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Sample records for human melanoma-bearing mouse

  1. Therapeutic Efficacy of a {sup 188}Re-Labeled {alpha}-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analog in Murine and Human Melanoma-Bearing Mouse Models

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yubin; Owen, Nellie K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic efficacy of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH in the B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. Method: (Arg11)CCMSH was synthesized and labeled with {sup 188}Re to form {sup 188}Re-(Agr{sup 11})CCMSH. B16/F1 melanoma tumor bearing mice were administrated with 200 Ci, 600 Ci and 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH via the tail vein, respectively. TXM13 melanoma tumor hearing mice were separately injected with 600 Ci, 2x400 Ci and 1000 Ci of 100Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH through the tail vein. Two groups of 10 mice bearing either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors were injected with saline as untreated controls. Results: In contrast to the untreated control group, {sup 188}Re(Arg11)CCMSH yielded rapid and lasting therapeutic effects in the treatment groups with either B16/F1 or TXM13 tumors. The tumor growth rate was reduced and the survival rate was prolonged in the treatment groups. Treatment with 2x400 Ci of {sup 188}Re-Arg{sup 11}CCMSH significantly extended the mean life of B16/F1 tumor mice (p<0.05), while the mean life of TXm13 tumor mice was significantly prolonged after treatment with 600 Ci and 1000 Ci doses of {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH (p<0.05 High-dose {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11}))CCMSH produced no observed normal-tissue toxicity. Conclusions: The therapy study results revealed that {sup 188}Re-Arg11 CCMSH yielded significant therapeutic effects in both B16/F1 murine melanoma and TXM13 human melanoma bearing mouse models. {sup 188}Re-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH appears to be a promising radiolabeled peptide for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  2. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig

    PubMed Central

    Planska, Daniela; Burocziova, Monika; Strnadel, Jan; Horak, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of human melanoma is a rare, well-documented phenomenon that is not still fully understood. Its detailed study cannot be performed in patients due to ethical reasons. Using the Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) animals of various ages (from 3 weeks to 8 months) we implemented a long-term monitoring of melanoma growth and SR. We focused on immunohistochemical detection of two important extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV and laminin, which are associated with cancer. We showed that SR of melanoma is a highly dynamic process. The expression of collagen IV and laminin correlated with changes in population of melanoma cells. Tumours of 3-week-old animals consisted primarily of melanoma cells with a granular expression of collagen IV and laminin around them. Thereafter, melanoma cells were gradually destroyed and tumour tissue was rebuilt into the connective tissue. Collagen IV expression slightly increased in tumours of 10-week-old pigs showing extracellular fibrous appearance. In tumours of older animals, areas lacking melanoma cells demonstrated a low expression and areas still containing melanoma cells a high expression of both proteins. We considered the age of 10 weeks as a turning point in the transition between tumour growth and SR of the MeLiM melanoma. PMID:25861134

  3. [Pulsed electric fields inhibit tumor growth but induce myocardial injury of melanoma-bearing mice].

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengying; Wu, Sha; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2016-07-01

    Objective To investigate the tumor inhibiting effect of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) on melanoma-bearing mice, and understand its influence on myocardial cells and cardial electrical activity. Methods The melanoma models of the BALB/c mice were established by subcutaneously injecting B16 melanoma cells. These mice were randomly divided into four groups. The treated groups received pulsed electric stimulation at pulse width of 1, 3, 5 ms, with field strength of 100 V/cm and frequency of 10 Hz for 10 minutes daily in 15 consecutive days. ECG of mice was recorded. Tumor volume was measured with vernier caliper. Morphological changes of tumors were observed by HE staining. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) mRNA was tested by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of PCNA protein was detected by immunofluorescence histochemistry. The ultrastructural changes of the cardiac tissues were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The serum levels of cardial troponin T (cTnT) and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) were detected by ELISA. Results Compared with the control group, tumor volumes in all treated groups were reduced 7 days after PEFs treatment; more melanin granules in tumor cells were found in the treated groups; the expressions of PCNA mRNA and protein were down-regulated in all treated groups, and there were greater changes in the groups receiving the bigger pulse width. Myocardial injury was found in 3 ms group and 5 ms group, and the expressions of cTnT and CK-MB were significantly higher than those in the control group. Conclusion PEFs can inhibit tumor growth in melanoma-bearing mice. Increase of pulse width will aggravate myocardial injury. PMID:27363271

  4. Mouse models of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Böck, Barbara C; Stein, Ulrike; Schmitt, Clemens A; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2014-09-01

    The Helmholtz Alliance Preclinical Comprehensive Cancer Center (PCCC; www.helmholtz-pccc.de) hosted the "1st International Kloster Seeon Meeting on Mouse Models of Human Cancer" in the Seeon monastery (Germany) from March 8 to 11, 2014. The meeting focused on the development and application of novel mouse models in tumor research and high-throughput technologies to overcome one of the most critical bottlenecks in translational bench-to-bedside tumor biology research. Moreover, the participants discussed basic molecular mechanisms underlying tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance, which are the prerequisite for the development of novel treatment strategies and clinical applications in cancer therapy. PMID:25136075

  5. Simvastatin increases the antineoplastic actions of paclitaxel carried in lipid nanoemulsions in melanoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Kretzer, Iara F; Maria, Durvanei A; Guido, Maria C; Contente, Thaís C; Maranhão, Raul C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lipid nanoemulsions (LDEs) that bind to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors used as carriers of paclitaxel (PTX) can decrease toxicity and increase PTX antitumoral action. The administration of simvastatin (Simva), which lowers LDL-cholesterol, was tested as an adjuvant to commercial PTX and to PTX associated with LDE (LDE-PTX). Materials and methods B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice were treated with saline solution or LDE (controls), Simva, PTX, PTX and Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva: PTX dose 17.5 μmol/kg (three intraperitoneal injections, 3 alternate days): Simva 50 mg/kg/day by gavage, 9 consecutive days. Results Compared with saline controls, 95% tumor-growth inhibition was achieved by LDE-PTX and Simva, 61% by LDE-PTX, 44% by PTX and Simva, and 43% by PTX. Simva alone had no effect. Metastasis developed in only 37% of the LDE-PTX and Simva, 60% in LDE-PTX, and 90% in PTX and Simva groups. Survival rates were higher in LDE-PTX and Simva and in LDE-PTX groups. The LDE-PTX and Simva group presented tumors with reduced cellular density and increased collagen fibers I and III. Tumors from all groups showed reduction in immunohistochemical expression of ICAM, MCP-1, and MMP-9; LDE-PTX and Simva presented the lowest MMP-9 expression. Expression of p21 was increased in the Simva, LDE-PTX, and LDE-PTX and Simva groups. In the Simva and LDE-PTX and Simva groups, expression of cyclin D1, a proliferation and survival promoter of tumor cells, was decreased. Therapy with LDE-PTX and Simva showed negligible toxicity compared with PTX and Simva, which resulted in weight loss and myelosuppression. Conclusion Simva increased the antitumor activity of PTX carried in LDE but not of PTX commercial presentation, possibly because statins increase the expression of LDL receptors that internalize LDE-PTX. PMID:27022257

  6. Mouse homologues of human hereditary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Searle, A G; Edwards, J H; Hall, J G

    1994-01-01

    Details are given of 214 loci known to be associated with human hereditary disease, which have been mapped on both human and mouse chromosomes. Forty two of these have pathological variants in both species; in general the mouse variants are similar in their effects to the corresponding human ones, but exceptions include the Dmd/DMD and Hprt/HPRT mutations which cause little, if any, harm in mice. Possible reasons for phenotypic differences are discussed. In most pathological variants the gene product seems to be absent or greatly reduced in both species. The extensive data on conserved segments between human and mouse chromosomes are used to predict locations in the mouse of over 50 loci of medical interest which are mapped so far only on human chromosomes. In about 80% of these a fairly confident prediction can be made. Some likely homologies between mapped mouse loci and unmapped human ones are also given. Sixty six human and mouse proto-oncogene and growth factor gene homologies are also listed; those of confirmed location are all in known conserved segments. A survey of 18 mapped human disease loci and chromosome regions in which the manifestation or severity of pathological effects is thought to be the result of genomic imprinting shows that most of the homologous regions in the mouse are also associated with imprinting, especially those with homologues on human chromosomes 11p and 15q. Useful methods of accelerating the production of mouse models of human hereditary disease include (1) use of a supermutagen, such as ethylnitrosourea (ENU), (2) targeted mutagenesis involving ES cells, and (3) use of gene transfer techniques, with production of 'knockout mutations'. PMID:8151633

  7. Overcoming Current Limitations in Humanized Mouse Research

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Michael A.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Luban, Jeremy; Greiner, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human cells and tissues have provided an exciting alternative to in vitro studies with human tissues and nonhuman primates for the study of human immunobiology. A major breakthrough in the early 2000s was the introduction of a targeted mutation in the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor common gamma chain (IL2rgnull) into mice that were already deficient in T and B cells. Among other immune defects, natural killer (NK) cells are disrupted in these mice, permitting efficient engraftment with human hematopoietic cells that generate a functional human immune system. These humanized mouse models are becoming increasingly important for preclinical studies of human immunity, hematopoiesis, tissue regeneration, cancer, and infectious diseases. In particular, humanized mice have enabled studies of the pathogenesis of human-specific pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1, Epstein Barr virus, and Salmonella typhi. However, there are a number of limitations in the currently available humanized mouse models. Investigators are continuing to identify molecular mechanisms underlying the remaining defects in the engrafted human immune system and are generating “next generation” models to overcome these final deficiencies. This article provides an overview of some of the emerging models of humanized mice, their use in the study of infectious diseases, and some of the remaining limitations that are currently being addressed. PMID:24151318

  8. Mouse models of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of mice as model organisms to study human biology is predicated on the genetic and physiological similarities between the species. Nonetheless, mice and humans have evolved in and become adapted to different environments and so, despite their phylogenetic relatedness, they have become very different organisms. Mice often respond to experimental interventions in ways that differ strikingly from humans. Mice are invaluable for studying biological processes that have been conserved during the evolution of the rodent and primate lineages and for investigating the developmental mechanisms by which the conserved mammalian genome gives rise to a variety of different species. Mice are less reliable as models of human disease, however, because the networks linking genes to disease are likely to differ between the two species. The use of mice in biomedical research needs to take account of the evolved differences as well as the similarities between mice and humans. PMID:27121451

  9. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

  10. Humanized Mouse Models of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Paul W.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2013-01-01

    intragenetic variables; 3) continuous de novo production of human immune cells from the transplanted CD34+ cells within each humanized mouse facilitates long term experiments; 4) both primary and laboratory HIV isolates can be used for experiments; and 5) in addition to therapeutic interventions, rectal and vaginal HIV prevention approaches can be studied. In summary, humanized mice can have an important role in virtually all aspects of HIV research including the analysis of HIV replication, the evaluation of HIV restriction factors, the characterization of successful biomedical HIV prevention strategies, the evaluation of new treatment regimens and the evaluation of novel HIV eradication strategies. PMID:21799532

  11. Generation of improved humanized mouse models for human infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Michael A.; Wiles, Michael V.; Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2014-01-01

    The study of human-specific infectious agents has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models. More recently development of novel strains of immunodeficient mice has begun to provide the opportunity to utilize small animal models for the study of many human-specific infectious agents. The introduction of a targeted mutation in the IL2 receptor common gamma chain gene (IL2rgnull) in mice already deficient in T and B cells led to a breakthrough in the ability to engraft hematopoietic stem cells, as well as functional human lymphoid cells and tissues, effectively creating human immune systems in immunodeficient mice. These humanized mice are becoming increasingly important as pre-clinical models for the study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and other human-specific infectious agents. However, there remain a number of opportunities to further improve humanized mouse models for the study of human-specific infectious agents. This is being done by the implementation of innovative technologies, which collectively will accelerate the development of new models of genetically modified mice, including; i) modifications of the host to reduce innate immunity, which impedes human cell engraftment; ii) genetic modification to provide human-specific growth factors and cytokines required for optimal human cell growth and function; iii) and new cell and tissue engraftment protocols. The development of “next generation” humanized mouse models continues to provide exciting opportunities for the establishment of robust small animal models to study the pathogenesis of human-specific infectious agents, as well as for testing the efficacy of therapeutic agents and experimental vaccines. PMID:24607601

  12. Mouse Genetic Models of Human Brain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Leung, Celeste; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, genetic manipulations in mice have been used in neuroscience as a major approach to investigate the in vivo function of genes and their alterations. In particular, gene targeting techniques using embryonic stem cells have revolutionized the field of mammalian genetics and have been at the forefront in the generation of numerous mouse models of human brain disorders. In this review, we will first examine childhood developmental disorders such as autism, intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome, and Williams-Beuren syndrome. We will then explore psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and lastly, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. We will outline the creation of these mouse models that range from single gene deletions, subtle point mutations to multi-gene manipulations, and discuss the key behavioral phenotypes of these mice. Ultimately, the analysis of the models outlined in this review will enhance our understanding of the in vivo role and underlying mechanisms of disease-related genes in both normal brain function and brain disorders, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies to prevent and treat these diseases. PMID:27047540

  13. Mouse Genetic Models of Human Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Celeste; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, genetic manipulations in mice have been used in neuroscience as a major approach to investigate the in vivo function of genes and their alterations. In particular, gene targeting techniques using embryonic stem cells have revolutionized the field of mammalian genetics and have been at the forefront in the generation of numerous mouse models of human brain disorders. In this review, we will first examine childhood developmental disorders such as autism, intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome, and Williams-Beuren syndrome. We will then explore psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and lastly, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. We will outline the creation of these mouse models that range from single gene deletions, subtle point mutations to multi-gene manipulations, and discuss the key behavioral phenotypes of these mice. Ultimately, the analysis of the models outlined in this review will enhance our understanding of the in vivo role and underlying mechanisms of disease-related genes in both normal brain function and brain disorders, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies to prevent and treat these diseases. PMID:27047540

  14. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  15. Insights from mouse models into human retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, David

    2008-01-01

    Novel murine models of retinoblastoma based on Rb gene deletion in concert with inactivation of Rb family members have recently been developed. These new Rb knockout models of retinoblastoma provide excellent tools for pre-clinical studies and for the exploration of the genetics of tumorigenesis driven by RB inactivation. This review focuses on the developmental consequences of Rb deletion in the retina and the genetic interactions between Rb and the two other members of the pocket protein family, p107 (Rbl1) and p130 (Rbl2). There is increasing appreciation that homozygous RB mutations are insufficient for human retinoblastoma. Identifying and understanding secondary gene alterations that cooperate with RB inactivation in tumorigenesis may be facilitated by mouse models. Recent investigation of the p53 pathway in retinoblastoma, and evidence of spatial topology to early murine retinoblastoma are also discussed in this review. PMID:18489754

  16. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. PMID:25348401

  17. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. PMID:23408541

  18. A Detailed Comparison of Mouse and Human Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anita; Samtani, Rajeev; Dhanantwari, Preeta; Lee, Elaine; Yamada, Shigehito; Shiota, Kohei; Donofrio, Mary T.; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mouse mutants are used to model human congenital cardiovascular disease. Little is published comparing normal cardiovascular development in mice versus humans. We carried out a systematic comparative analysis of mouse and human fetal cardiovascular development. Methods Episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC) was performed on 66 wild type mouse embryos from embryonic day (E) 9.5-birth; 2D and 3D datasets were compared with EFIC and magnetic resonance images (MRI) from a study of 52 human fetuses (Carnegie Stage (CS) 13–23). Results Time course of atrial, ventricular and outflow septation were outlined, and followed a similar sequence in both species. Bilateral vena cavae and prominent atrial appendages were seen in the mouse fetus; in human fetuses, atrial appendages were small, and a single right superior vena cava was present. In contrast to humans with separate pulmonary vein orifices, a pulmonary venous confluence with one orifice enters the left atrium in mice. Conclusions The cardiac developmental sequences observed in mouse and human fetuses are comparable, with minor differences in atrial and venous morphology. These comparisons of mouse and human cardiac development strongly support that mouse morphogenesis is a good model for human development. PMID:25167202

  19. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse–human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human–Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene–phenotype–disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. PMID:25348401

  20. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Junhee; Warren, H. Shaw; Cuenca, Alex G.; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Baker, Henry V.; Xu, Weihong; Richards, Daniel R.; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Gao, Hong; Hennessy, Laura; Finnerty, Celeste C.; López, Cecilia M.; Honari, Shari; Moore, Ernest E.; Minei, Joseph P.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Bankey, Paul E.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Sperry, Jason; Nathens, Avery B.; Billiar, Timothy R.; West, Michael A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Brownstein, Bernard H.; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Calvano, Steve E.; Mason, Philip H.; Cobb, J. Perren; Rahme, Laurence G.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Maier, Ronald V.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Herndon, David N.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Abouhamze, Amer; Balis, Ulysses G. J.; Camp, David G.; De, Asit K.; Harbrecht, Brian G.; Hayden, Douglas L.; Kaushal, Amit; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Qian, Weijun; Schoenfeld, David A.; Shapiro, Michael B.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Smith, Richard D.; Storey, John D.; Tibshirani, Robert; Toner, Mehmet; Wilhelmy, Julie; Wispelwey, Bram; Wong, Wing H

    2013-01-01

    A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we show that, although acute inflammatory stresses from different etiologies result in highly similar genomic responses in humans, the responses in corresponding mouse models correlate poorly with the human conditions and also, one another. Among genes changed significantly in humans, the murine orthologs are close to random in matching their human counterparts (e.g., R2 between 0.0 and 0.1). In addition to improvements in the current animal model systems, our study supports higher priority for translational medical research to focus on the more complex human conditions rather than relying on mouse models to study human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23401516

  1. Transcriptional divergence and conservation of human and mouse erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Pishesha, Novalia; Thiru, Prathapan; Shi, Jiahai; Eng, Jennifer C.; Sankaran, Vijay G.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have been used extensively for decades and have been instrumental in improving our understanding of mammalian erythropoiesis. Nonetheless, there are several examples of variation between human and mouse erythropoiesis. We performed a comparative global gene expression study using data from morphologically identical stage-matched sorted populations of human and mouse erythroid precursors from early to late erythroblasts. Induction and repression of major transcriptional regulators of erythropoiesis, as well as major erythroid-important proteins, are largely conserved between the species. In contrast, at a global level we identified a significant extent of divergence between the species, both at comparable stages and in the transitions between stages, especially for the 500 most highly expressed genes during development. This suggests that the response of multiple developmentally regulated genes to key erythroid transcriptional regulators represents an important modification that has occurred in the course of erythroid evolution. In developing a systematic framework to understand and study conservation and divergence between human and mouse erythropoiesis, we show how mouse models can fail to mimic specific human diseases and provide predictions for translating findings from mouse models to potential therapies for human disease. PMID:24591581

  2. Mouse models of acute, chemical itch and pain in humans

    PubMed Central

    LaMotte, Robert H.; Shimada, Steven G.; Sikand, Parul

    2011-01-01

    In psychophysical experiments, humans use different verbal responses to pruritic and algesic chemical stimuli to indicate the different qualities of sensation they feel. A major challenge for behavioral models in the mouse of chemical itch and pain in humans is to devise experimental protocols that provide the opportunity for the animal to exhibit a multiplicity of responses as well. One basic criterion is that chemicals that evoke primarily itch or pain in humans should elicit different types of responses when applied in the same way to the mouse. Meeting this criterion is complicated by the fact that the type of behavioral responses exhibited by the mouse depends in part on the site of chemical application such as the nape of the neck which evokes only scratching with the hind paw vs. the hind limb which elicits licking and biting. Here, we review to what extent mice behaviorally differentiate chemicals that elicit itch vs. pain in humans. PMID:21929688

  3. Mouse Transcobalamin Has Features Resembling both Human Transcobalamin and Haptocorrin

    PubMed Central

    Hygum, Katrine; Lildballe, Dorte L.; Greibe, Eva H.; Morkbak, Anne L.; Poulsen, Steen S.; Sorensen, Boe S.; Petersen, Torben E.; Nexo, Ebba

    2011-01-01

    In humans, the cobalamin (Cbl) -binding protein transcobalamin (TC) transports Cbl from the intestine and into all the cells of the body, whereas the glycoprotein haptocorrin (HC), which is present in both blood and exocrine secretions, is able to bind also corrinoids other than Cbl. The aim of this study is to explore the expression of the Cbl-binding protein HC as well as TC in mice. BLAST analysis showed no homologous gene coding for HC in mice. Submaxillary glands and serum displayed one protein capable of binding Cbl. This Cbl-binding protein was purified from 300 submaxillary glands by affinity chromatography. Subsequent sequencing identified the protein as TC. Further characterization in terms of glycosylation status and binding specificity to the Cbl-analogue cobinamide revealed that mouse TC does not bind Concanavalin A sepharose (like human TC), but is capable of binding cobinamide (like human HC). Antibodies raised against mouse TC identified the protein in secretory cells of the submaxillary gland and in the ducts of the mammary gland, i.e. at locations where HC is also found in humans. Analysis of the TC-mRNA level showed a high TC transcript level in these glands and also in the kidney. By precipitation to insolubilised antibodies against mouse TC, we also showed that >97% of the Cbl-binding capacity and >98% of the Cbl were precipitated in serum. This indicates that TC is the only Cbl-binding protein in the mouse circulation. Our data show that TC but not HC is present in the mouse. Mouse TC is observed in tissues where humans express TC and/or HC. Mouse TC has features in common with both human TC and HC. Our results suggest that the Cbl-binding proteins present in the circulation and exocrine glands may vary amongst species. PMID:21655200

  4. End Sequencing and Finger Printing of Human & Mouse BAC Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, C

    2005-09-27

    This project provided for continued end sequencing of existing and new BAC libraries constructed to support human sequencing as well as to initiate BAC end sequencing from the mouse BAC libraries constructed to support mouse sequencing. The clones, the sequences, and the fingerprints are now an available resource for the community at large. Research and development of new metaodologies for BAC end sequencing have reduced costs and increase throughput.

  5. Comparative Epigenomics of Human and Mouse Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Demircan, Berna; Dyer, Lisa M.; Gerace, Mallory; Lobenhofer, Edward K.; Robertson, Keith D.; Brown, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Gene silencing by aberrant epigenetic chromatin alteration is a well-recognized event contributing to tumorigenesis. While genetically engineered tumor-prone mouse models have proven a powerful tool in understanding many aspects of carcinogenesis, to date few studies have focused on epigenetic alterations in mouse tumors. To uncover epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in mouse mammary tumor cells, we conducted initial genome-wide screening by combining the treatment of cultured cells with the DNA demethylating drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azadC) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) with expression microarray. By conducting this initial screen on EMT6 cells and applying protein function and genomic structure criteria to genes identified as upregulated in response to 5-azadC/TSA, we were able to identify 2 characterized breast cancer TSGs (Timp3 and Rprm) and 4 putative TSGs (Atp1B2, Dusp2, FoxJ1 and Smpd3) silenced in this line. By testing a panel of ten mouse mammary tumor lines, we determined that each of these genes is commonly hypermethylated, albeit with varying frequency. Furthermore, by examining a panel of human breast tumor lines and primary tumors we observed that the human orthologs of ATP1B2, FOXJ1 and SMPD3 are aberrantly hypermethylated in the human disease while DUSP2 was not hypermethylated in primary breast tumors. Finally, we examined hypermethylation of several genes targeted for epigenetic silencing in human breast tumors in our panel of ten mouse mammary tumor lines. We observed that the orthologs of Cdh1, RarB, Gstp1, RassF1 genes were hypermethylated, while neither Dapk1 nor Wif1 were aberrantly methylated in this panel of mouse tumor lines. From this study, we conclude that there is significant, but not absolute, overlap in the epigenome of human and mouse mammary tumors. PMID:18836996

  6. Intraspinal transplantation of mouse and human neural precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Jason G.; Chen, Lu; Coleman, Ronald; Leang, Ronika; Plaisted, Warren C.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Lane, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the preparation and transplantation of human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and mouse neural precursor cells (mNPCs) into the thoracic region of the mouse spinal cord. The techniques in this unit also describe how to prepare the mouse for surgery by performing a laminectomy to expose the spinal cord for transplantation. Here we show NPCs genetically labeled with eGFP transplanted into the spinal cord of a mouse following viralmediated demyelination can efficiently be detected via eGFP expression. Transplantation of these cells into the spinal cord is an efficacious way to determine their effects in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and spinal cord injury. PMID:24510791

  7. HIV-1 immunopathogenesis in humanized mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liguo; Su, Lishan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the technology of constructing chimeric mice with humanized immune systems has markedly improved. Multiple lineages of human immune cells develop in immunodeficient mice that have been transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells. More importantly, these mice mount functional humoral and cellular immune responses upon immunization or microbial infection. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) can establish an infection in humanized mice, resulting in CD4+ T-cell depletion and an accompanying nonspecific immune activation, which mimics the immunopathology in HIV-1-infected human patients. This makes humanized mice an optimal model for studying the mechanisms of HIV-1 immunopathogenesis and for developing novel immune-based therapies. PMID:22504952

  8. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Knibbe-Hollinger, Jaclyn S.; Fields, Natasha R.; Chaudoin, Tammy R; Epstein, Adrian A.; Makarov, Edward; Akhter, Sidra P.; Gorantla, Santhi; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Poluektova, Larisa Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization. PMID:26353862

  9. A comparison of the mouse and human lipoproteome: suitability of the mouse model for studies of human lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Scott M; Li, Hailong; Zhu, Xiaoting; Shah, Amy S; Lu, L Jason; Davidson, W Sean

    2015-06-01

    Plasma levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) exhibit opposing associations with cardiovascular disease in human populations and mouse models have been heavily used to derive a mechanistic understanding of these relationships. In humans, recent mass spectrometry studies have revealed that the plasma lipoproteome is significantly more complex than originally appreciated. This is particularly true for HDL which contains some 90 distinct proteins, a majority of which play functional roles that go beyond those expected for simple lipid transport. Unfortunately, the mouse lipoproteome remains largely uncharacterized-a significant gap given the heavy reliance on the model. Using a gel filtration chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis that targets phospholipid-bound plasma proteins, we compared the mouse lipoproteome and its size distribution to a previous, identical human analysis. We identified 113 lipid associated proteins in the mouse. In general, the protein diversity in the LDL and HDL size ranges was similar in mice versus humans, though some distinct differences were noted. For the majority of proteins, the size distributions, that is, whether a given protein was associated with large versus small HDL particles, for example, were also similar between species. Again, however, there were clear differences exhibited by a minority of proteins that may reflect metabolic differences between species. Finally, by correlating the lipid and protein size profiles, we identified five proteins that closely track with the major HDL protein, apolipoprotein A-I across both species. Thus, mice have most of the minor proteins identified in human lipoproteins that play key roles in inflammation, innate immunity, proteolysis and its inhibition, and vitamin transport. This provides support for the continued use of the mouse as a model for many aspects of human lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:25894274

  10. Assignment of three human markers in chromosome 21q11 to mouse chromosome 16.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Shen, Y; Tong, S; Kao, F T

    1997-09-01

    Three unique sequence microclones from human chromosome region 21q11 were assigned to mouse chromosome 16 using a mouse/Chinese hamster cell hybrid 96Az2 containing a single mouse chromosome 16. This comparative mapping provides further homology between human chromosome 21 and mouse chromosome 16 to include the very proximal portion of the long arm of human chromosome 21. Since this part of human chromosome 21 is associated with mental retardation in Down syndrome individuals, its homologous mouse region should also be included in the construction of mouse models for studying Down syndrome phenotypes including mental retardation. PMID:9546078

  11. Improved human disease candidate gene prioritization using mouse phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Xu, Huan; Aronow, Bruce J; Jegga, Anil G

    2007-01-01

    Background The majority of common diseases are multi-factorial and modified by genetically and mechanistically complex polygenic interactions and environmental factors. High-throughput genome-wide studies like linkage analysis and gene expression profiling, tend to be most useful for classification and characterization but do not provide sufficient information to identify or prioritize specific disease causal genes. Results Extending on an earlier hypothesis that the majority of genes that impact or cause disease share membership in any of several functional relationships we, for the first time, show the utility of mouse phenotype data in human disease gene prioritization. We study the effect of different data integration methods, and based on the validation studies, we show that our approach, ToppGene , outperforms two of the existing candidate gene prioritization methods, SUSPECTS and ENDEAVOUR. Conclusion The incorporation of phenotype information for mouse orthologs of human genes greatly improves the human disease candidate gene analysis and prioritization. PMID:17939863

  12. Humanized Mouse Model to Study Bacterial Infections Targeting the Microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Melican, Keira; Aubey, Flore; Duménil, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes a severe, frequently fatal sepsis when it enters the human blood stream. Infection leads to extensive damage of the blood vessels resulting in vascular leak, the development of purpuric rashes and eventual tissue necrosis. Studying the pathogenesis of this infection was previously limited by the human specificity of the bacteria, which makes in vivo models difficult. In this protocol, we describe a humanized model for this infection in which human skin, containing dermal microvessels, is grafted onto immunocompromised mice. These vessels anastomose with the mouse circulation while maintaining their human characteristics. Once introduced into this model, N. meningitidis adhere exclusively to the human vessels, resulting in extensive vascular damage, inflammation and in some cases the development of purpuric rash. This protocol describes the grafting, infection and evaluation steps of this model in the context of N. meningitidis infection. The technique may be applied to numerous human specific pathogens that infect the blood stream. PMID:24747976

  13. Mouse and human FcR effector functions.

    PubMed

    Bruhns, Pierre; Jönsson, Friederike

    2015-11-01

    Mouse and human FcRs have been a major focus of attention not only of the scientific community, through the cloning and characterization of novel receptors, and of the medical community, through the identification of polymorphisms and linkage to disease but also of the pharmaceutical community, through the identification of FcRs as targets for therapy or engineering of Fc domains for the generation of enhanced therapeutic antibodies. The availability of knockout mouse lines for every single mouse FcR, of multiple or cell-specific--'à la carte'--FcR knockouts and the increasing generation of hFcR transgenics enable powerful in vivo approaches for the study of mouse and human FcR biology. This review will present the landscape of the current FcR family, their effector functions and the in vivo models at hand to study them. These in vivo models were recently instrumental in re-defining the properties and effector functions of FcRs that had been overlooked or discarded from previous analyses. A particular focus will be made on the (mis)concepts on the role of high-affinity IgG receptors in vivo and on results from antibody engineering to enhance or abrogate antibody effector functions mediated by FcRs. PMID:26497511

  14. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V.; Teichmann, Lino L.; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models are unable to support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and NK cells. Here we describe a mouse strain, called MI(S)TRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked in to their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34+ progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MI(S)TRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology. PMID:24633240

  15. CARI III inhibits tumor growth in a melanoma-bearing mouse model through induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom-derived natural products have been used to prevent or treat cancer for millennia. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of CARI (Cell Activation Research Institute) III, which consists of a blend of mushroom mycelia from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice, Inonotus obliquus grown on germinated brown rice, Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice and Ganoderma lucidum. Here, we showed that CARI III exerted anti-cancer activity, which is comparable to Dox against melanoma in vivo. B16F10 cells were intraperitoneally injected into C57BL6 mice to develop solid intra-abdominal tumors. Three hundred milligrams of the CARI III/kg/day p.o. regimen reduced tumor weight, comparable to the doxorubicin (Dox)-treated group. An increase in life span (ILS% = 50.88%) was observed in the CARI III-administered group, compared to the tumor control group. CARI III demonstrates anti-proliferative activity against B16F10 melanoma cells through inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. CARI III inhibits the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK2 and induces p21. Therefore, CARI III could be a potential chemopreventive supplement to melanoma patients. PMID:25221864

  16. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research. PMID:25561744

  17. A Mouse Model for Imprinting of the Human Retinoblastoma Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tasiou, Vasiliki; Hiber, Michaela; Steenpass, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The human RB1 gene is imprinted due to integration of the PPP1R26P1 pseudogene into intron 2. PPP1R26P1 harbors the gametic differentially methylated region of the RB1 gene, CpG85, which is methylated in the female germ line. The paternally unmethylated CpG85 acts as promoter for the alternative transcript 2B of RB1, which interferes with expression of full-length RB1 in cis. In mice, PPP1R26P1 is not present in the Rb1 gene and Rb1 is not imprinted. Assuming that the mechanisms responsible for genomic imprinting are conserved, we investigated if imprinting of mouse Rb1 can be induced by transferring human PPP1R26P1 into mouse Rb1. We generated humanized Rb1_PPP1R26P1 knock-in mice that pass human PPP1R26P1 through the mouse germ line. We found that the function of unmethylated CpG85 as promoter for an alternative Rb1 transcript and as cis-repressor of the main Rb1 transcript is maintained in mouse tissues. However, CpG85 is not recognized as a gametic differentially methylated region in the mouse germ line. DNA methylation at CpG85 is acquired only in tissues of neuroectodermal origin, independent of parental transmission of PPP1R26P1. Absence of CpG85 methylation in oocytes and sperm implies a failure of imprint methylation establishment in the germ line. Our results indicate that site-specific integration of a proven human gametic differentially methylated region is not sufficient for acquisition of DNA methylation in the mouse germ line, even if promoter function of the element is maintained. This suggests a considerable dependency of DNA methylation induction on the surrounding sequence. However, our model is suited to determine the cellular function of the alternative Rb1 transcript. PMID:26275142

  18. A Humanized Mouse Model to Study Human Albumin and Albumin Conjugates Pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Low, Benjamin E; Wiles, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    Albumin is a large, highly abundant protein circulating in the blood stream which is regulated and actively recycled via the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). In humans this results in serum albumin having an exceptional long half-life of ~21 days. Some time ago it was realized that these intrinsic properties could be harnessed and albumin could be used as a privileged drug delivery vehicle. However, active development of albumin based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of economic, relevant experimental models which can accurately recapitulate human albumin metabolism and pharmacokinetics. In mice for example, introduced human albumin is not recycled and is catabolized rapidly. This is mainly due to the failure of mouse FcRn to bind human albumin consequently, human albumin has a half-life of only 2-3 days in mice. To overcome this we developed and characterized a humanized mouse model which is null for mouse FcRn and mouse albumin, but is transgenic for, and expressing functional human FcRn. Published data clearly demonstrate that upon injection of human albumin into this model animal that it accurately recapitulates human albumin FcRn dependent serum recycling, with human albumin now having a half-life ~24 days, closely mimicking that observed in humans. In this practical review we briefly review this model and outline its use for pharmacokinetic studies of human albumin. PMID:27150087

  19. TFCat: the curated catalog of mouse and human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Debra L; Sundararajan, Saravanan; Badis, Gwenael; Hughes, Timothy R; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Roach, Jared C; Sladek, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling regulatory programs governed by transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to understanding biological systems. TFCat is a catalog of mouse and human TFs based on a reliable core collection of annotations obtained by expert review of the scientific literature. The collection, including proven and homology-based candidate TFs, is annotated within a function-based taxonomy and DNA-binding proteins are organized within a classification system. All data and user-feedback mechanisms are available at the TFCat portal . PMID:19284633

  20. Comprehensive comparative homeobox gene annotation in human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wilming, Laurens G.; Boychenko, Veronika; Harrow, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Homeobox genes are a group of genes coding for transcription factors with a DNA-binding helix-turn-helix structure called a homeodomain and which play a crucial role in pattern formation during embryogenesis. Many homeobox genes are located in clusters and some of these, most notably the HOX genes, are known to have antisense or opposite strand long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes that play a regulatory role. Because automated annotation of both gene clusters and non-coding genes is fraught with difficulty (over-prediction, under-prediction, inaccurate transcript structures), we set out to manually annotate all homeobox genes in the mouse and human genomes. This includes all supported splice variants, pseudogenes and both antisense and flanking lncRNAs. One of the areas where manual annotation has a significant advantage is the annotation of duplicated gene clusters. After comprehensive annotation of all homeobox genes and their antisense genes in human and in mouse, we found some discrepancies with the current gene set in RefSeq regarding exact gene structures and coding versus pseudogene locus biotype. We also identified previously un-annotated pseudogenes in the DUX, Rhox and Obox gene clusters, which helped us re-evaluate and update the gene nomenclature in these regions. We found that human homeobox genes are enriched in antisense lncRNA loci, some of which are known to play a role in gene or gene cluster regulation, compared to their mouse orthologues. Of the annotated set of 241 human protein-coding homeobox genes, 98 have an antisense locus (41%) while of the 277 orthologous mouse genes, only 62 protein coding gene have an antisense locus (22%), based on publicly available transcriptional evidence. PMID:26412852

  1. Mitochondrial viability in mouse and human postmortem brain

    PubMed Central

    Barksdale, Keri A.; Perez-Costas, Emma; Gandy, Johanna C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Bijur, Gautam N.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal function in the brain requires energy in the form of ATP, and mitochondria are canonically associated with ATP production in neurons. The electrochemical gradient, which underlies the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨmem), is harnessed for ATP generation. Here we show that ΔΨmem and ATP-production can be engaged in mitochondria isolated from human brains up to 8.5 h postmortem. Also, a time course of postmortem intervals from 0 to 24 h using mitochondria isolated from mouse cortex reveals that ΔΨmem in mitochondria can be reconstituted beyond 10 h postmortem. It was found that complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was affected adversely with increasing postmortem intervals. Mitochondria isolated from postmortem mouse brains maintain the ability to produce ATP, but rates of production decreased with longer postmortem intervals. Furthermore, we show that postmortem brain mitochondria retain their ΔΨmem and ATP-production capacities following cryopreservation. Our finding that ΔΨmem and ATP-generating capacity can be reinitiated in brain mitochondria hours after death indicates that human postmortem brains can be an abundant source of viable mitochondria to study metabolic processes in health and disease. It is also possible to archive these mitochondria for future studies.—Barksdale, K. A., Perez-Costas, E., Gandy, J. C., Melendez-Ferro, M., Roberts, R. C., Bijur, G. N. Mitochondrial viability in mouse and human postmortem brain. PMID:20466876

  2. A versatile new technique to clear mouse and human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Irene; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Silvestri, Ludovico; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-07-01

    Large volumes imaging with microscopic resolution is limited by light scattering. In the last few years based on refractive index matching, different clearing approaches have been developed. Organic solvents and water-based optical clearing agents have been used for optical clearing of entire mouse brain. Although these methods guarantee high transparency and preservation of the fluorescence, though present other non-negligible limitations. Tissue transformation by CLARITY allows high transparency, whole brain immunolabelling and structural and molecular preservation. This method however requires a highly expensive refractive index matching solution limiting practical applicability. In this work we investigate the effectiveness of a water-soluble clearing agent, the 2,2'-thiodiethanol (TDE) to clear mouse and human brain. TDE does not quench the fluorescence signal, is compatible with immunostaining and does not introduce any deformation at sub-cellular level. The not viscous nature of the TDE make it a suitable agent to perform brain slicing during serial two-photon (STP) tomography. In fact, by improving penetration depth it reduces tissue slicing, decreasing the acquisition time and cutting artefacts. TDE can also be used as a refractive index medium for CLARITY. The potential of this method has been explored by imaging a whole transgenic mouse brain with the light sheet microscope. Moreover we apply this technique also on blocks of dysplastic human brain tissue transformed with CLARITY and labeled with different antibody. This clearing approach significantly expands the application of single and two-photon imaging, providing a new useful method for quantitative morphological analysis of structure in mouse and human brain.

