also involved in non‑apoptotic functions. Analysis of casp-8 mRNA and protein levels indicated that they were up-regulated with respect to the normal human mammalian epithelial cells. We demonstrated that silencing of casp-8 by small interfering-RNA, strongly decreased MDA-MB-231 cell growth by delaying G0/G1- to S-phase transition and increasing p21, p27 and hypo-phosphorylated/active form of pRb levels. Surprisingly, casp-8-knockdown, also potently increased both the migratory and metastatic capacity of MDA-MB‑231 cells, as shown by both wound healing and Matrigel assay, and by the expression of a number of related-genes and/or proteins such as VEGFA, C-MYC, CTNNB1, HMGA2, CXCR4, KLF4, VERSICAN V1 and MMP2. Among these, KLF4, a transcriptional factor with a dual role (activator and repressor), seemed to play critical roles. We suggest that in MDA-MB‑231 cells, the endogenous expression of casp-8 might keep the cells perpetually cycling through downregulation of KLF4, the subsequent lowering of p21 and p27, and the inactivation by hyperphosphorylation of pRb. Simultaneously, by lowering the expression of some migratory and invasive genes, casp-8 might restrain the metastatic ability of the cells. Overall, our findings showed that, in MDA-MB-231 cells, casp-8 might play some unusual roles which should be better explored, in order to understand whether it might be identified as a molecular therapeutic target. PMID

  14. Polyphenol mixtures of Euphorbia supina the inhibit invasion and metastasis of highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Shin; Lee, Won Sup; Joo, Young Nak; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Hye Jung

    2015-12-01

    The Korean prostrate spurge Euphorbia supina is abundant in polyphenols and has been used as a folk medicine in Korea against a variety of diseases. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of polyphenol mixtures of Korean Euphorbia supina (PES) on the invasion and metastasis of highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Firstly, PES showed no cytotoxicity on cancer cells and endothelial cells (ECs) at the doses of 0.1-10 µg/ml, but showed significant cytotoxicity from 50 µg/ml. Thus, we performed subsequent experiments with PES at doses up to 5 µg/ml. PES dose‑dependently suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition by downregulating the mesenchymal markers, Snail1 and N-cadherin, showing significant inhibition from 1 and 5 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, PES significantly inhibited MMP-9 activity and LOX release induced by TNF-α at 5 µg/ml. Then, we determined the effect of PES on the expression of adhesion molecules and VE-cadherin phosphorylation. The results showed that PES effectively reduced TNF-α-mediated VCAM-1 expression but not ICAM expression both in the MDA-MB-231 cells and ECs, resulting in the reduced adhesion of MDA-MB-231 to ECs. Finally, PES effectively inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell invasion through ECs, suggesting that PES may serve as a therapeutic agent against cancer metastasis with minimal cytotoxicity to normal cells. PMID:26397047

  15. Phenotypic Switch Induced by Simulated Microgravity on MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Masiello, Maria Grazia; Cucina, Alessandra; Proietti, Sara; Palombo, Alessandro; Coluccia, Pierpaolo; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Dinicola, Simona; Pasqualato, Alessia; Morini, Veronica; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity exerts dramatic effects on cell morphology and functions, by disrupting cytoskeleton and adhesion structures, as well as by interfering with biochemical pathways and gene expression. Impairment of cells behavior has both practical and theoretical significance, given that investigations of mechanisms involved in microgravity-mediated effects may shed light on how biophysical constraints cooperate in shaping complex living systems. By exposing breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells to simulated microgravity (~0.001 g), we observed the emergence of two morphological phenotypes, characterized by distinct membrane fractal values, surface area, and roundness. Moreover, the two phenotypes display different aggregation profiles and adherent behavior on the substrate. These morphological differences are mirrored by the concomitant dramatic functional changes in cell processes (proliferation and apoptosis) and signaling pathways (ERK, AKT, and Survivin). Furthermore, cytoskeleton undergoes a dramatic reorganization, eventually leading to a very different configuration between the two populations. These findings could be considered adaptive and reversible features, given that, by culturing microgravity-exposed cells into a normal gravity field, cells are enabled to recover their original phenotype. Overall these data outline the fundamental role gravity plays in shaping form and function in living systems. PMID:25215287

  16. Mechanism of metformin action in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells involves oxidative stress generation, DNA damage, and transforming growth factor β1 induction.

    PubMed

    Marinello, Poliana Camila; da Silva, Thamara Nishida Xavier; Panis, Carolina; Neves, Amanda Fouto; Machado, Kaliana Larissa; Borges, Fernando Henrique; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra; Bernardes, Sara Santos; de-Freitas-Junior, Júlio Cesar Madureira; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Luiz, Rodrigo Cabral; Cecchini, Rubens; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço

    2016-04-01

    The participation of oxidative stress in the mechanism of metformin action in breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effects of clinical (6 and 30 μM) and experimental concentrations of metformin (1000 and 5000 μM) in MCF-7 and in MDA-MB-231 cells, verifying cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and intracellular pathways related to cell growth and survival after 24 h of drug exposure. Clinical concentrations of metformin decreased metabolic activity of MCF-7 cells in the MTT assay, which showed increased oxidative stress and DNA damage, although cell death and impairment in the proliferative capacity were observed only at higher concentrations. The reduction in metabolic activity and proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells was present only at experimental concentrations after 24 h of drug exposition. Oxidative stress and DNA damage were induced in this cell line at experimental concentrations. The drug decreased cytoplasmic extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and AKT and increased nuclear p53 and cytoplasmic transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in both cell lines. These findings suggest that metformin reduces cell survival by increasing reactive oxygen species, which induce DNA damage and apoptosis. A relationship between the increase in TGF-β1 and p53 levels and the decrease in ERK1/2 and AKT was also observed. These findings suggest the mechanism of action of metformin in both breast cancer cell lineages, whereas cell line specific undergoes redox changes in the cells in which proliferation and survival signaling are modified. Taken together, these results highlight the potential clinical utility of metformin as an adjuvant during the treatment of luminal and triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:26561471

  17. Differential control of growth, cell cycle progression, and expression of NF-{kappa}B in human breast cancer cells MCF-7, MCF-10A, and MDA-MB-231 by ponicidin and oridonin, diterpenoids from the chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh Tzechen; Wijeratne, E. Kithsiri; Liang Jingyu; Gunatilaka, A. Leslie; Wu, Joseph M. . E-mail: Joseph_Wu@nymc.edu

    2005-11-11

    Ponicidin and oridonin are novel diterpenoids isolated from Rabdosia rubescens. We tested their effects in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, as representing low and high invasive breast carcinoma, with normal MCF-10A cells. Clonogenicity and proliferation in MCF-7 cells were inhibited more significantly by ponicidin than oridonin, while the reverse was observed in MCF-10A cells. Ponicidin and oridonin induced S/G{sub 2}M arrest and G{sub 1}/S block in MCF-7 cells. In MCF-10A cells treated with either diterpenoid, induction of apoptosis was observed. Moreover, oridonin almost completely blocked MCF-10A progression from S to G{sub 2}/M phase; in contrast, ponicidin-treated MCF-10A cells showed no discernable changes in cell cycle phase distribution. Neither diterpenoid affected growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, at the dose range effective for MCF-7 or MCF-10A cells. Ponicidin-treated MCF-7 cells expressed reduced levels of cyclin B1, cdc2, transcription factor E2F, and Rb including phosphorylation at S780. Less pronounced effects were found in cells treated with oridonin. Neither compound altered cyclin D1 and cdk4 in MCF-7 cells. In MCF-10A cells, oridonin was more active than ponicidin in inhibiting the expression of cyclin B1, cdc2, S780-phosphorylated Rb, and E2F. To further investigate induction of apoptosis in MCF-10A cells, we measured changes in NF-{kappa}B. Decreases in p65 or p50 forms of NF-{kappa}B and its upstream regulator I-{kappa}B were found in oridonin-treated MCF-10A and not MCF-7 cells. Taken together, these results provide a mechanistic framework for the cellular effects of ponicidin and oridonin in different stage breast cancer cells.

  18. Analysis of the Antiproliferative Effects of Curcumin and Nanocurcumin in MDA-MB231 as a Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Khosropanah, Mohammad Hossein; Dinarvand, Amin; Nezhadhosseini, Afsaneh; Haghighi, Alireza; Hashemi, Sima; Nirouzad, Fereidon; Khatamsaz, Sepideh; Entezari, Maliheh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Dehghani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in the world which appears by the effect of enviromental physico-chemical mutagen and carcinogen agents. The identification of new cytotoxic drug with low sid effects on immune system has developed as important area in new studies of immunopharmacology. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Its therapeutic potential is substantially hindered by the rather low water solubility and bioavailability, hence the need for suitable carriers. In this report we employed nanogel-based nanoparticle approach to improve upon its effectiveness. Myristic acid-chitosan (MA-chitosan) nanogels were prepared by the technique of self-assembly. Curcumin was loaded into the nanogels. The surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was determined using SEM and TEM. The other objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activity of cell death of curcumin and nanocurcumin on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB231). Cytotoxicity and viability of curcumin and nanocurcumin were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and dye exclusion assay. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the particle diameter was between 150 to 200 nm. Proliferation of MDA-MB231 cells was significantly inhibited by curcumin and nanocurcumin in a concentration-dependent manner in defined times. There were significant differences in IC50 curcumin and nanocurcumin. curcumin -loaded nanoparticles proved more effective compared to TQ solution. The high drug-targeting potential and efficiency demonstrates the significant role of the anticancer properties of curcumin -loaded nanoparticles. PMID:27610163

  19. Analysis of the Antiproliferative Effects of Curcumin and Nanocurcumin in MDA-MB231 as a Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Khosropanah, Mohammad Hossein; Dinarvand, Amin; Nezhadhosseini, Afsaneh; Haghighi, Alireza; Hashemi, Sima; Nirouzad, Fereidon; Khatamsaz, Sepideh; Entezari, Maliheh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Dehghani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in the world which appears by the effect of enviromental physico-chemical mutagen and carcinogen agents. The identification of new cytotoxic drug with low sid effects on immune system has developed as important area in new studies of immunopharmacology. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Its therapeutic potential is substantially hindered by the rather low water solubility and bioavailability, hence the need for suitable carriers. In this report we employed nanogel-based nanoparticle approach to improve upon its effectiveness. Myristic acid-chitosan (MA-chitosan) nanogels were prepared by the technique of self-assembly. Curcumin was loaded into the nanogels. The surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was determined using SEM and TEM. The other objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activity of cell death of curcumin and nanocurcumin on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB231). Cytotoxicity and viability of curcumin and nanocurcumin were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and dye exclusion assay. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the particle diameter was between 150 to 200 nm. Proliferation of MDA-MB231 cells was significantly inhibited by curcumin and nanocurcumin in a concentration-dependent manner in defined times. There were significant differences in IC50 curcumin and nanocurcumin. curcumin -loaded nanoparticles proved more effective compared to TQ solution. The high drug-targeting potential and efficiency demonstrates the significant role of the anticancer properties of curcumin -loaded nanoparticles. PMID:27610163

  20. Bisphenol A Induces Migration through a GPER-, FAK-, Src-, and ERK2-Dependent Pathway in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Castillo Sanchez, Rocio; Gomez, Rocio; Perez Salazar, Eduardo

    2016-03-21

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial synthetic chemical utilized in the production of numerous products including food and beverage containers. Humans are exposed to BPA during ingestion of contaminated water and food because it can leach from polycarbonate containers, beverage cans, and epoxy resins. BPA has been related with the development of several diseases including breast cancer. However, the signal transduction pathways mediated by BPA and its role as a promoter of migration and invasion in breast cancer cells remain to be investigated. Here, we demonstrate that BPA promotes migration, invasion, and an increase in the number of focal contacts in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moreover, MDA-MB-231 cells express GPER, and BPA promotes migration through a GPER-dependent pathway. BPA also induces activation of FAK, Src, and ERK2, whereas migration induced by BPA requires the activity of these kinases. In addition, BPA induces an increase on AP-1- and NFκB-DNA binding activity through an Src- and ERK2-dependent pathway. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate, that BPA induces the activation of signal transduction pathways, which mediate migration, AP-1/NFκB-DNA binding activity, and an invasion process in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. PMID:26914403

  1. Differential Epigenetic Effects of Atmospheric Cold Plasma on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Byungtak; Bae, Hansol; Lee, Hyunkyung; Lee, Seungyeon; Choi, Eun H.; Kim, Sun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (plasma) has emerged as a novel tool for a cancer treatment option, having been successfully applied to a few types of cancer cells, as well as tissues. However, to date, no studies have been performed to examine the effect of plasma on epigenetic alterations, including CpG methylation. In this study, the effects of plasma on DNA methylation changes in breast cancer cells were examined by treating cultured MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, representing estrogen-positive and estrogen-negative cancer cells, respectively, with plasma. A pyrosequencing analysis of Alu indicated that a specific CpG site was induced to be hypomethylated from 23.4 to 20.3% (p < 0.05) by plasma treatment in the estrogen-negative MDA-MB-231 cells only. A genome-wide methylation analysis identified “cellular movement, connective tissue development and function, tissue development” and “cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell death and survival, cellular development” as the top networks. Of the two cell types, the MDA-MB-231 cells underwent a higher rate of apoptosis and a decreased proliferation rate upon plasma treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that plasma induces epigenetic and cellular changes in a cell type-specific manner, suggesting that a careful screening of target cells and tissues is necessary for the potential application of plasma as a cancer treatment option. PMID:26042423

  2. Medium Renewal Blocks Anti-Proliferative Effects of Metformin in Cultured MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Rajh, Maruša; Dolinar, Klemen; Miš, Katarina; Pavlin, Mojca; Pirkmajer, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that metformin, a widely used type 2 diabetes drug, might reduce breast cancer risk and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metformin might protect against breast cancer indirectly by ameliorating systemic glucose homeostasis. Alternatively, it might target breast cancer cells directly. However, experiments using MDA-MB-231 cells, a standard in vitro breast cancer model, produced inconsistent results regarding effectiveness of metformin as a direct anti-cancer agent. Metformin treatments in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells are usually performed for 48-96 hours, but protocols describing renewal of cell culture medium during these prolonged treatments are rarely reported. We determined whether medium renewal protocol might alter sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with metformin. Using the MTS assay, BrdU incorporation and Hoechst staining we found that treatment with metformin for 48-72 hours failed to suppress viability and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells if low-glucose (1 g/L) medium was renewed every 24 hours. Conversely, metformin suppressed their viability and proliferation if medium was not renewed. Without renewal glucose concentration in the medium was reduced to 0.1 g/L in 72 hours, which likely explains increased sensitivity to metformin under these conditions. We also examined whether 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) reduces resistance to metformin. In the presence of 2-DG metformin reduced viability and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells with or without medium renewal, thus demonstrating that 2-DG reduces their resistance to metformin. In sum, we show that medium renewal blocks anti-proliferative effects of metformin during prolonged treatments in low-glucose medium. Differences in medium renewal protocols during prolonged treatments might therefore lead to apparently inconsistent results as regards effectiveness of metformin as a direct anti-cancer agent. Finally, our results indicate that co-therapy with 2-DG and

  3. Medium Renewal Blocks Anti-Proliferative Effects of Metformin in Cultured MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rajh, Maruša; Dolinar, Klemen; Miš, Katarina; Pavlin, Mojca; Pirkmajer, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that metformin, a widely used type 2 diabetes drug, might reduce breast cancer risk and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metformin might protect against breast cancer indirectly by ameliorating systemic glucose homeostasis. Alternatively, it might target breast cancer cells directly. However, experiments using MDA-MB-231 cells, a standard in vitro breast cancer model, produced inconsistent results regarding effectiveness of metformin as a direct anti-cancer agent. Metformin treatments in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells are usually performed for 48–96 hours, but protocols describing renewal of cell culture medium during these prolonged treatments are rarely reported. We determined whether medium renewal protocol might alter sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with metformin. Using the MTS assay, BrdU incorporation and Hoechst staining we found that treatment with metformin for 48–72 hours failed to suppress viability and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells if low-glucose (1 g/L) medium was renewed every 24 hours. Conversely, metformin suppressed their viability and proliferation if medium was not renewed. Without renewal glucose concentration in the medium was reduced to 0.1 g/L in 72 hours, which likely explains increased sensitivity to metformin under these conditions. We also examined whether 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) reduces resistance to metformin. In the presence of 2-DG metformin reduced viability and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells with or without medium renewal, thus demonstrating that 2-DG reduces their resistance to metformin. In sum, we show that medium renewal blocks anti-proliferative effects of metformin during prolonged treatments in low-glucose medium. Differences in medium renewal protocols during prolonged treatments might therefore lead to apparently inconsistent results as regards effectiveness of metformin as a direct anti-cancer agent. Finally, our results indicate that co-therapy with 2-DG and

  4. Anti-angiogenesis therapy and gap junction inhibition reduce MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zibara, Kazem; Awada, Zahraa; Dib, Leila; El-Saghir, Jamal; Al-Ghadban, Sara; Ibrik, Aida; El-Zein, Nabil; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells secrete VEGF, which plays a key role in their growth, invasion, extravasation and metastasis. Direct cancer cell-endothelial cell interaction, mediated by gap junctions, is of critical importance in the extravasation process. In this study, we evaluated avastin (Av), an anti-VEGF antibody; and oleamide (OL), a gap junction inhibitor, using MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in vitro and a xenograft murine model in vivo. Results showed that Av/OL significantly decreased proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and decreased migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. In addition, Av/OL significantly decreased homo and hetero-cellular communication interaction between MDA-MDA and MDA-endothelial cells, respectively. The expression levels of several factors including VEGF, HIF1α, CXCR4, Cx26, Cx43, and MMP9 were attenuated upon Av/OL treatment in vitro. On the other hand, avastin, but not oleamide, reduced tumor size of NSG mice injected subdermally (s.d.) with MDA-MB-231 cells, which was also associated with increased survival. Furthermore, Av but also OL, separately, significantly increased the survival rate, and reduced pulmonary and hepatic metastatic foci, of intravenously (i.v.) injected mice. Finally, OL reduced MMP9 protein expression levels, better than Av and in comparisons to control, in the lungs of MDA-MB-231 i.v. injected NSG mice. In conclusion, while avastin has anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities, oleamide has anti-metastatic activity, presumably at the extravasation level, providing further evidence for the role of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in cancer cell extravasation. PMID:26218768

  5. Advanced glycation endproducts increase proliferation, migration and invasion of the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Hana; Matou-Nasri, Sabine; Wang, Qiuyu; Rabhan, Zaki; Al-Eidi, Hamad; Al Abdulrahman, Abdulkareem; Ahmed, Nessar

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic patients have increased likelihood of developing breast cancer. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications but their impact on breast cancer cells is not understood. This study aims to determine the effects of methylglyoxal-derived bovine serum albumin AGEs (MG-BSA-AGEs) on the invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. By performing cell counting, using wound-healing assay, invasion assay and zymography analysis, we found that MG-BSA-AGEs increased MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion through Matrigel™ associated with an enhancement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activities, in a dose-dependent manner. Using Western blot and flow cytometry analyses, we demonstrated that MG-BSA-AGEs increased expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and phosphorylation of key signaling protein extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2. Furthermore, in MG-BSA-AGE-treated cells, phospho-protein micro-array analysis revealed enhancement of phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein 70 serine S6 kinase beta 1 (p70S6K1), which is known to be involved in protein synthesis, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38, which are involved in cell survival. Blockade of MG-BSA-AGE/RAGE interactions using a neutralizing anti-RAGE antibody inhibited MG-BSA-AGE-induced MDA-MB-231 cell processes, including the activation of signaling pathways. Throughout the study, non-modified BSA had a negligible effect. In conclusion, AGEs might contribute to breast cancer development and progression partially through the regulation of MMP-9 activity and RAGE signal activation. The up-regulation of RAGE and the concomitant increased phosphorylation of p70S6K1 induced by AGEs may represent promising targets for drug therapy to treat diabetic patients with breast cancer. PMID:25514746

  6. TRIM21, a negative modulator of LFG in breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Müller, Judith; Maurer, Viktor; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M; Bucan, Vesna

    2015-11-01

    Lifeguard (LFG) is a transmembrane protein which is highly expressed in tissues of the hippocampus and the cerebellum, especially during postnatal development. This protein is responsible for the protection of neurons against Fas-induced apoptosis, and the same effect can be seen in tumor cells derived from mastocarcinoma. However, the molecular function of LFG and its regulation in the carcinogenesis of human breast cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the connection of the interaction of LFG within an array analysis of over 9,000 different proteins. Results showed an interaction between the proteins tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21) and LFG and a negative regulatory effect of TRIM21 towards LFG on the protein level. Furthermore, Fas-induced apoptosis decreased upon the addition of TRIM21 to the cultured cells. These results revealed TRIM21 to be a negative modulator of LFG in cells of mastocarcinoma in vitro. For all analyses, MDA-MB-231 cells were used. The interaction of TRIM21 and LFG was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation. To examine changes in regulatory processes, western blot analyses, real-time PCR, activity of apoptotic process and flow cytometric analyses were carried out. PMID:26398169

  7. In vitro activity studies of hyperthermal near-infrared nanoGUMBOS in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Jonathan C; Qureshi, Ammar; Hamdan, Suzana; Rupnik, Kresimir; El-Zahab, Bilal; Hayes, Daniel J; Warner, Isiah M

    2014-09-01

    A new kind of material called nanoGUMBOS, comprised entirely of cations and anions, has been developed by pairing various functional ions that exhibit fluorescence activity with biocompatible ions, in a process very much akin to that employed in ionic liquid chemistry. In the present study, spectral and biological properties of NIR absorbing nanoGUMBOS were evaluated using electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, absorbance, thermal imaging, and live/dead fluorescence assays in conjunction with malignant MDA-MB-231 and non-malignant HS-578-BST epithelial human breast cells. The primary focus of this study was to maximize heat generation using NIR laser irradiation and minimize non-specific cytotoxicity using biocompatible constituent ions (e.g. amino acids, vitamins, or organic acids). Concurrently, in order to generate highly responsive nanomaterials for NIR-laser-triggered hyperthermia, optimization of the nanoparticle size, shape, and uniformity was carried out. Evaluation of data from hyperthermal studies of NIR absorbing nanoGUMBOS shows that these materials can achieve temperatures above the threshold for killing cancerous cells. Additionally, in vitro cell based assays demonstrated their promising hyperthermal effects on cancer derived epithelial cells. PMID:24976521

  8. TRIM21, a negative modulator of LFG in breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MÜLLER, JUDITH; MAURER, VIKTOR; REIMERS, KERSTIN; VOGT, PETER M.; BUCAN, VESNA

    2015-01-01

    Lifeguard (LFG) is a transmembrane protein which is highly expressed in tissues of the hippocampus and the cerebellum, especially during postnatal development. This protein is responsible for the protection of neurons against Fas-induced apoptosis, and the same effect can be seen in tumor cells derived from mastocarcinoma. However, the molecular function of LFG and its regulation in the carcinogenesis of human breast cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the connection of the interaction of LFG within an array analysis of over 9,000 different proteins. Results showed an interaction between the proteins tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21) and LFG and a negative regulatory effect of TRIM21 towards LFG on the protein level. Furthermore, Fas-induced apoptosis decreased upon the addition of TRIM21 to the cultured cells. These results revealed TRIM21 to be a negative modulator of LFG in cells of mastocarcinoma in vitro. For all analyses, MDA-MB-231 cells were used. The interaction of TRIM21 and LFG was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation. To examine changes in regulatory processes, western blot analyses, real-time PCR, activity of apoptotic process and flow cytometric analyses were carried out. PMID:26398169

  9. A synthetic chalcone derivative, 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139), suppresses the TNFα-induced invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated GROα expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Da Hyun; Jung, Jung You; Koh, Dongsoo; Kim, Geum-Soog; Ahn, Young-Sup; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho; Shin, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimenthoxyochalcone (DK-139) is a synthetic chalcone-derived compound. This study evaluated the biological activity of DK-139 on the inhibition of tumor metastasis. Growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GROα) plays an important role in the progression of tumor development by stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, DK-139 inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced GROα gene promoter activity by inhibiting of IκB kinase (IKK) in MDA-MB231 cells. In addition, DK-139 prevented the TNFα-induced cell migration, F-actin formation, and invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that DK-139 is a potential drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor cell locomotion and invasion via the suppression of NF-κB-mediated GROα expression. PMID:26602275

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits the invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through upregulation of cytokeratin-1.

    PubMed

    Blanckaert, Vincent; Kerviel, Vincent; Lépinay, Alexandra; Joubert-Durigneux, Vanessa; Hondermarck, Hubert; Chénais, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main member of the omega-3 essential fatty acid family, has been shown to reduce the invasion of the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but the mechanism involved remains unclear. In the present study, a proteomic approach was used to define changes in protein expression induced by DHA. Proteins from crude membrane preparations of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with 100 µM DHA were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and differentially expressed proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The main changes observed were the upregulation of Keratin, type Ⅱ cytoskeletal 1 (KRT1), catalase and lamin-A/C. Immunocytochemistry analyses confirmed the increase in KRT1 induced by DHA. Furthermore, in vitro invasion assays showed that siRNA against KRT1 was able to reverse the DHA-induced inhibition of breast cancer cell invasion. In conclusion, KRT1 is involved in the anti-invasive activity of DHA in breast cancer cells. PMID:25825023

  11. The combined treatment with novel platinum(II) complex and anti-MUC1 increases apoptotic response in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gornowicz, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Anna; Czarnomysy, Robert; Gabryel-Porowska, Halina; Muszyńska, Anna; Bielawski, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    New strategy of cancer's targeting treatment is combining monoclonal antibodies with chemotherapeutic agents. An important goal of targeted therapy appears to be a transmembrane glycoprotein type I-mucin 1 (MUC1), which is overexpressed in tumors of epithelial origin, especially in breast cancer. The goal of the study was to check the effect of monoclonal antibody against MUC1 with novel platinum(II) complex (Pt12) on selected aspects of apoptosis in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The number of apoptotic and necrotic cells was measured using annexin V binding assay. The decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and DNA fragmentation was analyzed. Finally, the influence of novel platinum(II) complex (Pt12) used with anti-MUC1 on the concentration of selected markers of apoptosis such as Bax, caspase-8, -9, and caspase-3 was performed using ELISA. The results from combined treatment were compared with those obtained using monotherapy. In our study, we proved that anti-MUC1 used in combination with Pt12 strongly induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. The effect was stronger than treatment with Pt12, cisplatin, anti-MUC1, and anti-MUC1 used with cisplatin. We also observed the highest decrease of MMP and the strongest DNA fragmentation after such a combined treatment. The results obtained from ELISA showed increased concentration of Bax, caspases-8, -9, -3 compared to monotherapy. Our study proved that Pt12 together with anti-MUC1 strongly induced apoptosis in estrogen-negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). The apoptosis may go through extrinsic pathway associated with caspase-8 as well as intrinsic pathway connected with caspase-9. PMID:26112902

  12. Data on cell cycle in breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231 with ferulic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunmi

    2016-06-01

    Inhibition to repair DNA metabolism to respond to damaged DNA can lead to genetic instability, resulting in cancer cell death (Audeh et al., 2010; Bryant et al., 2005; Farmer et al., 2005; Lukas et al., 2003; Tutt et al., 2010) [1], [2], [6], [8], [11]. Despite of various studies demonstrating efficiency of combination therapy through down-regulation of DNA repair pathway, the suppression effects of DNA repair pathway by chemotherapeutic agents from natural bioactive compounds are less understood (Eitsuka et al., 2014; Kastan et al., 2004; Kawabata et al., 2000; Mancuso et al., 2014) [5], [7], [9]. Here, the data shows that ferulic acid reduced the S-phases post to UV treatment in breast cancer cells and was hypersensitive in breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. PMID:26958638

  13. Data on cell cycle in breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231 with ferulic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunmi

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition to repair DNA metabolism to respond to damaged DNA can lead to genetic instability, resulting in cancer cell death (Audeh et al., 2010; Bryant et al., 2005; Farmer et al., 2005; Lukas et al., 2003; Tutt et al., 2010) [1], [2], [6], [8], [11]. Despite of various studies demonstrating efficiency of combination therapy through down-regulation of DNA repair pathway, the suppression effects of DNA repair pathway by chemotherapeutic agents from natural bioactive compounds are less understood (Eitsuka et al., 2014; Kastan et al., 2004; Kawabata et al., 2000; Mancuso et al., 2014) [5], [7], [9]. Here, the data shows that ferulic acid reduced the S-phases post to UV treatment in breast cancer cells and was hypersensitive in breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. PMID:26958638

  14. Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Okada, Tomoko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2012-11-15

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, has been reported to possess diverse biological activities, including anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), few studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. Results of the current investigation revealed that CBDA inhibits migration of the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. It is established that activation of the RhoA signaling pathway leads to inhibition of the mobility of various cancer cells, including MDA-MB-231 cells. The data presented in this report suggest for the first time that as an active component in the cannabis plant, CBDA offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell migration, including aggressive breast cancers. PMID:22963825

  15. Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuso; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Okada, Tomoko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, has been reported to possess diverse biological activities, including anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), few studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. Results of the current investigation revealed that CBDA inhibits migration of the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. It is established that activation of the RhoA signaling pathway leads to inhibition of the mobility of various cancer cells, including MDA-MB-231 cells. The data presented in this report suggest for the first time that as an active component in the cannabis plant, CBDA offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell migration, including aggressive breast cancers. PMID:22963825

  16. Breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 miRNA profile expression after BIK interference: BIK involvement in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, Ruth; Torres-Márquez, María Eugenia; Viedma-Rodríguez, Rubí; Velázquez-Wong, Ana Claudia; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio; Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Velázquez-Flores, Miguel Ángel

    2016-05-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-interacting killer (apoptosis inducing) (BIK) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor in diverse types of cancers. However, BIK's overexpression in breast cancer (BC) and in non-small lung cancer cells (NSCLCs), associated with a poor prognosis, suggests its participation in tumor progression. In this study, we evaluated the global expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs), messenger RNA (mRNA) expression changes in autophagy, and autophagic flux after BIK interference. BIK gene expression was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in BC cell MDA-MB-231, and BIK interference efficiency was tested by real-time PCR and by Western blotting. BIK expression levels decreased by 75 ± 18 % in the presence of 600 nM siRNA, resulting in the abolishment of BIK expression by 94 ± 30 %. BIK interference resulted in the overexpression of 17 miRNAs that, according to the DIANA-miRPath v3.0 database, are mainly implied in the control of cell signaling, gene expression, and autophagy. The autophagy array revealed downregulation of transcripts which participate in autophagy, and their interactome revealed a complex network, where hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HGS), α-synuclein (SNCA), unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1/2 (ULK1/2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) were shown to be signaling hubs. LC3-II expression-an autophagy marker-was increased by 169 ± 25 % after BIK interference, which indicates the involvement of BIK in autophagy. Altogether, our results indicate-for the first time-that BIK controls the expression of miRNAs, as well as the autophagic flux in MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:26662110

  17. Blueberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Growth and Metastatic Potential of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells Through Modulation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Lynn S.; Phung, Sheryl; Yee, Natalie; Seeram, Navindra P.; Li, Liya; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are known to exhibit a variety of anti-carcinogenic properties. This study investigated the chemopreventive activity of blueberry extract in triple negative breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Blueberry decreased cell proliferation in HCC38, HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 cells with no effect on the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cell line. Decreased metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells by blueberry was shown through inhibition of cell motility using wound healing assays and migration through a PET membrane. Blueberry treatment decreased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and the secretion of urokinase-type plasminogen activator while increasing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 secretion in MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium as shown by western blotting. Cell signaling pathways that control the expression/activation of these processes were investigated via western blotting and reporter gene assay. Treatment with blueberry decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) activation in MDA-MB-231 cells where protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) were not affected. In vivo, the efficacy of blueberry to inhibit triple negative breast tumor growth was evaluated using the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. Tumor weight and proliferation (Ki-67 expression) were decreased in blueberry treated mice, where apoptosis (caspase-3 expression) was increased compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumors from blueberry-fed mice showed decreased activation of AKT and p65 NFκB signaling proteins with no effect on the phosphorylation of ERK. These data illustrate the inhibitory effect of blueberry phytochemicals on the growth and metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells through modulation of the PI3K/AKT/NFκB pathway. PMID:20388778

  18. Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumors in nude mouse xenografts and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells

    PubMed Central

    You, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Sook; Jeong, Kyu-Shik; Kim, Eun; Kim, Yong-Jae

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of loquat leaves on MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and invasion. MATERIALS/METHODS Female athymic nude mice were given a subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation of MDA-MB-231 cells and randomly grouped to receive a s.c. injection of either 500 mg/kg ethanol, water extract or vehicle five times a week. Tumor growth, mitotic rate and necrosis were examined. MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured with DMSO or with various concentrations of loquat water or ethanol extract. Proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were examined. RESULTS Tumor growth of xenograft nude mouse was significantly reduced by loquat extracts. The results of mitotic examination revealed that loquat extracts reduced tumor cell division. Both ethanol and water extracts significantly inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation. The protein expression of ErbB3 was significantly down-regulated by loquat leaf extracts. Loquat leaf extracts increased apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells following 24 hour incubation and the ethanol extract was more potent in inducing apoptosis than the water extract. Furthermore, loquat extracts inhibited adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. MMP activity was significantly inhibited by loquat extracts. CONCLUSION Our results show that extracts of loquat inhibit the growth of tumor in MDA-MB-231 xenograft nude mice and the invasion of human breast cancer cells, indicating the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and invasion. PMID:27087896

  19. EPHA7 and EPHA10 Physically Interact and Differentially Co-localize in Normal Breast and Breast Carcinoma Cell Lines, and the Co-localization Pattern Is Altered in EPHB6-expressing MDA-MB-231 Cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Candace; Segovia, Briana; Kandpal, Raj P

    Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma cell (EPH) receptors comprise the most abundant receptor tyrosine kinase family characterized to date in mammals including humans. These proteins are involved in axon guidance, tissue organization, vascular development and the intricate process of various diseases including cancer. These diverse functions of EPH receptors are attributed, in part, to their abilities for heterodimerization. While the interacting partners of kinase-deficient EPHB6 receptor have been characterized, the interaction of the kinase-dead EPHA10 with any other receptor has not been identified. By using co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated physical interaction between kinase-deficient EPHA10 with kinase-sufficient EPHA7 receptor. Immunocytochemical analyses have revealed that these two receptors co-localize on the cell surface, and soluble portions of the receptors exist as a complex in the cytoplasm as well as the nuclei. While EPHA7 and EPHA10 co-localize similarly on the membrane in MCF10A and MCF7 cells, they were differentially co-localized in MDA-MB-231 cells stably transfected with empty pcDNA vector (MDA-MB-231-PC) or an expression construct of EPHB6 (MDA-MB-231-B6). The full-length isoforms of these receptors were co-localized on the cell surface, and the soluble forms were present as a complex in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus in MDA-MB-231-PC cells. MDA-MB-231-B6 cells, on the other hand, were distinguished by the absence of any signal in the nuclei. Our results represent the first demonstration of physical interaction between EPHA10 and EPHA7 and their cellular co-localization. Furthermore, these observations also suggest gene-regulatory functions of the complex of the soluble forms of these receptors in breast carcinoma cells of differential invasiveness. PMID:27566654

  20. The cytoprotective role of gemcitabine-induced autophagy associated with apoptosis inhibition in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; He, Mengye; Song, Yinjing; Chen, Luoquan; Xiao, Peng; Wan, Xiaopeng; Dai, Feng; Shen, Peng

    2014-07-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor‑negative and is also negative for HER2 expression, remains a great clinical challenge due to its strong resistance to chemotherapy at the late stage of treatment and relatively unfavorable prognosis. Gemcitabine has been approved by the FDA/SFDA for use as a first-line therapeutic drug against advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Therefore, the clarification of the mechanisms underlying gemcitabine-acquired resistance is of particular importance for the optimal management of TNBC. A number of studies have revealed that autophagy, which has been found to protect cancer cells from anti-cancer drug-induced death, may contribute to the development of drug resistance. However, the association between autophagy and gemcitabine treatment in TNBC cells has yet to be defined. Our study clearly demonstrates that gemcitabine is able to induce mTOR-independent autophagy in human triple‑negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrate that autophagy protects MDA-MB-231 cells from gemcitabine-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, indicating that gemcitabine can activate autophagy to impair the sensitivity of MDA-MB‑231 cells. Furthermore, as shown by our results, the inhibition of gemcitabine-induced autophagy by chloroquine shifts the expression of the p53 protein, Bcl-2 family proteins and the relative Bax/Bcl-xL ratio in favor of promoting apoptosis. These results reveal that the inhibition of apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms of autophagy-induced cytoprotection in gemcitabine-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. The apoptotic and autophagic processes constitute a mutual inhibition system and jointly seal the fate of TNBC cells that are exposed to gemcitabine. Thus, our study suggests that the combination of an autophagic inhibitor and gemcitabine as a therapeutic strategy may represent a promising approach with greater clinical efficacy for

  1. Promotion of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 invasion by di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate through matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 overexpression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuya; Ma, Jiehua; Fu, Ziyi; Zhang, Zhilei; Cao, Jian; Huang, Lei; Li, Wenqu; Xu, Pengfei; Cao, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is an estrogenic chemical that is widely used in polyvinyl products. We aimed to determine the mechanisms behind the effects of DEHP on ERα-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 invasion and matrix metalloproteinases-2/-9 (MMP-2/-9) up-regulation in this study. Transwell assay indicated that DEHP exposure (>50 μg/ml) significantly enhanced the invasion ability of MDA-MB-231 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and western blotting revealed that MMP-2/-9 is overexpressed in mRNA and protein levels after DEHP treatment. Gelatin zymography consistently demonstrated that DEHP exposure also enhances the activity of MMP-2/-9. Immunofluorescence assay showed that DEHP could accelerate NF-kappaB (NF-κB) subunits-p65 translocation into the nucleus, which is confirmed by western blotting assay, suggesting that the ratio of nuclear/cytosolic level of p65 was significantly increased. Furthermore, the invasion and MMP-2/-9 overexpression of MDA-MB-231 cells after DEHP-treated were reversed by the NF-κB chemical inhibitor JSH-23 via drug inhibition assay. This study suggested that DEHP could promote ERα-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 invasion through activating NF-κB and MMP-2/-9 overexpression. PMID:26850096

  2. Anti-proliferative effect of biogenic gold nanoparticles against breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. S., Uma Suganya; Govindaraju, K.; Ganesh Kumar, V.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V.; Changmai, Niranjan

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is a major complication in women and numerous approaches are being developed to overcome this problem. In conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy the post side effects cause an unsuitable effect in treatment of cancer. Hence, it is essential to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease. In the present investigation, a possible route for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using leaf extract of Mimosa pudica and its anticancer efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer cell lines is studied. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be effective in killing cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7) which were studied using various anticancer assays (MTT assay, cell morphology determination, cell cycle analysis, comet assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and DAPI staining). Cell morphological analysis showed the changes occurred in cancer cells during the treatment with AuNPs. Cell cycle analysis revealed apoptosis in G0/G1 to S phase. Similarly in Comet assay, there was an increase in tail length in treated cells in comparison with the control. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay showed prompt fluorescence in treated cells indicating the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner membrane. PI and DAPI staining showed the DNA damage in treated cells.

  3. Curcumin Suppresses Proliferation and Migration of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells through Autophagy-Dependent Akt Degradation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Feng; Ding, Youming; Zhang, Yemin; Zhou, Yu; Li, Mingxin; Wang, Changhua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have evidenced that the anticancer potential of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a main yellow bioactive compound from plant turmeric was mediated by interfering with PI3K/Akt signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. This study experimentally revealed that curcumin treatment reduced Akt protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, along with an activation of autophagy and suppression of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) function. The curcumin-reduced Akt expression, cell proliferation, and migration were prevented by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy but not by UPS inhibition. Additionally, inactivation of AMPK by its specific inhibitor compound C or by target shRNA-mediated silencing attenuated curcumin-activated autophagy. Thus, these results indicate that curcumin-stimulated AMPK activity induces activation of the autophagy-lysosomal protein degradation pathway leading to Akt degradation and the subsequent suppression of proliferation and migration in breast cancer cell. PMID:26752181

  4. Cytotoxic effects of Jay Amin hydroxamic acid (JAHA), a ferrocene-based class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, on triple-negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Librizzi, Mariangela; Longo, Alessandra; Chiarelli, Roberto; Amin, Jahanghir; Spencer, John; Luparello, Claudio

    2012-11-19

    The histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a class of chemically heterogeneous anticancer agents of which suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a prototypical member. SAHA derivatives may be obtained by three-dimensional manipulation of SAHA aryl cap, such as the incorporation of a ferrocene unit like that present in Jay Amin hydroxamic acid (JAHA) and homo-JAHA [ Spencer , et al. ( 2011 ) ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2 , 358 - 362 ]. These metal-based SAHA analogues have been tested for their cytotoxic activity toward triple-negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. The results obtained indicate that of the two compounds tested, only JAHA was prominently active on breast cancer cells with an IC(50) of 8.45 μM at 72 h of treatment. Biological assays showed that exposure of MDA-MB231 cells to the HDACi resulted in cell cycle perturbation with an alteration of S phase entry and a delay at G(2)/M transition and in an early reactive oxygen species production followed by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation and autophagy inhibition. No annexin binding was observed after short- (5 h) and longer (24 and 48 h) term incubation with JAHA, thereby excluding the promotion of apoptosis by the HDACi. Although caution must be exercised in extrapolation of in vitro results to the in vivo situation for which research on animals and human trials are needed, nevertheless JAHA treatment possesses the potential for its development as an agent for prevention and/or therapy of "aggressive" breast carcinoma, thus prompting us to get more insight into the molecular basis of its antibreast cancer activity. PMID:23094795

  5. Biodegradable Eri silk nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for bovine lactoferrin against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kislay; Patel, Yogesh S; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Xungai; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Eri silk nanoparticles (NPs) for delivering apo-bovine lactoferrin (Apo-bLf) (~2% iron saturated) and Fe-bLf (100% iron saturated) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Apo-bLf and Fe-bLf-loaded Eri silk NPs with sizes between 200 and 300 nm (±10 nm) showed a significant internalization within 4 hours in MDA-MB-231 cells when compared to MCF-7 cells. The ex vivo loop assay with chitosan-coated Fe-bLf-loaded silk NPs was able to substantiate its future use in oral administration and showed the maximum absorption within 24 hours by ileum. Both Apo-bLf and Fe-bLf induced increase in expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and lactoferrin receptor in epidermal growth factor (EGFR)-positive MDA-MB-231 cells, while transferrin receptor (TfR) and TfR2 in MCF-7 cells facilitated the receptor-mediated endocytosis of NPs. Controlled and sustained release of both bLf from silk NPs was shown to induce more cancer-specific cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells compared to normal MCF-10A cells. Due to higher degree of internalization, the extent of cytotoxicity and apoptosis was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231 (EGFR+) cells when compared to MCF-7 (EGFR-) cells. The expression of a prominent anticancer target, survivin, was found to be downregulated at both gene and protein levels. Taken together, all the observations suggest the potential use of Eri silk NPs as a delivery vehicle for an anti-cancer milk protein, and indicate bLf for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26730188

  6. Biodegradable Eri silk nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for bovine lactoferrin against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kislay; Patel, Yogesh S; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Xungai; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Eri silk nanoparticles (NPs) for delivering apo-bovine lactoferrin (Apo-bLf) (~2% iron saturated) and Fe-bLf (100% iron saturated) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Apo-bLf and Fe-bLf-loaded Eri silk NPs with sizes between 200 and 300 nm (±10 nm) showed a significant internalization within 4 hours in MDA-MB-231 cells when compared to MCF-7 cells. The ex vivo loop assay with chitosan-coated Fe-bLf-loaded silk NPs was able to substantiate its future use in oral administration and showed the maximum absorption within 24 hours by ileum. Both Apo-bLf and Fe-bLf induced increase in expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and lactoferrin receptor in epidermal growth factor (EGFR)-positive MDA-MB-231 cells, while transferrin receptor (TfR) and TfR2 in MCF-7 cells facilitated the receptor-mediated endocytosis of NPs. Controlled and sustained release of both bLf from silk NPs was shown to induce more cancer-specific cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells compared to normal MCF-10A cells. Due to higher degree of internalization, the extent of cytotoxicity and apoptosis was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231 (EGFR+) cells when compared to MCF-7 (EGFR−) cells. The expression of a prominent anticancer target, survivin, was found to be downregulated at both gene and protein levels. Taken together, all the observations suggest the potential use of Eri silk NPs as a delivery vehicle for an anti-cancer milk protein, and indicate bLf for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26730188

  7. Distinct effects of β1 integrin on cell proliferation and cellular signaling in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Sicong; Isaji, Tomoya; Hang, Qinglei; Im, Sanghun; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Gu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    An aberrant expression of integrin β1 has been implicated in breast cancer progression. Here, we compared the cell behaviors of wild-type (WT), β1 gene deleted (KO), and β1 gene restored (Res) MDA-MB-231 cells. Surprisingly, the expression of β1 exhibited opposite effects on cell proliferation. These effects were dependent on cell densities, and they showed an up-regulation of cell proliferation when cells were cultured under sparse conditions, and a down-regulation of cell growth under dense conditions. By comparison with WT cells, the phosphorylation levels of ERK in KO cells were consistently suppressed under sparse culture conditions, but consistently up-regulated under dense culture conditions. The phosphorylation levels of EGFR were increased in the KO cells. By contrast, the phosphorylation levels of AKT were decreased in the KO cells. The abilities for both colony and tumor formation were significantly suppressed in the KO cells, suggesting that β1 plays an important role in cell survival signaling for tumorigenesis. These aberrant phenotypes in the KO cells were rescued in the Res cells. Taken together, these results clearly showed the distinct roles of β1 in cancer cells: the inhibition of cell growth and the promotion of cell survival, which may shed light on cancer therapies. PMID:26728650

  8. Quantification of Malignant Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 Transmigration Across Brain and Lung Microvascular Endothelium.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Fu, Bingmei M

    2016-07-01

    Tumor cell extravasation through the endothelial barrier forming the microvessel wall is a crucial step during tumor metastasis. However, where, how and how fast tumor cells transmigrate through endothelial barriers remain unclear. Using an in vitro transwell model, we performed a transmigration assay of malignant breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) through brain and lung microvascular endothelial monolayers under control and pathological conditions. The locations and rates of tumor cell transmigration as well as the changes in the structural components (integrity) of endothelial monolayers were quantified by confocal microscopy. Endothelial monolayer permeability to albumin P (albumin) was also quantified under the same conditions. We found that about 98% of transmigration occurred at the joints of endothelial cells instead of cell bodies; tumor cell adhesion and transmigration degraded endothelial surface glycocalyx and disrupted endothelial junction proteins, consequently increased P (albumin); more tumor cells adhered to and transmigrated through the endothelial monolayer with higher P (albumin); P (albumin) and tumor transmigration were increased by vascular endothelial growth factor, a representative of cytokines, and lipopolysaccharides, a typical systemic inflammatory factor, but reduced by adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. These results suggest that reinforcing endothelial structural integrity is an effective approach for inhibiting tumor extravasation. PMID:26603751

  9. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltranferase-2 behaves as a cancer testis gene and promotes growth and tumorigenicity of the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line.

    PubMed

    Pellon-Maison, Magali; Montanaro, Mauro A; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Garcia-Fabiani, Maria B; Soler-Gerino, Mercedes C; Cattaneo, Elizabeth R; Quiroga, Ivana Y; Abba, Martin C; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    The de novo synthesis of glycerolipids in mammalian cells begins with the acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate, catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). GPAT2 is a mitochondrial isoform primarily expressed in testis under physiological conditions. Because it is aberrantly expressed in multiple myeloma, it has been proposed as a novel cancer testis gene. Using a bioinformatics approach, we found that GPAT2 is highly expressed in melanoma, lung, prostate and breast cancer, and we validated GPAT2 expression at the protein level in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. In this case GPAT2 expression correlated with a higher histological grade. 5-Aza-2' deoxycytidine treatment of human cells lines induced GPAT2 expression suggesting epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In order to evaluate the contribution of GPAT2 to the tumor phenotype, we silenced its expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. GPAT2 knockdown diminished cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth, migration and tumorigenicity, and increased staurosporine-induced apoptosis. In contrast, GPAT2 over-expression increased cell proliferation rate and resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis. To understand the functional role of GPAT2, we performed a co-expression analysis in mouse and human testis and found a significant association with semantic terms involved in cell cycle, DNA integrity maintenance, piRNA biogenesis and epigenetic regulation. Overall, these results indicate the GPAT2 would be directly associated with the control of cell proliferation. In conclusion, we confirm GPAT2 as a cancer testis gene and that its expression contributes to the tumor phenotype of MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:24967918

  10. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter silencing potentiates caspase-independent cell death in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Merril C.; Peters, Amelia A.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Some clinical breast cancers are associated with MCU overexpression. •MCU silencing did not alter cell death initiated with the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263. •MCU silencing potentiated caspase-independent cell death initiated by ionomycin. •MCU silencing promoted ionomycin-mediated cell death without changes in bulk Ca{sup 2+}. -- Abstract: The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free ionic Ca{sup 2+} into the mitochondrial matrix. We assessed MCU expression in clinical breast cancer samples using microarray analysis and the consequences of MCU silencing in a breast cancer cell line. Our results indicate that estrogen receptor negative and basal-like breast cancers are characterized by elevated levels of MCU. Silencing of MCU expression in the basal-like MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line produced no change in proliferation or cell viability. However, distinct consequences of MCU silencing were seen on cell death pathways. Caspase-dependent cell death initiated by the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263 was not altered by MCU silencing; whereas caspase-independent cell death induced by the calcium ionophore ionomycin was potentiated by MCU silencing. Measurement of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} levels showed that the promotion of ionomycin-induced cell death by MCU silencing occurs independently of changes in bulk cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} levels. This study demonstrates that MCU overexpression is a feature of some breast cancers and that MCU overexpression may offer a survival advantage against some cell death pathways. MCU inhibitors may be a strategy to increase the effectiveness of therapies that act through the induction of caspase-independent cell death pathways in estrogen receptor negative and basal-like breast cancers.

  11. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-02-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent developments in MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enable rapid and specific detection of lipids directly from thin tissue sections. In this study, we performed multimodal imaging of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines (PC), a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and a sphingomyelin (SM) from different microenvironments of breast tumor xenograft models, which carried tdTomato red fluorescent protein as a hypoxia-response element-driven reporter gene. The MSI molecular lipid images revealed spatially heterogeneous lipid distributions within tumor tissue. Four of the most-abundant lipid species, namely PC(16:0/16:0), PC(16:0/18:1), PC(18:1/18:1), and PC(18:0/18:1), were localized in viable tumor regions, whereas LPC(16:0/0:0) was detected in necrotic tumor regions. We identified a heterogeneous distribution of palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, PC(16:0/22:1), and SM(d18:1/16:0) sodium adduct, which colocalized primarily with hypoxic tumor regions. For the first time, we have applied a multimodal imaging approach that has combined optical imaging and MALDI-MSI with ion mobility separation to spatially localize and structurally identify acylcarnitines and a variety of lipid species present in breast tumor xenograft models. PMID:22930811

  12. Infrared imaging of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line phenotypes in 2D and 3D cultures.

    PubMed

    Smolina, Margarita; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2015-04-01

    One current challenge in the field of breast cancer infrared imaging is the identification of carcinoma cell subtypes in the tissue. Neither sequencing nor immunochemistry is currently able to provide a cell by cell thorough classification. The latter is needed to build accurate statistical models capable of recognizing the diversity of breast cancer cell lines that may be present in a tissue section. One possible approach for overcoming this problem is to obtain the IR spectral signature of well-characterized tumor cell lines in culture. Cultures in three-dimensional matrices appear to generate an environment that mimics better the in vivo environment. There are, at present, series of breast cancer cell lines that have been thoroughly characterized in two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) cultures by full transcriptomics analyses. In this work, we describe the methods used to grow, to process, and to characterize a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, in 3D laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) culture and compare it with traditional monolayer cultures and tissue sections. While unsupervised analyses did not completely separate spectra of cells grown in 2D from 3D lrECM cultures, a supervised statistical analysis resulted in an almost perfect separation. When IR spectral responses of epithelial tumor cells from clinical triple-negative breast carcinoma samples were added to these data, a principal component analysis indicated that they cluster closer to the spectra of 3D culture cells than to the spectra of cells grown on a flat plastic substrata. This result is encouraging because of correlating well-characterized cell line features with clinical biopsies. PMID:25568895

  13. Fangchinoline inhibits cell proliferation via Akt/GSK-3beta/ cyclin D1 signaling and induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Dong; Yuan, Cheng-Fu; Bu, You-Quan; Wu, Xiang-Mei; Wan, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Li; Hu, Ning; Liu, Xian-Jun; Zu, Yong; Liu, Ge-Li; Song, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Fangchinoline (Fan) inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. The effects of Fan on cell growth and proliferation in breast cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that Fan inhibited cell proliferation in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line through suppression of the AKT/Gsk- 3beta/cyclin D1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Fan induced apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bax (relative to Bcl-2), active caspase 3 and cytochrome-c. Fan significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MDA- MB-231 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner as determined by MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that Fan treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, which correlated with apparent downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of both PCNA and cyclin D1. Further analysis demonstrated that Fan decreased the phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3beta. In addition, Fan up-regulated active caspase3, cytochrome-c protein levels and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, accompanied by apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that Fan is a potential natural product for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:24568493

  14. The Impact of Soy Isoflavones on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells Using a Global Metabolomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Uifălean, Alina; Schneider, Stefanie; Gierok, Philipp; Ionescu, Corina; Iuga, Cristina Adela; Lalk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial research, the understanding of the chemopreventive mechanisms of soy isoflavones remains challenging. Promising tools, such as metabolomics, can provide now a deeper insight into their biochemical mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to offer a comprehensive assessment of the metabolic alterations induced by genistein, daidzein and a soy seed extract on estrogen responsive (MCF-7) and estrogen non-responsive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), using a global metabolomic approach. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that all test compounds induced a biphasic effect on MCF-7 cells and only a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on MDA-MB-231 cells. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) profiling of extracellular metabolites and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling of intracellular metabolites confirmed that all test compounds shared similar metabolic mechanisms. Exposing MCF-7 cells to stimulatory concentrations of isoflavones led to increased intracellular levels of 6-phosphogluconate and ribose 5-phosphate, suggesting a possible upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway. After exposure to inhibitory doses of isoflavones, a significant decrease in glucose uptake was observed, especially for MCF-7 cells. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the glutamine uptake was significantly restricted, leading to alterations in protein biosynthesis. Understanding the metabolomic alterations of isoflavones represents a step forward in considering soy and soy derivates as functional foods in breast cancer chemoprevention. PMID:27589739

  15. The Genome-Wide Expression Profile of 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-Galloyl-β-D-Glucose-Treated MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells: Molecular Target on Cancer Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Sik; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Song, Hyo Sook; Kim, Min-Seok; Ko, Eunjung; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Khil, Jae-Ho; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Kim, Young Chul; Bae, Hyunsu; Chen, Chang Yan; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG), a polyphenolic compound isolated from Rhus chinensis Mill. PGG has been known to have anti-tumor, anti-angiogenic and anti-diabetic activities. The present study revealed another underlying molecular target of PGG in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using Illumina Human Ref-8 expression BeadChip assay. Through the Beadstudio v3 micro assay program to compare the identified genes expressed in PGG-treated MDA-MB-231 cells with untreated control, we found several unique genes that are closely associated with pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tyrosine metabolism, including PC, ACSS2, ACACA, ACYP2, ALDH3B1, FBP1, PRMT2 and COMT. Consistent with microarray data, real-time RT-PCR confirmed the significant down-regulation of these genes at mRNA level in PGG-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings suggest the potential of PGG as anticancer agent for breast cancer cells by targeting cancer metabolism genes. PMID:21614488

  16. Mid-region parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) binds chromatin of MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells and isolated oligonucleotides "in vitro".

    PubMed

    Sirchia, Rosalia; Priulla, Marcella; Sciandrello, Giulia; Caradonna, Fabio; Barbata, Giuseppa; Luparello, Claudio

    2007-09-01

    We have previously shown that PTHrP(38-94)-amide restrains growth and invasion "in vitro", causes striking toxicity and accelerates death of some breast cancer cell lines, the most responsive being MDA-MB231 whose tumorigenesis was also attenuated "in vivo". PTHrP(38-94)-amide contains the domain implicated in the nuclear import of PTHrP. Although the nucleus was identified as a destination for mid-region PTHrP, evidence for direct DNA-binding capability is lacking to date. Here, we examined the localization of PTHrP(38-94)-amide within MDA-MB231 cells and within metaphase spread preparations and characterized its DNA-binding properties, employing a combination of immunocytochemical, cytogenetic, "whole genome"/conventional PCR, EMSA and DNase footprinting techniques. The results obtained: (i) show that PTHrP(38-94)-amide gains access to the nuclear compartment of MDA-MB231 cell; (ii) demonstrate that PTHrP(38-94)-amide is a DNA-binding peptide; and, (iii) represent the first data to date on the potential molecular targets in both cellular chromatin and isolated oligonucleotides "in vitro". PMID:17124555

  17. Guggulsterone and bexarotene induce secretion of exosome-associated breast cancer resistance protein and reduce doxorubicin resistance in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ji Na; He, Qian; Wang, Guanghu; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Dinkins, Michael B; Zhu, Gu; Kim, Austin; Spassieva, Stefka; Bieberich, Erhard

    2015-10-01

    Many breast cancer cells acquire multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ABC transporters such as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). Here we show that incubation of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells with farnesoid X receptor antagonist guggulsterone (gug) and retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (bex) elevated ceramide, a sphingolipid known to induce exosome secretion. The gug+bex combination reduced cellular levels of BCRP to 20% of control cells by inducing its association and secretion with exosomes. Exogenous C6 ceramide also induced secretion of BCRP-associated exosomes, while siRNA-mediated knockdown or GW4869-mediated inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), an enzyme generating ceramide, restored cellular BCRP. Immunocytochemistry showed that ceramide elevation and concurrent loss of cellular BCRP was prominent in Aldefluor-labeled breast cancer stem-like cells. These cells no longer excluded the BCRP substrate Hoechst 33342 and showed caspase activation and apoptosis induction. Consistent with reduced BCRP, ABC transporter assays showed that gug+bex increased doxorubicin retention and that the combination of gug+bex with doxorubicin enhanced cell death by more than fivefold. Taken together, our results suggest a novel mechanism by which ceramide induces BCRP secretion and reduces MDR, which may be useful as adjuvant drug treatment for sensitizing breast cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapy. PMID:25833198

  18. The alkaloid Berberine inhibits the growth of Anoikis-resistant MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines by inducing cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Kim, J B; Yu, J-H; Ko, E; Lee, K-W; Song, A K; Park, S Y; Shin, I; Han, W; Noh, D Y

    2010-05-01

    Berberine is a pure phenanthren alkaloid isolated from the roots and bark of herbal plants such as Berberis, Hydrastis canadensis and Coptis chinensis. Berberine has been established to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells, but its effects on the drug resistance and anoikis-resistance of breast cancer cells have yet to be elucidated. Anoikis, or detachment-induced apoptosis, may prevent cancer progression and metastasis by blocking signals necessary for survival of localized cancer cells. Resistance to anoikis is regarded as a prerequisite for metastasis; however, little is known about the role of berberine in anoikis-resistance. We established anoikis-resistant cells from the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 by culturing them on a Poly-Hema substratum. We then investigated the effects of berberine on the growth of these cells. The anoikis-resistant cells had a reduced growth rate and were more invasive than their respective adherent cell lines. The effect of berberine on growth was compared to that of doxorubicine, which is a drug commonly used to treat breast cancer, in both the adherent and anoikis-resistant cell lines. Berberine promoted the growth inhibition of anoikis-resistant cells to a greater extent than doxorubicine treatment. Treatment with berberine-induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in the anoikis-resistant MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to untreated control cells. In summary, these results revealed that berberine can efficiently inhibit growth by inducing cell cycle arrest in anoikis-resistant MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Further analysis of these phenotypes is essential for understanding the effect of berberine on anoikis-resistant breast cancer cells, which would be relevant for the therapeutic targeting of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:19800775

  19. Eribulin upregulates miR-195 expression and downregulates Wnt3a expression in non-basal-like type of triple-negative breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Kanji; Sasaki, Akiko; Tsunoda, Yuko; Tsuji, Mayumi; Udaka, Yuko; Oyamada, Hideto; Tsuchiya, Hiromichi; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which does not show hormone sensitivity, is a poor prognosis disease without an established targeted treatment, so that establishing a therapeutic target for each subtype is desired. In addition, microRNA (miRNA), a non-cording RNA 19-25 nucleotide-longs in length, is known to be involved in regulating gene expression. We examined miRNA expression after exposure to eribulin, MDA-MB-231 cells, non-basal-like type of TNBC cell lines, and HCC1143 cells, basal-like type of TNBC cell lines. The activity of caspase-3 significantly increased compared to the control in MDA-MB-231, whereas no significant difference was observed in HCC1143. The expression level of 20-miRNAs significantly increased compared to the control in MDA-MB-231 after exposure to eribulin. The expression level of 6-miRNAs also significantly increased compared to the control in HCC1143. In these 2 cell types, miR-125b-1 and miR-195 were commonly expressed. While the expression level of miR-125b-1 decreased in both cells, the expression level of miR-195 increased in MDA-MB-231 and decreased in HCC1143. The expression level of miR-195 targeting Wnt3a significantly decreased compared to the control in MDA-MB-231, whereas it significantly increased in HCC1143. These results showed that exposure to eribulin highly increased the expression of miR-195 while it decreased the expression of Wnt3a in non-basal-like type of TNBC. Some miRNAs are known to regulate other signaling pathways involved in human pathogenesis by regulating the Wnt signaling pathway, and miRNA can act as a tumor-suppressing gene; therefore, miR-195 may serve as a therapeutic target in non-basal-like type of TNBC. PMID:26573286

  20. Immunotherapy with dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells for MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Cui, Xiao-Xu; Liang, Pei-Fen; Dou, Jin-Xia; Liu, Zi-Yan; Sun, Wen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects and safety of immunotherapy using different methods to load DC-CIK cells for MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells. Methods: A breast cancer model was established in BALB/c nude mice using breast cancer stem cells. All mice were randomly divided into six groups, and each group had three nude mice: the blank control group, the DC-CIK group (group D), the MDA-MB-231 CSC whole-cell lysate DC-CIK group (group L-D), the MDA-MB-231 CSC RNA DC-CIK group (group R-D), the THP DC-CIK group (group T-D) and group THP. Nude mice in groups D, L-D, R-D and T-D were injected with CSCs; 4 days later, the mice were inoculated with 1 × 106 DC-CIK cells via the tail vein. This injection was repeated 2 times a week for three weeks. The mice in groups THP and T-D were injected with a 5 mg/Kg dose of THP chemotherapeutic agents via the tail vein the day before DC-CIK injection, which was repeated one time a week for three weeks. Nude mice in the blank control group were injected with normal saline. The weights and sizes of the tumors were measured after the mice were euthanized. The expression of c-Myc, a key proto-oncogene associated with the Akt signaling pathway, was detected with RT-PCR. Results: The tumor growth rates in each group were as follows: group L-D < group R-D < group D < group T-D < blank control group < group THP. The nude mice in groups L-D, R-D and D were normal, active and had a healthy appetite. The mice in groups T-D and THP were lethargic, less active and showed loss of appetite, and their caudal vein was easy to stimulate. The mice in the blank control group were sacrificed during the third week or when their tumors developed ulceration. Compared with the blank control group, c-Myc gene expression was reduced in the tumors of the five experimental groups. Conclusion: The results showed that DC-CIK cells stimulated by different methods were highly effect against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells in nude mice in all groups

  1. Small molecule inhibition of arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type I inhibits proliferation and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tiang, Jacky M.; Butcher, Neville J.; Minchin, Rodney F.

    2010-02-26

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 is a phase II metabolizing enzyme that has been associated with certain breast cancer subtypes. While it has been linked to breast cancer risk because of its role in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, recent studies have suggested it may be important in cell growth and survival. To address the possible importance of NAT1 in breast cancer, we have used a novel small molecule inhibitor (Rhod-o-hp) of the enzyme to examine growth and invasion of the breast adenocarcinoma line MDA-MB-231. The inhibitor significantly reduced cell growth by increasing the percent of cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Rhod-o-hp also reduced the ability of the MDA-MB-231 cells to grow in soft agar. Using an in vitro invasion assay, the inhibitor significantly reduced the invasiveness of the cells. To test whether this effect was due to inhibition of NAT1, the enzyme was knocked down using a lentivirus-based shRNA approach and invasion potential was significantly reduced. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that NAT1 activity may be important in breast cancer growth and metastasis. The study suggests that NAT1 is a novel target for breast cancer treatment.

  2. Whole Blueberry Powder Modulates the Growth and Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Tumors in Nude Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Lynn S.; Kanaya, Noriko; Phung, Sheryl; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Shiuan

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that blueberry (BB) extract exhibited antitumor activity against MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and decreased metastatic potential in vitro. The current study tested 2 doses of whole BB powder, 5 and 10% (wt:wt) in the diet, against MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in female nude mice. In this study, tumor volume was 75% lower in mice fed the 5% BB diet and 60% lower in mice fed the 10% BB diet than in control mice (P ≤ 0.05). Tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67) was lower in the 5 and 10% BB-fed mice and cell death (Caspase 3) was greater in the 10% BB-fed mice compared to control mice (P ≤ 0.05). Gene analysis of tumor tissues from the 5% BB-fed mice revealed significantly altered expression of genes important to inflammation, cancer, and metastasis, specifically, Wnt signaling, thrombospondin-2, IL-13, and IFNγ. To confirm effects on Wnt signaling, analysis of tumor tissues from 5% BB-fed mice revealed lower β-catenin expression and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation with greater expression of the β-catenin inhibitory protein adenomatous polyposis coli compared to controls. A second study tested the ability of the 5% BB diet to inhibit MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN metastasis in vivo. In this study, 5% BB-fed mice developed 70% fewer liver metastases (P = 0.04) and 25% fewer lymph node metastases (P = 0.09) compared to control mice. This study demonstrates the oral antitumor and metastasis activity of whole BB powder against TNBC in mice. PMID:21880954

  3. Activated human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells suppress metastatic features of MDA-MB-231 cells by secreting IFN-β.

    PubMed

    Yoon, N; Park, M S; Shigemoto, T; Peltier, G; Lee, R H

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study showed that human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) are activated to express tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by exposure to TNF-α and these activated hMSCs effectively induce apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 (MDA) cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we further demonstrated that activated hMSCs not only induced apoptosis of MDA cells but also reduced metastatic features in MDA cells. These activated hMSC-exposed MDA cells showed reduced tumorigenicity and suppressed formation of lung metastasis when implanted in the mammary fat pad. Surprisingly, the activated hMSC-exposed MDA cells increased TRAIL expression, resulting in apoptosis in MDA cells. Interestingly, upregulation of TRAIL in MDA cells was mediated by interferon-beta (IFN-β) secreted from activated hMSCs. Furthermore, IFN-β in activated hMSCs was induced by RNA and DNA released from apoptotic MDA cells in absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and IFN induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1)-dependent manners. These observations were only seen in the TRAIL-sensitive breast cancer cell lines but not in the TRAIL-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Consistent with these results, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis also showed that lack of innate sensors detecting DNA or RNA is strongly associated with poor survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. In addition, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) isolated from a breast cancer patient were also able to express TRAIL and IFN-β upon DNA and RNA stimulation. Therefore, our results suggest that the crosstalk between TRAIL-sensitive cancer cells and stromal cells creates a tumor-suppressive microenvironment and further provide a novel therapeutic approach to target stromal cells within cancer microenvironment for TRAIL sensitive cancer treatment. PMID:27077807

  4. Activated human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells suppress metastatic features of MDA-MB-231 cells by secreting IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, N; Park, M S; Shigemoto, T; Peltier, G; Lee, R H

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study showed that human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) are activated to express tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by exposure to TNF-α and these activated hMSCs effectively induce apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 (MDA) cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we further demonstrated that activated hMSCs not only induced apoptosis of MDA cells but also reduced metastatic features in MDA cells. These activated hMSC-exposed MDA cells showed reduced tumorigenicity and suppressed formation of lung metastasis when implanted in the mammary fat pad. Surprisingly, the activated hMSC-exposed MDA cells increased TRAIL expression, resulting in apoptosis in MDA cells. Interestingly, upregulation of TRAIL in MDA cells was mediated by interferon-beta (IFN-β) secreted from activated hMSCs. Furthermore, IFN-β in activated hMSCs was induced by RNA and DNA released from apoptotic MDA cells in absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and IFN induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1)-dependent manners. These observations were only seen in the TRAIL-sensitive breast cancer cell lines but not in the TRAIL-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Consistent with these results, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis also showed that lack of innate sensors detecting DNA or RNA is strongly associated with poor survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. In addition, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) isolated from a breast cancer patient were also able to express TRAIL and IFN-β upon DNA and RNA stimulation. Therefore, our results suggest that the crosstalk between TRAIL-sensitive cancer cells and stromal cells creates a tumor-suppressive microenvironment and further provide a novel therapeutic approach to target stromal cells within cancer microenvironment for TRAIL sensitive cancer treatment. PMID:27077807

  5. Δ(9)-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Su, Shengzhong; Harada, Mari; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-12-01

    We recently reported that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ(9)-THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ(9)-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ(9)-THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ(9)-THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ(9)-THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ(9)-THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ(9)-THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:25291031

  6. Δ9-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: Possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Su, Shengzhong; Harada, Mari; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2 hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ9-THC treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA MB 231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ9-THC mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ9 THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ9-THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ9-THC induced up regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ9 THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:25291031

  7. The effect of seal oil on paclitaxel induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in breast carcinoma MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheyu; Butt, Krista; Wang, Lili; Liu, Hu

    2007-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have an inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer cells and therefore have the potential to increase the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Considering that omega-3 PUFAs are present abundantly in harp seal oil, we investigated the effect of seal oil on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in 2 breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. Cytotoxicity evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed that the concentration of paclitaxel that is required for 50% inhibition of cell growth in the presence of seal oil was significantly lower than that of paclitaxel alone. Apoptosis assessment based on morphological changes and DNA fragmentation results indicated that more cells treated with paclitaxel in combination with seal oil underwent apoptosis than with paclitaxel alone. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein, an apoptosis inhibitory protein, in both cell lines was decreased more significant by paclitaxel in combination with seal oil than by paclitaxel alone. In addition, seal oil alone was found to induce apoptosis in both cell lines tested, which appeared to be due to the increased intracellular lipid peroxides produced. It is therefore concluded that paclitaxel in combination with seal oil demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells compared to paclitaxel alone, and the use of seal oil may be beneficial in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:17640170

  8. Imaging Nuclei of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Chiral Ruthenium(II) Complex Coordinated by 2-(4-Phenyacetylenephenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Fen-Yong; Zheng, Kang-Di; Mei, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A pair of chiral ruthenium(II) complexes, Λ- and Δ-[Ru(bpy)2(p-BEPIP)](ClO4)2 [Λ- and Δ-RM0627; bpy = 2,2-bipyridine; p-BEPIP = 2-(4-phenyacetylenephenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline], were prepared using the Sonogashira coupling reaction under microwave irradiation. The study shows that Λ-RM0627 emitted strong phosphorescence in the range 500-700 nm with a maximum at 594 nm when excited at 365 nm (the Stokes shift is about 227 nm), which was mainly located in the cell nucleus with red phosphorescence. Further studies using real-time phosphorescence observation confirmed that Λ-RM0627 can be taken up quickly by MDA-MB-231 cells and enriched in the nucleus. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of Λ-RM0627 were also evaluated, and it was found that Λ-RM0627 slightly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and HaCaT normal human epidermal cells and had little influence on the development of Zebrafish embryos at low concentration. In conclusion, the levoisomer of chiral ruthenium complexes can act as a potential phosphorescent probe that targets nuclei of living cells with low toxicity. PMID:27191197

  9. Apigenin inhibits HGF-promoted invasive growth and metastasis involving blocking PI3K/Akt pathway and {beta}4 integrin function in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.-J.; Chen, W.-K.; Wang, C.-J.; Lin, W.-L.; Tseng, T.-H.

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, Met, known to control invasive growth program have recently been shown to play crucial roles in the survival of breast cancer patients. The diet-derived flavonoids have been reported to possess anti-invasion properties; however, knowledge on the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms in suppressing HGF/Met-mediated tumor invasion and metastasis is poorly understood. In our preliminary study, we use HGF as an invasive inducer to investigate the effect of flavonoids including apigenin, naringenin, genistein and kaempferol on HGF-dependent invasive growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Results show that apigenin presents the most potent anti-migration and anti-invasion properties by Boyden chamber assay. Furthermore, apigenin represses the HGF-induced cell motility and scattering and inhibits the HGF-promoted cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of apigenin on HGF-induced signaling activation involving invasive growth was evaluated by immunoblotting analysis, it shows that apigenin blocks the HGF-induced Akt phosphorylation but not Met, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation. In addition to MDA-MB-231 cells, apigenin exhibits inhibitory effect on HGF-induced Akt phosphorylation in hepatoma SK-Hep1 cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy assay, apigenin inhibits the HGF-induced clustering of {beta}4 integrin at actin-rich adhesive site and lamellipodia through PI3K-dependent manner. Treatment of apigenin inhibited HGF-stimulated integrin {beta}4 function including cell-matrix adhesion and cell-endothelial cells adhesion in MDA-MB-231 cells. By Akt-siRNA transfection analysis, it confirmed that apigenin inhibited HGF-promoted invasive growth involving blocking PI3K/Akt pathway. Finally, we evaluated the effect of apigenin on HGF-promoted metastasis by lung colonization of tumor cells in nude mice and organ metastasis of tumor cells in chick embryo. By

  10. Embelin Inhibits Invasion and Migration of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Suppression of CXC Chemokine Receptor 4, Matrix Metalloproteinases-9/2, and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanwool; Ko, Jeong-Hyeon; Baek, Seung Ho; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok Geun; Lee, Junhee; Yang, Woong Mo; Um, Jae-Young; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2016-06-01

    Embelin (EB) is a benzoquinone derivative isolated from Embelia ribes Burm plant. Recent scientific evidence shows that EB induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in highly metastatic human breast cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms of EB in tumor metastasis and invasion have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of antimetastatic activities of EB in breast cancer cells. The EB downregulated the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/2 expression and upregulated the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells under noncytotoxic concentrations but not in MCF-7 cells. Additionally, EB inhibited the CXC motif chemokine ligand 12 induced invasion and migration activities of MDA-MB-231 cells. A detailed study of underlying mechanisms revealed that the regulation of the downregulation of CXCR4 was at the transcriptional level, as indicated by the downregulation of mRNA expression and suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. It further reduced the binding of NF-κB to the CXCR4 promoter. Besides, EB downregulated mesenchymal marker proteins (neural cadherin and vimentin) and concurrently upregulated epithelial markers (epithelial cadherin and occludin). Overall, these findings suggest that EB can abrogate breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis by suppression of CXCR4, MMP-9/2 expressions, and inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and thus may have a great potential to suppress metastasis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27030214

  11. Platycodin D, a metabolite of Platycodin grandiflorum, inhibits highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo by targeting the MDM2 oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ya; Lu, Zong-Liang; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Rui; Guo, Jing; Liu, Jie; Sun, Hai-Lan; Wang, He; Song, Wei; Yang, Jian; Xu, Hong-Xia

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of Platycodin D (PD), derived from Platycodin grandiflorum, on highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Using the MTT assay, we found that PD inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 7.77±1.86 µM. Further studies showed that PD had anti-proliferative effects and induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. To explore the detailed mechanism(s) by which PD suppressed MDA-MB-231 cell growth, western blot analyses were used to detect the expression levels of proteins related to cell proliferation and survival. The data showed that PD decreased the expression of proteins related to the G0/G1 phases, downregulated the protein expression of MDM2, MDMX, and mutant p53, and increased the expression levels of p21 and p27 in vitro. We verified the effects of PD on the expression of MDM2, MDMX, mutant p53, p21 and p27 using a pcDNA3-Flag-MDM2 plasmid and MDM2 siRNA transfection, and found that PD inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell viability by targeting MDM2 and mutant p53. Compared with the corresponding parental cells, the cells with siRNA-MDM2 transfection had a greater decrease in cell viability and proliferation, while those with pcDNA3-MDM2 plasmid transfection did not show any increase in the effects of PD. We also established a MDA-MB-231 xenograft model in BALB/c nude mice, and found that PD significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors in these mice. The expression levels of various proteins in the tumor tissue exhibited changes similar to those observed in vitro. These findings indicate that PD exerted in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, that PD is a potential MDM2/MDMX inhibitor, and that the anticancer effects of PD were likely associated with its inhibition of these proteins. Our observations help to identify a mechanism by which PD functions as

  12. Biological Effect of a Hybrid Anticancer Agent Based on Kinase and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Triple-Negative (MDA-MB231) Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Librizzi, Mariangela; Spencer, John; Luparello, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) combined with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1/2 inhibitor (3Z)-5-hydroxy-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (triple-negative) in the form of both a cocktail of the separate compounds and a chemically synthesized hybrid (N-hydroxy-N'-[(3Z)-2-oxo-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-5-yl]octanediamide). Comparative flow cytometric and Western blot analyses were performed on cocktail- and hybrid-treated cells to evaluate cell cycle distribution, autophagy/apoptosis modulation, and mitochondrial metabolic state in order to understand the cellular basis of the cytotoxic effect. Cell cycle analysis showed a perturbation of the rate of progression through the cycle, with aspects of redistribution of cells over different cycle phases for the two treatments. In addition, the results suggest that the two distinct classes of compounds under investigation could induce cell death by different preferential pathways, i.e., autophagy inhibition (the cocktail) or apoptosis promotion (the hybrid), thus confirming the enhanced potential of the hybrid approach vs. the combination approach in finely tuning the biological activities of target cells and also showing the hybrid compound as an additional promising drug-like molecule for the prevention or therapy of "aggressive" breast carcinoma. PMID:27483253

  13. Biological Effect of a Hybrid Anticancer Agent Based on Kinase and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Triple-Negative (MDA-MB231) Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Librizzi, Mariangela; Spencer, John; Luparello, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) combined with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1/2 inhibitor (3Z)-5-hydroxy-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (triple-negative) in the form of both a cocktail of the separate compounds and a chemically synthesized hybrid (N-hydroxy-N'-[(3Z)-2-oxo-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-5-yl]octanediamide). Comparative flow cytometric and Western blot analyses were performed on cocktail- and hybrid-treated cells to evaluate cell cycle distribution, autophagy/apoptosis modulation, and mitochondrial metabolic state in order to understand the cellular basis of the cytotoxic effect. Cell cycle analysis showed a perturbation of the rate of progression through the cycle, with aspects of redistribution of cells over different cycle phases for the two treatments. In addition, the results suggest that the two distinct classes of compounds under investigation could induce cell death by different preferential pathways, i.e., autophagy inhibition (the cocktail) or apoptosis promotion (the hybrid), thus confirming the enhanced potential of the hybrid approach vs. the combination approach in finely tuning the biological activities of target cells and also showing the hybrid compound as an additional promising drug-like molecule for the prevention or therapy of “aggressive” breast carcinoma. PMID:27483253

  14. ELK3 Expression Correlates With Cell Migration, Invasion, and Membrane Type 1-Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Heo, Sun-Hee; Lee, Je-Yong; Yang, Kyung-Min; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2015-01-01

    ELK3 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. Its expression is associated with angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and chondrogenesis. ELK3 inhibits endothelial migration and tube formation through the regulation of MT1-MMP transcription. This study assessed the function of ELK3 in breast cancer (BC) cells by comparing its expression between basal and luminal cells in silico and in vitro. In silico analysis showed that ELK3 expression was higher in the more aggressive basal BC cells than in luminal BC cells. Similarly, in vitro analysis showed that ELK3 mRNA and protein expression was higher in basal BC cells than in normal cells and luminal BC cells. To investigate whether ELK3 regulates basal cell migration or invasion, knockdown was achieved by siRNA in the basal BC cell line MDA-MB-231. Inhibition of ELK3 expression decreased cell migration and invasion and downregulated MT1-MMP, the expression of which is positively correlated with tumor cell invasion. In silico analysis revealed that ELK3 expression was associated with that of MT1-MMP in several BC cell lines (0.98 Pearson correlation coefficient). Though MT1-MMP expression was upregulated upon ELK3 nuclear translocation, ELK3 did not directly bind to the 1.3-kb promoter region of the MT1-MMP gene. These results suggest that ELK3 plays a positive role in the metastasis of BC cells by indirectly regulating MT1-MMP expression. PMID:26637400

  15. Characterization of MNK1b DNA Aptamers That Inhibit Proliferation in MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    García-Recio, Eva M; Pinto-Díez, Celia; Pérez-Morgado, M Isabel; García-Hernández, Marta; Fernández, Gerónimo; Martín, M Elena; González, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    Elevated expression levels of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) promote cancer development and progression. MAP kinase interacting kinases (MNKs) modulate the function of eIF4E through the phosphorylation that is necessary for oncogenic transformation. Therefore, pharmacologic MNK inhibitors may provide a nontoxic and effective anticancer strategy. MNK1b is a truncated isoform of MNK1a that is active in the absence of stimuli. Using in vitro selection, high-affinity DNA aptamers to MNK1b were selected from a library of ssDNA. Selection was monitored using the enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA), and the selected aptamer population was cloned and sequenced. Four groups of aptamers were identified, and the affinities of one representative for rMNK1b were determined using ELONA and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Two aptamers, named apMNK2F and apMNK3R, had a lower Kd in the nmol/l range. The secondary structure of the selected aptamers was predicted using mFold, and the QGRS Mapper indicated the presence of potential G-quadruplex structures in both aptamers. The selected aptamers were highly specific against MNK1, showing higher affinity to MNK1b than to MNK1a. Interestingly, both aptamers were able to produce significant translation inhibition and prevent tumor cell proliferation and migration and colony formation in breast cancer cells. These results indicate that MNK1 aptamers have an attractive therapeutic potential. PMID:26730812

  16. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase decreases breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 adhesion to intact microvessels under physiological flows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zeng, Min; Fu, Bingmei M

    2016-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) at different concentrations may promote or inhibit tumor growth and metastasis under various conditions. To test the hypothesis that tumor cells prefer to adhere to the locations with a higher endothelial NO production in intact microvessels under physiological flows and to further test that inhibiting NO production decreases tumor cell adhesion, we used intravital fluorescence microscopy to measure NO production and tumor cell adhesion in postcapillary venules of rat mesentery under normal and reduced flow conditions, and in the presence of an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). Rats (SD, 250-300 g) were anesthetized. A midline incision (∼2 inch) was made in the abdominal wall, and the mesentery was taken out from the abdominal cavity and spread over a coverslip for the measurement. An individual postcapillary venule (35-50 μm) was first loaded with 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA), a fluorescent indictor for NO. Then the DAF-2 intensity was measured for 30 min under a normal or reduced flow velocity, with and without perfusion with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and in the presence of l-NMMA. We found that tumor cells prefer to adhere to the microvessel locations with a higher NO production such as curved portions. Inhibition of eNOS by l-NMMA attenuated the flow-induced NO production and reduced tumor cell adhesion. We also found that l-NMMA treatment for ∼40 min reduced microvessel permeability to albumin. Our results suggest that inhibition of eNOS is a good approach to preventing tumor cell adhesion to intact microvessels under physiological flows. PMID:27059076

  17. Smad2/3-Regulated Expression of DLX2 Is Associated with Radiation-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Radioresistance of A549 and MDA-MB-231 Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeo-Jin; Baek, Ga-Young; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee

    2016-01-01

    The control of radioresistance and metastatic potential of surviving cancer cells is important for improving cancer eradication by radiotheraphy. The distal-less homeobox2 (DLX2) gene encodes for a homeobox transcription factor involved in morphogenesis and its deregulation was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Here we investigated the role of DLX2 in association with radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell-like properties and its regulation by Smad2/3 signaling in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. In irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, EMT was induced as demonstrated by EMT marker expression, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and migratory and invasive ability. Also, irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker. Interestingly, DLX2 was overexpressed upon irradiation. Therefore, we examined the role of DLX2 in radiation-induced EMT and radioresistance. The overexpression of DLX2 alone induced EMT, migration and invasion, and CSC marker expression. The reduced colony-forming ability in irradiated cells was partially restored by DLX2 overexpression. On the other hand, the depletion of DLX2 using si-RNA abolished radiation-induced EMT, CSC marker expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, depletion of DLX2 increased the radiation sensitivity in both cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of Smad2/3, a key activator of TGF-β1 pathway, abrogated the radiation-induced DLX2 expression, indicating that radiation-induced DLX2 expression is dependent on Smad2/3 signaling. These results demonstrated that DLX2 plays a crucial role in radioresistance, radiation-induced EMT and CSC marker expression, and the expression of DLX2 is regulated by Smad2/3 signaling in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:26799321

  18. Smad2/3-Regulated Expression of DLX2 Is Associated with Radiation-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Radioresistance of A549 and MDA-MB-231 Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeo-Jin; Baek, Ga-Young; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee

    2016-01-01

    The control of radioresistance and metastatic potential of surviving cancer cells is important for improving cancer eradication by radiotheraphy. The distal-less homeobox2 (DLX2) gene encodes for a homeobox transcription factor involved in morphogenesis and its deregulation was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Here we investigated the role of DLX2 in association with radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell-like properties and its regulation by Smad2/3 signaling in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. In irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, EMT was induced as demonstrated by EMT marker expression, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and migratory and invasive ability. Also, irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker. Interestingly, DLX2 was overexpressed upon irradiation. Therefore, we examined the role of DLX2 in radiation-induced EMT and radioresistance. The overexpression of DLX2 alone induced EMT, migration and invasion, and CSC marker expression. The reduced colony-forming ability in irradiated cells was partially restored by DLX2 overexpression. On the other hand, the depletion of DLX2 using si-RNA abolished radiation-induced EMT, CSC marker expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, depletion of DLX2 increased the radiation sensitivity in both cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of Smad2/3, a key activator of TGF-β1 pathway, abrogated the radiation-induced DLX2 expression, indicating that radiation-induced DLX2 expression is dependent on Smad2/3 signaling. These results demonstrated that DLX2 plays a crucial role in radioresistance, radiation-induced EMT and CSC marker expression, and the expression of DLX2 is regulated by Smad2/3 signaling in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:26799321

  19. Thymoquinone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Exhibited Cytotoxicity towards Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines (HeLa and SiHa)

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wei Keat; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Yap, Li Hua; Wan Nor Hafiza, Wan Abd Ghani; How, Chee Wun; Abdullah, Rasedee

    2015-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) has been shown to exhibit antitumor properties. Thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (TQ-NLC) was developed to improve the bioavailability and cytotoxicity of TQ. This study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic effects of TQ-NLC on breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and SiHa). TQ-NLC was prepared by applying the hot high pressure homogenization technique. The mean particle size of TQ-NLC was 35.66 ± 0.1235 nm with a narrow polydispersity index (PDI) lower than 0.25. The zeta potential of TQ-NLC was greater than −30 mV. Polysorbate 80 helps to increase the stability of TQ-NLC. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that TQ-NLC has a melting point of 56.73°C, which is lower than that of the bulk material. The encapsulation efficiency of TQ in TQ-NLC was 97.63 ± 0.1798% as determined by HPLC analysis. TQ-NLC exhibited antiproliferative activity towards all the cell lines in a dose-dependent manner which was most cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell shrinkage was noted following treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with TQ-NLC with an increase of apoptotic cell population (P < 0.05). TQ-NLC also induced cell cycle arrest. TQ-NLC was most cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 cells. It induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the cells. PMID:25632388

  20. Differential Ratios of Omega Fatty Acids (AA/EPA+DHA) Modulate Growth, Lipid Peroxidation and Expression of Tumor Regulatory MARBPs in Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Mansara, Prakash P.; Deshpande, Rashmi A.; Vaidya, Milind M.; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2015-01-01

    Omega 3 (n3) and Omega 6 (n6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to exhibit opposing roles in cancer progression. Our objective was to determine whether different ratios of n6/n3 (AA/EPA+DHA) FAs could modulate the cell viability, lipid peroxidation, total cellular fatty acid composition and expression of tumor regulatory Matrix Attachment Region binding proteins (MARBPs) in breast cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous, MCF10A cells. Low ratios of n6/n3 (1:2.5, 1:4, 1:5, 1:10) FA decreased the viability and growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 significantly compared to the non-cancerous cells (MCF10A). Contrarily, higher n6/n3 FA (2.5:1, 4:1, 5:1, 10:1) decreased the survival of both the cancerous and non-cancerous cell types. Lower ratios of n6/n3 selectively induced LPO in the breast cancer cells whereas the higher ratios induced in both cancerous and non-cancerous cell types. Interestingly, compared to higher n6/n3 FA ratios, lower ratios increased the expression of tumor suppressor MARBP, SMAR1 and decreased the expression of tumor activator Cux/CDP in both breast cancer and non-cancerous, MCF10A cells. Low n6/n3 FAs significantly increased SMAR1 expression which resulted into activation of p21WAF1/CIP1 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, the increase being ratio dependent in MDA-MB-231. These results suggest that increased intake of n3 fatty acids in our diet could help both in the prevention as well as management of breast cancer. PMID:26325577

  1. Context dependent reversion of tumor phenotype by connexin-43 expression in MDA-MB231 cells and MCF-7 cells: Role of β-catenin/connexin43 association

    SciTech Connect

    Talhouk, Rabih S.; Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Rahme, Gilbert J.; Hariri, Hanaa H.; Rayess, Tina; Dbouk, Hashem A.; Bazzoun, Dana; Al-Labban, Dania; El-Sabban, Marwan E.

    2013-12-10

    Connexins (Cx), gap junction (GJ) proteins, are regarded as tumor suppressors, and Cx43 expression is often down regulated in breast tumors. We assessed the effect of Cx43 over-expression in 2D and 3D cultures of two breast adenocarcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. While Cx43 over-expression decreased proliferation of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 by 56% and 80% respectively, MDA-MB-231 growth was not altered in 2D cultures, but exhibited 35% reduction in 3D cultures. C-terminus truncated Cx43 did not alter proliferation. Untransfected MCF-7 cells formed spherical aggregates in 3D cultures, and MDA-MB-231 cells formed stellar aggregates. However, MCF-7 cells over-expressing Cx43 formed smaller sized clusters and Cx43 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells lost their stellar morphology. Extravasation ability of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was reduced by 60% and 30% respectively. On the other hand, silencing Cx43 in MCF10A cells, nonneoplastic human mammary cell line, increased proliferation in both 2D and 3D cultures, and disrupted acinar morphology. Although Cx43 over-expression did not affect total levels of β-catenin, α-catenin and ZO-2, it decreased nuclear levels of β-catenin in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and in 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cx43 associated at the membrane with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and only in 3D conditions in MDA-MB-231 cells. This study suggests that Cx43 exerts tumor suppressive effects in a context-dependent manner where GJ assembly with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 may be implicated in reducing growth rate, invasiveness, and, malignant phenotype of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells, by sequestering β-catenin away from nucleus. - Highlights: • Cx43 over-expressing MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were grown in 2D and 3D cultures. • Proliferation and growth morphology were affected in a context dependent manner. • Extravasation ability of both MCF

  2. MEK2 controls the activation of MKK3/MKK6-p38 axis involved in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell survival: Correlation with cyclin D1 expression.

    PubMed

    Huth, Hugo W; Albarnaz, Jonas D; Torres, Alice A; Bonjardim, Claudio A; Ropert, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway regulates fundamental processes in malignant cells. However, the exact contributions of MEK1 and MEK2 to the development of cancer remain to be established. We studied the effects of MEK small-molecule inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) and MEK1 and MEK2 knock-down on cell proliferation, apoptosis and MAPK activation. We showed a diminution of cell viability that was associated with a downregulation of cyclin D1 expression and an increase of apoptosis marker in MEK2 silenced cells; by contrast, a slight increase of cell survival was observed in the absence of MEK1 that correlated with an augment of cyclin D1 expression. These data indicate that MEK2 but not MEK1 is essential for MDA-MB-231 cell survival. Importantly, the role of MEK2 in cell survival appeared independent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation since its absence did not alter the level of activated ERK1/2. Indeed, we have reported an unrevealed link between MEK2 and MKK3/MKK6-p38 MAPK axis where MEK2 was essential for the phosphorylation of MKK3/MKK6 and p38 MAPK that directly impacted on cyclin D1 expression. Importantly, the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, like MEK1 silencing, induced an augment of cyclin D1 expression that correlated with an increase of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation suggesting that MEK1 may play a regulatory role in these cells. In sum, the crucial role of MEK2 in MDA-MB-231 cell viability and the unknown relationship between MEK2 and MKK3/MKK6-p38 axis here revealed may open new therapeutic strategies for aggressive breast cancer. PMID:27181679

  3. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O‧-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojković, Danijela Lj.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Radić, Gordana P.; Đačić, Dragana S.; Ćurčić, Milena G.; Marković, Snežana D.; Ðinović, Vesna M.; Petrović, Vladimir P.; Trifunović, Srećko R.

    2014-03-01

    Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N‧-ligand precursors, O,O‧-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

  4. Novel C-4 heteroaryl 13-cis-retinamide Mnk/AR degrading agents inhibit cell proliferation and migration and induce apoptosis in human breast and prostate cancer cells and suppress growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast and CWR22Rv1 human prostate tumor xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Mbatia, Hannah W; Ramalingam, Senthilmurugan; Ramamurthy, Vidya P; Martin, Marlena S; Kwegyir-Afful, Andrew K; Njar, Vincent C O

    2015-02-26

    The synthesis and in vitro and in vivo antibreast and antiprostate cancers activities of novel C-4 heteroaryl 13-cis-retinamides that modulate Mnk-eIF4E and AR signaling are discussed. Modifications of the C-4 heteroaryl substituents reveal that the 1H-imidazole is essential for high anticancer activity. The most potent compounds against a variety of human breast and prostate cancer (BC/PC) cell lines were compounds 16 (VNHM-1-66), 20 (VNHM-1-81), and 22 (VNHM-1-73). In these cell lines, the compounds induce Mnk1/2 degradation to substantially suppress eIF4E phosphorylation. In PC cells, the compounds induce degradation of both full-length androgen receptor (fAR) and splice variant AR (AR-V7) to inhibit AR transcriptional activity. More importantly, VNHM-1-81 has strong in vivo antibreast and antiprostate cancer activities, while VNHM-1-73 exhibited strong in vivo antibreast cancer activity, with no apparent host toxicity. Clearly, these lead compounds are strong candidates for development for the treatments of human breast and prostate cancers. PMID:25634130

  5. Phenotyping breast cancer cell lines EM-G3, HCC1937, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 using 2-D electrophoresis and affinity chromatography for glutathione-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transformed phenotypes are common to cell lines derived from various cancers. Proteome profiling is a valuable tool that may reveal uncharacteristic cell phenotypes in transformed cells. Changes in expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and other proteins interacting with glutathione (GSH) in model cell lines could be of particular interest. Methods We compared the phenotypes of breast cell lines EM-G3, HCC1937, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 using 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE). We further separated GSH-binding proteins from the cell lines using affinity chromatography with GSH-Sepharose 4B, performed 2-DE analysis and identified the main protein spots. Results Correlation coefficients among 2-DE gels from the cell lines were lower than 0.65, pointing to dissimilarity among the cell lines. Differences in primary constituents of the cytoskeleton were shown by the 2-D protein maps and western blots. The spot patterns in gels of GSH-binding fractions from primary carcinoma-derived cell lines HCC1937 and EM-G3 were similar to each other, and they differed from the spot patterns of cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 that were derived from pleural effusions of metastatic mammary carcinoma patients. Major differences in the expression of GST P1-1 and carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1 were observed among the cell lines, indicating differential abilities of the cell lines to metabolize xenobiotics. Conclusions Our results confirmed the applicability of targeted affinity chromatography to proteome profiling and allowed us to characterize the phenotypes of four breast cancer cell lines. PMID:20731849

  6. Roles for GP IIb/IIIa and αvβ3 integrins in MDA-MB-231 cell invasion and shear flow-induced cancer cell mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fenglong; Li, Li; Guan, Liuyuan; Yang, Hong; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Yiyao

    2014-03-01

    Adhesion of cancer cell to endothelial cells and the subsequent trans-endothelial migration are key steps in hematogenous metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms of cancer cell/endothelial cell interaction under hemodynamic shear flow and how shear flow-induced cancer cell mechanotransduction are yet to be fully defined. In this study, we identified that the integrins of both platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) and αvβ3 were crucial for hematogenous metastasis of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. The cell migration and invasion were studied by using Millicell cell culture insert system. The numbers of invaded MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increased by thrombin-activated platelets and reduced by eptifibatide, a platelet inhibitor. Meanwhile, RGDWE peptides, a specific inhibitor of αvβ3 integrin, also inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell invasion. We further used a parallel-plate flow chamber to investigate MDA-MB-231 cell adhesion under flow conditions. Alike in static condition, the adhesion capability of MDA-MB-231 cells to endothelial monolayer was also significantly affected by GP IIb/IIIa and αvβ3 integrins. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and αvβ3 integrin in MDA-MB-231 cells were up-regulated after low shear stress exposure (1.84 dynes/cm(2), 2 h). Moreover, we also demonstrated that low shear stress induced a sustained activation of p85 (a regulatory subunit of PI3K) and Akt. Pre-treating MDA-MB-231 cells with the specific PI3K inhibitor of LY294002 abolished the shear stress induced-Akt activation, and the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and αvβ3 integrin were also down-regulated. Immunofluorescence assay showed that low shear stress also induced αvβ3 integrin clustering and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Interestingly, shear stress-induced activation of Akt and NF-κB was attenuated by LM609, a specific antibody of αvβ3 integrin. It suggests that αvβ3

  7. 12-O-Tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced growth arrest is increased by silibinin by the down-regulation of cyclin B1 and cdc2 and the up-regulation of p21 expression in MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Hye Sook; Lee, Se-Kyung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hur, Sung Mo; Kim, Jee Soo; Kim, Jung-Han; Choe, Jun-Ho; Shin, Incheol; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2010-12-01

    TPA is a potent regulator of cell growth, including cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we determined the effect of silibinin on TPA-induced growth arrest in breast cancer cells. Silibinin increased growth arrest of the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent fashion. Silibinin decreased the basal level of cyclin B1 and cdc2 expression, which is involved in S phase and G2/M transition. In addition, TPA-induced G2/M phase arrest was increased by silibinin. Under the same conditions, TPA-induced down-regulation of cyclin B1 and cdc2 was decreased by silibinin. In contrast, TPA-induced p21 expression was further increased by silibinin. To determine the regulatory mechanism of TPA-induced growth arrest, we pretreated cells with various inhibitors, such as UO126, SB203580, and LY294002. Interestingly, TPA-induced growth arrest was significantly increased by LY294002, but not by UO126 and SB203580. In addition, TPA-induced down-regulation of cyclin B1 was inhibited by LY294002; however, the basal level of p21 was increased by TPA and TPA-induced p21 expression was further increased by LY294002. Finally, adenoviral constitutively active-Akt (Ad-CA-Akt) overexpression regulated the up-regulation of cyclin B1 and the down-regulation of p21. Therefore, we have demonstrated that silibinin has an additive effect on TPA-induced growth arrest through the PI-3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway. PMID:20554189

  8. Profilin-1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells is associated with alterations in proteomics biomarkers of cell proliferation, survival, and motility as revealed by global proteomics analyses.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Joëlle V F; Gau, David; Poljak, Anne; Wasinger, Valerie; Roy, Partha; Moens, Pierre D J

    2014-12-01

    Despite early screening programs and new therapeutic strategies, metastatic breast cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death in women in industrialized countries and regions. There is a need for novel biomarkers of susceptibility, progression, and therapeutic response. Global analyses or systems science approaches with omics technologies offer concrete ways forward in biomarker discovery for breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that expression of profilin-1 (PFN1), a ubiquitously expressed actin-binding protein, is downregulated in invasive and metastatic breast cancer. It has also been reported that PFN1 overexpression can suppress tumorigenic ability and motility/invasiveness of breast cancer cells. To obtain insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of how elevating PFN1 level induces these phenotypic changes in breast cancer cells, we investigated the alteration in global protein expression profiles of breast cancer cells upon stable overexpression of PFN1 by a combination of three different proteome analysis methods (2-DE, iTRAQ, label-free). Using MDA-MB-231 as a model breast cancer cell line, we provide evidence that PFN1 overexpression is associated with alterations in the expression of proteins that have been functionally linked to cell proliferation (FKPB1A, HDGF, MIF, PRDX1, TXNRD1, LGALS1, STMN1, LASP1, S100A11, S100A6), survival (HSPE1, HSPB1, HSPD1, HSPA5 and PPIA, YWHAZ, CFL1, NME1) and motility (CFL1, CORO1B, PFN2, PLS3, FLNA, FLNB, NME2, ARHGDIB). In view of the pleotropic effects of PFN1 overexpression in breast cancer cells as suggested by these new findings, we propose that PFN1-induced phenotypic changes in cancer cells involve multiple mechanisms. Our data reported here might also offer innovative strategies for identification and validation of novel therapeutic targets and companion diagnostics for persons with, or susceptibility to, breast cancer. PMID:25454514

  9. Inhibition of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration and invasion activity by andrographolide via suppression of nuclear factor-κB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Zanjing; Qu, Xinhua; Li, Haowei; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Yan, Wei; Liu, Guangwang; Liu, Xuqiang; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Dai, Kerong; Qin, An

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. The majority of patients with cancer succumb to the disease as a result of distant metastases (for example, in the bones), which cause severe complications. Despite advancements in breast cancer treatment, chemotherapeutic outcomes remain far from satisfactory, prompting a search for effective natural agents with few side‑effects. Andrographolide (AP), a natural diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata, inhibits cancer cell growth. The current study aimed to examine the effect of AP on breast cancer cell proliferation, survival and progression in vitro and also its inhibitory activity on breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. To achieve this, CCK8, flow cytometry, migration, invasion, western blot, PCR and luciferase reporter assay analyses were performed in vitro as well as establishing intratibial xenograft model of breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. The results demonstrated that AP inhibits the migration and invasion of the MBA‑MD‑231 aggressive breast cancer cell line at non‑lethal concentrations, in addition to suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis at high concentrations in vitro. In vivo, AP significantly inhibited the growth of tumors planted in bone and attenuated cancer‑induced osteolysis. Tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase staining revealed osteoclast activation in tumor‑bearing mice and AP was observed to attenuate this activation. The anti‑tumor activity of AP in vitro and in vivo correlates with the downregulation of the nuclear factor κB signaling pathway and the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase‑9 expression levels. These results indicate that AP may be an effective anti‑tumor agent for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. PMID:25374279

  10. Polyamines modulate the roscovitine-induced cell death switch decision autophagy vs. apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Arisan, Elif Damla; Akkoç, Yunus; Akyüz, Kaan Gencer; Kerman, Ezgi Melek; Obakan, Pinar; Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Palavan Ünsal, Narçin

    2015-06-01

    Current clinical strategies against breast cancer mainly involve the use of anti‑hormonal agents to decrease estrogen production; however, development of resistance is a major problem. The resistance phenotype depends on the modulation of cell‑cycle regulatory proteins, cyclins and cyclin‑dependent kinases. Roscovitine, a selective inhibitor of cyclin‑dependent kinases, shows high therapeutic potential by causing cell‑cycle arrest in various cancer types. Autophagy is a type of cell death characterized by the enzymatic degradation of macromolecules and organelles in double‑ or multi‑membrane autophagic vesicles. This process has important physiological functions, including the degradation of misfolded proteins and organelle turnover. Recently, the switch between autophagy and apoptosis has been proposed to constitute an important regulator of cell death in response to chemotherapeutic drugs. The process is regulated by several proteins, such as the proteins of the Atg family, essential for the initial formation of the autophagosome, and PI3K, important at the early stages of autophagic vesicle formation. Polyamines (PAs) are small aliphatic amines that play major roles in a number of eukaryotic processes, including cell proliferation. The PA levels are regulated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate‑limiting enzyme in PA biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of PAs in roscovitine‑induced autophagic/apoptotic cell death in estrogen receptor‑positive MCF‑7 and estrogen receptor‑negative MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cells. We show that MDA‑MB‑231 cells are more resistant to roscovitine than MCF‑7 cells. This difference was related to the regulation of autophagic key molecules in MDA‑MB‑231 cells. In addition, we found that exogenous PAs have a role in the cell death decision between roscovitine‑induced apoptosis or autophagy in MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cells. PMID:25650699

  11. Phytochemicals of Salacia oblonga responsible for free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231).

    PubMed

    Musini, Anjaneyulu; Rao, Jayaram Prakash; Giri, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Salacia oblonga, an inhabitant of tropical regions has been used in traditional Indian medicinal systems. Phytochemicals were extracted in methanol from the plant and analyzed for various biological activities. The results of biochemical tests for total phenolics (297 ± 0.005 and 275 ± 0.006) and flavonoids (95 ± 0.004 and 61.6 ± 0.004) in the aerial and root parts were indicated as Gallic acid and quercetin equivalents respectively. The Aerial and root extracts showed strong reducing ability based on reducing power and FRAP assays. The extracts exhibited significant IC50 values in DPPH, super oxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays. The extracts displayed low IC50 values (<50 μg/ml) when assessed for antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. GC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts have revealed the presence of compounds viz. n-Hexadecanoic acid, N-Methoxy-N-methylacetamide, Ursa-9(11), 12-dien-3-ol, Gamma-sitosterol etc., that might be potential candidates for the biological activity exhibited by the extract. PMID:26600684

  12. Novel Suppressive Effects of Ketotifen on Migration and Invasion of MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Ji; Park, Mi Kyung; Kim, Soo Youl; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rates associated with cancer reflect the metastatic spread of tumor cells from the site of their origin. Metastasis, in fact, is the cause of 90% of cancer deaths. Therefore, considerable effort is being made to inhibit metastasis. In the present study, we screened ketotifen for anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cancer cells. Cancer cell migration and invasion were measured using multi-well chambers. Additionally, western blots were used to examine the effects of ketotifen on the expressions of CDC42, Rho, Rac, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). The results showed that ketotifen dose-dependently suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 cells. Ketotifen also suppressed the expressions of CDC42, Rac, and Rho, which, significantly, are involved in MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 cancer cell migration. Moreover, ketotifen suppressed the expression and activity of MMP-9, which is involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix leading to invasion. The overall data suggested that ketotifen suppresses the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 cancer cells via inhibition of CDC42, Rac, Rho, and MMP-9 expression. PMID:25489422

  13. Gamma secretase inhibitor enhances sensitivity to doxorubicin in MDA-MB-231 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Lu; Chen, Chen; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Cheng; Yang, Ting; Yang, Xin; Liu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of molecular of the Notch signaling pathway is observed in malignant tumor. Notch signaling pathway is activated by a series of catalytic cleavage of the Notch receptor by gamma secretase. Gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) have demonstrated clinical activity in patients with solid tumor. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is related to poor prognosis and a high probability of lung and brain metastases. As first line therapy for TNBC, doxorubicin is partially effective in TNBC control. An understanding of the mechanisms for enhancing sensitivity to doxorubicin would be significant for future drug development. We hypothesized that a combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy doxorubicin to inhibit cell proliferation, together with GSI, would result in more effective outcome than either monotherapy alone. We treated MDA-MB-231 cell lines with doxorubicin and evaluated the monotherapy efficacy and in combination with GSI in both vitro and vivo. GSI-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis was achieved with an induction of PTEN and pro-apoptotic protein Bax expression and suppression of Notch-1, HES-1, CyclinD1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results indicate that MDA-MB-231 cells are susceptible to a GSI, whether alone or in combination with doxorubicin, are correlated with changing of some surrogate marker. This study demonstrates practicability of combined use of GSI and doxorubicin, and together these results encourage new therapeutic method in triple negative breast cancer. PMID:26191129

  14. Directional Migration of MDA-MB-231 Cells Under Oxygen Concentration Gradients.

    PubMed

    Yahara, D; Yoshida, T; Enokida, Y; Takahashi, E

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the initial mechanism of hematogenous metastasis of cancer cells, we hypothesized that cancer cells migrate toward regions with higher oxygen concentration such as intratumor micro vessels along the oxygen concentration gradient. To produce gradients of oxygen concentration in vitro, we devised the gap cover glass (GCG). After placing a GCG onto cultured MDA-MB-231 cells (a metastatic breast cancer cell line), the migration of individual cells under the GCG was tracked up to 12 h at 3 % oxygen in the micro incubator. We quantified the migration of individual cells using forward migration index (FMI). The cell migration perpendicular to the oxygen gradients was random in the direction whereas FMIs of the cell located at 300, 500, 700, and 1500 μm from the oxygen inlet were positive (p < 0.05) indicating a unidirectional migration toward the oxygen inlet. Present results are consistent with our hypothesis that MDA-MB-231 cells migrate toward regions with higher oxygen concentration. PMID:27526134

  15. Regulation of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation by GSK-3β involves epigenetic modifications under high glucose conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Chanchal; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2014-05-15

    Hyperglycemia is a critical risk factor for development and progression of breast cancer. We have recently reported that high glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 as well as de-phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser 9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Here, we elucidate the mechanism underlying hyperglycemia-induced proliferation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We provide evidence that hyperglycemia led to increased DNA methylation and DNMT1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. High glucose condition led to significant increase in the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and decrease in the expression of PTPN 12, p21 and PTEN. It also induced hypermethylation of DNA at the promoter region of PTPN 12, whereas hypomethylation at Vimentin and Snail. Silencing of GSK-3β by siRNA prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 expression. We show that chromatin obtained after immunoprecipitation with phospho-histone H3 was hypermethylated under high glucose condition, which indicates a cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone H3 phosphorylation. ChIP-qPCR analysis revealed up-regulation of DNMT1 and metastatic genes viz. Vimentin, Snail and MMP-7 by phospho-histone H3, which were down-regulated upon GSK-3β silencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that interplay between GSK-3β activation, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation directs proliferation of breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • High glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 and dephosphorylation of GSK-3β. • Moreover, hyperglycemia also leads to increased DNA methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells. • Inhibition of GSK-3β prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 levels. • Interplay exists between GSK-3β, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation.