  3. Human more complex than mouse at cellular level.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander E

    2012-01-01

    The family of transcription factors with the C2H2 zinc finger domain is expanding in the evolution of vertebrates, reaching its highest numbers in the mammals. The question arises: whether an increased amount of these transcription factors is related to embryogenesis, nervous system, pathology or more of them are expressed in individual cells? Among mammals, the primates have a more complex anatomical structure than the rodents (e.g., brain). In this work, I show that a greater number of C2H2-ZF genes are expressed in the human cells than in the mouse cells. The effect is especially pronounced for C2H2-ZF genes accompanied with the KRAB domain. The relative difference between the numbers of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB) genes in the human and mouse cellular transcriptomes even exceeds their difference in the genomes (i.e. a greater subset of existing in the genome genes is expressed in the human cellular transcriptomes compared to the mouse transcriptomes). The evolutionary turnover of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB) genes acts in the direction of the revealed phenomenon, i.e. gene duplication and loss enhances the difference in the relative number of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB) genes between human and mouse cellular transcriptomes. A higher amount of these genes is expressed in the brain and embryonic cells (compared with other tissues), whereas a lower amount--in the cancer cells. It is specifically the C2H2-ZF transcription factors whose repertoire is poorer in the cancer and richer in the brain (other transcription factors taken together do not show this trend). These facts suggest that increase of anatomical complexity is accompanied by a more complex intracellular regulation involving these transcription factors. Malignization is associated with simplification of this regulation. These results agree with the known fact that human cells are more resistant to oncogenic transformation than mouse cells. The list of C2H2-ZF genes whose suppression might be involved in malignization is provided. PMID:22911852

  4. MOUSE SKIN TUMORS AND HUMAN LUNG CANCER: RELATIONSHIPS WITH COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, mouse skin tumorigenesis has been used to evaluate the tumorigenic effects of complex mixtures including human respiratory carcinogens. his study examines the quantitative relationships between tumor induction in SENCAR mouse skin and the induction of respiratory ca...

  5. P2Y Receptors Sensitize Mouse and Human Colonic Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hockley, James R. F.; Tranter, Michael M.; McGuire, Cian; Boundouki, George; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; Thaha, Mohamed A.; Blackshaw, L. Ashley; Michael, Gregory J.; Baker, Mark D.; Knowles, Charles H.; Winchester, Wendy J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of visceral nociceptors by inflammatory mediators contributes to visceral hypersensitivity and abdominal pain associated with many gastrointestinal disorders. Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides (e.g., ATP and UTP) are strongly implicated in this process following their release from epithelial cells during mechanical stimulation of the gut, and from immune cells during inflammation. Actions of ATP are mediated through both ionotropic P2X receptors and metabotropic P2Y receptors. P2X receptor activation causes excitation of visceral afferents; however, the impact of P2Y receptor activation on visceral afferents innervating the gut is unclear. Here we investigate the effects of stimulating P2Y receptors in isolated mouse colonic sensory neurons, and visceral nociceptor fibers in mouse and human nerve-gut preparations. Additionally, we investigate the role of Nav1.9 in mediating murine responses. The application of UTP (P2Y2 and P2Y4 agonist) sensitized colonic sensory neurons by increasing action potential firing to current injection and depolarizing the membrane potential. The application of ADP (P2Y1, P2Y12, and P2Y13 agonist) also increased action potential firing, an effect blocked by the selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500. UTP or ADP stimulated afferents, including mouse and human visceral nociceptors, in nerve-gut preparations. P2Y1 and P2Y2 transcripts were detected in 80% and 56% of retrogradely labeled colonic neurons, respectively. Nav1.9 transcripts colocalized in 86% of P2Y1-positive and 100% of P2Y2-positive colonic neurons, consistent with reduced afferent fiber responses to UTP and ADP in Nav1.9−/− mice. These data demonstrate that P2Y receptor activation stimulates mouse and human visceral nociceptors, highlighting P2Y-dependent mechanisms in the generation of visceral pain during gastrointestinal disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic visceral pain is a debilitating symptom of many gastrointestinal disorders. The activation of

  6. Mouse genetic and phenotypic resources for human genetics

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2012-01-01

    The use of model organisms to provide information on gene function has proved to be a powerful approach to our understanding of both human disease and fundamental mammalian biology. Large-scale community projects using mice, based on forward and reverse genetics, and now the pan-genomic phenotyping efforts of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), are generating resources on an unprecedented scale which will be extremely valuable to human genetics and medicine. We discuss the nature and availability of data, mice and ES cells from these large-scale programmes, the use of these resources to help prioritise and validate candidate genes in human genetic association studies, and how they can improve our understanding of the underlying pathobiology of human disease. PMID:22422677

  7. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M Eileen; Kogan, Scott C; Downing, James R; Lowe, Scott W

    2009-04-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

  8. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF EPILEPSY GENES IN HUMAN AND MOUSE*

    PubMed Central

    Meisler, Miriam H.; Kearney, Jennifer; Ottman, Ruth; Escayg, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The development of molecular markers and genomic resources has facilitated the isolation of genes responsible for rare monogenic epilepsies in human and mouse. Many of the identified genes encode ion channels or other components of neuronal signaling. The electrophysiological properties of mutant alleles indicate that neuronal hyperexcitability is one cellular mechanism underlying seizures. Genetic heterogeneity and allelic variability are hallmarks of human epilepsy. For example, mutations in three different sodium channel genes can produce the same syndrome, GEFS+, while individuals with the same allele can experience different types of seizures. Haploinsufficiency for the sodium channel SCN1A has been demonstrated by the severe infantile epilepsy and cognitive deficits in heterozygotes for de novo null mutations. Large-scale patient screening is in progress to determine whether less severe alleles of the genes responsible for monogenic epilepsy may contribute to the common types of epilepsy in the human population. The development of pharmaceuticals directed towards specific epilepsy genotypes can be anticipated, and the introduction of patient mutations into the mouse genome will provide models for testing these targeted therapies. PMID:11700294

  10. A new humanized mouse model for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, Amos; Keren, Aviad; Paus, Ralf

    2013-12-01

    Although alopecia areata (AA) is not life threatening, it may lead to severe psychological disturbances, reducing the quality of life in all ages. Thus, a new animal model is needed for shedding more light onto the pathogenesis of this cell-mediated, organ-specific autoimmune disease to identify more effective therapeutic strategies. Recently, we succeeded in developing a new humanized mouse model of AA, which includes transplantation of healthy human scalp skin obtained from normal volunteers on to severe-combined immunodeficient mice. This is followed by intradermal injection of either autologous or allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which had been cultured with high dose of IL-2 and enriched for natural killer group 2D-positive (NKG2D+) and CD56+ cells. This protocol leads to rapid and predictable development of focal hair loss, with all the characteristic clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of AA. This humanized mouse AA model underscores the functional importance of NKG2D+ and CD56+ cells in AA pathogenesis and promises to be instrumental for identifying novel AA treatment strategies. PMID:24326548

  11. BodyMap: a human and mouse gene expression database.

    PubMed

    Hishiki, T; Kawamoto, S; Morishita, S; Okubo, K

    2000-01-01

    BodyMap is a human and mouse gene expression database that has been maintained since 1993. It is based on site-directed 3'-ESTs collected from non-biased cDNA libraries constructed at Osaka University and contains >270 000 sequences from 60 human and 38 mouse tissues. The site-directed nature of the sequence tags allows unequivocal grouping of tags representing the same transcript and provides abundance information for each transcript in different parts of the body. Our collection of ESTs was compared periodically with other public databases for cross referencing. The histological resolution of source tissues and unique cloning strategy that minimized cloning bias enabled BodyMap to support three unique mRNA based experiments in silico. First, the recurrence information for clones in each library provides a rough estimate of the mRNA composition of each source tissue. Second, a user can search the entire data set with nucleotide sequences or keywords to assess expression patterns of particular genes. Third, and most important, BodyMap allows a user to select genes that have a desired expression pattern in humans and mice. BodyMap is accessible through the WWW at http://bodymap.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp PMID:10592203

  12. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing 'humanized' mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-05-15

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how 'human-like' can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1{sub C}YP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+){sub s}evere-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs.

  13. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: comparing 'humanized' mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W

    2009-05-15

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how "human-like" can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1_CYP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+)_severe-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs. PMID:19285097

  14. A mouse model for the human pathogen Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeongmin; Willinger, Tim; Rongvaux, Anthony; Eynon, Elizabeth E.; Stevens, Sean; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.; Galán, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever, a life-threatening disease of humans. The lack of an animal model due to S. typhi's strict human host specificity has been a significant obstacle in the understanding of its pathogenesis and the development of a safe and effective vaccine against typhoid fever. We report here the development of a mouse model for S. Typhi infection. We showed that immunodeficient Rag2 -/- γc -/- mice engrafted with human fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were able to support S. Typhi replication and persistent infection. A S. Typhi strain carrying a mutation in a gene required for its virulence in humans was not able to replicate in these humanized mice. In contrast, another mutant strain unable to produce the recently identified typhoid toxin, exhibited increased replication suggesting a potential role for this toxin in the establishment of persistent infection. Furthermore, infected animals mounted a human innate and adaptive immune response to S. Typhi resulting in the production of cytokines and pathogen-specific antibodies. These results therefore indicate that this animal model can be used to study S. Typhi pathogenesis and to evaluate potential vaccine candidates against typhoid fever. PMID:20951970

  15. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. Methods We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. Results Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural) developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. Conclusion Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE between mouse and

  16. Isolation of Mouse and Human Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cassetta, Luca; Noy, Roy; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Sugano, Gaël; Smith, Harriet; Wiechmann, Lisa; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of cells that support tumor progression and malignancy. It has been demonstrated that tumor cells can educate the immune system to promote a tumor-friendly environment. Among all these immune cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are well represented and their presence in mouse models has been shown to promote tumor progression and metastasis. These effects are through the stimulation of angiogenesis, enhancement of tumor cell invasion and intravasation, immunosuppression, and at the metastatic site tumor cell extravasation and growth. However, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Furthermore there is limited information on TAMs derived from human cancers. For this reason it is important to be able to extract TAMs from tumors in order to compare their phenotypes, functions, and transcriptomes with normal resident tissue macrophages. Isolation of these cells is challenging due to the lack of markers and standardized protocols. Here we show an optimized protocol for the efficient isolation and extraction of resident macrophages and TAMs from human and mouse tissues by using multicolor flow cytometry. These protocols allow for the extraction of thousands of macrophages in less than 5 h from tissues as small as half a gram. The isolated macrophages can then be used for both “omics” and in vitro studies. PMID:27325269

  17. Isolation of Mouse and Human Tumor-Associated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cassetta, Luca; Noy, Roy; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Sugano, Gaël; Smith, Harriet; Wiechmann, Lisa; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of cells that support tumor progression and malignancy. It has been demonstrated that tumor cells can educate the immune system to promote a tumor-friendly environment. Among all these immune cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are well represented and their presence in mouse models has been shown to promote tumor progression and metastasis. These effects are through the stimulation of angiogenesis, enhancement of tumor cell invasion and intravasation, immunosuppression, and at the metastatic site tumor cell extravasation and growth. However, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Furthermore there is limited information on TAMs derived from human cancers. For this reason it is important to be able to extract TAMs from tumors in order to compare their phenotypes, functions, and transcriptomes with normal resident tissue macrophages. Isolation of these cells is challenging due to the lack of markers and standardized protocols. Here we show an optimized protocol for the efficient isolation and extraction of resident macrophages and TAMs from human and mouse tissues by using multicolor flow cytometry. These protocols allow for the extraction of thousands of macrophages in less than 5 h from tissues as small as half a gram. The isolated macrophages can then be used for both "omics" and in vitro studies. PMID:27325269

  18. Principles of regulatory information conservation between mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yong; Ma, Zhihai; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Wu, Weisheng; Cayting, Philip; Boyle, Alan P; Sundaram, Vasavi; Xing, Xiaoyun; Dogan, Nergiz; Li, Jingjing; Euskirchen, Ghia; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Visel, Axel; Kawli, Trupti; Yang, Xinqiong; Patacsil, Dorrelyn; Keller, Cheryl A; Giardine, Belinda; Kundaje, Anshul; Wang, Ting; Pennacchio, Len A; Weng, Zhiping; Hardison, Ross C; Snyder, Michael P

    2014-11-20

    To broaden our understanding of the evolution of gene regulation mechanisms, we generated occupancy profiles for 34 orthologous transcription factors (TFs) in human-mouse erythroid progenitor, lymphoblast and embryonic stem-cell lines. By combining the genome-wide transcription factor occupancy repertoires, associated epigenetic signals, and co-association patterns, here we deduce several evolutionary principles of gene regulatory features operating since the mouse and human lineages diverged. The genomic distribution profiles, primary binding motifs, chromatin states, and DNA methylation preferences are well conserved for TF-occupied sequences. However, the extent to which orthologous DNA segments are bound by orthologous TFs varies both among TFs and with genomic location: binding at promoters is more highly conserved than binding at distal elements. Notably, occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences tend to be pleiotropic; they function in several tissues and also co-associate with many TFs. Single nucleotide variants at sites with potential regulatory functions are enriched in occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences. PMID:25409826

  19. System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.

  20. Update of the human and mouse SERPIN gene superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The serpin family comprises a structurally similar, yet functionally diverse, set of proteins. Named originally for their function as serine proteinase inhibitors, many of its members are not inhibitors but rather chaperones, involved in storage, transport, and other roles. Serpins are found in genomes of all kingdoms, with 36 human protein-coding genes and five pseudogenes. The mouse has 60 Serpin functional genes, many of which are orthologous to human SERPIN genes and some of which have expanded into multiple paralogous genes. Serpins are found in tissues throughout the body; whereas most are extracellular, there is a class of intracellular serpins. Serpins appear to have roles in inflammation, immune function, tumorigenesis, blood clotting, dementia, and cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these proteins will likely reveal potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for disease. PMID:24172014

  1. Update of the human and mouse SERPIN gene superfamily.

    PubMed

    Heit, Claire; Jackson, Brian C; McAndrews, Monica; Wright, Mathew W; Thompson, David C; Silverman, Gary A; Nebert, Daniel W; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    The serpin family comprises a structurally similar, yet functionally diverse, set of proteins. Named originally for their function as serine proteinase inhibitors, many of its members are not inhibitors but rather chaperones, involved in storage, transport, and other roles. Serpins are found in genomes of all kingdoms, with 36 human protein-coding genes and five pseudogenes. The mouse has 60 Serpin functional genes, many of which are orthologous to human SERPIN genes and some of which have expanded into multiple paralogous genes. Serpins are found in tissues throughout the body; whereas most are extracellular, there is a class of intracellular serpins. Serpins appear to have roles in inflammation, immune function, tumorigenesis, blood clotting, dementia, and cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these proteins will likely reveal potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for disease. PMID:24172014

  2. Fibrin activates GPVI in human and mouse platelets.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Osama M; Hughes, Craig E; Montague, Samantha; Watson, Stephanie K; Frampton, Jon; Bender, Markus; Watson, Steve P

    2015-09-24

    The glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-Fc receptor γ (FcRγ) chain is the major platelet signaling receptor for collagen. Paradoxically, in a FeCl3 injury model, occlusion, but not initiation of thrombus formation, is delayed in GPVI-deficient and GPVI-depleted mice. In this study, we demonstrate that GPVI is a receptor for fibrin and speculate that this contributes to development of an occlusive thrombus. We observed a marked increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, including the FcRγ chain and Syk, in human and mouse platelets induced by thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen and the αIIbβ3 blocker eptifibatide. This was not seen in platelets stimulated by a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide, which is unable to generate fibrin from fibrinogen. The pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation was similar to that induced by activation of GPVI. Consistent with this, thrombin did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and the FcRγ chain in GPVI-deficient mouse platelets. Mouse platelets underwent full spreading on fibrin but not fibrinogen, which was blocked in the presence of a Src kinase inhibitor or in the absence of GPVI. Spreading on fibrin was associated with phosphatidylserine exposure (procoagulant activity), and this too was blocked in GPVI-deficient platelets. The ectodomain of GPVI was shown to bind to immobilized monomeric and polymerized fibrin. A marked increase in embolization was seen following FeCl3 injury in GPVI-deficient mice, likely contributing to the delay in occlusion in this model. These results demonstrate that GPVI is a receptor for fibrin and provide evidence that this interaction contributes to thrombus growth and stability. PMID:26282541

  3. Fibrin activates GPVI in human and mouse platelets

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, Osama M.; Montague, Samantha; Watson, Stephanie K.; Frampton, Jon; Bender, Markus; Watson, Steve P.

    2015-01-01

    The glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-Fc receptor γ (FcRγ) chain is the major platelet signaling receptor for collagen. Paradoxically, in a FeCl3 injury model, occlusion, but not initiation of thrombus formation, is delayed in GPVI-deficient and GPVI-depleted mice. In this study, we demonstrate that GPVI is a receptor for fibrin and speculate that this contributes to development of an occlusive thrombus. We observed a marked increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, including the FcRγ chain and Syk, in human and mouse platelets induced by thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen and the αIIbβ3 blocker eptifibatide. This was not seen in platelets stimulated by a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide, which is unable to generate fibrin from fibrinogen. The pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation was similar to that induced by activation of GPVI. Consistent with this, thrombin did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and the FcRγ chain in GPVI-deficient mouse platelets. Mouse platelets underwent full spreading on fibrin but not fibrinogen, which was blocked in the presence of a Src kinase inhibitor or in the absence of GPVI. Spreading on fibrin was associated with phosphatidylserine exposure (procoagulant activity), and this too was blocked in GPVI-deficient platelets. The ectodomain of GPVI was shown to bind to immobilized monomeric and polymerized fibrin. A marked increase in embolization was seen following FeCl3 injury in GPVI-deficient mice, likely contributing to the delay in occlusion in this model. These results demonstrate that GPVI is a receptor for fibrin and provide evidence that this interaction contributes to thrombus growth and stability. PMID:26282541

  4. ALIGNING MOUSE MODELS OF ASTHMA TO HUMAN ENDOTYPES OF DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rebecca A; Hodgkins, Samantha R; Dixon, Anne E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2014-01-01

    Substantial gains in understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying asthma have been made using preclinical mouse models. However, because asthma is a complex, heterogeneous syndrome that is rarely due to a single allergen and that often presents in the absence of atopy, few of the promising therapeutics that demonstrated effectiveness in mouse models have translated into new treatments for patients. This has resulted in an urgent need to characterize Th2-low, noneosinophilic subsets of asthma, to study models that are resistant to conventional treatments such as corticosteroids, and to develop therapies targeting patients with severe disease. Classifying asthma based on underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, known as endotyping, offers a stratified approach for the development of new therapies for asthma. In preclinical research, new models of asthma are being utilized that more closely resemble the clinical features of different asthma endotypes, including the presence of IL-17 and a Th17 response, a biomarker of severe disease. These models utilize more physiologically relevant sensitizing agents, exacerbating factors, and allergens, as well as incorporate time points that better reflect the natural history and chronicity of clinical asthma. Importantly, some models better represent nonclassical asthma endotypes that facilitate the study of non-Th2 driven pathology and resemble the complex nature of clinical asthma, including corticosteroid resistance. Placing mouse asthma models into the context of human asthma endotypes will afford a more relevant approach to the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of disease that will afford the development of new therapies for those asthmatics that remain difficult to treat. PMID:24811131

  5. A Comparison of Some Organizational Characteristics of the Mouse Central Retina and the Human Macula

    PubMed Central

    Hoo, Juyea; Yee, Claudine; Williams, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly assisted our understanding of retinal degenerations. However, the mouse retina does not have a macula, leading to the question of whether the mouse is a relevant model for macular degeneration. In the present study, a quantitative comparison between the organization of the central mouse retina and the human macula was made, focusing on some structural characteristics that have been suggested to be important in predisposing the macula to stresses leading to degeneration: photoreceptor density, phagocytic load on the RPE, and the relative thinness of Bruch’s membrane. Light and electron microscopy measurements from retinas of two strains of mice, together with published data on human retinas, were used for calculations and subsequent comparisons. As in the human retina, the central region of the mouse retina possesses a higher photoreceptor cell density and a thinner Bruch’s membrane than in the periphery; however, the magnitudes of these periphery to center gradients are larger in the human. Of potentially greater relevance is the actual photoreceptor cell density, which is much greater in the mouse central retina than in the human macula, underlying a higher phagocytic load for the mouse RPE. Moreover, at eccentricities that correspond to the peripheral half of the human macula, the rod to cone ratio is similar between mouse and human. Hence, with respect to photoreceptor density and phagocytic load of the RPE, the central mouse retina models at least the more peripheral part of the macula, where macular degeneration is often first evident. PMID:25923208

  6. Altered glucose metabolism in mouse and humans conceived by IVF.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miaoxin; Wu, Linda; Zhao, Junli; Wu, Fang; Davies, Michael J; Wittert, Gary A; Norman, Robert J; Robker, Rebecca L; Heilbronn, Leonie K

    2014-10-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) may influence the metabolic health of children. However, in humans, it is difficult to separate out the relative contributions of genetics, environment, or the process of IVF, which includes ovarian stimulation (OS) and embryo culture. Therefore, we examined glucose metabolism in young adult humans and in adult male C57BL/6J mice conceived by IVF versus natural birth under energy-balanced and high-fat-overfeeding conditions. In humans, peripheral insulin sensitivity, as assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (80 mU/m(2)/min), was lower in IVF patients (n = 14) versus control subjects (n = 20) after 3 days of an energy-balanced diet (30% fat). In response to 3 days of overfeeding (+1,250 kcal/day, 45% fat), there was a greater increase in systolic blood pressure in IVF versus controls (P = 0.02). Mice conceived after either OS alone or IVF weighed significantly less at birth versus controls (P < 0.01). However, only mice conceived by IVF displayed increased fasting glucose levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the liver after 8 weeks of consuming either a chow or high-fat diet (60% fat). Thus, OS impaired fetal growth in the mouse, but only embryo culture resulted in changes in glucose metabolism that may increase the risk of the development of metabolic diseases later in life, in both mice and humans. PMID:24760136

  7. Principles of regulatory information conservation between mouse and human

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheng, Yong; Ma, Zhihai; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Wu, Weisheng; Cayting, Philip; Boyle, Alan P.; Sundaram, Vasavi; Xing, Xiaoyun; Dogan, Nergiz; Li, Jingjing; et al

    2014-11-19

    To broaden our understanding of the evolution of gene regulation mechanisms, we generated occupancy profiles for 34 orthologous transcription factors (TFs) in human–mouse erythroid progenitor, lymphoblast and embryonic stem-cell lines. By combining the genome-wide transcription factor occupancy repertoires, associated epigenetic signals, and co-association patterns, here we deduce several evolutionary principles of gene regulatory features operating since the mouse and human lineages diverged. The genomic distribution profiles, primary binding motifs, chromatin states, and DNA methylation preferences are well conserved for TF-occupied sequences. However, the extent to which orthologous DNA segments are bound by orthologous TFs varies both among TFs and withmore » genomic location: binding at promoters is more highly conserved than binding at distal elements. Notably, occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences tend to be pleiotropic; they function in several tissues and also co-associate with many TFs. Lastly, single nucleotide variants at sites with potential regulatory functions are enriched in occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences.« less

  8. COMPARISON OF SOLUBLE HUMAN AND MOUSE TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS*

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Dean L.; Nathenson, Stanley G.

    1969-01-01

    The molecular and chemical characteristics of membrane components bearing the major transplantation antigen systems in mouse (H-2) and man (HL-A) were compared and found to be strikingly similar. Kinetics of papain solubilization from cell membranes, gel filtration, and electrophoretic patterns of the alloantigenic components were found to be nearly identical. Comparable size heterogeneity of the solubilized materials was also demonstrated. Some differences in amino acid and carbohydrate content of the purified H-2 and HL-A alloantigenic materials were found. The general pattern of distribution of the amino acid residues, however, appears to be quite similar and indicate compositional relatedness in these materials. These physical and chemical similarities in the characteristics of molecules bearing the transplantation antigens are in accord with biologic studies indicating a comparable functional immunologic role for the mouse H-2 and human HL-A antigen systems. These studies support the view that the genes determining these major transplantation antigen systems may have evolved from a common precursor. Images PMID:5271759

  9. Principles of regulatory information conservation between mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yong; Ma, Zhihai; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Wu, Weisheng; Cayting, Philip; Boyle, Alan P.; Sundaram, Vasavi; Xing, Xiaoyun; Dogan, Nergiz; Li, Jingjing; Euskirchen, Ghia; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Visel, Axel; Kawli, Trupti; Yang, Xinqiong; Patacsil, Dorrelyn; Keller, Cheryl A.; Giardine, Belinda; Kundaje, Anshul; Wang, Ting; Pennacchio, Len A.; Weng, Zhiping; Hardison, Ross C.; Snyder, Michael P.

    2014-11-19

    To broaden our understanding of the evolution of gene regulation mechanisms, we generated occupancy profiles for 34 orthologous transcription factors (TFs) in human–mouse erythroid progenitor, lymphoblast and embryonic stem-cell lines. By combining the genome-wide transcription factor occupancy repertoires, associated epigenetic signals, and co-association patterns, here we deduce several evolutionary principles of gene regulatory features operating since the mouse and human lineages diverged. The genomic distribution profiles, primary binding motifs, chromatin states, and DNA methylation preferences are well conserved for TF-occupied sequences. However, the extent to which orthologous DNA segments are bound by orthologous TFs varies both among TFs and with genomic location: binding at promoters is more highly conserved than binding at distal elements. Notably, occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences tend to be pleiotropic; they function in several tissues and also co-associate with many TFs. Lastly, single nucleotide variants at sites with potential regulatory functions are enriched in occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences.

  10. TGN1412 Induces Lymphopenia and Human Cytokine Release in a Humanized Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Weißmüller, Sabrina; Kronhart, Stefanie; Kreuz, Dorothea; Schnierle, Barbara; Kalinke, Ulrich; Kirberg, Jörg; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Waibler, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as the superagonistic, CD28-specific antibody TGN1412, or OKT3, an anti-CD3 mAb, can cause severe adverse events including cytokine release syndrome. A predictive model for mAb-mediated adverse effects, for which no previous knowledge on severe adverse events to be expected or on molecular mechanisms underlying is prerequisite, is not available yet. We used a humanized mouse model of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-reconstituted NOD-RAG1-/-Aβ-/-HLADQ(tg+ or tg-)IL-2Rγc-/- mice to evaluate its predictive value for preclinical testing of mAbs. 2–6 hours after TGN1412 treatment, mice showed a loss of human CD45+ cells from the peripheral blood and loss of only human T cells after OKT3 injection, reminiscent of effects observed in mAb-treated humans. Moreover, upon OKT3 injection we detected selective CD3 downmodulation on T cells, a typical effect of OKT3. Importantly, we detected release of human cytokines in humanized mice upon both OKT3 and TGN1412 application. Finally, humanized mice showed severe signs of illness, a rapid drop of body temperature, and succumbed to antibody application 2–6 hours after administration. Hence, the humanized mouse model used here reproduces several effects and adverse events induced in humans upon application of the therapeutic mAbs OKT3 and TGN1412. PMID:26959227

  11. TGN1412 Induces Lymphopenia and Human Cytokine Release in a Humanized Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Weißmüller, Sabrina; Kronhart, Stefanie; Kreuz, Dorothea; Schnierle, Barbara; Kalinke, Ulrich; Kirberg, Jörg; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Waibler, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as the superagonistic, CD28-specific antibody TGN1412, or OKT3, an anti-CD3 mAb, can cause severe adverse events including cytokine release syndrome. A predictive model for mAb-mediated adverse effects, for which no previous knowledge on severe adverse events to be expected or on molecular mechanisms underlying is prerequisite, is not available yet. We used a humanized mouse model of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-reconstituted NOD-RAG1-/-Aβ-/-HLADQ(tg+ or tg-)IL-2Rγc-/- mice to evaluate its predictive value for preclinical testing of mAbs. 2-6 hours after TGN1412 treatment, mice showed a loss of human CD45+ cells from the peripheral blood and loss of only human T cells after OKT3 injection, reminiscent of effects observed in mAb-treated humans. Moreover, upon OKT3 injection we detected selective CD3 downmodulation on T cells, a typical effect of OKT3. Importantly, we detected release of human cytokines in humanized mice upon both OKT3 and TGN1412 application. Finally, humanized mice showed severe signs of illness, a rapid drop of body temperature, and succumbed to antibody application 2-6 hours after administration. Hence, the humanized mouse model used here reproduces several effects and adverse events induced in humans upon application of the therapeutic mAbs OKT3 and TGN1412. PMID:26959227

  12. USE OF A HUMAN/MOUSE HYBRID CELL LINE TO DETECT ANEUPLOIDY INDUCED BY ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A short-term assay utilizing a human/mouse monochromosomal hybrid cell line R3-5, to detect chemically induced aneuploidy in mammalian cells is described. A single human chromosome transferred into mouse cells was used as a cytogenetic marker to quantitate abnormal chromosome seg...