  16. FV-429 induces apoptosis and inhibits glycolysis by inhibiting Akt-mediated phosphorylation of hexokinase II in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuxin; Lu, Na; Qiao, Chen; Ni, Ting; Li, Zhiyu; Yu, Boyang; Guo, Qinglong; Wei, Libin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the anticancer effect of a newly synthesized flavonoid FV-429, against human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. FV-429 triggered the apoptosis and simultaneously inhibited the glycolysis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Both the HK II activity and its level in mitochondria were significantly down regulated by FV-429. Moreover, FV-429 weakened the interaction between HKII and VDAC, stimulated the detachment of HK II from the mitochondria, and resulted in the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores. Thus FV-429 induced the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, showing increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase-3 and -9, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release, and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) transposition. Further research revealed that the phosphorylation of mitochondrial HKII via Akt was responsible for the dissociation of HKII and the decreased HKII activity induced by FV-429. Taken together, FV-429 inhibited the phosphorylation of HKII, down-regulated its activity, and stimulated the release of HKII from the mitochondria, resulting the inhibited glycolysis and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The studies provide a molecular basis for the development of flavonoid compounds as novel anticancer agents for breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26258875

  17. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1β. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1α protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1α through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1α expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1α protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  18. Anticancer property of sediment actinomycetes against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, S; Fredimoses, M; Gnanadesigan, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anticancer property of marine sediment actinomycetes against two different breast cancer cell lines. Methods In vitro anticancer activity was carried out against breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. Partial sequences of the 16s rRNA gene, phylogenetic tree construction, multiple sequence analysis and secondary structure analysis were also carried out with the actinomycetes isolates. Results Of the selected five actinomycete isolates, ACT01 and ACT02 showed the IC50 value with (10.13±0.92) and (22.34±5.82) µg/mL concentrations, respectively for MCF-7 cell line at 48 h, but ACT01 showed the minimum (18.54±2.49 µg/mL) level of IC50 value with MDA-MB-231 cell line. Further, the 16s rRNA partial sequences of ACT01, ACT02, ACT03, ACT04 and ACT05 isolates were also deposited in NCBI data bank with the accession numbers of GQ478246, GQ478247, GQ478248, GQ478249 and GQ478250, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that, the isolates of ACT02 and ACT03 were represented in group I and III, respectively, but ACT01 and ACT02 were represented in group II. The multiple sequence alignment of the actinomycete isolates showed that, the maximum identical conserved regions were identified with the nucleotide regions of 125 to 221st base pairs, 65 to 119th base pairs and 55, 48 and 31st base pairs. Secondary structure prediction of the 16s rRNA showed that, the maximum free energy was consumed with ACT03 isolate (-45.4 kkal/mol) and the minimum free energy was consumed with ACT04 isolate (-57.6 kkal/mol). Conclusions The actinomycete isolates of ACT01 and ACT02 (GQ478246 and GQ478247) which are isolated from sediment sample can be further used as anticancer agents against breast cancer cell lines. PMID:23569875

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of the In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Withania somnifera Methanolic and Ethanolic Extracts against MDA-MB-231 and Vero Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A. N.; Ahmad, Rumana; Khan, Mohsin Ali

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal (WS), commonly known as Ashwagandha in India, belongs to the family Solanaceae. It is extensively used in most of the Indian herbal pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. In the current study, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of WS stems was evaluated using cytometry and the MTT assay against the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts of WS showed potent anticancer activity on the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line, whereas the aqueous extract did not exhibit any significant activity at 100 µg/ml. The percentage viability of the cell lines was determined by using the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. Cell viability was reduced to 21% and 0% at 50 and 100 µg/ml of the methanolic extract, respectively, as compared to 19% and 0% at 50 and 100 µg/ml for the ethanolic extract and 37% at 100 µg/ml in sterile Milli-Q water after 48 hours of treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts of WS were shown to possess IC50 values of 30 and 37 µg/ml, respectively, by the MTT assay and cytometer-based analysis, with the methanolic extract being more active than the other two. On the other hand, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of WS did not exhibit any significant in vitro activity against the normal epithelial cell line Vero at 50 µg/ml. HPLC was carried out for the analysis of its phytochemical profile and demonstrated the presence of the active component Withaferin A in both extracts. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Withania should be studied further for the isolation and characterization of the active components to lead optimization studies. PMID:27110497

  20. Evaluation and Comparison of the In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Withania somnifera Methanolic and Ethanolic Extracts against MDA-MB-231 and Vero Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A N; Ahmad, Rumana; Khan, Mohsin Ali

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal (WS), commonly known as Ashwagandha in India, belongs to the family Solanaceae. It is extensively used in most of the Indian herbal pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. In the current study, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of WS stems was evaluated using cytometry and the MTT assay against the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts of WS showed potent anticancer activity on the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line, whereas the aqueous extract did not exhibit any significant activity at 100 µg/ml. The percentage viability of the cell lines was determined by using the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. Cell viability was reduced to 21% and 0% at 50 and 100 µg/ml of the methanolic extract, respectively, as compared to 19% and 0% at 50 and 100 µg/ml for the ethanolic extract and 37% at 100 µg/ml in sterile Milli-Q water after 48 hours of treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts of WS were shown to possess IC50 values of 30 and 37 µg/ml, respectively, by the MTT assay and cytometer-based analysis, with the methanolic extract being more active than the other two. On the other hand, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of WS did not exhibit any significant in vitro activity against the normal epithelial cell line Vero at 50 µg/ml. HPLC was carried out for the analysis of its phytochemical profile and demonstrated the presence of the active component Withaferin A in both extracts. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Withania should be studied further for the isolation and characterization of the active components to lead optimization studies. PMID:27110497

  1. PARP inhibitor ABT-888 affects response of MDA-MB-231 cells to doxorubicin treatment, targeting Snail expression.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Germano; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Zampieri, Michele; Ciccarone, Fabio; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Calabrese, Roberta; Valentini, Elisabetta; Tafuri, Agostino; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Caiafa, Paola; Reale, Anna

    2015-06-20

    To overcome cancer cells resistance to pharmacological therapy, the development of new therapeutic approaches becomes urgent. For this purpose, the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in combination with other cytotoxic agents could represent an efficacious strategy. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a post-translational modification that plays a well characterized role in the cellular decisions of life and death. Recent findings indicate that PARP-1 may control the expression of Snail, the master gene of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Snail is highly represented in different resistant tumors, functioning as a factor regulating anti-apoptotic programmes. MDA-MB-231 is a Snail-expressing metastatic breast cancer cell line, which exhibits chemoresistance properties when treated with damaging agents. In this study, we show that the PARP inhibitor ABT-888 was capable to modulate the MDA-MB-231 cell response to doxorubicin, leading to an increase in the rate of apoptosis. Our further results indicate that PARP-1 controlled Snail expression at transcriptional level in cells exposed to doxorubicin. Given the increasing interest in the employment of PARP inhibitors as chemotherapeutic adjuvants, our in vitro results suggest that one of the mechanisms through which PARP inhibition can chemosensitize cancer cells in vivo, is targeting Snail expression thus promoting apoptosis. PMID:25938539

  2. PARP inhibitor ABT-888 affects response of MDA-MB-231 cells to doxorubicin treatment, targeting Snail expression

    PubMed Central

    Mariano, Germano; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Zampieri, Michele; Ciccarone, Fabio; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Calabrese, Roberta; Valentini, Elisabetta; Tafuri, Agostino; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Caiafa, Paola; Reale, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To overcome cancer cells resistance to pharmacological therapy, the development of new therapeutic approaches becomes urgent. For this purpose, the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in combination with other cytotoxic agents could represent an efficacious strategy. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a post-translational modification that plays a well characterized role in the cellular decisions of life and death. Recent findings indicate that PARP-1 may control the expression of Snail, the master gene of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Snail is highly represented in different resistant tumors, functioning as a factor regulating anti-apoptotic programmes. MDA-MB-231 is a Snail-expressing metastatic breast cancer cell line, which exhibits chemoresistance properties when treated with damaging agents. In this study, we show that the PARP inhibitor ABT-888 was capable to modulate the MDA-MB-231 cell response to doxorubicin, leading to an increase in the rate of apoptosis. Our further results indicate that PARP-1 controlled Snail expression at transcriptional level in cells exposed to doxorubicin. Given the increasing interest in the employment of PARP inhibitors as chemotherapeutic adjuvants, our in vitro results suggest that one of the mechanisms through which PARP inhibition can chemosensitize cancer cells in vivo, is targeting Snail expression thus promoting apoptosis. PMID:25938539

  3. PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation by suppression of ELK3 mediates chemosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells to doxorubicin by inhibiting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Keun Pil; Ko, Jeong-Jae; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2016-08-19

    Drug resistance in breast cancer remains a major obstacle of clinical therapy. We found that suppression of ELK3 in the triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 impaired autophagy and led to a hypersensitive response to doxorubicin treatment. In ELK3-knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells (ELK3 KD), autophagy was not activated under starvation conditions, which is a major stimulus of autophagy activation. We revealed that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was the main cause of impaired autophagy in ELK3 KD. Our results suggest that targeting ELK3 may be a potential approach to overcome doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer therapeutics. PMID:27301639

  4. Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour Rad, Sima; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is a popular culinary spice used for flavoring and in traditional medicine. C. cassia extract (CE) induces apoptosis in many cell lines. In the present study, particular differences in the mechanism of the anti-proliferative property of C. cassia on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings The hexane extract of C. cassia demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50, 34±3.52 and 32.42 ±0.37 μg/ml, respectively). Oxidative stress due to disruption of antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx and CAT) activity is suggested as the probable cause for apoptosis initiation. Though the main apoptosis pathway in both cell lines was found to be through caspase-8 activation, caspase-9 was also activated in MDA-MB-231 cells but suppressed in MCF-7 cells. Gene expression studies revealed that AKT1, the caspase-9 suppressor, was up-regulated in MCF-7 cells while down-regulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Although, AKT1 protein expression in both cell lines was down-regulated, a steady increase in MCF-7 cells was observed after a sharp decrease of suppression of AKT1. Trans-cinnamaldehyde and coumarin were isolated and identified and found to be mainly responsible for the observed anti-proliferative activity of CE (Cinnamomum cassia). Conclusion Activation of caspase-8 is reported for the first time to be involved as the main apoptosis pathway in breast cancer cell lines upon treatment with C. cassia. The double effects of C. cassia on AKT1 gene expression in MCF-7 cells is reported for the first time in this study. PMID:26700476

  5. Analysis of protein-protein interactions in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines using phthalic acid chemical probes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shih-Shin; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of plasticizers that have been characterized as endocrine disrupters, and are associated with genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity in the GeneOntology gene/protein database. In this study, we synthesized phthalic acid chemical probes and demonstrated differing protein-protein interactions between MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Phthalic acid chemical probes were synthesized using silicon dioxide particle carriers, which were modified using the silanized linker 3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane (APTES). Incubation with cell lysates from breast cancer cell lines revealed interactions between phthalic acid and cellular proteins in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Subsequent proteomics analyses indicated 22 phthalic acid-binding proteins in both cell types, including heat shock cognate 71-kDa protein, ATP synthase subunit beta, and heat shock protein HSP 90-beta. In addition, 21 MCF-7-specific and 32 MDA-MB-231 specific phthalic acid-binding proteins were identified, including related proteasome proteins, heat shock 70-kDa protein, and NADPH dehydrogenase and ribosomal correlated proteins, ras-related proteins, and members of the heat shock protein family, respectively. PMID:25402641

  6. Analysis of Protein–Protein Interactions in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines Using Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shih-Shin; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of plasticizers that have been characterized as endocrine disrupters, and are associated with genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity in the GeneOntology gene/protein database. In this study, we synthesized phthalic acid chemical probes and demonstrated differing protein–protein interactions between MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Phthalic acid chemical probes were synthesized using silicon dioxide particle carriers, which were modified using the silanized linker 3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane (APTES). Incubation with cell lysates from breast cancer cell lines revealed interactions between phthalic acid and cellular proteins in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Subsequent proteomics analyses indicated 22 phthalic acid-binding proteins in both cell types, including heat shock cognate 71-kDa protein, ATP synthase subunit beta, and heat shock protein HSP 90-beta. In addition, 21 MCF-7-specific and 32 MDA-MB-231 specific phthalic acid-binding proteins were identified, including related proteasome proteins, heat shock 70-kDa protein, and NADPH dehydrogenase and ribosomal correlated proteins, ras-related proteins, and members of the heat shock protein family, respectively. PMID:25402641

  7. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces the invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells by modulating matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ga-Young; Han, Yu Kyeong; Han, Jeong Yoon; Lee, Chang Geun

    2016-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a conjugated form of UDCA that modulates several signaling pathways and acts as a chemical chaperone to relieve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The present study showed that TUDCA reduced the invasion of the MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cell line under normoxic and hypoxic conditions using an in vitro invasion assay. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that the reduced invasion following TUDCA treatment was associated with a decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and −13, which play important roles in invasion and metastasis. Inhibitors and short hairpin RNAs were used to show that the effect of TUDCA in the reduction of invasion appeared to be dependent on the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase pathway, a downstream ER stress signaling pathway. Thus, TUDCA is a candidate anti-metastatic agent to target the ER stress pathway. PMID:27602168

  8. Cytotoxicity enhancement in MDA-MB-231 cells by the combination treatment of tetrahydropalmatine and berberine derived from Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Gao, Jian-Li; Ji, Jian-Wei; Gao, Min; Yin, Qiao-Shan; Qiu, Qiao-Li; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Shu-Zhan; Xu, Juan; Liang, Ren-Shang; Cai, Yan-Zi; Wang, Xia-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Our previous works have demonstrated that Chinese herb medicine yanhusuo (Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang) has strong anti-cancer proliferation effect in MDA-MB-231 cells. The goal of this study was to find out the synergic cytotoxicity effect of three natural compounds, tetrahydropalmatine (THP), berberine (Ber), and dehydrocorydaline (DHC), isolated from C. yanhusuo W. T. Wang. Materials and Methods: The IC50 of THP Ber and DHC in single use, as well as in combination use at fixed ratios and doses was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Isobologram, combination index and modified coefficient of drug interaction (CDI) methods were used for evaluation the combination effects of THF! Ber, and DHC in different ratio and concentration. Results: The results indicated that the combination of THP and Ber shown the strongest anti-cancer cell proliferation effect at the ratio of 2:3 (Ber: THF the average CDI value was 0.5795). DHC and THP have additive cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells. However, there wasn’t any synergistic effect between Ber and DHC, and it even exhibited antagonistic effect when the percentage of DHC was >50%. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the combination of THP and Ber might be beneficial for anti-proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through a significant synergy effect. PMID:26401350

  9. Non-Muscle Myosin II Isoforms Have Different Functions in Matrix Rearrangement by MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hindman, Bridget; Goeckeler, Zoe; Sierros, Kostas; Wysolmerski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The role of a stiffening extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in cancer progression is documented but poorly understood. Here we use a conditioning protocol to test the role of nonmuscle myosin II isoforms in cell mediated ECM arrangement using collagen constructs seeded with breast cancer cells expressing shRNA targeted to either the IIA or IIB heavy chain isoform. While there are several methods available to measure changes in the biophysical characteristics of the ECM, we wanted to use a method which allows for the measurement of global stiffness changes as well as a dynamic response from the sample over time. The conditioning protocol used allows the direct measurement of ECM stiffness. Using various treatments, it is possible to determine the contribution of various construct and cellular components to the overall construct stiffness. Using this assay, we show that both the IIA and IIB isoforms are necessary for efficient matrix remodeling by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as loss of either isoform changes the stiffness of the collagen constructs as measured using our conditioning protocol. Constructs containing only collagen had an elastic modulus of 0.40 Pascals (Pa), parental MDA-MB-231 constructs had an elastic modulus of 9.22 Pa, while IIA and IIB KD constructs had moduli of 3.42 and 7.20 Pa, respectively. We also calculated the cell and matrix contributions to the overall sample elastic modulus. Loss of either myosin isoform resulted in decreased cell stiffness, as well as a decrease in the stiffness of the cell-altered collagen matrices. While the total construct modulus for the IIB KD cells was lower than that of the parental cells, the IIB KD cell-altered matrices actually had a higher elastic modulus than the parental cell-altered matrices (4.73 versus 4.38 Pa). These results indicate that the IIA and IIB heavy chains play distinct and non-redundant roles in matrix remodeling. PMID:26136073

  10. Protein-protein interaction between ezrin and p65 in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, R; Li, F X; Shao, W F; Wen, Q S; Yu, X R; Xiong, J B

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the co-localization and protein-protein interactions between ezrin and p65 in human breast cancer cells. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) was used to uncover novel protein interactions with ezrin in MDA-MB-231 cells. Endogenous co-immunoprecipitation was used to validate protein-protein interactions between ezrin and p65 in MDA-MB-231. Exogenous interactions between ezrin and p65 were validated in MDA-MB-231 cells via Flag-ezrin and HA-p65 co-transfection and followed by co-immunoprecipitation. Immunofluorescence staining was used to visualize ezrin and p65 co-localization in MDA-MB-231. LCMS results showed that there were 1000 proteins interacting with ezrin in MDA-MB-231 cells. Ezrin and p65 interactions were confirmed with both endogenous and exogenous methods. We were also able to visualize ezrin and p65 co-localization in MDA-MB-231. In summary, we found protein-protein interactions between Ezrin and p65 in human breast cancer cells. PMID:27420986

  11. Comparison between sonodynamic and photodynamic effect on MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiping; Liu, Quanhong; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Pan; Xue, Qin; Li, Long; Wang, Xiaobing

    2013-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and sonodynamic therapy (SDT) are therapeutic modalities for tumors. In this study we investigated the combined cytotoxic effect of 0.36W/cm(2) and 0.72W/cm(2) ultrasound with various Ce6 concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10μg/ml), and that of 1μg/ml Ce6 with different laser light dose (650nm; 10.4mW/cm(2); 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.5J/cm(2)) on MDA-MB-231 cells. Both high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected with high Ce6 concentrations (5 and 10μg/ml) combined with 0.72W/cm(2) ultrasound and 1.2, 2.5J/cm(2) laser light with 1μg/ml Ce6. In addition, cell membrane integrity was evaluated by using propidium iodide (PI), revealing membrane damage was aggravated with the increasing ultrasound intensity, but no significant difference on cell membrane integrity could be observed after PDT treatment. These results suggest ROS may play an important role both in SDT and PDT. Besides, mitochondria may be an initial target in PDT while SDT can cause multi-site damages in MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:24050992

  12. The dose dependent in vitro responses of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines to extracts of Vatica diospyroides symington type SS fruit include effects on mode of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Srisawat, Theera; Sukpondma, Yaowapa; Graidist, Potchanapond; Chimplee, Siriphon; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vatica diospyroides type LS is a known source of valuable compounds for cancer treatment, however, in contrast little is known about therapeutic efficacy of type SS. Objective: This study focused on in vitro cytotoxicity of these fruit extracts, and the cell death mode they induce in breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Acetone extracts of fruit were tested for cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The apoptosis and necrosis of these cells were quantified by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) and western blot analyses. Results: After 72 h of treatment, the 50% growth inhibition concentrations (IC50) levels were 16.21 ± 0.13 µg/mL against MCF-7 and 30.0 ± 4.30 µg/mL against MDA-MB-231, indicating high and moderate cytotoxicity, respectively. From the FACS results, we estimate that the cotyledon extract at half IC50 produced 11.7% dead MCF-7 cells via apoptosis, whereas another concentrations both apoptosis and necrosis modes co-existed in a dose-dependent manner. In MDA-MB-231 cell line, only the apoptosis was induced by the pericarp extract in a dose-dependent manner. With the extracts at half IC50 concentration, in both cells, the expression of p21 decreased while that of Bax increased within 12–48 h of dosing, confirming apoptosis induced by time-dependent responses. Apoptosis dependent on p53 was found in MCF-7, whereas the mutant p53 of MDA-MB-231 cells was expressed. Conclusion: The results indicate that fruit extracts of V. diospyroides have cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells via apoptosis pathway in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that the extracts could provide active ingredients for the development, targeting breast cancer therapy. PMID:26109760

  13. Cell cycle arrest induced by MPPa-PDT in MDA-MB-231 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liming; Bi, Wenxiang; Tian, Yuanyuan

    2016-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment using a photosensitizing agent and light source to treat cancers. Pyropheophorbidea methyl ester (MPPa), a derivative of chlorophyll, is a novel potent photosensitizer. To learn more about this photosensitizer, we examined the cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231. Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometer. Checkpoints of the cell cycle were measured by western blot. In this study, we found that the expression of Cyclin D1 was obviously decreased, while the expression of Chk2 and P21 was increased after PDT treatment. This study showed that MPPa-PDT affected the checkpoints of the cell cycle and led the cells to apoptosis.

  14. Enhancement of viability of radiosensitive (PBMC) and resistant (MDA-MB-231) clones in low-dose-rate cobalt-60 radiation therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Patrícia Lima; Motta, Bárbara Miranda; de Lima, Fernanda Castro; Lima, Celso Vieira; Campos, Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the present study, the authors investigated the in vitro behavior of radio-resistant breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells line and radiosensitive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as a function of different radiation doses, dose rates and postirradiation time kinetics, with a view to the interest of clinical radiotherapy. Materials and Methods The cells were irradiated with Co-60, at 2 and 10 Gy and two different exposure rates, 339.56 cGy.min–1 and the other corresponding to one fourth of the standard dose rates, present over a 10-year period of cobalt therapy. Post-irradiation sampling was performed at pre-established kinetics of 24, 48 and 72 hours. The optical density response in viability assay was evaluated and a morphological analysis was performed. Results Radiosensitive PBMC showed decrease in viability at 2 Gy, and a more significant decrease at 10 Gy for both dose rates. MDAMB- 231 cells presented viability decrease only at higher dose and dose rate. The results showed MDA-MB-231 clone expansion at low dose rate after 48–72 hours post-radiation. Conclusion Low dose rate shows a possible potential clinical impact involving decrease in management of radio-resistant and radiosensitive tumor cell lines in cobalt therapy for breast cancer. PMID:26185342

  15. Multispectral lensless digital holographic microscope: imaging MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryle, James P.; Molony, Karen M.; McDonnell, Susan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2009-08-01

    Digital holography is the process where an object's phase and amplitude information is retrieved from intensity images obtained using a digital camera (e.g. CCD or CMOS sensor). In-line digital holographic techniques offer full use of the recording device's sampling bandwidth, unlike off-axis holography where object information is not modulated onto carrier fringes. Reconstructed images are obscured by the linear superposition of the unwanted, out of focus, twin images. In addition to this, speckle noise degrades overall quality of the reconstructed images. The speckle effect is a phenomenon of laser sources used in digital holographic systems. Minimizing the effects due to speckle noise, removal of the twin image and using the full sampling bandwidth of the capture device aids overall reconstructed image quality. Such improvements applied to digital holography can benefit applications such as holographic microscopy where the reconstructed images are obscured with twin image information. Overcoming such problems allows greater flexibility in current image processing techniques, which can be applied to segmenting biological cells (e.g. MCF-7 and MDA-MB- 231) to determine their overall cell density and viability. This could potentially be used to distinguish between apoptotic and necrotic cells in large scale mammalian cell processes, currently the system of choice, within the biopharmaceutical industry.

  16. Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells Promote Migration and Early Metastasis of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Brian G.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Sheng, Mei; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Jones, Ryan K.; Frazier, Trivia P.; Asher, Majdouline; Lacayo, Eduardo A.; Friedlander, Paul L.; Kutner, Robert; Chiu, Ernest S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat grafting is used to restore breast defects after surgical resection of breast tumors. Supplementing fat grafts with adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) is proposed to improve the regenerative/restorative ability of the graft and retention. However, long term safety for ASC grafting in proximity of residual breast cancer cells is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of three donors, on a human breast cancer model that exhibits early metastasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells represents “triple negative” breast cancer that exhibits early micrometastasis to multiple mouse organs [1]. Human ASCs were derived from abdominal adipose tissue from three healthy female donors. Indirect co-culture of MDA-MB-231 cells with ASCs, as well as direct co-culture demonstrated that ASCs had no effect on MDA-MB-231 growth. Indirect co-culture, and ASC conditioned medium (CM) stimulated migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. ASC/RFP cells from two donors co-injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells exhibited a donor effect for stimulation of primary tumor xenografts. Both ASC donors stimulated metastasis. ASC/RFP cells were viable, and integrated with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells in the tumor. Tumors from the co-injection group of one ASC donor exhibited elevated vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), IL-8, VEGF and microvessel density. The co-injection group exhibited visible metastases to the lung/liver and enlarged spleen not evident in mice injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP alone. Quantitation of the total area of GFP fluorescence and human chromosome 17 DNA in mouse organs, H&E stained paraffin sections and fluorescent microscopy confirmed multi-focal metastases to lung/liver/spleen in the co-injection group without evidence of ASC/RFP cells. Conclusions Human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of two donors stimulated metastasis of MDA-MB-231

  17. EIYMNVPV Motif is Essential for A1CF Nucleus Localization and A1CF (-8aa) Promotes Proliferation of MDA-MB-231 Cells via Up-Regulation of IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Hao, Jin; Yuan, Yue; Peng, Rui; Wang, Honglian; Ni, Dongsheng; Gu, Yuping; Huang, Liyuan; Mao, Zhaomin; Lyu, Zhongshi; Du, Yao; Liu, Zhicheng; Li, Yiman; Ju, Pan; Long, Yaoshui; Liu, Jianing; Zhou, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Apobec-1 complementation factor (A1CF) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonuceloprotein (hnRNP) and mediates apolipoprotein-B mRNA editing. A1CF can promote the regeneration of the liver by post-transcriptionally stabilizing Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA. It also contains two transcriptional variants-A1CF64 and A1CF65, distinguished by the appearance of a 24-nucleotide motif which contributes to the corresponding eight-amino acid motif of EIYMNVPV. For the first time, we demonstrated that the EIYMNVPV motif was essential for A1CF nucleus localization, A1CF deficient of the EIYMNVPV motif, A1CF (-8aa) showed cytoplasm distribution. More importantly, we found that A1CF (-8aa), but not its full-length counterpart, can promote proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells accompanied with increased level of IL-6 mRNA. Furthermore, silencing of IL-6 attenuated A1CF (-8aa)-induced proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, notably, these findings suggest that A1CF (-8aa) promoted proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro viewing IL-6 as a target. Thus, the EIYMNVPV motif could be developed as a potential target for basal-like breast cancer therapy. PMID:27231908

  18. EIYMNVPV Motif is Essential for A1CF Nucleus Localization and A1CF (-8aa) Promotes Proliferation of MDA-MB-231 Cells via Up-Regulation of IL-6.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Hao, Jin; Yuan, Yue; Peng, Rui; Wang, Honglian; Ni, Dongsheng; Gu, Yuping; Huang, Liyuan; Mao, Zhaomin; Lyu, Zhongshi; Du, Yao; Liu, Zhicheng; Li, Yiman; Ju, Pan; Long, Yaoshui; Liu, Jianing; Zhou, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Apobec-1 complementation factor (A1CF) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonuceloprotein (hnRNP) and mediates apolipoprotein-B mRNA editing. A1CF can promote the regeneration of the liver by post-transcriptionally stabilizing Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA. It also contains two transcriptional variants-A1CF64 and A1CF65, distinguished by the appearance of a 24-nucleotide motif which contributes to the corresponding eight-amino acid motif of EIYMNVPV. For the first time, we demonstrated that the EIYMNVPV motif was essential for A1CF nucleus localization, A1CF deficient of the EIYMNVPV motif, A1CF (-8aa) showed cytoplasm distribution. More importantly, we found that A1CF (-8aa), but not its full-length counterpart, can promote proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells accompanied with increased level of IL-6 mRNA. Furthermore, silencing of IL-6 attenuated A1CF (-8aa)-induced proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, notably, these findings suggest that A1CF (-8aa) promoted proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro viewing IL-6 as a target. Thus, the EIYMNVPV motif could be developed as a potential target for basal-like breast cancer therapy. PMID:27231908

  19. Modulation of ABCC1 and ABCG2 proteins by ouabain in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    DA Silva, Vanessa Amil; DA Silva, Karla Andreza Elizeu Pereira; Delou, João Marcos Azevedo; DA Fonseca, Leonardo Marques; Lopes, Anibal Gil; Capella, Márcia Alves Marques

    2014-03-01

    ABCC1 and ABCG2 are two transporters associated with multi-drug resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Ouabain is a cardiotonic steroid, currently considered as a hormone associated with arterial hypertension. Previous studies have suggested that ouabain can modulate ABCB1 and ABCC1 expression in cancer and renal cell lines. The present study investigated the effects of physiological concentrations of ouabain on the expression and activity of ABCC1 and ABCG2 in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, the first known to be responsive to estrogens. Cell viability and proliferation assays showed that 1 μM ouabain reduced proliferation of MCF7, but not if MDA-MB-231 cells. On the other hand, 10 nM ouabain increased proliferation of MDA-MB-231, but not of MCF7 cells. Ouabain (10 nM) prevented the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin in MCF7 cells, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment of cells under different ouabain concentrations for 24 h did not cause any significant effects in the expression of ABCG2 or ABCC1 in either cell line. However, the activity of ABCC1 was increased when MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with 10 mM and 1 nM ouabain respectively. These results claim attention to the possibility that breast cancer patients with high levels of endogenous ouabain may have different responses to chemotherapy. PMID:24596392

  20. Suppression of Spry1 inhibits triple-negative breast cancer malignancy by decreasing EGF/EGFR mediated mesenchymal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Jing, Hongyu; Liaw, Lucy; Gower, Lindsey; Vary, Calvin; Hua, Shucheng; Yang, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Sprouty (Spry) proteins have been implicated in cancer progression, but their role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of lethal and aggressive breast cancer, is unknown. Here, we reported that Spry1 is significantly expressed in TNBC specimen and MDA-MB-231 cells. To understand Spry1 regulation of signaling events controlling breast cancer phenotype, we used lentiviral delivery of human Spry1 shRNAs to suppress Spry1 expression in MDA-MB-231, an established TNBC cell line. Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells displayed an epithelial phenotype with increased membrane E-cadherin expression. Knockdown of Spry1 impaired MDA-MB-231 cell migration, Matrigel invasion, and anchorage-dependent and -independent growth. Tumor xenografts originating from Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells grew slower, had increased E-cadherin expression, and yielded fewer lung metastases compared to control. Furthermore, suppressing Spry1 in MDA-MB-231 cells impaired the induction of Snail and Slug expression by EGF, and this effect was associated with increased EGFR degradation and decreased EGFR/Grb2/Shp2/Gab1 signaling complex formation. The same phenotype was also observed in the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-157. Together, our results show that unlike in some tumors, where Spry may mediate tumor suppression, Spry1 plays a selective role in at least a subset of TNBC to promote the malignant phenotype via enhancing EGF-mediated mesenchymal phenotype. PMID:26976794

  1. Specific expression of the human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, promotes tumor progression and metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifan; Li, Shu Jie; Pan, Juncheng; Che, Yongzhe; Yin, Jian; Zhao, Qing

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues. {yields} Hv1 regulates breast cancer cytosolic pH. {yields} Hv1 acidifies extracellular milieu. {yields} Hv1 exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells. -- Abstract: The newly discovered human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is essential for proton transfer, which contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) without a pore domain. We report here for the first time that Hv1 is specifically expressed in the highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues, but not in poorly metastatic breast cancer tissues, detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression levels of Hv1 have significant differences among breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, T-47D and SK-BR-3, in which Hv1 is expressed at a high level in highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but at a very low level in poorly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Inhibition of Hv1 expression in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the invasion and migration of the cells. The intracellular pH of MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated Hv1 expression by siRNA is obviously decreased compared with MDA-MB-231 with the scrambled siRNA. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and gelatinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed Hv1 by siRNA were reduced. Our results strongly suggest that Hv1 regulates breast cancer intracellular pH and exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells.

  2. Withaferin A-Induced Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells Is Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Moura, Michelle B.; Kelley, Eric E.; Van Houten, Bennett; Shiva, Sruti; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2011-01-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a promising anticancer constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture and MDA-MB-231 xenografts in vivo in association with apoptosis induction, but the mechanism of cell death is not fully understood. We now demonstrate, for the first time, that WA-induced apoptosis is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. WA treatment caused ROS production in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, but not in a normal human mammary epithelial cell line (HMEC). The HMEC was also resistant to WA-induced apoptosis. WA-mediated ROS production as well as apoptotic histone-associated DNA fragment release into the cytosol was significantly attenuated by ectopic expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. ROS production resulting from WA exposure was accompanied by inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of complex III activity. Mitochondrial DNA-deficient Rho-0 variants of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were resistant to WA-induced ROS production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis compared with respective wild-type cells. WA treatment resulted in activation of Bax and Bak in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, and SV40 immortalized embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax and Bak double knockout mouse were significantly more resistant to WA-induced apoptosis compared with fibroblasts derived from wild-type mouse. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of WA-induced apoptosis involving ROS production and activation of Bax/Bak. PMID:21853114

  3. Src/STAT3-dependent heme oxygenase-1 induction mediates chemoresistance of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin by promoting autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qixing; Wang, Hongli; Hu, Yongliang; Hu, Meiru; Li, Xiaoguang;  , Aodengqimuge; Ma, Yuanfang; Wei, Changyuan; Song, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic resistance in breast cancer, whether acquired or intrinsic, remains a major clinical obstacle. Thus, increasing tumor cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents will be helpful in improving the clinical management of breast cancer. In the present study, we found an induction of HO-1 expression in doxorubicin (DOX)-treated MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, which showed insensitivity to DOX treatment. Knockdown HO-1 expression dramatically upregulated the incidence of MDA-MB-231 cell death under DOX treatment, indicating that HO-1 functions as a critical contributor to drug resistance in MDA-MB-231 cells. We further observed that DOX exposure induced a cytoprotective autophagic flux in MDA-MB-231 cells, which was dependent on HO-1 induction. Moreover, upregulation of HO-1 expression required the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and its upstream regulator, protein kinase Src. Abrogating Src/STAT3 pathway activation attenuated HO-1 and autophagy induction, thus increasing the chemosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, we conclude that Src/STAT3-dependent HO-1 induction protects MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells from DOX-induced death through promoting autophagy. In the following study, we further demonstrated the contribution of Src/STAT3/HO-1/autophagy pathway activation to DOX resistance in another breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468, which bears a similar phenotype to MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, activation of Src/STAT3/HO-1/autophagy signaling pathway might play a general role in protecting certain subtypes of breast cancer cells from DOX-induced cytotoxicity. Targeting this signaling event may provide a potential approach for overcoming DOX resistance in breast cancer therapeutics. PMID:26041409

  4. Epidermal growth factor promotes a mesenchymal over an amoeboid motility of MDA-MB-231 cells embedded within a 3D collagen matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geum, Dongil T.; Kim, Beum Jun; Chang, Audrey E.; Hall, Matthew S.; Wu, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    The receptor of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) critically regulates tumor cell invasion and is a potent therapeutic target for treatment of many types of cancers, including carcinomas and glioblastomas. It is known that EGF regulates cell motility when tumor cells are embedded within a 3D biomatrix. However, roles of EGF in modulating tumor cell motility phenotype are largely unknown. In this article, we report that EGF promotes a mesenchymal over an amoeboid motility phenotype using a malignant breast tumor cell line, MDA-MB-231, embedded within a 3D collagen matrix. Amoeboid cells are rounded in shape, while mesenchymal cells are elongated, and their migrations are governed by a distinctly different set of biomolecules. Using single cell tracking analysis, we also show that EGF promotes cell dissemination through a significant increase in cell persistence along with a moderate increase of speed. The increase of persistence is correlated with the increase of the percentage of the mesenchymal cells within the population. Our work reveals a novel role of microenvironmental cue, EGF, in modulating heterogeneity and plasticity of tumor cell motility phenotype. In addition, it suggests a potential visual cue for diagnosing invasive states of breast cancer cells. This work can be easily extended beyond breast cancer cells.

  5. β3 integrin promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in MDA-MB-231 through repression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAD.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhumathy G; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S; Hari, P S; Remacle, Jose; Sridhar, T S

    2016-08-01

    Resistance to anthracycline based chemotherapy is a major limitation in the treatment of breast cancer, particularly of the triple negative sub-type that lacks targeted therapies. Resistance that arises from tumor-stromal interaction facilitated by integrins provides the possibility of targeted disruption. In the present study, we demonstrate that integrin β3 signaling inhibits apoptosis induced by a DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agent, epirubicin, in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Drug efflux based mechanisms do not contribute to this effect. We show that integrin β3 employs the PI3K-Akt and the MAPK pathway for enabling cell survival and proliferation. Further, our results indicate that integrin β3 helps inhibit epirubicin induced cytotoxicity by repression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD, thus promoting an anti-apoptotic response. Myristoylated RGT peptide and a monoclonal antibody against integrin β3 brought about a reversal of this effect and chemosensitized the cells. These results identify β3 integrin signaling via repression of BAD as an important survival pathway used by breast cancer cells to evade chemotherapy induced stress. PMID:27235542

  6. Salinomycin Promotes Anoikis and Decreases the CD44+/CD24- Stem-Like Population via Inhibition of STAT3 Activation in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eunhye; Lee, Nahyun; Cho, Youngkwan; Seo, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive tumor subtype with an enriched CD44+/CD24- stem-like population. Salinomycin is an antibiotic that has been shown to target cancer stem cells (CSC); however, the mechanisms of action involved have not been well characterized. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of salinomycin on cell death, migration, and invasion, as well as CSC-like properties in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Salinomycin significantly induced anoikis-sensitivity, accompanied by caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation and PARP cleavage, during anchorage-independent growth. Salinomycin treatment also caused a marked suppression of cell migration and invasion with concomitant downregulation of MMP-9 and MMP-2 mRNA levels. Notably, salinomycin inhibited the formation of mammospheres and effectively reduced the CD44+/CD24- stem-like population during anchorage-independent growth. These observations were associated with the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation (Tyr705). Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced STAT3 activation was strongly suppressed by salinomycin challenge. These findings support the notion that salinomycin may be potentially efficacious for targeting breast cancer stem-like cells through the inhibition of STAT3 activation. PMID:26528725

  7. The differential expression of hCNT1 and hENT1 i n breast cancer and the possible impact on breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jane; Martin, Tracey A; McGuigan, Christopher; Mason, Malcolm D; Jiang, Wen G

    2010-01-01

    hCNT1 and hENT1, two members of the human nucleoside transporter families, expression levels were investigated, in normal and in breast tumour tissues, together with effects of gemcitabine cytotoxicity and in vivo tumour growth in MDA-MB-231 cells. hCNT1 and hENT1 levels were lower in tumour samples than in normal background tissue (p < 0.48). hENT1 levels decreased significantly with patient prognosis (disease free versus died from breast cancer, p = 0.047) although hCNT1 expression did not (disease free versus died from breast cancer, p = 0.97). Immunohistochemical staining of hCNT1 and hENT1 was stronger in normal than tumour tissue. hCNT1 knockdown caused MDA-MB-231 cells to be less sensitive to Gemcitabine compared with wild type and control plasmid cells (25% killed vs 88% and 90%). MDA MB-231 deltahENT1 (p = 0.139) and MDA MB-231deltahCNT1 (p = 0.033) tumours showed reduced growth compared with wild type, [71.99 +/- 39.81 mm3 MDA MB-231WT, 40.58 +/- 20.61 mm3 MDA MB-231 deltahCNT1 tumours, 51.58 +/- 49.29 mm3 MDA MB-231deltahENT1, 79.55 +/- 63.08 mm3 PEF and 57.92 +/- 21.67 mm3 GFP controls]. This study shows variability in hCNT1 and hENT1 expression in tumour and normal human breast tissue with different expression patterns related to patient prognosis and clinical outcome. The level of expression of CNT1 was closely linked to the cell's responsiveness to chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:20734919

  8. Different apoptotic effects of saxifragifolin C in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Ji-Yun; Kwak, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Byung Oh; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is currently the most common form of cancer affecting women. Recent studies have reported that triterpenoid saponins isolated from Androsace umbellata exhibit anti-proliferative effects in several types of cancer cells. However, the cytotoxic effect of saxifragifolin C (Saxi C) on breast cancer cells remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro anti-tumor activity of Saxi C in human breast cancer cells. Our data indicated that MDA-MB-231 cells were more sensitive than MCF-7 cells to Saxi C treatment. In addition, Saxi C inhibited cell survival through the induction of reactive oxygen species and the caspase-dependent pathway in the MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas MCF-7 cells treated with Saxi C underwent the apoptotic cell death in a caspase-independent manner. Although Saxi C treatment resulted in the induction of activation of MAPKs in both types of human breast cancer cells, p38 MAPK and JNK, but not ERK1/2, appeared to be involved in Saxi C-induced apoptosis. Moreover, ERα-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells remained alive, whereas the survival of shERα-transfected MCF-7 cells decreased. Taken together, Saxi C induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells via different regulatory mechanisms, and ERα status might be essential for regulating Saxi C-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Thus, Saxi C is a potential chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer. PMID:26965415

  9. In vitro study on effect of germinated wheat on human breast cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research investigated the possible anti-cancer effects of germinated wheat flours (GWF) on cell growth and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. In a series of in vitro experiments, estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) cells were cultured and treated with GWF that wer...

  10. Evaluation of anticancer potential of Bacopa monnieri L. against MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Md. Nasar; Akhtar, Md. Salman; Najm, Mohd. Zeeshan; Tamboli, E. T.; Ahmad, Sayeed; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri contains bacoside A and B, brahmin, cucurbitacins, and betulinic acid. Currently, cucurbitacins have also been reported for their strong anti-tumorigenic and anti-proliferative activity by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and formation of multiplied cells. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of dichloromethane (DCM) fraction of B. monnieri on two different cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of B. monnieri was prepared using soxhlet extraction method and different fractions (hexane, DCM, methanol, acetone, and water) of ethanolic extracts were prepared. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay of ethanolic extract and of all fractions was carried out on MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines. The presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in these fractions was confirmed by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Results: The IC50 values of ethanolic extract of B. monnieri in MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines were 72.0 μg/mL and 75.0 μg/mL, respectively. The DCM fraction of B. monnieri showed maximum cytotoxic activity among all fraction upto 72 h and was found to be 57.0 μg/mL and 42.0 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed good cytotoxic activity in DCM fraction in both the cell lines may be due to the presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in DCM fraction. PMID:26681894

  11. Ablation of Akt2 Induces Autophagy through Cell Cycle Arrest, the Downregulation of p70S6K, and the Deregulation of Mitochondria in MDA-MB231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Stacey A.; Lee, Hoyun

    2011-01-01

    Background Akt/PKB is a promising anticancer therapeutic target, since abnormally elevated Akt activity is directly correlated to tumor development, progression, poor prognosis and resistance to cancer therapies. Currently, the unique role of each Akt isoform and their relevance to human breast cancer are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We previously found that Akt1, 2 and 3 are localized at specific subcellular compartments (the cytoplasm, mitochondria and nucleus, respectively), raising the possibility that each isoform may have unique functions and employ different regulation mechanisms. By systematically studying Akt-ablated MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells with isoform-specific siRNA, we here show that Akt2 is the most relevant isoform to cell proliferation and survival in our cancer model. Prolonged ablation of Akt2 with siRNA resulted in cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 by downregulating Cdk2 and cyclin D, and upregulating p27. The analysis of the Akt downstream signaling pathways suggested that Akt2 specifically targets and activates the p70S6K signaling pathway. We also found that Akt2 ablation initially resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial volume concomitantly with the upregulation of PGC-1α, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Prolonged ablation of Akt2, but not Akt1 or Akt3, eventually led to cell death by autophagy of the mitochondria (i.e., mitophagy). Conclusions/Significance Collectively, our data demonstrates that Akt2 augments cell proliferation by facilitating cell cycle progression through the upregulation of the cell cycle engine, and protects a cell from pathological autophagy by modulating mitochondrial homeostasis. Our data, thus, raises the possibility that Akt2 can be an effective anticancer target for the control of (breast) cancer. PMID:21297943

  12. Chrysin, Abundant in Morinda citrifolia Fruit Water-EtOAc Extracts, Combined with Apigenin Synergistically Induced Apoptosis and Inhibited Migration in Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Wei, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Ma-Ching; Tu, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Chia-Chi; Huang, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-06-01

    The composition of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the anticancer effects of M. citrifolia extract evaluated in HepG2, Huh7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. M. citrifolia fruit extracts were obtained by using five different organic solvents, including hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform (CHCl3), and ethanol (EtOH). The water-EtOAc extracts from M. citrifolia fruits was found to have the highest anticancer activity. HPLC data revealed the predominance of chrysin in water-EtOAc extracts of M. citrifolia fruit. Furthermore, the combined effects of cotreatment with apigenin and chrysin on liver and breast cancer were investigated. Treatment with apigenin plus chrysin for 72-96 h reduced HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell viability and induced apoptosis through down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression. However, the combination treatment for 36 h synergistically decreased MDA-MB-231 cell motility but not cell viability through down-regulation of MMP2, MMP9, fibronectin, and snail in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, chrysin combined with apigenin also suppressed tumor growth in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells xenograft through down-regulation of ki-67 and Skp2 protein. The experimental results showed that chrysin combined with apigenin can reduce HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 proliferation and cell motility and induce apoptosis. It also offers opportunities for exploring new drug targets, and further investigations are underway in this regard. PMID:27137679

  13. Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Synergistically Activate Apoptosis in a p21-Dependent Mechanism in WHCO1 and MDA MB 231 Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dzobo, Kevin; Vogelsang, Matjaz; Thomford, Nicholas E.; Dandara, Collet; Kallmeyer, Karlien; Pepper, Michael S.; Parker, M. Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment plays a crucial role in tumour progression and comprises tumour stroma which is made up of different cell types and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are part of the tumour stroma and may have conflicting effects on tumour growth. In this study we investigated the effect of Wharton's Jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) and a fibroblast-derived ECM (fd-ECM) on esophageal (WHCO1) and breast (MDA MB 231) cancer cells in vitro. Both WJ-MSCs and the fd-ECM, alone or in combination, downregulate PCNA, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and MMPs and upregulate p53 and p21. p21 induction resulted in G2 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in vitro. Our data suggest that p21 induction is via p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms in WHCO1 and MDA MB 231 cells, respectively. Vascular endothelial growth factor, Akt, and Nodal pathways were downregulated in cancer cells cocultured with WJ-MSCs. We also demonstrate that WJ-MSCs effects on cancer cells appear to be short-lived whilst the fd-ECM effect is long-lived. This study shows the influence of tumour microenvironment on cancer cell behaviour and provides alternative therapeutic targets for potential regulation of tumour cells. PMID:26880967

  14. Pepper seed extract suppresses invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-A; Kim, Min-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Yoo Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the antimetastatic activities of chili pepper seed on human breast cancer cells. The water extract of chili pepper seeds was prepared and it contained a substantial amount of phenols (131.12 mg%) and no capsaicinoids. Pepper seed extract (PSE) suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 10, 25, and 50 μg/ml (MDA-MB-231: IC50 = 20.1 μg/ml, MCF-7: IC50 = 14.7 μg/ml). PSE increased the expression level of E-cadherin up to 1.2-fold of the control in MCF-7 cells. PSE also decreased the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 25 and 50 μg/ml. PSE treatment significantly suppressed the invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The motility of cancer cells was apparently retarded in the wound healing assay by the PSE treatment. Although our data collectively demonstrate that PSE inhibits invasion and migration of breast cancer cells, further study is needed to identify specific mechanisms and bioactive components contributing to antimetastatic effects of chili pepper seed. PMID:24341783

  15. Algal sulfated carrageenan inhibits proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells via apoptosis regulatory genes.

    PubMed

    Murad, Hossam; Ghannam, Ahmed; Al-Ktaifani, Mahmoud; Abbas, Assef; Hawat, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Marine algae are prolific sources of sulfated polysaccharides, which may explain the low incidence of certain cancers in countries that traditionally consume marine food. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of non‑skin cancer in females. In this study, extracted sulfated carrageenan (ESC), predominantly consisting of ι‑carrageenan extracted from the red alga Laurencia papillosa, was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The biological effects of the identified extract were investigated and its potential cytotoxic activity was tested against the MDA‑MB‑231 cancer cell line. The biological biometer of the inhibitory concentration of the polysaccharide‑treated MDA‑MB‑231 cells was determined as 50 µM. Treatment with 50 µM ESC inhibited cell proliferation and promptly induced cell death through nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Characterization of polysaccharide‑treated MDA‑MB‑231 cell death revealed that induction of apoptosis occurred via the activation of the extrinsic apoptotic caspase‑8 gene. The apoptotic signaling pathway was regulated through caspase‑3, caspase‑9, p53, Bax and Bcl‑2 genes. These findings suggest that ESC may serve as a potential therapeutic agent to target breast cancer via prompting apoptosis. PMID:25384757

  16. Structure-activity relationships of a-, ß1-, and d-Tomatines and Tomatidine Against Human Breast (MDA-MB-231), Gastric (KATO-III), and Prostate (PC3) Cancer Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial acid hydrolysis of the tetrasaccharide (lycotetraose) side chain of the tomato glycoalkaloid a-tomatine resulted in the formation of four products with three (ß1-tomatine), two ('-tomatine), one (d-tomatine), and zero (tomatidine) sugar residues. These compounds were isolated by chromatogra...

  17. Elevation of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Suppresses Proliferation and Survival of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Shiah, Shine-Gwo; Kung, Hsing-Jien; King, Kuang-Liang; Su, Liang-Chen; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Chang, Chung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential signaling molecule in biological systems. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), composing of α1 and β1 subunit, is the receptor for NO. Using radioimmunoassay, we discovered that activation of sGC by treatment with bradykinin or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is impaired in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as compared to normal breast epithelial 184A1 cells. The 184A1 cells expressed both sGC α1 and sGCβ1 mRNAs. However, levels of sGCβ1 mRNAs were relatively lower in MCF-7 cells while both mRNA of sGC subunits were absent in MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) increased mRNA levels of both sGCα1 and sGCβ1 in MDA-MB-231 cells but only sGCβ1 mRNAs in MCF-7 cells. The 5-aza-dC treatment increased the SNP-induced cGMP production in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, but not in 184A1 cells. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that the promoter of sGCα1 in MDA-MB-231 cells and promoter of sGCβ1 in MCF-7 cells were methylated. Promoter hypermethylation of sGCα1 and sGCβ1 was found in 1 out of 10 breast cancer patients. Over-expression of both sGC subunits in MDA-MB-231 cells induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in vitro as well as reduced tumor incidence and tumor growth rate of MDA-MB-231 xenografts in nude mice. Elevation of sGC reduced protein abundance of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Cdc2, Cdc25A, Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, Cdk6, c-Myc, and Skp2 while increased protein expression of p53. Our study demonstrated that down-regulation of sGC, partially due to promoter methylation, provides growth and survival advantage in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25928539

  18. Adhesion of malignant mammary tumor cells MDA-MB-231 to microvessel wall increases microvascular permeability via degradation of endothelial surface glycocalyx

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bin; Fan, Jie; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of tumor cell adhesion on microvascular permeability (P) in intact microvessels, we measured the adhesion rate of human mammary carcinoma MDA-MB-231, the hydraulic conductivity (Lp), the P, and reflection coefficient (σ) to albumin of the microvessels at the initial tumor cell adhesion and after ∼45 min cell perfusion in the postcapillary venules of rat mesentery in vivo. Rats (Sprague-Dawley, 250–300 g) were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium given subcutaneously. A midline incision was made in the abdominal wall, and the mesentery was gently taken out and arranged on the surface of a glass coverslip for the measurement. An individual postcapillary venule was perfused with cells at a rate of ∼1 mm/s, which is the mean blood flow velocity in this type of microvessels. At the initial tumor cell adhesion, which was defined as one adherent cell in ∼100- to 145-μm vessel segment, Lp was 1.5-fold and P was 2.3-fold of their controls, and σ decreased from 0.92 to 0.64; after ∼45-min perfusion, the adhesion increased to ∼5 adherent cells in ∼100- to 145-μm vessel segment, while Lp increased to 2.8-fold, P to 5.7-fold of their controls, and σ decreased from 0.92 to 0.42. Combining these measured data with the predictions from a mathematical model for the interendothelial transport suggests that tumor cell adhesion to the microvessel wall degrades the endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG) layer. This suggestion was confirmed by immunostaining of heparan sulfate of the ESG on the microvessel wall. Preserving of the ESG by a plasma glycoprotein orosomucoid decreased the P to albumin and reduced the tumor cell adhesion. PMID:22858626

  19. Mechanisms underlying the growth inhibitory effects of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 are being extensively studied as anticancer agents. In the present study we evaluated the mechanisms by which a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, affects tumor growth of two differentially invasive human breast cancer cell lines. Methods MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive) and MDA-MB-468 (moderately invasive) cell lines were treated with varying concentrations of celecoxib in vitro, and the effects of this agent on cell growth and angiogenesis were monitored by evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and vasculogenic mimicry. The in vitro results of MDA-MB-231 cell line were further confirmed in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Results The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells express higher levels of COX-2 than do the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells. Celecoxib treatment inhibited COX-2 activity, indicated by prostaglandin E2 secretion, and caused significant growth arrest in both breast cancer cell lines. In the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, the mechanism of celecoxib-induced growth arrest was by induction of apoptosis, associated with reduced activation of protein kinase B/Akt, and subsequent activation of caspases 3 and 7. In the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells, growth arrest was a consequence of cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint. Celecoxib-induced growth inhibition was reversed by addition of exogenous prostaglandin E2 in MDA-MB-468 cells but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-468 cells formed significantly fewer extracellular matrix associated microvascular channels in vitro than did the high COX-2 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. Celecoxib treatment not only inhibited cell growth and vascular channel formation but also reduced vascular endothelial growth factor levels. The in vitro findings corroborated in vivo data from a mouse xenograft model in which daily administration of celecoxib significantly reduced tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with

  20. Targeting of sonic hedgehog-Gli signaling: A potential therapeutic target for patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lingqin; Wang, Weifeng; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yang; He, Jianjun; Wang, Xijing; Dai, Zhijun; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway serves a key role in malignant cancer cell growth and migration. However, little is known with regard to the specific function of the Hh signaling pathway in human breast cancer. The current study investigated the specific role of Hh signaling in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Expression of components of Shh-Gli signaling, as well as the Gli-responsive genes B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclin D1, were investigated in MDA-MB-231 cells using western blotting. The effects of Shh-Gli signaling on MDA-MB-231 proliferation were analyzed by MTT assay. The role of E-cadherin in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process was determined by western blot while matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/MMP-2 secretion was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that Shh-Gli signaling was activated in MDA-MB-231 cells, significantly enhancing cell viability. Overexpression of Gli positively regulated the transcription of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 thereby regulating MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and survival. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with human sonic hedgehog, n-terminus for 72 h significantly reduced E-cadherin protein levels and enhanced secretion of MMP-9 and MMP-2. These findings suggest that Shh-Gli signaling is significantly activated in human breast cancer cells, and is accompanied by enhanced cell viability, proliferation and migration capacities. PMID:27446389

  1. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony; White, J. Brandon

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin cannot be detected intracellularly despite killing MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin forms a heterodimer through oxidation in media with serum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quercetin heterodimer does not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascorbic acid stabilizes quercetin increasing cell death in quercetin treated cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin, and not a modified form, is responsible for apoptosis and cell death. -- Abstract: Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin's ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of sec/tert-butyl 2-arylbenzimidazoles and their unexpected antiproliferative activity towards ER negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahim, Aisyah Saad; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Arumugam, Natarajan; Pin, Lim Chung; Yee, Ng Shy; Muttiah, Nithya Niranjini; Keat, Wong Boon; Abd Hamid, Shafida; Osman, Hasnah; Mat, Ishak b

    2013-12-01

    A new series of N-sec/tert-butyl 2-arylbenzimidazole derivatives was synthesised in 85-96% yields within 2-3.5 min by condensing ethyl 3-amino-4-butylamino benzoate with various substituted metabisulfite adducts of benzaldehyde under focused microwave irradiation. The benzimidazole analogues were characterised using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, high resolution MS and melting points. Evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the benzimidazole analogues against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 revealed several compounds with unexpected selective inhibitions of MDA-MB-231 in micromolar range. All analogues were found inactive towards MCF-7. The most potent inhibition against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line came from the unsubstituted 2-phenylbenzimidazole 10a. PMID:23061895

  3. Monocytes mediate metastatic breast tumor cell adhesion to endothelium under flow

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Prabhu, Rajesh G.; Gnanaruban, V.; Finol, Ender A.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial adhesion is necessary for the hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells. However, the metastatic breast tumor cell MDA-MB-231 does not bind to the endothelium under physiological flow conditions, suggesting alternate mechanisms of adhesion. Since monocytes are highly represented in the tumor microenvironment, and also bind to endothelium during inflammation, we hypothesized that the monocytes assist in the arrest of MDA-MB-231 on the endothelium. Using in vitro models of the dynamic shear environment of the vasculature, we show that TNF-α-activated THP1/primary human monocytes and MDA-MB-231 cells form stable aggregates, and that the monocytes in these aggregates mediate the adhesion of otherwise nonadherent MDA-MB-231 cells to inflamed endothelium under flow (55±2.4 vs. 1.7±0.82 at a shear stress of 0.5 dyn/cm2, P<0.01). We also show that the hydrodynamic forces determine the size and orientation of aggregates adhered to the endothelium, and strongly favor the attachment of small aggregates with tumor cells downstream of flow (74–86% doublets at 0.5–2 dyn/cm2, P<0.01). The 5-fold up-regulation of ICAM-1 on TNF-α-activated MDA-MB-231 cells through the Nf-κB pathway was found to be critical in MDA-MB-231–monocyte aggregation and endothelial adhesion. Our results demonstrate that, under inflammatory conditions, monocytes may serve to disseminate tumor cells through circulation, and the tumor–monocyte–endothelial axis may represent a new therapeutic target to reduce cancer metastasis.—Evani, S. J., Prabhu, R. G., Gnanaruban, V., Finol, E. A., Ramasubramanian, A. K. Monocytes mediate metastatic breast tumor cell adhesion to endothelium under flow. PMID:23616566

  4. ADAM17 promotes breast cancer cell malignant phenotype through EGFR-PI3K-AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuguang; Jiang, Feng; Katakowski, Mark; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Lu, Qing-e; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) is involved in proteolytic ectodomain shedding of several membrane-bound growth factors and cytokines. The expression and activity of ADAM17 increase under some pathological conditions such as stroke and glioma. ADAM17 promotes neural progenitor cell migration and contributes to stroke-induced neurogenesis after stroke and brain tumor growth and invasion. In the present study, we sought to elucidate whether ADAM17 contributes to breast cancer progression and its mechanisms. To this end, we examined the role of ADAM17 in the proliferation, invasion, and tube formation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. Stable transfection of the MDA-MB-231 cell line with either a plasmid for over-expression of human ADAM17, or a siRNA to ADAM17 was employed in this study to establish high or low ADAM17 expression in breast cancer cells, respectively. For study of mechanism, the ADAM17 inhibitor TAPI-2 and the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 were used to counteract high ADAM17 expression or the activated PI3K-AKT pathway. Proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were tested by MTT, Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, growth curve, and sulforhodamine B assay. Matrigel invasion assays were used to assess the ability of MDA-MB-231 cells to penetrate the Extra Cellular Matrix. A Matrigel tube formation assay was performed to test capillary tube formation ability. EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathway activation in MDA-MB-231 cells under different ADAM17 expression levels were tested by Western blot and ELISA. Our data show that ADAM17 promotes the MDA-MB-231 malignant phenotype by increased proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. TGF-α, VEGF secretion and VEGF expression was increasing by ADAM17 and counteracted by ADAM17 siRNA, TAPI-2, and LY294002 in MDA-MB-231 cells. ADAM17 activated, whereas ADAM17 siRNA, TAPI-2, and LY294002 deactivated the EGFR-PI3K-AKT signal pathway, which correlated with MDA-MB-231 cell malignant phenotype

  5. Frondoside A inhibits human breast cancer cell survival, migration, invasion and the growth of breast tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Al Marzouqi, Nadia; Iratni, Rabah; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Arafat, Kholoud; Ahmed Al Sultan, Mahmood; Yasin, Javed; Collin, Peter; Mester, Jan; Adrian, Thomas E; Attoub, Samir

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a major challenge for pharmacologists to develop new drugs to improve the survival of cancer patients. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. It has been demonstrated that Frondoside A inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the impact of Frondoside A on human breast cancer cell survival, migration and invasion in vitro, and on tumor growth in nude mice, using the human estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The non-tumorigenic MCF10-A cell line derived from normal human mammary epithelium was used as control. Frondoside A (0.01-5 μM) decreased the viability of breast cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with 50%-effective concentration (EC50) of 2.5 μM at 24h. MCF10-A cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effect of Frondoside A (EC50 superior to 5 μM at 24 h). In the MDA-MB-231 cells, Frondoside A effectively increased the sub-G1 (apoptotic) cell fraction through the activation of p53, and subsequently the caspases 9 and 3/7 cell death pathways. In addition, Frondoside A induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion. In vivo, Frondoside A (100 μg/kg/dayi.p. for 24 days) strongly decreased the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts in athymic mice, without manifest toxic side-effects. Moreover, we found that Frondoside A could enhance the killing of breast cancer cells induced by the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. These findings identify Frondoside A as a promising novel therapeutic agent for breast cancer. PMID:21741966

  6. Decreased expression of ADAMTS-1 in human breast tumors stimulates migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADAMTS-1 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs) is a member of the ADAMTS family of metalloproteases. Here, we investigated mRNA and protein levels of ADAMTS-1 in normal and neoplastic tissues using qPCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses, and we addressed the role of ADAMTS-1 in regulating migration, invasion and invadopodia formation in breast tumor cell lines. Results In a series of primary breast tumors, we observed variable levels of ADAMTS-1 mRNA expression but lower levels of ADAMTS-1 protein expression in human breast cancers as compared to normal tissue, with a striking decrease observed in high-malignancy cases (triple-negative for estrogen, progesterone and Her-2). This result prompted us to analyze the effect of ADAMTS-1 knockdown in breast cancer cells in vitro. MDA-MB-231 cells with depleted ADAMTS-1 expression demonstrated increased migration, invasion and invadopodia formation. The regulatory mechanisms underlying the effects of ADAMTS-1 may be related to VEGF, a growth factor involved in migration and invasion. MDA-MB-231 cells with depleted ADAMTS-1 showed increased VEGF concentrations in conditioned medium capable of inducing human endothelial cells (HUVEC) tubulogenesis. Furthermore, expression of the VEGF receptor (VEGFR2) was increased in MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to MCF7 cells. To further determine the relationship between ADAMTS-1 and VEGF regulating breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 cells with reduced expression of ADAMTS-1 were pretreated with a function-blocking antibody against VEGF and then tested in migration and invasion assays; both were partially rescued to control levels. Conclusions ADAMTS-1 expression was decreased in human breast tumors, and ADAMTS-1 knockdown stimulated migration, invasion and invadopodia formation in breast cancer cells in vitro. Therefore, this series of experiments suggests that VEGF is involved in the effects mediated by ADAMTS-1 in breast cancer cells. PMID

  7. Hippuric acid nanocomposite enhances doxorubicin and oxaliplatin-induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB231, MCF-7 and Caco2 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Al Ali, Samer Hasan Hussein; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Bullo, Saifullah

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study is to design a new nanocomposite for inducing cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and oxaliplatin toward MDA-MB231, MCF-7, and Caco2 cell lines. A hippuric acid (HA) zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) nanocomposite was synthesized under an aqueous environment using HA and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the precursors. Methods The hippuric acid nanocomposite (HAN) was prepared by the direct reaction of a HA solution with an aqueous suspension of ZnO. Results The basal spacing of the nanocomposite was 21.3 Å, which is average of four harmonics at 2θ = 8.32°, 12.50°, 16.68°, and 20.84°. This result indicates that the hippurate anion was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of ZLH. The combinations of HAN with chemotherapy (drugs) has inhibited the cell growth of the MDA-MB231, MCF-7, and Caco2 cancer cells when compared to drugs alone. An IC50 value for the combination of HAN with doxorubicin toward MCF-7 is 0.19 ± 0.15 μg/mL and toward MDA-MB231 is 0.13 ± 0.10 μg/mL. Similarly, the IC50 for the combination of HAN with oxaliplatin toward Caco2 is 0.24 ± 0.11 μg/mL. In the antiproliferative results, the equal combination of HAN (0.5 μg/mL) with doxorubicin (0.5 μg/mL) has reduced the cell proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells into 37.3% and 17.6%, respectively after 24 hours. Similarly, the antiproliferation percentage for equal combination HAN with oxaliplatin (5.00 μg/mL) toward Caco2 is 72.7% after 24 hours. Conclusion The resulting combination HAN with drugs has exhibited higher inhibition in cells growth in all cancer cell lines. PMID:23345969

  8. Chemopreventive effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in estrogen-negative human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Joo; Kim, Mi Jie; Kim, Ha Ryong; Yi, Min Sun; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Oh, Seung Min

    2013-01-01

    Excessive level of estrogen is considered as a main cause of breast cancer, therefore, many studies have focused on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, even though ER-negative cancer has a poor prognosis than ER-positive breast cancer. We evaluated the anti-cancer effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in estrogen-independent breast cancer. GBE has been traditionally used as a platelet activating factor, a circulatory stimulant, a tonic, and anti-asthmatic drug, and anti-cancer agent. However, anti-cancer effects of GBE on ER-negative breast cancer have not been proved yet. In this study, we tested chemotherapeutic potential of GBE in the MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative) human breast cancer cell line. Our results showed that cytotoxicity effects of GBE in MDA-MB-231 lead to DNA fragmentation at high concentrations (500 and 1,000 μg/ml). Caspase-3 was significantly activated and mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2 and Bax) were altered. These results indicate that GBE induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. It is presumed that GBE has chemopreventive effects in ER-independent breast cancer through anti-proliferation and apoptosis-inducing activities. PMID:23335025

  9. VI-14, a novel flavonoid derivative, inhibits migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fanni; Li, Chenglin; Zhang, Haiwei; Lu, Zhijian; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Lu, Na; Guo, Qinglong

    2012-06-01

    It has been well characterized that flavonoids possess pronounced anticancer potentials including anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis, and pro-apoptosis. Herein, we report, for the first time, that VI-14, a novel flavonoid derivative, possesses anti-cancer properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-migration and anti-invasion activities of VI-14 in breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that VI-14 inhibits adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells treated with VI-14 display reduced activities and expressions of ECM degradation-associated proteins including matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) at both the protein and mRNA levels. Meanwhile, VI-14 treatment induces an up-regulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and 2 (TIMP-2) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blotting results show that phosphorylation levels of critical components of the MAPK signaling pathway, including ERK, JNK and P38, are dramatically decreased in VI-14-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, treatment of VI-14 significantly decreases the nuclear levels and the binding ability of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Taken together, our data suggest that VI-14 treatment suppresses migration and motility of breast cancer cells, and VI-14 may be a potential compound for cancer therapy. Highlights: ► We report for the first time that VI-14 possesses anti-cancer properties. ► VI-14 weakens the adhesion, migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. ► VI-14 decreases the activities and expressions of MMP-2/9. ► VI-14 suppresses the phosphorylation levels of the MAPK signaling pathway. ► VI-14 decreases the nuclear levels and the binding ability of NF-κB and AP-1.

  10. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by nanobacteria in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-jun; Liu, Sheng-nan; Xu, Ge; Guo, Ya-nan; Fu, Jian-nan; Zhang, De-chun

    2014-01-01

    Background The existing evidence that nanobacteria (NB) are closely associated with human disease is overwhelming. However, their potential toxicity against cancer cells has not yet been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of NB and nanohydroxyapatites (nHAPs) against human breast cancer cells and to elucidate the mechanisms of action underlying their cytotoxicity. Methodology/principal findings NB were isolated from calcified placental tissue, and nHAPs were artificially synthesized. The viability of the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line was tested by using the Kit-8 cell counting kit assay. Apoptosis was examined by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The endocytosis of NB and nHAPs by MDA-MB-231 cells was initially confirmed by microscopy. Although both NB and nHAPs significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 cell viability and increased the population of apoptotic cells, NB were more potent than nHAPs. After 72 hours, NB also caused ultrastructural changes typical of apoptosis, such as chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, nuclear dissolution, mitochondrial swelling, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Conclusion/significance In MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, NB and nHAPs exerted cytotoxic effects that were associated with the induction of apoptosis. The effects exerted by NB were more potent than those induced by nHAPs. NB cytotoxicity probably emerged from toxic metabolites or protein components, rather than merely the hydroxyapatite shells. NB divided during culturing, and similar to cells undergoing binary fission, many NB particles were observed in culture by transmission electron microscopy, suggesting they are live microorganisms. PMID:24403832

  11. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Sliva, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Mushrooms are an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and have been used for millennia to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Currently mushrooms or their extracts are used globally in the form of dietary supplements. In the present study we have evaluated the anticancer effects of the dietary supplement, MycoPhyto® Complex (MC), a novel medicinal mushroom blend which consists of a blend of mushroom mycelia from the species Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Polyporus umbellatus, and β-1,3-glucan isolated from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that MC demonstrates cytostatic effects through the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. DNA-microarray analysis revealed that MC inhibits expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (ANAPC2, ANAPC2, BIRC5, Cyclin B1, Cyclin H, CDC20, CDK2, CKS1B, Cullin 1, E2F1, KPNA2, PKMYT1 and TFDP1). Moreover, MC also suppresses the metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion. The potency of MC to inhibit invasiveness of breast cancer cells is linked to the suppression of secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the MC dietary supplement could have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of invasive human breast cancer. PMID:21042722

  12. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony; White, J Brandon

    2012-10-19

    Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin's ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death. PMID:23000408

  13. pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles induces apoptosis via reduced fatty acid synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Hari, Natarajan; Pavankumar, Padarthi; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2015-06-01

    The development of formulations with therapeutic peptides has been restricted to poor cell penetration and in this attempt; we developed pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM. In addition, the suitable formulation was evaluated for hemocompatibility, plasma stability and embryo toxicity using Danio rerio embryo model. The results showed that pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were compatible with plasma. They possess sustained release pattern and also found to be safe up to 300 mg/L in embryo toxicity tests. Cytotoxicity assays with MDA-MB-231 cell lines suggested that, pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were capable of enhanced cellular penetration and reduced palmitic acid content, which was confirmed by H1 NMR. Hence, these nanoparticles could be employed as excellent adjuvant therapeutics while treating solid tumors with multi-drug resistance.

  14. Changes in cell migration due to the combined effects of sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy on MDA-MB-231 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2015-03-01

    Sono-photodynamic therapy is an emerging method with an increasing amount of research having demonstrated its anti-cancer efficacy. However, the impacts of cell migration ability after sono-photodynamic therapy have seldom been reported. In this study, we identified cell migration by wound healing and transwell assays. Significant inability of cell migration was observed in combined groups accompanied by the decline of cell adhesion. Cells in combined treatment groups showed serious microfilament network collapse as well as decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9. These results suggested that sono-photodynamic therapy could inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell migration and that the microfilament and matrix metalloproteinases-9 disorder might be involved.

  15. pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles induces apoptosis via reduced fatty acid synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Hari, Natarajan; Pavankumar, Padarthi; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2016-06-01

    The development of formulations with therapeutic peptides has been restricted to poor cell penetration and in this attempt; we developed pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM. In addition, the suitable formulation was evaluated for hemocompatibility, plasma stability and embryo toxicity using Danio rerio embryo model. The results showed that pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were compatible with plasma. They possess sustained release pattern and also found to be safe up to 300 mg/L in embryo toxicity tests. Cytotoxicity assays with MDA-MB-231 cell lines suggested that, pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were capable of enhanced cellular penetration and reduced palmitic acid content, which was confirmed by H1 NMR. Hence, these nanoparticles could be employed as excellent adjuvant therapeutics while treating solid tumors with multi-drug resistance.

  16. Notch2 activation is protective against anticancer effects of zerumbone in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sehrawat, Anuradha; Sakao, Kozue; Singh, Shivendra V

    2014-08-01

    We showed previously that zerumbone (ZER), a sesquiterpene isolated from subtropical ginger, inhibited in vitro (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells) and in vivo (MDA-MB-231 cells) growth of human breast cancer cells in association with apoptosis induction. Here, we investigated the role of Notch receptors in anticancer effects of ZER (cell migration inhibition and apoptosis induction) using breast cancer cells. Western blotting was performed to determine protein expression changes. Effect of ZER on transcriptional activity of Notch was assessed by luciferase reporter assays. Transfection with small hairpin RNA or small interfering RNA was performed for knockdown of Notch2 or Presenilin-1 protein. Cell migration and apoptosis were quantitated by Boyden chamber assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Exposure of MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and SUM159 cells to ZER resulted in increased cleavage of Notch2 in each cell line. On the other hand, levels of cleaved Notch1 and Notch4 proteins were decreased following ZER treatment. Increased cleavage of Notch2 in ZER-treated cells was accompanied by induction of Presenilin-1 protein and transcriptional activation of Notch. Inhibition of cell migration as well as apoptosis induction resulting from ZER exposure was significantly augmented by knockdown of Notch2 protein. ZER-mediated cleavage of Notch2 protein in MDA-MB-231 cells was markedly attenuated upon RNA interference of Presenilin-1. Knockdown of Presenilin-1 protein also resulted in escalation of ZER-induced apoptosis. The present study indicates that Notch2 activation by ZER inhibits its proapoptotic and anti-migratory response at least in breast cancer cells. PMID:25038880

  17. Growth inhibition and differentiation of human breast cancer cells by the PAFR antagonist WEB-2086

    PubMed Central

    Cellai, C; Laurenzana, A; Vannucchi, A M; Caporale, R; Paglierani, M; Di Lollo, S; Pancrazzi, A; Paoletti, F

    2006-01-01

    WEB-2086 – an antagonist of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) with known anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic and antileukaemic properties – also proved to inhibit the proliferation in human solid tumour cell lines of different histology, and with much higher efficacy than in normal fibroblasts. A detailed analysis of WEB-2086 anticancer activity was then performed focusing on breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. WEB-2086-treated cells, either expressing (MCF-7) or unexpressing (MDA-MB-231) the oestrogen receptor (ER)α, underwent a dose-dependent growth arrest (IC50=0.65±0.09 and 0.41±0.07 mM, respectively) and accumulation in G0–G1 phase. WEB-2086 also induced morphological and functional changes typical of mature mammary phenotype including (i) cell enlargement and massive neutral lipid deposition (best accomplished in MCF-7 cells); (ii) decrease in motility and active cathepsin D levels (mainly observed in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells). The expression of ERα was neither increased nor reactivated in treated MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. WEB-2086-induced differentiation in breast cancer cells involved the upregulation of PTEN, a key tumour suppressor protein opposing tumorigenesis, and was apparently independent of p53, PAFR, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor and ERα status. Overall, WEB-2086 can be proposed as an effective antiproliferative and differentiative agent with interesting translational opportunities to treat breast cancers in support to conventional chemotherapy. PMID:16721373

  18. Insights on the antitumor effects of kahweol on human breast cancer: Decreased survival and increased production of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Cárdenas, Casimiro; Quesada, Ana R.; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Kahweol inhibits growth and attachment-independent proliferation of tumor cells. • Kahweol induces apoptosis in MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells. • Kahweol-induced apoptosis involves caspase activation and cytochrome c release. • Kahweol does not protect against hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity. • Kahweol increases hydrogen peroxide production by human breast cancer cells. - Abstract: The present study aims to identify the modulatory effects of kahweol, an antioxidant diterpene present in coffee beans, on a panel of human tumor cell lines. Kahweol inhibits tumor cell proliferation and clonogenicity and induces apoptosis in several kinds of human tumor cells. In the estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB231 human breast cancer, the mentioned effects are accompanied by caspases 3/7 and 9 activation and cytochrome c release. On the other hand, kahweol increases the production of reactive oxygen species and their cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells but not in normal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that kahweol is an antitumor compound with inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth and survival, especially against MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

  19. Selective cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell cycle progression, and induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by sesquiterpenoids from Inula lineariifolia Turcz.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Shou-De; Shan, Lei; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2013-01-01

    Four new sesquiterpenoid dimers (lineariifolianoids E–H, 1–4), five new sesquiterpenoids (5–9), and seven known sesquiterpenoids (10–16) were isolated from the aerial parts of Inula lineariifolia Turcz. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analysis and X-ray diffraction studies. The compounds were then evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and one normal breast cell line (MCF-10A). Lineariifolianoid E (1) showed IC50 values of 1.56 μM and 2.75 μM against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. However, lineariifolianoid E demonstrated low toxicity to MCF-10A cells, which indicated a selective cytotoxicity for tumor cells. Further studies also presented that lineariifolianoid E had significant, dose-dependent effects on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. PMID:24044895

  20. Induction of apoptosis and growth arrest in human breast carcinoma cells by a snake (Walterinnesia aegyptia) venom combined with silica nanoparticles: crosstalk between Bcl2 and caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, Mohamed K; Abdel-Maksoud, Mostafa A; Rabah, Danny M; Badr, Gamal

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the snake venom extracted from Walterinnesia aegyptia (WEV) either alone or combined with silica nanoparticles (WEV+NP) enhanced the proliferation of mice immune cells and simultaneously decreased the proliferation of human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-231). However, the molecular mechanism of how this venom induced growth arrest of breast cancer cells has not been studied. In this context, we extended our study to evaluate the anti-tumor potential of WEV and WEV+NP on the human breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, as well as their effects on non-tumorigenic normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10). The IC(50 )values of WEV alone and WEV+NP in these cell lines were determined to be 50 ng/ml and 20 ng/ml, respectively. Interestingly, at these concentrations, the venom did not affect the viability of normal MCF-10 cells and treatment of all these cell lines with NP alone did not affect their viability. Using annexin-V binding assay followed by flow cytometry analysis, we found that combination of WEV with NP strongly induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer cells without significant effect on normal MCF-10 cells. Furthermore, we found that WEV+NP decreased the expression of Bcl2 and enhanced the activation of caspase 3 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Most importantly, WEV+NP-treated breast cancer cells, but not normal MCF-10 cells, exhibited a significant (P<0.05) reduction in actin polymerization and cytoskeletal rearrangement in response to CXCL12. Our data reveal biological effects of WEV or WEV+NP and the underlying mechanisms to fight breast cancer cells. PMID:22854437

  1. The role of annexin A1 in expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and invasion of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyereen; Ko, Jesang; Jang, Sung-Wuk

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluated the effect of ANXA1 on promoting migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANXA1 siRNA inhibits invasion and migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANXA1 regulates MMP-9 expression and activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANX-1 siRNA inhibits the activation of NF-{kappa}B in MDA-MB-231 cells. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of MMP-9 expression and its biological effects on breast cancer development remain obscure. In the current study, we examined the potential role of annexin A1 (ANXA1) in regulating migration and invasion in breast cancer cell lines. Both ANXA1 mRNA and protein are expressed in the highly invasive, hormone-insensitive human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3, but not in the hormone-responsive cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. Downregulation of ANXA1 expression with specific small interfering RNAs (ANXA1 siRNA) in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in decreased cancer cell migration and invasion. Ablation of ANXA1 expression decreases the expression of MMP-9 at both the mRNA and protein levels and also reduces the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, silencing ANXA1 also decreases the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by the suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-{kappa}B) activity. Collectively, these results indicate that ANXA1 functions as a positive regulator of MMP-9 expression and invasion of breast cancer cells through specific activation of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.

  2. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by down-regulation of estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Slivova, Veronika; Sliva, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, an oriental medical mushroom, has been used in Asia for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer. We have previously demonstrated that G. lucidum inhibits growth and induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling in estrogen-independent human breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of G. lucidum on the proliferation of estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) and estrogen-independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that G. lucidum inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells by the modulation of the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappaB signaling. Thus, G. lucidum down-regulated the expression of ERalpha in MCF-7 cells but did not effect the expression of ERbeta in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, G. lucidum inhibited estrogen-dependent as well as constitutive transactivation activity of ER through estrogen response element (ERE) in a reporter gene assay. G. lucidum decreased TNF-alpha-induced (MCF-7) as well as constitutive (MDA-MB-231) activity of NF-kappaB. The inhibition of ER and NF-kappaB pathways resulted in the down-regulation of expression of c-myc, finally suppressing proliferation of estrogen-dependent as well as estrogen-independent cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that G. lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells and contain biologically active compounds with specificity against estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB signaling, and implicate G. lucidum as a suitable herb for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of breast cancer. PMID:16865287

  3. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  4. Promotion of experimental thrombus formation by the procoagulant activity of breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berny-Lang, M. A.; Aslan, J. E.; Tormoen, G. W.; Patel, I. A.; Bock, P. E.; Gruber, A.; McCarty, O. J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The routine observation of tumor emboli in the peripheral blood of patients with carcinomas raises questions about the clinical relevance of these circulating tumor cells. Thrombosis is a common clinical manifestation of cancer, and circulating tumor cells may play a pathogenetic role in this process. The presence of coagulation-associated molecules on cancer cells has been described, but the mechanisms by which circulating tumor cells augment or alter coagulation remains unclear. In this study we utilized suspensions of a metastatic adenocarcinoma cell line, MDA-MB-231, and a non-metastatic breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A, as models of circulating tumor cells to determine the thromobogenic activity of these blood-foreign cells. In human plasma, both metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells and non-metastatic MCF-10A cells significantly enhanced clotting kinetics. The effect of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10A cells on clotting times was cell number-dependent and inhibited by a neutralizing antibody to tissue factor (TF) as well as inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10A cells supported the binding of fluorescently labeled thrombin. Furthermore, in a model of thrombus formation under pressure-driven flow, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10A cells significantly decreased the time to occlusion. Our findings indicate that the presence of breast epithelial cells in blood can stimulate coagulation in a TF-dependent manner, suggesting that tumor cells that enter the circulation may promote the formation of occlusive thrombi under shear flow conditions.

  5. Promotion of experimental thrombus formation by the procoagulant activity of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Berny-Lang, MA; Aslan, JE; Tormoen, GW; Patel, IA; Bock, PE; Gruber, A

    2011-01-01

    The routine observation of tumor emboli in the peripheral blood of patients with carcinomas raises questions about the clinical relevance of these circulating tumor cells. Thrombosis is a common clinical manifestation of cancer and circulating tumor cells may play a pathogenetic role in this process. The presence of coagulation-associated molecules on cancer cells has been described, but the mechanisms by which circulating tumor cells augment or alter coagulation remains unclear. In this study we utilized suspensions of a metastatic adenocarcinoma cell line, MDA-MB-231, and a non-metastatic breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A, as models of circulating tumor cells to determine the thromobogenic activity of these blood-foreign cells. In human plasma, both metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells and non-metastatic MCF-10A cells significantly enhanced clotting kinetics. The effect of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10A cells on clotting times was cell number-dependent and inhibited by a neutralizing antibody to tissue factor (TF) as well as inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin. Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10A cells supported the binding of fluorescently-labeled thrombin. Furthermore, in a model of thrombus formation under pressure-driven flow, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10A cells significantly decreased the time to occlusion. Our findings indicate that the presence of breast epithelial cells in blood can stimulate coagulation in a TF-dependent manner, suggesting that tumor cells that enter the circulation may promote the formation of occlusive thrombi under shear flow conditions. PMID:21301066

  6. Baicalein suppresses metastasis of breast cancer cells by inhibiting EMT via downregulation of SATB1 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xingcong; Yan, Wanjun; Dai, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Yinan; Xu, Quntao; Jiang, Jiantao; Zhang, Shuqun

    2016-01-01

    Background The flavonoid baicalein, a historically used Chinese herbal medicine, shows a wide range of biological and pharmaceutical effects, among which its potent antitumor activity has raised great interest in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antimetastatic effect of baicalein remains poorly understood. This study aimed to verify the inhibitory effects of baicalein on metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, as well as to investigate the related mechanisms. Methods MTT assay was used to examine the inhibition of baicalein on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. Wound healing assay and the in vitro invasion assay was carried out to investigate the effects of baicalein on migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. In order to explore the effects of baicalein on tumor metastasis in vivo, xenograft nude mouse model of MDA-MB-231 cells was established. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (control, therapy group, and low-dose and high-dose prevention group, n=6), and treated with baicalein as designed. Following sacrifice, their lungs and livers were collected to examine the presence of metastases. qRT-PCR and Western blot were performed to study the effects of baicalein on expression of SATB1, EMT-related molecules, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling components of MDA-MB-231 cells as well as the metastatic tissue. Effects of baicalein on the expression of target proteins in vivo were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results Our results indicated that baicalein suppressed proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Based on assays carried out in xenograft nude mouse model, we found that baicalein inhibited tumor metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, baicalein significantly decreased the expression of SATB1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. It suppressed the expression of vimentin and SNAIL while enhancing the expression of E-cadherin. Baicalein

  7. Expression of estrogen receptor α in human breast cancer cells regulates mitochondrial oxidative stress under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong-xia; Tian, Wei-ming; Yan, Hong-ji; Jiang, Hua-dong; Liu, Shan-shan; Yue, Lei; Han, Fang; Wei, Li-jun; Chen, Xiong-biao; Li, Yu

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated intracellular oxidative stress and its underlying mechanisms in a rotary cell culture system used to achieve a simulated microgravity (SMG) environment. Experiments were conducted with human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (an estrogen receptor (ER) α positive cell line) and MDA-MB-231 (an ERα negative cell line) encapsulated in alginate/collagen carriers. After 48 h, SMG led to oxidative stress and DNA damage in the MDA-MB-231 cells but a significant increase in mitochondrial activity and minimal DNA damage in the MCF-7 cells. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in the MCF-7 cells and decreased in MDA-MB-231 cells in the SMG environment compared with a standard gravity control. Moreover, SMG promoted expression of ERα and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon in MCF-7 cells treated with PKC inhibitor Gö6983. Overall, exposure to SMG increased mitochondrial activity in ERα positive cells but induced cellular oxidative damage in ERα negative cells. Thus, ERα may play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress damage under simulated microgravity.

  8. Withaferin A inhibits experimental epithelial-mesenchymal transition in MCF-10A cells and suppresses vimentin protein level in vivo in breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joomin; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Marcus, Adam I; Singh, Shivendra V

    2015-06-01

    We have shown previously that withaferin A (WA), a bioactive component of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of cultured and xenografted human breast cancer cells and prevents breast cancer development and pulmonary metastasis incidence in a transgenic mouse model. The present study was undertaken to determine if the anticancer effect of WA involved inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Experimental EMT induced by exposure of MCF-10A cells to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) was partially reversed by treatment with WA but not by its structural analogs withanone or withanolide A. Combined TNF-α and TGF-β treatments conferred partial protection against MCF-10A cell migration inhibition by WA. Inhibition of TNF-α and TGF-β-induced MCF-10A cell migration by WA exposure was modestly attenuated by knockdown of E-cadherin protein. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to WA exhibited sustained (MCF-7) or transient (MDA-MB-231) induction of E-cadherin protein. On the other hand, the level of vimentin protein was increased markedly after 24 h treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with WA. WA-induced apoptosis was not affected by vimentin protein knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells. Protein level of vimentin was significantly lower in the MDA-MB-231 xenografts as well as in MMTV-neu tumors from WA-treated mice compared with controls. The major conclusions of the present study are that (a) WA treatment inhibits experimental EMT in MCF-10A cells, and (b) mammary cancer growth inhibition by WA administration is associated with suppression of vimentin protein expression in vivo. PMID:24293234

  9. miRNA-10b sponge: An anti-breast cancer study in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Ning; Wu, Cui Yun; Lin, Man-Hua; Liu, Yong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant tumor with the highest incidence among women. Breast cancer metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure and mortality among such patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecular non-coding regulatory RNAs, which act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in breast cancer. miRNA-10b has been found to exhibit a high expression level in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, and is closely related to breast cancer metastasis. An miRNA sponge is an mRNA with several repeated sequences of complete or incomplete complementarity to the natural miRNA in its 3' non-translating region. It acts as a sponge adsorbing miRNAs and ensures their separation from their targets and inhibits their function. The present study designed a sponge plasmid against miRNA-10b and transiently transfected it into high and low metastatic human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and analyzed the effects of the miRNA-10b sponge on the growth and proliferation, migration and invasion in these cell lines. qRT-PCR results found that the sponge plasmid effectively inhibited the expression of miRNA-10b, and upregulated the expression of the miRNA‑10b target protein HOXD-10. The results from the CCK-8 assay found that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Results of the plate cloning experiments indicated that the miRNA-10b sponge suppressed the colony formation of the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results of wound healing and Transwell assays showed that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the migration and invasion of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Our results demonstrated that the miRNA-10b sponge effectively inhibited the growth and proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, it also restrained the migration and invasion of human highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:26820121

  10. miRNA-10b sponge: An anti-breast cancer study in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, AI-LING; ZHANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, NING; WU, CUI YUN; LIN, MAN-HUA; LIU, YONG-JUN

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant tumor with the highest incidence among women. Breast cancer metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure and mortality among such patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small molecular non-coding regulatory RNAs, which act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in breast cancer. miRNA-10b has been found to exhibit a high expression level in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, and is closely related to breast cancer metastasis. An miRNA sponge is an mRNA with several repeated sequences of complete or incomplete complementarity to the natural miRNA in its 3′ non-translating region. It acts as a sponge adsorbing miRNAs and ensures their separation from their targets and inhibits their function. The present study designed a sponge plasmid against miRNA-10b and transiently transfected it into high and low metastatic human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and analyzed the effects of the miRNA-10b sponge on the growth and proliferation, migration and invasion in these cell lines. qRT-PCR results found that the sponge plasmid effectively inhibited the expression of miRNA-10b, and upregulated the expression of the miRNA-10b target protein HOXD-10. The results from the CCK-8 assay found that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Results of the plate cloning experiments indicated that the miRNA-10b sponge suppressed the colony formation of the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The results of wound healing and Transwell assays showed that the miRNA-10b sponge inhibited the migration and invasion of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Our results demonstrated that the miRNA-10b sponge effectively inhibited the growth and proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, it also restrained the migration and invasion of human highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:26820121

  11. Human breast cancer bone metastasis in vitro and in vivo: a novel 3D model system for studies of tumour cell-bone cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Holen, I; Nutter, F; Wilkinson, J M; Evans, C A; Avgoustou, P; Ottewell, Penelope D

    2015-10-01

    Bone is established as the preferred site of breast cancer metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for this preference remain unidentified. In order to improve outcome for patients with advanced breast cancer and skeletal involvement, we need to better understand how this process is initiated and regulated. As bone metastasis cannot be easily studied in patients, researchers have to date mainly relied on in vivo xenograft models. A major limitation of these is that they do not contain a human bone microenvironment, increasingly considered to be an important component of metastases. In order to address this shortcoming, we have developed a novel humanised bone model, where 1 × 10(5) luciferase-expressing MDA-MB-231 or T47D human breast tumour cells are seeded on viable human subchaodral bone discs in vitro. These discs contain functional osteoclasts 2-weeks after in vitro culture and positive staining for calcine 1-week after culture demonstrating active bone resorption/formation. In vitro inoculation of MDA-MB-231 or T47D cells colonised human bone cores and remained viable for <4 weeks, however, use of matrigel to enhance adhesion or a moving platform to increase diffusion of nutrients provided no additional advantage. Following colonisation by the tumour cells, bone discs pre-seeded with MDA-MB-231 cells were implanted subcutaneously into NOD SCID mice, and tumour growth monitored using in vivo imaging for up to 6 weeks. Tumour growth progressed in human bone discs in 80 % of the animals mimicking the later stages of human bone metastasis. Immunohistochemical and PCR analysis revealed that growing MDA-MB-231 cells in human bone resulted in these cells acquiring a molecular phenotype previously associated with breast cancer bone metastases. MDA-MB-231 cells grown in human bone discs showed increased expression of IL-1B, HRAS and MMP9 and decreased expression of S100A4, whereas, DKK2 and FN1 were unaltered compared with the same cells grown in

  12. MOLECULAR EXPRESSION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF VITAMIN C SPECIFIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM (SVCT2) IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Varun; Kwatra, Deep; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to investigate the expression of sodium dependent vitamin C transport system (SVCT2). Moreover this investigation has been carried out to define uptake mechanism and intracellular regulation of ascorbic acid (AA) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1). Uptake of [14C] AA was studied in MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1 cells. Functional parameters of [14C] AA uptake were delineated in the presence of different concentrations of unlabeled AA, pH, temperature, metabolic inhibitors, substrates and structural analogs. Molecular identification of SVCT2 was carried out with reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Uptake of [14C] AA was studied and found to be sodium, chloride, temperature, pH and energy dependent in all breast cancer cell lines. [14C] AA uptake was found to be saturable, with Km values of 53.85±6.24, 49.69±2.83 and 45.44±3.16 μM and Vmax values of 18.45±0.50, 32.50±0.43 and 33.25±0.53 pmol/min/mg protein, across MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1, respectively. The process is inhibited by structural analogs (L-AA and D-Iso AA) but not by structurally unrelated substrates (glucose and PAHA). Ca++/calmodulin and protein kinase pathways appeared to play a crucial role in modulating AA uptake. A 626 bp band corresponding to a vitamin C transporter (SVCT2) based on the primer design was detected by RT-PCR analysis in all breast cancer cell lines. This research article describes AA uptake mechanism, kinetics, and regulation by sodium dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT2) in MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1 cells. Also, MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1 cell lines can be utilized as a valuable in vitro model to investigate absorption and permeability of AA-conjugated chemotherapeutics. PMID:25102111

  13. Molecular expression and functional activity of vitamin C specific transport system (SVCT2) in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Varun; Kwatra, Deep; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-10-20

    The main goal of this study is to investigate the expression of sodium dependent vitamin C transport system (SVCT2). Moreover, this investigation has been carried out to define uptake mechanism and intracellular regulation of ascorbic acid (AA) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1). Uptake of [(14)C] AA was studied in MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1 cells. Functional parameters of [(14)C] AA uptake were delineated in the presence of different concentrations of unlabeled AA, pH, temperature, metabolic inhibitors, substrates and structural analogs. Molecular identification of SVCT2 was carried out with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Uptake of [(14)C] AA was studied and found to be sodium, chloride, temperature, pH and energy dependent in all breast cancer cell lines. [(14)C] AA uptake was found to be saturable, with Km values of 53.85 ± 6.24, 49.69 ± 2.83 and 45.44 ± 3.16 μM and Vmax values of 18.45 ± 0.50, 32.50 ± 0.43 and 33.25 ± 0.53 pmol/min/mg protein, across MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1, respectively. The process is inhibited by structural analogs (l-AA and d-iso AA) but not by structurally unrelated substrates (glucose and PAHA). Ca(++)/calmodulin and protein kinase pathways appeared to play a crucial role in modulating AA uptake. A 626 bp band corresponding to a vitamin C transporter (SVCT2) based on the primer design was detected by RT-PCR analysis in all breast cancer cell lines. This research article describes AA uptake mechanism, kinetics, and regulation by sodium dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT2) in MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1 cells. Also, MDA-MB231, T47D and ZR-75-1 cell lines can be utilized as a valuable in vitro model to investigate absorption and permeability of AA-conjugated chemotherapeutics. PMID:25102111

  14. Morphine Promotes Tumor Angiogenesis and Increases Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Luciano, Antonio; Cuomo, Arturo; Arra, Claudio; Izzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Morphine is considered a highly potent analgesic agent used to relieve suffering of patients with cancer. Several in vitro and in vivo studies showed that morphine also modulates angiogenesis and regulates tumour cell growth. Unfortunately, the results obtained by these studies are still contradictory. In order to better dissect the role of morphine in cancer cell growth and angiogenesis we performed in vitro studies on ER-negative human breast carcinoma cells, MDA.MB231 and in vivo studies on heterotopic mouse model of human triple negative breast cancer, TNBC. We demonstrated that morphine in vitro enhanced the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of MDA.MB231 cells. In vivo studies performed on xenograft mouse model of TNBC revealed that tumours of mice treated with morphine were larger than those observed in other groups. Moreover, morphine was able to enhance the neoangiogenesis. Our data showed that morphine at clinical relevant doses promotes angiogenesis and increases breast cancer progression. PMID:26064880

  15. Modulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I system by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide in human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Favoni, R. E.; de Cupis, A.; Bruno, S.; Yee, D.; Ferrera, A.; Pirani, P.; Costa, A.; Decensi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The potent mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on breast epithelium is inhibited by retinoic acid in oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cell lines. We studied and compared the effects of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide (4-HPR) in terms of growth inhibition and modulation of the IGF-I system in ER+ (MCF-7) and oestrogen receptor-negative (ER-) (MDA-MB231) breast cancer cell lines. Treatment with 1-10 microM 4-HPR for up to 96 h induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation in both breast cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis was much more evident in MCF-7 than in MDA-MB231 cells (30-40% compared with 0-5% respectively at 5 microM for 48 h). Exogenous human recombinant IGF-I (hr-IGF-I)-stimulated cell proliferation was abolished by 1 microM 4-HPR in MCF-7 cells. Immunoreactive IGF-I-like protein concentration in conditioned medium was reduced by 38% in MCF-7 and by 90% in MDA-MB231 cell lines following treatment for 48 h with 5 microM 4-HPR. Western ligand blot analysis showed a reduction of IGF-binding protein 4 (BP4) and BP5 by 67% and 87%, respectively, in MCF-7, whereas IGF-BP4 and -BP1 were reduced by approximately 20% in MDA-MB231 cells. Exposure to 5 microM 4-HPR for 48 h inhibited [125I]IGF-I binding and Scatchard analysis revealed a decrease of more than 50% in maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and a reduced receptor number/cell in both cancer cell lines. Steady-state type I IGF-receptor mRNA levels were reduced by approximately 30% in both tumour cell lines. We conclude that 4-HPR induces a significant down-regulation of the IGF-I system in both ER+ (MCF-7) and ER- (MDA-MB231) breast cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that, in our model, interference with the ER signalling pathway is not the only mechanism of breast cancer growth inhibition by 4-HPR. Images Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9649125

  16. Paclitaxel-Loaded TPGS-b-PCL Nanoparticles: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Cells versus mPEG-b-PCL Nanoparticles and Abraxane®.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Lorena; Legaspi, Maria J; Moretton, Marcela A; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicines have become an attractive platform for the development of novel drug delivery systems in cancer chemotherapy. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) represent one of the best well-investigated nanosized carriers for delivery of antineoplastic compounds. The "Pegylation strategy" of drug delivery systems has been used in order to improve carrier biodistribution, however, some nanosized systems with PEG on their surface have exhibited poorly-cellular drug internalization. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to compare in vitro performance of two paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NPs systems based on two biocompatible copolymers of alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (TPGS-b-PCL) and methoxyPEG- block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-PCL) in terms of citotoxicity and PTX cellular uptake. Fur- thermore, TPGS-b-PCL NPs were also copared with the commercially available PTX nano-sized formulation Abraxane®. Both TPGS-b-PCL and mPEG-b-PCL derivates were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone employing microwaved radiation. NPs were obtained by a solvent evaporation technique where the PTX content was determined by reverse-phase HPLC. The resulting NPs had an average size between 200 and 300 nm with a narrow size distribution. Also both NPs systems showed a spherical shape. The in vitro PTX release profile from the NPs was characterized employing the dialysis membrane method where all drug-loaded formulations showed a sustained and slow release of PTX. Finally, in vitro assays demonstrated that PTX-loaded TPGS- b-PCL exhibited a significant higher antitumor activity than PTX-loaded mPEG-b-PCL NPs and Abraxane® against an estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) and an estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells lines. Furthermore TPGS-b-PCL NPs showed a significant increase on PTX cellular uptake, for both breast cell lines, in comparison with mPEG-b-PCL NPs and Abraxane®. Overall findings confirmed

  17. A novel curcumin-like dienone induces apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Escajeda, Elisa; Das, Umashankar; Ortega, Nora M.; Parra, Karla; Francia, Giulio; Dimmock, Jonathan R.; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Aguilera, Renato J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose According to the World Health Organization (WHO), breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. In the USA ~12.3 % of all women are expected to be diagnosed with various types of breast cancer, exhibiting varying degrees of therapeutic response rates. Therefore, the identification of novel anti-breast cancer drugs is of paramount importance. Methods The 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadienyl pharmacophore was incorporated into a number of cytotoxins. Three of the resulting dienones, 2a, 2b and 2c, were tested for their antineoplastic potencies in a variety of human breast cancer-derived cell lines, including the triple negative MDA-MB-231 cell line and its metastatic variant, using a live-cell bio-imaging method. Special emphasis was put on dienone 2c, since its anti-cancer activity and its mode of inflicting cell death have so far not been reported. Results We found that all three dienones exhibited potent cytotoxicities towards the breast cancer-derived cell lines tested, whereas significantly lower toxicities were observed towards the non-cancerous human breast cell line MCF-10A. The dienones 2b and 2c exhibited the greatest selective cytotoxicity at submicromolar concentration levels. We found that these two dienones induced phosphatidylserine externalization in MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that their cytotoxic effect might be mediated by apoptosis. This possibility was confirmed by our observation that the dienone 2c can induce mitochondrial depolarization, caspase-3 activation, cell cycle disruption and DNA fragmentation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusion Our findings indicate that dienone 2c uses the mitochondrial/intrinsic pathway to inflict apoptosis in triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer-derived cells. This observation warrants further assessment of dienone 2c as a potential anti-breast cancer drug. PMID:26920032

  18. Targeting ceramide metabolic pathway induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vethakanraj, Helen Shiphrah; Babu, Thabraz Ahmed; Sudarsanan, Ganesh Babu; Duraisamy, Prabhu Kumar; Ashok Kumar, Sekar

    2015-08-28

    The sphingolipid ceramide is a pro apoptotic molecule of ceramide metabolic pathway and is hydrolyzed to proliferative metabolite, sphingosine 1 phosphate by the action of acid ceramidase. Being upregulated in the tumors of breast, acid ceramidase acts as a potential target for breast cancer therapy. We aimed at targeting this enzyme with a small molecule acid ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 in human breast cancer cell lines MCF 7 and MDA MB 231. Ceranib 2 effectively inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in dose and time dependant manner. Morphological apoptotic hallmarks such as chromatin condensation, fragmented chromatin were observed in AO/EtBr staining. Moreover, ladder pattern of fragmented DNA observed in DNA gel electrophoresis proved the apoptotic activity of Ceranib 2 in breast cancer cell lines. The apoptotic events were associated with significant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bad, Bax and Bid) and down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl 2). Interestingly, increase in sub G1 population of cell cycle phase analysis and elevated Annexin V positive cells after Ceranib 2 treatment substantiated its apoptotic activity in MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines. Thus, we report Ceranib 2 as a potent therapeutic agent against both ER{sup +} and ER{sup −} breast cancer cell lines. - Highlights: • Acid Ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 induced apoptosis in Breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines). • Apoptosis is mediated by DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. • Ceranib 2 upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and down regulated anti-apoptotic gene expression. • More potent compared to the standard drug Tamoxifen.

  19. Ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging for the selective detection of EGFR-expressing breast cancer and lymph node metastases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meihua; Kim, Hoe Suk; Jin, Tiefeng; Yi, Ann; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the use of ultrasound (US)-guided photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and anti-EGFR antibody-conjugated gold nanorods (anti-EGFR-GNs) to non-invasively detect EGFR-expressing primary tumor masses and regional lymph node (LN) metastases in breast tumor mice generated by injecting MCF-7 (EGFR-negative) or MDA-MB-231 (EGFR-positive) human breast cells using a preclinical Vevo 2100 LAZR Imaging system. Anti-EGFR-GNs provided a significant enhancement in the PA signal in MDA-MB-231 tumor and the axillary LN metastases relative to MCF-7 tumor and non-LN metastases. We demonstrated that US-guided PAI using anti-EGFR-GNs is highly sensitive for the selective visualization of EGFR-expressing breast primary tumors as well as LN micrometastases. PMID:27231631

  20. Ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging for the selective detection of EGFR-expressing breast cancer and lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meihua; Kim, Hoe Suk; Jin, Tiefeng; Yi, Ann; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the use of ultrasound (US)-guided photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and anti-EGFR antibody-conjugated gold nanorods (anti-EGFR-GNs) to non-invasively detect EGFR-expressing primary tumor masses and regional lymph node (LN) metastases in breast tumor mice generated by injecting MCF-7 (EGFR-negative) or MDA-MB-231 (EGFR-positive) human breast cells using a preclinical Vevo 2100 LAZR Imaging system. Anti-EGFR-GNs provided a significant enhancement in the PA signal in MDA-MB-231 tumor and the axillary LN metastases relative to MCF-7 tumor and non-LN metastases. We demonstrated that US-guided PAI using anti-EGFR-GNs is highly sensitive for the selective visualization of EGFR-expressing breast primary tumors as well as LN micrometastases. PMID:27231631

  1. Salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaolan; Zhang, Xianqi; Qiu, Shuifeng; Yu, Daihua; Lin, Shuxin

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Salidroside inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells. {yields} Salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells. {yields} Salidroside induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Recently, salidroside (p-hydroxyphenethyl-{beta}-D-glucoside) has been identified as one of the most potent compounds isolated from plants of the Rhodiola genus used widely in traditional Chinese medicine, but pharmacokinetic data on the compound are unavailable. We were the first to report the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on cancer cell lines derived from different tissues, and we found that human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells (estrogen receptor negative) were sensitive to the inhibitory action of low-concentration salidroside. To further investigate the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on breast cancer cells and reveal possible ER-related differences in response to salidroside, we used MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells (estrogen receptor-positive) as models to study possible molecular mechanisms; we evaluated the effects of salidroside on cell growth characteristics, such as proliferation, cell cycle duration, and apoptosis, and on the expression of apoptosis-related molecules. Our results demonstrated for the first time that salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and may be a promising candidate for breast cancer treatment.