  13. Tissue factor expression during human and mouse development.

    PubMed Central

    Luther, T.; Flössel, C.; Mackman, N.; Bierhaus, A.; Kasper, M.; Albrecht, S.; Sage, E. H.; Iruela-Arispe, L.; Grossmann, H.; Ströhlein, A.; Zhang, Y.; Nawroth, P. P.; Carmeliet, P.; Loskutoff, D. J.; Müller, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the adult organism the cellular distribution of tissue factor (TF) expression corresponds to biological boundary layers forming a hemostatic barrier ready to activate blood coagulation after tissue injury. Whether TF expression might also play a role in development is unknown. To determine the significance of TF in ontogenesis, we examined the pattern of TF expression in mouse development and compared it with the distribution of TF in human post-implantation embryos and fetuses of corresponding gestational age. At early embryonic periods of murine (6.5 and 7.5 pc) and human (stage 5) development, there was strong expression of TF in both ectodermal and entodermal cells. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that TF mRNA and protein were expressed widely in epithelial areas with high levels of morphogenic activity during organogenesis. Staining for TF was seen during ontogenetic development in tissues such as epidermis, myocardium, bronchial epithelium, and hepatocytes, which express TF in the adult organism. Surprisingly, during renal development and in adults, expression of TF differed between humans and mice. In humans, maturing stage glomeruli were stained for TF whereas in mice, TF was absent from glomeruli but was present in the epithelia of tubular segments. In neuroepithelial cells, there was a substantial expression of TF. Moreover, there was robust TF expression in tissues such as skeletal muscle and pancreas, which do not express it in the adult. In contrast, expression of the physiological ligand for TF, factor VII, was not detectable during early stages of human embryogenesis using immunohistochemistry. The temporal and spatial pattern of TF expression during murine and human development supports the contention that TF serves as an important morphogenic factor during embryogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8686734

  14. A possible human homologue for the mouse mutant disorganisation.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, R M; Donnai, D

    1989-01-01

    The mouse mutant disorganisation (Ds) is a semidominant gene with variable penetrance in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes; 67% of heterozygotes have multiple defects and the rest have single defects. Fifty-three percent have cranioschisis and execephaly, 40% have hamartomas represented by papillae of variable size and shape protruding from the body, sometimes containing cartilage, and 33% have limb abnormalities. A child is presented with defects similar to those seen in mice heterozygous for Ds. He had shortening of the upper and lower segments of the right leg with a popliteal web and nine toes on the same side. A finger-like structure arose from the abdomen and one kidney was absent. The homology between this infant and Ds mice is discussed and published reports of human cases with similar abnormalities are reviewed. Images PMID:2664177

  15. Spectral karyotyping analysis of human and mouse chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; Barenboim-Stapleton, Linda; Difilippantonio, Michael J; Ried, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Classical banding methods provide basic information about the identities and structures of chromosomes on the basis of their unique banding patterns. Spectral karyotyping (SKY), and the related multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), are chromosome-specific multicolor FISH techniques that augment cytogenetic evaluations of malignant disease by providing additional information and improved characterization of aberrant chromosomes that contain DNA sequences not identifiable using conventional banding methods. SKY is based on cohybridization of combinatorially labeled chromosome-painting probes with unique fluorochrome signatures onto human or mouse metaphase chromosome preparations. Image acquisition and analysis use a specialized imaging system, combining Sagnac interferometer and CCD camera images to reconstruct spectral information at each pixel. Here we present a protocol for SKY analysis using commercially available SkyPaint probes, including procedures for metaphase chromosome preparation, slide pretreatment and probe hybridization and detection. SKY analysis requires approximately 6 d. PMID:17406576

  16. Single and Multiple Gene Manipulations in Mouse Models of Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Heather L; Stairs, Douglas B

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of human cancer play a critical role in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Advances continue to be made in modeling human disease in a mouse, though the relevance of a mouse model often relies on how closely it is able to mimic the histologic, molecular, and physiologic characteristics of the respective human cancer. A classic use of a genetically engineered mouse in studying cancer is through the overexpression or deletion of a gene. However, the manipulation of a single gene often falls short of mimicking all the characteristics of the carcinoma in humans; thus a multiple gene approach is needed. Here we review genetic mouse models of cancers and their abilities to recapitulate human carcinoma with single versus combinatorial approaches with genes commonly involved in cancer. PMID:26380553

  17. A Novel Orthotopic Mouse Model of Human Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nucera, Carmelo; Nehs, Matthew A.; Mekel, Michal; Zhang, Xuefeng; Hodin, Richard; Lawler, Jack; Nose, Vânia

    2009-01-01

    Background Orthotopic mouse models of human cancer represent an important in vivo tool for drug testing and validation. Most of the human thyroid carcinoma cell lines used in orthotopic or subcutaneous models are likely of melanoma and colon cancer. Here, we report and characterize a novel orthotopic model of human thyroid carcinoma using a unique thyroid cancer cell line. Methods We used the cell line 8505c, originated from a thyroid tumor histologically characterized by anaplastic carcinoma cell features. We injected 8505c cells engineered using a green fluorescent protein–positive lentiviral vector orthotopically into the thyroid of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Results Orthotopic implantation with the 8505c cells produced thyroid tumors after 5 weeks, showing large neck masses, with histopathologic features of a high-grade neoplasm (anaplasia, necrosis, high mitotic and proliferative indexes, p53 positivity, extrathyroidal invasion, lymph node and distant metastases) and immunoprofile of follicular thyroid cell origin with positivity for thyroid transcription factor-1 and PAX8, and for cytokeratins. Conclusions Here we describe a novel orthotopic thyroid carcinoma model using 8505c cells. This model can prove to be a reliable and useful tool to investigate in vivo biological mechanisms determining thyroid cancer aggressiveness, and to test novel therapeutics for the treatment of refractory or advanced thyroid cancers. PMID:19772429

  18. A Humanized Mouse Model for the Reduced Folate Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David; Graham, Christine; Cherian, Christina; Matherly, Larry H.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed reduced folate carrier (RFC) or SLC19A1 is recognized to be an essential transport system for folates in mammalian cells and tissues. In addition to its generalized role as a folate transporter, RFC provides specialized tissue functions including absorption across intestinal/colonic epithelia, transport across the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubules, transplacental transport of folates, and folate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The human RFC (hRFC) gene is regulated by 5 major upstream non-coding regions (designated A1/A2, A, B, C, and D), each transcribed from a unique promoter. Altogether, at least 14 distinct hRFC transcripts can be envisaged in which different 5’ untranslated regions (UTRs) are fused to a common splice acceptor region (positions -1 to -49) within the first coding exon with a common 1776 bp coding sequence. The 5’ non-coding regions are characterized by alternate transcription start sites, multiple splice forms, and selective tissue distributions. Alternate 5’UTRs impact mRNA stabilities and translation efficiencies, and result in synthesis of modified hRFC proteins translated from upstream AUGs. In this report, we describe production and characterization of transgenic mice (TghRFC1) containing a functional hRFC gene and of humanized mice in which the mRFC gene is inactivated and an active hRFC gene has been introduced. The mice appear to be healthy and to breed well. Analysis of tissue specificity of expression in both the TghRFC1 and humanized hRFC mice by real-time RT-PCR demonstrates that the hRFC gene is expressed with a specificity closely resembling that seen in human tissues. For the humanized hRFC mice, levels of B and A1/A2 5’UTRs predominated in all mice/tissues, thus resembling results in normal human tissues. Lower levels of A and C 5’UTRs were also detected. The availability of humanized mouse models for hRFC will permit investigators to address critical unanswered

  19. A humanized mouse model for the reduced folate carrier.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David; Graham, Christine; Cherian, Christina; Matherly, Larry H

    2008-02-01

    The ubiquitously expressed reduced folate carrier (RFC) or SLC19A1 is recognized to be an essential transport system for folates in mammalian cells and tissues. In addition to its generalized role as a folate transporter, RFC provides specialized tissue functions including absorption across intestinal/colonic epithelia, transport across the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubules, transplacental transport of folates, and folate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The human RFC (hRFC) gene is regulated by five major upstream non-coding regions (designated A1/A2, A, B, C, and D), each transcribed from a unique promoter. Altogether, at least 14 distinct hRFC transcripts can be envisaged in which different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) are fused to a common splice acceptor region (positions -1 to -49) within the first coding exon with a common 1776bp coding sequence. The 5' non-coding regions are characterized by alternate transcription start sites, multiple splice forms, and selective tissue distributions. Alternate 5' UTRs impact mRNA stabilities and translation efficiencies, and result in synthesis of modified hRFC proteins translated from upstream AUGs. In this report, we describe production and characterization of transgenic mice (TghRFC1) containing a functional hRFC gene and of humanized mice in which the mRFC gene is inactivated and an active hRFC gene has been introduced. The mice appear to be healthy and to breed well. Analysis of tissue specificity of expression in both the TghRFC1 and humanized hRFC mice by real-time RT-PCR demonstrates that the hRFC gene is expressed with a specificity closely resembling that seen in human tissues. For the humanized hRFC mice, levels of B and A1/A2 5' UTRs predominated in all mice/tissues, thus resembling results in normal human tissues. Lower levels of A and C 5' UTRs were also detected. The availability of humanized mouse models for hRFC will permit investigators to address critical unanswered questions

  20. Diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across hairless mouse skin and human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the absorption of diazepam applied topically to the hairless mouse in vivo and to determine the diffusion of diazepam across isolated hairless mouse skin and human skin. (/sup 14/C)Diazepam was readily absorbed after topical administration to the intact hairless mouse, a total of 75.8% of the /sup 14/C-label applied being recovered in urine and feces. Diazepam was found to diffuse across human and hairless mouse skin unchanged in experiments with twin-chambered diffusion cells. The variation in diffusion rate or the flux for both human and mouse tissues was greater among specimens than between duplicate or triplicate trials for a single specimen. Fluxes for mouse skin (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) were greater than for human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis): 0.35-0.61 microgram/cm2/h for mouse skin vs 0.24-0.42 microgram/cm2/h for human skin. The permeability coefficients for mouse skin ranged from 1.4-2.4 X 10(-2)cm/h compared with 0.8-1.4 X 10(-2)cm/h for human skin. Although human stratum corneum is almost twice the thickness of that of the hairless mouse, the diffusion coefficients for human skin were 3-12 times greater (0.76-3.31 X 10(-6) cm2/h for human skin vs 0.12-0.27 X 10(-6) cm2/h for hairless mouse) because of a shorter lag time for diffusion across human skin. These differences between the diffusion coefficients and diffusion rates (or permeability coefficients) suggest that the presence of the dermis may present some barrier properties. In vitro the dermis may require complete saturation before the diazepam can be detected in the receiving chamber.

  1. Aup1, a novel gene on mouse Chromosome 6 and human Chromosome 2p13

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Wonhee; Weber, J.S.; Meisler, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    We have cloned a novel mouse cDNA, Aup1, encoding a predicted protein of 410 amino acid residues. The 1.5-kb Aup1 transcript is ubiquitously expressed in mouse tissues. An evolutionary relationship to the Caenorhabditis elegans predicted protein F44b9.5 is indicated by the 35% identity and 53% conservation of the amino acid sequences. Nineteen related human ESTs spanning 80% of the protein have also been identified, with a predicted amino acid sequence identity of 86% between the human and the mouse proteins. The gene has been mapped to a conserved linkage group on human chromosome 2p13 and mouse Chromosome 6. Aup1 was eliminated as a candidate gene for two closely linked disorders, human LGMD2B and mouse mnd2. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Assignment of the lactotransferrin gene to human chromosome 3 and to mouse chromosome 9.

    PubMed

    Teng, C T; Pentecost, B T; Marshall, A; Solomon, A; Bowman, B H; Lalley, P A; Naylor, S L

    1987-11-01

    Lactotransferrin (LTF), a member of the transferrin family of genes, is the major iron-binding protein in milk and body secretions. The amino acid sequence of LTF consists of two homologous domains homologous to proteins in the transferrin family. Recent isolation of cDNA encoding mouse LTF has expedited the mapping of both mouse and human LTF genes. Southern blot analysis of DNA from mouse-Chinese hamster and human-mouse somatic cell hybrids maps the LTF gene to mouse chromosome 9 and to human chromosome 3, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of cell hybrids containing defined segments of human chromosome 3 demonstrates that the gene is located in the 3q21-qter region. These results suggest that LTF and associated genes of the transferrin family have existed together on the same chromosomal region for 300-500 million years. PMID:3478818

  3. All kinesin superfamily protein, KIF, genes in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Miki, H; Setou, M; Kaneshiro, K; Hirokawa, N

    2001-06-19

    Intracellular transport is essential for morphogenesis and functioning of the cell. The kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) have been shown to transport membranous organelles and protein complexes in a microtubule- and ATP-dependent manner. More than 30 KIFs have been reported in mice. However, the nomenclature of KIFs has not been clearly established, resulting in various designations and redundant names for a single KIF. Here, we report the identification and classification of all KIFs in mouse and human genome transcripts. Previously unidentified murine KIFs were found by a PCR-based search. The identification of all KIFs was confirmed by a database search of the total human genome. As a result, there are a total of 45 KIFs. The nomenclature of all KIFs is presented. To understand the function of KIFs in intracellular transport in a single tissue, we focused on the brain. The expression of 38 KIFs was detected in brain tissue by Northern blotting or PCR using cDNA. The brain, mainly composed of highly differentiated and polarized cells such as neurons and glia, requires a highly complex intracellular transport system as indicated by the increased number of KIFs for their sophisticated functions. It is becoming increasingly clear that the cell uses a number of KIFs and tightly controls the direction, destination, and velocity of transportation of various important functional molecules, including mRNA. This report will set the foundation of KIF and intracellular transport research. PMID:11416179

  4. Human Truncated Tau Induces Mature Neurofibrillary Pathology in a Mouse Model of Human Tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Zimova, Ivana; Brezovakova, Veronika; Hromadka, Tomas; Weisova, Petronela; Cubinkova, Veronika; Valachova, Bernadeta; Filipcik, Peter; Jadhav, Santosh; Smolek, Tomas; Novak, Michal; Zilka, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Several animal models have been developed in order to test pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and to predict effects of pharmacological interventions. Here we examine the molecular and behavioral features of R3m/4 transgenic mice expressing human non-mutated truncated tau protein (3R tau, aa151-391) that were previously used for efficacy testing of passive tau vaccine. The mouse model reliably recapitulated crucial histopathological features of human AD, such as pre-tangles, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuropil threads. The pathology was predominantly located in the brain stem. Transgenic mice developed mature sarkosyl insoluble tau complexes consisting of mouse endogenous and human truncated and hyperphosphorylated forms of tau protein. The histopathological and biochemical features were accompanied by significant sensorimotor impairment and reduced lifespan. The sensorimotor impairment was monitored by a highly sensitive, fully-automated tool that allowed us to assess early deficit in gait and locomotion. We suggest that the novel transgenic mouse model can serve as a valuable tool for analysis of the therapeutic efficacy of tau vaccines for AD therapy. PMID:27567836

  5. Human-mouse interspecies collagen I heterotrimer is functional during embryonic development of Mov13 mutant mouse embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H; Bateman, J F; Schnieke, A; Sharpe, A; Barker, D; Mascara, T; Eyre, D; Bruns, R; Krimpenfort, P; Berns, A

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether the human pro alpha 1(I) collagen chain could form an in vivo functional interspecies heterotrimer with the mouse pro alpha 2(I) collagen chain, we introduced the human COL1A1 gene into Mov13 mice which have a functional deletion of the endogenous COL1A1 gene. Transgenic mouse strains (HucI and HucII) carrying the human COL1A1 gene were first generated by microinjecting the COL1A1 gene into wild-type mouse embryos. Genetic evidence indicated that the transgene in the HucI strain was closely linked to the endogenous mouse COL1A1 gene and was X linked in the HucII transgenic strain. Northern (RNA) blot and S1 protection analyses showed that the transgene was expressed in the appropriate tissue-specific manner and as efficiently as the endogenous COL1A1 gene. HucII mice were crossed with Mov13 mice to transfer the human transgene into the mutant strain. Whereas homozygous Mov13 embryos die between days 13 and 14 of gestation, the presence of the transgene permitted apparently normal development of the mutant embryos to birth. This indicated that the mouse-human interspecies collagen I heterotrimer was functional in the animal. The rescue was, however, only partial, as all homozygotes died within 36 h after delivery, with signs of internal bleeding. This could have been due to a functional defect in the interspecies hybrid collagen. Extensive analysis failed to reveal any biochemical or morphological abnormalities of the collagen I molecules in Mov13-HucII embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1690840

  6. Do Intron and Coding Sequences of Some Human-Mouse Orthologs Evolve as a Single Unit?

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel Angel; Rodrigo, José Ramón; Alonso, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    It has been previously suggested that both the coding and the associated non-coding sequences of some human-mouse orthologs could evolve as a single unit. This letter deals with the observation that between mouse and humans some orthologs change significantly their compositional features as an indication that the molecular evolution is a local process. Moreover, the data shown indicate that the coding and the intron sequences of these orthologs do not evolve independently but instead both undergo a concerted evolution, evolving as a single unit, from a compositional cluster in mouse to a different compositional cluster in human. PMID:27220874

  7. Chemically-induced mouse lung tumors: applications to human health assessments [Poster 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    A state-of-the-science workshop on chemically-induced mouse lung tumors was conducted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to discuss issues related to the use of mouse lung tumor data in human health assessments. Naphthalene, styrene, and ethylbenzene were chosen for the anal...

  8. Chemically-induced Mouse Lung Tumors: Applications to Human Health Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    A state-of-the-science workshop on chemically-induced mouse lung tumors was conducted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to better understand the mouse lung tumor data’s role in human health assessments. Three environmental chemicals - naphthalene, styrene, and ethylbe...

  9. Characterisation of CDKL5 Transcript Isoforms in Human and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Owen; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Kind, Peter C.; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Cobb, Stuart R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like 5 gene (CDKL5) cause early onset infantile spasms and subsequent severe developmental delay in affected children. Deleterious mutations have been reported to occur throughout the CDKL5 coding region. Several studies point to a complex CDKL5 gene structure in terms of exon usage and transcript expression. Improvements in molecular diagnosis and more extensive research into the neurobiology of CDKL5 and pathophysiology of CDKL5 disorders necessitate an updated analysis of the gene. In this study, we have analysed human and mouse CDKL5 transcript patterns both bioinformatically and experimentally. We have characterised the predominant brain isoform of CDKL5, a 9.7 kb transcript comprised of 18 exons with a large 6.6 kb 3’-untranslated region (UTR), which we name hCDKL5_1. In addition we describe new exonic regions and a range of novel splice and UTR isoforms. This has enabled the description of an updated gene model in both species and a standardised nomenclature system for CDKL5 transcripts. Profiling revealed tissue- and brain development stage-specific differences in expression between transcript isoforms. These findings provide an essential backdrop for the diagnosis of CDKL5-related disorders, for investigations into the basic biology of this gene and its protein products, and for the rational design of gene-based and molecular therapies for these disorders. PMID:27315173

  10. Characterisation of CDKL5 Transcript Isoforms in Human and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hector, Ralph D; Dando, Owen; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Kind, Peter C; Bailey, Mark E S; Cobb, Stuart R

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like 5 gene (CDKL5) cause early onset infantile spasms and subsequent severe developmental delay in affected children. Deleterious mutations have been reported to occur throughout the CDKL5 coding region. Several studies point to a complex CDKL5 gene structure in terms of exon usage and transcript expression. Improvements in molecular diagnosis and more extensive research into the neurobiology of CDKL5 and pathophysiology of CDKL5 disorders necessitate an updated analysis of the gene. In this study, we have analysed human and mouse CDKL5 transcript patterns both bioinformatically and experimentally. We have characterised the predominant brain isoform of CDKL5, a 9.7 kb transcript comprised of 18 exons with a large 6.6 kb 3'-untranslated region (UTR), which we name hCDKL5_1. In addition we describe new exonic regions and a range of novel splice and UTR isoforms. This has enabled the description of an updated gene model in both species and a standardised nomenclature system for CDKL5 transcripts. Profiling revealed tissue- and brain development stage-specific differences in expression between transcript isoforms. These findings provide an essential backdrop for the diagnosis of CDKL5-related disorders, for investigations into the basic biology of this gene and its protein products, and for the rational design of gene-based and molecular therapies for these disorders. PMID:27315173

  11. The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic homology on human chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, M.A.; Arriza, J.L.; Amara, S.G.

    1994-08-01

    The gene for human excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT1) was localized to the distal region of human chromosome 5p13 by in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosome spreads. Interspecific backcross analysis identified the mouse Eaat1 locus in a region of 5p13 homology on mouse chromosome 15. Markers that are linked with EAAT1 on both human and mouse chromosomes include the receptors for leukemia inhibitory factor, interleukin-7, and prolactin. The Eaat1 locus appears not be linked to the epilepsy mutant stg locus, which is also on chromosome 15. The EAAT1 locus is located in a region of 5p deletions that have been associated with mental retardation and microcephaly. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  12. The effects of human skin fibroblast monolayers on human sperm motility and mouse zygote development.

    PubMed

    Wetzels, A M; Punt-Van der Zalm, A P; Bastiaans, B A; Janssen, B A; Goverde, H J; Rolland, R

    1992-07-01

    A new system for co-culture in human in-vitro fertilization (IVF), using human skin fibroblasts, is described and tested pre-clinically. The first test involved the development of 1-cell mouse embryos which exhibit the 2-cell developmental block in vitro. Passage through this block (pb1-ratio) was determined by the ratio of compacted morula stages on day 4 of incubation. For nine human skin cell lines tested (fetal, neonatal and adult), the pb1-ratio was approximately 0.45 (0.07 in culture medium alone; P less than 0.0005). At the compacted morula stage, a second developmental block was observed. The ratio of passing this block (pb2-ratio) was 0.70 +/- 0.09 on skin fibroblasts obtained from fetal or neonatal tissue. On fibroblasts from adult patients the pb2-ratio was 0.30 +/- 0.04 (P less than 0.0005). The second test examined the influence of skin fibroblasts from fetal or neonatal tissue on human sperm motility. After 24 h of incubation, all skin cell lines had a positive influence (P less than 0.01) on the percentage motility compared to culture medium alone. The curvilinear velocity was not significantly increased. From the results we conclude that (i) human skin fibroblasts (especially from fetal tissue) have a positive influence on the development of mouse embryos in vitro, (ii) there is a positive influence of human skin fibroblasts on the percentage motility of human spermatozoa, and (iii) a clinical trial of co-culture with human skin fibroblasts can be justified. PMID:1500485

  13. Epidermal surface antigen (MS17S1) is highly conserved between mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y J; Chema, D; Moskow, J J; Cho, M; Schroeder, W T; Overbeek, P; Buchberg, A M; Duvic, M

    1995-05-20

    A mouse monoclonal antibody ECS-1 raised to human keratinocytes detects a 35-kDa epidermal surface antigen (ESA) and causes keratinocyte dissociation in vitro. ECS-1 stains skin of 16-day mouse embryo and 8- to 9-week human fetus. Mouse Esa cDNA encodes a 379-amino-acid protein that is 99.2% identical to the human, differing at only 3 amino acids. The gene (M17S1) was mapped to mouse chromosome 11, high-lighting the conserved linkage synteny existing between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11. Although the nude locus has been mapped to the same region of chromosome 11, no abnormalities in protein, mRNA, or cDNA or genomic sequences were detected in nude mice. However, both nude and control mice were found to have a second Esa mRNA transcript that conserves amino acid sequence and molecular weight. The mouse and human 5' and 3' untranslated sequences are conserved. Similar RNA folding patterns of the 5' untranslated region are predicted despite a 91-bp insertion in the mouse. These data suggest that both the function and the regulation of ESA protein are of importance and that Esa (M17S1) is not the nude locus gene. PMID:7557989

  14. Epidermal surface antigen (MS17S1) is highly conserved between mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.J.; Chema, D.; Cho, M.

    1995-05-20

    A mouse monoclonal antibody ECS-1 raised to human keratinocytes detects a 35-kDa epidermal surface antigen (ESA) and causes keratinocyte dissociation in vitro. ECS-1 stains skin of 16-day mouse embryo and 8- to 9-week human fetus. Mouse Esa cDNA encodes a 379-amino-acid protein that is 99.2% identical to the human, differing at only 3 amino acids. The gene (M17S1) was mapped to mouse chromosome 11, highlighting the conserved linkage synteny existing between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11. Although the nude locus has been mapped to the same region of chromosome 11, no abnormalities in protein, mRNA, or cDNA or genomic sequences were detected in nude mice. However, both nude and control mice were found to have a second Esa mRNA transcript that conserves amino acid sequence and molecular weight. The mouse and human 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated sequences are conserved. Similar RNA folding patterns of the 5{prime} untranslated region are predicted despite a 91-bp insertion in the mouse. These data suggest that both the function and the regulation of ESA protein are of importance and that Esa (M17S1) is not the nude locus gene. 42 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Assignment of the Gene for Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase to Human Chromosome 16 by Mouse-Human Somatic Cell Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Tischfield, Jay A.; Ruddle, Frank H.

    1974-01-01

    A series of mouse-human hybrids was prepared from mouse cells deficient in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.7) and normal human cells. The hybrids were made in medium containing adenine and alanosine, an antimetabolite known to inhibit de novo adenylic acid biosynthesis. The mouse cells, unable to utilize exogenous adenine, were killed in this medium, but the hybrids proliferated as a consequence of their retaining the human aprt gene. The hybrids were then exposed to the adenine analogs 2,6-diaminopurine and 2-fluoroadenine to select for cells that had lost this gene. Before exposure to the adenine analogs, the expression of human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase by the hybrids was strongly associated only with the presence of human chromosome 16, and afterwards this was the only human chromosome consistently lost. This observation suggests that the human aprt gene can be assigned to chromosome 16. Images PMID:4129802

  16. Comparative analysis of human and mouse transcriptomes of Th17 cell priming

    PubMed Central

    Tuomela, Soile; Rautio, Sini; Ahlfors, Helena; Öling, Viveka; Salo, Verna; Ullah, Ubaid; Chen, Zhi; Hämälistö, Saara; Tripathi, Subhash K.; Äijö, Tarmo; Rasool, Omid; Soueidan, Hayssam; Wessels, Lodewyk; Stockinger, Brigitta; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled Th17 cell activity is associated with cancer and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. To validate the potential relevance of mouse models of targeting the Th17 pathway in human diseases we used RNA sequencing to compare the expression of coding and non-coding transcripts during the priming of Th17 cell differentiation in both human and mouse. In addition to already known targets, several transcripts not previously linked to Th17 cell polarization were found in both species. Moreover, a considerable number of human-specific long non-coding RNAs were identified that responded to cytokines stimulating Th17 cell differentiation. We integrated our transcriptomics data with known disease-associated polymorphisms and show that conserved regulation pinpoints genes that are relevant to Th17 cell-mediated human diseases and that can be modelled in mouse. Substantial differences observed in non-coding transcriptomes between the two species as well as increased overlap between Th17 cell-specific gene expression and disease-associated polymorphisms underline the need of parallel analysis of human and mouse models. Comprehensive analysis of genes regulated during Th17 cell priming and their classification to conserved and non-conserved between human and mouse facilitates translational research, pointing out which candidate targets identified in human are worth studying by using in vivo mouse models. PMID:26967054

  17. Comparative analysis of human and mouse transcriptomes of Th17 cell priming.

    PubMed

    Tuomela, Soile; Rautio, Sini; Ahlfors, Helena; Öling, Viveka; Salo, Verna; Ullah, Ubaid; Chen, Zhi; Hämälistö, Saara; Tripathi, Subhash K; Äijö, Tarmo; Rasool, Omid; Soueidan, Hayssam; Wessels, Lodewyk; Stockinger, Brigitta; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2016-03-22

    Uncontrolled Th17 cell activity is associated with cancer and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. To validate the potential relevance of mouse models of targeting the Th17 pathway in human diseases we used RNA sequencing to compare the expression of coding and non-coding transcripts during the priming of Th17 cell differentiation in both human and mouse. In addition to already known targets, several transcripts not previously linked to Th17 cell polarization were found in both species. Moreover, a considerable number of human-specific long non-coding RNAs were identified that responded to cytokines stimulating Th17 cell differentiation. We integrated our transcriptomics data with known disease-associated polymorphisms and show that conserved regulation pinpoints genes that are relevant to Th17 cell-mediated human diseases and that can be modelled in mouse. Substantial differences observed in non-coding transcriptomes between the two species as well as increased overlap between Th17 cell-specific gene expression and disease-associated polymorphisms underline the need of parallel analysis of human and mouse models. Comprehensive analysis of genes regulated during Th17 cell priming and their classification to conserved and non-conserved between human and mouse facilitates translational research, pointing out which candidate targets identified in human are worth studying by using in vivo mouse models. PMID:26967054

  18. Using the mouse to model human disease: increasing validity and reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Monica J.; Dhillon, Paraminder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Experiments that use the mouse as a model for disease have recently come under scrutiny because of the repeated failure of data, particularly derived from preclinical studies, to be replicated or translated to humans. The usefulness of mouse models has been questioned because of irreproducibility and poor recapitulation of human conditions. Newer studies, however, point to bias in reporting results and improper data analysis as key factors that limit reproducibility and validity of preclinical mouse research. Inaccurate and incomplete descriptions of experimental conditions also contribute. Here, we provide guidance on best practice in mouse experimentation, focusing on appropriate selection and validation of the model, sources of variation and their influence on phenotypic outcomes, minimum requirements for control sets, and the importance of rigorous statistics. Our goal is to raise the standards in mouse disease modeling to enhance reproducibility, reliability and clinical translation of findings. PMID:26839397

  19. Human saliva as route of inter-human infection for mouse mammary tumor virus.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; Lessi, Francesca; Armogida, Ivana; Zavaglia, Katia; Franceschi, Sara; Al Hamad, Mohammad; Roncella, Manuela; Ghilli, Matteo; Boldrini, Antonio; Aretini, Paolo; Fanelli, Giovanni; Marchetti, Ivo; Scatena, Cristian; Hochman, Jacob; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Generoso

    2015-07-30

    Etiology of human breast cancer is unknown, whereas the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) is recognized as the etiologic agent of mouse mammary carcinoma. Moreover, this experimental model contributed substantially to our understanding of many biological aspects of the human disease. Several data strongly suggest a causative role of MMTV in humans, such as the presence of viral sequences in a high percentage of infiltrating breast carcinoma and in its preinvasive lesions, the production of viral particles in primary cultures of breast cancer, the ability of the virus to infect cells in culture. This paper demonstrates that MMTV is present in human saliva and salivary glands. MMTV presence was investigated by fluorescent PCR, RT-PCR, FISH, immunohistochemistry, and whole transcriptome analysis. Saliva was obtained from newborns, children, adults, and breast cancer patients. The saliva of newborns is MMTV-free, whereas MMTV is present in saliva of children (26.66%), healthy adults (10.60%), and breast cancer patients (57.14% as DNA and 33.9% as RNA). MMTV is also present in 8.10% of salivary glands. RNA-seq analysis performed on saliva of a breast cancer patient demonstrates a high expression of MMTV RNA in comparison to negative controls. The possibility of a contamination by murine DNA was excluded by murine mtDNA and IAP LTR PCR. These findings confirm the presence of MMTV in humans, strongly suggest saliva as route in inter-human infection, and support the hypothesis of a viral origin for human breast carcinoma. PMID:26214095

  20. Human saliva as route of inter-human infection for mouse mammary tumor virus

    PubMed Central

    Armogida, Ivana; Zavaglia, Katia; Franceschi, Sara; Al Hamad, Mohammad; Roncella, Manuela; Ghilli, Matteo; Boldrini, Antonio; Aretini, Paolo; Fanelli, Giovanni; Marchetti, Ivo; Scatena, Cristian; Hochman, Jacob; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Generoso

    2015-01-01

    Etiology of human breast cancer is unknown, whereas the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) is recognized as the etiologic agent of mouse mammary carcinoma. Moreover, this experimental model contributed substantially to our understanding of many biological aspects of the human disease. Several data strongly suggest a causative role of MMTV in humans, such as the presence of viral sequences in a high percentage of infiltrating breast carcinoma and in its preinvasive lesions, the production of viral particles in primary cultures of breast cancer, the ability of the virus to infect cells in culture. This paper demonstrates that MMTV is present in human saliva and salivary glands. MMTV presence was investigated by fluorescent PCR, RT-PCR, FISH, immunohistochemistry, and whole transcriptome analysis. Saliva was obtained from newborns, children, adults, and breast cancer patients. The saliva of newborns is MMTV-free, whereas MMTV is present in saliva of children (26.66%), healthy adults (10.60%), and breast cancer patients (57.14% as DNA and 33.9% as RNA). MMTV is also present in 8.10% of salivary glands. RNA-seq analysis performed on saliva of a breast cancer patient demonstrates a high expression of MMTV RNA in comparison to negative controls. The possibility of a contamination by murine DNA was excluded by murine mtDNA and IAP LTR PCR. These findings confirm the presence of MMTV in humans, strongly suggest saliva as route in inter-human infection, and support the hypothesis of a viral origin for human breast carcinoma. PMID:26214095

  1. Global expression profiling reveals genetic programs underlying the developmental divergence between mouse and human embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mouse has served as an excellent model for studying human development and diseases due to its similarity to human. Advances in transgenic and knockout studies in mouse have dramatically strengthened the use of this model and significantly improved our understanding of gene function during development in the past few decades. More recently, global gene expression analyses have revealed novel features in early embryogenesis up to gastrulation stages and have indeed provided molecular evidence supporting the conservation in early development in human and mouse. On the other hand, little information is known about the gene regulatory networks governing the subsequent organogenesis. Importantly, mouse and human development diverges during organogenesis. For instance, the mouse embryo is born around the end of organogenesis while in human the subsequent fetal period of ongoing growth and maturation of most organs spans more than 2/3 of human embryogenesis. While two recent studies reported the gene expression profiles during human organogenesis, no global gene expression analysis had been done for mouse organogenesis. Results Here we report a detailed analysis of the global gene expression profiles from egg to the end of organogenesis in mouse. Our studies have revealed distinct temporal regulation patterns for genes belonging to different functional (Gene Ontology or GO) categories that support their roles during organogenesis. More importantly, comparative analyses identify both conserved and divergent gene regulation programs in mouse and human organogenesis, with the latter likely responsible for the developmental divergence between the two species, and further suggest a novel developmental strategy during vertebrate evolution. Conclusions We have reported here the first genome-wide gene expression analysis of the entire mouse embryogenesis and compared the transcriptome atlas during mouse and human embryogenesis. Given our earlier observation that genes

  2. Cloning the mouse homologue of the human lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.H.; Yang, B.Z.; Liu, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA). In an attempt to create a mouse model for Pompe disease, we isolated and characterized the gene encoding the mouse homologue of the human GAA. Twenty clones that extend from exon 2 to the poly(A) tail were isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library, but the remainder of the mRNA proved difficult to obtain by conventional cDNA library screening. Sequences spanning exons 1-2 were cloned by RACE from mouse liver RNA. The full-length liver GAA cDNA contains 3365 nucleotides with a coding region of 2859 nucleotides and a 394 base pair 3{prime}-nontranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse GAA shows 84% identity to the human GAA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the mouse GAA was encoded by a single copy gene. Then six bacteriophages containing DNA from the GAA gene were isolated by screening 10{sup 6} phage plaques of a mouse 129 genomic library using a mouse GAA cDNA as a probe. From one of these bacteriophages, an 11-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing exons 3 to 15 was subcloned and sequenced. Work is in progress using this genomic clone to disrupt the GAA gene in murine embryonic stem cells in order to create GSD II mice.

  3. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying Human Serum Albumin as a Biomarker of Carcinogenic Exposure.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jonathan; Wang, Yi; Turesky, Robert J; Kluetzman, Kerri; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Ding, Xinxin

    2016-05-16

    Albumin is a commonly used serum protein for studying human exposure to xenobiotic compounds, including therapeutics and environmental pollutants. Often, the reactivity of albumin with xenobiotic compounds is studied ex vivo with human albumin or plasma/serum samples. Some studies have characterized the reactivity of albumin with chemicals in rodent models; however, differences between the orthologous peptide sequences of human and rodent albumins can result in the formation of different types of chemical-protein adducts with different interaction sites or peptide sequences. Our goal is to generate a human albumin transgenic mouse model that can be used to establish human protein biomarkers of exposure to hazardous xenobiotics for human risk assessment via animal studies. We have developed a human albumin transgenic mouse model and characterized the genotype and phenotype of the transgenic mice. The presence of the human albumin gene in the genome of the model mouse was confirmed by genomic PCR analysis, whereas liver-specific expression of the transgenic human albumin mRNA was validated by RT-PCR analysis. Further immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the transgenic human albumin protein is a full-length, mature protein, which is less abundant than the endogenous mouse albumin that coexists in the serum of the transgenic mouse. The transgenic protein was able to form ex vivo adducts with a genotoxic metabolite of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a procarcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. This novel human albumin transgenic mouse model will facilitate the development and validation of albumin-carcinogen adducts as biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure and/or toxicity in humans. PMID:27028147

  4. Thalidomide-induced limb abnormalities in a humanized CYP3A mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Akita, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Satoh, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Satoshi; Takehara, Shoko; Kazuki, Kanako; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogen in humans but not in rodents. It causes multiple birth defects including malformations of limbs, ears, and other organs. However, the species-specific mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not completely understood. Reproduction of the human teratogenicity of thalidomide in rodents has previously failed because of the lack of a model reflecting human drug metabolism. In addition, because the maternal metabolic effect cannot be eliminated, the migration of unchanged thalidomide to embryos is suppressed, and the metabolic activation is insufficient to develop teratogenicity. Previously, we generated transchromosomic mice containing a human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A cluster in which the endogenous mouse Cyp3a genes were deleted. Here, we determined whether human CYP3A or mouse Cyp3a enzyme expression was related to the species difference in a whole embryo culture system using humanized CYP3A mouse embryos. Thalidomide-treated embryos with the human CYP3A gene cluster showed limb abnormalities, and human CYP3A was expressed in the placenta, suggesting that human CYP3A in the placenta may contribute to the teratogenicity of thalidomide. These data suggest that the humanized CYP3A mouse is a useful model to predict embryonic toxicity in humans. PMID:26903378

  5. Thalidomide-induced limb abnormalities in a humanized CYP3A mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Akita, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Satoh, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Satoshi; Takehara, Shoko; Kazuki, Kanako; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogen in humans but not in rodents. It causes multiple birth defects including malformations of limbs, ears, and other organs. However, the species-specific mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not completely understood. Reproduction of the human teratogenicity of thalidomide in rodents has previously failed because of the lack of a model reflecting human drug metabolism. In addition, because the maternal metabolic effect cannot be eliminated, the migration of unchanged thalidomide to embryos is suppressed, and the metabolic activation is insufficient to develop teratogenicity. Previously, we generated transchromosomic mice containing a human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A cluster in which the endogenous mouse Cyp3a genes were deleted. Here, we determined whether human CYP3A or mouse Cyp3a enzyme expression was related to the species difference in a whole embryo culture system using humanized CYP3A mouse embryos. Thalidomide-treated embryos with the human CYP3A gene cluster showed limb abnormalities, and human CYP3A was expressed in the placenta, suggesting that human CYP3A in the placenta may contribute to the teratogenicity of thalidomide. These data suggest that the humanized CYP3A mouse is a useful model to predict embryonic toxicity in humans. PMID:26903378

  6. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  7. Differential regulation of mouse and human nephron progenitors by the Six family of transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Lori L; Guo, Qiuyu; Lee, YoungJin; Tran, Tracy; Benazet, Jean-Denis; Whitney, Peter H; Valouev, Anton; McMahon, Andrew P

    2016-02-15

    Nephron endowment is determined by the self-renewal and induction of a nephron progenitor pool established at the onset of kidney development. In the mouse, the related transcriptional regulators Six1 and Six2 play non-overlapping roles in nephron progenitors. Transient Six1 activity prefigures, and is essential for, active nephrogenesis. By contrast, Six2 maintains later progenitor self-renewal from the onset of nephrogenesis. We compared the regulatory actions of Six2 in mouse and human nephron progenitors by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq). Surprisingly, SIX1 was identified as a SIX2 target unique to the human nephron progenitors. Furthermore, RNA-seq and immunostaining revealed overlapping SIX1 and SIX2 activity in 16 week human fetal nephron progenitors. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of human SIX1 and SIX2 ChIP-seq showed each factor targeted a similar set of cis-regulatory modules binding an identical target recognition motif. In contrast to the mouse where Six2 binds its own enhancers but does not interact with DNA around Six1, both human SIX1 and SIX2 bind homologous SIX2 enhancers and putative enhancers positioned around SIX1. Transgenic analysis of a putative human SIX1 enhancer in the mouse revealed a transient, mouse-like, pre-nephrogenic, Six1 regulatory pattern. Together, these data demonstrate a divergence in SIX-factor regulation between mouse and human nephron progenitors. In the human, an auto/cross-regulatory loop drives continued SIX1 and SIX2 expression during active nephrogenesis. By contrast, the mouse establishes only an auto-regulatory Six2 loop. These data suggest differential SIX-factor regulation might have contributed to species differences in nephron progenitor programs such as the duration of nephrogenesis and the final nephron count. PMID:26884396

  8. Cyclooxygenases in human and mouse skin and cultured human keratinocytes: association of COX-2 expression with human keratinocyte differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.; Rakhlin, N.; Habib, A.; Maclouf, J.; Goldyne, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal expression of the two isoforms of the prostaglandin H-generating cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) was evaluated both by immunohistochemistry performed on human and mouse skin biopsy sections and by Western blotting of protein extracts from cultured human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes. In normal human skin, COX-1 immunostaining is observed throughout the epidermis whereas COX-2 immunostaining increases in the more differentiated, suprabasilar keratinocytes. Basal cell carcinomas express little if any COX-1 or COX-2 immunostaining whereas both isozymes are strongly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas deriving from a more differentiated layer of the epidermis. In human keratinocyte cultures, raising the extracellular calcium concentration, a recognized stimulus for keratinocyte differentiation, leads to an increased expression of both COX-2 protein and mRNA; expression of COX-1 protein, however, shows no significant alteration in response to calcium. Because of a recent report that failed to show COX-2 in normal mouse epidermis, we also looked for COX-1 and COX-2 immunostaining in sections of normal and acetone-treated mouse skin. In agreement with a previous report, some COX-1, but no COX-2, immunostaining is seen in normal murine epidermis. However, following acetone treatment, there is a marked increase in COX-1 expression as well as the appearance of significant COX-2 immunostaining in the basal layer. These data suggest that in human epidermis as well as in human keratinocyte cultures, the expression of COX-2 occurs as a part of normal keratinocyte differentiation whereas in murine epidermis, its constitutive expression is absent, but inducible as previously published.

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Translating human deficits into mouse behavior.

    PubMed

    Pasciuto, E; Borrie, S C; Kanellopoulos, A K; Santos, A R; Cappuyns, E; D'Andrea, L; Pacini, L; Bagni, C

    2015-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders, with rising incidence but little effective therapeutic intervention available. Currently two main clinical features are described to diagnose ASDs: impaired social interaction and communication, and repetitive behaviors. Much work has focused on understanding underlying causes of ASD by generating animal models of the disease, in the hope of discovering signaling pathways and cellular targets for drug intervention. Here we review how ASD behavioral phenotypes can be modeled in the mouse, the most common animal model currently in use in this field, and discuss examples of genetic mouse models of ASD with behavioral features that recapitulate various symptoms of ASD. PMID:26220900

  10. Scanning Electron Microscopic Examination of the Extracellular Matrix in the Decellularized Mouse and Human Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Santi, Peter A; Aldaya, Robair; Brown, Alec; Johnson, Shane; Stromback, Tyler; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-06-01

    Decellularized tissues have been used to investigate the extracellular matrix (ECM) in a number of different tissues and species. Santi and Johnson JARO 14:3-15 (2013) first described the decellularized inner ear in the mouse, rat, and human using scanning thin-sheet laser imaging microscopy (sTSLIM). The purpose of the present investigation is to examine decellularized cochleas in the mouse and human at higher resolution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fresh cochleas were harvested and decellularized using detergent extraction methods. Following decellularization, the ECM of the bone, basilar membrane, spiral limbus, and ligament remained, and all of the cells were removed from the cochlea. A number of similarities and differences in the ECM of the mouse and human were observed. A novel, spirally directed structure was present on the basilar membrane and is located at the border between Hensen and Boettcher cells. These septa-like structures formed a single row in the mouse and multiple rows in the human. The basal lamina of the stria vascularis capillaries was present and appeared thicker in the human compared with the mouse. In the mouse, numerous openings beneath the spiral prominence that previously housed the root processes of the external sulcus cells were observed but in the human there was only a single row of openings. These and other anatomical differences in the ECM between the mouse and human may reflect functional differences and/or be due to aging; however, decellularized cochleas provide a new way to examine the cochlear ECM and reveal new observations. PMID:27029011

  11. Species-specific metastasis of human tumor cells in the severe combined immunodeficiency mouse engrafted with human tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Shtivelman, E; Namikawa, R

    1995-01-01

    We have attempted to model human metastatic disease by implanting human target organs into the immunodeficient C.B-17 scid/scid (severe combined immunodeficiency; SCID) mouse, creating SCID-hu mice. Preferential metastasis to implants of human fetal lung and human fetal bone marrow occurred after i.v. injection of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells into SCID-hu mice; the homologous mouse organs were spared. Clinically more aggressive variant SCLC cells metastasized more efficiently to human fetal lung implants than did cells from classic SCLC. Metastasis of variant SCLC to human fetal bone marrow was enhanced in SCID-hu mice exposed to gamma-irradiation or to interleukin 1 alpha. These data indicate that the SCID-hu mice may provide a model in which to study species- and tissue-specific steps of the human metastatic process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7753860

  12. Species-Specific Metastasis of Human Tumor Cells in the Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mouse Engrafted with Human Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Namikawa, Reiko

    1995-05-01

    We have attempted to model human metastatic disease by implanting human target organs into the immunodeficient C.B-17 scid/scid (severe combined immunodeficiency; SCID) mouse, creating SCID-hu mice. Preferential metastasis to implants of human fetal lung and human fetal bone marrow occurred after i.v. injection of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells into SCID-hu mice; the homologous mouse organs were spared. Clinically more aggressive variant SCLC cells metastasized more efficiently to human fetal lung implants than did cells from classic SCLC. Metastasis of variant SCLC to human fetal bone marrow was enhanced in SCID-hu mice exposed to γ-irradiation or to interleukin 1α. These data indicate that the SCID-hu mice may provide a model in which to study species- and tissue-specific steps of the human metastatic process.

  13. Mouse models with human immunity and their application in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baojun; Duan, Ziyuan; Zhao, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical research in human beings is largely restricted to in vitro studies that lack complexity of a living organism. To overcome this limitation, humanized mouse models are developed based on immunodeficient characteristics of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or recombination activating gene (Rag)null mice, which can accept xenografts. Peripheral constitution of human immunity in SCID or Ragnull mice has been achieved by transplantation of mature human immune cells, foetal human thymus, bone marrow, liver tissues, lymph nodes or a combination of these, although efficiency needs to be improved. These mouse models with constituted human immunity (defined as humanized mice in the present text) have been widely used to investigate the basic principles of human immunobiology as well as complex pathomechanisms and potential therapies of human diseases. Here, elements of an ideal humanized mouse model are highlighted including genetic and non-genetic modification of recipient mice, transplantation strategies and proposals to improve engraftments. The applications of the humanized mice to study the development and response of human immune cells, human autoimmune diseases, virus infections, transplantation biology and tumour biology are reviewed as well. PMID:18419795

  14. Kinetic properties of mouse pancreatic lipase-related protein-2 suggest the mouse may not model human fat digestion

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E.; Miller, Rita A.; Lowe, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically engineered mice have been employed to understand the role of lipases in dietary fat digestion with the expectation that the results can be extrapolated to humans. However, little is known about the properties of mouse pancreatic triglyceride lipase (mPTL) and pancreatic lipase-related protein-2 (mPLRP2). In this study, both lipases were expressed in Pichia Pastoris GS115, purified to near homogeneity, and their properties were characterized. Mouse PTL displayed the kinetics typical of PTL from other species. Like mPTL, mPLRP2 exhibited strong activity against various triglycerides. In contrast to mPTL, mPLRP2 was not inhibited by increasing bile salt concentration. Colipase stimulated mPLRP2 activity 2- to 4-fold. Additionally, mPTL absolutely required colipase for absorption to a lipid interface, whereas mPLRP2 absorbed fully without colipase. mPLRP2 had full activity in the presence of BSA, whereas BSA completely inhibited mPTL unless colipase was present. All of these properties of mPLRP2 differ from the properties of human PLRP2 (hPLRP2). Furthermore, mPLRP2 appears capable of compensating for mPTL deficiency. These findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms of dietary fat digestion may be different in humans and mice. Thus, extrapolation of dietary fat digestion in mice to humans should be done with care. PMID:21382969

  15. Mouse BMD Quantitative Trait Loci Show Improved Concordance With Human Genome-wide Association Loci When Recalculated on a New, Common Mouse Genetic Map

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L; Karasik, David; Li, Qian; Smith, Randy V; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Churchill, Gary A; Paigen, Beverly J; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern

    2010-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is a heritable trait, and in mice, over 100 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been reported, but candidate genes have been identified for only a small percentage. Persistent errors in the mouse genetic map have negatively affected QTL localization, spurring the development of a new, corrected map. In this study, QTLs for BMD were remapped in 11 archival mouse data sets using this new genetic map. Since these QTLs all were mapped in a comparable way, direct comparisons of QTLs for concordance would be valid. We then compared human genome-wide association study (GWAS) BMD loci with the mouse QTLs. We found that 26 of the 28 human GWAS loci examined were located within the confidence interval of a mouse QTL. Furthermore, 14 of the GWAS loci mapped to within 3 cM of a mouse QTL peak. Lastly, we demonstrated that these newly remapped mouse QTLs can substantiate a candidate gene for a human GWAS locus, for which the peak single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) fell in an intergenic region. Specifically, we suggest that MEF2C (human chromosome 5, mouse chromosome 13) should be considered a candidate gene for the genetic regulation of BMD. In conclusion, use of the new mouse genetic map has improved the localization of mouse BMD QTLs, and these remapped QTLs show high concordance with human GWAS loci. We believe that this is an opportune time for a renewed effort by the genetics community to identify the causal variants regulating BMD using a synergistic mouse-human approach. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20200990

  16. Comparison of human and mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment subfamilies

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.P.; Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    Like the immunoglobulin Igh-V and Igk-V gene families, the human or mouse TCRV gene families may be grouped into subfamilies displaying {ge} 75% nucleic acid sequence similarity among their members. Systematic interspecies sequence comparisons reveal that most mouse Tcr-V subfamilies exhibit clear homology to human TCRV subfamilies ({ge}60% amino acid sequence similarity). Homologous paris of TCRV genes in mice and humans show higher sequence similarity than TCRV genes from different subfamilies within either species, indicating trans-species evolution of TCRV genes. Mouse and human homologues show conservation of their relative map order, particularly in the 3{prime} region and a similar sequential and developmentally programmed expression. When the V regions from both species were analyzed together, local length differences and conserved residues in the loop regions were revealed, characteristic of each of the four TCRV families. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  17. From Immunodeficiency to Humanization: The Contribution of Mouse Models to Explore HTLV-1 Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pérès, Eléonore; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; This, Sébastien; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    The first discovered human retrovirus, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is responsible for an aggressive form of T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Mouse models recapitulating the leukemogenesis process have been helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this retroviral-induced disease. This review will focus on the recent advances in the generation of immunodeficient and human hemato-lymphoid system mice with a particular emphasis on the development of mouse models for HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, their present limitations and the challenges yet to be addressed. PMID:26690200

  18. From Immunodeficiency to Humanization: The Contribution of Mouse Models to Explore HTLV-1 Leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pérès, Eléonore; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; This, Sébastien; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    The first discovered human retrovirus, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is responsible for an aggressive form of T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Mouse models recapitulating the leukemogenesis process have been helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this retroviral-induced disease. This review will focus on the recent advances in the generation of immunodeficient and human hemato-lymphoid system mice with a particular emphasis on the development of mouse models for HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, their present limitations and the challenges yet to be addressed. PMID:26690200

  19. COMPARATIVE GENOTOXIC RESPONSES TO ARSENITE IN GUINEA PIG, MOUSE, RAT AND HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative genotoxic responses to arsenite in guinea pig, mouse, rat and human
    lymphocytes.

    Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen causing skin, lung, and bladder cancer following chronic exposures. Yet, long-term laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies have ...

  20. Unraveling the genetics of otitis media: from mouse to human and back again.

    PubMed

    Rye, Marie S; Bhutta, Mahmood F; Cheeseman, Michael T; Burgner, David; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Brown, Steve D M; Jamieson, Sarra E

    2011-02-01

    Otitis media (OM) is among the most common illnesses of early childhood, characterised by the presence of inflammation in the middle ear cavity. Acute OM and chronic OM with effusion (COME) affect the majority of children by school age and have heritability estimates of 40-70%. However, the majority of genes underlying this susceptibility are, as yet, unidentified. One method of identifying genes and pathways that may contribute to OM susceptibility is to look at mouse mutants displaying a comparable phenotype. Single-gene mouse mutants with OM have identified a number of genes, namely, Eya4, Tlr4, p73, MyD88, Fas, E2f4, Plg, Fbxo11, and Evi1, as potential and biologically relevant candidates for human disease. Recent studies suggest that this "mouse-to-human" approach is likely to yield relevant data, with significant associations reported between polymorphisms at the FBXO11, TLR4, and PAI1 genes and disease in humans. An association between TP73 and chronic rhinosinusitis has also been reported. In addition, the biobanks of available mouse mutants provide a powerful resource for functional studies of loci identified by future genome-wide association studies of OM in humans. Mouse models of OM therefore are an important component of current approaches attempting to understand the complex genetic susceptibility to OM in humans, and which aim to facilitate the development of preventative and therapeutic interventions for this important and common disease. PMID:21107580

  1. PhenoHM: human-mouse comparative phenome-genome server.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Divya; Vasa, Suresh; Vepachedu, Nishanth; Chen, Jing; Gudivada, Ranga Chandra; Aronow, Bruce J; Jegga, Anil G

    2010-07-01

    PhenoHM is a human-mouse comparative phenome-genome server that facilitates cross-species identification of genes associated with orthologous phenotypes (http://phenome.cchmc.org; full open access, login not required). Combining and extrapolating the knowledge about the roles of individual gene functions in the determination of phenotype across multiple organisms improves our understanding of gene function in normal and perturbed states and offers the opportunity to complement biologically the rapidly expanding strategies in comparative genomics. The Mammalian Phenotype Ontology (MPO), a structured vocabulary of phenotype terms that leverages observations encompassing the consequences of mouse gene knockout studies, is a principal component of mouse phenotype knowledge source. On the other hand, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is a composite collection of various human-centered biomedical terminologies. In the present study, we mapped terms reciprocally from the MPO to human disease concepts such as clinical findings from the UMLS and clinical phenotypes from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man knowledgebase. By cross-mapping mouse-human phenotype terms, extracting implicated genes and extrapolating phenotype-gene associations between species PhenoHM provides a resource that enables rapid identification of genes that trigger similar outcomes in human and mouse and facilitates identification of potentially novel disease causal genes. The PhenoHM server can be accessed freely at http://phenome.cchmc.org. PMID:20507906

  2. Human and Mouse Mononuclear Phagocyte Networks: A Tale of Two Species?

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Gary; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages are a heterogeneous population of mononuclear phagocytes that are involved in antigen processing and presentation to initiate and regulate immune responses to pathogens, vaccines, tumor, and tolerance to self. In addition to their afferent sentinel function, DCs and macrophages are also critical as effectors and coordinators of inflammation and homeostasis in peripheral tissues. Harnessing DCs and macrophages for therapeutic purposes has major implications for infectious disease, vaccination, transplantation, tolerance induction, inflammation, and cancer immunotherapy. There has been a paradigm shift in our understanding of the developmental origin and function of the cellular constituents of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Significant progress has been made in tandem in both human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology. This progress has been accelerated by comparative biology analysis between mouse and human, which has proved to be an exceptionally fruitful strategy to harmonize findings across species. Such analyses have provided unexpected insights and facilitated productive reciprocal and iterative processes to inform our understanding of human and mouse mononuclear phagocytes. In this review, we discuss the strategies, power, and utility of comparative biology approaches to integrate recent advances in human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology and its potential to drive forward clinical translation of this knowledge. We also present a functional framework on the parallel organization of human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte networks. PMID:26124761

  3. Generation and characterization of a transgenic mouse with a functional human TSPY.

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Skawran, B; Dechend, F; Nayernia, K; Meinhardt, A; Nanda, I; Schmid, M; Engel, W; Schmidtke, J

    2003-09-01

    To generate an animal model that is suitable for the analysis of regulation and expression of human testis-specific protein, Y-encoded TSPY, a transgenic mouse line, TgTSPY9, harboring a complete structural human TSPY gene was generated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and Southern analyses show that approximately 50 copies of the human TSPY transgene are integrated at a single chromosomal site that maps to the distal long arm of the Y chromosome. The transgene is correctly transcribed and spliced according to the human pattern and is mainly expressed in testicular tissue, with spermatogonia and early primary spermatocytes (leptotene and zygotene) as expressing germ cells. TSPY transgenic mice are phenotypically normal, and spermatogenesis is neither impaired nor enhanced by the human transgene. The present study shows that a human TSPY gene integrated into the mouse genome follows the human expression pattern although murine tspy had lost its function in rodent evolution millions of years ago. PMID:12773407

  4. The expression of BST2 in human and experimental mouse brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Derek A.; Balyasnikova, Irina V.; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma) is a highly malignant brain tumor with poor treatment options and an average lifespan of 15 months after diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that BST2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2; also known as PDCA-1, CD137 and HM1.24) is expressed by multiple myeloma, endometrial cancer and primary lung cancer cells. BST2 is expressed on the plasma membrane, which makes it an ideal target for immunotherapy. Accordingly, several groups have shown BST2 mAb to be effective for targeting tumor cells. In this report, we hypothesized that BST2 is expressed in human and mouse brain tumors and plays a critical role in brain tumor progression. We show that BST2 mRNA expression is increased in mouse brain IC-injected with GL261 cells, when compared to mouse brain IC-injected with saline at 3 weeks post-operative (p < 0.05). To test the relevance of BST2, we utilized the intracranially (IC)-injected GL261 cell-based malignant brain tumor mouse model. We show that BST2 mRNA expression is increased in mouse brain IC-injected GL261 cells, when compared to mouse brain IC-injected saline at 3 weeks post-operative (p < 0.05). Furthermore, BST2 immunofluorescence predominantly localized to mouse brain tumor cells. Finally, mice IC-injected with GL261 cells transduced with shRNA for BST2 ± pre-incubation with BST2 mAb show no difference in overall lifespan when compared to mice IC-injected with GL261 cells transduced with a scrambled shRNA ± pre-incubation with BST2 mAb. Collectively, these data show that while BST2 expression increases during brain tumor progression in both human and mouse brain tumors, it has no apparent consequences to overall lifespan in an orthotopic mouse brain tumor model. PMID:21565182

  5. Cloning, analysis, and chromosomal localization of myoxin (MYH12), the human homologue to the mouse dilute gene

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, L.J.; Kennett, R.H. )

    1994-02-01

    The mouse dilute gene encodes a novel type of non-muscle myosin that structurally combines elements from both nonmuscle myosin type I and nonmuscle myosin type II. Phenotypically, mutations in the mouse dilute gene result not only in the lightening of coat color, but also in the onset of severe neurological defects shortly after birth. This may indicate that the mouse dilute gene is important in maintaining the normal neuronal function in the mouse. The authors report the isolation and sequencing of [open quotes]myoxin[close quotes] (MYH12), the human homologue of the mouse dilute gene, and its assignment to human chromosome 15. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Determination of human transferrin concentrations in mouse models of neisserial infection.

    PubMed

    Perera, Yasser; Cobas, Karen; Garrido, Yainelis; Nazabal, Consuelo; Brown, Enma; Pajon, Rolando

    2006-04-20

    Transferrin constitutes the major protein involved in the transport of iron from the sites of absorption to the sites of storage and utilization. Despite the high affinity of transferrin for iron, most bacterial pathogens, such as the human restricted Neisseria meningitidis, have developed iron acquisition mechanisms. Several animal models of bacterial infection that include the exogenous supply of human transferrin have been implemented, and tests using transgenic mouse models are underway. Here we describe an ELISA sandwich procedure based on two monoclonal antibodies with negligible cross-reactivity to murine transferrin, to estimate human transferrin concentrations in mouse sera. The assay can detect as little as 10 ng/ml of human transferrin with coefficients of variation ranging from 1.6% to 4.4% (intra-assay) and 3.8% to 5% (inter-assay). The recovery values range from 90% to 110% in the assay working range (25-400 ng/ml). Human transferrin concentrations estimated in sera from 41 human transferrin transgenic mice ranged from 2 to 14 microg/ml. Further estimations of human transferrin levels in mouse sera of a previously described mouse model of N. meningitidis were also carried out. The intraperitoneal injection of 8 mg of human transferrin achieved a sustained value of human transferrin in mouse sera in the range of 1-2mg/ml over the first 24h, indicating that bacteria reaching the blood stream during this time would be exposed to levels of hTf found in normal human serum. PMID:16529768

  7. The human and mouse receptors of hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAMM, genes (HMMR) map to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter and mouse chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A.; Roller, M.L.; Camper, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The gene for the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAAM (designated hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor, HMMR (human) and Hmmr (mouse), for mapping purposes), was localized to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter by somatic cell and radiation hybrid analyses. Investigation of two interspecific back-crosses localized the mouse RHAMM (Hmmr) locus 18 cM from the centromere of mouse chromosome 11 within a region of synteny homology with human chromosome 5q23-q35 genes. The map position of the human RHAMM gene places it in a region comparatively rich in disease-associated genes, including those for low-frequency hearing loss, dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, and myeloid disorders associated with the 5q-syndrome. The RHAMM gene location and its ability to transform cells when overexpressed implicate RHAMM as a possible candidate gene in the pathogenesis of the recently described t(5;14)(q33-q34;q11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Comparison of gene expression profiles between human and mouse monocyte subsets

    PubMed Central

    Ingersoll, Molly A.; Spanbroek, Rainer; Lottaz, Claudio; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Frankenberger, Marion; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Lang, Roland; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Collin, Matthew; Tacke, Frank; Habenicht, Andreas J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Blood of both humans and mice contains 2 main monocyte subsets. Here, we investigated the extent of their similarity using a microarray approach. Approximately 270 genes in humans and 550 genes in mice were differentially expressed between subsets by 2-fold or more. More than 130 of these gene expression differences were conserved between mouse and human monocyte subsets. We confirmed numerous of these differences at the cell surface protein level. Despite overall conservation, some molecules were conversely expressed between the 2 species' subsets, including CD36, CD9, and TREM-1. Other differences included a prominent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) signature in mouse monocytes, which is absent in humans, and strikingly opposed patterns of receptors involved in uptake of apoptotic cells and other phagocytic cargo between human and mouse monocyte subsets. Thus, whereas human and mouse monocyte subsets are far more broadly conserved than currently recognized, important differences between the species deserve consideration when models of human disease are studied in mice. PMID:19965649

  9. The mouse and human genes encoding the recognition component of the N-end rule pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Tae; Reiss, Yuval; Fried, Victor A.; Hershko, Avram; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; Gonda, David K.; Sangan, Pitchai; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Varshavsky, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. The N-end rule pathway is one proteolytic pathway of the ubiquitin system. The recognition component of this pathway, called N-recognin or E3, binds to a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a substrate protein and participates in the formation of a substrate-linked multiubiquitin chain. We report the cloning of the mouse and human Ubr1 cDNAs and genes that encode a mammalian N-recognin called E3α. Mouse UBR1p (E3α) is a 1,757-residue (200-kDa) protein that contains regions of sequence similarity to the 225-kDa Ubr1p of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mouse and human UBR1p have apparent homologs in other eukaryotes as well, thus defining a distinct family of proteins, the UBR family. The residues essential for substrate recognition by the yeast Ubr1p are conserved in the mouse UBR1p. The regions of similarity among the UBR family members include a putative zinc finger and RING-H2 finger, another zinc-binding domain. Ubr1 is located in the middle of mouse chromosome 2 and in the syntenic 15q15-q21.1 region of human chromosome 15. Mouse Ubr1 spans ≈120 kilobases of genomic DNA and contains ≈50 exons. Ubr1 is ubiquitously expressed in adults, with skeletal muscle and heart being the sites of highest expression. In mouse embryos, the Ubr1 expression is highest in the branchial arches and in the tail and limb buds. The cloning of Ubr1 makes possible the construction of Ubr1-lacking mouse strains, a prerequisite for the functional understanding of the mammalian N-end rule pathway. PMID:9653112

  10. Mouse Models Recapitulating Human Adrenocortical Tumors: What Is Lacking?

    PubMed Central

    Leccia, Felicia; Batisse-Lignier, Marie; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Val, Pierre; Lefrançois-Martinez, A-Marie; Martinez, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cortex tumors are divided into benign forms, such as primary hyperplasias and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), and malignant forms or adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs). Primary hyperplasias are rare causes of adrenocorticotropin hormone-independent hypercortisolism. ACAs are the most common type of adrenal gland tumors and they are rarely “functional,” i.e., producing steroids. When functional, adenomas result in endocrine disorders, such as Cushing’s syndrome (hypercortisolism) or Conn’s syndrome (hyperaldosteronism). By contrast, ACCs are extremely rare but highly aggressive tumors that may also lead to hypersecreting syndromes. Genetic analyses of patients with sporadic or familial forms of adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) led to the identification of potentially causative genes, most of them being involved in protein kinase A (PKA), Wnt/β-catenin, and P53 signaling pathways. Development of mouse models is a crucial step to firmly establish the functional significance of candidate genes, to dissect mechanisms leading to tumors and endocrine disorders, and in fine to provide in vivo tools for therapeutic screens. In this article, we will provide an overview on the existing mouse models (xenografted and genetically engineered) of ACTs by focusing on the role of PKA and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in this context. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of models that have been developed heretofore and we will point out necessary improvements in the development of next generation mouse models of adrenal diseases. PMID:27471492

  11. Human monoclonal antibodies specific to hepatitis B virus generated in a human/mouse radiation chimera: the Trimera system.

    PubMed

    Eren, R; Lubin, I; Terkieltaub, D; Ben-Moshe, O; Zauberman, A; Uhlmann, R; Tzahor, T; Moss, S; Ilan, E; Shouval, D; Galun, E; Daudi, N; Marcus, H; Reisner, Y; Dagan, S

    1998-02-01

    An approach to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies in a human/mouse radiation chimera, the Trimera system, is described. In this system, functional human lymphocytes are engrafted in normal strains of mice which are rendered immuno-incompetent by lethal total body irradiation followed by radioprotection with severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse bone marrow. Following transplantation, human lymphocytes colonize murine lymphatic organs and secrete human immunoglobulins. We have established this system as a tool to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies, and applied it for the generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for hepatitis B virus surface antigen. A strong memory response to hepatitis B surface antigen was elicited in Trimera engrafted with lymphocytes from human donors positive for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. The human specific antibody fraction in the Trimera was 10(2)-10(3)-fold higher as compared with that found in the donors. Spleens were harvested from Trimera mice showing high specific-antibody titres and cells were fused to a human-mouse heteromyeloma fusion partner. Several stable hybridoma clones were isolated and characterized. These hybridomas produce high-affinity, IgG, anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies demonstrating the potential of the Trimera system for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies. The biological function and the neutralizing activity of these antibodies are currently being tested. PMID:9616363

  12. Mouse models of Down syndrome: how useful can they be? Comparison of the gene content of human chromosome 21 with orthologous mouse genomic regions.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Katheleen; Fortna, Andrew; Bechtel, Lawrence; Davisson, Muriel T

    2003-10-30

    With an incidence of approximately 1 in 700 live births, Down syndrome (DS) remains the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. The phenotype is assumed to be due to overexpression of some number of the >300 genes encoded by human chromosome 21. Mouse models, in particular the chromosome 16 segmental trisomies, Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje, are indispensable for DS-related studies of gene-phenotype correlations. Here we compare the updated gene content of the finished sequence of human chromosome 21 (364 genes and putative genes) with the gene content of the homologous mouse genomic regions (291 genes and putative genes) obtained from annotation of the public sector C57Bl/6 draft sequence. Annotated genes fall into one of three classes. First, there are 170 highly conserved, human/mouse orthologues. Second, there are 83 minimally conserved, possible orthologues. Included among the conserved and minimally conserved genes are 31 antisense transcripts. Third, there are species-specific genes: 111 spliced human transcripts show no orthologues in the syntenic mouse regions although 13 have homologous sequences elsewhere in the mouse genomic sequence, and 38 spliced mouse transcripts show no identifiable human orthologues. While these species-specific genes are largely based solely on spliced EST data, a majority can be verified in RNA expression experiments. In addition, preliminary data suggest that many human-specific transcripts may represent a novel class of primate-specific genes. Lastly, updated functional annotation of orthologous genes indicates genes encoding components of several cellular pathways are dispersed throughout the orthologous mouse chromosomal regions and are not completely represented in the Down syndrome segmental mouse models. Together, these data point out the potential for existing mouse models to produce extraneous phenotypes and to fail to produce DS-relevant phenotypes. PMID:14585506

  13. Is the Mouse a Good Model of Human PPARγ-Related Metabolic Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Pap, Attila; Cuaranta-Monroy, Ixchelt; Peloquin, Matthew; Nagy, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of patients affected with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and insulin resistance, academic researchers and pharmaceutical companies are eager to better understand metabolic syndrome and develop new drugs for its treatment. Many studies have focused on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), which plays a crucial role in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. These studies have been able to connect this transcription factor to several human metabolic diseases. Due to obvious limitations concerning experimentation in humans, animal models—mainly mouse models—have been generated to investigate the role of PPARγ in different tissues. This review focuses on the metabolic features of human and mouse PPARγ-related diseases and the utility of the mouse as a model. PMID:27483259

  14. Is the Mouse a Good Model of Human PPARγ-Related Metabolic Diseases?

    PubMed

    Pap, Attila; Cuaranta-Monroy, Ixchelt; Peloquin, Matthew; Nagy, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of patients affected with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and insulin resistance, academic researchers and pharmaceutical companies are eager to better understand metabolic syndrome and develop new drugs for its treatment. Many studies have focused on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), which plays a crucial role in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. These studies have been able to connect this transcription factor to several human metabolic diseases. Due to obvious limitations concerning experimentation in humans, animal models-mainly mouse models-have been generated to investigate the role of PPARγ in different tissues. This review focuses on the metabolic features of human and mouse PPARγ-related diseases and the utility of the mouse as a model. PMID:27483259

  15. Humanized Mouse Models to Study Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Liver-Stage Malaria Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Good, Michael F; Hawkes, Michael T; Yanow, Stephanie K

    2015-11-01

    Malaria vaccine development is hampered by the lack of small animal models that recapitulate human immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum. We review the burgeoning literature on humanized mice for P. falciparum infection, including challenges in engraftment of human immune cells, hepatocytes, and erythrocytes. Recent advances in immune-compromised mouse models and stem cell technology have already enabled proof of concept that the entire parasite life cycle can be sustained in a murine model and that adaptive human immune responses to several parasite stages can be measured. Nonetheless, optimization is needed to achieve a reproducible and relevant murine model for malaria vaccine development. This review is focused on the complexities of T cell development in a mouse humanized with both a lymphoid system and hepatocytes. An understanding of this will facilitate the use of humanized mice in the development of liver-stage vaccines. PMID:26458783

  16. Automated whole-genome multiple alignment of rat, mouse, and human

    SciTech Connect

    Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Salamov, Asaf; Cooper, Gregory M.; Sidow, Arend; Rubin, Edward M.; Solovyev, Victor; Batzoglou, Serafim; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-07-04

    We have built a whole genome multiple alignment of the three currently available mammalian genomes using a fully automated pipeline which combines the local/global approach of the Berkeley Genome Pipeline and the LAGAN program. The strategy is based on progressive alignment, and consists of two main steps: (1) alignment of the mouse and rat genomes; and (2) alignment of human to either the mouse-rat alignments from step 1, or the remaining unaligned mouse and rat sequences. The resulting alignments demonstrate high sensitivity, with 87% of all human gene-coding areas aligned in both mouse and rat. The specificity is also high: <7% of the rat contigs are aligned to multiple places in human and 97% of all alignments with human sequence > 100kb agree with a three-way synteny map built independently using predicted exons in the three genomes. At the nucleotide level <1% of the rat nucleotides are mapped to multiple places in the human sequence in the alignment; and 96.5% of human nucleotides within all alignments agree with the synteny map. The alignments are publicly available online, with visualization through the novel Multi-VISTA browser that we also present.