  2. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 3-N-Substituted Estrogen Derivatives as Breast Cancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Zhongliang; Musa, Musiliyu A; Joseph, Patrick; Cooperwood, John S.

    2013-01-01

    3-N-substituted-estrogen derivatives were synthesized and characterized. Their antiproliferative activities against human ER (+) MCF-7 (Breast), ER (−) MDA-MB-231 (breast) and Ishikawa (endometrial) cancer cell lines were determined after 72 hours drug exposure employing CellTiter-Glo assay at concentrations ranging from (0.01-100,000 nM). The antiproliferative activities of these compounds were compared to tamoxifen (TAM), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT, active metabolite of tamoxifen) and raloxifene (RAL). In vitro results indicated that compound 5 (IC50 = 12μM) displayed comparable antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB 231 cell line; while compounds 6, 7 and 13 (IC50 = 12μM) displayed higher activity against MCF-7 and Ishikawa cell lines, in comparison to TAM activity (19-33μM). PMID:22876946

  3. Flavonoid-induced autophagy in hormone sensitive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Elisa; Pinton, Giulia; Bellini, Paolo; Minassi, Alberto; Appendino, Giovanni; Moro, Laura

    2009-09-01

    The activity of 8-prenylapigenin (8-PA) and its 3'-methoxylated analogue isocannflavin B (IsoB) was investigated in estrogen-dependent T47-D and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. 8-PA showed a biphasic effect on T47-D cell proliferation, while no significant effect was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, IsoB exhibited only an inhibitory effect on T47-D cell proliferation, accompanied by the appearance of an intense intracytoplasmic vacuolization of autophagic origin. Moreover, biochemical analysis showed that IsoB reduced Akt phosphorylation and p21(Cip1) expression in T47-D cells. These data show that the prenylflavone moiety is a versatile platform for the induction and modulation of bioactivity. PMID:19371773

  4. COX-2 dependent regulation of mechanotransduction in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, A-Rum; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Kim, Jae Hun; Yong, Hwan Mee; Kilic, Onur; Wirtz, Denis; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; An, Steven S

    2015-01-01

    The ability of living cells to exert physical forces upon their surrounding is a necessary prerequisite for diverse biological processes, such as local cellular migrations in wound healing to metastatic-invasion of cancer. How forces are coopted in metastasis has remained unclear, however, because the mechanical interplay between cancer cells and the various stromal components has not been experimentally accessible. Current dogma implicates inflammation in these mechanical processes. Using Fourier transform traction microscopy, we measured the force-generating capacity of human breast cancer cells occupying a spectrum of invasiveness as well as basal and inducible COX-2 expression (MCF-7MDA-MB-231). Compared with non-invasive MCF-7 and moderately-invasive SUM-149, poorly-differentiated MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased cellular dispersion on collagen matrix that was accompanied by emergent distribution of contractile stresses at the interface between the adherent cell and its substrate, defined herein as the traction field. In metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, the local tractions were precisely tuned to the surrounding matrix rigidity in a physiologic range with the concomitant expression of mechanosensitive integrin β1. These discrete responses at the single-cell resolution were correlated with PGE2 secretion and were ablated by shRNA-mediated knockdown of COX-2. Both COX-2-silenced and COX-2-expressing cells expressed EP2 and EP4 receptors, but not EP1 and EP3. Exogenous addition of PGE2 increased cell tractions and stiffened the underlying cytoskeletal network. To our knowledge this is the first report linking the expression of COX-2 with mechanotransduction of human breast cancer cells, and the regulation of COX-2-PGE2-EP signaling with physical properties of the tumor microenvironment. Drug treatments aimed at reducing this mechanical interplay may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25701047

  5. Systemic Delivery of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing Decorin for the Treatment of Breast Cancer Bone Metastases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuefeng; Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Hu, Zebin; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R; Guise, Theresa; Yun, Chae-Ok; Brendler, Charles B; Iozzo, Renato V; Seth, Prem

    2015-12-01

    The development of novel therapies for breast cancer bone metastasis is a major unmet medical need. Toward that end, we have constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad.dcn, and a nonreplicating adenovirus, Ad(E1-).dcn, both containing the human decorin gene. Our in vitro studies showed that Ad.dcn produced high levels of viral replication and the decorin protein in the breast tumor cells. Ad(E1-).dcn-mediated decorin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells downregulated the expression of Met, β-catenin, and vascular endothelial growth factor A, all of which are recognized decorin targets and play pivotal roles in the progression of breast tumor growth and metastasis. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited cell migration and induced mitochondrial autophagy in MDA-MB-231 cells. Mice bearing MDA-MB-231-luc skeletal metastases were systemically administered with the viral vectors, and skeletal tumor growth was monitored over time. The results of bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography indicated that Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn significantly inhibited the progression of bone metastases. At the terminal time point, histomorphometric analysis, micro-computed tomography, and bone destruction biomarkers showed that Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn reduced tumor burden and inhibited bone destruction. A nonreplicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).luc expressing the luciferase 2 gene had no significant effect on inhibiting bone metastases, and in several assays, Ad.dcn and Ad(E1-).dcn were better than Ad.luc, a replicating virus expressing the luciferase 2 gene. Our data suggest that adenoviral replication coupled with decorin expression could produce effective antitumor responses in a MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis model of breast cancer. Thus, Ad.dcn could potentially be developed as a candidate gene therapy vector for treating breast cancer bone metastases. PMID:26467629

  6. Ethyl gallate suppresses proliferation and invasion in human breast cancer cells via Akt-NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongxia; Yuan, Jiaxin; Du, Xiaohui; Wang, Ming; Yue, Liling; Liu, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    Euphorbia fischeriana Steud is a traditional Chinese Medicine that is known to possess a variety of anticarcinogenic properties. However, the bioactive constituents in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and molecular mechanisms underlying this action in cancer treatment remain poorly understood. The present study investigated the chemotherapy activity and molecular targets of Ethyl gallate, which is identified as the major constituent extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud in breast cancer cell lines in vitro. The results showed Ethyl gallate obviously decreased cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells were found to be highly sensitive to treatment. Furthermore, significantly decreased metastatic potential of highly metastatic MDA-MB‑231 cells by Ethyl gallate was identified via the inhibition of cell motility using invasion and migration through a polyethylene terephthalate membrane. Ethyl gallate treatment decreased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 by the downregulation of mRNA levels using RT-PCR, enzymes that are critical to tumor invasion. Treatment with Ethyl gallate decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results indicate that Ethyl gallate suppresses proliferation and invasion in human breast cancer cells by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway, which may contribute to inhibiting their downstream targets such as NF-κB p-65, Bcl-2/Bax, and mRNA levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in breast cancer cells. Thus, the present study shed new light on Ethyl gallate, an important bioactive constituent of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, in human breast cancer treatment. The findings may provide basal theories for wide therapeutic application in human breast cancer. PMID:25522911

  7. Deferoxamine-induced increase in the intracellular iron levels in highly aggressive breast cancer cells leads to increased cell migration by enhancing TNF-α-dependent NF-κB signaling and TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; He, Kun; Song, Hongjiao; Ma, Zhufeng; Yin, Weihai; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that excess iron accumulation may be a risk factor for breast cancer. However the role of iron in breast cancer metastasis has remained unclear. The major goal of our study is to investigate the roles of iron in breast cancer metastasis. We modulated the intracellular iron levels of human breast cancer cells, including the aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells and non-aggressive MCF-7 cells, by using Deferoxamine (DFO) - a most widely used iron chelator. We found that DFO treatment could deplete intracellular iron in MCF-7 cells. In contrast, DFO treatment led to a significant increase in the intracellular iron level in MDA-MB-231 cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells with the increased intracellular iron level exhibited increases in both mesenchymal markers and cell migration. Furthermore, the DFO-treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed increases in both tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, which could contribute to the enhanced cell migration. Collectively, our study has provided the first evidence suggesting that increased intracellular iron levels could lead to enhanced migration of aggressive breast cancer cells by increasing TNF-α-dependent NF-κB signaling and TGF-β signaling. Our study has also suggested that caution should be taken when DFO is applied for treating breast cancer cells, since DFO could produce differential effects on the intracellular iron levels for aggressive breast cancer cells and non-aggressive breast cancer cells. PMID:27138103

  8. Recombinant epoetins do not stimulate tumor growth in erythropoietin receptor-positive breast carcinoma models.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Kenneth R; Butler, Jeannene; Marshall, Deborah J; Tullai, Jennifer; Gechtman, Ze'ev; Hall, Chassidy; Meshaw, Alan; Farrell, Francis X

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the significance of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression following treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO; epoetin alpha) and the effect of recombinant epoetins (epoetin alpha, epoetin beta, and darbepoetin alpha) alone or in combination with anticancer therapy on tumor growth in two well-established preclinical models of breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines). Expression and localization of EPOR under hypoxic and normoxic conditions in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were evaluated by immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. EPOR binding was evaluated using [125I]rHuEPO. Proliferation, migration, and signaling in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells following treatment with rHuEPO were evaluated. Tumor growth was assessed following administration of recombinant epoetins alone and in combination with paclitaxel (anticancer therapy) in orthotopically implanted MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast carcinoma xenograft models in athymic mice. EPOR expression was detected in both tumor cell lines. EPOR localization was found to be exclusively cytosolic and no specific [125I]rHuEPO binding was observed. There was no stimulated migration, proliferation, or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT following rHuEPO treatment. In mice, treatment with recombinant epoetins alone and in combination with paclitaxel resulted in equivalent tumor burdens compared with vehicle-treated controls. Results from our study suggest that although EPOR expression was observed in two well-established breast carcinoma cell lines, it was localized to a cytosolic distribution and did not transduce a signaling cascade in tumors that leads to tumor growth. The addition of recombinant epoetins to paclitaxel did not affect the outcome of paclitaxel therapy in breast carcinoma xenograft models. These results show that recombinant epoetins do not evoke a physiologic response on EPOR-bearing tumor cells as assessed by numerous variables

  9. Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) Diethyldithiocarbamate Complexes Show Various Activities Against the Proteasome in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cvek, Boris; Milacic, Vesna; Taraba, Jan; Dou, Q. Ping

    2008-01-01

    A series of three complexes with diethyldithiocarbamate ligand and three different metals (Ni, Cu, Zn) was prepared, confirmed by X-ray crystallography, and tested in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Zinc and copper complexes, but not nickel complex, were found to be more active against cellular 26S proteasome than against purified 20S proteasome core particle. One of the possible explanations is inhibition of JAMM domain in the 19S proteasome lid. PMID:18816109

  10. Discovery of novel osthole derivatives as potential anti-breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    You, Lisha; An, Rui; Wang, Xinhong; Li, Yimin

    2010-12-15

    Osthole, an ingredient of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) from natural product Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, was used as a lead compound for structural modification. A series of osthole derivatives bearing aryl substituents at 3-position of coumarin, has been prepared and evaluated for their growth inhibitory activity against human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Interestingly, some derivatives exhibited good inhibition, among them compound 8e was found to be the most potent compound with IC(50) values of 0.24 μM, 0.31 μM against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively, which was improved more than 100-folds compared with its parent compound osthole. PMID:21051232

  11. Lymphatic endothelial cells support tumor growth in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor lymphatic vessels (LV) serve as a conduit of tumor cell dissemination, due to their leaky nature and secretion of tumor-recruiting factors. Though lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) lining the LV express distinct factors (also called lymphangiocrine factors), these factors and their roles in the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Here we employ LEC, microvascular endothelial cells (MEC), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 tumor-conditioned media (TCM) to determine the factors that may be secreted by various EC in the MDA-MB-231 breast tumor. These factors will serve as endothelium derived signaling molecules in the tumor microenvironment. We co-injected these EC with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into animals and showed that LEC support tumor growth, HUVEC have no significant effect on tumor growth, whereas MEC suppress it. Focusing on LEC-mediated tumor growth, we discovered that TCM-treated LEC (‘tumor-educated LEC') secrete high amounts of EGF and PDGF-BB, compared to normal LEC. LEC-secreted EGF promotes tumor cell proliferation. LEC-secreted PDGF-BB induces pericyte infiltration and angiogenesis. These lymphangiocrine factors may support tumor growth in the tumor microenvironment. This study shows that LV serve a novel role in the tumor microenvironment apart from their classical role as conduits of metastasis. PMID:25068296

  12. Smad6 determines BMP-regulated invasive behaviour of breast cancer cells in a zebrafish xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    de Boeck, Miriam; Cui, Chao; Mulder, Aat A; Jost, Carolina R; Ikeno, Souichi; ten Dijke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family is known to play critical roles in cancer progression. While the dual role of TGF-β is well described, the function of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is unclear. In this study, we established the involvement of Smad6, a BMP-specific inhibitory Smad, in breast cancer cell invasion. We show that stable overexpression of Smad6 in breast cancer MCF10A M2 cells inhibits BMP signalling, thereby mitigating BMP6-induced suppression of mesenchymal marker expression. Using a zebrafish xenograft model, we demonstrate that overexpression of Smad6 potentiates invasion of MCF10A M2 cells and enhances the aggressiveness of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo, whereas a reversed phenotype is observed after Smad6 knockdown. Interestingly, BMP6 pre-treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells induced cluster formation at the invasive site in the zebrafish. BMP6 also stimulated cluster formation of MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured on Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMEC)-1 in vitro. Electron microscopy illustrated an induction of cell-cell contact by BMP6. The clinical relevance of our findings is highlighted by a correlation of high Smad6 expression with poor distant metastasis free survival in ER-negative cancer patients. Collectively, our data strongly indicates the involvement of Smad6 and BMP signalling in breast cancer cell invasion in vivo. PMID:27113436

  13. Smad6 determines BMP-regulated invasive behaviour of breast cancer cells in a zebrafish xenograft model.

    PubMed

    de Boeck, Miriam; Cui, Chao; Mulder, Aat A; Jost, Carolina R; Ikeno, Souichi; Ten Dijke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family is known to play critical roles in cancer progression. While the dual role of TGF-β is well described, the function of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is unclear. In this study, we established the involvement of Smad6, a BMP-specific inhibitory Smad, in breast cancer cell invasion. We show that stable overexpression of Smad6 in breast cancer MCF10A M2 cells inhibits BMP signalling, thereby mitigating BMP6-induced suppression of mesenchymal marker expression. Using a zebrafish xenograft model, we demonstrate that overexpression of Smad6 potentiates invasion of MCF10A M2 cells and enhances the aggressiveness of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo, whereas a reversed phenotype is observed after Smad6 knockdown. Interestingly, BMP6 pre-treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells induced cluster formation at the invasive site in the zebrafish. BMP6 also stimulated cluster formation of MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured on Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMEC)-1 in vitro. Electron microscopy illustrated an induction of cell-cell contact by BMP6. The clinical relevance of our findings is highlighted by a correlation of high Smad6 expression with poor distant metastasis free survival in ER-negative cancer patients. Collectively, our data strongly indicates the involvement of Smad6 and BMP signalling in breast cancer cell invasion in vivo. PMID:27113436

  14. A novel and selective inhibitor of PKC ζ potently inhibits human breast cancer metastasis in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Shuye; Fan, Zhijuan; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Yaqiong; Yang, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Cell motility and chemotaxis play pivotal roles in the process of tumor development and metastasis. Protein kinase C ζ (PKC ζ) mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated chemotactic signaling pathway through regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. The purpose of this study was to develop anti-PKC ζ therapeutics for breast cancer metastasis. In this study, a novel and high-efficient PKC ζ inhibitor named PKCZI195.17 was screened out through a substrate-specific strategy. MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MCF-7 cells while under PKCZI195.17 treatment. Wound-healing, chemotaxis, and Matrigel invasion assays were performed to detect the effects of PKCZI195.17 on breast cancer cells migration and invasion. Adhesion, actin polymerization, and Western blotting were performed to detect the effects of PKCZI195.17 on cells adhesion and actin polymerization, and explore the downsteam signaling mechanisms involved in PKC ζ inhibition. MDA-MB-231 xenograft was used to measure the in vivo anti-metastasis efficacy of PKCZI195.17. The compound PKCZI195.17 selectively inhibited PKC ζ kinase activity since it failed to inhibit PKC α, PKC β, PKC δ, PKC η, AKT2, as well as FGFR2 activity. PKCZI195.17 significantly impaired spontaneous migration, chemotaxis, and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MCF-7 cells, while PKCZI195.17 did not obviously inhibited cells viability. PKCZI195.17 also inhibited cells adhesion and actin polymerization through attenuating the phosphorylations of integrin β1, LIMK, and cofilin, which might be the downstream effectors of PKC ζ-mediated chemotaxis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, PKCZI195.17 suppressed the breast cancer metastasis and increased the survival time of breast tumor-bearing mice. In summary, PKCZI195.17 was a PKC ζ-specific inhibitor which dampened cancer cell migration and metastasis and may serve as a novel

  15. An MMP13-Selective Inhibitor Delays Primary Tumor Growth and the Onset of Tumor-Associated Osteolytic Lesions in Experimental Models of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manisha; Huang, Dexing; Blick, Tony; Connor, Andrea; Reiter, Lawrence A.; Hardink, Joel R.; Lynch, Conor C.; Waltham, Mark; Thompson, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13)-selective inhibitor, 5-(4-{4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-oxazol-2-yl]phenoxy}phenoxy)-5-(2-methoxyethyl) pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (Cmpd-1), on the primary tumor growth and breast cancer-associated bone remodeling using xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. We used human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells inoculated into the mammary fat pad and left ventricle of BALB/c Nu/Nu mice, respectively, and spontaneously metastasizing 4T1.2-Luc mouse mammary cells inoculated into mammary fat pad of BALB/c mice. In a prevention setting, treatment with Cmpd-1 markedly delayed the growth of primary tumors in both models, and reduced the onset and severity of osteolytic lesions in the MDA-MB-231 intracardiac model. Intervention treatment with Cmpd-1 on established MDA-MB-231 primary tumors also significantly inhibited subsequent growth. In contrast, no effects of Cmpd-1 were observed on soft organ metastatic burden following intracardiac or mammary fat pad inoculations of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1.2-Luc cells respectively. MMP13 immunostaining of clinical primary breast tumors and experimental mice tumors revealed intra-tumoral and stromal expression in most tumors, and vasculature expression in all. MMP13 was also detected in osteoblasts in clinical samples of breast-to-bone metastases. The data suggest that MMP13-selective inhibitors, which lack musculoskeletal side effects, may have therapeutic potential both in primary breast cancer and cancer-induced bone osteolysis. PMID:22253746

  16. The role of Kif4A in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Lu, Changqing; Li, Qing; Xie, Jun; Chen, Tongbing; Tan, Yan; Wu, Changping; Jiang, Jingting

    2014-11-01

    This study was to investigate the mechanism and role of Kif4A in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer. Using two human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (with wild-type p53) and MDA-MB-231 (with mutant p53), we quantitated the expression levels of kinesin super-family protein 4A (Kif4A) and poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) by Western blot after doxorubicin treatment and examined the apoptosis by flow cytometry after treatment with doxorubicin and PARP-1 inhibitor, 3-Aminobenzamide (3-ABA). Our results showed that doxorubicin treatment could induce the apoptosis of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the down-regulation of Kif4A and upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The activity of PARP-1 or PARP-1 activation was significantly elevated by doxorubicin treatment in dose- and time-dependent manners (P < 0.05), while doxorubicin treatment only slightly elevated the level of cleaved fragments of PARP-1 (P > 0.05). We further demonstrated that overexpression of Kif4A could reduce the level of PAR and significantly increase apoptosis. The effect of doxorubicin on apoptosis was more profound in MCF-7 cells compared with MDA-MB-231 cells (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that the novel role of Kif4A in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells is achieved by inhibiting the activity of PARP-1. PMID:25377255

  17. Thymoquinone Could Increase The Efficacy of Tamoxifen Induced Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganji-Harsini, Sedigheh; Khazaei, Mozafar; Rashidi, Zahra; Ghanbari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Thymoquinone (TQ), as the main component of Nigella Sativa plant, shows anticancer properties. This study was aimed to evaluate the combined effect of TQ and Tamoxifen (TAM) on viability and apoptosis of human breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, estrogen positive MCF-7 and estrogen negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines were induced by TAM (2 µM) or different doses of TQ (50, 75, 100, 150 µM), individually or in combination. Cell viability and apoptosis were investigated by MTT assay and TdT-mediated deoxy-uracil nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay; Acridine orange (AO)/Ethidium bromide (EB) staining respectively. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results In 24 hours treatment, TAM and all doses of TQ, solely or in combination, significantly reduced cell viability of both cell lines, except in MCF-7 cells treated with 50 µM TQ, and MDA-MB-231 cells treated with 50 or 75 µM TQ (P<0.01). After 48 hours treatment, cell viability of both cell lines was reduced in all treated groups (P<0.05). Remarkable apoptotic index was observed in combination treatment of MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cell lines with TAM and TQ (P<0.001). Conclusion The synergistic effect of TQ and TAM on human breast cancer cell lines showed cell viability reduction as well as apoptosis induction, independent to estrogen. PMID:27540530

  18. Contrasting effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on breast cancer cell response to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Nina; Juvan, Peter; Sersa, Gregor; Debeljak, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    Background Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEpo) that is used for the treatment of the chemotherapy-induced anaemia in cancer patients was shown to cause detrimental effects on the course of disease due to increased adverse events inflicting patient’s survival, potentially related to rHuEpo-induced cancer progression. In this study, we elucidate the effect of rHuEpo administration on breast cancer cell proliferation and gene expression after cisplatin (cDDP) induced cytotoxicity. Materials and methods Two breast carcinoma models, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, were used differing in oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and p53 status. Cells were cultured with or without rHuEpo for 24 h or 9 weeks and their growth characteristics after cDDP treatment were assessed together with expression of genes involved in the p53-signaling pathway. Results Short-term exposure of breast cancer cells to rHuEpo lowers their proliferation and reduces cDDP cytotoxic potency. In contrast, long-term exposure of MCF-7 cells to rHuEpo increases proliferation and predisposes MCF-7 cells to cDDP cytotoxicity, but has no effect on MDA-MB-231 cells. MDA-MB-231 cells show altered level of ERK phosphorylation, indicating involvement of MAPK signalling pathway. Gene expression analysis of p53-dependent genes and bcl-2 gene family members confirmed differences between long and short-term rHuEpo effects, indicating the most prominent changes in BCL2 and BAD expression. Conclusions Proliferation and survival characteristics of MCF-7 cells are reversely modulated by the length of the rHuEpo exposure. On the other hand, MDA-MB-231 cells are almost irresponsive to long-term rHuEpo, supposedly due to the mutated p53 and ER(+)/PR(−) status. The p53 and ER/PR status may predict tumour response on rHuEpo and cDDP treatment. PMID:23077460

  19. Induction of lethal bystander effects in human breast cancer cell cultures by DNA-incorporated Iodine-125 depends on phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Akudugu, John M.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Howell, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study uses a three-dimensional cell culture model to investigate lethal bystander effects in human breast cancer cell cultures (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) treated with 125I-labeled 5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine (125IdU). These breast cancer cell lines respectively form metastatic xenografts in nude mice in an estrogen-dependent and independent manner. Materials and methods In the present study, these cells were cultured in loosely-packed three-dimensional architecture in a Cytomatrix™ carbon scaffold. Cultures were pulse-labeled for 3 h with 125IdU to selectively irradiate a minor fraction of cells, and simultaneously co-pulse-labeled with 0.04 mM 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) to identify the radiolabeled cells using Click-iT® EdU and flow cytometry. The cultures were then washed and incubated for 48 h. The cells were then harvested, serially diluted, and seeded for colony formation. Aliquots of cells were subjected to flow cytometry to determine the percentage of cells labeled with 125IdU/EdU. Additional aliquots were used to determine the mean 125I activity per labeled cell. The percentage of labeled cells was about 15% and 10% for MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. This created irradiation conditions wherein the cross-dose to unlabeled cells was small relative to the self-dose to labeled cells. The surviving fraction relative to EdU-treated controls was measured. Results Survival curves indicated significant lethal bystander effect in MCF-7 cells, however, no significant lethal bystander effect was observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate the capacity of 125IdU to induce lethal bystander effects in human breast cancer cells and suggest that the response depends on phenotype. PMID:22489958

  20. Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells by an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Liliana; Araújo, Isabel; Costa, Tito; Correia-Branco, Ana; Faria, Ana; Martel, Fátima; Keating, Elisa

    2013-07-15

    In this study we characterized {sup 3}H-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 3}H -DG) uptake by the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF7 and the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines and investigated the effect of quercetin (QUE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) upon {sup 3}H-DG uptake, glucose metabolism and cell viability and proliferation. In both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells {sup 3}H-DG uptake was (a) time-dependent, (b) saturable with similar capacity (V{sub max}) and affinity (K{sub m}), (c) potently inhibited by cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), (d) sodium-independent and (e) slightly insulin-stimulated. This suggests that {sup 3}H-DG uptake by both cell types is mediated by members of the GLUT family, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4 or GLUT12, while being independent of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1). QUE and EGCG markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited {sup 3}H-DG uptake by MCF7 and by MDA-MB-231 cells, and both compounds blocked lactate production by MCF7 cells. Additionally, a 4 h-treatment with QUE or EGCG decreased MCF7 cell viability and proliferation, an effect that was more potent when glucose was available in the extracellular medium. Our results implicate QUE and EGCG as metabolic antagonists in breast cancer cells, independently of estrogen signalling, and suggest that these flavonoids could serve as therapeutic agents/adjuvants even for ER-negative breast tumors. -- Highlights: • Glucose uptake by MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells is mainly mediated by GLUT1. • QUE and EGCG inhibit cellular glucose uptake thus abolishing the Warburg effect. • This process induces cytotoxicity and proliferation arrest in MCF7 cells. • The flavonoids’ effects are independent of estrogen receptor signalling.

  1. Antiproliferative effect of the Ginkgo biloba extract is associated with the enhancement of cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIAO-DAN; DONG, NI; MAN, HONG-TAO; FU, ZHONG-LIN; ZHANG, MEI-HONG; KOU, SHUANG; MA, SHI-LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a dioecious tree and its extract is a complex mixture that has been used for thousands of years to treat a variety of ailments in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to present our observations on the inhibitory effects of different Ginkgo biloba extracts on human breast cancer cell proliferation and growth. Our results demonstrated that treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with Ginkgo biloba leaves and ginkgo fruit extract inhibited cell proliferation. It was also observed that this inhibition was accompanied by the enhancement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, treatment with ginkgo fruit extract resulted in a higher CYP1B1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells compared to treatment with the Ginkgo biloba leaves extract. Our results suggested that the inhibitory effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract on estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer proliferation and the induction of CYP1B1 expression may be exerted through an alternative pathway, independent of the estrogen receptor or the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway. PMID:24649031

  2. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines by Gmelina asiatica roots

    PubMed Central

    Balijepalli, Madhu Katyayani; Tandra, Satyanarayana; Pichika, Mallikarjuna Rao

    2010-01-01

    Low risk of breast cancer has been proposed to be associated with high intake of lignans. We have reported the presence of lignans in Gmelina asiatica roots. There are no scientific reports on the antiproliferative activity of G. asiatica roots. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract from G. asiatica roots (EGAR) on estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of EGAR on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay kit. The mode of cell death caused by EGAR was determined using dual apoptosis assay kit by observing the cells under fluorescent microscope. The quantification of apoptosis and necrosis in cells caused by EGAR was determined using cell death detection kit through ELISA. Down-regulation of the proliferative activity occurred in a clear dose-dependent response with IC50 values of 32.9 ± 3.8 μg/mL in MCF-7 and 19.9 ± 2.3 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Treatment of breast cancer cells with EGAR resulted in significant apoptosis. The EGAR contain lignans and flavonoids. The antiproliferative activity of the extract is attributed to the presence of these secondary metabolites. The results suggest the efficacy of G. asiatica roots as antiproliferative agents on human breast cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that plants containing lignans have beneficial effects on human breast cancer. PMID:21808551

  3. Inhibition of SIRT1 by a small molecule induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kalle, Arunasree M.; Mallika, A.; Badiger, Jayasree; Alinakhi; Talukdar, Pinaki; Sachchidanand

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Novel small molecule SIRT1 inhibitor better than sirtinol. {yields} IC{sub 50} 500 nM. {yields} Specific tumor cytotoxicity towards breast cancer cells. {yields} Restoration of H3K9 acetylation levels to baseline when co-treated with SIRT1 activator (Activator X) and inhibitor (ILS-JGB-1741). -- Abstract: Overexpression of SIRT1, a NAD{sup +}-dependent class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), is implicated in many cancers and therefore could become a promising antitumor target. Here we demonstrate a small molecule SIRT1 inhibitor, ILS-JGB-1741(JGB1741) with potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB 231. The molecule has been designed using medicinal chemistry approach based on known SIRT1 inhibitor, sirtinol. The molecule showed a significant inhibition of SIRT1 activity compared to sirtinol. Studies on the antitumor effects of JGB on three different cancer cell lines, K562, HepG2 and MDA-MB 231 showed an IC{sub 50} of 1, 10 and 0.5 {mu}M, respectively. Further studies on MDA-MB 231 cells showed a dose-dependent increase in K9 and K382 acetylation of H3 and p53, respectively. Results also demonstrated that JGB1741-induced apoptosis is associated with increase in cytochrome c release, modulation in Bax/Bcl2 ratio and cleavage of PARP. Flowcytometric analysis showed increased percentage of apoptotic cells, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in multicaspase activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates the potent apoptotic effects of JGB1741 in MDA-MB 231 cells.

  4. Anticancer Effects of Extracts from the Fruit of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Pachauri, S D; Khandelwal, K; Ahmad, H; Arya, A; Biala, P; Agrawal, S; Pandey, R R; Srivastava, A; Srivastav, A; Saxena, J K; Dwivedi, A K

    2016-03-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (NONI) fruits have been used for thousands of years for the treatment of many health problems including cancer, cold, diabetes, flu, hypertension, and pain. Plant extracts have reported several therapeutic benefits, but extraction of individual compound from the extract often exhibits limited clinical utility as the synergistic effect of various natural ingredients gets lost. They generally constitute polyphenols and flavonoids. Studies have suggested that these phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, display high antioxidant properties, which help to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that Noni fruits have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-dementia, liver-protective, anticancer, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects. Till date about 7 in vitro cancer studies have been done, but a detailed in vitro study including cell cycle and caspase activation assay on breast cancer cell line has not been done. In the present study different Noni fruit fractions have tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) and one non-cancer cell line HEK-293 (Human embryonic kidney). Out of which ethylacetate extract showed a higher order of in vitro anticancer activity profile. The ethylacetate extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HEK-293 cell lines with IC50 values of 25, 35, 60 µg/ml respectively. The extract showed increase in apoptotic cells in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 and G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-231 cells. Noni extract also decreases the intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:26158795

  5. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of young Zingiber officinale against human breast carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ginger is one of the most important spice crops and traditionally has been used as medicinal plant in Bangladesh. The present work is aimed to find out antioxidant and anticancer activities of two Bangladeshi ginger varieties (Fulbaria and Syedpuri) at young age grown under ambient (400 μmol/mol) and elevated (800 μmol/mol) CO2 concentrations against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Methods The effects of ginger on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines were determined using TBA (thiobarbituric acid) and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] assays. Reversed-phase HPLC was used to assay flavonoids composition among Fulbaria and Syedpuri ginger varieties grown under increasing CO2 concentration from 400 to 800 μmol/mol. Results Antioxidant activities in both varieties found increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing CO2 concentration from 400 to 800 μmol/mol. High antioxidant activities were observed in the rhizomes of Syedpuri grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The results showed that enriched ginger extract (rhizomes) exhibited the highest anticancer activity on MCF-7 cancer cells with IC50 values of 34.8 and 25.7 μg/ml for Fulbaria and Syedpuri respectively. IC50 values for MDA-MB-231 exhibition were 32.53 and 30.20 μg/ml for rhizomes extract of Fulbaria and Syedpuri accordingly. Conclusions Fulbaria and Syedpuri possess antioxidant and anticancer properties especially when grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The use of ginger grown under elevated CO2 concentration may have potential in the treatment and prevention of cancer. PMID:21933433

  6. Cordycepin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells are independent of the estrogen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sunga; Lim, Mi-Hee; Kim, Ki Mo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Song, Won O.; Kim, Tae Woong

    2011-12-15

    Cordycepin (3-deoxyadenosine), found in Cordyceps spp., has been known to have many therapeutic effects including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-aging effects. Moreover, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of cordycepin have been reported, but the mechanism causing cancer cell death is poorly characterized. The present study was designed to investigate whether the mechanisms of cordycepin-induced cell death were associated with estrogen receptor in breast cancer cells. Exposure of both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to cordycepin resulted in dose-responsive inhibition of cell growth and reduction in cell viability. The cordycepin-induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells was associated with several specific features of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, TUNEL, and biochemical assays. Cordycepin also caused a dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial translocation of Bax, triggering cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases-9 and -3. Interestingly, MCF-7 cells showed autophagy-associated cell death, as observed by the detection of an autophagosome-specific protein and large membranous vacuole ultrastructure morphology in the cytoplasm. Cordycepin-induced autophagic cell death has applications in treating MCF-7 cells with apoptotic defects, irrespective of the ER response. Although autophagy has a survival function in tumorigenesis of some cancer cells, autophagy may be important for cordycepin-induced MCF-7 cell death. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that cordycepin effectively kills MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines in culture. Hence, further studies should be conducted to determine whether cordycepin will be a clinically useful, ER-independent, chemotherapeutic agent for human breast cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the mechanism which cordycepin-induced cell death association with

  7. Ramalin-Mediated Apoptosis Is Enhanced by Autophagy Inhibition in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Lee, Chung Gi; Yim, Joung-Han; Lee, Hong-Kum; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, is treated in various ways. Ramalin is a chemical compound derived from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata and is known to exhibit antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. However, its effect on breast cancer cells remains unknown. We examined the ability of ramalin to induce apoptosis and its mechanisms in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Ramalin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. By upregulating Bax and downregulating Bcl-2, ramalin caused cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor to be released from the mitochondria into the cytosol, thus activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, activated caspase-8 and caspase-9 were detected in both types of cells exposed to ramalin, whereas ramalin activated caspase-3 only in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Ramalin treatment also increased the levels of LC3-II and p62. Moreover, the inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA significantly enhanced ramalin-induced apoptosis, which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 levels and an increase in Bax levels. Therefore, autophagy appears to be activated as a protective mechanism against apoptosis in cancer cells exposed to ramalin. These findings suggest that ramalin is a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of patients with non-invasive or invasive breast cancer. PMID:26676298

  8. Benzimidazoles diminish ERE transcriptional activity and cell growth in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Payton-Stewart, Florastina; Tilghman, Syreeta L.; Williams, LaKeisha G.; Winfield, Leyte L.

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • The methyl-substituted benzimidazole was more effective at inhibiting growth in MDA-MB 231 cells. • The naphthyl-substituted benzimidazole was more effective at inhibiting growth in MCF-7 cells than ICI. • The benzimidazole molecules demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in ERE transcriptional activity. • The benzimidazole molecules had binding mode in ERα and ERβ comparable to that of the co-crystallized ligand. - Abstract: Estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. They regulate the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes and mediate numerous estrogen related diseases (i.e., fertility, osteoporosis, cancer, etc.). As such, ERs are potentially useful targets for developing therapies and diagnostic tools for hormonally responsive human breast cancers. In this work, two benzimidazole-based sulfonamides originally designed to reduce proliferation in prostate cancer, have been evaluated for their ability to modulate growth in estrogen dependent and independent cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231) using cell viability assays. The molecules reduced growth in MCF-7 cells, but differed in their impact on the growth of MDA-MB 231 cells. Although both molecules reduced estrogen response element (ERE) transcriptional activity in a dose dependent manner, the contrasting activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells seems to suggest that the molecules may act through alternate ER-mediated pathways. Further, the methyl analog showed modest selectivity for the ERβ receptor in an ER gene expression array panel, while the naphthyl analog did not significantly alter gene expression. The molecules were docked in the ligand binding domains of the ERα-antagonist and ERβ-agonist crystal structures to evaluate the potential of the molecules to interact with the receptors. The computational analysis complimented the results obtained in the assay of transcriptional activity and gene expression suggesting that the molecules

  9. FAP-α (Fibroblast activation protein-α) is involved in the control of human breast cancer cell line growth and motility via the FAK pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroblast Activation Protein alpha (FAP-α) or seprase is an integral membrane serine peptidase. Previous work has not satisfactorily explained both the suppression and promotion effects that have been observed in cancer. The purpose of this work was to investigate the role of FAP-α in human breast cancer. Expression of FAP-α was characterized in primary tumour samples and in cell lines, along with the effects of FAP-α expression on in vitro growth, invasion, attachment and migration. Furthermore the potential interaction of FAP-α with other signalling pathways was investigated. Results FAP-α was significantly increased in patients with poor outcome and survival. In vitro results showed that breast cancer cells over expressing FAP-α had increased growth ability and impaired migratory ability. The growth of MDA-MB-231 cells and the adhesion and invasion ability of both MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells were not dramatically influenced by FAP-α expression. Over-expression of FAP-α resulted in a reduction of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) level in both cells cultured in normal media and serum-free media. An inhibitor to FAK restored the reduced motility ability of both MCF-7exp cells and MDA-MB-231exp cells and prevented the change in phosphorylated FAK levels. However, inhibitors to PI3K, ERK, PLCϒ, NWASP, ARP2/3, and ROCK had no influence this. Conclusions FAP-α in significantly associated with poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. In vitro, FAP-α promotes proliferation and inhibits migration of breast cancer cells, potentially by regulating the FAK pathway. These results suggest FAP-α could be a target for future therapies. PMID:24885257

  10. Benzimidazoles diminish ERE transcriptional activity and cell growth in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Payton-Stewart, Florastina; Tilghman, Syreeta L.; Williams, LaKeisha G.; Winfield, Leyte L.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. They regulate the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes and mediate numerous estrogen related diseases (i.e., fertility, osteoporosis, cancer, etc.). As such, ERs are potentially useful targets for developing therapies and diagnostic tools for hormonally responsive human breast cancers. In this work, two benzimidazole-based sulphonamides originally designed to reduce proliferation in prostate cancer, have been evaluated for their ability to modulate growth in estrogen dependent and independent cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231) using cell viability assays. The molecules reduced growth in MCF-7 cells, but differed in their impact on the growth of MDA-MB 231 cells. Although both molecules reduced estrogen response element (ERE) transcriptional activity in a dose dependent manner, the contrasting activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells seems to suggest that the molecules may act through alternate ER-mediated pathways. Further, the methyl analog showed modest selectivity for the ERβ receptor in an ER gene expression array panel. However, the napthyl analog diminished gene expression. The molecules were docked in the ligand binding domains of the ERα-antagonist and ERβ-agonist crystal structures to evaluate the potential of the molecules to interact with the receptors. The computational analysis complimented the results obtained in the assay of transcriptional activity and gene expression suggesting that the molecules upregulate ERβ activity while down regulating that of ERα. PMID:24997336

  11. Cucurbitacin B Causes Increased Radiation Sensitivity of Human Breast Cancer Cells via G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Duangmano, Suwit; Sae-lim, Phorntip; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Patmasiriwat, Pimpicha; Domann, Frederick E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the effects of cucurbitacin B on the radiation survival of human breast cancer cells and to elucidate the cellular mechanism of radiosensitization if any. Materials and Methods. Human breast carcinoma cell lines were treated with cucurbitacin B before irradiation with 0–10 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays. The effect of cucurbitacin B on cell-survival following irradiation was evaluated by colony-forming assay. Cell cycle distributions were investigated using flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and western blots were performed to investigate the expression of cell cycle checkpoints. Results. Cucurbitacin B inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Only MDA-MB-231 and MCF7:5C cells but not SKBR-3 cells were radiosensitized by cucurbitacin B. Flow cytometric analysis for DNA content indicated that cucurbitacin B resulted in G2/M arrest in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7:5C but not SKBR-3 cells. Moreover, Real-time PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated upregulated p21 expression before irradiation, a likely cause of the cell cycle arrest. Conclusion. Taken together, these findings suggest that cucurbitacin B causes radiosensitization of some breast cancer cells, and that cucurbitacin B induced G2/M arrest is an important mechanism. Therefore, combinations of cucurbitacin B with radiotherapy may be appropriate for experimental breast cancer treatment. PMID:22690217

  12. Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Hao; Li, Ying; Wang, Yuzhong; Zhao, Haixia; Zhang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Tian; Yue, Jiang; Guo, Austin M.; Yang, Jing

    2014-10-01

    Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr{sup 458}), phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}) and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE{sub 2}, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE{sub 2}, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin induces anoikis and suppresses

  13. Betulinyl Sulfamates as Anticancer Agents and Radiosensitizers in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bache, Matthias; Münch, Christin; Güttler, Antje; Wichmann, Henri; Theuerkorn, Katharina; Emmerich, Daniel; Paschke, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a natural compound of birch bark, is cytotoxic for many tumors. Recently, a betulinyl sulfamate was described that inhibits carbonic anhydrases (CA), such as CAIX, an attractive target for tumor-selective therapy strategies in hypoxic cancer cells. Data on combined CAIX inhibition with radiotherapy are rare. In the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231 and MCF7, the effects of BA and betulinyl sulfamates on cellular and radiobiological behavior under normoxia and hypoxia were evaluated. The two most effective betulinyl sulfamates CAI 1 and CAI 3 demonstrated a 1.8–2.8-fold higher cytotoxicity than BA under normoxia in breast cancer cells, with IC50 values between 11.1 and 18.1 µM. BA exhibits its strongest cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 8.2 and 16.4 µM under hypoxia. All three substances show a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis, inhibition of migration, and inhibition of hypoxia-induced gene expression. In combination with irradiation, betulinyl sulfamates act as radiosensitizers, with DMF10 values of 1.47 (CAI 1) and 1.75 (CAI 3) under hypoxia in MDA-MB231 cells. BA showed additive effects in combination with irradiation. Taken together; our results suggest that BA and betulinyl sulfamates seem to be attractive substances to combine with radiotherapy; particularly for hypoxic breast cancer. PMID:26540049

  14. Betulinyl Sulfamates as Anticancer Agents and Radiosensitizers in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Bache, Matthias; Münch, Christin; Güttler, Antje; Wichmann, Henri; Theuerkorn, Katharina; Emmerich, Daniel; Paschke, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a natural compound of birch bark, is cytotoxic for many tumors. Recently, a betulinyl sulfamate was described that inhibits carbonic anhydrases (CA), such as CAIX, an attractive target for tumor-selective therapy strategies in hypoxic cancer cells. Data on combined CAIX inhibition with radiotherapy are rare. In the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231 and MCF7, the effects of BA and betulinyl sulfamates on cellular and radiobiological behavior under normoxia and hypoxia were evaluated. The two most effective betulinyl sulfamates CAI 1 and CAI 3 demonstrated a 1.8-2.8-fold higher cytotoxicity than BA under normoxia in breast cancer cells, with IC50 values between 11.1 and 18.1 µM. BA exhibits its strongest cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 8.2 and 16.4 µM under hypoxia. All three substances show a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis, inhibition of migration, and inhibition of hypoxia-induced gene expression. In combination with irradiation, betulinyl sulfamates act as radiosensitizers, with DMF10 values of 1.47 (CAI 1) and 1.75 (CAI 3) under hypoxia in MDA-MB231 cells. BA showed additive effects in combination with irradiation. Taken together; our results suggest that BA and betulinyl sulfamates seem to be attractive substances to combine with radiotherapy; particularly for hypoxic breast cancer. PMID:26540049

  15. Curcuminoids Block TGF-β Signaling in Human Breast Cancer Cells and Limit Osteolysis in a Murine Model of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Laura E.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Lukefahr, Ashley L.; Timmermann, Barbara N.; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Guise, Theresa A.; Funk, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of curcuminoids on breast cancer cell secretion of the bone-resorptive peptide parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and on lytic breast cancer bone metastasis were evaluated. In vitro, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-stimulated PTHrP secretion was inhibited by curcuminoids (IC50 = 24 μM) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells independent of effects on cell growth inhibition. Effects on TGF-β signaling revealed decreases in phospho-Smad2/3 and Ets-1 protein levels with no effect on p-38 MAPK-mediated TGF-β signaling. In vivo, mice were inoculated with MDA-MB-231 cells into the left cardiac ventricle and treated ip every other day with curcuminoids (25 or 50 mg/kg) for 21 days. Osteolytic bone lesion area was reduced up to 51% (p < 0.01). Consistent with specific effects on bone osteolysis, osteoclast number at the bone-tumor interface was reduced up to 53% (p < 0.05) while tumor area within bone was unaltered. In a separate study, tumor mass in orthotopic mammary xenografts was also unaltered by treatment. These data suggest that curcuminoids prevent TGF-β induction of PTHrP and reduce osteolytic bone destruction by blockade of Smad signaling in breast cancer cells. PMID:23145932

  16. The transcriptional responsiveness of LKB1 to STAT-mediated signaling is differentially modulated by prolactin in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver kinase 1 (LKB1) is an important multi-tasking protein linked with metabolic signaling, also controlling polarity and cytoskeletal rearrangements in diverse cell types including cancer cells. Prolactin (PRL) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have been associated with breast cancer progression. The current investigation examines the effect of PRL and STAT-mediated signaling on the transcriptional regulation of LKB1 expression in human breast cancer cells. Methods MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T47D human breast cancer cells, and CHO-K1 cells transiently expressing the PRL receptor (long form), were treated with 100 ng/ml of PRL for 24 hours. A LKB1 promoter-luciferase construct and its truncations were used to assess transcriptional changes in response to specific siRNAs or inhibitors targeting Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2), STAT3, and STAT5A. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were applied to quantify changes in mRNA and protein levels. Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to examine STAT3 and STAT5A binding to the LKB1 promoter. Results Consistent with increases in mRNA, the LKB1 promoter was up-regulated by PRL in MDA-MB-231 cells, a response that was lost upon distal promoter truncation. A putative GAS element that could provide a STAT binding site mapped to this region, and its mutation decreased PRL-responsiveness. PRL-mediated increases in promoter activity required signaling through STAT3 and STAT5A, also involving JAK2. Both STATs imparted basally repressive effects in MDA-MB-231 cells. PRL increased in vivo binding of STAT3, and more definitively, STAT5A, to the LKB1 promoter region containing the GAS site. In T47D cells, PRL down-regulated LKB1 transcriptional activity, an effect that was reversed upon culture in phenol red-free media. Interleukin 6, a cytokine activating STAT signaling in diverse cell types, also increased LKB1 mRNA levels and

  17. Dissecting the Role of Curcumin in Tumour Growth and Angiogenesis in Mouse Model of Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Luciano, Antonio; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Arra, Claudio; Izzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is considered the most common cancer for women worldwide and it is now the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in the world. Since breast cancer is highly resistant to chemotherapy, alternative anticancer strategies have been developed. In particular, many studies have demonstrated that curcumin, a derivative of turmeric, can be used as natural agent in treatment of some types of cancer by playing antiproliferative and antioxidant effects. In our study, we assessed the antitumor activities of curcumin in ER-negative human breast cancer cell line resistant to chemotherapy, MDA.MB231 by in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro data allowed us to demonstrate that curcumin played a role in regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in MDA.MB231 cells. In vivo, by generation of mouse model of breast cancer, we showed that treatment of curcumin inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis. Specifically, we showed that curcumin is able to deregulate the expression of cyclin D1, PECAM-1, and p65, which are regulated by NF-κB. Our data demonstrated that curcumin could be used as an adjuvant agent to chemotherapy in treatment of triple negative breast cancer. PMID:25879038

  18. IL-1β produced by aggressive breast cancer cells is one of the factors that dictate their interactions with mesenchymal stem cells through chemokine production

    PubMed Central

    Serret, Julien; Bièche, Ivan; Brigitte, Madly; Caicedo, Andres; Sanchez, Elodie; Vacher, Sophie; Vignais, Marie-Luce; Bourin, Philippe; Geneviève, David; Molina, Franck; Jorgensen, Christian; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to understand whether the nature of breast cancer cells could modify the nature of the dialog of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cancer cells. By treating MSCs with the conditioned medium of metastatic Estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231, or non-metastatic ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we observed that a number of chemokines were produced at higher levels by MSCs treated with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium (CM). MDA-MB-231 cells were able to induce NF-κB signaling in MSC cells. This was shown by the use of a NF-kB chemical inhibitor or an IκB dominant negative mutant, nuclear translocation of p65 and induction of NF-κB signature. Our results suggest that MDA-MB-231 cells exert their effects on MSCs through the secretion of IL-1β, that activates MSCs and induces the same chemokines as the MDA-MB-231CM. In addition, inhibition of IL-1β secretion in the MDA-MB-231 cells reduces the induced production of a panel of chemokines by MSCs, as well the motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data suggest that aggressive breast cancer cells secrete IL-1β, which increases the production of chemokines by MSCs. PMID:26362269

  19. Stearidonic acid-enriched flax oil reduces the growth of human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Subedi, K; Yu, H-M; Newell, M; Weselake, R J; Meesapyodsuk, D; Qiu, X; Shah, S; Field, C J

    2015-01-01

    The 20 and 22 carbon n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit the growth of tumors in vitro and in animal models, but less is known about the 18 carbon n-3, stearidonic acid (SDA). This study aimed to establish and determine a mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of SDA-enriched oil (SO). SO (26 % of lipid) was produced by genetically engineering flax and used to treat human tumorigenic (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (MCF-12A) breast cells. Nu/nu mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumor were fed SO (SDA, 4 % of fat). Cell/tumor growth, phospholipid (PL) composition, apoptosis, CD95, and pro-apoptotic molecules were determined in SO-treated cells/tumors. Compared to a control lipid mixture, SO reduced (p < 0.05) the number of tumorigenic, but not MCF-12A cells, and resulted in higher concentration of most of the n-3 fatty acids in PL of all cells (p < 0.05). However, docosapentaenoic acid increased only in tumorigenic cells (p < 0.05). SO diet decreased tumor growth and resulted in more n-3 LCPUFA, including DPA and less arachidonic acid (AA) levels in major tumor PL (p < 0.05). Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells/tumors with SO resulted in more apoptotic cells (in tumors) and in vivo and in vitro, more CD95+ positive cells and a higher expression of apoptotic molecules caspase-10, Bad, or Bid (p < 0.05). Supplementing SO alters total PL and PL classes by increasing membrane content of n-3 LCPUFA and lowering AA (in vivo), which is associated with increased CD95-mediated apoptosis, thereby suggesting a possible mechanism for reduce tumor survival. PMID:25417173

  20. Palladium(II) saccharinate complexes with bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine induce cell death by apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ari, Ferda; Ulukaya, Engin; Sarimahmut, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Veysel T

    2013-06-01

    The outcomes of breast cancer patients are still poor although new compounds have recently been introduced into the clinic. Therefore, novel chemical approaches are required. In the present study, palladium(II) and corresponding platinum(II) complexes containing bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (bpma) and saccharine were synthesized and tested against human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, in vitro. Cytotoxicity was first screened by the MTT assay and the results were further confirmed by the ATP assay. The palladium complexes 1 and 3 yielded stronger cytotoxicity than the corresponding platinum complexes 2 and 4 at the same doses. The palladium complex 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic one. Therefore, a more comprehensive study was carried out with this complex only. The mode of cell death was determined morphologically under fluorescent microscope and biochemically with detection of active caspase-3 and PARP cleavage by Western blot. Changes in apoptosis-related gene expressions were measured with qPCR. It was demonstrated that complex 3 caused cell death by apoptosis determined by fluorescence imaging and Western blot. As a sign of apoptosis, PARP was cleaved in both of the cell lines. In addition, caspase-3 was cleaved in MDA-MB-231 cells while this cleavage was not observed in MCF-7. The results show that the complex 3 is a promising anti-cancer compound against breast cancer with an IC50 value of 3.9 μM for MCF-7 and 4.2 μM for MDA-MB-231 cells, which warrants further animal experiments. PMID:23601820

  1. Involvement of reactive oxygen species/c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase pathway in kotomolide A induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, P.-L.; Chen, C.-Y.; Tzeng, T.-F.; Lin, C.-C. Hsu, Y.-L.

    2008-06-01

    The anticancer effects of kotomolide A (KTA), a new butanolide constituent isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum kotoense (Lauraceae), on the two human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were first investigated in our study. KTA exhibited selectively antiproliferative effects in cancer cell lines without showing any toxicity in normal mammary epithelial cells. Treatment of cancer cells with KTA to trigger G2/M phase arrest was associated with increased p21/WAF1 levels and reduced amounts of cyclin A, cyclin B1, cdc2 and cdc25C. KTA induced cancer cell death treatment by triggering mitochondrial and death receptor 5 (DR5) apoptotic pathways, but did not act on the Fas receptor. Exposure of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to KTA resulted in cellular glutathione reduction and ROS generation, accompanied by JNK activation and apoptosis. Both antioxidants, NAC and catalase, significantly decreased apoptosis by inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK and subsequently triggering DR5 cell death pathways. The reduction of JNK expression by siRNA decreased KTA-mediated Bim cleavage, DR5 upregulation and apoptosis. Furthermore, daily KTA i.p. injections in nude mice with MDA-MB-231 s.c. tumors resulted in a 50% decrease of mean tumor volume, compared with vehicle-treated controls. Taken together, the data show that cell death of breast cancer cells in response to KTA is dependent upon ROS generation and JNK activation, triggering intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. The ROS/JNK pathway could be a useful target for novel approaches in breast cancer chemotherapy.

  2. MicroRNA-3646 Contributes to Docetaxel Resistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells by GSK-3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhong, Shanliang; Xu, Yong; Yu, Dandan; Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Xiu; Yang, Sujin; Wu, Yueqin; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of resistance to docetaxel (Doc) is one of the most important problems in treatment of breast cancer patients, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. In present study, Doc-resistant MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231/Doc and MCF-7/Doc) were successfully established in vitro by gradually increasing Doc concentration on the basis of parental MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines (MDA-MB-231/S and MCF-7/S). The potential miRNAs relevant to the Doc resistance were screened by miRNA microarray. We selected 5 upregulated miRNAs (has-miR-3646, has-miR-3658, has-miR-4438, has-miR-1246, and has-miR-574-3p) from the results of microarray for RT-qPCR validation. The results showed that expression level of miR-3646 in MDA-MB-231/Doc cells was significantly higher than in MDA-MB-231/S cells. Compared to MCF-7/S cells, miR-3646 expression was up-regulated in MCF-7/Doc cells. Further studies revealed that transfection of miR-3646 mimics into MDA-MB-231/S or MCF-7/S cells remarkably increased their drug resistance, in contrast, transfection of miR-3646 inhibitors into MDA-MB-231/Doc or MCF-7/Doc cells resulted in significant reduction of the drug resistance. By the pathway enrichment analyses for miR-3646, we found that GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway was a significant pathway, in which GSK-3β was an essential member. RT-qPCR and Western blot results demonstrated that miR-3646 could regulate GSK-3β mRNA and protein expressions. Furthermore, a marked increase of both nuclear and cytoplasmic β-catenin expressions (with phosphorylated-β-catenin decrease) was observed in MDA-MB-231/Doc cells compared with MDA-MB-231/S cells, and their expression were positively related to miR-3646 and negatively correlated with GSK-3β. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-3646-mediated Doc resistance of breast cancer cells maybe, at least in part, through suppressing expression of GSK-3β and resultantly activating GSK-3

  3. Multifunctional Core/Shell Nanoparticles Cross-linked Polyetherimide-folic Acid as Efficient Notch-1 siRNA Carrier for Targeted Killing of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Li, Ying; Li, Tingting; Xu, Min; Chen, Yin; Wu, Chunhui; Dang, Xitong; Liu, Yiyao

    2014-01-01

    In gene therapy, how genetic therapeutics can be efficiently and safely delivered into target tissues/cells remains a major obstacle to overcome. To address this issue, nanoparticles consisting of non-covalently coupled polyethyleneimine (PEI) and folic acid (FA) to the magnetic and fluorescent core/shell of Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC) was tested for their ability to deliver Notch-1 shRNA. Our results showed that Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)/PEI-FA/Notch-1 shRNA nanoparticles are 64 nm in diameter with well dispersed and superparamagnetic. These nanoparticles with on significant cytotoxicity are capable of delivering Notch-1 shRNA into human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells with high efficiency while effectively protected shRNA from degradation by exogenous DNaseI and nucleases. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorescence microscopy showed significant preferential uptake of Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)/PEI-FA/Notch-1 shRNA nanocomplex by MDA-MB-231 cells. Transfected MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited significantly decreased expression of Notch-1, inhibited cell proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis, leading to the killing of MDA-MB-231 cells. In light of the magnetic targeting capabilities of Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)/PEI-FA, our results show that by complexing with a second molecular targeting therapeutic, such as Notch-1 shRNA in this report, Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)/PEI-FA can be exploited as a novel, non-viral, and concurrent targeting delivery system for targeted gene therapy as well as for MR imaging in cancer diagnosis. PMID:25400232

  4. Raman microspectroscopy for probing the impact of a dietary antioxidant on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, P S C; Batista de Carvalho, A L M; Ruano, C; Otero, J C; Marques, M P M

    2016-06-15

    Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer worldwide and the most frequent among women, being the fifth cause of death from neoplastic disease. Since this is an oxidative-stress related neoplasia, it is largely preventable. A dietary isoflavone abundant in soybean - daidzein - is currently being investigated owing to its chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic properties towards the human MDA-MB-231 (metastatic, estrogen-unresponsive) and MCF-7 (estrogen-responsive) breast cancer cell lines. Biological assays for evaluation of antitumour and anti-invasive activities were combined with state-of-the-art vibrational microspectroscopy techniques. At 50 and 100 μM concentrations and 48 h incubation time, daidzein was found to induce a marked decrease in cell viability (ca. 50%) for MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (respectively ca. 50% and 42%) and 40% inhibition of cell migration. MicroRaman analysis of fixed cells upon exposure to this isoflavone unveiled its metabolic impact on both cell lines. Multivariate data analysis (unsupervised PCA) led to a clear discrimination between the control and DAID-exposed cells, with distinctive effects on their biochemical profile, particularly regarding DNA, lipids and protein components, in a cell-dependent way. This is the first reported study on the impact of dietary antioxidants on cancer cells by microRaman techniques. PMID:27227510

  5. Arctigenin, a dietary phytoestrogen, induces apoptosis of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells through the ROS/p38 MAPK pathway and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Kuo, Po-Lin; Hsu, Ying-Chan; Huang, Ya-Fang; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Hsu, Ya-Ling

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the anticancer effect of arctigenin (ATG), a natural lignan product of Arctium lappa L., in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Results indicate that ATG inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell growth by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. ATG triggers the mitochondrial caspase-independent pathways, as indicated by changes in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, resulting in AIF and EndoG nuclear translocation. ATG increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by increasing p22(phox)/NADPH oxidase 1 interaction and decreasing glutathione level. ATG clearly increases the activation of p38 MAPK, but not JNK and ERK1/2. Antioxidant EUK-8, a synthetic catalytic superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenger, significantly decreases ATG-mediated p38 activation and apoptosis. Blocking p38 with a specific inhibitor suppresses ATG-mediated Bcl-2 downregulation and apoptosis. Moreover, ATG activates ATF-2, a transcription factor activated by p38, and then upregulates histone H3K9 trimethylation in the Bcl-2 gene promoter region, resulting in Bcl-2 downregulation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ATG induces apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells via the ROS/p38 MAPK pathway and epigenetic regulation of Bcl-2 by upregulation of histone H3K9 trimethylation. PMID:24140706

  6. Inhibition of human breast cancer Matrigel invasion by Streptolysin O activation of the EGF receptor ErbB1.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily H; Gurel, Volkan; Dahlberg, Albert E; McMichael, John; Brautigan, David L

    2011-12-01

    Streptolysin O (SLO) is a protein cytotoxin derived from Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci that associates with membranes and permeabilizes cells. Oxidation inactivates SLO, eliminating the characteristic hemolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, oxidized SLO produces beneficial therapeutic effects in vivo on scleroderma, scar formation and wound healing. Here we report that oxidized SLO also significantly inhibited invasion by human metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells through Matrigel in an in vitro model of metastatic disease. This dose-dependent response corresponded to selective SLO activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ErbB1. SLO and EGF were equally selective in activation of EGFR, but EGF elicited larger relative increases in phosphorylation at various sites, especially pronounced for Tyr845. Addition of SLO did not affect either ERK1/2 or Akt kinases and altered the expression of only 10 of 84 metastasis-related genes in MDA-MB-231 cells. Neither SLO nor EGF promoted growth of several human breast cancer cell lines. Knockdown of EGFR by siRNA ablated the inhibitory effect of SLO on cancer cell invasion, showing SLO selectively activated ErbB1 kinase to reduce invasion without increasing cell growth. The results suggest SLO might have promise as a new therapy to inhibit metastasis. PMID:21787862

  7. Inductions of the fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuso; Harada, Mari; Su, Shengzhong; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Hajime; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    To investigate gene(s) being regulated by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), we performed DNA microarray analysis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, which are poorly differentiated breast cancer cells, treated with Δ9-THC for 48 hr at an IC50 concentration of approximately 25 μM. Among the highly up-regulated genes (> 10-fold) observed, fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) was significantly induced (17.8-fold). Although the physiological role of FA2H has not yet been fully understood, FA2H has been shown to modulate cell differentiation. The results of Oil Red O staining after Δ9-THC exposure showed the distribution of lipid droplets (a sign of the differentiated phenotype) in cells. Taken together, the results obtained here indicate that FA2H is a novel Δ9-THC-regulated gene, and that Δ9-THC induces differentiation signal(s) in poorly differentiated MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:23535410

  8. Eicosopentaneoic Acid and Other Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists Inhibit Lysophosphatidic Acid- and Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Mandi M.; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Ze; Meier, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Many key actions of ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids have recently been shown to be mediated by two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family, FFA1 (GPR40) and FFA4 (GPR120). n-3 Fatty acids inhibit proliferation of human breast cancer cells in culture and in animals. In the current study, the roles of FFA1 and FFA4 were investigated. In addition, the role of cross-talk between GPCRs activated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and the tyrosine kinase receptor activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), was examined. In MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines, both LPA and EGF stimulated proliferation, Erk activation, Akt activation, and CCN1 induction. LPA antagonists blocked effects of LPA and EGF on proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and on cell migration in MCF-7. The n-3 fatty acid eicosopentaneoic acid inhibited LPA- and EGF-induced proliferation in both cell lines. Two synthetic FFAR agonists, GW9508 and TUG-891, likewise inhibited LPA- and EGF-induced proliferation. The data suggest a major role for FFA1, which was expressed by both cell lines. The results indicate that n-3 fatty acids inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation via FFARs, and suggest a mechanism involving negative cross-talk between FFARS, LPA receptors, and EGF receptor. PMID:26821052

  9. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche1

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Zach S.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V.; Tamaresis, John S.; Bachmann, Michael H.; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J.; Contag, Christopher H.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. PMID:26696367

  10. Dietary Fatty Acids from Leaves of Clerodendrum Volubile Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Downregulate Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression, and Modulate Redox Status in Human Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Zaruwa, Moses Z; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Naqvi, S Asma; Ashraf, Nadia; Hafizur, Rahman M; Muhammad, Aliyu; Ebuehi, Osaretin A T; Elemo, Gloria N

    2016-01-01

    The antiproliferative effect of the fatty acid components of Clerodendrum volubile leaves as well as its antioxidant effect on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines were investigated. Fatty acids extracted from C. volubile leaf oil were subjected to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The cells were cultured and treated with the fatty acids for 48 h, after which the antiproliferation effect was ascertained via MTT assay and cell viability analysis using BD fluorescence activated cells sorting (FACS) Calibur. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry on FACS Calibur. Western blotting was used in determining expression of proteins in the cell lines. The treated cell lines were assessed for reduced glutathione level, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation. The fatty acids significantly inhibited cell proliferation, arrested G0/G1 phase, downregulated the expression of MMP-9, and attenuated oxidative stress in of MCF-7 cell lines but had little or no effect on MDA-MB-231 cell lines. These results indicate the therapeutic potential of the fatty acids components of the leaves of C. volubile on human breast cancer, which may be explored further in drug development. PMID:27043182

  11. COX-2-mediated stimulation of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Timoshenko, A V; Chakraborty, C; Wagner, G F; Lala, P K

    2006-01-01

    Increased expression of COX-2 or VEGF-C has been correlated with progressive disease in certain cancers. Present study utilized several human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T-47D, Hs578T and MDA-MB-231, varying in COX-2 expression) as well as 10 human breast cancer specimens to examine the roles of COX-2 and prostaglandin E (EP) receptors in VEGF-C expression or secretion, and the relationship of COX-2 or VEGF-C expression to lymphangiogenesis. We found a strong correlation between COX-2 mRNA expression and VEGF-C expression or secretion levels in breast cancer cell lines and VEGF-C expression in breast cancer tissues. Expression of LYVE-1, a selective marker for lymphatic endothelium, was also positively correlated with COX-2 or VEGF-C expression in breast cancer tissues. Inhibition of VEGF-C expression and secretion in the presence of COX-1/2 or COX-2 inhibitors or following downregulation of COX-2 with COX-2 siRNA established a stimulatory role COX-2 in VEGF-C synthesis by breast cancer cells. EP1 as well as EP4 receptor antagonists inhibited VEGF-C production indicating the roles of EP1 and EP4 in VEGF-C upregulation by endogenous PGE2. Finally, VEGF-C secretion by MDA-MB-231 cells was inhibited in the presence of kinase inhibitors for Her-2/neu, Src and p38 MAPK, indicating a requirement of these kinases for VEGF-C synthesis. These results, for the first time, demonstrate a regulatory role of COX-2 in VEGF-C synthesis (and thereby lymphangiogenesis) in human breast cancer, which is mediated at least in part by EP1/EP4 receptors. PMID:16570043

  12. Enhanced serine production by bone metastatic breast cancer cells stimulates osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pollari, Sirkku; Käkönen, Sanna-Maria; Edgren, Henrik; Wolf, Maija; Kohonen, Pekka; Sara, Henri; Guise, Theresa; Nees, Matthias; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Since bone metastatic breast cancer is an incurable disease, causing significant morbidity and mortality, an understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms would be highly valuable. Here, we describe in vitro and in vivo evidences for the importance of serine biosynthesis in the metastasis of breast cancer to bone. We first characterized the bone metastatic propensity of the MDA-MB-231(SA) cell line variant as compared to the parental MDA-MB-231 cells by radiographic and histological observations in the inoculated mice. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of this isogenic cell line pair revealed that all the three genes involved in the L: -serine biosynthesis pathway, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSPH) were upregulated in the highly metastatic variant. This pathway is the primary endogenous source for L: -serine in mammalian tissues. Consistently, we observed that the proliferation of MDA-MB-231(SA) cells in serine-free conditions was dependent on PSAT1 expression. In addition, we observed that L: -serine is essential for the formation of bone resorbing human osteoclasts and may thus contribute to the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. High expression of PHGDH and PSAT1 in primary breast cancer was significantly associated with decreased relapse-free and overall survival of patients and malignant phenotypic features of breast cancer. In conclusion, high expression of serine biosynthesis genes in metastatic breast cancer cells and the stimulating effect of L: -serine on osteoclastogenesis and cancer cell proliferation indicate a functionally critical role for serine biosynthesis in bone metastatic breast cancer and thereby an opportunity for targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:20352489

  13. Functional and molecular characteristics of system L in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shennan, D B; Thomson, J; Barber, M C; Travers, M T

    2003-04-01

    The functional and molecular properties of system L in human mammary cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) have been examined. All transport experiments were conducted under Na(+)-free conditions. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was almost abolished by BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid). AIB uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells was also inhibited by L-alanine (83.6%), L-lysine (75.6%) but not by L-proline. Similarly, L-lysine and L-alanine, respectively, reduced AIB influx into MCF-7 cells by 45.3% and 63.7%. The K(m) of AIB uptake into MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was, respectively, 1.6 and 8.8 mM, whereas the V(max) was, respectively, 9.7 and 110.0 nmol/mg protein/10 min. AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH, L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-lysine and AIB (all at 2 mM). In contrast, L-glutamate, L-proline, L-arginine and MeAIB had no effect. The interaction between L-lysine and AIB efflux was one of low affinity. The fractional release of AIB from MDA-MB-231 cells was trans-accelerated by D-leucine and D-tryptophan but not by D-alanine. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressed LAT1 and CD98 mRNA. MCF-7 cells also expressed LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that AIB transport in mammary cancer cells under Na(+)-free conditions is predominantly via system L which acts as an exchange mechanism. The differences in the kinetics of AIB transport between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells may be due to the differential expression of LAT2. PMID:12659948

  14. Cordycepin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells are independent of the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunga; Lim, Mi-Hee; Kim, Ki Mo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Song, Won O; Kim, Tae Woong

    2011-12-01

    Cordycepin (3-deoxyadenosine), found in Cordyceps spp., has been known to have many therapeutic effects including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-aging effects. Moreover, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of cordycepin have been reported, but the mechanism causing cancer cell death is poorly characterized. The present study was designed to investigate whether the mechanisms of cordycepin-induced cell death were associated with estrogen receptor in breast cancer cells. Exposure of both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to cordycepin resulted in dose-responsive inhibition of cell growth and reduction in cell viability. The cordycepin-induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells was associated with several specific features of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, TUNEL, and biochemical assays. Cordycepin also caused a dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial translocation of Bax, triggering cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases-9 and -3. Interestingly, MCF-7 cells showed autophagy-associated cell death, as observed by the detection of an autophagosome-specific protein and large membranous vacuole ultrastructure morphology in the cytoplasm. Cordycepin-induced autophagic cell death has applications in treating MCF-7 cells with apoptotic defects, irrespective of the ER response. Although autophagy has a survival function in tumorigenesis of some cancer cells, autophagy may be important for cordycepin-induced MCF-7 cell death. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that cordycepin effectively kills MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines in culture. Hence, further studies should be conducted to determine whether cordycepin will be a clinically useful, ER-independent, chemotherapeutic agent for human breast cancer. PMID:21933677

  15. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  16. Enhancement of ionizing radiation response by histamine in vitro and in vivo in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martinel Lamas, Diego J; Cortina, Jorge E; Ventura, Clara; Sterle, Helena A; Valli, Eduardo; Balestrasse, Karina B; Blanco, Horacio; Cremaschi, Graciela A; Rivera, Elena S; Medina, Vanina A

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective potential of histamine on healthy tissue has been previously demonstrated. The aims of this work were to investigate the combinatorial effect of histamine or its receptor ligands and gamma radiation in vitro on the radiobiological response of 2 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of the radiosensitizing action and to evaluate the histamine-induced radiosensitization in vivo in a triple negative breast cancer model. Results indicate that histamine significantly increased the radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. This effect was mimicked by the H1R agonist 2-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)histamine and the H4R agonists (Clobenpropit and VUF8430) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Histamine and its agonists enhanced radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks, apoptosis and senescence. These effects were associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, which correlated with the inhibition of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in MDA-MB-231 cells. Histamine was able also to potentiate in vivo the anti-tumoral effect of radiation, increasing the exponential tumor doubling time. We conclude that histamine increased radiation response of breast cancer cells, suggesting that it could be used as a potential adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy. PMID:25482934

  17. Involvement of NF-κB and HSP70 signaling pathways in the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells induced by a prenylated xanthone compound, α-mangostin, from Cratoxylum arborescens

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Mohan, Syam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Ghaderian, Mostafa; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Ali, Landa Zeenelabdin; Karimian, Hamed; Yahayu, Maizatulakmal; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Background Cratoxylum arborescens has been used traditionally in Malaysia for the treatment of various ailments. Methods α-Mangostin (AM) was isolated from C. arborescens and its cell death mechanism was investigated. AM-induced cytotoxicity was observed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and annexin V were used to detect cells in early phases of apoptosis. High-content screening was used to observe the nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release. The role of caspases-3/7, -8, and -9, reactive oxygen species, Bcl-2 and Bax expression, and cell cycle arrest were also investigated. To determine the role of the central apoptosis-related proteins, a protein array followed by immunoblot analysis was conducted. Moreover, the involvement of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was also analyzed. Results Apoptosis was confirmed by the apoptotic cells stained with annexin V and increase in chromatin condensation in nucleus. Treatment of cells with AM promoted cell death-transducing signals that reduced MMP by downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, triggering cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by the executioner caspase-3/7 and then cleaved the PARP protein. Increase of caspase-8 showed the involvement of extrinsic pathway. AM treatment significantly arrested the cells at the S phase (P<0.05) concomitant with an increase in reactive oxygen species. The protein array and Western blotting demonstrated the expression of HSP70. Moreover, AM significantly blocked the induced translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus. Conclusion Together, the results demonstrate that the AM isolated from C. arborescens inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death, which was suggested to

  18. ST6GALNAC5 Expression Decreases the Interactions between Breast Cancer Cells and the Human Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Drolez, Aurore; Vandenhaute, Elodie; Delannoy, Clément Philippe; Dewald, Justine Hélène; Gosselet, Fabien; Cecchelli, Romeo; Julien, Sylvain; Dehouck, Marie-Pierre; Delannoy, Philippe; Mysiorek, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The ST6GALNAC5 gene that encodes an α2,6-sialyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of α-series gangliosides, was previously identified as one of the genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain. We have shown that the expression of ST6GALNAC5 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in the expression of GD1α ganglioside at the cell surface. By using a human blood-brain barrier in vitro model recently developed, consisting in CD34+ derived endothelial cells co-cultivated with pericytes, we show that ST6GALNAC5 expression decreased the interactions between the breast cancer cells and the human blood-brain barrier. PMID:27529215

  19. Taurine induces the apoptosis of breast cancer cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiali; Lu, Hongfei; Wang, Yibing; Liu, Chunju; Zhu, Weifeng; Zheng, Shuangyan; Wan, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Taurine (Tau), the most abundant free amino acid in humans has numerous potential health benefits through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, limited studies have assessed its effect on tumors and the antitumor mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the cellular and molecular changes induced by Tau, leading to the induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. MCF-7 is p53 proficient (p53+/+) and MDA-MB-231 is a p53 null mutant (p53-/-). Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by MTT. Flow cytometry and hoechst33342 fluorescent staining were employed to detect apoptosis. Spectrophotometry was used to detect caspase-3 activity. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the levels of mRNA and proteins of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax and Bcl-2. Finally, the affect of Tau on the growth of MDA-MB-231-cell-nude mice xenografts was examined. In the study, Tau inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of the two cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Notably, the inhibitory effect of Tau on p53-/- cancer cells was clearly significant compared to the p53+/+ cancer cells. Further studies showed that Tau promoted apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and inhibited the growth of tumor in nude mice by inducing the expression of PUMA, which further up- and downregulated the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 protein, giving rise to increased activation of caspase-3. Collectively, these results indicate that Tau is a potent candidate for the chemotherapy of breast cancer through increasing the PUMA expression independent of p53 status. PMID:25395275

  20. Breast Cancer Cells Induce Osteolytic Bone Lesions In vivo through a Reduction in Osteoblast Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Laura S.; Choi, Wilson; Burke, Leslie; Clements, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastases are severely debilitating and have a significant impact on the quality of life of women with metastatic breast cancer. Treatment options are limited and in order to develop more targeted therapies, improved understanding of the complex mechanisms that lead to bone lesion development are warranted. Interestingly, whilst prostate-derived bone metastases are characterised by mixed or osteoblastic lesions, breast-derived bone metastases are characterised by osteolytic lesions, suggesting unique regulatory patterns. This study aimed to measure the changes in bone formation and bone resorption activity at two time-points (18 and 36 days) during development of the bone lesion following intratibial injection of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into the left tibiae of Severely Combined Immuno-Deficient (SCID) mice. The contralateral tibia was used as a control. Tibiae were extracted and processed for undecalcified histomorphometric analysis. We provide evidence that the early bone loss observed following exposure to MDA-MB-231 cells was due to a significant reduction in mineral apposition rate, rather than increased levels of bone resorption. This suggests that osteoblast activity was impaired in the presence of breast cancer cells, contrary to previous reports of osteoclast-dependent bone loss. Furthermore mRNA expression of Dickkopf Homolog 1 (DKK-1) and Noggin were confirmed in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, both of which antagonise osteoblast regulatory pathways. The observed bone loss following injection of cancer cells was due to an overall thinning of the trabecular bone struts rather than perforation of the bone tissue matrix (as measured by trabecular width and trabecular separation, respectively), suggesting an opportunity to reverse the cancer-induced bone changes. These novel insights into the mechanisms through which osteolytic bone lesions develop may be important in the development of new treatment strategies for metastatic breast cancer

  1. Effects of the knockdown of death-associated protein 3 expression on cell adhesion, growth and migration in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wazir, Umar; Sanders, Andrew J; Wazir, Ahmad M A; Ye, Lin; Jiang, Wen G; Ster, Irina C; Sharma, Anup K; Mokbel, Kefah

    2015-05-01

    The death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) is a highly conserved phosphoprotein involved in the regulation of autophagy. A previous clinical study by our group suggested an association between low DAP3 expression and clinicopathological parameters of human breast cancer. In the present study, we intended to determine the role of DAP3 in cancer cell behaviour in the context of human breast cancer. We developed knockdown sub-lines of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, and performed growth, adhesion, invasion assays and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) studies of post-wound migration of the cells. In addition, we studied the mRNA expression of caspase 8 and 9, death ligand signal enhancer (DELE), IFN-β promoter stimulator 1 (IPS1), cyclin D1 and p21 in the control and knockdown sub-lines. The knockdown sub-lines of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 had significantly increased adhesion and decreased growth when compared to the controls. Furthermore, invasion and migration were significantly increased in the MDA-MB-231DAP3kd cells vs. the controls. The expression of caspase 9 and IPS1, known components of the apoptosis pathway, were significantly reduced in the MCF7DAP3kd cells (p=0.05 and p=0.003, respectively). We conclude that DAP3 silencing contributes to breast carcinogenesis by increasing cell adhesion, migration and invasion. It is possible that this may be due to the activity of focal adhesion kinase further downstream of the anoikis pathway. Further research in this direction would be beneficial in increasing our understanding of the mechanisms underlying human breast cancer. PMID:25738636

  2. Evaluation of cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic properties of boldine in breast cancer using in vitro and in vivo models

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Looi, Chung Yeng; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2014-01-01

    To date, plants have been the major source of anticancer drugs. Boldine is a natural alkaloid commonly found in the leaves and bark of Peumus boldus. In this study, we found that boldine potently inhibited the viability of the human invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (48-hour IC50 46.5±3.1 μg/mL) and MDA-MB-468 (48-hour IC50 50.8±2.7 μg/mL). Boldine had a cytotoxic effect and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells as indicated by a higher amount of lactate dehydrogenase released, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, we demonstrated that boldine induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The anticancer mechanism is associated with disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in MDA-MB-231. Boldine selectively induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/7, but not caspase-8. We also found that boldine could inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation, a key molecule in tumor progression and metastasis. In addition, protein array and Western blotting analysis showed that treatment with boldine resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 and upregulation of Bax in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. An acute toxicity study in rats revealed that boldine at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was well tolerated. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of boldine (50 or 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:24944509

  3. Evaluation of cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic properties of boldine in breast cancer using in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Looi, Chung Yeng; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2014-01-01

    To date, plants have been the major source of anticancer drugs. Boldine is a natural alkaloid commonly found in the leaves and bark of Peumus boldus. In this study, we found that boldine potently inhibited the viability of the human invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (48-hour IC₅₀ 46.5±3.1 μg/mL) and MDA-MB-468 (48-hour IC₅₀ 50.8±2.7 μg/mL). Boldine had a cytotoxic effect and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells as indicated by a higher amount of lactate dehydrogenase released, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, we demonstrated that boldine induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The anticancer mechanism is associated with disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in MDA-MB-231. Boldine selectively induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/7, but not caspase-8. We also found that boldine could inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation, a key molecule in tumor progression and metastasis. In addition, protein array and Western blotting analysis showed that treatment with boldine resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 and upregulation of Bax in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. An acute toxicity study in rats revealed that boldine at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was well tolerated. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of boldine (50 or 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:24944509

  4. CRH suppressed TGFβ1-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via induction of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lai; Chen, Jiandong; Li, Li; Li, Chuanhua; Chen, Cheng; Li, Shengnan

    2014-04-01

    Since its discovery in biopsies from breast cancer patients, the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on carcinoma progression is still unclear. Transforming growth factorβ1 (TGFβ1) promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and induces Snail1 and Twist1 expressions. Loss of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mainly repressed by Snail1 and Twist1, has been considered as hallmark of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were used to investigate the effect of CRH on TGFβ1-induced EMT by transwell chamber. And HEK293 cells were transiently transfected with CRHR1 or CRHR2 to explore the definite effects of CRH receptor. We reported that CRH inhibited migration of human breast cancer cells through downregulation of Snail1 and Twist1, and subsequent upregulation of E-cadherin. CRH inhibited TGFβ1-mediated migration of MCF-7 via both CRHR1 and CRHR2 while this inhibition in MDA-MB-231 was mainly via CRHR2. Ectopic re-expression of CRHR1 or CRHR2 respectively in HEK293 cells increased E-cadherin expression after CRH stimulation. Furthermore, CRH repressed expression of mesenchymal marker, N-cadherin and induced expression of Occludin, inhibiting EMT in MCF-7 & MDA-MB-231. Our results suggest that CRH may function as a tumor suppressor, at least partly by regulating TGFβ1-mediated EMT. These results may contribute to uncovering the effect of CRH in breast tumorigenesis and progression. PMID:24412750

  5. Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil and gene expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Ambra, Roberto; Selvaduray, Kanga Rani; Radhakrishnan, Ammu; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E is important not only for its cellular antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties, but also as an antiproliferating agent. It has also been shown to contribute to immunoregulation, antibody production, and resistance to implanted tumors. It has recently been shown that tocotrienols are the components of vitamin E responsible for growth inhibition in human breast cancer cells in vitro as well as in vivo through estrogen-independent mechanisms. Although tocotrienols act on cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and can induce programmed cell death, no specific gene regulation has yet been identified. In order to investigate the molecular basis of the effect of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil, we performed a cDNA array analysis of cancer-related gene expression in estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) and estrogen-independent (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. The human breast cancer cells were incubated with or without 8 mug/mL of tocotrienols for 72 h. RNA was subsequently extracted and subjected to reverse transcription before being hybridized onto cancer arrays. Tocotrienol supplementation modulated significantly 46 out of 1200 genes in MDA-MB-231 cells. In MCF-7 cells, tocotrienol administration was associated with a lower number of affected genes. Interestingly, only three were affected in a similar fashion in both cell lines: c-myc binding protein MM-1, 23-kDa highly basic protein, and interferon-inducible protein 9-27 (IFITM-1). These proteins are most likely involved in the cell cycle and can exert inhibitory effects on cell growth and differentiation of the tumor cell lines. These data suggest that tocotrienols are able to affect cell homeostasis, possibly independent of their antioxidant activity. PMID:15753141

  6. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of coumarin-estrogen conjugates against breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Omar F.; Cooperwood, John S.

    2010-01-01

    The syntheses and cytotoxic activity of coumarin-estrogen conjugates are described. In vitro results indicated that conjugates 10, 11 and 13 show growth inhibitory activities at 5-dose concentration (100, 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 μM) against the following NCI-7- human breast cancer cell lines: BT-549, HS 578T, MCF 7, MDA-MB-231/ATCC, MDA-MB-435, NCI/ADR-RES, and thus serve as new leads for further development of antibreast cancer agent. PMID:20556210

  7. Synthesis and secretion of platelet-derived growth factor by human breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzert, D.A.; Pantazis, P.; Antoniades, H.N.; Kasid, A.; Davidson, N.; Dickson, R.B.; Lippman, M.E.

    1987-08-01

    The authors report that human breast cancer cells secrete a growth factor that is biologically and immunologically similar to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Serum-free medium conditioned by estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 or estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells contains a mitogenic or competence activity that is capable of inducing incorporation of (/sup 3/H) thymidine into quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells in the presence of platelet-poor plasma. Like authentic PDGF, the PDGF-like activity produced by breast cancer cells is stable after acid and heat treatment (95/sup 0/C) and inhibited by reducing agents. The mitogenic activity comigrates with a material of approx. =30 kDa on NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with PDGF antiserum of proteins from metabolically labeled cell lysates and conditioned medium followed by analysis on nonreducing NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gels identified proteins of 30 and 34 kDa. Upon reduction, the 30- and 34-kDa bands were converted to 15- and 16-kDa bands suggesting that the immunoprecipitated proteins were made up of two disulfide-linked polypeptides similar to PDGF. Hybridization studies with cDNA probes for the A chain PDGF and the B chain of PDGF/SIS identified transcripts for both PDGF chains in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The data summarized above provide conclusive evidence for the synthesis and hormonally regulated secretion of a PDGF-like mitogen by breast carcinoma cells. Production of a PDGF-like growth factor by breast cancer cell lines may be important in mediating paracrine stimulation of tumor growth.

  8. MiR-487a Promotes TGF-β1-induced EMT, the Migration and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells by Directly Targeting MAGI2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mengtao; He, Miao; Jiang, Qian; Yan, Yuanyuan; Guan, Shu; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Zhaojin; Chen, Qiuchen; Sun, Mingli; Yao, Weifan; Zhao, Haishan; Jin, Feng; Wei, Minjie

    2016-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is a complex and multistep process and its exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We attempted to find novel microRNAs (miRNAs) contributing to the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-487a was higher in MDA-MB-231breast cancer cells with high metastasis ability than MCF-7 breast cancer cells with low metastasis ability and the treatment with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) significantly increased the expression of miR-487a in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Subsequently, we found that the transfection of miR-487a inhibitor significantly decreased the expression of vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, while increased the expression of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, in both MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, the inactivation of miR-487a inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, our findings demonstrated that miR-487a directly targeted the MAGI2 involved in the stability of PTEN. The down-regulation of miR-487a increased the expression of p-PTEN and PTEN, and reduced the expression of p-AKT in both cell lines. In addition, the results showed that NF-kappaB (p65) significantly increased the miR-487a promoter activity and expression, and TGF-β1 induced the increased miR-487a promoter activity via p65 in MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, we further confirmed the expression of miR-487a was positively correlated with the lymph nodes metastasis and negatively correlated with the expression of MAGI2 in human breast cancer tissues. Overall, our results suggested that miR-487a could promote the TGF-β1-induced EMT, the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by directly targeting MAGI2. PMID:27019625

  9. Triptolide induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells via a mechanism associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, HONGMIN; MA, JINGHUA; GUO, TIANHUA; HU, RONGRONG

    2014-01-01

    Triptolide is a diterpene triepoxide compound extracted from the medicinal plant, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. The aim of the present study was to determine whether triptolide inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells and to further investigate the associated molecular mechanisms. The effects of triptolide on the cell viability of three breast cancer cell lines, specifically, highly metastatic MDA-MB-231, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive BT-474 and estrogen receptor-positive MCF7 cells, were measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and apoptosis assays. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the expression levels of β-catenin in the control and triptolide-treated cells. The results demonstrated that triptolide treatment caused cell death in the three types of malignant cell lines. Treatment with 25 nM triptolide for 48 h exhibited marked inhibitory effects on the cell viability of the three types of cells, with greater effects observed in BT-474 cells compared with the other two cell types. When compared with the cells not treated with triptolide, 50 nM triptolide treatment resulted in apoptosis of MDA-MB-231, BT-474 and MCF7 cells with apoptotic rates of ~80%. Western blot analysis indicated that triptolide treatment of MDA-MB-231, BT-474 and MCF7 cells decreased the expression levels of β-catenin to 5–10% of the levels observed in the cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide only. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that triptolide induces the apoptosis of breast cancer cells via a mechanism associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:25009609

  10. Brain metastases of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Diane; Smith, Quentin R; Lockman, Paul R; Bronder, Julie; Gril, Brunilde; Chambers, Ann F; Weil, Robert J; Steeg, Patricia S

    Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype. Treatment typically includes whole brain irradiation, or either stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery with whole brain radiation, resulting in an approximately 20% one year survival. The blood-brain barrier is a formidable obstacle to the delivery of chemotherapeutics to the brain. Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain. New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells. PMID:17473372

  11. Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoformulation for Intracellular Drug Delivery to Human Breast Cancer, Primary Tumors, and Tumor Biopsies: Beyond Targeting Expectations.

    PubMed

    El-Boubbou, Kheireddine; Ali, Rizwan; Bahhari, Hassan M; AlSaad, Khaled O; Nehdi, Atef; Boudjelal, Mohamed; AlKushi, Abdulmohsen

    2016-06-15

    We report the development of a chemotherapeutic nanoformulation made of polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized magnetofluorescent nanoparticles (Fl-PMNPs) loaded with anticancer drugs as a promising drug carrier homing to human breast cancer cells, primary tumors, and solid tumors. First, nanoparticle uptake and cell death were evaluated in three types of human breast cells: two metastatic cancerous MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and nontumorigenic MCF-10A cells. While Fl-PMNPs were not toxic to cells even at the highest concentrations used, Dox-loaded Fl-PMNPs showed significant potency, effectively killing the different breast cancer cells, albeit at different affinities. Interestingly and superior to free Dox, Dox-loaded Fl-PMNPs were found to be more effective in killing the metastatic cells (2- to 3-fold enhanced cytotoxicities for MDA-MB-231 compared to MCF-7), compared to the normal noncancerous MCF-10A cells (up to 8-fold), suggesting huge potentials as selective anticancer agents. Electron and live confocal microscopy imaging mechanistically confirmed that the nanoparticles were successfully endocytosed and packaged into vesicles inside the cytoplasm, where Dox is released and then translocated to the nucleus exerting its cytotoxic action and causing apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, commendable and enhanced penetration in 3D multilayered primary tumor cells derived from primary lesions as well as in patient breast tumor biopsies was observed, killing the tumor cells inside. The designed nanocarriers described here can potentially open new opportunities for breast cancer patients, especially in theranostic imaging and hyperthermia. While many prior studies have focused on targeting ligands to specific receptors to improve efficacies, we discovered that even with passive-targeted tailored delivery system enhanced toxic responses can be attained. PMID:27269304

  12. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by nimbolide through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, P; Gunadharini, D N; Senthilkumar, K; Banudevi, S; Arunkumar, R; Benson, C S; Sharmila, G; Arunakaran, J

    2012-11-30

    We aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of nimbolide, a limonoid present in leaves and flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) on human breast cancer cells. The molecular mechanisms involved in the apoptotic activity exerted by nimbolide were studied on the estrogen dependent (MCF-7) and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The growth inhibitory effect of nimbolide was assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis induction by nimbolide treatment was determined by JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, cleavage of PARP and AO/EtBr dual staining. The modulation of apoptotic proteins (intrinsic pathway: Bax, bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, XIAP-1 and caspase-3, 9; extrinsic pathway: TRAIL, FasL, FADDR and Caspase-8) were studied by western blot and real time PCR analysis. Treatment with nimbolide resulted in dose and time-dependent inhibition of growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The occurrence of apoptosis in these cells was indicated by JC-1 staining, modulation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling molecules expression and further apoptosis was confirmed by AO/EtBr dual staining. These events were associated with: increased levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Fas-L, TRAIL, FADDR, cytochrome c and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 and XIAP-1. Nimbolide induces the cleavage of pro-caspase-8, pro-caspase-3 and PARP. The above data suggest that nimbolide induces apoptosis by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. With evidence of above data it is suggested that nimbolide exhibit anticancer effect through its apoptosis-inducing property. Thus, nimbolide raises new hope for its use in anticancer therapy. PMID:23089555

  13. Effects of Selenium Yeast on Oxidative Stress, Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chih-Hung; Hsia, Simon; Shih, Min-Yi; Hsieh, Fang-Chin; Chen, Pei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that selenium (Se) yeast may exhibit potential anti-cancer properties; whereas the precise mechanisms remain unknown. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of Se yeast on oxidative stress, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Treatments of ER-positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells with Se yeast (100, 750, and 1500 ng Se/mL), methylseleninic acid (MSA, 1500 ng Se/mL), or methylselenocysteine (MSC, 1500 ng Se/mL) at a time course experiment (at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h) were analyzed. Se yeast inhibited the growth of these cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared with the same level of MSA, cancer cells exposure to Se yeast exhibited a lower growth-inhibitory response. The latter has also lower superoxide production and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, MSA (1500 ng Se/mL)-exposed non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) have a significant growth inhibitory effect, but not Se yeast and MSC. Compared with MSA, Se yeast resulted in a greater increase in the early apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as well as a lower proportion of early and late apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, nuclear morphological changes and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were observed. In conclusion, a dose of 100 to 1500 ng Se/mL of Se yeast can increase oxidative stress, and stimulate growth inhibitory effects and apoptosis induction in breast cancer cell lines, but does not affect non-tumorigenic cells. PMID:26392813

  14. NZ51, a ring-expanded nucleoside analog, inhibits motility and viability of breast cancer cells by targeting the RNA helicase DDX3

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Min; Vesuna, Farhad; Botlagunta, Mahendran; Bol, Guus Martinus; Irving, Ashley; Bergman, Yehudit; Hosmane, Ramachandra S.; Kato, Yoshinori; Winnard, Paul T.; Raman, Venu

    2015-01-01

    DDX3X (DDX3), a human RNA helicase, is over expressed in multiple breast cancer cell lines and its expression levels are directly correlated to cellular aggressiveness. NZ51, a ring-expanded nucleoside analogue (REN) has been reported to inhibit the ATP dependent helicase activity of DDX3. Molecular modeling of NZ51 binding to DDX3 indicated that the 5:7-fused imidazodiazepine ring of NZ51 was incorporated into the ATP binding pocket of DDX3. In this study, we investigated the anticancer properties of NZ51 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. NZ51 treatment decreased cellular motility and cell viability of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Biological knockdown of DDX3 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in decreased proliferation rates and reduced clonogenicity. In addition, NZ51 was effective in killing breast cancer cells under hypoxic conditions with the same potency as observed during normoxia. Mechanistic studies indicated that NZ51 did not cause DDX3 degradation, but greatly diminished its functionality. Moreover, in vivo experiments demonstrated that DDX3 knockdown by shRNA resulted in reduced tumor volume and metastasis without altering tumor vascular volume or permeability-surface area. In initial in vivo experiments, NZ51 treatment did not significantly reduce tumor volume. Further studies are needed to optimize drug formulation, dose and delivery. Continuing work will determine the in vitro-in vivo correlation of NZ51 activity and its utility in a clinical setting. PMID:26337079

  15. G-CSF regulates macrophage phenotype and associates with poor overall survival in human triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hollmén, Maija; Karaman, Sinem; Schwager, Simon; Lisibach, Angela; Christiansen, Ailsa J.; Maksimow, Mikael; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Detmar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in the promotion of breast cancer growth and metastasis, and a strong infiltration by TAMs has been associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. We investigated macrophage activation in response to co-culture with several breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, BT-474, SKBR-3, Cal-51 and MDA-MB-231) and found that high granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion by the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 gave rise to immunosuppressive HLA-DRlo macrophages that promoted migration of breast cancer cells via secretion of TGF-α. In human breast cancer samples (n = 548), G-CSF was highly expressed in TNBC (p < 0.001) and associated with CD163+ macrophages (p < 0.0001), poorer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.021) and significantly increased numbers of TGF-α+ cells. While G-CSF blockade in the 4T1 mammary tumor model promoted maturation of MHCIIhi blood monocytes and TAMs and significantly reduced lung metastasis, anti-CSF-1R treatment promoted MHCIIloF4/80hiMRhi anti-inflammatory TAMs and enhanced lung metastasis in the presence of high G-CSF levels. Combined anti-G-CSF and anti-CSF-1R therapy significantly increased lymph node metastases, possibly via depletion of the so-called “gate-keeper” subcapsular sinus macrophages. These results indicate that G-CSF promotes the anti-inflammatory phenotype of tumor-induced macrophages when CSF-1R is inhibited and therefore caution against the use of M-CSF/CSF-1R targeting agents in tumors with high G-CSF expression. PMID:27141367

  16. MiR-630 suppresses breast cancer progression by targeting metadherin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ci-Xiang; Wang, Chen-Long; Yu, An-Lu; Wang, Qiu-Yu; Zhan, Meng-Na; Tang, Jun; Gong, Xiu-Feng; Yin, Qian-Qian; He, Ming; He, Jian-Rong; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Zhao, Qian

    2016-01-12

    MicroRNAs have been integrated into tumorigenic programs as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. The miR-630 was reported to be deregulated and involved in tumor progression of several human malignancies. However, its expression regulation shows diversity in different kinds of cancers and its potential roles remain greatly elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-630 is significantly suppressed in human breast cancer specimens, as well as in various breast cancer cell lines. In aggressive MDA-MB-231-luc and BT549 breast cancer cells, ectopic expression of miR-630 strongly inhibits cell motility and invasive capacity in vitro. Moreover, lentivirus delivered miR-630 bestows MDA-MB-231-luc cells with the ability to suppress cell colony formation in vitro and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Further studies identify metadherin (MTDH) as a direct target gene of miR-630. Functional studies shows that MTDH contributes to miR-630-endowed effects including cell migration and invasion as well as colony formation in vitro. Taken together, these findings highlight an important role for miR-630 in the regulation of metastatic potential of breast cancer and suggest a potential application of miR-630 in breast cancer treatment. PMID:26595523

  17. MiR-630 suppresses breast cancer progression by targeting metadherin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, An-Lu; Wang, Qiu-Yu; Zhan, Meng-Na; Tang, Jun; Gong, Xiu-Feng; Yin, Qian-Qian; He, Ming; He, Jian-Rong; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Zhao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been integrated into tumorigenic programs as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. The miR-630 was reported to be deregulated and involved in tumor progression of several human malignancies. However, its expression regulation shows diversity in different kinds of cancers and its potential roles remain greatly elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-630 is significantly suppressed in human breast cancer specimens, as well as in various breast cancer cell lines. In aggressive MDA-MB-231-luc and BT549 breast cancer cells, ectopic expression of miR-630 strongly inhibits cell motility and invasive capacity in vitro. Moreover, lentivirus delivered miR-630 bestows MDA-MB-231-luc cells with the ability to suppress cell colony formation in vitro and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Further studies identify metadherin (MTDH) as a direct target gene of miR-630. Functional studies shows that MTDH contributes to miR-630-endowed effects including cell migration and invasion as well as colony formation in vitro. Taken together, these findings highlight an important role for miR-630 in the regulation of metastatic potential of breast cancer and suggest a potential application of miR-630 in breast cancer treatment. PMID:26595523

  18. MiR-129-3p promotes docetaxel resistance of breast cancer cells via CP110 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Yu; Wei, Yifang; Li, Mengyang; Yu, Shentong; Ye, Mingxiang; Zhang, Hongmei; Chen, Suning; Liu, Wenchao; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel is commonly used as an effective chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer treatment, but the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of miR-129-3p in breast cancer cell resistance to docetaxel. MiR-129 and miR-129-3p inhibitor were transfected into breast cancer cells to investigate their effects on chemoresistance to docetaxel. The function of miR-129-3p was evaluated by apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell cycle assays. We found that miR-129-3p was up-regulated in MDA-MB-231/Doc cells, concurrent with CP110 down-regulation, compared to the parental MDA-MB-231 cells. In vitro drug sensitivity assays demonstrated that miR-129-3p inhibition sensitized MDA-MB-231/Doc and MCF-7 cells to docetaxel, whereas miR-129 overexpression enhanced MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell resistance to docetaxel. Ectopic miR-129 expression reduced CP110 expression and the luciferase activity of a CP110 3′ untranslated region-based reporter construct in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that CP110 is a direct miR-129-3p target. We demonstrated that restoration of CP110 expression in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells by miR-129 overexpression rendered the cells sensitive to docetaxel. In a nude xenograft model, miR-129 up-regulation significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 cells’ response to docetaxel. Our findings suggest that miR-129-3p down-regulation potentially sensitizes breast cancer cells to docetaxel treatment. PMID:26487539

  19. Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) exerts effective anti-human breast tumor activities but has a narrow therapeutic window in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dongliang; Sun, Yun; Wang, Ling; He, Qianchuan; Zheng, Juecun; Deng, Fei; Deng, Shanshan; Chang, ShuChing; Yu, XiaoPing; Li, Minhui; Meng, Yao; Jin, Jiagui; Shen, Fubing

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC), a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) extracted from the seeds of Momordica charantia, exerts anti-tumor, antiviral, and anti-fungal activities. However, α-MMC has an obvious toxicity that limits its clinical application. We examined the effect of α-MMC on the inhibition of human breast cancer and assessed its general toxicity to find the therapeutic window in vivo for its potential clinical use. It was purified using column chromatography, and then injected into the xenograft nude mouse model induced by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. The anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated with T/C%. Next, the α-MMC was injected at a series of doses to Balb/C mice to assess its general toxicity. The MTT assay, the apoptosis test, and the cell cycle inhibition of α-MMC in human breast cancer cells were performed. In the xenografted tumors induced by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, α-MMC exerted an obvious inhibition effects on tumor growth at the dosage of 1.2mg/kg and 0.8 mg/kg. For in vivo toxicity experiments of α-MMC in Balb/C mice, the minimal toxic dose of α-MMC was 1.2mg/kg. Alpha-MMC induced apoptosis by increasing caspase3 activities, and the cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 or G2/M phases. The measurements of IC50 were 15.07 μg/mL, 33.66 μg/mL, 42.94 μg/mL for MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 respectively. Alpha-MMC exhibits anti-tumor effects in human breast cancer in vivo and in vitro. It inhibits breast cancer cells through the inhibition of tumor growth and induction of cell apoptosis. However, due to its obvious toxicity, α-MMC has a relatively narrow therapeutic window in vivo. PMID:25447153

  20. The Anti-Cancer Activities of Vernonia amygdalina Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Are Mediated through Caspase-Dependent and p53-Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Fang Cheng; Woo, Chern Chiuh; Hsu, Annie; Tan, Benny Kwong Huat

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women globally. Notably, medicinal plant extracts may be a potential source for treatments of breast cancer. Vernonia amygdalina (VA) is a woody shrub reported to have not only diverse therapeutic effects but also anti-cancer properties. However, current research about the mechanisms of the anti-cancer potential of VA has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of action of VA that underlie its anti-cancer effects in human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells). Results from MTT assay revealed that VA inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The underlying mechanism of this growth inhibition involved the stimulation of cell-type specific G1/S phase cell cycle arrest in only MCF-7 cells, and not in MDA-MB-231 cells. While the growth arrest was associated with increased levels of p53 and p21, and a concomitant decrease in the levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, it was shown that VA causes cell cycle arrest through a p53-independent pathway as tested by the wild type p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α. Furthermore, this study revealed that VA induces apoptosis in the two cell lines, as indicated by the increase in Annexin V-positive cells and sub-G1 population, and that this VA-induced apoptosis occurred through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. The apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was also likely to be caspase-dependent and not p53 transcriptional-dependent. Given that approximately 70% of diagnosed breast cancers express ER-α, a crucial finding was that VA inhibits the expression of ER-α and its downstream player, Akt, highlighting the potential clinical significance of VA. Moreover, VA exhibits synergism when combined with doxorubicin, suggesting that it can complement current chemotherapy. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential applications of VA as an anti-cancer drug for breast cancer treatment

  1. Anti-Metastatic and Anti-Tumor Growth Effects of Origanum majorana on Highly Metastatic Human Breast Cancer Cells: Inhibition of NFκB Signaling and Reduction of Nitric Oxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Yusra; Attoub, Samir; Arafat, Kholoud; AbuQamar, Synan; Viallet, Jean; Saleh, Alaaeldin; Al Agha, Hala; Eid, Ali; Iratni, Rabah

    2013-01-01

    Background We have recently reported that Origanummajorana exhibits anticancer activity by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of the metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Here, we extended our study by investigating the effect of O. majorana on the migration, invasion and tumor growth of these cells. Results We demonstrate that non-cytotoxic concentrations of O. majorana significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of the MDA-MB-231 cells as shown by wound-healing and matrigel invasion assays. We also show that O. majorana induce homotypic aggregation of MDA-MB-231 associated with an upregulation of E-cadherin protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, we show that O. majorana decrease the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 to HUVECs and inhibits transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231 through TNF-α-activated HUVECs. Gelatin zymography assay shows that O. majorana suppresses the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9). ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blot results revealed that O. majorana decreases the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), ICAM-1 and VEGF. Further investigation revealed that O. majorana suppresses the phosphorylation of IκB, downregulates the nuclear level of NFκB and reduces Nitric Oxide (NO) production in MDA-MB-231 cells. Most importantly, by using chick embryo tumor growth assay, we also show that O. majorana promotes inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Conclusion Our findings identify Origanummajorana as a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate that modulate breast cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:23874773

  2. ICAM-1-Targeted, Lcn2 siRNA-Encapsulating Liposomes are Potent Anti-angiogenic Agents for Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peng; Yang, Jiang; Jia, Di; Moses, Marsha A.; Auguste, Debra T.