  17. Activation of proto-oncogenes in human and mouse lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Anderson, M.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in several nations. Epidemiological studies have indicated that 85% of all lung cancer deaths and 30% of all cancer deaths in the US are associated with tobacco smoking. Various chemicals in tobacco smoke are thought to react with DNA and to ultimately yield heritable mutations. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung tumorigenesis, the authors have analyzed proto-oncogene activation in a series of human lung tumors from smokers and spontaneously occurring and chemically induced lung tumors in mice. Approximately 86% of the human lung tumors and > 90% of the mouse lung tumors were found to contain activated oncogenes. ras Oncogenes activated by point mutations were detected in many of the human lung adenocarcinomas and virtually all of the mouse lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The mutation profiles of the activated K-ras genes detected in the chemically induced mouse lung tumors suggest that the observed mutations result from genotoxic effects of the chemicals. Comparison of the K-ras mutations observed in the human lung adenocarcinomas with mutation profiles observed in the mouse lung tumors suggest that bulky hydrophobic DNA adducts may be responsible for the majority of the mutations observed in the activated human K-ras genes. Other data indicate that approximately 20% of human lung tumors contain potentially novel transforming genes that may also be targets for mutagens in cigarette smoke.

  18. Isolation, characterization, and chromosomal localization of mouse and human COUP-TF I and II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Y.; Krishnan, V.; Zeng, Z.

    1995-09-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are orphan members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. COUP-TF homologues have been cloned in many species, from Drosophila to human. The protein sequences of COUP-TFs are highly homologous across species, suggesting functional conservation. Two COUP-TF genes have been cloned from human, and their genomic organizations have been characterized. To determine whether the genomic organization is conserved between human and mouse, we isolated two mouse COUP-TF genes (I and II) and characterized their genomic structures. Both genes have relatively simple structures that are similar to those of their human counterparts. In addition, we mapped mouse COUP-TF I to the distal region of chromosome 13 and COUP-TF II to the central region of chromosome 7. Furthermore, we mapped human COUP-TF I to 5q14 of chromosome 5 and COUP-TF II to 15q26 of chromosome 15. The results demonstrate that COUP-TF genes are located in chromosomal regions that are syntenic between mouse and human. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Generation and characterization of a novel multidrug resistance protein 2 humanized mouse line.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Nico; Balimane, Praveen; Hayward, Michael D; Buechel, Sandra; Kauselmann, Gunther; Wolf, C Roland

    2012-11-01

    The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 is predominantly expressed in liver, intestine, and kidney, where it plays an important role in the excretion of a range of drugs and their metabolites or endogenous compounds into bile, feces, and urine. Mrp knockout [Mrp2(-/-)] mice have been used recently to study the role of MRP2 in drug disposition. Here, we describe the first generation and initial characterization of a mouse line humanized for MRP2 (huMRP2), which is nulled for the mouse Mrp2 gene and expresses the human transporter in the organs and cell types where MRP2 is normally expressed. Analysis of the mRNA expression for selected cytochrome P450 and transporter genes revealed no major changes in huMRP2 mice compared with wild-type controls. We show that human MRP2 is able to compensate functionally for the loss of the mouse transporter as demonstrated by comparable bilirubin levels in the humanized mice and wild-type controls, in contrast to the hyperbilirubinemia phenotype that is observed in MRP2(-/-) mice. The huMRP2 mouse provides a model to study the role of the human transporter in drug disposition and in assessing the in vivo consequences of inhibiting this transporter by compounds interacting with human MRP2. PMID:22917771

  20. Genome Rearrangements in Mammalian Evolution: Lessons From Human and Mouse Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Pevzner, Pavel; Tesler, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    Although analysis of genome rearrangements was pioneered by Dobzhansky and Sturtevant 65 years ago, we still know very little about the rearrangement events that produced the existing varieties of genomic architectures. The genomic sequences of human and mouse provide evidence for a larger number of rearrangements than previously thought and shed some light on previously unknown features of mammalian evolution. In particular, they reveal that a large number of microrearrangements is required to explain the differences in draft human and mouse sequences. Here we describe a new algorithm for constructing synteny blocks, study arrangements of synteny blocks in human and mouse, derive a most parsimonious human–mouse rearrangement scenario, and provide evidence that intrachromosomal rearrangements are more frequent than interchromosomal rearrangements. Our analysis is based on the human–mouse breakpoint graph, which reveals related breakpoints and allows one to find a most parsimonious scenario. Because these graphs provide important insights into rearrangement scenarios, we introduce a new visualization tool that allows one to view breakpoint graphs superimposed with genomic dot-plots. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org.] PMID:12529304

  1. The expression of BST2 in human and experimental mouse brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Derek A; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2011-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma) is a highly malignant brain tumor with poor treatment options and an average lifespan of 15 months after diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that BST2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2; also known as PDCA-1, CD137 and HM1.24) is expressed by multiple myeloma, endometrial cancer and primary lung cancer cells. BST2 is expressed on the plasma membrane, which makes it an ideal target for immunotherapy. Accordingly, several groups have shown BST2 mAb to be effective for targeting tumor cells. In this report, we hypothesized that BST2 is expressed in human and mouse brain tumors and plays a critical role in brain tumor progression. We show that BST2 expression is upregulated at both the mRNA and protein level in high grade when compared to low grade human astrocytoma (p<0.05). To test the relevance of BST2, we utilized the intracranially (IC)-injected GL261 cell-based malignant brain tumor mouse model. We show that BST2 mRNA expression is increased in mouse brain IC-injected with GL261 cells, when compared to mouse brain IC-injected with saline at 3 weeks post-operative (p<0.05). Furthermore, BST2 immunofluorescence predominantly localized to mouse brain tumor cells. Finally, mice IC-injected with GL261 cells transduced with shRNA for BST2±preincubated with BST2 mAb show no difference in overall lifespan when compared to mice IC-injected with GL261 cells transduced with a scrambled shRNA±preincubated with BST2 mAb. Collectively, these data show that while BST2 expression increases during brain tumor progression in both human and mouse brain tumors, it has no apparent consequences to overall lifespan in an orthotopic mouse brain tumor model. PMID:21565182

  2. Genetic programs in human and mouse early embryos revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zhigang; Huang, Kevin; Cai, Chaochao; Cai, Lingbo; Jiang, Chun-yan; Feng, Yun; Liu, Zhenshan; Zeng, Qiao; Cheng, Liming; Sun, Yi E.; Liu, Jia-yin; Horvath, Steve; Fan, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian pre-implantation development is a complex process involving dramatic changes in the transcriptional architecture1–4. We report here a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome dynamics from oocyte to morula in both human and mouse embryos, using single-cell RNA sequencing. Based on single-nucleotide variants in human blastomere messenger RNAs and paternal-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we identify novel stage-specific monoallelic expression patterns for a significant portion of polymorphic gene transcripts (25 to 53%). By weighted gene co-expression network analysis5,6, we find that each developmental stage can be delineated concisely by a small number of functional modules of co-expressed genes. This result indicates a sequential order of transcriptional changes in pathways of cell cycle, gene regulation, translation and metabolism, acting in a step-wise fashion from cleavage to morula. Cross-species comparisons with mouse pre-implantation embryos reveal that the majority of human stage-specific modules (7out of 9) are notably preserved, but developmental specificity and timing differ between human and mouse. Furthermore, we identify conserved key members (or hub genes) of the human and mouse networks. These genes represent novel candidates that are likely to be key in driving mammalian pre-implantation development. Together, the results provide a valuable resource to dissect gene regulatory mechanisms underlying progressive development of early mammalian embryos. PMID:23892778

  3. Gene order is conserved within the human chromosome 21 linkage group on mouse chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, N.G.; Cabin, D.E.; Swanson, D.A.; Reeves, R.H. )

    1994-05-01

    One hundred progeny from each of two intersubspecific mouse backcrosses were used to construct a comparative genetic map of a region of mouse chromosome 10 (MMU10) that is homologous to the distal tip of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The analysis included five genes and three simple sequence repeat markers, two of which flanked the HSA21-homologous cluster on either side. Analysis of 200 backcross progeny detected at least one crossover between each pair of adjacent genes and demonstrated that the proximal to distal orientation of the cluster was reversed between human and mouse. The order was determined to be Fyn-1-D10Mit20-S100b-Col6a1-Itgb2-Pfk1/D10Mit7-D10Mit11. Comparative mapping supports the order of corresponding markers on HSA21 determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and radiation hybrid line data. However, sequence tagged site content mapping of human yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) yielded conflicting data on the relative positions of human COL6A1 and S100B on HSA21. This discrepancy was resolved here by demonstrating that several key YACs used in the human contig analysis were mistyped for S100B. The murine map reported here provides a scaffold for construction of physical maps and yeast artificial chromosome contigs that will be useful in the development of mouse models for the study of Down syndrome. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE ASSAY TO QUANTITATE CHEMICALLY INDUCED ANEUPLOIDY: USE OF A MONOCHROMOSOMAL HUMAN/MOUSE CELL HYBRID

    EPA Science Inventory

    A short-term assay utilizing a human/mouse monochromosomal hybrid cell line R3-5, to detect chemically induced aneuploidy in mammalian cells is described. A single human chromosome transferred into mouse cells was used as a cytogenetic marker to quantitate abnormal chromosome seg...

  5. Mouse models rarely mimic the transcriptome of human neurodegenerative diseases: A systematic bioinformatics-based critique of preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Burns, Terry C; Li, Matthew D; Mehta, Swapnil; Awad, Ahmed J; Morgan, Alexander A

    2015-07-15

    Translational research for neurodegenerative disease depends intimately upon animal models. Unfortunately, promising therapies developed using mouse models mostly fail in clinical trials, highlighting uncertainty about how well mouse models mimic human neurodegenerative disease at the molecular level. We compared the transcriptional signature of neurodegeneration in mouse models of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), Parkinson׳s disease (PD), Huntington׳s disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to human disease. In contrast to aging, which demonstrated a conserved transcriptome between humans and mice, only 3 of 19 animal models showed significant enrichment for gene sets comprising the most dysregulated up- and down-regulated human genes. Spearman׳s correlation analysis revealed even healthy human aging to be more closely related to human neurodegeneration than any mouse model of AD, PD, ALS or HD. Remarkably, mouse models frequently upregulated stress response genes that were consistently downregulated in human diseases. Among potential alternate models of neurodegeneration, mouse prion disease outperformed all other disease-specific models. Even among the best available animal models, conserved differences between mouse and human transcriptomes were found across multiple animal model versus human disease comparisons, surprisingly, even including aging. Relative to mouse models, mouse disease signatures demonstrated consistent trends toward preserved mitochondrial function protein catabolism, DNA repair responses, and chromatin maintenance. These findings suggest a more complex and multifactorial pathophysiology in human neurodegeneration than is captured through standard animal models, and suggest that even among conserved physiological processes such as aging, mice are less prone to exhibit neurodegeneration-like changes. This work may help explain the poor track record of mouse-based translational therapies for neurodegeneration and provides a path

  6. Cellular functions of genetically imprinted genes in human and mouse as annotated in the gene ontology.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mohamed; Ismael, Siba; Paulsen, Martina; Helms, Volkhard

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the cellular functions of genetically imprinted genes as annotated in the Gene Ontology for human and mouse, we found that imprinted genes are often involved in developmental, transport and regulatory processes. In the human, paternally expressed genes are enriched in GO terms related to the development of organs and of anatomical structures. In the mouse, maternally expressed genes regulate cation transport as well as G-protein signaling processes. Furthermore, we investigated if imprinted genes are regulated by common transcription factors. We identified 25 TF families that showed an enrichment of binding sites in the set of imprinted genes in human and 40 TF families in mouse. In general, maternally and paternally expressed genes are not regulated by different transcription factors. The genes Nnat, Klf14, Blcap, Gnas and Ube3a contribute most to the enrichment of TF families. In the mouse, genes that are maternally expressed in placenta are enriched for AP1 binding sites. In the human, we found that these genes possessed binding sites for both, AP1 and SP1. PMID:23226257

  7. Mouse Mincle: Characterization as a Model for Human Mincle and Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rambaruth, Neela D. S.; Jégouzo, Sabine A. F.; Marlor, Hayley; Taylor, Maureen E.; Drickamer, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Mincle, the macrophage-inducible C-type lectin also known as CLEC-4E, binds to the mycobacterial glycolipid trehalose dimycolate and initiates a signaling cascade by serving as a receptor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacterial species. Studies of the biological functions of human mincle often rely on mouse models, based on the assumption that the biological properties of the mouse receptor mimic those of the human protein. Experimental support for this assumption has been obtained by expression of the carbohydrate-recognition domain of mouse mincle and characterization of its interaction with small molecule analogs of trehalose dimycolate. The results confirm that the ligand-binding properties of mouse mincle closely parallel those of the human receptor. These findings are consistent with the conservation of key amino acid residues that have been shown to form the ligand-binding site in human and cow mincle. Sequence alignment reveals that these residues are conserved in a wide range of mammalian species, suggesting that mincle has a conserved function in binding ligands that may include endogenous mammalian glycans or pathogen glycans in addition to trehalose dimycolate. PMID:25884549

  8. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2015-04-15

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells. PMID:25573173

  9. INDUCTION OF MICRONUCLEI BY X-RADIATION IN HUMAN, MOUSE, AND RAT PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the radiosensitivity of human, rat, and mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) by analyzing micronuclei (MN) in cytochalasin B-induced binucleated (BN) cells. or each species and dose, 4 ml aliquots of whole blood were X-irradiated to obtain doses of 38, 75, 150, o...

  10. Gene Entropy-Fractal Dimension Informatics with Application to Mouse-Human Translational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Dehipawala, S.; Ye, J.; Tremberger, G.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2013-01-01

    DNA informatics represented by Shannon entropy and fractal dimension have been used to form 2D maps of related genes in various mammals. The distance between points on these maps for corresponding mRNA sequences in different species is used to study evolution. By quantifying the similarity of genes between species, this distance might be indicated when studies on one species (mouse) would tend to be valid in the other (human). The hypothesis that a small distance from mouse to human could facilitate mouse to human translational medicine success is supported by the studied ESR-1, LMNA, Myc, and RNF4 sequences. ID1 and PLCZ1 have larger separation. The collinearity of displacement vectors is further analyzed with a regression model, and the ID1 result suggests a mouse-chimp-human translational medicine approach. Further inference was found in the tumor suppression gene, p53, with a new hypothesis of including the bovine PKM2 pathways for targeting the glycolysis preference in many types of cancerous cells, consistent with quantum metabolism models. The distance between mRNA and protein coding CDS is proposed as a measure of the pressure associated with noncoding processes. The Y-chromosome DYS14 in fetal micro chimerism that could offer protection from Alzheimer's disease is given as an example. PMID:23586047

  11. Gene entropy-fractal dimension informatics with application to mouse-human translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Holden, T; Cheung, E; Dehipawala, S; Ye, J; Tremberger, G; Lieberman, D; Cheung, T

    2013-01-01

    DNA informatics represented by Shannon entropy and fractal dimension have been used to form 2D maps of related genes in various mammals. The distance between points on these maps for corresponding mRNA sequences in different species is used to study evolution. By quantifying the similarity of genes between species, this distance might be indicated when studies on one species (mouse) would tend to be valid in the other (human). The hypothesis that a small distance from mouse to human could facilitate mouse to human translational medicine success is supported by the studied ESR-1, LMNA, Myc, and RNF4 sequences. ID1 and PLCZ1 have larger separation. The collinearity of displacement vectors is further analyzed with a regression model, and the ID1 result suggests a mouse-chimp-human translational medicine approach. Further inference was found in the tumor suppression gene, p53, with a new hypothesis of including the bovine PKM2 pathways for targeting the glycolysis preference in many types of cancerous cells, consistent with quantum metabolism models. The distance between mRNA and protein coding CDS is proposed as a measure of the pressure associated with noncoding processes. The Y-chromosome DYS14 in fetal micro chimerism that could offer protection from Alzheimer's disease is given as an example. PMID:23586047

  12. Identification of mouse and human macrophages as a site of synthesis of hepatic lipase.

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, Herminia; Nong, Zengxuan; Freeman, Lita; Bensadoun, André; Peterson, Katherine; Santamarina-Fojo, Silvia

    2002-05-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) is synthesized by the liver and is also present in steroidogenic tissues. As both a lipolytic enzyme and a ligand that facilitates the cellular uptake of lipoproteins, HL plays a major role in lipoprotein metabolism and may modulate atherogenic risk. However, HL has not been directly implicated in lesion development. In the present study we demonstrate that HL is also synthesized by mouse and human macrophages. Northern analysis and real time RT-PCR showed that HL mRNA is present in mouse peritoneal macrophages, RAW-264.7, and IC-21 cells. The levels of HL mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages were approximately 10-30% that of mouse liver. HL protein was identified by Western blot analyses in human monocyte-derived macrophages, THP, RAW-264.7, and mouse peritoneal macrophages following fractionation by heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography. These combined findings establish that HL is synthesized de novo by macrophages as well as liver, and raises the possibility that HL may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:11971936

  13. Constitutive Overexpression of Human Erythropoietin Protects the Mouse Retina against Induced But Not Inherited Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Christian; Wenzel, Andreas; Stanescu, Dinu; Samardzija, Marijana; Hotop, Svenja; Groszer, Mathias; Naash, Muna; Gassmann, Max; Remé, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Elevation of erythropoietin (Epo) concentrations by hypoxic preconditioning or application of recombinant human Epo (huEpo) protects the mouse retina against light-induced degeneration by inhibiting photoreceptor cell apoptosis. Because photoreceptor apoptosis is also the common path to cell loss in retinal dystrophies such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), we tested whether high levels of huEpo would reduce apoptotic cell death in two mouse models of human RP. We combined the two respective mutant mouse lines with a transgenic line (tg6) that constitutively overexpresses huEpo mainly in neural tissues. Transgenic expression of huEpo caused constitutively high levels of Epo in the retina and protected photoreceptors against light-induced degeneration; however, the presence of high levels of huEpo did not affect the course or the extent of retinal degeneration in a light-independent (rd1) and a light-accelerated (VPP) mouse model of RP. Similarly, repetitive intraperitoneal injections of recombinant huEpo did not protect the retina in the rd1 and the VPP mouse. Lack of neuroprotection by Epo in the two models of inherited retinal degeneration was not caused by adaptational downregulation of Epo receptor. Our results suggest that apoptotic mechanisms during acute, light-induced photoreceptor cell death differ from those in genetically based retinal degeneration. Therapeutic intervention with cell death in inherited retinal degeneration may therefore require different drugs and treatments. PMID:15215287

  14. Mouse models of human disease: An evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    The use of mice as model organisms to study human biology is predicated on the genetic and physiological similarities between the species. Nonetheless, mice and humans have evolved in and become adapted to different environments and so, despite their phylogenetic relatedness, they have become very different organisms. Mice often respond to experimental interventions in ways that differ strikingly from humans. Mice are invaluable for studying biological processes that have been conserved during the evolution of the rodent and primate lineages and for investigating the developmental mechanisms by which the conserved mammalian genome gives rise to a variety of different species. Mice are less reliable as models of human disease, however, because the networks linking genes to disease are likely to differ between the two species. The use of mice in biomedical research needs to take account of the evolved differences as well as the similarities between mice and humans. PMID:27121451

  15. Reprogramming within hours following nuclear transfer into mouse but not human zygotes.

    PubMed

    Egli, Dieter; Chen, Alice E; Saphier, Genevieve; Ichida, Justin; Fitzgerald, Claire; Go, Kathryn J; Acevedo, Nicole; Patel, Jay; Baetscher, Manfred; Kearns, William G; Goland, Robin; Leibel, Rudolph L; Melton, Douglas A; Eggan, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Fertilized mouse zygotes can reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Human zygotes might therefore be useful for producing patient-derived pluripotent stem cells. However, logistical, legal and social considerations have limited the availability of human eggs for research. Here we show that a significant number of normal fertilized eggs (zygotes) can be obtained for reprogramming studies. Using these zygotes, we found that when the zygotic genome was replaced with that of a somatic cell, development progressed normally throughout the cleavage stages, but then arrested before the morula stage. This arrest was associated with a failure to activate transcription in the transferred somatic genome. In contrast to human zygotes, mouse zygotes reprogrammed the somatic cell genome to a pluripotent state within hours after transfer. Our results suggest that there may be a previously unappreciated barrier to successful human nuclear transfer, and that future studies could focus on the requirements for genome activation. PMID:21971503

  16. Four paralogous protein 4.1 genes map to distinct chromosomes in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Peters, L L; Weier, H U; Walensky, L D; Snyder, S H; Parra, M; Mohandas, N; Conboy, J G

    1998-12-01

    Four highly conserved members of the skeletal protein 4.1 gene family encode a diverse array of protein isoforms via tissue-specific transcription and developmentally regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing. In addition to the prototypical red blood cell 4.1R (human gene symbol EPB41,) these include two homologues that are strongly expressed in the brain (4.1N, EPB41L1; and 4.1B, EPB41L3) and another that is widely expressed in many tissues (4.1G, EPB41L2). As part of a study on the structure and evolution of the 4.1 genes in human and mouse, we have now completed the chromosomal mapping of their respective loci by reporting the localization of mouse 4.1N, 4.1G, and 4.1B, as well as human 4.1B. For the mouse 4.1 genes, Southern blot analysis of RFLPs in The Jackson Laboratory BSS interspecific backcross yielded the following assignments: 4.1N (Epb4.1l1,) chromosome 2; 4.1G (Epb4.1l2,) chromosome 10; and 4.1B (Epb4.1l3,) mouse chromosome 17. Human 4.1B was physically mapped to chromosome 18p11 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. All of the mouse genes mapped within or adjacent to regions of conserved synteny with corresponding human chromosomes. We conclude that a set of four paralogous 4.1 genes has been evolutionarily conserved in rodents and primates. PMID:9828140

  17. Comparative Genetics: Synergizing Human and NOD Mouse Studies for Identifying Genetic Causation of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Driver, John P.; Chen, Yi-Guang; Mathews, Clayton E.

    2012-01-01

    Although once widely anticipated to unlock how human type 1 diabetes (T1D) develops, extensive study of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse has failed to yield effective treatments for patients with the disease. This has led many to question the usefulness of this animal model. While criticism about the differences between NOD and human T1D is legitimate, in many cases disease in both species results from perturbations modulated by the same genes or different genes that function within the same biological pathways. Like in humans, unusual polymorphisms within an MHC class II molecule contributes the most T1D risk in NOD mice. This insight supports the validity of this model and suggests the NOD has been improperly utilized to study how to cure or prevent disease in patients. Indeed, clinical trials are far from administering T1D therapeutics to humans at the same concentration ranges and pathological states that inhibit disease in NOD mice. Until these obstacles are overcome it is premature to label the NOD mouse a poor surrogate to test agents that cure or prevent T1D. An additional criticism of the NOD mouse is the past difficulty in identifying genes underlying T1D using conventional mapping studies. However, most of the few diabetogenic alleles identified to date appear relevant to the human disorder. This suggests that rather than abandoning genetic studies in NOD mice, future efforts should focus on improving the efficiency with which diabetes susceptibility genes are detected. The current review highlights why the NOD mouse remains a relevant and valuable tool to understand the genes and their interactions that promote autoimmune diabetes and therapeutics that inhibit this disease. It also describes a new range of technologies that will likely transform how the NOD mouse is used to uncover the genetic causes of T1D for years to come. PMID:23804259

  18. A TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODEL EXPRESSING EXCLUSIVELY HUMAN HEMOGLOBIN E: INDICATIONS OF A MILD OXIDATIVE STRESS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuying; Fabry, Mary E.; Rybicki, Anne C.; Suzuka, Sandra M.; Balazs, Tatiana C.; Etzion, Zipora; de Jong, Kitty; Akoto, Edna K.; Canterino, Joseph E.; Kaul, Dhananjay K.; Kuypers, Frans A.; Lefer, David; Bouhassira, Eric E.; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E (β26 Glu→ Lys) is the most common abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) variant in the world. Homozygotes for HbE are mildly thalassemic as a result of the alternate splice mutation and present with a benign clinical picture (microcytic and mildly anemic) with rare clinical symptoms. Given that the human red blood cell (RBC) contains both HbE and excess α-chains along with minor hemoglobins, the consequence of HbE alone on RBC pathophysiology has not been elucidated. This becomes critical for the highly morbid βE-thalassemia disease. We have generated transgenic mice exclusively expressing human HbE (HbEKO) that exhibit the known aberrant splicing of βE globin mRNA, but are essentially non-thalassemic as demonstrated by RBC α/β (human) globin chain synthesis. These mice exhibit hematological characteristics similar to presentations in human EE individuals: microcytic RBC with low MCV and MCH but normal MCHC; target RBC; mild anemia with low Hb, HCT and mildly elevated reticulocyte levels and decreased osmotic fragility, indicating altered RBC surface area to volume ratio. These alterations are correlated with a mild RBC oxidative stress indicated by enhanced membrane lipid peroxidation, elevated zinc protoporphyrin levels, and by small but significant changes in cardiac function. The C57 (background) mouse and full KO mouse models expressing HbE with the presence of HbS or HbA are used as controls. In select cases, the HbA full KO mouse model is compared but found to be limited due to its RBC thalassemic characteristics. Since the HbEKO mouse RBC lacks an abundance of excess α-chains that would approximate a mouse thalassemia (or a human thalassemia), the results indicate that the observed in vivo RBC mild oxidative stress arises, at least in part, from the molecular consequences of the HbE mutation. PMID:22260787

  19. Genetically diverse CC-founder mouse strains replicate the human influenza gene expression signature

    PubMed Central

    Elbahesh, Husni; Schughart, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) are zoonotic pathogens that pose a major threat to human and animal health. Influenza virus disease severity is influenced by viral virulence factors as well as individual differences in host response. We analyzed gene expression changes in the blood of infected mice using a previously defined set of signature genes that was derived from changes in the blood transcriptome of IAV-infected human volunteers. We found that the human signature was reproduced well in the founder strains of the Collaborative Cross (CC) mice, thus demonstrating the relevance and importance of mouse experimental model systems for studying human influenza disease. PMID:27193691

  20. Genetically diverse CC-founder mouse strains replicate the human influenza gene expression signature.

    PubMed

    Elbahesh, Husni; Schughart, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) are zoonotic pathogens that pose a major threat to human and animal health. Influenza virus disease severity is influenced by viral virulence factors as well as individual differences in host response. We analyzed gene expression changes in the blood of infected mice using a previously defined set of signature genes that was derived from changes in the blood transcriptome of IAV-infected human volunteers. We found that the human signature was reproduced well in the founder strains of the Collaborative Cross (CC) mice, thus demonstrating the relevance and importance of mouse experimental model systems for studying human influenza disease. PMID:27193691

  1. Plasmodium falciparum genetic crosses in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Ashley M.; Pinapati, Richard S.; Cheeseman, Ian H.; Camargo, Nelly; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Checkley, Lisa A.; Nair, Shalini; Hutyra, Carolyn A.; Nosten, François H.; Anderson, Timothy J. C.; Ferdig, Michael T.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic crosses of phenotypically distinct strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are a powerful tool for identifying genes controlling drug resistance and other key phenotypes. Previous studies relied on the isolation of recombinant parasites from splenectomized chimpanzees, a research avenue that is no longer available. Here, we demonstrate that human-liver chimeric mice support recovery of recombinant progeny for the identification of genetic determinants of parasite traits and adaptations. PMID:26030447

  2. Human liver endothelial cells, but not macrovascular or microvascular endothelial cells, engraft in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Filali, Ebtisam El; Hiralall, Johan K; van Veen, Henk A; Stolz, Donna B; Seppen, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Liver cell transplantation has had limited clinical success so far, partly due to poor engraftment of hepatocytes. Instead of hepatocytes. other cell types, such as endothelial cells, could be used in ex vivo liver gene therapy. The goal of the present study was to compare the grafting and repopulation capacity of human endothelial cells derived from various tissues. Human endothelial cells were isolated from adult and fetal livers using anti-human CD31 antibody-conjugated magnetic beads. Human macrovascular endothelial cells were obtained from umbilical vein. Human microvascular endothelial cells were isolated from adipose tissue. Cells were characterized using flow cytometry. Liver engraftment and repopulation of endothelial cells was studied after intrasplenic transplantation in monocrotaline-treated immunodeficient mice. Following transplantation, human liver endothelial cells engrafted throughout the mouse liver. With immunoscanning electron microscopy, fenestrae in engrafted human liver endothelial cells were identified, a characteristic feature of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. In contrast, CD31-negative liver cells, human macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells were not capable of repopulating mouse liver. Characterization of human liver, macrovascular, and microvascular endothelial cells demonstrated expression of CD31, CD34, and CD146 but not CD45. Our study shows that only human liver endothelial cells, but not macro- and microvascular endothelial cells, have the unique capacity to engraft and repopulate the mouse liver. These results indicate that mature endothelial cells cannot transdifferentiate in vivo and thus do not exhibit phenotypic plasticity. Our results have set a basis for further research to the potential of human liver endothelial cells in liver-directed cell and gene therapy. PMID:23044355

  3. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM(+) mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab' fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production. PMID:26956543

  4. Human NAIP and mouse NAIP1 recognize bacterial type III secretion needle protein for inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieling; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Jianjin; Shao, Feng

    2013-08-27

    Inflammasome mediated by central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) protein is critical for defense against bacterial infection. Here we show that type III secretion system (T3SS) needle proteins from several bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella typhimurium, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Burkholderia spp., can induce robust inflammasome activation in both human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow macrophages. Needle protein activation of human NRL family CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome requires the sole human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (hNAIP). Among the seven mouse NAIPs, NAIP1 functions as the mouse counterpart of hNAIP. We found that NAIP1 recognition of T3SS needle proteins was more robust in mouse dendritic cells than in bone marrow macrophages. Needle proteins, as well as flagellin and rod proteins from five different bacteria, exhibited differential and cell type-dependent inflammasome-stimulating activity. Comprehensive profiling of the three types of NAIP ligands revealed that NAIP1 sensing of the needle protein dominated S. flexneri-induced inflammasome activation, particularly in dendritic cells. hNAIP/NAIP1 and NAIP2/5 formed a large oligomeric complex with NLRC4 in the presence of corresponding bacterial ligands, and could support reconstitution of the NLRC4 inflammasome in a ligand-specific manner. PMID:23940371

  5. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM+ mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab′ fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production. PMID:26956543

  6. Localization of PPAR isotypes in the adult mouse and human brain

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Anna; Truitt, Jay; Merriman, Morgan; Ponomareva, Olga; Jameson, Kelly; Ferguson, Laura B.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. PPAR agonists have well-documented anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective roles in the central nervous system. Recent evidence suggests that PPAR agonists are attractive therapeutic agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases as well as addiction. However, the distribution of PPAR mRNA and protein in brain regions associated with these conditions (i.e. prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, ventral tegmental area) is not well defined. Moreover, the cell type specificity of PPARs in mouse and human brain tissue has yet to be investigated. We utilized quantitative PCR and double immunofluorescence microscopy to determine that both PPAR mRNA and protein are expressed ubiquitously throughout the adult mouse brain. We found that PPARs have unique cell type specificities that are consistent between species. PPARα was the only isotype to colocalize with all cell types in both adult mouse and adult human brain tissue. Overall, we observed a strong neuronal signature, which raises the possibility that PPAR agonists may be targeting neurons rather than glia to produce neuroprotection. Our results fill critical gaps in PPAR distribution and define novel cell type specificity profiles in the adult mouse and human brain. PMID:27283430

  7. Significance of Mouse Models in Dissecting the Mechanism of Human Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases (EGID)

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that eosinophils play a significant role in promoting several gastrointestinal diseases, and animal models are the significant tools to understand the pathogenesis of eosinophil-associatd inflammatory disorders. The focus of this review is on the significance of mouse models that mimic the characteristics of human eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases. Eosinophils are the important leukocytes with diverse functions in the gastrointestinal tract, such as excretion of intestinal parasites and promoting the pathogenesis of a numerous allergic gastrointestinal disorders like food allergy, parasitic infection, allergic gastroenteritis, allergic colitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Among these gastrointestinal diseases, the eosinophilic esophagitis is the most recently recognized disease and the mouse models are proven to be an effective tool to understand the pathophysiology of disease and to test novel treatment strategies. Based on patients allergic conditions and the gene overexpressed in human EGID, a number of gene overexpressed and allergen-challenged mouse models of gastrointestinal disorders were developed. These models were utilized to explore the mechanism(s) that promotes the eosinophil-mediated gastrointestinal diseases including the role of the eosinophil responsive cytokines and chemokines. Herein, we have provided a detailed overviews of the mouse models of gastrointestinal disorders that mimic the human eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases and can be utilized as a tool for understanding the diseases pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25866707

  8. CpG islands in human ZFX and ZFY and mouse Zfx genes: Sequence similarities and methylation differences

    SciTech Connect

    Luoh, S.W.; Jegalian, K.; Ridley, A.; Page, D.C.