    2016-01-01

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a promising therapeutic target as well as a potential diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer. It has been previously shown to promote breast cancer progression by inducing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells as well as by enhancing angiogenesis. Lcn2 levels in urine and tissue samples of breast cancer patients has also been correlated with breast cancer status and poor patient prognosis. In this study, we have engineered a novel liposomal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system to target triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) via a recently identified molecular target, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This ICAM-1-targeted, Lcn2 siRNA- encapsulating liposome (ICAM-Lcn2-LP) binds human TNBC MDA-MB-231cells significantly stronger than non-neoplastic MCF-10A cells. Efficient Lcn2 knockdown by ICAM-Lcn2-LPs led to a significant reduction in the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from MDA-MB-231 cells, which, in turn, led to reduced angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Angiogenesis (neovascularization) is a requirement for solid tumor growth and progression, and its inhibition is an important therapeutic strategy for human cancers. Our results indicate that a tumor-specific strategy such as the TNBC-targeted, anti-angiogenic therapeutic approach developed here, may be clinically useful in inhibiting TNBC progression. PMID:26722369

  3. Effects of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase I knockdown in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Tiang, Jacky M; Butcher, Neville J; Minchin, Rodney F

    2015-01-01

    Expression of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase I (NAT1) has been associated with various cancer subtypes and inhibition of this enzyme with small molecule inhibitors or siRNA affects cell growth and survival. Here, we have investigated the role of NAT1 in the invasiveness of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. We knocked down NAT1 using a lentivirus-based shRNA approach and observed marked changes in cell morphology in the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436, and BT-549. Most notable was a reduction in the number and size of the filopodia protrusions on the surface of the cells. The loss of filopodia could be rescued by the reintroduction of NAT1 into the knockdown cells. NAT1 expression was localized to the lamellipodia and extended into the filopodia protrusions. In vitro invasion through Geltrex was significantly inhibited in both the MDA cell lines but not in the BT-549 cells. The expression of Snail increased when NAT1 was knocked down, while other genes associated with mesenchymal to epithelial transition (vimentin, cytokeratin-18, and Twist) did not show any changes. By contrast, both N-cadherin and β-catenin were significantly reduced. When MDA-MB-231 cells expressing shRNA were injected in vivo into BALB/c nu/nu nude mice, a significant reduction in the number of colonies that formed in the lungs was observed. Taken together, the results show that NAT1 can alter the invasion and metastatic properties of some triple-negative breast cancer cells but not all. The study suggests that NAT1 may be a novel therapeutic target in a subset of breast cancers. PMID:25627111

  4. Cell and membrane lipid analysis by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in five breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Le Moyec, L; Tatoud, R; Eugène, M; Gauvillé, C; Primot, I; Charlemagne, D; Calvo, F

    1992-10-01

    The lipid composition of five human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, SKBR3 and MDA-MB231) was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in whole cells and membrane-enriched fractions. The proportions of the three main lipid resonances in 1D spectra were different for each cell line. These resonances included mobile methyl and methylene functions from fatty acids of triglycerides and phospholipids and N-trimethyl from choline of phospholipids. T47D and ZR-75-1 cells presented a high methylene/methyl ratio (6.02 +/- 0.35 and 6.28 +/- 0.90). This ratio was significantly lower for SKBR3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells (2.76 +/- 0.22, 2.27 +/- 0.57 and 1.39 +/- 0.39). The N-trimethyl/methyl ratio was high for MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cells (1.38 +/- 0.54 and 0.86 +/- 0.32), but lower for MCF-7, T47D and ZR-75-1 cells (0.49 +/- 0.11, 0.16 +/- 0.07 and 0.07 +/- 0.03). 2D COSY spectra confirmed these different proportions in mobile lipids. From 1D spectra obtained on membrane preparations, T47D and ZR-75-1 were the only cell lines to retain a signal from mobile methylene functions. These differences might be related to the heterogeneity found for several parameters of these cells (tumorigenicity, growth rate, hormone receptors); an extended number of cases from fresh samples might enable clinical correlations. PMID:1329906

  5. The calcium pump plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 2 (PMCA2) regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and sensitivity to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Amelia A.; Milevskiy, Michael J. G.; Lee, Wei C.; Curry, Merril C.; Smart, Chanel E.; Saunus, Jodi M.; Reid, Lynne; da Silva, Leonard; Marcial, Daneth L.; Dray, Eloise; Brown, Melissa A.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of Ca2+ transport is vital in physiological processes, including lactation, proliferation and apoptosis. The plasmalemmal Ca2+ pump isoform 2 (PMCA2) a calcium ion efflux pump, was the first protein identified to be crucial in the transport of Ca2+ ions into milk during lactation in mice. In these studies we show that PMCA2 is also expressed in human epithelia undergoing lactational remodeling and also report strong PMCA2 staining on apical membranes of luminal epithelia in approximately 9% of human breast cancers we assessed. Membrane protein expression was not significantly associated with grade or hormone receptor status. However, PMCA2 mRNA levels were enriched in Basal breast cancers where it was positively correlated with survival. Silencing of PMCA2 reduced MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation, whereas silencing of the related isoforms PMCA1 and PMCA4 had no effect. PMCA2 silencing also sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to the cytotoxic agent doxorubicin. Targeting PMCA2 alone or in combination with cytotoxic therapy may be worthy of investigation as a therapeutic strategy in breast cancer. PMCA2 mRNA levels are also a potential tool in identifying poor responders to therapy in women with Basal breast cancer. PMID:27148852

  6. The calcium pump plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (PMCA2) regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and sensitivity to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Peters, Amelia A; Milevskiy, Michael J G; Lee, Wei C; Curry, Merril C; Smart, Chanel E; Saunus, Jodi M; Reid, Lynne; da Silva, Leonard; Marcial, Daneth L; Dray, Eloise; Brown, Melissa A; Lakhani, Sunil R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of Ca(2+) transport is vital in physiological processes, including lactation, proliferation and apoptosis. The plasmalemmal Ca(2+) pump isoform 2 (PMCA2) a calcium ion efflux pump, was the first protein identified to be crucial in the transport of Ca(2+) ions into milk during lactation in mice. In these studies we show that PMCA2 is also expressed in human epithelia undergoing lactational remodeling and also report strong PMCA2 staining on apical membranes of luminal epithelia in approximately 9% of human breast cancers we assessed. Membrane protein expression was not significantly associated with grade or hormone receptor status. However, PMCA2 mRNA levels were enriched in Basal breast cancers where it was positively correlated with survival. Silencing of PMCA2 reduced MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation, whereas silencing of the related isoforms PMCA1 and PMCA4 had no effect. PMCA2 silencing also sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to the cytotoxic agent doxorubicin. Targeting PMCA2 alone or in combination with cytotoxic therapy may be worthy of investigation as a therapeutic strategy in breast cancer. PMCA2 mRNA levels are also a potential tool in identifying poor responders to therapy in women with Basal breast cancer. PMID:27148852

  7. Polysaccharides from Korean Citrus hallabong peels inhibit angiogenesis and breast cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Park, J Y; Shin, M S; Kim, S N; Kim, H Y; Kim, K H; Shin, K S; Kang, K S

    2016-04-01

    Although the peel of the hallabong (Citrus sphaerocarpa) fruit is rich in polysaccharides, which are valuable dietary ingredients for human health, it is normally wasted. The present study aimed to utilize the peel waste and identify properties it may have against breast cancer metastasis. Hallabong peel extract containing crude polysaccharides was fractionated by gel permeation chromatography to produce four different polysaccharide fractions (HBE-I, -II, -III, and -IV). The HBE polysaccharides significantly blocked tube formation of human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), at a concentration of 12.5 or 25 μg/mL. Tube formation appeared to be more sensitive to HBE-II than to other HBE polysaccharides. HBE-II also inhibited breast cancer cell migration, through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells. Therefore, inhibition of tube formation and MMP-9-mediated migration observed in HUVEC and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively, are likely to be important therapeutic targets in triple-negative breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26778161

  8. Eribulin mesylate reduces tumor microenvironment abnormality by vascular remodeling in preclinical human breast cancer models.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Yusuke; Semba, Taro; Uesugi, Mai; Ozawa, Yoichi; Tohyama, Osamu; Uehara, Taisuke; Kimura, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hideki; Asano, Makoto; Kawano, Satoshi; Tizon, Xavier; McCracken, Paul J; Matsui, Junji; Aoshima, Ken; Nomoto, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshiya

    2014-10-01

    Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic macrocyclic ketone analog of the marine sponge natural product halichondrin B and an inhibitor of microtubule dynamics. Some tubulin-binding drugs are known to have antivascular (antiangiogenesis or vascular-disrupting) activities that can target abnormal tumor vessels. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI analyses, here we show that eribulin induces remodeling of tumor vasculature through a novel antivascular activity in MX-1 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenograft models. Vascular remodeling associated with improved perfusion was shown by Hoechst 33342 staining and by increased microvessel density together with decreased mean vascular areas and fewer branched vessels in tumor tissues, as determined by immunohistochemical staining for endothelial marker CD31. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of normal host cells in the stroma of xenograft tumors showed that eribulin altered the expression of mouse (host) genes in angiogenesis signaling pathways controlling endothelial cell-pericyte interactions, and in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway in the context of the tumor microenvironment. Eribulin also decreased hypoxia-associated protein expression of mouse (host) vascular endothelial growth factor by ELISA and human CA9 by immunohistochemical analysis. Prior treatment with eribulin enhanced the anti-tumor activity of capecitabine in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. These findings suggest that eribulin-induced remodeling of abnormal tumor vasculature leads to a more functional microenvironment that may reduce the aggressiveness of tumors due to elimination of inner tumor hypoxia. Because abnormal tumor microenvironments enhance both drug resistance and metastasis, the apparent ability of eribulin to reverse these aggressive characteristics may contribute to its clinical benefits. PMID:25060424

  9. Eribulin mesylate reduces tumor microenvironment abnormality by vascular remodeling in preclinical human breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Yusuke; Semba, Taro; Uesugi, Mai; Ozawa, Yoichi; Tohyama, Osamu; Uehara, Taisuke; Kimura, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hideki; Asano, Makoto; Kawano, Satoshi; Tizon, Xavier; McCracken, Paul J; Matsui, Junji; Aoshima, Ken; Nomoto, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic macrocyclic ketone analog of the marine sponge natural product halichondrin B and an inhibitor of microtubule dynamics. Some tubulin-binding drugs are known to have antivascular (antiangiogenesis or vascular-disrupting) activities that can target abnormal tumor vessels. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI analyses, here we show that eribulin induces remodeling of tumor vasculature through a novel antivascular activity in MX-1 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenograft models. Vascular remodeling associated with improved perfusion was shown by Hoechst 33342 staining and by increased microvessel density together with decreased mean vascular areas and fewer branched vessels in tumor tissues, as determined by immunohistochemical staining for endothelial marker CD31. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of normal host cells in the stroma of xenograft tumors showed that eribulin altered the expression of mouse (host) genes in angiogenesis signaling pathways controlling endothelial cell–pericyte interactions, and in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition pathway in the context of the tumor microenvironment. Eribulin also decreased hypoxia-associated protein expression of mouse (host) vascular endothelial growth factor by ELISA and human CA9 by immunohistochemical analysis. Prior treatment with eribulin enhanced the anti-tumor activity of capecitabine in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. These findings suggest that eribulin-induced remodeling of abnormal tumor vasculature leads to a more functional microenvironment that may reduce the aggressiveness of tumors due to elimination of inner tumor hypoxia. Because abnormal tumor microenvironments enhance both drug resistance and metastasis, the apparent ability of eribulin to reverse these aggressive characteristics may contribute to its clinical benefits. PMID:25060424

  10. An Aqueous Extract of Fagonia cretica Induces DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells via FOXO3a and p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Matt; Carmichael, Amtul R.; Griffiths, Helen R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants have proved to be an important source of anti-cancer drugs. Here we have investigated the cytotoxic action of an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica, used widely as a herbal tea-based treatment for breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Using flow cytometric analysis of cells labeled with cyclin A, annexin V and propidium iodide, we describe a time and dose-dependent arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis following extract treatment in MCF-7 (WT-p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mutant-p53) human breast cancer cell lines with a markedly reduced effect on primary human mammary epithelial cells. Analysis of p53 protein expression and of its downstream transcription targets, p21 and BAX, revealed a p53 associated growth arrest within 5 hours of extract treatment and apoptosis within 24 hours. DNA double strand breaks measured as γ-H2AX were detected early in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. However, loss of cell viability was only partly due to a p53-driven response; as MDA-MB-231 and p53-knockdown MCF-7 cells both underwent cell cycle arrest and death following extract treatment. p53-independent growth arrest and cytotoxicity following DNA damage has been previously ascribed to FOXO3a expression. Here, in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, FOXO3a expression was increased significantly within 3 hours of extract treatment and FOXO3 siRNA reduced the extract-induced loss of cell viability in both cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate for the first time that an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via p53-dependent and independent mechanisms, with activation of the DNA damage response. We also show that FOXO3a is required for activity in the absence of p53. Our findings indicate that Fagonia cretica aqueous extract contains potential anti-cancer agents acting either singly or in combination against breast cancer cell proliferation via DNA damage-induced FOXO3a and p53

  11. Combining ABCG2 Inhibitors with IMMU-132, an Anti-Trop-2 Antibody Conjugate of SN-38, Overcomes Resistance to SN-38 in Breast and Gastric Cancers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Hsing; Wang, Yang; Zalath, Maria; Liu, Donglin; Cardillo, Thomas M; Goldenberg, David M

    2016-08-01

    Sacituzumab govitecan (IMMU-132), an SN-38-conjugated antibody-drug conjugate, is showing promising therapeutic results in a phase I/II trial of patients with advanced Trop-2-expressing, metastatic, solid cancers. As members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters confer chemotherapy resistance by active drug efflux, which is a frequent cause of treatment failure, we explored the use of known inhibitors of ABC transporters for improving the therapeutic efficacy of IMMU-132 by overcoming SN-38 resistance. Two human tumor cell lines made resistant to SN-38, MDA-MB-231-S120 (human breast cancer) and NCI-N87-S120 (human gastric cancer), were established by continuous exposure of the parental cells to stepwise increased concentrations of SN-38 and analyzed by flow cytometry for functional activities of ABCG2 and ABCB1, immunoblotting and qRT-PCR for the expression of ABCG2 at both protein and mRNA levels, and MTS assays for the potency of SN-38 alone or in combination with a modulator of ABC transporters. MDA-MB-231-S120 and NCI-N87-S120 displayed reduced sensitivity to SN-38 in vitro, with IC50 values approximately 50-fold higher than parental MDA-MB-231 and NCI-N87 cells. The increase in drug resistance of both S120 cell populations is associated with the expression of functional ABCG2, but not ABCB1. Importantly, treatment of both S120 sublines with known ABCG2 inhibitors (fumitremorgin C, Ko143, and YHO-13351) restored toxicity of SN-38, and the combination of YHO-13351 with IMMU-132 increased the median survival of mice bearing NCI-N87-S120 xenografts. These results provide a rationale for combination therapy of IMMU-132 and inhibitors of ABC transporters, such as YHO-13351. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1910-9. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27207776

  12. Modulation of Invasive Phenotype by Interstitial Pressure-Driven Convection in Aggregates of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Joe; Truslow, James G.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of elevated pressure on the invasive phenotype of patterned three-dimensional (3D) aggregates of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. We found that the directionality of the interstitial pressure profile altered the frequency of invasion by cells located at the surface of an aggregate. In particular, application of pressure at one end of an aggregate suppressed invasion at the opposite end. Experimental alteration of the configuration of cell aggregates and computational modeling of the resulting flow and solute concentration profiles revealed that elevated pressure inhibited invasion by altering the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid near the surface of the aggregate. Our data reveal a link between hydrostatic pressure, interstitial convection, and invasion. PMID:23028839

  13. IL-7 splicing variant IL-7{delta}5 induces human breast cancer cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Deshun; Liu, Bing; Jin, Xiaobao; Zhu, Jiayong

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study confirms the role of IL-7{delta}5 in breast cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-7{delta}5 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-7{delta}5 promotes cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. -- Abstract: Various tumor cells express interleukin 7 (IL-7) and IL-7 variants. IL-7 has been confirmed to stimulate solid tumor cell proliferation. However, the effect of IL-7 variants on tumor cell proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of IL-7{delta}5 (an IL-7 variant lacking exon 5) on proliferation and cell cycle progression of human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The results showed that IL-7{delta}5 promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression from G1 phase to G2/M phase, associated with upregulation of cyclin D1 expression and the downregulation of p27{sup kip1} expression. Mechanistically, we found that IL-7{delta}5 induced the activation of Akt. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 reversed the proliferation and cell cycle progression of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells induced by IL-7{delta}5. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that IL-7{delta}5 variant induces human breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, IL-7{delta}5 may be a potential target for human breast cancer therapeutics intervention.

  14. In Vitro Activity of Paclitaxel-Loaded Polymeric Expansile Nanoparticles in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann V.; Liu, Rong; Colby, Aaron; Schulz, Morgan D.; Colson, Yolonda L.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Through a series of in vitro studies, the essential steps for intracellular drug delivery of paclitaxel using a pH-responsive nanoparticle system have been investigated in breast cancer cells. We successfully encapsulated paclitaxel within polymeric expansile nanoparticles (Pax-eNPs) at 5% loading via a miniemulsion polymerization procedure. Fluorescently tagged eNPs were readily taken up by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells grown in culture as confirmed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The ability of the encapsulated paclitaxel to reach the cytoplasm was also observed using confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled paclitaxel. Pax-eNPs were shown to be efficacious against three in vitro human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and SK-BR-3) as well as cells isolated from the pleural effusions of two different breast cancer patients. Lastly, macropinocytosis was identified as the major cellular pathway responsible for eNP uptake, as confirmed using temperature-sensitive metabolic reduction, pharmacologic inhibitors, and fluid-phase marker co-localization. PMID:23617223

  15. Myeloid-specific TGF-β signaling in bone promotes basic-FGF and breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Meng, X; Vander Ark, A; Lee, P; Hostetter, G; Bhowmick, N A; Matrisian, L M; Williams, B O; Miranti, C K; Li, X

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer (BCa) bone metastases cause osteolytic bone lesions, which result from the interactions of metastatic BCa cells with osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Osteoclasts differentiate from myeloid lineage cells. To understand the cell-specific role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in the myeloid lineage, in BCa bone metastases, MDA-MB-231 BCa cells were intra-tibially or intra-cardially injected into LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) knockout (LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 KO) or Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) mice. Metastatic bone lesion development was compared by analysis of both lesion number and area. We found that LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 knockout significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 bone lesion development in both the cardiac and tibial injection models. LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 knockout inhibited the tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis of the metastatic bones. Cytokine array analysis showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was downregulated in MDA-MB-231-injected tibiae from the LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 KO group, and intravenous injection of the recombinant bFGF to LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 KO mice rescued the inhibited metastatic bone lesion development. The mechanism by which bFGF rescued the bone lesion development was by promotion of tumor cell proliferation through the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cFos pathway after binding to the FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). Consistent with animal studies, we found that in human BCa bone metastatic tissues, TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII) and p-Smad2 were expressed in osteoclasts and tumor cells, and were correlated with the expression of FGFR1. Our studies suggest that myeloid-specific TGF-β signaling-mediated bFGF in the bone promotes BCa bone metastasis. PMID:26279296

  16. Marine lipopeptide Iturin A inhibits Akt mediated GSK3β and FoxO3a signaling and triggers apoptosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dey, Goutam; Bharti, Rashmi; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Das, Subhasis; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Sen, Ramkrishna; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2015-01-01

    Akt kinase is a critical component of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which is frequently over expressed in human cancers including breast. Therapeutic regimens for inhibiting breast cancer with aberrant Akt activity are essential. Here, we evaluated antitumor effect of a marine bacteria derived lipopeptide 'Iturin A' on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo through disrupting Akt pathway. Proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were significantly inhibited by Iturin A and it induced apoptosis as confirmed by increased Sub G1 populations, DNA fragmentation, morphological changes and western blot analysis. Furthermore, Iturin A inhibited EGF induced Akt phosphorylation (Ser473 and Thr308) and its downstream targets GSK3β and FoxO3a. Iturin A inactivated MAPK as well as Akt kinase leading to the translocation of FoxO3a to the nucleus. Gene silencing of Akt in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells reduced the sensitivity of cancer cells to Iturin A. Interestingly, overexpression of Akt with Akt plasmid in cancer cells caused highly susceptible to induce apoptosis by Iturin A treatment. In a xenograft model, Iturin A inhibited tumor growth with reduced expressions of Ki-67, CD-31, P-Akt, P-GSK3β, P-FoxO3a and P-MAPK. Collectively, these findings imply that Iturin A has potential anticancer effect on breast cancer. PMID:25974307

  17. Marine lipopeptide Iturin A inhibits Akt mediated GSK3β and FoxO3a signaling and triggers apoptosis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Goutam; Bharti, Rashmi; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Das, Subhasis; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Sen, Ramkrishna; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2015-01-01

    Akt kinase is a critical component of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which is frequently over expressed in human cancers including breast. Therapeutic regimens for inhibiting breast cancer with aberrant Akt activity are essential. Here, we evaluated antitumor effect of a marine bacteria derived lipopeptide ‘Iturin A’ on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo through disrupting Akt pathway. Proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were significantly inhibited by Iturin A and it induced apoptosis as confirmed by increased Sub G1 populations, DNA fragmentation, morphological changes and western blot analysis. Furthermore, Iturin A inhibited EGF induced Akt phosphorylation (Ser473 and Thr308) and its downstream targets GSK3β and FoxO3a. Iturin A inactivated MAPK as well as Akt kinase leading to the translocation of FoxO3a to the nucleus. Gene silencing of Akt in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells reduced the sensitivity of cancer cells to Iturin A. Interestingly, overexpression of Akt with Akt plasmid in cancer cells caused highly susceptible to induce apoptosis by Iturin A treatment. In a xenograft model, Iturin A inhibited tumor growth with reduced expressions of Ki-67, CD-31, P-Akt, P-GSK3β, P-FoxO3a and P-MAPK. Collectively, these findings imply that Iturin A has potential anticancer effect on breast cancer. PMID:25974307

  18. Rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in human breast cancer cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhiwei; Yu Xinyuan; Shaikh, Zahir A.

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd), an endocrine disruptor, can induce a variety of signaling events including the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. In this study, the involvement of estrogen receptors (ER) in these events was evaluated in three human breast caner cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3. The Cd-induced signal activation patterns in the three cell lines mimicked those exhibited in response to 17{beta}-estradiol. Specifically, treatment of MCF-7 cells, that express ER{alpha}, ER{beta} and GPR30, to 0.5-10 {mu}M Cd for only 2.5 min resulted in transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cd also triggered a gradual increase and sustained activation of AKT during the 60 min treatment period. In SK-BR-3 cells, that express only GPR30, Cd also caused a transient activation of ERK1/2, but not of AKT. In contrast, in MDA-MB-231 cells, that express only ER{beta}, Cd was unable to cause rapid activation of either ERK1/2 or AKT. A transient phosphorylation of ER{alpha} was also observed within 2.5 min of Cd exposure in the MCF-7 cells. While the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, did not prevent the effect of Cd on these signals, specific siRNA against hER{alpha} significantly reduced Cd-induced activation of ERK1/2 and completely blocked the activation of AKT. It is concluded that Cd, like estradiol, can cause rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT and that these signaling events are mediated by possible interaction with membrane ER{alpha} and GPR30, but not ER{beta}.

  19. Hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-BrPA induced autophagy by stimulating ROS formation in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianwen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Pei; Chao, Zhenhua; Xia, Fei; Jiang, Chenchen; Zhang, Xudong; Jiang, Zhiwen; Liu, Hao

    2014-03-01

    Hexokinase II (HKII), a key enzyme of glycolysis, is widely over-expressed in cancer cells. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of HK II, has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. Autophagy is a process that regulates the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Autophagy in mammalian systems occurs under basal conditions and can be stimulated by stresses, including starvation, oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that 3-BrPA could induce autophagy. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of 3-BrPA and its combined action with chloroquine. Our results demonstrate that in MDA-MB-435 and in MDA-MB-231 cells, 3-BrPA induces autophagy, which can be inhibited by chloroquine. Furthermore, the combined treatment synergistically decreased the number of viable cells. Interestingly, the combined treatment triggered apoptosis in MDA-MB-435 cells, while it induced necroptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. ROS mediated cell death when 3-BrPA and CQ were co-administered. Finally, CQ enhanced the anticancer efficacy of 3-BrPA in vivo. Collectively, our results show that 3-BrPA triggers autophagy, increasing breast cancer cell resistance to 3-BrPA treatment and that CQ enhanced 3-BrPA-induced cell death in breast cancer cells by stimulating ROS formation. Thus, inhibition of autophagy may be an innovative strategy for adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer.human skeletal muscle. Efficient Mirk depletion in SU86.86 pancreatic cancer cells by an inducible shRNA decreased expression of eight antioxidant genes. Thus both cancer cells and differentiated myotubes utilize Mirk kinase to relieve oxidative stress. PMID:25053988

  20. Microenvironment Promotes Tumor Cell Reprogramming in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    D’Anselmi, Fabrizio; Masiello, Maria Grazia; Cucina, Alessandra; Proietti, Sara; Dinicola, Simona; Pasqualato, Alessia; Ricci, Giulia; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Catizone, Angela; Palombo, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The microenvironment drives mammary gland development and function, and may influence significantly both malignant behavior and cell growth of mammary cancer cells. By restoring context, and forcing cells to properly interpret native signals from the microenvironment, the cancer cell aberrant behavior can be quelled, and organization re-established. In order to restore functional and morphological differentiation, human mammary MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells were allowed to grow in a culture medium filled with a 10% of the albumen (EW, Egg White) from unfertilized chicken egg. That unique microenvironment behaves akin a 3D culture and induces MCF-7 cells to produce acini and branching duct-like structures, distinctive of mammary gland differentiation. EW-treated MDA-MB-231 cells developed buds of acini and duct-like structures. Both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells produced β-casein, a key milk component. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression was reactivated in MDA-MB-231 cells, as a consequence of the increased cdh1 expression; meanwhile β-catenin – a key cytoskeleton component – was displaced behind the inner cell membrane. Such modification hinders the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in MDA-MB-231 cells. This differentiating pathway is supported by the contemporary down-regulation of canonical pluripotency markers (Klf4, Nanog). Given that egg-conditioned medium behaves as a 3D-medium, it is likely that cancer phenotype reversion could be ascribed to the changed interactions between cells and their microenvironment. PMID:24386275

  1. Prostaglandin E2 production and metabolism in human breast cancer cells and breast fibroblasts. Regulation by inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Schrey, M. P.; Patel, K. V.

    1995-01-01

    Malignant human breast tumours contain high levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, the mechanisms controlling PGE2 production in breast cancer are unknown. This in vitro study investigates the capacity for PGE2 synthesis and metabolism in several human breast cancer cell lines and early passage human breast fibroblasts and seeks to identify potential regulatory factors which may control these pathways. Basal PGE2 production rose up to 30-fold in breast fibroblast lines on addition of exogenous arachidonic acid (10 microM), whereas no such changes were observed in six out of seven cancer cell lines, with the exception of modest increases in MDA-MB-231 cells. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) also induced PGE2 production in breast fibroblasts in the presence of excess substrate, consistent with cyclo-oxygenase induction by the cytokine. Under these conditions only Hs578T cells and MDA-MB-231 cells demonstrated large increases in PGE2 in response to IL-1 beta or phorbol ester; no such responses were seen in MCF-7, T47-D, ZR-75-1, BT-20 or CLF-90-1 cells. In the absence of added arachidonate, bradykinin (BK) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), potentiated PGE2 production in IL-1 beta-treated fibroblasts, possibly by mobilising endogenous substrate. PGE2 also stimulated ET-1 production by breast cancer cells. In co-cultures with T47-D cells both basal and stimulated PGE2 production by breast fibroblasts was greatly reduced. This appeared to be due to metabolic inactivation by the cancer cell since T47-D cells readily converted PGE2 to 15-keto-PGE2. This apparent 15-hydroxy-PG dehydrogenase activity was stimulated by TPA and inhibited by cycloheximide. In conclusion, breast fibroblasts, particularly under the influence of inflammatory mediators, provide a potentially rich source for PGE2 production in breast tumours, whereas significant contributions from the epithelial tumour component may be restricted to cancer cells exhibiting an invasive phenotype. Metabolic inactivation by

  2. Cathepsin D inhibitors as potential therapeutics for breast cancer treatment: Molecular docking and bioevaluation against triple-negative and triple-positive breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Anantaraju, Hasitha Shilpa; Battu, Madhu Babu; Viswanadha, Srikant; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to discover small molecule inhibitors against Cathepsin D (CatD) (EC.3.4.23.5), a clinically proven prognostic marker for breast cancer, and to explore the mechanisms by which CatD could be a useful therapeutic target for triple-positive and triple-negative breast cancers (TPBC & TNBC). The crystal structure of CatD at 2.5 Å resolution (PDB: 1LYB), which was complexed with Pepstatin A, was selected for computer-aided molecular modeling. The methods used in our study were pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking. Virtual screening was performed to identify small molecules from an in-house database and a large commercial chemical library. Cytotoxicity studies were performed on human normal cell line HEK293T and growth inhibition studies on breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-468. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis, in vitro enzyme assay, and cell cycle analysis ascertained the validity of the selected molecules. A set of 28 molecules was subjected to an in vitro fluorescence-based inhibitory activity assay, and among them six molecules exhibited [Formula: see text]50 % inhibition at [Formula: see text]. These molecules also exhibited good growth inhibition against TPBC and TNBC cancer types. Among them, molecules 1 and 17 showed single-digit micromolar [Formula: see text] values against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:26563150

  3. CHL1 is involved in human breast tumorigenesis and progression

    SciTech Connect

    He, Li-Hong; Ma, Qin; Shi, Ye-Hui; Ge, Jie; Zhao, Hong-Meng; Li, Shu-Fen; Tong, Zhong-Sheng

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •CHL1 is down-regulation in breast cancer tissues. •Down-regulation of CHL1 is related to high grade. •Overexpression of CHL1 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. •CHL1 deficiency induces breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAM) play important roles in the development and regeneration of the nervous system. The L1 family of CAMs is comprised of L1, Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1, L1CAM2), NrCAM, and Neurofascin, which are structurally related trans-membrane proteins in vertebrates. Although the L1CAM has been demonstrated play important role in carcinogenesis and progression, the function of CHL1 in human breast cancer is limited. Here, we found that CHL1 is down-regulated in human breast cancer and related to lower grade. Furthermore, overexpression of CHL1 suppresses proliferation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells and knockdown of CHL1 expression results in increased proliferation and invasion in MCF7 cells in vitro. Finally, CHL1 deficiency promotes tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking breast carcinogenesis and progression.

  4. Inhibition of EGFR pathway signaling and the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells by PA-MSHA mediated by type 1 fimbriae via a mannose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z-B; Hou, Y-F; Zhu, J; Hu, D-L; Jin, W; Ou, Z-L; Di, G-H; Wu, J; Shen, Z-Z; Shao, Z-M

    2010-05-20

    To identify more therapeutic targets and clarify the detailed mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (PA-MSHA) on breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. PA-MSHA was administered to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231HM and MDA-MB-468 in vitro and to mice bearing tumor xenografts. The mannose cocultured test was used to detect the effect of mannose on PA-MSHA-induced cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and EGFR pathway signaling. We found that cells stimulated with PA-MSHA exhibited a downregulation of EGFR signaling. The addition of mannose partially inhibited the PA-MSHA-stimulated cell anti-proliferative effect, cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, activation of apoptosis-associated caspases, and even downregulation of the EGFR signaling pathway. In vivo, PA-MSHA treatment significantly suppressed mammary tumorigenesis in xenografts in mice and decreased lung metastasis in MDA-MB-231HM cell-transplanted mice. Tumor sample analyses confirmed inhibition of the EGFR pathway in the PA-MSHA-treated mice. In conclusion, this study showed that the involvement of the mannose-mediated EGFR pathway has a critical function in the preclinical rationale for the development of PA-MSHA for the treatment of human breast cancer. It also suggests the potentially beneficial use of PA-MSHA in adjuvant therapy for breast tumors with EGFR overexpression. PMID:20228837

  5. Mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter is critical for store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry-dependent breast cancer cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Shihao; Wang, Xubu; Shen, Qiang; Yang, Xinyi; Yu, Changhui; Cai, Chunqing; Cai, Guoshuai; Meng, Xiaojing; Zou, Fei

    2015-02-27

    Metastasis of cancer cells is a complicated multistep process requiring extensive and continuous cytosolic calcium modulation. Mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter (MCU), a regulator of mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake, has been implicated in energy metabolism and various cellular signaling processes. However, whether MCU contributes to cancer cell migration has not been established. Here we examined the expression of MCU mRNA in the Oncomine database and found that MCU is correlated to metastasis and invasive breast cancer. MCU inhibition by ruthenium red (RuR) or MCU silencing by siRNA abolished serum-induced migration in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and reduced serum- or thapsigargin (TG)-induced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Serum-induced migrations in MDA-MB-231 cells were blocked by SOCE inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that MCU plays a critical role in breast cancer cell migration by regulating SOCE. - Highlights: • MCU is correlated to metastasis and invasive breast cancer. • MCU inhibition abolished serum-induced migration in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and reduced serum- or TG-induced SOCE. • Serum-induced migrations in MDA-MB-231 cells were blocked by SOCE inhibitors. • MCU plays a critical role in MDA-MB-231 cell migration by regulating SOCE.

  6. Adipose progenitor cells increase fibronectin matrix strain and unfolding in breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, E. M.; Saunders, M. P.; Yoon, C. J.; Gourdon, D.; Fischbach, C.

    2011-02-01

    Increased stiffness represents a hallmark of breast cancer that has been attributed to the altered physicochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the role of fibronectin (Fn) in modulating the composition and mechanical properties of the tumor-associated ECM remains unclear. We have utilized a combination of biochemical and physical science tools to evaluate whether paracrine signaling between breast cancer cells and adipose progenitor cells regulates Fn matrix assembly and stiffness enhancement in the tumor stroma. In particular, we utilized fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to map the molecular conformation and stiffness of Fn that has been assembled by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in response to conditioned media from MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Our results reveal that soluble factors secreted by tumor cells promote Fn expression, unfolding, and stiffening by adipose progenitor cells and that transforming growth factor-β serves as a soluble cue underlying these changes. In vivo experiments using orthotopic co-transplantation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells and MDA-MB231 into SCID mice support the pathological relevance of our results. Insights gained by these studies advance our understanding of the role of Fn in mammary tumorigenesis and may ultimately lead to improved anti-cancer therapies.

  7. The Role of PIWIL4, an Argonaute Family Protein, in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zifeng; Liu, Na; Shi, Shuo; Liu, Sanhong; Lin, Haifan

    2016-05-13

    P-element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI) proteins bind to PIWI-interacting RNAs and play key roles in the biogenesis and functions of PIWI-interacting RNAs. It has been reported that PIWI proteins are essential for stem cell self-renewal and germline development in diverse organisms and that they are ectopically expressed in multiple forms of cancer. However, the role of PIWI in cancer remains elusive. Here we report that one of the four PIWI proteins in humans, PIWIL4, is highly expressed in both breast cancer tissues and the cytoplasm of MDA-MB-231 cells derived from breast cancer. Reducing PIWIL4 expression drastically impairs the migration ability of MDA-MB-231 cells, significantly increases their apoptosis, and mildly affects their proliferation. Our transcriptome and proteome analysis reveal that these functions are at least partially achieved via the PIWIL4 regulation of TGF-β and FGF signaling pathways and MHC class II proteins. These findings suggest that PIWIL4 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:26957540

  8. Didymin reverses phthalate ester-associated breast cancer aggravation in the breast cancer tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    HSU, YA-LING; HSIEH, CHIA-JUNG; TSAI, EING-MEI; HUNG, JEN-YU; CHANG, WEI-AN; HOU, MING-FENG; KUO, PO-LIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated two novel findings. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study to demonstrate that regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), produced by breast tumor-associated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (TADCs) following breast cancer cell exposure to phthalate esters, may contribute to the progression of cancer via enhancement of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the present study revealed that didymin, a dietary flavonoid glycoside present in citrus fruits, was able to reverse phthalate ester-mediated breast cancer aggravation. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Subsequently, the conditioned medium (CM) was harvested and cultured with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). Cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells with the conditioned medium of BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-MB-231 tumor-associated mdDCs (BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-TADC-CM) demonstrated enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion. Exposure of the MDA-MB-231 cells to DBP induced the MDA-TADCs to produce the inflammatory cytokine RANTES, which subsequently induced MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Depleting RANTES reversed the effects of DBP-MDA-TADC-mediated MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, didymin was observed to suppress phthalate-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The present study suggested that didymin was capable of preventing phthalate ester-associated cancer aggravation. PMID:26893687

  9. Betulinic acid decreases ER-negative breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo: role of Sp transcription factors and microRNA-27a:ZBTB10

    PubMed Central

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.; Noratto, Giuliana D.; Li, Xiangrong; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Bertoldi, Michele C.; Safe, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from tree bark is cytotoxic to cancer cells. There is evidence that specificity proteins (Sps), such as Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4, are overexpressed in tumors and contribute to the proliferative and angiogenic phenotype associated with cancer cells. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of BA in decreasing the Sps expression and underlying mechanisms. Results show that BA decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The BA-induced Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 downregulation was accompanied by increased zinc finger ZBTB10 expression, a putative Sp-repressor (ZBTB10) and decreased microRNA-27a levels, a microRNA involved in the regulation of ZBTB10. Similar results were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with ZBTB10 expression plasmid. BA induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and increased Myt-1 mRNA (a microRNA-27a target gene), which causes inhibition in G2/M by phosphorylation of cdc2. The effects of BA were reversed by transient transfection with a mimic of microRNA-27a. In nude mice with xenografted MDA-MB-231 cells, tumor size and weight were significantly decreased by BA treatment. In tumor tissue, ZBTB10 mRNA was increased while mRNA and protein of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4, as well as mRNA of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), survivin and microRNA-27a were decreased by BA. In lungs of xenografted mice, human β2-microglobulin mRNA was decreased in BA-treated animals. These results show that the anti-cancer effects of BA are at least in part based on interactions with the microRNA-27a-ZBTB10-Sp1-axis causing increased cell death. PMID:22407812

  10. Adhesion between peptides/antibodies and breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J.; Paetzell, E.; Bogorad, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2010-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to measure the adhesion forces between the receptors on breast cancer cells specific to human luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) peptides and antibodies specific to the EphA2 receptor. The adhesion forces between LHRH-coated AFM tips and human MDA-MB-231 cells (breast cancer cells) were shown to be about five times greater than those between LHRH-coated AFM tips and normal Hs578Bst breast cells. Similarly, those between EphA2 antibody-coated AFM tips and breast cancer cells were over five times greater than those between EphA2 antibody-coated AFM tips and normal breast cells. The results suggest that AFM can be used for the detection of breast cancer cells in biopsies. The implications of the results are also discussed for the early detection and localized treatment of cancer.

  11. Identification of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in breast cancer as a target for the human miR-34a microRNA

    PubMed Central

    Mackiewicz, Mark; Huppi, Konrad; Pitt, Jason J.; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Ambs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The identification of molecular features that contribute to the progression of breast cancer can provide valuable insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. Deregulated microRNA expression represents one type of molecular event that has been associated with many different human cancers. In order to identify a miRNA/mRNA regulatory interaction that is biologically relevant to the triple-negative breast cancer genotype/phenotype, we initially conducted a miRNA profiling experiment to detect differentially expressed miRNAs in cell line models representing triple-negative (MDA-MB-231), ER+ (MCF7), and HER-2 over expressed (SK-BR-3) histotypes. We identified human miR-34a expression as being >3-fold down (from its median expression value across all cell lines) in MDA-MB-231 cells, and identified AXL as a putative mRNA target using multiple miRNA/target prediction algorithms. The miR-34a/AXL interaction was functionally characterized through ectopic over expression experiments with a miR-34a mimic in two independent triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. In reporter assays, miR-34a binds to its putative target site within the AXL 3′UTR to inhibit luciferase expression. We also observed degradation of AXL mRNA and decreased AXL protein levels, as well as cell signaling effects on AKT phosphorylation and phenotypic effects on cell migration. Finally, we present an inverse correlative trend in miR-34a and AXL expression for both cell line and patient tumor samples. PMID:21814748

  12. Efficient Human Breast Cancer Xenograft Regression after a Single Treatment with a Novel Liposomal Formulation of Epirubicin Prepared Using the EDTA Ion Gradient Method

    PubMed Central

    Gubernator, Jerzy; Lipka, Dominik; Korycińska, Mariola; Kempińska, Katarzyna; Milczarek, Magdalena; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Hrynyk, Rafał; Barnert, Sabine; Süss, Regine; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes act as efficient drug carriers. Recently, epirubicin (EPI) formulation was developed using a novel EDTA ion gradient method for drug encapsulation. This formulation displayed very good stability and drug retention in vitro in a two-year long-term stability experiment. The cryo-TEM images show drug precipitate structures different than ones formed with ammonium sulfate method, which is usually used to encapsulate anthracyclines. Its pharmacokinetic properties and its efficacy in the human breast MDA-MB-231 cancer xenograft model were also determined. The liposomal EPI formulation is eliminated slowly with an AUC of 7.6487, while the free drug has an AUC of only 0.0097. The formulation also had a much higher overall antitumor efficacy than the free drug. PMID:24621591

  13. Chemical and biological differentiation of three human breast cancer cell types using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K S; Berman, E F; Knize, M G; Shattuck, D L; Nelson, E J; Wu, L; Montgomery, J L; Felton, J S; Wu, K J

    2006-01-09

    We use Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to image and classify individual cells based on their characteristic mass spectra. Using statistical data reduction on the large data sets generated during TOF-SIMS analysis, similar biological materials can be differentiated based on a combination of small changes in protein expression, metabolic activity and cell structure. We apply this powerful technique to image and differentiate three carcinoma-derived human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231). In homogenized cells, we show the ability to differentiate the cell types as well as cellular compartments (cytosol, nuclear and membrane). These studies illustrate the capacity of TOF-SIMS to characterize individual cells by chemical composition, which could ultimately be applied to detect and identify single aberrant cells within a normal cell population. Ultimately, we anticipate characterizing rare chemical changes that may provide clues to single cell progression within carcinogenic and metastatic pathways.

  14. Role of the Copper(II) Complex Cu[15]pyN5 in Intracellular ROS and Breast Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana S; Flórido, Ana; Saraiva, Nuno; Cerqueira, Sara; Ramalhete, Sérgio; Cipriano, Madalena; Cabral, Maria Fátima; Miranda, Joana P; Castro, Matilde; Costa, Judite; Oliveira, Nuno G

    2015-10-01

    Multiple mechanisms related to metastases undergo redox regulation. Cu[15]pyN5 is a redox-active copper(II) complex previously studied as a chemotherapy sensitizer in mammary cells. The effects of a cotreatment with Cu[15]pyN5 and doxorubicin (dox) were evaluated in two human breast cancer cell lines: MCF7 (low aggressiveness) and MDA-MB-231 (highly aggressive). Cu[15]pyN5 decreased MCF7-directed cell migration. In addition, a cotreatment with dox and Cu[15]pyN5 reduced the proteolytic invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell detachment was not affected by exposure to these agents. Cu[15]pyN5 and dox significantly increased intracellular ROS in both cell lines. This increase could be at least partially due to H2 O2 accumulation. The combination of Cu[15]pyN5 with dox may be beneficial in breast cancer treatment as it could help reduce cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, the ligand [15]pyN5 has a high affinity for copper(II) and displays potential anti-angiogenic properties. Overall, we present a potential drug that might arrest the progression of breast cancer by different and complementary mechanisms. PMID:25600158

  15. Theanaphthoquinone inhibits fatty acid synthase expression in EGF-stimulated human breast cancer cells via the regulation of EGFR/ErbB-2 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, M.-S.; Ho, C.-T.; Ho, Y.-S.; Lin, J.-K. . E-mail: jklin@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a major lipogenic enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids. Most breast cancers require lipogenesis for growth. Here, we demonstrated the effects of theanaphthoquinone (TNQ), a member of the thearubigins generated by the oxidation of theaflavin (TF-1), on the expression of FAS in human breast cancer cells. TNQ was found to suppress the EGF-induced expression of FAS mRNA and FAS protein in MDA-MB-231 cells. Expression of FAS has previously been shown to be regulated by the SREBP family of transcription factors. In this study, we demonstrated that the EGF-induced nuclear translocation of SREBP-1 was blocked by TNQ. Moreover, TNQ also modulated EGF-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with PI 3-kinase inhibitors, LY294002 and Wortmannin, inhibited the EGF-induced expression of FAS and nuclear translocation of SREBP-1. Treatment with TNQ inhibited EGF-induced EGFR/ErbB-2 phosphorylation and dimerization. Furthermore, treatment with kinase inhibitors of EGFR and ErbB-2 suggested that EGFR/ErbB-2 activation was involved in EGF-induced FAS expression. In constitutive FAS expression, TNQ inhibited FAS expression and Akt autophosphorylation in BT-474 cells. The PI 3-kinase inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors of EGFR and ErbB-2 also reduced constitutive FAS expression. In addition, pharmacological blockade of FAS by TNQ decreased cell viability and induced cell death in BT-474 cells. In summary, our findings suggest that TNQ modulates FAS expression by the regulation of EGFR/ErbB-2 pathways and induces cell death in breast cancer cells.

  16. The inhibition of lamellar hydroxyapatite and lamellar magnetic hydroxyapatite on the migration and adhesion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun; Zuo, Guifu; Xiong, Guangyao; Luo, Honglin; Li, Qiuping; Ma, Chunying; Li, Deying; Gu, Feng; Ma, Yongjie; Wan, Yizao

    2014-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been reported to exhibit potent anti-tumor effects in some cancer cells. In our previous study, we have successfully synthesized two types of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, laminated hydroxyapatite (L-HAp) and laminated magnetic hydroxyapatite (LM-HAp). In this study, we wanted to investigate the effects of L-HAp and LM-HAp with various concentrations on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell proliferation was assessed with a MTT colorimetric assay. Scratch and adhesion assays were used to detect the effects of these two materials on migration and adhesion. The expressions of integrin β1 and Akt were measured by Western blotting. Our results showed that L-HAp and LM-HAp had little cell cytotoxicity and significantly reduced cell mobility and adhesion. LM-HAp showed greater inhibitor ability on migration and adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, results from western blotting showed that L-HAp and LM-HAp impacted the phosphorylation of integrin β1, but showed no regular impact on Akt. This study suggests that L-HAp and LM-HAp may be potential anti-tumor and delivery system for breast cancer therapy. PMID:24363068

  17. Combined treatment with chrysin and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose synergistically inhibits LRP6 and Skp2 activation in triple-negative breast cancer and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Chen, Yi Jing; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lin, Chih-Li; Wei, Yu Xuan; Huang, Hsiu Chen

    2015-12-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is difficult to treat because there is no targeted therapy available. Clinical studies have demonstrated that S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) are highly expressed in TNBC. Therefore, therapeutic strategies designed to downregulate LRP6 or Skp2 may play an important clinical role in the treatment of TNBC. However, the regulatory effects of many drugs on Skp2 and LRP6 expression are currently unknown. In the present study, combined treatment with chrysin and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (5GG) synergistically induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in AU565 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of chrysin and 5GG suppressed tumor growth in nude mice with xenografted MDA-MB-231 cells by downregulating the phospho-LRP6 (pLRP6) and Skp2 proteins. Overall, our findings suggested that the combination of chrysin and 5GG has a potential therapeutic value in treating breast cancer, particularly for TNBC associated with Skp2/LRP6 overexpression, and hence warrants further investigation. PMID:25358452

  18. Cell cycle arrest and apoptogenic properties of opium alkaloids noscapine and papaverine on breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sajadian, Saharolsadat; Vatankhah, Melody; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Kouhsari, Shide Montaser; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Previous report of the vast effectiveness of opium derivatives in cancer therapy is leading us to see possible effects of these derivatives on cancer stem cells in order to find new agent for cancer therapy. In this study, cells were stained for CSC markers and sorted by magnetic beads. CSCs exhibit the characteristic CD44(+)/CD24(-/low)/ESA(+) phenotype. Noscapine and papaverine (alkaloids) showed anti-proliferative activity on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. It was observed that noscapine has more cytotoxic effect on CSC derived from both cell lines compared with their parental cells. Papaverine has more cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 CSCs in comparison with parental cells, while CSCs population of MDA-MB-231 is more resistant to papaverine compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Noscapine enhances apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 CSCs more than parent cells, while in MCF-7 CSCs the apoptosis is less than parent cells. Our results show that papverine is less active in terms of apoptotic effect on CSCs in both cell lines. Moreover, noscapine arrests MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 CSCs cell cycle at G2/M phase, while papverine arrests cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. It was suggested different mechanism for apoptotic cytotoxicity. The results of this study show possible specific effects of noscapine on these breast cell lines CSCs. PMID:25980655

  19. Oridonin phosphate-induced autophagy effectively enhances cell apoptosis of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Suihai; Gao, Yanjun; Zhang, Xuefeng; Lu, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Oridonin is an active diterpenoid, which was extracted from traditional Chinese herbs and had been widely used in clinical treatment nowadays. Oridonin phosphate is one of the derivatives of oridonin. In the present study, we explored its anti-tumor effect and investigated the molecular mechanism of oridonin phosphate in breast cancer cell lines. Firstly, cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay. The breast cancer cells were treated with increasing concentrations of oridonin phosphate for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results demonstrated that oridonin phosphate inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Next, cell apoptosis rate was detected in oridonin phosphate-treated breast cancer cells by Annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining analysis and the data demonstrated that oridonin phosphate induced cell apoptosis of breast cancer cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting analysis. The results showed that the expression level of Bax was up-regulated and the expression level of Bcl-2 was down-regulated. Meanwhile, the level of cleaved caspase-9 was significantly increased when the cells were treated with 40 μM of oridonin phosphate for 48 h, although the expression level of pro-caspase-9 was not obviously changed. All of the data revealed that mitochondrial apoptosis pathway may be involved in the cell apoptosis induced by oridonin phosphate in breast cancer cells. Importantly, the expression levels of autophagy-related protein beclin-1 and LC3-II were significantly higher in oridonin phosphate-treated breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-231 for 48 h. Additionally, we further explored the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy specifically induced by oridonin phosphate in breast cancer cells. The result showed that inhibition of autophagy suppressed the cell apoptosis in oridonin phosphate-treated MDA-MB-436 cells. Taken

  20. Osteoblast Adhesion of Breast Cancer Cells with Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasaka, C.; Mercer, R. R.; Mastro, A. M.

    Conditioned medium was collected from a bone-metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and cultured with an immature osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Under these conditions the osteoblasts acquired a changed morphology and appeared to adhere in a different way to the substrate and to each other. To characterize cellular adhesion, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured with or without MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium for two days. With mechanical scanning acoustic reflection microscopy, we were able to detect a change in the adhesive condition of the interface between the cell and the substrate, but not with optical microscopy

  1. Design, synthesis, and anti-breast cancer evaluation of new triarylethylene analogs bearing short alkyl- and polar amino-/amido-ethyl chains.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurleen; Mahajan, Mohinder P; Pandey, Manoj K; Singh, Parvesh; Ramisetti, Srinivasa R; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-04-15

    The synthesis of novel triarylethylene analogs, designed based on well-known Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs), i.e., ospemifene and tamoxifen, as potential anti-breast cancer agents is described. The cytotoxic potential of these analogs against ER-positive (MCF-7) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines was determined and compared with the standards, ospemifene and tamoxifen. In initial screening, analogs 5, 14 and 15 were found to be much more effective than the standards against both the cell lines. The results showed that these novel analogs inhibit the expression of proteins involved in the migration and metastasis, compound 5 being most effective. Compound 5 inhibited the expression of MMP-9, c-Myc and Caveolin in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and suppressed the invasion of ER-negative cells in a dose dependent manner. Finally, in silico docking simulations of the representative compounds in the binding sites of the estrogen receptors (ERs) indicated a good binding affinity of the compounds with the ERs, and supported their experimental toxicity against MCF-7 cancer cell lines. PMID:26972118

  2. Context-dependent differences in miR-10b breast oncogenesis can be targeted for the prevention and arrest of lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, MV; Ghosh, SK; Kumar, M; Petkova, V; Kavishwar, A; Moore, A; Medarova, Z

    2013-01-01

    Metastases, and not the primary tumor from which they originate, are the main reason for mortality from carcinoma. Although the molecular mechanisms behind metastasis are poorly understood, it is clear that epigenetic dysregulation at the level of microRNA expression is a key characteristic of the metastatic process that can be exploited for therapy. Here, we describe an miRNA-targeted therapeutic approach for the prevention and arrest of lymph node metastasis. Therapy relies on the inhibition of the pro-metastatic microRNA-10b. It is delivered to primary and lymph node metastatic tumor cells using an imaging-capable nanodrug that is designed to specifically home to these tissues. Treatment of invasive human breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) with the nanodrug in vitro downregulates miR-10b and abolishes the invasion and migration of the tumor cells. After intravenous delivery to mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN tumors, the nanodrug accumulates in the primary tumor and lymph nodes. When treatment is initiated before metastasis to lymph nodes, metastasis is prevented. Treatment after the formation of lymph node metastases arrests the metastatic process without a concomitant effect on primary tumor growth raising the possibility of a context-dependent variation in miR-10b breast oncogenesis. PMID:22580603

  3. Cytotoxic Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Turnera diffusa Willd on Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avelino-Flores, María del Carmen; Cruz-López, María del Carmen; Jiménez-Montejo, Fabiola E.; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Turnera diffusa Willd, commonly known as Damiana, is employed in traditional medicine as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. Its leaves and stems are used for flavoring and infusion. Damiana is considered to be safe for medicinal use by the FDA. Pharmacological studies have established the hypoglycemic, antiaromatase, prosexual, estrogenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of T. diffusa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effect of extracts and organic fractions of this plant on five tumor cell lines (SiHa, C-33, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D) and normal human fibroblasts. The results show that the methanolic extract (TdM) displayed greater activity on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (with an IC50 of 30.67 μg/mL) than on the other cancer cell lines. Four organic fractions of this extract exhibited activity on this cancer cell line. In the most active fraction (F4), two active compounds were isolated, arbutin (1) and apigenin (2). This is the first report of a cytotoxic effect by T. diffusa on cancer cells. The IC50 values suggest that the methanolic extract of T. diffusa has potential as an anticancer therapy. PMID:25299247

  4. Cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extract of Turnera diffusa Willd on breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Avelino-Flores, María Del Carmen; Cruz-López, María del Carmen; Jiménez-Montejo, Fabiola E; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2015-03-01

    Turnera diffusa Willd, commonly known as Damiana, is employed in traditional medicine as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. Its leaves and stems are used for flavoring and infusion. Damiana is considered to be safe for medicinal use by the FDA. Pharmacological studies have established the hypoglycemic, antiaromatase, prosexual, estrogenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of T. diffusa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effect of extracts and organic fractions of this plant on five tumor cell lines (SiHa, C-33, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D) and normal human fibroblasts. The results show that the methanolic extract (TdM) displayed greater activity on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (with an IC50 of 30.67 μg/mL) than on the other cancer cell lines. Four organic fractions of this extract exhibited activity on this cancer cell line. In the most active fraction (F4), two active compounds were isolated, arbutin (1) and apigenin (2). This is the first report of a cytotoxic effect by T. diffusa on cancer cells. The IC50 values suggest that the methanolic extract of T. diffusa has potential as an anticancer therapy. PMID:25299247

  5. Filamin A (FLNA) modulates chemosensitivity to docetaxel in triple-negative breast cancer through the MAPK/ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengxin; Ma, Weiyuan; Hu, Zhigang; Zang, Leilei; Tian, Zhisheng; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-04-01

    A previous RNA interference (RNAi) screen identified filamin A (FLNA) as a potential biomarker to predict chemosensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, its ability to modulate chemosensitivity and the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Genetic manipulation of FLNA expression has been performed in an immortalized noncancerous human mammary epithelial cell line and four TNBC cell lines to investigate its effect on chemosensitivity. Western blot analysis was performed to identify the potential signaling pathway involved. Xenograft mouse model was used to examine the in vivo role of FLNA in modulating chemosensitivity. Overexpression of FLNA conferred chemoresistance to docetaxel in noncancerous human mammary epithelial cells. Knockdown of FLNA sensitized four TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231, HCC38, Htb126, and HCC1937 to docetaxel which was reversed by reconstituted FLNA expression. Decreased FLNA expression correlated with decreased activation of ERK. Constitutive activation of ERK2 reversed siFLNA-induced chemosensitization. Inhibition of MEK1 recapitulates the effect of FLNA knockdown. MDA-MB-231 xenograft with FLNA knockdown showed enhanced response to docetaxel compared with control xenograft with increased apoptosis. FLNA can function as a modulator of chemosensitivity to docetaxel in TNBC cells through regulation of the MAPK/ERK pathway both in vitro and in vivo. FLNA may serve as a novel therapeutic target for improvement of chemotherapy efficacy in TNBC. PMID:26546439

  6. Apoptotic effect of tannic acid on fatty acid synthase over-expressed human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nie, Fangyuan; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Li, Xiabing; Xun, Hang; He, Wei; Lau, Hay Tong; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Novel therapies and chemo-therapeutic drugs are urgently needed to be developed for the treatment of breast cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that fatty acid synthase (FAS) plays an important role in breast cancer, for the expression of FAS is significantly higher in human breast cancer cells than in normal cells. Tannic acid (TA), a natural polyphenol, possesses significant biological functions, including bacteriostasis, hemostasis, and anti-oxidant. Our previous studies demonstrated that TA is a natural FAS inhibitor whose inhibitory activity is stronger than that of classical FAS inhibitors, such as C75 and cerulenin. This study further assessed the effect and therapeutic potential of TA on FAS over-expressed breast cancer cells, and as a result, TA had been proven to possess the functions of inhibiting intracellular FAS activity, down-regulating FAS expression in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, and inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Since high-expressed FAS is recognized as a molecular marker for breast cancer and plays an important role in cancer prognosis, these findings suggest that TA is a potential drug candidate for treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26349913

  7. Chronic Inhibition of STAT3/STAT5 in Treatment-Resistant Human Breast Cancer Cell Subtypes: Convergence on the ROS/SUMO Pathway and Its Effects on xCT Expression and System xc- Activity

    PubMed Central

    Linher-Melville, Katja; Nashed, Mina G.; Ungard, Robert G.; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A.; Gunning, Patrick T.; Singh, Gurmit

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically targeting activated STAT3 and/or STAT5 has been an active area of cancer research. The cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-, contributes to redox balance and export of intracellularly produced glutamate in response to up-regulated glutaminolysis in cancer cells. We have previously shown that blocking STAT3/5 using the small molecule inhibitor, SH-4-54, which targets the SH2 domains of both proteins, increases xCT expression, thereby increasing system xc- activity in human breast cancer cells. The current investigation demonstrates that chronic SH-4-54 administration, followed by clonal selection of treatment-resistant MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells, elicits distinct subtype-dependent effects. xCT mRNA and protein levels, glutamate release, and cystine uptake are decreased relative to untreated passage-matched controls in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, with the inverse occurring in estrogen-responsive T47D cells. This “ying-yang” effect is linked with a shifted balance between the phosphorylation status of STAT3 and STAT5, intracellular ROS levels, and STAT5 SUMOylation/de-SUMOylation. STAT5 emerged as a definitive negative regulator of xCT at the transcriptional level, while STAT3 activation is coupled with increased system xc- activity. We propose that careful classification of a patient’s breast cancer subtype is central to effectively targeting STAT3/5 as a therapeutic means of treating breast cancer, particularly given that xCT is emerging as an important biomarker of aggressive cancers. PMID:27513743

  8. miR-182, of the miR-183 cluster family, is packaged in exosomes and is detected in human exosomes from serum, breast cells and prostate cells

    PubMed Central

    Mihelich, Brittany L.; Dambal, Shweta; Lin, Shaoxia; Nonn, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    Members of the microRNA (miR)-183 family are expressed at high levels in the majority of cancer types, including breast and prostate, and are considered ‘oncomiRs’. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of exosomes in cell-to-cell transfer of the miR-183 family, which includes miRs-96, −182 and −183. Despite highly detectable levels of these three miRs within prostate and breast cells in vitro, only miR-182 was detectable in exosomes isolated from cell culture supernatant. Similar to the in vitro results, miR-182 was the only miR detected in exosomes isolated from fresh human serum. The packaging of miR-182 into exosomes was examined in MDA-MB-231 (MDA-182) breast cancer cells with miR-182 overexpression. Levels of mature miR-182 increased in exosomes in a dose-dependent manner compared to intracellular expression. Furthermore, co-culture of MDA-182 cells with naïve MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in an increase in mature miR-182 in the naïve cells, which was blocked by a chemical inhibitor of microvesicle formation. In summary, the present study demonstrates that of the miR-183 family members, miR-182 is preferentially packaged in exosomes, detectable in exosomes from human sera and may be transferred between cells via a microvesicle-dependent mechanism. PMID:27446418

  9. Fate of PLA and PCL-Based Polymeric Nanocarriers in Cellular and Animal Models of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sitia, Leopoldo; Ferrari, Raffaele; Violatto, Martina B; Talamini, Laura; Dragoni, Luca; Colombo, Claudio; Colombo, Laura; Lupi, Monica; Ubezio, Paolo; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Morbidelli, Massimo; Salmona, Mario; Moscatelli, Davide; Bigini, Paolo

    2016-03-14

    An integrated platform to assess the interaction between nanocarriers and biological matrices has been developed by our group using poly methyl-methacrylate nanoparticles. In this study, we exploited this platform to evaluate the behavior of two biodegradable formulations, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL3) and poly lactic-acid (PLA8), respectively, in cellular and animal models of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Both NPs shared the main physicochemical parameters (size, shape, ζ-potential) and exclusively differentiated on the material on which they are composed. Our results showed that (1) PLA8 NPs, systemically injected in mice, underwent rapid degradation without penetration into tumors; (2) PLA8 NPs were not internalized in the human TNBC cell line (MDA-MB-231); (3) PCL3 NPs had a longer bioavailability, reached the tumor parenchyma, and efficiently penetrated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data highlight the relevance of the material selection to both improve bioavailability and target tropism, and make PCL3 NPs an interesting tool for the development of nanodrugs against TNBC. PMID:26791775

  10. Neuromedin B receptor antagonism inhibits migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Jeong, Joo-Won; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Joon; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2016-09-01

    Neuromedin B (NMB) acts as an autocrine growth factor and a pro-angiogenic factor. Its receptor, NMB receptor (NMB-R), is overexpressed in solid tumors. In the present study, we showed that an NMB-R antagonist, PD168368, suppresses migration and invasion of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. In addition, PD168368 reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells by E-cadherin upregulation and vimentin downregulation. Moreover, we found that PD168368 potently inhibits in vivo metastasis of breast cancer. Taken together, these findings suggest that NMB-R antagonism may be an alternative approach to prevent breast cancer metastasis, and targeting NMB-R may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment. PMID:27571778

  11. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Increases Radiosensitivity of Estrogen Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Prolonging Radiation-Induced DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Khoram, Nastaran Masoudi; Bigdeli, Bahareh; Nikoofar, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is an important cause of death among women. The development of radioresistance in breast cancer leads to recurrence after radiotherapy. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a polyphenolic compound of honeybee propolis, is known to have anticancer properties. In this study, we examined whether CAPE enhanced the radiation sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative) and T47D (estrogen receptor-positive) cell lines. Methods The cytotoxic effect of CAPE on MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells was evaluated by performing an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To assess clonogenic ability, MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells were treated with CAPE (1 µM) for 72 hours before irradiation, and then, a colony assay was performed. A comet assay was used to determine the number of DNA strand breaks at four different times. Results CAPE decreased the viability of both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the clonogenic assay, pretreatment of cells with CAPE before irradiation significantly reduced the surviving fraction of MDA-MB-231 cells at doses of 6 and 8 Gy. A reduction in the surviving fraction of T47D cells was observed relative to MDA-MB-231 at lower doses of radiation. Additionally, CAPE maintained radiation-induced DNA damage in T47D cells for a longer period than in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that CAPE impairs DNA damage repair immediately after irradiation. The induction of radiosensitivity by CAPE in radioresistant breast cancer cells may be caused by prolonged DNA damage. PMID:27066092

  12. Invasion and increased expression of S100A4 and CYR61 in mesenchymal transformed breast cancer cells is downregulated by GnRH.

    PubMed

    Gründker, Carsten; Bauerschmitz, Gerd; Schubert, Antje; Emons, Günter

    2016-06-01

    S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4) and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) play important roles in epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), invasion and metastasis by promoting cancer cell motility. Recently we were able to show that invasion of GnRH receptor-positive breast cancer cells is time- and dose-dependently reduced by GnRH analogs. We have now analyzed whether GnRH treatment affects S100A4 and CYR61 in mesenchymal transformed breast cancer cells. S100A4 and CYR61 expression was analyzed using RT-PCR. Invasion was quantified by assessment of breast cancer cell migration rate through an artificial basement membrane. The role of S100A4 and CYR61 in invasion of breast cancer cells was analyzed by neutralizing their biological activity. Expression of S100A4, CYR61 and GnRH receptor in human breast cancers, normal and other non-malignant breast tissues was analyzed by immuno-histochemistry. Invasion and expression of S100A4 and CYR61 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were significant higher as compared with MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Invasion and expression of S100A4 and CYR61 were significantly increased in mesenchymal transformed MCF-7 cells (MCF-7-EMT). The increased invasion of MCF-7-EMT cells could be reduced by anti-S100A4 and anti-CYR61 antibodies. In addition, invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells was decreased by anti-S100A4 and anti-CYR61 antibodies. Treatment of MCF-7-EMT and MDA-MB-231 cells with GnRH agonist Triptorelin resulted in a significant decrease of invasion and expression of S100A4 and CYR61. Both, S100A4 and CYR61 were found highly expressed in biopsy specimens of breast hyperplasia and malignant breast cancers. GnRH receptor expression was detectable in approximately 71% of malignant breast cancers. Our findings suggest that S100A4 and CYR61 play major roles in breast cancer invasion. Both, invasion and expression of S100A4 and CYR61 can be inhibited by GnRH treatment. PMID:27098123

  13. Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by cannabidiolic acid in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Eriko; Abe, Satomi; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Metastases are known to be responsible for approximately 90% of breast cancer-related deaths. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved not only in inflammatory processes, but also in the metastasis of cancer cells; it is expressed in 40% of human invasive breast cancers. To comprehensively analyze the effects of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a selective COX-2 inhibitor found in the fiber-type cannabis plant (Takeda et al., 2008), on COX-2 expression and the genes involved in metastasis, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, which are invasive breast cancer cells that express high levels of COX-2, treated with CBDA for 48 hr at 25 µM. The results obtained revealed that COX-2 and Id-1, a positive regulator of breast cancer metastasis, were down-regulated (0.19-fold and 0.52-fold, respectively), while SHARP1 (or BHLHE41), a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis, was up-regulated (1.72-fold) and CHIP (or STUB1) was unaffected (1.03-fold). These changes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analyses. Taken together, the results obtained here demonstrated that i) CBDA had dual inhibitory effects on COX-2 through down-regulation and enzyme inhibition, and ii) CBDA may possess the ability to suppress genes that are positively involved in the metastasis of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:25242400

  14. STIM1 plays an important role in TGF-β-induced suppression of breast cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huanyi; Wang, Shiqiang; Feng, Renqing

    2016-01-01

    Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) signaling is involved in cancer progression. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) triggers store-operated calcium channels to induce SOCE. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) influences a wide range of cellular behaviors, including cell proliferation. However, little is known about the relationship between calcium signaling and TGF-β signaling in cancer cell proliferation. Here, we found that TGF-β induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and suppressed cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These effects were impaired by extracellular Ca2+ chelator EGTA or SOCE specific inhibitor SKF96365 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Treating MDA-MB-231 cells with TGF-β for 24 and 48 h markedly decreased STIM1 expression and thapsigargin-induced SOCE. A transcriptional inhibitor of STIM1, Wilm's tumor suppressor 1 (WT1), was upregulated in TGF-β-treated MDA-MB-231 cells, and knockdown of WT1 expression partially restored the TGF-β-induced downregulation of STIM1. Stably overexpressing STIM1 in MDA-MB-231 cells restored the TGF-β-induced effects. The p21 mRNA level increased in SKF96365- or TGF-β-treated MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas that for cyclin E1 decreased. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that STIM1 and SOCE are involved in the TGF-β-induced suppression of cell proliferation. Furthermore, our studies also provide a new approach to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation with small molecules targeting STIM1 and SOCE. PMID:26919241

  15. STIM1 plays an important role in TGF-β-induced suppression of breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huanyi; Wang, Shiqiang; Feng, Renqing

    2016-03-29

    Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) signaling is involved in cancer progression. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) triggers store-operated calcium channels to induce SOCE. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) influences a wide range of cellular behaviors, including cell proliferation. However, little is known about the relationship between calcium signaling and TGF-β signaling in cancer cell proliferation. Here, we found that TGF-β induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and suppressed cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These effects were impaired by extracellular Ca2+ chelator EGTA or SOCE specific inhibitor SKF96365 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Treating MDA-MB-231 cells with TGF-β for 24 and 48 h markedly decreased STIM1 expression and thapsigargin-induced SOCE. A transcriptional inhibitor of STIM1, Wilm's tumor suppressor 1 (WT1), was upregulated in TGF-β-treated MDA-MB-231 cells, and knockdown of WT1 expression partially restored the TGF-β-induced downregulation of STIM1. Stably overexpressing STIM1 in MDA-MB-231 cells restored the TGF-β-induced effects. The p21 mRNA level increased in SKF96365- or TGF-β-treated MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas that for cyclin E1 decreased. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that STIM1 and SOCE are involved in the TGF-β-induced suppression of cell proliferation. Furthermore, our studies also provide a new approach to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation with small molecules targeting STIM1 and SOCE. PMID:26919241

  16. Breast cancer cells evade paclitaxel-induced cell death by developing resistance to dasatinib

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yun-Ji; Kang, Jong Soon; Lee, Su In; So, Dong Min; Yun, Jieun; Baek, Ji Young; Kim, Sang Kyum; Lee, Kiho; Park, Song-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), which does not express the progesterone, estrogen, or HER2/neu receptor, is aggressive and difficult to treat. Paclitaxel, a tubulin stabilizing agent, is one of the most frequently prescribed anticancer agents for breast cancers, including TNBC. Residual disease that occurs due to resistance or partial resistance of cancer cells in a tumor against anticancer agents is the most important issue in oncology. In the present study, when MDA-MB-231 cells, a TNBC cell line, were treated with 30 µM paclitaxel, a slightly higher concentration than its GI50 value, for 6 days, a small number of cells with different morphologies survived. Among the surviving cells, small round cells were isolated, cloned, and named MDA-MB-231-JYJ cells. MDA-MB-231-JYJ cells were observed to be highly proliferative and tumorigenic. In addition, signal transduction molecules involved in proliferation, survival, malignancy, or stemness of cancer cells, such as c-Src, c-Met, Notch 1, c-Myc, Sox2, Oct3/4, Nanog, and E-cadherin were highly expressed or activated. While further study is required, MDA-MB-231-JYJ cells appear to have some of the characteristics of cancer precursor cells. Although MDA-MB-231-JYJ cells were isolated from the cells that survived in the continuous presence of paclitaxel, they were not resistant to paclitaxel but developed resistance to dasatinib, a Bcr-Abl and Src kinase family inhibitor. The activated state of Src and Notch 1, and the expression levels of c-Myc and cyclins in MDA-MB-231-JYJ cells were less affected than MDA-MB-231 cells by the treatment of dasatinib, which may explain the resistance of MDA-MB-231-JYJ cells to dasatinib. These results suggest that cancer cells that become resistant to dasatinib during the process of paclitaxel therapy in patients may appear, and caution is required in the design of clinical trials using these two agents. PMID:27602155

  17. Cdx2 Polymorphism Affects the Activities of Vitamin D Receptor in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Human Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  18. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pulito, Claudio; Terrenato, Irene; Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  19. Curcumol Suppresses Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis by Inhibiting MMP-9 Via JNK1/2 and Akt-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ling; Ma, Hui; Jiang, Zhuyun; Chen, Lu; Li, Li; Chen, Qianfeng; Qi, Hongyi

    2016-06-01

    Curcumolhas been reported to possess antitumor activity. However, its effect and mechanisms against tumor metastasis are still unclear. This study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of curcumol on breast cancer cell metastasis and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that noncytotoxicity was caused by curcumol within 10 to 40 µg/mL in MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells for 24 hours, whereas sustained treatment with curcumol for 14 days significantly suppressed the clonogenic activity of cells. Importantly, curcumol at noncytotoxic concentrations suppressed the migration ability of both MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. Moreover, curcumol suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells in the Boyden chamber migration and invasion assay and inhibited the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells onto the matrigel. Further investigations revealed that curcumol decreased the enzyme activity and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, curcumol inhibited the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and Akt (Ser473). Meanwhile, it also inhibited the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Furthermore, JNK inhibitor SP600125 and Akt (Ser473) inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the inhibition of curcumol on NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Finally, supplementation with SP600125, LY294002, or NF-κB inhibitor Ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of curcumol on MMP-9 expression and cell migration, invasion, and adhesion in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings provide evidence for the suppression of breast cancer cell metastasis by curcumol and suggest that the inhibition of MMP-9 via JNK1/2 and Akt (Ser473)-dependent NF-κB signaling pathways may be the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27125675

  20. Breast cancer cell behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices derived from tumor cells at various malignant stages

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Models mimicking ECM in tumor with different malignancy were prepared. •Cancer cell proliferation was suppressed on benign tumor ECM. •Benign tumor cell proliferation was suppressed on cancerous ECM. •Chemoresistance of cancer cell was enhanced on cancerous ECM. -- Abstract: Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been focused to understand tumor progression in addition to the genetic mutation of cancer cells. Here, we prepared “staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices” which mimic in vivo ECM in tumor tissue at each malignant stage to understand the roles of ECM in tumor progression. Breast tumor cells, MDA-MB-231 (invasive), MCF-7 (non-invasive), and MCF-10A (benign) cells, were cultured to form their own ECM beneath the cells and formed ECM was prepared as staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices by decellularization treatment. Cells showed weak attachment on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. The proliferations of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 was promoted on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells whereas MCF-10A cell proliferation was not promoted. MCF-10A cell proliferation was promoted on the matrices derived from MCF-10A cells. Chemoresistance of MDA-MB-231 cells against 5-fluorouracil increased on only matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results showed that the cells showed different behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices according to the malignancy of cell sources for ECM preparation. Therefore, staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices might be a useful in vitro ECM models to investigate the roles of ECM in tumor progression.

  1. 3-bromopyruvate enhanced daunorubicin-induced cytotoxicity involved in monocarboxylate transporter 1 in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Sun, Yiming; Hong, Haiyu; Zhao, Surong; Zou, Xue; Ma, Renqiang; Jiang, Chenchen; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Huabin; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hexokinase inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) induces the cell apoptotic death by inhibiting ATP generation in human cancer cells. Interestingly, some tumor cell lines are less sensitive to 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis than others. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of 3-BrPA-trigged apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of 3-BrPA on the viability of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. We further investigated the potential roles of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in drug accumulation and efflux of breast cancer cells. Finally, we explored whether 3-BrPA enhanced daunorubicin (DNR)-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of MCT1 in breast cancer cells. MTT and colony formation assays were used to measure cell viability. Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent microscopy were used to determine the molecular mechanism of actions of MCT1 in different breast cancer cell lines. Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to investigate the effect of 3-BrPA in vivo. We found that 3-BrPA significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, we observed that 3-BrPA efficiently enhanced DNR-induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells by inhibiting the activity of ATP-dependent efflux pumps. We also found that MCT1 overexpression increased the efficacy of 3-BrPA in MDA-MB-231 cells. 3-BrPA markedly suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in combination with DNR in nude mice implanted with MCF-7 cells. Lastly, our whole-body bioluminescence imaging data indicated that 3-BrPA promoted DNR accumulation in tumors. These findings collectively suggest that 3-BrPA enhanced DNR antitumor activity in breast cancer cells involved MCT-1, suggesting that inhibition of glycolysis could be an effective therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26609475

  2. 3-bromopyruvate enhanced daunorubicin-induced cytotoxicity involved in monocarboxylate transporter 1 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe; Sun, Yiming; Hong, Haiyu; Zhao, Surong; Zou, Xue; Ma, Renqiang; Jiang, Chenchen; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Huabin; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hexokinase inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) induces the cell apoptotic death by inhibiting ATP generation in human cancer cells. Interestingly, some tumor cell lines are less sensitive to 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis than others. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of 3-BrPA-trigged apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of 3-BrPA on the viability of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. We further investigated the potential roles of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in drug accumulation and efflux of breast cancer cells. Finally, we explored whether 3-BrPA enhanced daunorubicin (DNR)-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of MCT1 in breast cancer cells. MTT and colony formation assays were used to measure cell viability. Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent microscopy were used to determine the molecular mechanism of actions of MCT1 in different breast cancer cell lines. Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to investigate the effect of 3-BrPA in vivo. We found that 3-BrPA significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, we observed that 3-BrPA efficiently enhanced DNR-induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells by inhibiting the activity of ATP-dependent efflux pumps. We also found that MCT1 overexpression increased the efficacy of 3-BrPA in MDA-MB-231 cells. 3-BrPA markedly suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in combination with DNR in nude mice implanted with MCF-7 cells. Lastly, our whole-body bioluminescence imaging data indicated that 3-BrPA promoted DNR accumulation in tumors. These findings collectively suggest that 3-BrPA enhanced DNR antitumor activity in breast cancer cells involved MCT-1, suggesting that inhibition of glycolysis could be an effective therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26609475

  3. CD146 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in human breast tumors and with enhanced motility in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zabouo, Gwladys; Imbert, Anne-Marie; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Finetti, Pascal; Moreau, Thomas; Esterni, Benjamin; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bertucci, François; Chabannon, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Metastasis is a complex process involving loss of adhesion, migration, invasion and proliferation of cancer cells. Cell adhesion molecules play a pivotal role in this phenomenon by regulating cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. CD146 (MCAM) is associated with an advanced tumor stage in melanoma, prostate cancer and ovarian cancer. Studies of CD146 expression and function in breast cancer remain scarce except for a report concluding that CD146 could act as a tumor suppressor in breast carcinogenesis. Methods To resolve these apparent discrepancies in the role of CD146 in tumor cells, we looked at the association of CD146 expression with histoclinical features in human primary breast cancers using DNA and tissue microarrays. By flow cytometry, we characterized CD146 expression on different breast cancer cell lines. Using siRNA or shRNA technology, we studied functional consequences of CD146 downmodulation of MDA-MB-231 cells in migration assays. Wild-type, mock-transfected and downmodulated transfected cells were profiled using whole-genome DNA microarrays to identify genes whose expression was modified by CD146 downregulation. Results Microarray studies revealed the association of higher levels of CD146 with histoclinical features that belong to the basal cluster of human tumors. Expression of CD146 protein on epithelial cells was detected in a small subset of cancers with histoclinical features of basal tumors. CD146+ cell lines displayed a mesenchymal phenotype. Downmodulation of CD146 expression in the MDA-MB-231 cell line resulted in downmodulation of vimentin, as well as of a set of genes that include both genes associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of cancers and genes known to promote cell motility. In vitro functional assays revealed decreased migration abilities associated with decreased CD146 expression. Conclusions In addition to its expression in the vascular compartment, CD146 is expressed on a subset of epithelial cells in

  4. MicroRNA-148a inhibits breast cancer migration and invasion by directly targeting WNT-1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; He, Miao; Ma, Meng-Tao; Wu, Hui-Zhe; Yu, Zhao-Jin; Guan, Shu; Jiang, Long-Yang; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Da-Di; Jin, Feng; Wei, Min-Jie

    2016-03-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway influences embryonic development, cell polarity and adhesion, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as important regulators of the tumorigenesis and metastasis. In the present study, we aimed to find novel targets and mechanisms of microRNA-148a (miR-148a) in regulating the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. In the present study, miR-148a was found downregulated in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The ectopic miR-148a expression inhibited the migration and invasion of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that WNT-1, one of the ligands of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was a direct target of miR-148a. The overexpression of miR-148a reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of WNT-1, also decreased the expression levels of the key components of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, including β-catenin, metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4) in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, the data showed that the expression of WNT-1 was significantly higher in human breast cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues and the expression of miR-148a was negatively correlated with the WNT-1 expression in human breast cancer tissues. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-148a can suppress the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by targeting WNT-1 and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and this will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26707142

  5. OSTEOBLAST ADHESION OF BREAST CANCER CELLS WITH SCANNING ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaki Miyasaka; Robyn R. Mercer; Andrea M. Mastro; Ken L. Telschow

    2005-03-01

    Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the bone. Upon colonizing bone tissue, the cancer cells stimulate osteoclasts (cells that break bone down), resulting in large lesions in the bone. The breast cancer cells also affect osteoblasts (cells that build new bone). Conditioned medium was collected from a bone-metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and cultured with an immature osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Under these conditions the osteoblasts acquired a changed morphology and appeared to adherer in a different way to the substrate and to each other. To characterize cell adhesion, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured with or without MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium for two days, and then assayed with a mechanical scanning acoustic reflection microscope (SAM). The SAM indicated that in normal medium the MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were firmly attached to their plastic substrate. However, MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium displayed both an abnormal shape and poor adhesion at the substrate interface. The cells were fixed and stained to visualize cytoskeletal components using optical microscopic techniques. We were not able to observe these differences until the cells were quite confluent after 7 days of culture. However, using the SAM, we were able to detect these changes within 2 days of culture with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium

  6. Serum deprivation response inhibits breast cancer progression by blocking transforming growth factor-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yao; Yu, Yue; Hou, Li-Kun; Chi, Jiang-Rui; Mao, Jie-Fei; Xia, Li; Wang, Xin; Wang, Ping; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2016-03-01

    Serum deprivation response (SDPR), a key substrate for protein kinase C, play a critical role in inducing membrane curvature and participate in the formation of caveolae. However, the function of SDPR in cancer development and progression is still not clear. Here, we found that SDPR is downregulated in human breast cancer. Overexpression of SDPR suppresses cell proliferation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells, while depletion of SDPR promotes cell proliferation and invasion in MCF10A cells. Subsequently, SDPR depletion induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Finally, knockdown of SDPR activates transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by upregulation of TGF-β1 expression. In conclusion, our results showed that SDPR inhibits breast cancer progression by blocking TGF-β signaling. Serum deprivation response suppresses cell proliferation and invasion in breast cancer cells. SDPR depletion induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activation of TGF-β signaling. PMID:26749136

  7. A novel crosstalk between BRCA1 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da; Bi, Fang-Fang; Chen, Na-Na; Cao, Ji-Min; Sun, Wu-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Yang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    BRCA mutations are the main known hereditary factor for breast cancer. Notably, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) expression status plays a critical role in breast cancer progression and the clinical development of PARP1 inhibitors to treat BRCA-mutated breast cancer has advanced rapidly. However, dynamic crosstalk between BRCA1 and PARP1 remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that: (i) BRCA1 inactivation events (mutation, promoter methylation, or knockdown) were accompanied by increased PARP1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels, and a subsequent increase in NAD-dependent PARP1 activity in MDA-MB-231 and primary breast cancer cells; (ii) the overexpression of BRCA1 resulted in decreased PARP1 and NAD levels, and a subsequent impairment in NAD-dependent PARP1 activity in MDA-MB-231 and primary breast cancer cells; and (iii) intracellular NAD levels were largely responsible for regulating PARP1 activity in breast cancer cells, and NAD levels were positively correlated with PARP1 activity in human breast cancer specimens (R = 0.647, P < 0.001). Interestingly, the high efficiency of PARP1 triggered by BRCA1 inactivation may further inhibit BRCA1 transcription by NAD depletion. These results highlight a novel interaction between BRCA1 and PARP1, which may be beneficial for the dynamic balance between BRCA1 and PARP1-related biologic processes, especially for maintaining stable DNA repair ability. All of this may improve our understanding of the basic molecular mechanism underlying BRCA1- and PARP1-related breast cancer progression. PMID:25485588

  8. The protein tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1/PTPRJ promotes breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Spring, K; Fournier, P; Lapointe, L; Chabot, C; Roussy, J; Pommey, S; Stagg, J; Royal, I

    2015-10-29

    DEP-1/PTPRJ is a receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase mainly known for its antiproliferative and tumor-suppressive functions. Many identified substrates are growth factor receptors, and DEP-1 is deleted and/or mutated in human cancers including that of the breast. However, DEP-1 was also identified as a promoter of Src activation and proinvasive functions in the endothelium, suggesting it could perhaps mediate breast cancer invasiveness that is likewise driven by Src family kinases. We show here that DEP-1 expression was greater in highly invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, BT-549) than in the less invasive or untransformed cell lines tested (MCF-7, T47D, SK-BR3 and MCF10A). DEP-1 silencing experiments in invasive cells demonstrated that moderately expressed and catalytically active DEP-1 was required, in collaboration with basal epidermal growth factor receptor activity, for Src activation and the phosphorylation of its substrate Cortactin, and for their colocalization at the cell's leading edge. This correlated with an increased number of cell protrusions, and an enhanced capacity of the cells to migrate and invade. Similarly, moderate overexpression of DEP-1 in the low-invasive cells resulted in the promotion of their invasiveness in an Src-dependent manner. Consistent with these data, the expression of endogenous DEP-1 was elevated in a bone metastatic cell line derived from MDA-MB-231 cells, and promoted increased Src Y418 and Cortactin Y421 phosphorylation, as well as pro-MMP9 secretion and Matrigel invasion. Importantly, the silencing of DEP-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells greatly decreased their ability to metastasize, despite having no effect on tumor growth or angiogenesis. Hence, we found that moderate expression of DEP-1 was associated with the increased relapse and decreased survival of breast cancer patients. These results therefore identify a new and unsuspected role for DEP-1 as a mediator of an invasive cell program implicating Src

  9. Inhibition of the transient receptor potential melastatin-2 channel causes increased DNA damage and decreased proliferation in breast adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    HOPKINS, MANDI M.; FENG, XIAOXING; LIU, MENGWEI; PARKER, LAUREN P.; KOH, DAVID W.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential, melastatin-2 (TRPM2) is a plasma membrane cation channel with important roles in sensory functions and promoting cell death. However, we demonstrated here that TRPM2 was present in the nuclei of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and its pharmacologic inhibition or RNAi silencing caused decreased cell proliferation. Neither an effect on proliferation nor a localization of TRPM2 in the nucleus was observed in noncancerous HMEC and MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells. Investigation of possible effects of TRPM2 function in the nucleus demonstrated that pharmacologic inhibition or RNAi silencing of TRPM2 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells caused up to 4-fold increases in DNA damage levels, as compared to noncancerous breast cells after equivalent treatments. These results indicate that TRPM2 has a novel nuclear function in human breast adenocarcinoma cells that facilitates the integrity of genomic DNA, a finding that is distinct from its previously reported role as a plasma membrane cation channel in noncancerous cells. In summary, we report here a novel effect promoted by TRPM2, where it functions to minimize DNA damage and thus may have a role in the protection of genomic DNA in breast cancer cells. Our study therefore provides compelling evidence that TRPM2 has a unique role in breast adenocarcinoma cells. Accordingly, these studies suggest that TRPM2 is a potential therapeutic target, where its pharmacologic inhibition may provide an innovative strategy to selectively increase DNA damage levels in breast cancer cells. PMID:25760245

  10. NF-κB contributes to MMP1 expression in breast cancer spheroids causing paracrine PAR1 activation and disintegrations in the lymph endothelial barrier in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chi Huu; Senfter, Daniel; Basilio, Jose; Holzner, Silvio; Stadler, Serena; Krieger, Sigurd; Huttary, Nicole; Milovanovic, Daniela; Viola, Katharina; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Jäger, Walter; de Martin, Rainer; Krupitza, Georg

    2015-01-01

    RELA, RELB, CREL, NFKB1 and NFKB2, and the upstream regulators NEMO and NIK were knocked-down in lymph endothelial cells (LECs) and in MDA-MB231 breast cancer spheroids to study the contribution of NF-κB in vascular barrier breaching. Suppression of RELA, NFKB1 and NEMO inhibited “circular chemo-repellent induced defects” (CCIDs), which form when cancer cells cross the lymphatic vasculature, by ~20–30%. Suppression of RELB, NFKB2 and NIK inhibited CCIDs by only ~10–15%. In MDA-MB231 cells RELA and NFKB1 constituted MMP1 expression, which caused the activation of PAR1 in adjacent LECs. The knock-down of MMP1 in MDA-MB231 spheroids and pharmacological inhibition of PAR1 in LECs inhibited CCID formation by ~30%. Intracellular Ca2+ release in LECs, which was induced by recombinant MMP1, was suppressed by the PAR1 inhibitor SCH79797, thereby confirming a functional intercellular axis: RELA/NFKB1 – MMP1 (MDA-MB231) – PAR1 (LEC). Recombinant MMP1 induced PAR1-dependent phosphorylation of MLC2 and FAK in LECs, which is indicative for their activity and for directional cell migration such as observed during CCID formation. The combined knock-down of the NF-κB pathways in LECs and MDA-MB231 spheroids inhibited CCIDs significantly stronger than knock-down in either cell type alone. Also the knock-down of ICAM-1 in LECs (a NF-κB endpoint with relevance for CCID formation) and knock-down of MMP1 in MDA-MB231 augmented CCID inhibition. This evidences that in both cell types NF-κB significantly and independently contributes to tumour-mediated breaching of the lymphatic barrier. Hence, inflamed tumour tissue and/or vasculature pose an additional threat to cancer progression. PMID:26513020

  11. Loss of Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) in Breast Cancer Cells Contributes to Stress-induced Migration and Invasion through β-2 Adrenergic Receptor (ADRB2) Misregulation*

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Gaylor; Malaquin, Nicolas; Loison, Ingrid; Foveau, Bénédicte; Van Rechem, Capucine; Rood, Brian R.; Pourtier, Albin; Leprince, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptional repressor HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1) is a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers including breast carcinomas. In this study, we show that HIC1 is a direct transcriptional repressor of β-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2). Through promoter luciferase activity, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequential ChIP experiments, we demonstrate that ADRB2 is a direct target gene of HIC1, endogenously in WI-38 cells and following HIC1 re-expression in breast cancer cells. Agonist-mediated stimulation of ADRB2 increases the migration and invasion of highly malignant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells but these effects are abolished following HIC1 re-expression or specific down-regulation of ADRB2 by siRNA treatment. Our results suggest that early inactivation of HIC1 in breast carcinomas could predispose to stress-induced metastasis through up-regulation of the β-2 adrenergic receptor. PMID:22194601

  12. Effects of a novel telomerase inhibitor, GRN163L, in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gellert, Ginelle C; Dikmen, Z Gunnur; Wright, Woodring E; Gryaznov, Sergei; Shay, Jerry W

    2006-03-01

    Telomerase activity is undetectable in most normal tissues but the vast majorities of cancers express active telomerase. Therefore, telomerase serves as an attractive target for the treatment of cancers. GRN163L is a lipid-modified oligonucleotide N3'-->P5' thio-phosphoramidate complementary to the RNA template region of human telomerase. The anti-telomerase activity of GRN163L was evaluated using MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Twice weekly administration of GRN163L resulted in the inhibition of telomerase activity and progressive telomere shortening. Cells treated with GRN163L did not demonstrate decreased cell proliferation for up to 2 weeks. However, after additional treatment, cell proliferation gradually decreased in GRN163L-treated cells compared to untreated or mismatch control oligoncleotide treated cells. Furthermore, anti-tumorigenic effects were seen in cells treated with GRN163L, as cells lose their ability to form colonies in soft agar and were unable to form colonies in the clonal efficiency assay upon incubation with GRN163L. Moreover, breast cancer cells that were treated with GRN163L for only 1 week prior to plating in invasion chambers, and when bulk telomere are still long, exhibit significantly diminished invasive potential. These results reveal critical information regarding the effectiveness of GRN163L as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:16319992

  13. Glyceollins as novel targeted therapeutic for the treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of glyceollins on the suppression of tumorigenesis in triple negative breast carcinoma cell lines. We further explored the effects of glyceollins on microRNA and protein expression in MDA MB 231 cells. Triple negative (ER , PgR, and Her2/neu ...

  14. Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip; Roy, Madhumita

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independent pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-a-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was prominent

  15. ERK/p38 MAPK inhibition reduces radio-resistance to a pulsed proton beam in breast cancer stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Myung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Chan

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have identified highly tumorigenic cells with stem cell-like characteristics, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) in human cancers. CSCs are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy owing to their high DNA repair ability and oncogene overexpression. However, the mechanisms regulating CSC radio-resistance, particularly proton beam resistance, remain unclear. We isolated CSCs from the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, which expressed the characteristic breast CSC membrane protein markers CD44+/CD24-/ low , and irradiated the CSCs with pulsed proton beams. We confirmed that CSCs were resistant to pulsed proton beams and showed that treatment with p38 and ERK inhibitors reduced CSC radio-resistance. Based on these results, BCSC radio-resistance can be reduced during proton beam therapy by co-treatment with ERK1/2 or p38 inhibitors, a novel approach to breast cancer therapy.

  16. Upregulated WDR26 serves as a scaffold to coordinate PI3K/AKT pathway-driven breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yuanchao; Tang, Xiaoyun; Sun, Zhizeng; Chen, Songhai

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway transmits signals downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and is one of the most dysregulated pathways in breast cancer. PI3Ks and AKTs consist of multiple isoforms that play distinct and even opposite roles in breast cancer cell growth and metastasis. However, it remains unknown how the activities of various PI3K and AKT isoforms are coordinated during breast cancer progression. Previously, we showed WDR26 is a novel WD40 protein that binds Gβγ and promotes Gβγ signaling. Here, we demonstrate that WDR26 is overexpressed in highly malignant breast tumor cell lines and human breast cancer samples, and that WDR26 overexpression correlates with shortened survival of breast cancer patients. In highly malignant cell lines (MDA-MB231, DU4475 and BT549), downregulation of WDR26 expression selectively alleviated GPCR- but not EGF receptor-stimulated PI3K/AKT signaling and tumor cell growth, migration and invasion. In contrast, in a less malignant cell line (MCF7), WDR26 overexpression had the opposite effect. Additional studies indicate that downstream of GPCR stimulation, WDR26 serves as a scaffold that fosters assembly of a specific signaling complex consisting of Gβγ, PI3Kβ and AKT2. In an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of breast cancer, disrupting formation of this complex, by overexpressing WDR26 mutants in MDA-MB231 cells, abrogated PI3K/AKT activation and tumor cell growth and metastasis. Together, our results identify a novel mechanism regulating GPCR-dependent activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling axis in breast tumor cells, and pinpoint WDR26 as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:26895380

  17. MicroRNA-100 suppresses the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by targeting FZD-8 and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; He, Miao; Guan, Shu; Ma, Mengtao; Wu, Huizhe; Yu, Zhaojin; Jiang, Longyang; Wang, Yan; Zong, Xingyue; Jin, Feng; Wei, Minjie

    2016-04-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a major role in the cancer metastasis. Several microRNAs (miRNAs) are contributed to the inhibition of breast cancer metastasis. Here, we attempted to find novel targets and mechanisms of microRNA-100 (miR-100) in regulating the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that miR-100 expression was downregulated in human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The overexpression of miR-100 inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Inversely, the downregulation of miR-100 increased the migration and invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, FZD-8, a receptor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was demonstrated a direct target of miR-100. The overexpression of miR-100 decreased the expression levels not only FZD-8 but also the key components of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, including β-catenin, metalloproteniase-7 (MMP-7), T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4), and lymphoid enhancing factor-1 (LEF-1), and increased the protein expression levels of GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β in MDA-MB-231 cells, and the transfection of miR-100 inhibitor in MCF-7 cells showed the opposite effects. In addition, the expression of miR-100 was negatively correlated with the FZD-8 expression in human breast cancer tissues. Overall, these findings suggest that miR-100 suppresses the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by targeting FZD-8 and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and manipulation of miR-100 may provide a promoting therapeutic strategy for cancer breast treatment. PMID:26537584

  18. A novel antitumor activity of deguelin targeting the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor pathway via up-regulation of IGF-binding protein-3 expression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young-Ah; Kim, Jai-Hyun; Sung, Myung A; Boo, Hye-Jin; Yun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Sun-Hye; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kim, Kyu-Won; Lee, Ho-Young

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of deguelin in several human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Deguelin inhibited cell viability and the anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent colony formation of triple-negative (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468) and triple-positive (MCF-7) breast cancer cells, and it significantly reduced the growth of MCF-7 cell xenograft tumors. The induction of apoptosis, inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling activation, and up-regulation of IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression may be associated with deguelin-mediated antitumor effects. Our findings suggest a potential therapeutic use for deguelin in patients with triple-negative breast cancer and for those with breast cancers who are sensitive to endocrine- and HER2-targeted therapies. PMID:23348700

  19. Sonic hedgehog stimulates glycolysis and proliferation of breast cancer cells: Modulation of PFKFB3 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Xin; Lyu, Pengwei; Gu, Yuanting; Li, Lin; Li, Jingruo; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Linfeng; Fu, Chao; Cao, Zhang

    2015-08-28

    Sonic hesgehog (Shh) signaling has been reported to play an essential role in cancer progression. The mechanism of Shh involved in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. The present study sought to explore whether Shh signaling could regulate the glycolytic metabolism in breast cancers. Overexpression of the smoothed (Smo) and Gli-1 was found in human primary breast cancers. The expressions of Shh and Gli-1 correlated significantly with tumor size and tumor stage. In vitro, human recombinant Shh (rShh) triggered Smo and Gli-1 expression, promoted glucose utilization and lactate production, and accelerated cell proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, rShh did not alter 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) expression but augmented PFKFB3 phosphorylation on ser{sup 461}, along with elevated fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F2,6BP) generation by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect could be dampened by Smo siRNA but not by Gli-1 siRNA. In addition, our data showed the upregulated expressions of MAPK by rShh and elevatory PFKFB3 phosphorylation by p38/MAPK activated kinase (MK2). In conclusion, our study characterized a novel role of Shh in promoting glycolysis and proliferation of breast cancer cells via PFKFB3 phosphorylation, which was mediated by Smo and p38/MK2. - Highlights: • Overexpression of Smo and Gli-1 was found in human primary breast cancers. • Shh promoted glucose utilization, lactate production, and cell proliferation. • Shh did not alter PFKFB3 expression but augmented PFKFB3 phosphorylation on ser461. • Shh acts on PFKFB3 phosphorylation via Smo and p38 MAPK/MK2.

  20. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Pan, Si-Yuan; Duan, Wei; He, Shu-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition

  1. Quantification of cell fusion events human breast cancer cells and breast epithelial cells using a Cre-LoxP-based double fluorescence reporter system.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Marieke; Tosun, Songül; Arnold, Wolfgang H; Edenhofer, Frank; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion plays an important role in several physiological processes, like fertilization, placentation, or wound healing/tissue regeneration, as well as pathophysiological processes, such as cancer. Despite this fact, considerably less is still known about the factors and conditions that will induce the merging of two plasma membranes. Inflammation and proliferation has been suggested as a positive trigger for cell fusion, but it remains unclear, which of the factor(s) of the inflamed microenvironment are being involved. To clarify this we developed a reliable assay to quantify the in vitro fusion frequency of cells using a fluorescence double reporter vector (pFDR) containing a LoxP-flanked HcRed/DsRed expression cassette followed by an EGFP expression cassette. Because cell fusion has been implicated in cancer progression four human breast cancer cell lines were stably transfected with a pFDR vector and were co-cultured with the stably Cre-expressing human breast epithelial cell line. Cell fusion is associated with a Cre-mediated recombination resulting in induction of EGFP expression in hybrid cells, which can be quantified by flow cytometry. By testing a panel of different cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and other compounds, including exosomes, under normoxic and hypoxic conditions our data indicate that the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α together with hypoxia is a strong inducer of cell fusion in human MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. PMID:25900663

  2. Real-time cell analysis of the inhibitory effect of vitamin K2 on adhesion and proliferation of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Maeve; Hodgins, Spencer J; Merrigan, B Anne; Tormey, Shona; Kiely, Patrick A; O'Connor, Eibhlís M

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer type worldwide. Continued efforts to improve treatment strategies for patients with breast cancer will be instrumental in reducing the death rates associated with this disease. In particular, the triple-negative breast cancer subtype of breast cancer has no targeted therapy available so it is essential to continue to work on any potential therapies. Vitamin K (VK) is known for its essential role in the clotting cascade. The antitumor properties of VK derivatives have been reported in both hepatocellular carcinoma and glioblastoma. Our hypothesis was that menaquinone-4, the most common form of vitamin K2 (VK2), is an effective anticancer agent against breast cancer cell types. In this study, we used a novel impedance-based live cell monitoring platform (xCELLigence) to determine the effects of VK derivatives on the triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and the HER2+ breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-453. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of menaquinone-4 (VK2) previously reported to have an antiproliferative effect on human glioblastoma cells. After initial testing, these concentrations were adjusted to 100, 125, and 150 μmol/L. A significant dose-dependent, growth inhibitory effect was found when cells were treated at these concentrations. These effects were seen in both adhesion and proliferation phases and show a dramatic reduction in cell growth. Additional analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with VK2 (100 μmol/L) in combination with a low-glucose nutrient media showed a further decrease in adhesion and viability. This is the first study of its kind showing the real-time effects of VK derivatives on breast cancer cells and suggests that dietary factors may be an important consideration for patients. PMID:26082424

  3. 2-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-benzothiazole suppresses tumor progression and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells by inducing ubiquitin ligase CHIP.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Hiromi; Goto, Natsuka; Tsuchiya, Mai; Iida, Keisuke; Nakajima, Yuka; Hirata, Naoya; Kanda, Yasunari; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and has poor survival and high recurrence rates for aggressive metastatic disease. Notably, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive cancer and there is no preferred agent for TNBC therapy. In this study, we show that a novel agent, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-benzothiazole (YL-109), has ability to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. In addition, YL-109 repressed the sphere-forming ability and the expression of stem cell markers in MDA-MB-231 mammosphere cultures. YL-109 increased the expression of carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), which suppresses tumorigenic and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells by inhibiting the oncogenic pathway. YL-109 induced CHIP transcription because of the recruitment of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to upstream of CHIP gene in MDA-MB-231 cells. Consistently, the antitumor effects of YL-109 were depressed by CHIP or AhR knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that a novel agent YL-109 inhibits cell growth and metastatic potential by inducing CHIP expression through AhR signaling and reduces cancer stem cell properties in MDA-MB-231 cells. It suggests that YL-109 is a potential candidate for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25403352

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due their detrimental effect on target cells. The aim of our study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized AgNPs using hot aqueous extracts of the mycelia of Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods We developed a green method for the synthesis of water-soluble AgNPs by treating silver ions with hot aqueous extract of the mycelia of G. neo-japonicum. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using a series of assays: such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase 3, DNA laddering, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Results The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results showed a strong resonance centered on the surface of AgNPs at 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs were single-crystalline, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with various concentrations of AgNPs (1–10 μg/mL) for 24 hours revealed that AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce membrane leakage in a dose-dependent manner. Cells exposed to AgNPs showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production. Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of AgNPs were confirmed by activation of caspase 3 and DNA nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion The results indicate that AgNPs possess cytotoxic effects with apoptotic features and suggest that the reactive oxygen species generated by

  5. ABL Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition Variable Effects on the Invasive Properties of Different Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Clément; Cannet, Aude; Descamps, Simon; Sirvent, Audrey; Simon, Valérie; Roche, Serge; Benistant, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL drives myeloid progenitor expansion in human chronic myeloid leukemia. ABL inhibition by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib is a first-line treatment for this disease. Recently, ABL has also been implicated in the transforming properties of solid tumors, including triple negative (TN) breast cancer. TN breast cancers are highly metastatic and several cell lines derived from these tumors display high invasive activity in vitro. This feature is associated with the activation of actin-rich membrane structures called invadopodia that promote extracellular matrix degradation. Here, we investigated nilotinib effect on the invasive and migratory properties of different TN breast cancer cell lines. Nilotinib decreased both matrix degradation and invasion in the TN breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468. However, and unexpectedly, nilotinib increased by two-fold the invasive properties of the TN breast cancer cell line BT-549 and of Src-transformed fibroblasts. Both display much higher levels of ABL kinase activity compared to MDA-MB 231. Similar effects were obtained by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of ABL expression, confirming ABL central role in this process. ABL anti-tumor effect in BT-549 cells and Src-transformed fibroblasts was not dependent on EGF secretion, as recently reported in neck and squamous carcinoma cells. Rather, we identified the TRIO-RAC1 axis as an important downstream element of ABL activity in these cancer cells. In conclusion, the observation that TN breast cancer cell lines respond differently to ABL inhibitors could have implications for future therapies. PMID:25803821

  6. ABL tyrosine kinase inhibition variable effects on the invasive properties of different triple negative breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Clément; Cannet, Aude; Descamps, Simon; Sirvent, Audrey; Simon, Valérie; Roche, Serge; Benistant, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL drives myeloid progenitor expansion in human chronic myeloid leukemia. ABL inhibition by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib is a first-line treatment for this disease. Recently, ABL has also been implicated in the transforming properties of solid tumors, including triple negative (TN) breast cancer. TN breast cancers are highly metastatic and several cell lines derived from these tumors display high invasive activity in vitro. This feature is associated with the activation of actin-rich membrane structures called invadopodia that promote extracellular matrix degradation. Here, we investigated nilotinib effect on the invasive and migratory properties of different TN breast cancer cell lines. Nilotinib decreased both matrix degradation and invasion in the TN breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468. However, and unexpectedly, nilotinib increased by two-fold the invasive properties of the TN breast cancer cell line BT-549 and of Src-transformed fibroblasts. Both display much higher levels of ABL kinase activity compared to MDA-MB 231. Similar effects were obtained by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of ABL expression, confirming ABL central role in this process. ABL anti-tumor effect in BT-549 cells and Src-transformed fibroblasts was not dependent on EGF secretion, as recently reported in neck and squamous carcinoma cells. Rather, we identified the TRIO-RAC1 axis as an important downstream element of ABL activity in these cancer cells. In conclusion, the observation that TN breast cancer cell lines respond differently to ABL inhibitors could have implications for future therapies. PMID:25803821

  7. Differential Response of Two Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines to the Phenolic Extract from Flaxseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Sorice, Angela; Guerriero, Eliana; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Capone, Francesca; La Cara, Francesco; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Colonna, Giovanni; Costantini, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have evidenced that the phenolic components from flaxseed (FS) oil have potential health benefits. The effect of the phenolic extract from FS oil has been evaluated on two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB231, and on the human non-cancerous breast cell line, MCF10A, by SRB assay, cellular death, cell cycle, cell signaling, lipid peroxidation and expression of some key genes. We have evidenced that the extract shows anti-proliferative activity on MCF7 cells by inducing cellular apoptosis, increase of the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase and of lipid peroxidation, activation of the H2AX signaling pathway, and upregulation of a six gene signature. On the other hand, on the MDA-MB2131 cells we verified only an anti-proliferative activity, a weak lipid peroxidation, the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway and an up-regulation of four genes. Overall these data suggest that the extract has both cytotoxic and pro-oxidant effects only on MCF7 cells, and can act as a metabolic probe, inducing differences in the gene expression. For this purpose, we have performed an interactomic analysis, highlighting the existing associations. From this approach, we show that the phenotypic difference between the two cell lines can be explained through their differential response to the phenolic extract. PMID:27005599

  8. Isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating arachidonic acid metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Wang, Yuzhong; Zheng, Hao; Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Zhang, Jing; Falck, John R.; Guo, Austin M.; Yue, Jiang; Peng, Renxiu; Yang, Jing

    2013-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and its downstream pathways have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in growth control of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen from licorice, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating multiple key enzymes in AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer. Isoliquiritigenin diminished cell viability, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and clonogenic ability in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells, and induced apoptosis as evidenced by an analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and hoechst staining. Furthermore, isoliquiritigenin inhibited mRNA expression of multiple forms of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and decreased secretion of their products, including prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), without affecting COX-1, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}). In addition, it downregulated the levels of phospho-PI3K, phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}), phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}), phospho-Bad (Ser{sup 136}), and Bcl-x{sub L} expression, thereby activating caspase cascades and eventually cleaving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Conversely, the addition of exogenous eicosanoids, including PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} and a 20-HETE analog (WIT003), and caspase inhibitors, or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. Notably, isoliquiritigenin induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice, together with decreased intratumoral levels of eicosanoids and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Collectively, these data suggest that isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating AA metabolic

  9. Inhibition of HDAC3- and HDAC6-Promoted Survivin Expression Plays an Important Role in SAHA-Induced Autophagy and Viability Reduction in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Kuo, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Shing-Ling; Cheng, Siao Muk; Chen, Shang-Hung; Chan, Hsiu-Han; Lin, Chun-Hui; Lin, Kun-Yuan; Li, Chien-Feng; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Leung, Euphemia Y.; Cheung, Carlos Chun Ho; Huang, Wei-Jan; Wang, Yi-Ching; Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio

    2016-01-01

    SAHA is a class I HDAC/HDAC6 co-inhibitor and an autophagy inducer currently undergoing clinical investigations in breast cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism of action of SAHA in breast cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we found that SAHA is equally effective in targeting cells of different breast cancer subtypes and tamoxifen sensitivity. Importantly, we found that down-regulation of survivin plays an important role in SAHA-induced autophagy and cell viability reduction in human breast cancer cells. SAHA decreased survivin and XIAP gene transcription, induced survivin protein acetylation and early nuclear translocation in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. It also reduced survivin and XIAP protein stability in part through modulating the expression and activation of the 26S proteasome and heat-shock protein 90. Interestingly, targeting HDAC3 and HDAC6, but not other HDAC isoforms, by siRNA/pharmacological inhibitors mimicked the effects of SAHA in modulating the acetylation, expression, and nuclear translocation of survivin and induced autophagy in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Targeting HDAC3 also mimicked the effect of SAHA in up-regulating the expression and activity of proteasome, which might lead to the reduced protein stability of survivin in breast cancer cells. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into SAHA's molecular mechanism of actions in breast cancer cells. Our findings emphasize the complexity of the regulatory roles in different HDAC isoforms and potentially assist in predicting the mechanism of novel HDAC inhibitors in targeted or combinational therapies in the future. PMID:27065869

  10. Non-anti-mitotic concentrations of taxol reduce breast cancer cell invasiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Truong-An; Gillet, Ludovic; Roger, Sebastien; Besson, Pierre; White, Edward; Le Guennec, Jean-Yves

    2009-02-06

    Taxol is widely used in breast cancer chemotherapy. Its effects are primarily attributed to its anti-mitotic activity. Microtubule perturbators also exert antimetastatic activities which cannot be explained solely by the inhibition of proliferation. Voltage-dependent