    1995-09-20

    The human ZFX, human ZFY, and mouse Zfx genes have CpG islands near their 5` ends. These islands are typical in that they span about 1.5 kb, contain transcription initiation sites, and encompass some 5` untranslated exons and introns. However, comparative nucleotide sequencing of these humans and mouse islands provided evidence of evolutionary conservation to a degree unprecedented among mammalian 5` CpG islands. In one stretch of 165 nucleotides containing 19 CpGs, mouse Zfx and human ZFX are identical to each other and differ from human ZFY at only 9 nucleotides. In contrast, we found no evidence of homologous CpG islands in the mouse Zfy genes, whose transcription is more circumscribed than that of a human ZFX, human ZFY, and mouse Zfx. Using the isoschizomers HpaII and MspI to examine a highly conserved segment of the ZFX CpG island, we detected methylation on inactive mouse X-chromosomes. These observations parallel the previous findings that mouse Zfx undergoes X inactivation while human ZFX escapes it. 62 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Transgenic nude mouse with ubiquitous green fluorescent protein expression as a host for human tumors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Reynoso, Jose; Jiang, Ping; Li, Lingna; Moossa, Abdool R; Hoffman, Robert M

    2004-12-01

    We report here the development of the transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) nude mouse with ubiquitous GFP expression. The GFP nude mouse was obtained by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives GFP expression in essentially all tissues. In crosses between nu/nu GFP male mice and nu/+ GFP female mice, the embryos fluoresced green. Approximately 50% of the offspring of these mice were GFP nude mice. Newborn mice and adult mice fluoresced very bright green and could be detected with a simple blue-light-emitting diode flashlight with a central peak of 470 nm and a bypass emission filter. In the adult mice, the organs all brightly expressed GFP, including the heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The following systems were dissected out and shown to have brilliant GFP fluorescence: the entire digestive system from tongue to anus; the male and female reproductive systems; brain and spinal cord; and the circulatory system, including the heart and major arteries and veins. The skinned skeleton highly expressed GFP. Pancreatic islets showed GFP fluorescence. The spleen cells were also GFP positive. Red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing human cancer cell lines, including PC-3-RFP prostate cancer, HCT-116-RFP colon cancer, MDA-MB-435-RFP breast cancer, and HT1080-RFP fibrosarcoma were transplanted to the transgenic GFP nude mice. All of these human tumors grew extensively in the transgenic GFP nude mouse. Dual-color fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of human tumor-host interaction by whole-body imaging and at the cellular level in fresh and frozen tissues. The GFP mouse model should greatly expand our knowledge of human tumor-host interaction. PMID:15574773

  10. Sequence divergence and chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of human pseudoautosomal genes and their mouse homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.; Li, X.; Francke, U.

    1994-09-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is an area of sequence identity between the X and Y chromosomes and is important for mediating X-Y pairing during male meiosis. Of the seven genes assigned to the human PAR, none of the mouse homologs have been isolated by a cross-hybridization strategy. Two of these homologs, Csfgmra and II3ra, have been isolated using a functional assay for the gene products. These genes are quite different in sequence from their human homologs, showing only 60-70% sequence similarity. The Csfgmra gene has been found to further differ from its human homolog in being isolated not on the sex chromosomes, but on a mouse autosome (chromosome 19). Using a mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrid mapping panel, we have mapped the II3ra gene to yet another mouse autosome, chromosome 14. Attempts to clone the mouse homolog of the ANT3 locus resulted in the isolation of two related genes, Ant1 and Ant2, but failed to yield the Ant3 gene. Southern blot analysis of the ANT/Ant genes showed the Ant1 and Ant2 sequences to be well-conserved among all of a dozen mammals tested. In contrast, the ANT3 gene only showed hybridization to non-rodent mammals, suggesting it is either greatly divergent or has been deleted in the rodent lineage. Similar experiments with other human pseudoautosomal probes likewise showed a lack of hybridization to rodent sequences. The results show a definite trend of extensive divergence of pseudoautosomal sequences in addition to chromosomal rearrangements involving X;autosome translocations and perhaps gene deletions. Such observations have interesting implications regarding the evolution of this important region of the sex chromosomes.

  11. Use of PC mouse components for continuous measuring of human heartbeat.

    PubMed

    Beiderman, Yevgeny; Talyosef, Roy; Yeori, Daniel; Garcia, Javier; Mico, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2012-06-01

    A new technology for remote measuring of vibration sources was recently developed for industrial, medical, and security-related applications [Int. Appl. Patent No: PCT/IL2008/001008]. It requires relatively expensive equipment, such as high-speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors and customized optics. In this paper, we demonstrate how the usage of a simple personal computer (PC) mouse as an optical system composed of a low-power laser and a CMOS circuitry on the same integrated circuit package, can be used to monitor heartbeat from the wrist. The method is based on modifying the mouse optical system in such a way that it will recognize temporal change in skin's vibration profile, generated due to the heart pulses, as mouse movement. The tests that were carried out show a very good correlation between the heartbeat rate measured from human skin and the reference values taken manually. PMID:22695566

  12. Modeling Breast Tumor Development with a Humanized Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in breast cancer growth and progression to metastasis. Here, we describe a method to examine stromal-epithelial interactions during tumor formation and progression utilizing human-derived mammary epithelial cells and breast stromal cells. This method outlines the isolation of each cell type from reduction mammoplasty tissue, the culture and genetic modification of both epithelial and stromal cells using lentiviral technology, and the method of humanizing and implantation of transformed epithelial cells into the cleared mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice. This model system may be a useful tool to dissect signaling interactions that contribute to invasive tumor behavior and therapeutic resistance. PMID:27581027

  13. Insights into synaptic function from mouse models of human cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Banko, Jessica L; Trotter, Justin; Weeber, Edwin J

    2011-01-01

    Modern approaches to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying human cognitive disease often include multidisciplinary examination of animal models engineered with specific mutations that spatially and temporally restrict expression of a gene of interest. This approach not only makes possible the development of animal models that demonstrate phenotypic similarities to their respective human disorders, but has also allowed for significant progress towards understanding the processes that mediate synaptic function and memory formation in the nondiseased state. Examples of successful mouse models where genetic manipulation of the mouse resulted in recapitulation of the symptomatology of the human disorder and was used to significantly expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying normal synaptic plasticity and memory formation are discussed in this article. These studies have broadened our knowledge of several signal transduction cascades that function throughout life to mediate synaptic physiology. Defining these events is key for developing therapies to address disorders of cognitive ability. PMID:25083141

  14. A new region of conservation is defined between human and mouse X chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinulos, M.B.; Disteche, C.M.; Bassi, M.T.

    1996-07-01

    Comparative mapping of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals have revealed distinct regions of conservation as well as evolutionary rearrangements between human and mouse. Recently, we and others mapped the murine homologue of CLCN4 (Chloride channel 4) to band F4 of the X chromosome in Mus spretus but to chromosome 7 in laboratory strains. We now report the mapping of the murine homologues of APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), two genes that are located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3 and in close proximity to CLCN4. Interestingly, Oa1 and Apxl map to bands F2-F3 in both M. spretus and the laboratory strain C57BL/6J, defining a new rearrangement between human and mouse X chromosomes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A novel Flt3-deficient HIS mouse model with selective enhancement of human DC development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Mention, Jean-Jacques; Court, Nathalie; Masse-Ranson, Guillemette; Toubert, Antoine; Spits, Hergen; Legrand, Nicolas; Corcuff, Erwan; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Di Santo, James P

    2016-05-01

    Humanized mice harboring human immune systems (HIS) represent a platform to study immune responses against pathogens and to screen vaccine candidates and novel immunotherapeutics. Innate and adaptive immune responses are suboptimal in HIS mice, possibly due to poor reconstitution of human antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). DC homeostasis is regulated by cytokine availability, and Flt3-ligand (Flt3L) is one factor that conditions this process. Mouse myelopoiesis is essentially normal in most current HIS models. As such, developing mouse myeloid cells may limit human DC reconstitution by reducing available Flt3L and by cellular competition for specific "niches." To address these issues, we created a novel HIS model that compromises host myeloid cell development via deficiency in the receptor tyrosine kinase Flk2/Flt3. In Balb/c Rag2(-/-) Il2rg(-/-) Flt3(-/-) (BRGF) recipients, human conventional DCs and plasmacytoid DCs develop from hCD34(+) precursors and can be specifically boosted with exogenous Flt3L. Human DCs that develop in this context normally respond to TLR stimulation, and improved human DC homeostasis is associated with increased numbers of human NK and T cells. This new HIS-DC model should provide a means to dissect human DC differentiation and represents a novel platform to screen immune adjuvants and DC targeting therapies. PMID:26865269

  16. Transcript catalogs of human chromosome 21 and orthologous chimpanzee and mouse regions.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Xiaolu; Gardiner, Katheleen J

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive representation of the gene content of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21q) remains of interest for the study of Down syndrome, its associated phenotypic features, and mouse models. Here we compare transcript catalogs for Hsa21q, chimpanzee chromosome 21 (Ptr21q), and orthologous regions of mouse chromosomes 16, 17, and 10 for open reading frame (ORF) characteristics and conservation. The Hsa21q and mouse catalogs contain 552 and 444 gene models, respectively, of which only 162 are highly conserved. Hsa21q transcripts were used to identify orthologous exons in Ptr21q and assemble 533 putative transcripts. Transcript catalogs for all three organisms are searchable for nucleotide and amino acid sequence features of ORF length, repeat content, experimental support, gene structure, and conservation. For human and mouse comparisons, three additional summaries are provided: (1) the chromosomal distribution of novel ORF transcripts versus potential functional RNAs, (2) the distribution of species-specific transcripts within Hsa21q and mouse models of Down syndrome, and (3) the organization of sense-antisense and putative sense-antisense structures defining potential regulatory mechanisms. Catalogs, summaries, and nucleotide and amino acid sequences of all composite transcripts are available and searchable at http://gfuncpathdb.ucdenver.edu/iddrc/chr21/home.php. These data sets provide comprehensive information useful for evaluation of candidate genes and mouse models of Down syndrome and for identification of potential functional RNA genes and novel regulatory mechanisms involving Hsa21q genes. These catalogs and search tools complement and extend information available from other gene annotation projects. PMID:21400203

  17. Sensory and autonomic deficits in a new humanized mouse model of familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Morini, Elisabetta; Dietrich, Paula; Salani, Monica; Downs, Heather M; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Alli, Shanta; Brenner, Anthony; Nilbratt, Mats; LeClair, John W; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Dragatsis, Ioannis

    2016-03-15

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease that affects the development and survival of sensory and autonomic neurons. FD is caused by an mRNA splicing mutation in intron 20 of the IKBKAP gene that results in a tissue-specific skipping of exon 20 and a corresponding reduction of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP), also known as Elongator complex protein 1. To date, several promising therapeutic candidates for FD have been identified that target the underlying mRNA splicing defect, and increase functional IKAP protein. Despite these remarkable advances in drug discovery for FD, we lacked a phenotypic mouse model in which we could manipulate IKBKAP mRNA splicing to evaluate potential efficacy. We have, therefore, engineered a new mouse model that, for the first time, will permit to evaluate the phenotypic effects of splicing modulators and provide a crucial platform for preclinical testing of new therapies. This new mouse model, TgFD9; Ikbkap(Δ20/flox) was created by introducing the complete human IKBKAP transgene with the major FD splice mutation (TgFD9) into a mouse that expresses extremely low levels of endogenous Ikbkap (Ikbkap(Δ20/flox)). The TgFD9; Ikbkap(Δ20/flox) mouse recapitulates many phenotypic features of the human disease, including reduced growth rate, reduced number of fungiform papillae, spinal abnormalities, and sensory and sympathetic impairments, and recreates the same tissue-specific mis-splicing defect seen in FD patients. This is the first mouse model that can be used to evaluate in vivo the therapeutic effect of increasing IKAP levels by correcting the underlying FD splicing defect. PMID:26769677

  18. Generation and Characterization of a Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Humanized Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Shannon; Salphati, Laurent; Gomez-Zepeda, David; Wanek, Thomas; Chen, Liangfu; Chu, Xiaoyan; Kunta, Jeevan; Mezler, Mario; Menet, Marie-Claude; Chasseigneaux, Stephanie; Declèves, Xavier; Langer, Oliver; Pierre, Esaie; DiLoreto, Karen; Hoft, Carolin; Laplanche, Loic; Pang, Jodie; Pereira, Tony; Andonian, Clara; Simic, Damir; Rode, Anja; Yabut, Jocelyn; Zhang, Xiaolin; Scheer, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is expressed in various tissues, such as the gut, liver, kidney and blood brain barrier (BBB), where it mediates the unidirectional transport of substrates to the apical/luminal side of polarized cells. Thereby BCRP acts as an efflux pump, mediating the elimination or restricting the entry of endogenous compounds or xenobiotics into tissues and it plays important roles in drug disposition, efficacy and safety. Bcrp knockout mice (Bcrp(-/-)) have been used widely to study the role of this transporter in limiting intestinal absorption and brain penetration of substrate compounds. Here we describe the first generation and characterization of a mouse line humanized for BCRP (hBCRP), in which the mouse coding sequence from the start to stop codon was replaced with the corresponding human genomic region, such that the human transporter is expressed under control of the murineBcrppromoter. We demonstrate robust human and loss of mouse BCRP/Bcrp mRNA and protein expression in the hBCRP mice and the absence of major compensatory changes in the expression of other genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition. Pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies with several BCRP probe substrates confirmed the functional activity of the human transporter in these mice. Furthermore, we provide practical examples for the use of hBCRP mice to study drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The hBCRP mouse is a promising model to study the in vivo role of human BCRP in limiting absorption and BBB penetration of substrate compounds and to investigate clinically relevant DDIs involving BCRP. PMID:26893303

  19. Metabolism of human cytochrome P450 marker substrates in mouse: a strain and gender comparison.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, S; Hagbjörk, A L; Ekman, S; Fransson-Steen, R; Terelius, Y

    2004-09-01

    The aim was to characterize mouse gender and strain differences in the metabolism of commonly used human cytochrome (CYP) P450 probe substrates. Thirteen human CYP probe substrates (phenacetin, coumarin, 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin, amiodarone, paclitaxel, diclofenac, S-mephenytoin, bufuralol, dextromethorphan, chlorzoxazone, p-nitrophenol, testosterone and lauric acid) were used in activity measurements. The metabolism of the probe substrates was compared in liver microsomes from male and female NMRI, CBA, C57bl/6, 129/SvJ and CD1 strains. The expression of proteins identified on Western blots with commonly available antibodies selective for specific human and rat CYP enzymes were compared in the different mouse strains. Males had higher metabolism than corresponding females for phenacetin O-deethylation (human marker for CYP1A2 activity), and a high correlation was found between phenacetin activity and immunoreactivity in Western blots produced with rat CYP1A2 antibodies. Protein detected by antibodies cross-reacting with human CYP2B6 and rat CYP2B1/2 antibodies was female specific except for the 129/SvJ strain, where it was absent in both genders. Females generally had a higher metabolism of bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation (human markers for CYP2D activity). Bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation correlated with a female-dominant mouse CYP, which was detected with antibodies against rat CYP2D4. p-Nitrophenol 2-hydroxylation correlated better than chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation with the protein detected with antibodies against rat CYP2E1, indicating that p-nitrophenol is a more specific substrate for mouse CYP2E1. PMID:15742976

  20. The LKB1 Tumor Suppressor as a Biomarker in Mouse and Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Christopher G.; Zhang, Song; Zhao, Ni; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Sharpless, Norman E.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Hayes, D. Neil; Castrillon, Diego H.

    2013-01-01

    Germline mutations in the LKB1 gene (also known as STK11) cause the Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, and somatic loss of LKB1 has emerged as causal event in a wide range of human malignancies, including melanoma, lung cancer, and cervical cancer. The LKB1 protein is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other downstream targets. Conditional knockout studies in mouse models have consistently shown that LKB1 loss promotes a highly-metastatic phenotype in diverse tissues, and human studies have demonstrated a strong association between LKB1 inactivation and tumor recurrence. Furthermore, LKB1 deficiency confers sensitivity to distinct classes of anticancer drugs. The ability to reliably identify LKB1-deficient tumors is thus likely to have important prognostic and predictive implications. Previous research studies have employed polyclonal antibodies with limited success, and there is no widely-employed immunohistochemical assay for LKB1. Here we report an assay based on a rabbit monoclonal antibody that can reliably detect endogenous LKB1 protein (and its absence) in mouse and human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. LKB1 protein levels determined through this assay correlated strongly with AMPK phosphorylation both in mouse and human tumors, and with mRNA levels in human tumors. Our studies fully validate this immunohistochemical assay for LKB1 in paraffin-embedded formalin tissue sections. This assay should be broadly useful for research studies employing mouse models and also for the development of human tissue-based assays for LKB1 in diverse clinical settings. PMID:24086281

  1. The Humanized NOD/SCID Mouse as a Preclinical Model to Study the Fate of Encapsulated Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Oberholzer, Jose; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Tuch, Bernard E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite encouraging results in animal models, the transplantation of microencapsulated islets into humans has not yet reached the therapeutic level. Recent clinical trials using microencapsulated human islets in barium alginate showed the presence of dense fibrotic overgrowth around the microcapsules with no viable islets. The major reason for this is limited understanding of what occurs when encapsulated human islets are allografted. This warrants the need for a suitable small animal model. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human PBMCs (called humanized NOD/SCID mice) as a preclinical model. In this model, human T cell engraftment could be achieved, and CD45+ cells were observed in the spleen and peripheral blood. Though the engrafted T cells caused a small fibrotic overgrowth around the microencapsulated human islets, this failed to stop the encapsulated islets from functioning in the diabetic recipient mice. The ability of encapsulated islets to survive in this mouse model might partly be attributed to the presence of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, which are known to induce graft tolerance. In conclusion, this study showed that the hu-NOD/SCID mouse is not a suitable preclinical model to study the allograft rejection mechanisms of encapsulated human islets. As another result, the maintained viability of transplanted islets on the NOD/SCID background emphasized a critical role of protective mechanisms in autoimmune diabetes transplanted subjects due to specific immunoregulatory effects provided by IL-4 and IL-10. PMID:20703439

  2. Mouse Regenerating Myofibers Detected as False-Positive Donor Myofibers with Anti-Human Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Rozkalne, Anete; Adkin, Carl; Meng, Jinhong; Lapan, Ariya; Morgan, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Stem cell transplantation is being tested as a potential therapy for a number of diseases. Stem cells isolated directly from tissue specimens or generated via reprogramming of differentiated cells require rigorous testing for both safety and efficacy in preclinical models. The availability of mice with immune-deficient background that carry additional mutations in specific genes facilitates testing the efficacy of cell transplantation in disease models. The muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, of which Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most severe and common type. Cell-based therapy for muscular dystrophy has been under investigation for several decades, with a wide selection of cell types being studied, including tissue-specific stem cells and reprogrammed stem cells. Several immune-deficient mouse models of muscular dystrophy have been generated, in which human cells obtained from various sources are injected to assess their preclinical potential. After transplantation, the presence of engrafted human cells is detected via immunofluorescence staining, using antibodies that recognize human, but not mouse, proteins. Here we show that one antibody specific to human spectrin, which is commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of transplanted human cells in mouse muscle, detects myofibers in muscles of NOD/Rag1nullmdx5cv, NOD/LtSz-scid IL2Rγnull mice, or mdx nude mice, irrespective of whether they were injected with human cells. These “reactive” clusters are regenerating myofibers, which are normally present in dystrophic tissue and the spectrin antibody is likely recognizing utrophin, which contains spectrin-like repeats. Therefore, caution should be used in interpreting data based on detection of single human-specific proteins, and evaluation of human stem cell engraftment should be performed using multiple human-specific labeling strategies. PMID:24152287

  3. Mouse-human immunoglobulin G1 chimeric antibodies with activities against Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed Central

    Zebedee, S L; Koduri, R K; Mukherjee, J; Mukherjee, S; Lee, S; Sauer, D F; Scharff, M D; Casadevall, A

    1994-01-01

    Passive antibody administration is a potentially useful approach for the therapy of human Cryptococcus neoformans infections. To evaluate the efficacy of the human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) constant region against C. neoformans and to construct murine antibody derivatives with reduced immunogenicities and longer half-lives in humans, two mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibodies were generated from the protective murine monoclonal antibodies 2D10 (IgM) and 18B7 (IgG1). The 2D10 mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibody (ch2D10) had significantly lower binding affinity than its parent murine antibody (m2D10), presumably because of a loss of avidity contribution on switching from IgM to IgG. The 18B7 mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibody (ch18B7) had higher affinity for cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen than its parent murine antibody (m18B7). ch18B7 and ch2D10 promoted phagocytosis of C. neoformans by primary human microglial cells and the murine J774.16 macrophage-like cell line. ch18B7 and m18B7 enhanced fungistatic or fungicidal activity of J774.16 cells and prolonged the survival of lethally infected mice. We conclude that the human IgG1 constant chain can be effective in mediating antifungal activity against C. neoformans. ch18B7 or similar antibodies are potential candidates for passive antibody therapy of human cryptococcosis. PMID:7979280

  4. Organoid Models of Human and Mouse Ductal Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boj, Sylvia F.; Hwang, Chang-Il; Baker, Lindsey A.; Chio, Iok In Christine; Engle, Dannielle D.; Corbo, Vincenzo; Jager, Myrthe; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Tiriac, Hervé; Spector, Mona S.; Gracanin, Ana; Oni, Tobiloba; Yu, Kenneth H.; van Boxtel, Ruben; Huch, Meritxell; Rivera, Keith D.; Wilson, John P.; Feigin, Michael E.; Öhlund, Daniel; Handly-Santana, Abram; Ardito-Abraham, Christine M.; Ludwig, Michael; Elyada, Ela; Alagesan, Brinda; Biffi, Giulia; Yordanov, Georgi N.; Delcuze, Bethany; Creighton, Brianna; Wright, Kevin; Park, Youngkyu; Morsink, Folkert H.M.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Borel Rinkes, Inne H.; Cuppen, Edwin; Hao, Yuan; Jin, Ying; Nijman, Isaac J.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Leach, Steven D.; Pappin, Darryl J.; Hammell, Molly; Klimstra, David S.; Basturk, Olca; Hruban, Ralph H.; Offerhaus, George Johan; Vries, Robert G.J.; Clevers, Hans; Tuveson, David A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies due to its late diagnosis and limited response to treatment. Tractable methods to identify and interrogate pathways involved in pancreatic tumorigenesis are urgently needed. We established organoid models from normal and neoplastic murine and human pancreas tissues. Pancreatic organoids can be rapidly generated from resected tumors and biopsies, survive cryopreservation and exhibit ductal- and disease stage-specific characteristics. Orthotopically transplanted neoplastic organoids recapitulate the full spectrum of tumor development by forming early-grade neoplasms that progress to locally invasive and metastatic carcinomas. Due to their ability to be genetically manipulated, organoids are a platform to probe genetic cooperation. Comprehensive transcriptional and proteomic analyses of murine pancreatic organoids revealed genes and pathways altered during disease progression. The confirmation of many of these protein changes in human tissues demonstrates that organoids are a facile model system to discover characteristics of this deadly malignancy. PMID:25557080

  5. Comparison of Mouse and Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression Profiles: Potential Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bennis, Anna; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Bossers, Koen; Heine, Vivi M.; Bergen, Arthur A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to develop new therapeutics. This requires further in-depth knowledge of the similarities and differences between mouse and human RPE. Methods We performed a microarray study to identify and functionally annotate RPE specific gene expression in mouse and human RPE. We used a meticulous method to determine C57BL/6J mouse RPE signature genes, correcting for possible RNA contamination from its adjacent layers: the choroid and the photoreceptors. We compared the signature genes, gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the mouse and human RPE. Results We defined sets of mouse (64), human (171) and mouse–human interspecies (22) RPE signature genes. Not unexpectedly, our gene expression analysis and comparative functional annotation suggested that, in general, the mouse and human RPE are very similar. For example, we found similarities for general features, like “organ development” and “disorders related to neurological tissue”. However, detailed analysis of the molecular pathways and networks associated with RPE functions, suggested also multiple species-specific differences, some of which may be relevant for the development of AMD. For example, CFHR1, most likely the main complement regulator in AMD pathogenesis was highly expressed in human RPE, but almost absent in mouse RPE. Furthermore, functions assigned to mouse and human RPE expression profiles indicate (patho-) biological differences related to AMD, such as oxidative stress, Bruch’s membrane, immune-regulation and outer blood retina barrier. Conclusion These differences may be important for the development of new therapeutic strategies and translational studies in age-related macular

  6. In Vivo Ultra-Fast Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry of Circulating Human Melanoma Cells Using Near-Ingrared High-Pulse Rate Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Ye, John; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    The circulating tumor cells (CTCs) appear to be a marker of metastasis development, especially, for highly aggressive and epidemically growing melanoma malignancy that is often metastatic at early stages. Recently, we introduced in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) for label-free detection of mouse B16F10 CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice using melanin as an intrinsic marker. Here, we significantly improve the speed of PAFC by using a high pulse repetition rate laser operating at 820 and 1064 nm wavelengths. This platform was used in preclinical studies for label-free PA detection of low pigmented human CTCs. Demonstrated label-free PAFC detection, low level of background signals, and favorable safety standards for near infrared irradiation suggest that a fiber laser operating at 1064 nm at pulse repetition rates up to 0.5 MHz could be a promising source for portable clinical PAFC devices. The possible applications can include early diagnosis of melanoma at the parallel progression of primary tumor and CTCs, detection of cancer recurrence, residual disease, and real-time monitoring of therapy efficiency by counting CTCs before, during and after therapeutic intervention. Herewith, we also address sensitivity of label-free PAFC melanoma CTCs detection and introduce in vivo CTCs targeting by magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with specific antibody and magnetic cells enrichment. PMID:21786417

  7. In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers.

    PubMed

    Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Ye, Jian-Hui; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2011-10-01

    The circulating tumor cells (CTCs) appear to be a marker of metastasis development, especially, for highly aggressive and epidemically growing melanoma malignancy that is often metastatic at early stages. Recently, we introduced in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) for label-free detection of mouse B16F10 CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice using melanin as an intrinsic marker. Here, we significantly improve the speed of PAFC by using a high-pulse repetition rate laser operating at 820 and 1064 nm wavelengths. This platform was used in preclinical studies for label-free PA detection of low-pigmented human CTCs. Demonstrated label-free PAFC detection, low level of background signals, and favorable safety standards for near-infrared irradiation suggest that a fiber laser operating at 1064 nm at pulse repetition rates up to 0.5 MHz could be a promising source for portable clinical PAFC devices. The possible applications can include early diagnosis of melanoma at the parallel progression of primary tumor and CTCs, detection of cancer recurrence, residual disease and real-time monitoring of therapy efficiency by counting CTCs before, during, and after therapeutic intervention. Herewith, we also address sensitivity of label-free detection of melanoma CTCs and introduce in vivo CTC targeting by magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with specific antibody and magnetic cells enrichment. PMID:21786417

  8. Accelerated Human Mutant Tau Aggregation by Knocking Out Murine Tau in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Kunie; Leroy, Karelle; Héraud, Céline; Yilmaz, Zehra; Authelet, Michèle; Suain, Valèrie; De Decker, Robert; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Many models of human tauopathies have been generated in mice by expression of a human mutant tau with maintained expression of mouse endogenous tau. Because murine tau might interfere with the toxic effects of human mutant tau, we generated a model in which a pathogenic human tau protein is expressed in the absence of wild-type tau protein, with the aim of facilitating the study of the pathogenic role of the mutant tau and to reproduce more faithfully a human tauopathy. The Tg30 line is a tau transgenic mouse model overexpressing human 1N4R double-mutant tau (P301S and G272V) that develops Alzheimer's disease-like neurofibrillary tangles in an age-dependent manner. By crossing Tg30 mice with mice invalidated for their endogenous tau gene, we obtained Tg30xtau−/− mice that express only exogenous human double-mutant 1N4R tau. Although Tg30xtau−/− mice express less tau protein compared with Tg30, they exhibit signs of decreased survival, increased proportion of sarkosyl-insoluble tau in the brain and in the spinal cord, increased number of Gallyas-positive neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampus, increased number of inclusions in the spinal cord, and a more severe motor phenotype. Deletion of murine tau accelerated tau aggregation during aging of this mutant tau transgenic model, suggesting that murine tau could interfere with the development of tau pathology in transgenic models of human tauopathies. PMID:21281813

  9. Genetic Regulation of Pituitary Gland Development in Human and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kelberman, Daniel; Rizzoti, Karine; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Robinson, Iain C. A. F.; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2009-01-01

    Normal hypothalamopituitary development is closely related to that of the forebrain and is dependent upon a complex genetic cascade of transcription factors and signaling molecules that may be either intrinsic or extrinsic to the developing Rathke’s pouch. These factors dictate organ commitment, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation within the anterior pituitary. Abnormalities in these processes are associated with congenital hypopituitarism, a spectrum of disorders that includes syndromic disorders such as septo-optic dysplasia, combined pituitary hormone deficiencies, and isolated hormone deficiencies, of which the commonest is GH deficiency. The highly variable clinical phenotypes can now in part be explained due to research performed over the last 20 yr, based mainly on naturally occurring and transgenic animal models. Mutations in genes encoding both signaling molecules and transcription factors have been implicated in the etiology of hypopituitarism, with or without other syndromic features, in mice and humans. To date, mutations in known genes account for a small proportion of cases of hypopituitarism in humans. However, these mutations have led to a greater understanding of the genetic interactions that lead to normal pituitary development. This review attempts to describe the complexity of pituitary development in the rodent, with particular emphasis on those factors that, when mutated, are associated with hypopituitarism in humans. PMID:19837867

  10. Retinoid metabolism is altered in human and mouse cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Everts, Helen B; Silva, Kathleen A; Montgomery, Shalise; Suo, Liye; Menser, Monica; Valet, Amy S; King, Lloyd E; Ong, David E; Sundberg, John P

    2013-02-01

    C57BL/6 mice develop dermatitis and scarring alopecia resembling human cicatricial alopecias (CAs), particularly the central centrifugal CA (CCCA) type. To evaluate the role of retinoids in CA, the expression of retinoid metabolism components were examined in these mice with mild, moderate, or severe CA compared with hair cycle-matched mice with no disease. Two feeding studies were conducted with dams fed either NIH 31 diet (study 1) or AIN93G diet (study 2). Adult mice were fed AIN93M diet with 4 (recommended), 28, or 56 IU vitamin A g(-1) diet. Feeding the AIN93M diet to adults increased CA frequency over NIH 31 fed mice. Increased follicular dystrophy was seen in study 1 and increased dermal scars in study 2 in mice fed the 28 IU diet. These results indicate that retinoid metabolism is altered in CA in C57BL/6J mice that require precise levels of dietary vitamin A. Human patients with CCCA, pseudopelade (end-stage scarring), and controls with no alopecia were also studied. Many retinoid metabolism proteins were increased in mild CCCA, but were undetectable in pseudopelade. Studies to determine whether these dietary alterations in retinoid metabolism seen in C57BL/6J mice are also involved in different types of human CA are needed. PMID:23096705

  11. A commercial human protamine-2 antibody used in several studies to detect mouse protamine-2 recognizes mouse transition protein-2 but not protamine-2.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Matthias; Wang-Eckhardt, Lihua

    2015-11-01

    The exchange of histones for transition proteins (TNPs) and finally protamines is an essential process during spermatogenesis that enables the strong condensation of chromatin during sperm formation. Research on this process obviously depends on the availability of specific antibodies recognizing these nuclear proteins. A commercial antibody generated against human protamine-2 (PRM2) has been described to cross-react with mouse PRM2 and in fact has been used in several studies to detect mouse PRM2. Some inconsistent results obtained with this goat-derived antibody prompted us to re-examine its specificity. In immunofluorescence experiments with epididymal sperm, only a low percentage of sperm nuclei were stained by this antibody, whereas a mouse monoclonal anti- PRM2 antibody stained most sperm, as expected. Western blot analysis of basic nuclear proteins from spermatids and sperm separated by acid urea (AU) gel electrophoresis revealed that the goat anti- PRM2 antiserum binds to mouse TNP2 but not mouse PRM2. Epitope mapping using glutathione-S-transferase-fusion proteins with peptide sequences conserved in human PRM2 and mouse TNP2 identified the tetrapeptide arginyl-lysyl-arginyl-threonine as an epitope of the goat anti- PRM2 antiserum. Our findings underline the importance of using AU gel electrophoresis to confirm specificities of antibodies directed against basic nuclear proteins, which are not well separated, and may show abnormal migration behaviour, in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:26268249

  12. High efficiency reconstitution of a human-mouse chimeric Fab of CAb-1 antibody specific to human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, X-M; Xing, J-L; Liao, C-G; Yao, X-Y; Li, Y; Chen, Z-N

    2008-07-01

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been widely applied in the treatment of human diseases, especially in malignant tumours. However, most antibodies produced in mouse by hybridoma technology might induce severe human anti-mouse reactions. We had reported a murine mAb CAb-1 of therapeutic interest for its specifically binding to a cell surface glycoprotein of human colon cancer. Here, we attempted to generate a reconstituted human-mouse chimeric Fab (cFab) of CAb-1 in vitro to reduce its antigenicity and increase its capacity of penetration. First, the genes of heavy and light chain variable region (VH, VL) of CAb-1 were cloned. Then, the chimeric light chain (cL) and Fd (cFd) were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Finally, the reconstituted cFab was obtained by gradient dialysis of the mixture of cFd and cL. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis showed the reconstituted cFab with a recovery rate of 70.2% when the initial total concentration of cL and cFd proteins to be 100 microg/ml. The reconstituted cFab maintained the affinity and specificity to colon cancer cells compared with its parental antibody as determined by immunostaining analysis, FACS and ELISA. Our results established a foundation for further application of the cFab in diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer. PMID:18482205

  13. Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Blatt, C; Eversole-Cire, P; Cohn, V H; Zollman, S; Fournier, R E; Mohandas, L T; Nesbitt, M; Lugo, T; Jones, D T; Reed, R R

    1988-10-01

    A variety of genes have been identified that specify the synthesis of the components of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Eight different guanine nucleotide-binding alpha-subunit proteins, two different beta subunits, and one gamma subunit have been described. Hybridization of cDNA clones with DNA from human-mouse somatic cell hybrids was used to assign many of these genes to human chromosomes. The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes 7, 3, and 1, respectively; GNAZ and GNAS were found on chromosomes 22 and 20. The beta subunits were also assigned--GNB1 to chromosome 1 and GNB2 to chromosome 7. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used to map the homologues of some of these genes in the mouse. GNAT1 and GNAI2 were found to map adjacent to each other on mouse chromosome 9 and GNAT2 was mapped on chromosome 17. The mouse GNB1 gene was assigned to chromosome 19. These mapping assignments will be useful in defining the extent of the G alpha gene family and may help in attempts to correlate specific genetic diseases with genes corresponding to G proteins. PMID:2902634

  14. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ashbrook, David G; Williams, Robert W; Lu, Lu; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. To identify genetic variants underlying BD genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out. While many variants of small effect associated with BD have been identified few have yet been confirmed, partly because of the low power of GWAS due to multiple comparisons being made. Complementary mapping studies using murine models have identified genetic variants for behavioral traits linked to BD, often with high power, but these identified regions often contain too many genes for clear identification of candidate genes. In the current study we have aligned human BD GWAS results and mouse linkage studies to help define and evaluate candidate genes linked to BD, seeking to use the power of the mouse mapping with the precision of GWAS. We use quantitative trait mapping for open field test and elevated zero maze data in the largest mammalian model system, the BXD recombinant inbred mouse population, to identify genomic regions associated with these BD-like phenotypes. We then investigate these regions in whole genome data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's bipolar disorder GWAS to identify candidate genes associated with BD. Finally we establish the biological relevance and pathways of these genes in a comprehensive systems genetics analysis. We identify four genes associated with both mouse anxiety and human BD. While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1, and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR coexpress with genes linked to psychiatric disorders and identify the striatum as a potential site of action. CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum. PMID:26190982

  15. FXN Promoter Silencing in the Humanized Mouse Model of Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Chutake, Yogesh K.; Costello, Whitney N.; Lam, Christina C.; Parikh, Aniruddha C.; Hughes, Tamara T.; Michalopulos, Michael G.; Pook, Mark A.; Bidichandani, Sanjay I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Friedreich ataxia is caused by an expanded GAA triplet-repeat sequence in intron 1 of the FXN gene that results in epigenetic silencing of the FXN promoter. This silencing mechanism is seen in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells but it remains unknown if it is a widespread phenomenon affecting multiple cell types and tissues. Methodology / Principal Findings The humanized mouse model of Friedreich ataxia (YG8sR), which carries a single transgenic insert of the human FXN gene with an expanded GAA triplet-repeat in intron 1, is deficient for FXN transcript when compared to an isogenic transgenic mouse lacking the expanded repeat (Y47R). We found that in YG8sR the deficiency of FXN transcript extended both upstream and downstream of the expanded GAA triplet-repeat, suggestive of deficient transcriptional initiation. This pattern of deficiency was seen in all tissues tested, irrespective of whether they are known to be affected or spared in disease pathogenesis, in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and in cultured primary fibroblasts. FXN promoter function was directly measured via metabolic labeling of newly synthesized transcripts in fibroblasts, which revealed that the YG8sR mouse was significantly deficient in transcriptional initiation compared to the Y47R mouse. Conclusions / Significance Deficient transcriptional initiation accounts for FXN transcriptional deficiency in the humanized mouse model of Friedreich ataxia, similar to patient-derived cells, and the mechanism underlying promoter silencing in Friedreich ataxia is widespread across multiple cell types and tissues. PMID:26393353

  16. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ashbrook, David G.; Williams, Robert W.; Lu, Lu; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. To identify genetic variants underlying BD genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out. While many variants of small effect associated with BD have been identified few have yet been confirmed, partly because of the low power of GWAS due to multiple comparisons being made. Complementary mapping studies using murine models have identified genetic variants for behavioral traits linked to BD, often with high power, but these identified regions often contain too many genes for clear identification of candidate genes. In the current study we have aligned human BD GWAS results and mouse linkage studies to help define and evaluate candidate genes linked to BD, seeking to use the power of the mouse mapping with the precision of GWAS. We use quantitative trait mapping for open field test and elevated zero maze data in the largest mammalian model system, the BXD recombinant inbred mouse population, to identify genomic regions associated with these BD-like phenotypes. We then investigate these regions in whole genome data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's bipolar disorder GWAS to identify candidate genes associated with BD. Finally we establish the biological relevance and pathways of these genes in a comprehensive systems genetics analysis. We identify four genes associated with both mouse anxiety and human BD. While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1, and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR coexpress with genes linked to psychiatric disorders and identify the striatum as a potential site of action. CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum. PMID:26190982

  17. Development of a Mouse Model of Helicobacter pylori Infection that Mimics Human Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Marta; Arico, Beatrice; Burroni, Daniela; Figura, Natale; Rappuoli, Rino; Ghiara, Paolo

    1995-03-01

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. The pathogenesis of H. pylori infection in vivo was studied by adapting fresh clinical isolates of bacteria to colonize the stomachs of mice. A gastric pathology resembling human disease was observed in infections with cytotoxin-producing strains but not with noncytotoxic strains. Oral immunization with purified H. pylori antigens protected mice from bacterial infection. This mouse model will allow the development of therapeutic agents and vaccines against H. pylori infection in humans.

  18. Preconditioning allows engraftment of mouse and human embryonic lung cells, enabling lung repair in mice.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Chava; Shezen, Elias; Aronovich, Anna; Klionsky, Yael Zlotnikov; Yaakov, Yasmin; Assayag, Miri; Biton, Inbal Eti; Tal, Orna; Shakhar, Guy; Ben-Hur, Herzel; Shneider, David; Vaknin, Zvi; Sadan, Oscar; Evron, Shmuel; Freud, Enrique; Shoseyov, David; Wilschanski, Michael; Berkman, Neville; Fibbe, Willem E; Hagin, David; Hillel-Karniel, Carmit; Krentsis, Irit Milman; Bachar-Lustig, Esther; Reisner, Yair

    2015-08-01

    Repair of injured lungs represents a longstanding therapeutic challenge. We show that human and mouse embryonic lung tissue from the canalicular stage of development (20-22 weeks of gestation for humans, and embryonic day 15-16 (E15-E16) for mouse) are enriched with progenitors residing in distinct niches. On the basis of the marked analogy to progenitor niches in bone marrow (BM), we attempted strategies similar to BM transplantation, employing sublethal radiation to vacate lung progenitor niches and to reduce stem cell competition. Intravenous infusion of a single cell suspension of canalicular lung tissue from GFP-marked mice or human fetal donors into naphthalene-injured and irradiated syngeneic or SCID mice, respectively, induced marked long-term lung chimerism. Donor type structures or 'patches' contained epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial cells. Transplantation of differentially labeled E16 mouse lung cells indicated that these patches were probably of clonal origin from the donor. Recipients of the single cell suspension transplant exhibited marked improvement in lung compliance and tissue damping reflecting the energy dissipation in the lung tissues. Our study provides proof of concept for lung reconstitution by canalicular-stage human lung cells after preconditioning of the pulmonary niche. PMID:26168294

  19. Differences between human and mouse alpha-fetoprotein expression during early development

    PubMed Central

    JONES, ELIZABETH A.; CLEMENT-JONES, MARK; JAMES, OLIVER F. W.; WILSON, DAVID I.

    2001-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the major serum protein during development. AFP is one of the earliest proteins to be synthesised by the embryonic liver. The synthesis of AFP decreases dramatically after birth and only trace amounts are expressed in the adult liver. The tissue distribution of AFP in early human embryogenesis has not been defined. We have studied the expression pattern of AFP mRNA in human and mouse embryos by in situ hybridisation. In humans, AFP is expressed in the hepatic diverticulum at 26 d postovulation as it differentiates from the foregut endoderm (i.e. in the most primitive hepatocytes). It is also expressed in the endoderm of the gastrointestinal tract and in the yolk sac at this age. AFP is subsequently expressed in the mesonephros and transiently in the developing pancreas. In the mouse, no expression of AFP was observed in the mesonephros but other sites of expression were similar. Thus AFP has a distinct temporospatial expression pattern during the embryonic period and this differs between human and mouse species. It is interesting that AFP is expressed by tumours such as primitive gastrointestinal, renal cell and pancreatic tumours as well as those of hepatocyte origin. This distribution reflects the sites of AFP expression during development. PMID:11430694

  20. Obesity genetics in mouse and human: back and forth, and back again

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Fereshteh T.; Clee, Susanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern. This condition results from a constant and complex interplay between predisposing genes and environmental stimuli. Current attempts to manage obesity have been moderately effective and a better understanding of the etiology of obesity is required for the development of more successful and personalized prevention and treatment options. To that effect, mouse models have been an essential tool in expanding our understanding of obesity, due to the availability of their complete genome sequence, genetically identified and defined strains, various tools for genetic manipulation and the accessibility of target tissues for obesity that are not easily attainable from humans. Our knowledge of monogenic obesity in humans greatly benefited from the mouse obesity genetics field. Genes underlying highly penetrant forms of monogenic obesity are part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway in the hypothalamus. Recently, hypothesis-generating genome-wide association studies for polygenic obesity traits in humans have led to the identification of 119 common gene variants with modest effect, most of them having an unknown function. These discoveries have led to novel animal models and have illuminated new biologic pathways. Integrated mouse-human genetic approaches have firmly established new obesity candidate genes. Innovative strategies recently developed by scientists are described in this review to accelerate the identification of causal genes and deepen our understanding of obesity etiology. An exhaustive dissection of the molecular roots of obesity may ultimately help to tackle the growing obesity epidemic worldwide. PMID:25825681

  1. Novel human and mouse homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase eta.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J P; Rapić-Otrin, V; Epstein, J A; Broughton, B C; Wang, X; Lehmann, A R; Wolgemuth, D J; Woodgate, R

    1999-08-15

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD30 gene encodes a novel eukaryotic DNA polymerase, pol eta that is able to replicate across cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers both accurately and efficiently. Very recently, a human homolog of RAD30 was identified, mutations in which result in the sunlight-sensitive, cancer-prone, Xeroderma pigmentosum variant group phenotype. We report here the cloning and localization of a second human homolog of RAD30. Interestingly, RAD30B is localized on chromosome 18q21.1 in a region that is often implicated in the etiology of many human cancers. The mouse homolog (Rad30b) is located on chromosome 18E2. The human RAD30B and mouse Rad30b mRNA transcripts, like many repair proteins, are highly expressed in the testis. In situ hybridization analysis indicates that expression of mouse Rad30b occurs predominantly in postmeiotic round spermatids. Database searches revealed genomic and EST sequences from other eukaryotes such as Aspergillus nidulans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Brugia malayi, Caenorhabditis elegans, Trypanosoma cruzi, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Drosophila melanogaster that also encode putative homologs of RAD30, thereby suggesting that Rad30-dependent translesion DNA synthesis is conserved within the eukaryotic kingdom. PMID:10458907

  2. A search for functional histamine H4 receptors in the human, guinea pig and mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Feliszek, Monika; Speckmann, Valerie; Schacht, Daniel; von Lehe, Marec; Stark, Holger; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Histamine H4 receptors are expressed in immune cells, but their potential role in the brain is less clear. Although H4 transcripts have been identified in human and rat brain, the presence of H4 receptors on the protein level has so far not been proven since appropriate antibodies fulfilling the strict criteria for G protein-coupled receptors are missing. Here, we searched for functional H4 receptors in human, guinea pig and mouse cortex. We studied whether H4 receptor activation is associated with increased GTPγS binding and reduced noradrenaline release. The latter two effects have been previously shown for H3 receptors, which, like the H4 receptors, are coupled to G i/o protein. G protein activation was studied using (35)S-GTPγS binding in cortical membranes. The electrically induced (3)H-noradrenaline release was determined in superfused cortical slices. The H4 agonist 4-methylhistamine failed to affect (35)S-GTPγS binding and/or noradrenaline release in human, guinea pig and mouse cortex although an H 3 receptor-mediated increase in (35)S-GTPγS binding and inhibition of noradrenaline release occurred in parallel experiments. In conclusion, functional H4 receptors increasing (35)S-GTPγS binding and/or decreasing noradrenaline release are not found in human, guinea pig and mouse cortex. PMID:25300787

  3. Mouse models of liver fibrosis mimic human liver fibrosis of different etiologies.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Allyson K; Maroni, Luca; Marzioni, Marco; Ahmed, Syed T; Milad, Mena; Ray, Debolina; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon S

    2014-12-01

    The liver has the amazing capacity to repair itself after injury; however, the same processes that are involved in liver regeneration after acute injury can cause serious consequences during chronic liver injury. In an effort to repair damage, activated hepatic stellate cells trigger a cascade of events that lead to deposition and accumulation of extracellular matrix components causing the progressive replacement of the liver parenchyma by scar tissue, thus resulting in fibrosis. Although fibrosis occurs as a result of many chronic liver diseases, the molecular mechanisms involved depend on the underlying etiology. Since studying liver fibrosis in human subjects is complicated by many factors, mouse models of liver fibrosis that mimic the human conditions fill this void. This review summarizes the general mouse models of liver fibrosis and mouse models that mimic specific human disease conditions that result in liver fibrosis. Additionally, recent progress that has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the fibrogenic processes of each of the human disease conditions is highlighted. PMID:25396098

  4. Mouse models of liver fibrosis mimic human liver fibrosis of different etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Allyson K.; Maroni, Luca; Marzioni, Marco; Ahmed, Syed T.; Milad, Mena; Ray, Debolina; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon S.

    2014-01-01

    The liver has the amazing capacity to repair itself after injury; however, the same processes that are involved in liver regeneration after acute injury can cause serious consequences during chronic liver injury. In an effort to repair damage, activated hepatic stellate cells trigger a cascade of events that lead to deposition and accumulation of extracellular matrix components causing the progressive replacement of the liver parenchyma by scar tissue, thus resulting in fibrosis. Although fibrosis occurs as a result of many chronic liver diseases, the molecular mechanisms involved depend on the underlying etiology. Since studying liver fibrosis in human subjects is complicated by many factors, mouse models of liver fibrosis that mimic the human conditions fill this void. This review summarizes the general mouse models of liver fibrosis and mouse models that mimic specific human disease conditions that result in liver fibrosis. Additionally, recent progress that has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the fibrogenic processes of each of the human disease conditions is highlighted. PMID:25396098

  5. Enhancer Turnover Is Associated with a Divergent Transcriptional Response to Glucocorticoid in Mouse and Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Alasdair W; Young, Robert S; Hume, David A; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2016-01-15

    Phenotypic differences between individuals and species are controlled in part through differences in expression of a relatively conserved set of genes. Genes expressed in the immune system are subject to especially powerful selection. We have investigated the evolution of both gene expression and candidate enhancers in human and mouse macrophages exposed to glucocorticoid (GC), a regulator of innate immunity and an important therapeutic agent. Our analyses revealed a very limited overlap in the repertoire of genes responsive to GC in human and mouse macrophages. Peaks of inducible binding of the GC receptor (GR) detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq correlated with induction, but not repression, of target genes in both species, occurred at distal regulatory sites not promoters, and were strongly enriched for the consensus GR-binding motif. Turnover of GR binding between mice and humans was associated with gain and loss of the motif. There was no detectable signal of positive selection at species-specific GR binding sites, but clear evidence of purifying selection at the small number of conserved sites. We conclude that enhancer divergence underlies the difference in transcriptional activation after GC treatment between mouse and human macrophages. Only the shared inducible loci show evidence of selection, and therefore these loci may be important for the subset of responses to GC that is shared between species. PMID:26663721

  6. Validation of a mouse xenograft model system for gene expression analysis of human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pre-clinical models that effectively recapitulate human disease are critical for expanding our knowledge of cancer biology and drug resistance mechanisms. For haematological malignancies, the non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mouse is one of the most successful models to study paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, for this model to be effective for studying engraftment and therapy responses at the whole genome level, careful molecular characterisation is essential. Results Here, we sought to validate species-specific gene expression profiling in the high engraftment continuous ALL NOD/SCID xenograft. Using the human Affymetrix whole transcript platform we analysed transcriptional profiles from engrafted tissues without prior cell separation of mouse cells and found it to return highly reproducible profiles in xenografts from individual mice. The model was further tested with experimental mixtures of human and mouse cells, demonstrating that the presence of mouse cells does not significantly skew expression profiles when xenografts contain 90% or more human cells. In addition, we present a novel in silico and experimental masking approach to identify probes and transcript clusters susceptible to cross-species hybridisation. Conclusions We demonstrate species-specific transcriptional profiles can be obtained from xenografts when high levels of engraftment are achieved or with the application of transcript cluster masks. Importantly, this masking approach can be applied and adapted to other xenograft models where human tissue infiltration is lower. This model provides a powerful platform for identifying genes and pathways associated with ALL disease progression and response to therapy in vivo. PMID:20406497

  7. Smooth muscle and purinergic contraction of the human, rabbit, rat, and mouse testicular capsule.

    PubMed

    Banks, Frederick C L; Knight, Gillian E; Calvert, Robert C; Turmaine, Mark; Thompson, Cecil S; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Morgan, Robert J; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2006-03-01

    The smooth-muscle cells of the testicular capsule (tunica albuginea) of man, rat, and mouse were examined by electron microscopy. They were characteristically flattened, elongated, branching cells and diffusely incorporated into the collagenous matrix and did not form a compact muscle layer. Contractile and synthetic smooth-muscle cell phenotypes were identified. Nerve varicosities in close apposition to smooth muscle were seen in human tissue. Contractions induced by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), alpha, beta-methylene ATP, noradrenaline (NA), acetylcholine (ACh), and electrical field stimulation (EFS) of autonomic nerves were investigated. Nerve-mediated responses of the rabbit and human tunica albuginea were recorded. The EFS-induced human responses were completely abolished by prazosin. In the rabbit, EFS-induced contractile responses were reduced by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid by 36% and by prazosin by 77%. Both antagonists together almost completely abolished all EFS-induced contractions. The human tunica albuginea was contracted by NA, ATP, and alpha, beta-methylene ATP, but not by ACh. The rabbit and rat tunica albuginea were contracted by NA, ATP, alpha, beta-methylene ATP, and ACh. The mouse tunica albuginea was contracted by ACh, ATP, and alpha, beta-methylene ATP, but relaxed to NA. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P2X1 (also known as P2RX1) and P2X2 (also known as P2RX2) receptors were expressed on the smooth muscle of the rodent testicular capsule, expression being less pronounced in man. The testicular capsule of the rat, mouse, rabbit, and man all contain contractile smooth muscle. ATP, released as a cotransmitter from sympathetic nerves, can stimulate the contraction of rabbit smooth muscle. Human, rat, and mouse testicular smooth muscle demonstrated purinergic responsiveness, probably mediated through the P2X1 and/or P2X2 receptors. PMID:16280417

  8. The Ah receptor nuclear translocator gene (ARNT) is located on q21 of human chromosome 1 and on mouse chromosome 3 near Cf-3

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.; Brooks, B.A.; Heinzmann, C. ); Mohandas, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors have mapped the Ah (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) gene to a conserved linkage group located on mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome 1. EcoRi-digested DNA from a panel of 17 human x mouse somatic cell hybrids was probed with a cDNA fragment of the human ARNT gene. Six of the 17 independent mouse x human hybrids were positive for human bands. Human chromosome 1 showed complete cosegregation with the gene, whereas discordant segregation was observed for all other human chromosomes. The human gene was localized to 1q21 by using DNA from mouse x human hybrid clones that retain translocations involving human chromosome 1, by segregation analysis in nine informative CEPH families, and by in situ hybridization. The mouse homologue was mapped to mouse chromosome 3 using a panel of 16 hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids. Six of 16 mouse x hamster hybrids were positive for mouse bands, showing complete concordance with mouse chromosome 3. The mouse Arnt gene was regionally mapped on chromosome 3, using linkage analysis in an interspecific backcross. The results indicate that the mouse gene resides about 40 cM from the centromere and about 10 cM proximal to Cf-3, the gene for tissue factor. 41 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Using the BLT Humanized Mouse as a Stem Cell based Gene Therapy Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Vatakis, Dimitrios N.; Bristol, Gregory C.; Kim, Sohn G.; Levin, Bernard; Liu, Wei; Radu, Caius G.; Kitchen, Scott G.; Zack, Jerome A.

    2012-01-01

    Small animal models such as mice have been extensively used to study human disease and to develop new therapeutic interventions. Despite the wealth of information gained from these studies, the unique characteristics of mouse immunity as well as the species specificity of viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to the development of humanized mouse models. The earlier models involved the use of C. B 17 scid/scid mice and the transplantation of human fetal thymus and fetal liver termed thy/liv (SCID-hu) 1, 2 or the adoptive transfer of human peripheral blood leukocytes (SCID-huPBL) 3. Both models were mainly utilized for the study of HIV infection. One of the main limitations of both of these models was the lack of stable reconstitution of human immune cells in the periphery to make them a more physiologically relevant model to study HIV disease. To this end, the BLT humanized mouse model was developed. BLT stands for bone marrow/liver/thymus. In this model, 6 to 8 week old NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) immunocompromised mice receive the thy/liv implant as in the SCID-hu mouse model only to be followed by a second human hematopoietic stem cell transplant 4. The advantage of this system is the full reconstitution of the human immune system in the periphery. This model has been used to study HIV infection and latency 5-8. We have generated a modified version of this model in which we use genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC) to construct the thy/liv implant followed by injection of transduced autologous hHSC 7, 9. This approach results in the generation of genetically modified lineages. More importantly, we adapted this system to examine the potential of generating functional cytotoxic T cells (CTL) expressing a melanoma specific T cell receptor. Using this model we were able to assess the functionality of our transgenic CTL utilizing live positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to determine tumor

  10. A comparative analysis of liver transcriptome suggests divergent liver function among human, mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yao; Ping, Jie; Chen, Hui; Jiao, Longxian; Zheng, Siyuan; Han, Ze-Guang; Hao, Pei; Huang, Jian

    2010-11-01

    The human liver plays a vital role in meeting the body's metabolic needs and maintaining homeostasis. To address the molecular mechanisms of liver function, we integrated multiple gene expression datasets from microarray, MPSS, SAGE and EST platforms to generate a transcriptome atlas of the normal human liver. Our results show that 17396 genes are expressed in the human liver. 238 genes were identified as liver enrichment genes, involved in the functions of immune response and metabolic processes, from the MPSS and EST datasets. A comparative analysis of liver transcriptomes was performed in humans, mice and rats with microarray datasets shows that the expression profile of homologous genes remains significantly different between mouse/rat and human, suggesting a functional variance and regulation bias of genes expressed in the livers. The integrated liver transcriptome data should provide a valuable resource for the in-depth understanding of human liver biology and liver disease. PMID:20800674

  11. Comparison of the transcriptional landscapes between human and mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Nery, Joseph R; Urich, Mark A; Breschi, Alessandra; Davis, Carrie A; Dobin, Alexander; Zaleski, Christopher; Beer, Michael A; Chapman, William C; Gingeras, Thomas R; Ecker, Joseph R; Snyder, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Although the similarities between humans and mice are typically highlighted, morphologically and genetically, there are many differences. To better understand these two species on a molecular level, we performed a comparison of the expression profiles of 15 tissues by deep RNA sequencing and examined the similarities and differences in the transcriptome for both protein-coding and -noncoding transcripts. Although commonalities are evident in the expression of tissue-specific genes between the two species, the expression for many sets of genes was found to be more similar in different tissues within the same species than between species. These findings were further corroborated by associated epigenetic histone mark analyses. We also find that many noncoding transcripts are expressed at a low level and are not detectable at appreciable levels across individuals. Moreover, the majority lack obvious sequence homologs between species, even when we restrict our attention to those which are most highly reproducible across biological replicates. Overall, our results indicate that there is considerable RNA expression diversity between humans and mice, well beyond what was described previously, likely reflecting the fundamental physiological differences between these two organisms. PMID:25413365

  12. Comparison of the transcriptional landscapes between human and mouse tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Nery, Joseph R.; Urich, Mark A.; Breschi, Alessandra; Davis, Carrie A.; Dobin, Alexander; Zaleski, Christopher; Beer, Michael A.; Chapman, William C.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Snyder, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Although the similarities between humans and mice are typically highlighted, morphologically and genetically, there are many differences. To better understand these two species on a molecular level, we performed a comparison of the expression profiles of 15 tissues by deep RNA sequencing and examined the similarities and differences in the transcriptome for both protein-coding and -noncoding transcripts. Although commonalities are evident in the expression of tissue-specific genes between the two species, the expression for many sets of genes was found to be more similar in different tissues within the same species than between species. These findings were further corroborated by associated epigenetic histone mark analyses. We also find that many noncoding transcripts are expressed at a low level and are not detectable at appreciable levels across individuals. Moreover, the majority lack obvious sequence homologs between species, even when we restrict our attention to those which are most highly reproducible across biological replicates. Overall, our results indicate that there is considerable RNA expression diversity between humans and mice, well beyond what was described previously, likely reflecting the fundamental physiological differences between these two organisms. PMID:25413365

  13. Metabolism of the anti-tuberculosis drug ethionamide by mouse and human FMO1, FMO2 and FMO3 and mouse and human lung microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Marilyn C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Morre, Jeffrey T.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Williams, David E.

    2008-12-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) results from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and remains endemic throughout the world with one-third of the world's population infected. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant strains necessitates the use of more toxic second-line drugs such as ethionamide (ETA), a pro-drug requiring bioactivation to exert toxicity. M. tuberculosis possesses a flavin monooxygenase (EtaA) that oxygenates ETA first to the sulfoxide and then to 2-ethyl-4-amidopyridine, presumably through a second oxygenation involving sulfinic acid. ETA is also a substrate for mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs). We examined activity of expressed human and mouse FMOs toward ETA, as well as liver and lung microsomes. All FMOs converted ETA to the S-oxide (ETASO), the first step in bioactivation. Compared to M. tuberculosis, the second S-oxygenation to the sulfinic acid is slow. Mouse liver and lung microsomes, as well as human lung microsomes from an individual expressing active FMO, oxygenated ETA in the same manner as expressed FMOs, confirming this reaction functions in the major target organs for therapeutics (lung) and toxicity (liver). Inhibition by thiourea, and lack of inhibition by SKF-525A, confirm ETASO formation is primarily via FMO, particularly in lung. ETASO production was attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner by glutathione. FMO3 in human liver may contribute to the toxicity and/or affect efficacy of ETA administration. Additionally, there may be therapeutic implications of efficacy and toxicity in human lung based on the FMO2 genetic polymorphism, though further studies are needed to confirm that suggestion.

  14. The human and mouse homologs of the yeat RAD52 gene: cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, assignment to human chromosome 12p12.2-p13, and mRNA expression in mouse tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.; Chen, D.J.; Denison, K.

    1995-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD52 gene is involved in DNA double-strand break repair and mitotic/meiotic recombination. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of yeast S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Kluyveromyces lactis and chicken is highly conserved. Using the technology of mixed oligonucleotide primed amplification of cDNA (MOPAC), two mouse RAD52 homologous cDNA fragments were amplified and sequenced. Subsequently, we have cloned the cDNA of the human and mouse homologs of yeast RAD52 gene by screening cDNA libraries using the identified mouse cDNA fragments. Sequence analysis of cDNA derived amino acid revealed a highly conserved N-terminus among human, mouse, chicken, and yeast RAD52 genes. The human RAD52 gene was assigned to chromosome 12p12.2-p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, R-banding, and DNA analysis of somatic cell hybrids. Unlike chicken RAD52 and mouse RAD51, no significant difference in mouse RAD52 mRNA level was found among mouse heart, brain, spleen, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and testis. In addition to an {approximately}1.9-kb RAD52 mRNA band that is present in all of the tested tissues, an extra mRNA species of {approximately}0.85 kb was detectable in mouse testis. 40 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Visualization of plasmid delivery to keratinocytes in mouse and human epidermis

    PubMed Central

    González-González, Emilio; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Speaker, Tycho J.; Hickerson, Robyn P.; Spitler, Ryan; Birchall, James C.; Lara, Maria Fernanda; Hu, Rong-hua; Liang, Yanhua; Kirkiles-Smith, Nancy; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Milstone, Leonard M.; Contag, Christopher H.; Kaspar, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    The accessibility of skin makes it an ideal target organ for nucleic acid-based therapeutics; however, effective patient-friendly delivery remains a major obstacle to clinical utility. A variety of limited and inefficient methods of delivering nucleic acids to keratinocytes have been demonstrated; further advances will require well-characterized reagents, rapid noninvasive assays of delivery, and well-developed skin model systems. Using intravital fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging and a standard set of reporter plasmids we demonstrate transfection of cells in mouse and human xenograft skin using intradermal injection and two microneedle array delivery systems. Reporter gene expression could be detected in individual keratinocytes, in real-time, in both mouse skin as well as human skin xenografts. These studies revealed that non-invasive intravital imaging can be used as a guide for developing gene delivery tools, establishing a benchmark for comparative testing of nucleic acid skin delivery technologies. PMID:22355673

  16. Genome Integrity in Aging: Human Syndromes, Mouse Models, and Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Wilbert P; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Pothof, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Human syndromes and mouse mutants that exhibit accelerated but bona fide aging in multiple organs and tissues have been invaluable for the identification of nine denominators of aging: telomere attrition, genome instability, epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, deregulated nutrient sensing, altered intercellular communication, loss of proteostasis, cellular senescence and adult stem cell exhaustion. However, whether and how these instigators of aging interrelate or whether they have one root cause is currently largely unknown. Rare human progeroid syndromes and corresponding mouse mutants with resolved genetic defects highlight the dominant importance of genome maintenance for aging. A second class of aging-related disorders reveals a cross connection with metabolism. As genome maintenance and metabolism are closely interconnected, they may constitute the main underlying biology of aging. This review focuses on the role of genome stability in aging, its crosstalk with metabolism, and options for nutritional and/or pharmaceutical interventions that delay age-related pathology. PMID:26514200

  17. Generation of L-cells in mouse and human small intestine organoids

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; Bartfeld, Sina; Farin, Henner F.; Ringnalda, Femke C.; Vries, Robert G. J.; van den Brink, Stieneke; Clevers, Hans; Gribble, Fiona M.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Upon a nutrient challenge, L-cells produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a powerful stimulant of insulin release. Strategies to augment endogenous GLP-1 production include promoting L-cell differentiation and increasing L-cell number. Here we present a novel in vitro platform to generate functional L-cells from 3D cultures of mouse and human intestinal crypts. We show that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) selectively increase the number of L-cells resulting in an elevation of GLP-1 release. This is accompanied by up-regulation of transcription factors, associated with the endocrine lineage of intestinal stem cell development. Thus, our platform allows us to study and modulate the development of L-cells in mouse and human crypts as a potential basis for novel therapeutic strategies in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24130334

  18. Skeletal myogenic potential of human and mouse neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Galli, R; Borello, U; Gritti, A; Minasi, M G; Bjornson, C; Coletta, M; Mora, M; De Angelis, M G; Fiocco, R; Cossu, G; Vescovi, A L

    2000-10-01

    Distinct cell lineages established early in development are usually maintained throughout adulthood. Thus, adult stem cells have been thought to generate differentiated cells specific to the tissue in which they reside. This view has been challenged; for example, neural stem cells can generate cells that normally originate from a different germ layer. Here we show that acutely isolated and clonally derived neural stem cells from mice and humans could produce skeletal myotubes in vitro and in vivo, the latter following transplantation into adult animals. Myogenic conversion in vitro required direct exposure to myoblasts, and was blocked if neural cells were clustered. Thus, a community effect between neural cells may override such myogenic induction. We conclude that neural stem cells, which generate neurons, glia and blood cells, can also produce skeletal muscle cells, and can undergo various patterns of differentiation depending on exposure to appropriate epigenetic signals in mature tissues. PMID:11017170

  19. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Michael J.; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an impact to the cranium of an unrestrained subject allowing rapid acceleration of the free-moving head and torso, an essential characteristic known to be important for concussive injury in humans, and a factor that is missing from existing animal models of TBI. Our method does not require scalp incision, emplacement of protective skull helmets or surgery and the procedure can be completed in 1-2 minutes. Mice spontaneously recover the righting reflex and show no evidence of seizures, paralysis or impaired behavior. Skull fractures and intracranial bleeding are very rare. Minor deficits in motor coordination and locomotor hyperactivity recover over time. Histological analyses reveal mild astrocytic reactivity (increased expression of GFAP) and increased phospho-tau but a lack of blood-brain-barrier disruption, edema and microglial activation. This new animal model is simple and cost-effective and will facilitate characterization of the neurobiological and behavioral consequences of rmTBI. It is also ideal for high throughput screening of potential new therapies for mild concussive injuries as experienced by athletes and military personnel. PMID:21930157

  20. Integration and Fixation Preferences of Human and Mouse Endogenous Retroviruses Uncovered with Functional Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Alessia; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the remnants of retroviral infections in the germ line, occupy ~8% and ~10% of the human and mouse genomes, respectively, and affect their structure, evolution, and function. Yet we still have a limited understanding of how the genomic landscape influences integration and fixation of ERVs. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of the most recently active ERVs in the human and mouse genome. We investigated 826 fixed and 1,065 in vitro HERV-Ks in human, and 1,624 fixed and 242 polymorphic ETns, as well as 3,964 fixed and 1,986 polymorphic IAPs, in mouse. We quantitated >40 human and mouse genomic features (e.g., non-B DNA structure, recombination rates, and histone modifications) in ±32 kb of these ERVs’ integration sites and in control regions, and analyzed them using Functional Data Analysis (FDA) methodology. In one of the first applications of FDA in genomics, we identified genomic scales and locations at which these features display their influence, and how they work in concert, to provide signals essential for integration and fixation of ERVs. The investigation of ERVs of different evolutionary ages (young in vitro and polymorphic ERVs, older fixed ERVs) allowed us to disentangle integration vs. fixation preferences. As a result of these analyses, we built a comprehensive model explaining the uneven distribution of ERVs along the genome. We found that ERVs integrate in late-replicating AT-rich regions with abundant microsatellites, mirror repeats, and repressive histone marks. Regions favoring fixation are depleted of genes and evolutionarily conserved elements, and have low recombination rates, reflecting the effects of purifying selection and ectopic recombination removing ERVs from the genome. In addition to providing these biological insights, our study demonstrates the power of exploiting multiple scales and localization with FDA. These powerful techniques are expected to be applicable to many other genomic investigations

  1. Assessment of orthologous splicing isoforms in human and mouse orthologous genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries have highlighted the fact that alternative splicing and alternative transcripts are the rule, rather than the exception, in metazoan genes. Since multiple transcript and protein variants expressed by the same gene are, by definition, structurally distinct and need not to be functionally equivalent, the concept of gene orthology should be extended to the transcript level in order to describe evolutionary relationships between structurally similar transcript variants. In other words, the identification of true orthology relationships between gene products now should progress beyond primary sequence and "splicing orthology", consisting in ancestrally shared exon-intron structures, is required to define orthologous isoforms at transcript level. Results As a starting step in this direction, in this work we performed a large scale human- mouse gene comparison with a twofold goal: first, to assess if and to which extent traditional gene annotations such as RefSeq capture genuine splicing orthology; second, to provide a more detailed annotation and quantification of true human-mouse orthologous transcripts defined as transcripts of orthologous genes exhibiting the same splicing patterns. Conclusions We observed an identical exon/intron structure for 32% of human and mouse orthologous genes. This figure increases to 87% using less stringent criteria for gene structure similarity, thus implying that for about 13% of the human RefSeq annotated genes (and about 25% of the corresponding transcripts) we could not identify any mouse transcript showing sufficient similarity to be confidently assigned as a splicing ortholog. Our data suggest that current gene and transcript data may still be rather incomplete - with several splicing variants still unknown. The observation that alternative splicing produces large numbers of alternative transcripts and proteins, some of them conserved across species and others truly species-specific, suggests that, still

  2. Functional validation of a human CAPN5 exome variant by lentiviral transduction into mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Wert, Katherine J; Skeie, Jessica M; Bassuk, Alexander G; Olivier, Alicia K; Tsang, Stephen H; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2014-05-15

    Exome sequencing indicated that the gene encoding the calpain-5 protease, CAPN5, is the likely cause of retinal degeneration and autoimmune uveitis in human patients with autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV, OMIM #193235). To explore the mechanism of ADNIV, a human CAPN5 disease allele was expressed in mouse retinas with a lentiviral vector created to express either the wild-type human (h) CAPN5 or the ADNIV mutant hCAPN5-R243L allele under a rhodopsin promoter with tandem green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. Vectors were injected into the subretinal space of perinatal mice. Mouse phenotypes were analyzed using electroretinography, histology and inflammatory gene expression profiling. Mouse calpain-5 showed high homology to its human ortholog with >98% sequence identity that includes the ADNIV mutant residue. Calpain-5 protein was expressed in the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors and in the outer plexiform layer. Expression of the hCAPN5-R243L allele caused loss of the electroretinogram b-wave, photoreceptor degeneration and induction of immune cell infiltration and inflammatory genes in the retina, recapitulating major features of the ADNIV phenotype. Intraocular neovascularization and fibrosis were not observed during the study period. Our study shows that expression of the hCAPN5-R243L disease allele elicits an ADNIV-like disease in mice. It further suggests that ADNIV is due to CAPN5 gain-of-function rather than haploinsufficiency, and retinal expression may be sufficient to generate an autoimmune response. Genetic models of ADNIV in the mouse can be used to explore protease mechanisms in retinal degeneration and inflammation as well as preclinical therapeutic testing. PMID:24381307

  3. Functional validation of a human CAPN5 exome variant by lentiviral transduction into mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Wert, Katherine J.; Skeie, Jessica M.; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Olivier, Alicia K.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Mahajan, Vinit B.

    2014-01-01

    Exome sequencing indicated that the gene encoding the calpain-5 protease, CAPN5, is the likely cause of retinal degeneration and autoimmune uveitis in human patients with autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV, OMIM #193235). To explore the mechanism of ADNIV, a human CAPN5 disease allele was expressed in mouse retinas with a lentiviral vector created to express either the wild-type human (h) CAPN5 or the ADNIV mutant hCAPN5-R243L allele under a rhodopsin promoter with tandem green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. Vectors were injected into the subretinal space of perinatal mice. Mouse phenotypes were analyzed using electroretinography, histology and inflammatory gene expression profiling. Mouse calpain-5 showed high homology to its human ortholog with >98% sequence identity that includes the ADNIV mutant residue. Calpain-5 protein was expressed in the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors and in the outer plexiform layer. Expression of the hCAPN5-R243L allele caused loss of the electroretinogram b-wave, photoreceptor degeneration and induction of immune cell infiltration and inflammatory genes in the retina, recapitulating major features of the ADNIV phenotype. Intraocular neovascularization and fibrosis were not observed during the study period. Our study shows that expression of the hCAPN5-R243L disease allele elicits an ADNIV-like disease in mice. It further suggests that ADNIV is due to CAPN5 gain-of-function rather than haploinsufficiency, and retinal expression may be sufficient to generate an autoimmune response. Genetic models of ADNIV in the mouse can be used to explore protease mechanisms in retinal degeneration and inflammation as well as preclinical therapeutic testing. PMID:24381307

  4. Inhibition of PAD4 activity is sufficient to disrupt mouse and human NET formation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Huw D.; Liddle, John; Coote, Jim E.; Atkinson, Stephen J.; Barker, Michael D.; Bax, Benjamin, D.; Bicker, Kevin L.; Bingham, Ryan P.; Campbell, Matthew; Chen, Yu Hua; Chung, Chun-wa; Craggs, Peter D.; Davis, Rob P.; Eberhard, Dirk; Joberty, Gerard; Lind, Kenneth E.; Locke, Kelly; Maller, Claire; Martinod, Kimberly; Patten, Chris; Polyakova, Oxana; Rise, Cecil E.; Rüdiger, Martin; Sheppard, Robert J.; Slade, Daniel J.; Thomas, Pamela; Thorpe, Jim; Yao, Gang; Drewes, Gerard; Wagner, Denisa D.; Thompson, Paul R.; Prinjha, Rab K.; Wilson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    PAD4 has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, cardiovascular and oncological diseases, through clinical genetics and gene disruption in mice. Novel, selective PAD4 inhibitors binding to a calcium-deficient form of the PAD4 enzyme have, for the first time, validated the critical enzymatic role of human and mouse PAD4 in both histone citrullination and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. The therapeutic potential of PAD4 inhibitors can now be explored. PMID:25622091

  5. Integration and Fixation Preferences of Human and Mouse Endogenous Retroviruses Uncovered with Functional Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Campos-Sánchez, Rebeca; Cremona, Marzia A; Pini, Alessia; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Makova, Kateryna D

    2016-06-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the remnants of retroviral infections in the germ line, occupy ~8% and ~10% of the human and mouse genomes, respectively, and affect their structure, evolution, and function. Yet we still have a limited understanding of how the genomic landscape influences integration and fixation of ERVs. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of the most recently active ERVs in the human and mouse genome. We investigated 826 fixed and 1,065 in vitro HERV-Ks in human, and 1,624 fixed and 242 polymorphic ETns, as well as 3,964 fixed and 1,986 polymorphic IAPs, in mouse. We quantitated >40 human and mouse genomic features (e.g., non-B DNA structure, recombination rates, and histone modifications) in ±32 kb of these ERVs' integration sites and in control regions, and analyzed them using Functional Data Analysis (FDA) methodology. In one of the first applications of FDA in genomics, we identified genomic scales and locations at which these features display their influence, and how they work in concert, to provide signals essential for integration and fixation of ERVs. The investigation of ERVs of different evolutionary ages (young in vitro and polymorphic ERVs, older fixed ERVs) allowed us to disentangle integration vs. fixation preferences. As a result of these analyses, we built a comprehensive model explaining the uneven distribution of ERVs along the genome. We found that ERVs integrate in late-replicating AT-rich regions with abundant microsatellites, mirror repeats, and repressive histone marks. Regions favoring fixation are depleted of genes and evolutionarily conserved elements, and have low recombination rates, reflecting the effects of purifying selection and ectopic recombination removing ERVs from the genome. In addition to providing these biological insights, our study demonstrates the power of exploiting multiple scales and localization with FDA. These powerful techniques are expected to be applicable to many other genomic investigations

  6. Human rabies therapy: lessons learned from experimental studies in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A C; Scott, C A; Owen, J; Weli, S C; Rossiter, J P

    2008-01-01

    Ketamine was one of the therapeutic agents used as a therapy for a human rabies survivor who did not receive rabies vaccine. Ketamine therapy is re-examined here in infected mouse primary neuron cultures and in adult ICR mice using the CVS strain with both intracerebral and peripheral routes of inoculation with ketamine vs. vehicle given intraperitoneally. No significant beneficial therapeutic effects of ketamine in the cultures or mouse model were observed. This team does not recommend further widespread clinical use of ketamine on human rabies patients until further experimental work demonstrates therapeutic efficacy. Because of the potential neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties of minocycline, minocycline therapy was assessed in infected primary neuron cultures and in neonatal ICR mice infected by peripheral inoculation with a highly attenuated rabies virus strain. No beneficial effect of minocycline was observed in the primary neuron cultures. In the mouse model, minocycline therapy aggravated the clinical neurological disease and resulted in higher mortality. An anti-apoptotic effect of minocycline was noted in the brains of infected mice, which may have very mildly increased viral spread. An anti-inflammatory effect was also noted in the brain using a CD3 T cell marker. These effects likely aggravated the disease. This team recommends that empirical therapy with minocycline be avoided in the management of rabies and viral encephalitis in humans until more information becomes available. PMID:18634499

  7. FAAH genetic variation enhances fronto-amygdala function in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Dincheva, Iva; Drysdale, Andrew T; Hartley, Catherine A; Johnson, David C; Jing, Deqiang; King, Elizabeth C; Ra, Stephen; Gray, J Megan; Yang, Ruirong; DeGruccio, Ann Marie; Huang, Chienchun; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Glatt, Charles E; Hill, Matthew N; Casey, B J; Lee, Francis S

    2015-01-01

    Cross-species studies enable rapid translational discovery and produce the broadest impact when both mechanism and phenotype are consistent across organisms. We developed a knock-in mouse that biologically recapitulates a common human mutation in the gene for fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) (C385A; rs324420), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid anandamide. This common polymorphism impacts the expression and activity of FAAH, thereby increasing anandamide levels. Here, we show that the genetic knock-in mouse and human variant allele carriers exhibit parallel alterations in biochemisty, neurocircuitry and behaviour. Specifically, there is reduced FAAH expression associated with the variant allele that selectively enhances fronto-amygdala connectivity and fear extinction learning, and decreases anxiety-like behaviours. These results suggest a gain of function in fear regulation and may indicate for whom and for what anxiety symptoms FAAH inhibitors or exposure-based therapies will be most efficacious, bridging an important translational gap between the mouse and human. PMID:25731744

  8. FAAH genetic variation enhances fronto-amygdala function in mouse and human

    PubMed Central

    Dincheva, Iva; Drysdale, Andrew T.; Hartley, Catherine A.; Johnson, David C.; Jing, Deqiang; King, Elizabeth C.; Ra, Stephen; Gray, Megan; Yang, Ruirong; DeGruccio, Ann Marie; Huang, Chienchun; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Glatt, Charles E.; Hill, Matthew N.; Casey, B. J.; Lee, Francis S.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-species studies enable rapid translational discovery and produce the broadest impact when both mechanism and phenotype are consistent across organisms. We developed a knock-in mouse that biologically recapitulates a common human mutation in the gene for fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) (C385A; rs324420), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid anandamide. This common polymorphism impacts the expression and activity of FAAH, thereby increasing anandamide levels. Here, we show that the genetic knock-in mouse and human variant allele carriers exhibit parallel alterations in biochemisty, neurocircuitry, and behavior. Specifically, there is reduced FAAH expression associated with the variant allele that selectively enhances fronto-amygdala connectivity and fear extinction learning, and decreases anxiety-like behaviors. These results suggest a gain-of-function in fear regulation and may indicate for whom and for what anxiety symptoms FAAH inhibitors or exposure-based therapies will be most efficacious, bridging an important translational gap between the mouse and human. PMID:25731744

  9. Surface-based atlases of cerebellar cortex in the human, macaque, and mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, David C.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes surface reconstructions and associated flat maps that represent the highly convoluted shape of cerebellar cortex in three species: human, macaque, and mouse. The reconstructions were based on high-resolution structural MRI data obtained from other laboratories. The surface areas determined for the fiducial reconstructions are about 600 cm(2) for the human, 60 cm(2) for the macaque, and 0.8 cm(2) for the mouse. As expected from the ribbon-like pattern of cerebellar folding, the cerebellar flat maps are elongated along the axis parallel to the midline. However, the degree of elongation varies markedly across species. The macaque flat map is many times longer than its mean width, whereas the mouse flat map is only slightly elongated and the human map is intermediate in its aspect ratio. These cerebellar atlases, along with associated software for visualization and for mapping experimental data onto the atlas, are freely available to the neuroscience community (see http:/brainmap.wustl.edu).

  10. Joint mouse-human phenome-wide association to test gene function and disease risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xusheng; Pandey, Ashutosh K; Mulligan, Megan K; Williams, Evan G; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Li, Zhengsheng; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Quarles, L Darryl; Xiao, Zhousheng; Huang, Jinsong; Capra, John A; Chen, Zugen; Taylor, William L; Bastarache, Lisa; Niu, Xinnan; Pollard, Katherine S; Ciobanu, Daniel C; Reznik, Alexander O; Tishkov, Artem V; Zhulin, Igor B; Peng, Junmin; Nelson, Stanley F; Denny, Joshua C; Auwerx, Johan; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Phenome-wide association is a novel reverse genetic strategy to analyze genome-to-phenome relations in human clinical cohorts. Here we test this approach using a large murine population segregating for ∼5 million sequence variants, and we compare our results to those extracted from a matched analysis of gene variants in a large human cohort. For the mouse cohort, we amassed a deep and broad open-access phenome consisting of ∼4,500 metabolic, physiological, pharmacological and behavioural traits, and more than 90 independent expression quantitative trait locus (QTL), transcriptome, proteome, metagenome and metabolome data sets--by far the largest coherent phenome for any experimental cohort (www.genenetwork.org). We tested downstream effects of subsets of variants and discovered several novel associations, including a missense mutation in fumarate hydratase that controls variation in the mitochondrial unfolded protein response in both mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans, and missense mutations in Col6a5 that underlies variation in bone mineral density in both mouse and human. PMID:26833085

  11. Organization, evolution and functions of the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family genes.

    PubMed

    Loughner, Chelsea L; Bruford, Elspeth A; McAndrews, Monica S; Delp, Emili E; Swamynathan, Sudha; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2016-01-01

    Members of the lymphocyte antigen-6 (Ly6)/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) superfamily of proteins are cysteine-rich proteins characterized by a distinct disulfide bridge pattern that creates the three-finger Ly6/uPAR (LU) domain. Although the Ly6/uPAR family proteins share a common structure, their expression patterns and functions vary. To date, 35 human and 61 mouse Ly6/uPAR family members have been identified. Based on their subcellular localization, these proteins are further classified as GPI-anchored on the cell membrane, or secreted. The genes encoding Ly6/uPAR family proteins are conserved across different species and are clustered in syntenic regions on human chromosomes 8, 19, 6 and 11, and mouse Chromosomes 15, 7, 17, and 9, respectively. Here, we review the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family gene and protein structure and genomic organization, expression, functions, and evolution, and introduce new names for novel family members. PMID:27098205

  12. Analysis of Human Innate Immune Responses to PRINT Fabricated Nanoparticles with Cross Validation Using a Humanized Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, GR; Roberts, RA; Guo, H; Reuter, K; Shen, T; Sempowski, GD; McKinnon, Karen P.; Su, L; DeSimone, JM; Ting, JP

    2015-01-01

    Ideal nanoparticle (NP)-based drug and vaccine delivery vectors should be free of inherent cytotoxic or immunostimulatory properties. Therefore, determining baseline immune responses to nanomaterials is of utmost importance when designing human therapeutics. We characterized the response of human immune cells to hydrogel NPs fabricated using Particle Replication in Non-wetting Templates (PRINT) technology. We found preferential NP uptake by primary CD14+ monocytes, which was significantly reduced upon PEGylation of the NP surface. Multiplex cytokine analysis of NP treated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hu-PBMC) suggests that PRINT based hydrogel NPs do not evoke significant inflammatory responses nor do they induce cytotoxicity or complement activation. We furthered these studies using an in vivo humanized mouse model and similarly found preferential NP uptake by human CD14+ monocytes without systemic inflammatory cytokine responses. These studies suggest that PRINT hydrogel particles form a desirable platform for vaccine and drug delivery as they neither induce inflammation nor toxicity. PMID:25596079

  13. Rabies virus infects mouse and human lymphocytes and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Thoulouze, M I; Lafage, M; Montano-Hirose, J A; Lafon, M

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated and highly neurovirulent rabies virus strains have distinct cellular tropisms. Highly neurovirulent strains such as the challenge virus standard (CVS) are highly neurotropic, whereas the attenuated strain ERA also infects nonneuronal cells. We report that both rabies virus strains infect activated murine lymphocytes and the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line in vitro. The lymphocytes are more permissive to the attenuated ERA rabies virus strain than to the CVS strain in both cases. We also report that in contrast to that of the CVS strain, ERA viral replication induces apoptosis of infected Jurkat T cells, and cell death is concomitant with viral glycoprotein expression, suggesting that this protein has a role in the induction of apoptosis. Our data indicate that (i) rabies virus infects lymphocytes, (ii) lymphocyte infection with the attenuated rabies virus strain causes apoptosis, and (iii) apoptosis does not hinder rabies virus production. In contrast to CVS, ERA rabies virus and other attenuated rabies virus vaccines stimulate a strong immune response and are efficient live vaccines. The paradoxical finding that a rabies virus triggers a strong immune response despite the fact that it infects lymphocytes and induces apoptosis is discussed in terms of the function of apoptosis in the immune response. PMID:9311815

  14. Control of Mycobacterial Infections in Mice Expressing Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) but Not Mouse TNF.

    PubMed

    Olleros, Maria L; Chavez-Galan, Leslie; Segueni, Noria; Bourigault, Marie L; Vesin, Dominique; Kruglov, Andrey A; Drutskaya, Marina S; Bisig, Ruth; Ehlers, Stefan; Aly, Sahar; Walter, Kerstin; Kuprash, Dmitry V; Chouchkova, Miliana; Kozlov, Sergei V; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernard; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Garcia, Irene

    2015-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine for host defense against pathogens but is also associated with the development of human immunopathologies. TNF blockade effectively ameliorates many chronic inflammatory conditions but compromises host immunity to tuberculosis. The search for novel, more specific human TNF blockers requires the development of a reliable animal model. We used a novel mouse model with complete replacement of the mouse TNF gene by its human ortholog (human TNF [huTNF] knock-in [KI] mice) to determine resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis infections and to investigate whether TNF inhibitors in clinical use reduce host immunity. Our results show that macrophages from huTNF KI mice responded to BCG and lipopolysaccharide similarly to wild-type macrophages by NF-κB activation and cytokine production. While TNF-deficient mice rapidly succumbed to mycobacterial infection, huTNF KI mice survived, controlling the bacterial burden and activating bactericidal mechanisms. Administration of TNF-neutralizing biologics disrupted the control of mycobacterial infection in huTNF KI mice, leading to an increased bacterial burden and hyperinflammation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that human TNF can functionally replace murine TNF in vivo, providing mycobacterial resistance that could be compromised by TNF neutralization. This new animal model will be helpful for the testing of specific biologics neutralizing human TNF. PMID:26123801

  15. Allergic Contact Dermatitis: A Model of Inflammatory Itch and Pain in Human and Mouse.

    PubMed

    LaMotte, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of published observations from our laboratory on the psychophysics and neurobiology of the persistent itch and pain of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ACD is a clinically significant problem with many features characteristic of other pruritic disorders. Our approach was to produce ACD experimentally in humans and in the mouse. The goal was to use the mouse as an animal model for investigating the peripheral neural mechanisms of itch and pain of ACD in humans. Humans and mice were each sensitized by cutaneous topical application of squaric acid dibutyl ester, a hapten not encountered in the environment. Subsequent challenge at another cutaneous site produced local inflammation ("ACD") with humans reporting persistent itch (lasting up to a week) and mice exhibiting persistent itch- and pain-like behaviors directed toward the ACD site. Enhanced mechanically evoked itch and pain in surrounding skin in humans were reversibly blocked by numbing the ACD site with cold, suggesting dependence on ongoing activity from the site. In mice, in vivo recordings revealed spontaneous activity in a subset of pruriceptive, mechanoheat-sensitive nociceptors with unmyelinated axons innervating the ACD site. These and a larger subpopulation of acutely dissociated small-diameter neurons innervating the ACD site exhibited an upregulation of the receptor CXCR3 and excitatory responses to one of its ligands, the chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10) that contributes to the pathogenesis of ACD. Preliminary findings point to possible therapeutic targets that could be investigated in inflammatory itch disorders in humans. PMID:26900060

  16. Control of Mycobacterial Infections in Mice Expressing Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) but Not Mouse TNF

    PubMed Central

    Olleros, Maria L.; Chavez-Galan, Leslie; Segueni, Noria; Bourigault, Marie L.; Vesin, Dominique; Kruglov, Andrey A.; Drutskaya, Marina S.; Bisig, Ruth; Ehlers, Stefan; Aly, Sahar; Walter, Kerstin; Kuprash, Dmitry V.; Chouchkova, Miliana; Kozlov, Sergei V.; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernard; Quesniaux, Valérie F. J.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine for host defense against pathogens but is also associated with the development of human immunopathologies. TNF blockade effectively ameliorates many chronic inflammatory conditions but compromises host immunity to tuberculosis. The search for novel, more specific human TNF blockers requires the development of a reliable animal model. We used a novel mouse model with complete replacement of the mouse TNF gene by its human ortholog (human TNF [huTNF] knock-in [KI] mice) to determine resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis infections and to investigate whether TNF inhibitors in clinical use reduce host immunity. Our results show that macrophages from huTNF KI mice responded to BCG and lipopolysaccharide similarly to wild-type macrophages by NF-κB activation and cytokine production. While TNF-deficient mice rapidly succumbed to mycobacterial infection, huTNF KI mice survived, controlling the bacterial burden and activating bactericidal mechanisms. Administration of TNF-neutralizing biologics disrupted the control of mycobacterial infection in huTNF KI mice, leading to an increased bacterial burden and hyperinflammation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that human TNF can functionally replace murine TNF in vivo, providing mycobacterial resistance that could be compromised by TNF neutralization. This new animal model will be helpful for the testing of specific biologics neutralizing human TNF. PMID:26123801

  17. Mouse model recapitulating human Fcγ receptor structural and functional diversity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick; DiLillo, David J.; Bournazos, Stylianos; Li, Fubin; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2012-01-01

    The in vivo biological activities of IgG antibodies result from their bifunctional nature, in which antigen recognition by the Fab is coupled to the effector and immunomodulatory diversity found in the Fc domain. This diversity, resulting from both amino acid and glycan heterogeneity, is translated into cellular responses through Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), a structurally and functionally diverse family of cell surface receptors found throughout the immune system. Although many of the overall features of this system are maintained throughout mammalian evolution, species diversity has precluded direct analysis of human antibodies in animal species, and, thus, detailed investigations into the unique features of the human IgG antibodies and their FcγRs have been limited. We now report the development of a mouse model in which all murine FcγRs have been deleted and human FcγRs, encoded as transgenes, have been inserted into the mouse genome resulting in recapitulation of the unique profile of human FcγR expression. These human FcγRs are shown to function to mediate the immunomodulatory, inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of human IgG antibodies and Fc engineered variants and provide a platform for the detailed mechanistic analysis of therapeutic and pathogenic IgG antibodies. PMID:22474370

  18. Combining Human Disease Genetics and Mouse Model Phenotypes towards Drug Repositioning for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Cai, Xiaoshu; Xu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without effective treatments. Here, we present a novel drug repositioning approach to predict new drugs for PD leveraging both disease genetics and large amounts of mouse model phenotypes. First, we identified PD-specific mouse phenotypes using well-studied human disease genes. Then we searched all FDA-approved drugs for candidates that share similar mouse phenotype profiles with PD. We demonstrated the validity of our approach using drugs that have been approved for PD: 10 approved PD drugs were ranked within top 10% among 1197 candidates. In predicting novel PD drugs, our approach achieved a mean average precision of 0.24, which is significantly higher (pmouse phenotype data. Comparison of gene expression profiles between PD and top-ranked drug candidates indicates that quetiapine has the potential to treat PD. PMID:26958284

  19. Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

  20. IMMUNE-DEFICIENT MOUSE STRAINS DISPLAY MARKED VARIABILITY IN GROWTH OF HUMAN MELANOMA LUNG METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Carreno, Beatriz M.; Garbow, Joel R.; Kolar, Grant R.; Jackson, Erin N.; Engelbach, John A.; Becker-Hapak, Michelle; Carayannopoulos, Leonidas N.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Linette, Gerald P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Immune-deficient mice serve as critical hosts for transplantation of xenogeneic cells for in vivo analysis of various biological processes. Since investigators typically select one or two immune-deficient mouse strains as recipients, no comprehensive study has been published documenting differences in human tumor engraftment. Taking advantage of the increased metastatic potential of RhoC-expressing human (A375) melanoma cells, we evaluate 4 immune-deficient mouse strains: scid, NOD-scid, NOD-scid β2mnull, and NOD-scid IL2Rγnull as xenograft tumor recipients. Experimental design Bioluminescence, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology was employed to monitor serial tumor growth. NK cell function was examined in each mouse strain using standard 51 Chromium release assays. Results Melanoma metastases growth is delayed and variable in scid, and NOD-scid mice. In contrast, NOD-scid β2mnull and NOD-scid IL2Rγnull mice show rapid tumor engraftment, although tumor growth is variable in NOD-scid β2mnull mice. NK cells were detected in all strains except NOD-scid IL2Rγnull, and in vitro activated scid, NOD-scid and NOD-scid β2mnull NK cells kill human melanoma lines and primary melanoma cells. Expression of human NKG2D ligands MHC class I chain-related A and B molecules renders melanoma susceptible to murine NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and killing is inhibited by antibody blockade of murine NKG2D. Conclusions Murine NKG2D recognition of MICA/B is an important receptor-ligand interaction employed by NK cells in immune-deficient strains to limit engraftment of human tumors. The absolute NK deficiency in NOD-scid IL2Rγnull animals makes this strain an excellent recipient of melanoma and potentially other human malignancies. PMID:19447870

  1. Mouse mammary tumor virus uses mouse but not human transferrin receptor 1 to reach a low pH compartment and infect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Enxiu; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Ying Qihua; Davey, Robert A.; Ross, Susan R.

    2008-11-25

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a pH-dependent virus that uses mouse transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) for entry into cells. Previous studies demonstrated that MMTV could induce pH 5-dependent fusion-from-with of mouse cells. Here we show that the MMTV envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion requires both the entry receptor and low pH (pH 5). Although expression of the MMTV envelope and TfR1 was sufficient to mediate low pH-dependent syncytia formation, virus infection required trafficking to a low pH compartment; infection was independent of cathepsin-mediated proteolysis. Human TfR1 did not support virus infection, although envelope-mediated syncytia formation occurred with human cells after pH 5 treatment and this fusion depended on TfR1 expression. However, although the MMTV envelope bound human TfR1, virus was only internalized and trafficked to a low pH compartment in cells expressing mouse TfR1. Thus, while human TfR1 supported cell-cell fusion, because it was not internalized when bound to MMTV, it did not function as an entry receptor. Our data suggest that MMTV uses TfR1 for all steps of entry: cell attachment, induction of the conformational changes in Env required for membrane fusion and internalization to an appropriate acidic compartment.

  2. Synchrony in human, mouse and bacterial cell cultures--a comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen; Romero, Ana; Eward, K. Leigh

    2003-01-01

    Growth characteristics of synchronous human MOLT-4, human U-937 and mouse L1210 cultures produced with a new minimally-disturbing technology were compared to each other and to synchronous Escherichia coli B/r. Based on measurements of cell concentrations during synchronous growth, synchrony persisted in similar fashion for all cells. Cell size and DNA distributions in the mammalian cultures also progressed synchronously and reproducibly for multiple cell cycles. The results demonstrate that unambiguous multi-cycle synchrony, critical for verifying the absence of significant growth imbalances induced by the synchronization procedure, is feasible with these cell lines, and possibly others.

  3. Prophylactic effect of administration of human gamma globulins in a mouse model of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Nesty; Puig, Alina; Aguilar, Diana; Moya, Aniel; Cádiz, Armando; Otero, Oscar; Izquierdo, Luis; Falero, Gustavo; Solis, Rosa L; Orozco, Hector; Sarmiento, Maria E; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Acosta, Armando

    2009-05-01

    The protective effect of human gamma globulins on Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was evaluated in a mouse model of intratracheal infection. Animals receiving human gamma globulins intranasally, 2h before intratracheal challenge showed a significant decrease in lung bacilli load compared to non-treated animals in different time intervals of up to 2 months after challenge. The same effect was obtained when M. tuberculosis was pre-incubated with the gamma globulin before challenge. The protective effect of the gamma-globulin formulation was abolished after pre-incubation with M. tuberculosis. These results suggest a potential role of specific antibodies in the defence against mycobacterial infections. PMID:19362883

  4. Mapping of the NEP receptor tyrosine kinase gene to human chromosome 6p21.3 and mouse chromosome 17C

    SciTech Connect

    Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Sweetser, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The mouse receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) NEP, also called Ptk-3, is widely expressed, with high levels in proliferating neuroepithelia of mouse embryos. The recently described human discoidin domain receptor (DDR) has a predicted amino acid sequence 93% identical to that of murine NEP and may be its human homologue. We have mapped the gene encoding NEP in human and mouse by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a mouse cDNA probe. The NEP/Nep gene maps to human chromosome 6p21.3 and mouse chromosome 17C, respectively. This places the NEP/Nep gene at, or near, the major histocompatibility (MHC) locus-HLA in human and H2 in mouse, respectively. Based on its pattern of expression during development, NEP and Nep represent candidate genes for several MHC-linked developmental abnormalities in human and mouse. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Activation status of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) influences Vemurafenib availability in humanized mouse models

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, A. Kenneth; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2015-01-01

    Vemurafenib is a revolutionary treatment for melanoma, but the magnitude of therapeutic response is highly variable and the rapid acquisition of resistance is frequent. Here, we examined how vemurafenib disposition, particularly through cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation pathways, could potentially influence these outcomes using a panel of knockout and transgenic humanized mouse models. We identified CYP3A4 as the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of vemurafenib in in vitro assays with human liver microsomes. However, mice expressing human CYP3A4 did not process vemurafenib to a greater extent than CYP3A4 null animals, suggesting that other pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated pathways may contribute more significantly to vemurafenib metabolism in vivo. Activation of PXR, but not of the closely related constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), profoundly reduced circulating levels of vemurafenib in humanized mice. This effect was independent of CYP3A4 and was negated by co-treatment with the drug efflux transporter inhibitor, elacridar. Finally, vemurafenib strongly induced PXR activity in vitro, but only weakly induced PXR in vivo. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that vemurafenib is unlikely to exhibit a clinically significant interaction with CYP3A4, but that modulation of bioavailability through PXR-mediated regulation of drug transporters (for example by other drugs) has the potential to markedly influence systemic exposure and thereby therapeutic outcomes. Activation status of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) influences Vemurafenib availability in humanized mouse models. PMID:26363009

  6. Stem-cell Based Engineered Immunity Against HIV Infection in the Humanized Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Anjie; Rezek, Valerie; Youn, Cindy; Rick, Jonathan; Lam, Brianna; Chang, Nelson; Zack, Jerome; Kamata, Masakazu; Kitchen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of stem cell-based gene therapies against HIV, there is pressing requirement for an animal model to study the hematopoietic differentiation and immune function of the genetically modified cells. The humanized Bone-marrow/Liver/Thymus (BLT) mouse model allows for full reconstitution of a human immune system in the periphery, which includes T cells, B cells, NK cells and monocytes. The human thymic implant also allows for thymic selection of T cells in autologous thymic tissue. In addition to the study of HIV infection, the model stands as a powerful tool to study differentiation, development and functionality of cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here we outline the construction of humanized non-obese diabetic (NOD)-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-common gamma chain knockout (cγ(-/-))-Bone-marrow/Liver/Thymus (NSG-BLT) mice with HSCs transduced with CD4 chimeric antigen receptor (CD4CAR) lentivirus vector. We show that the CD4CAR HSCs can successfully differentiate into multiple lineages and have anti-HIV activity. The goal of the study is to demonstrate the use of NSG-BLT mouse model as an in vivo model for engineered immunity against HIV. It is worth noting that, because lentivirus and human tissue is used, experiments and surgeries should be performed in a Class II biosafety cabinet in a Biosafety Level 2 (BSL2) with special precautions (BSL2+) facility. PMID:27404517

  7. Predominance of the metastatic phenotype in hybrids formed by fusion of mouse and human melanoma clones.

    PubMed

    van Golen, K L; Risin, S; Staroselsky, A; Berger, D; Tainsky, M A; Pathak, S; Price, J E

    1996-03-01

    The fusion of mouse and human melanoma cells that were tumorigenic but had different metastatic capabilities resulted in hybrids that were metastatic when injected intravenously or subcutaneously into nude mice, regardless of whether it was the mouse or the human melanoma clone that was metastatic. The H7 hybrid line, formed by fusing murine nonmetastatic K1735 C19 cells with human metastatic A375 C15 cells retained high metastatic potential over more than 50 sub-culture passages, suggesting that the dominant metastatic phenotype in these hybrid cells was stable. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), human chromosome 17 was consistently identified as the predominant human chromosome in the majority of H7 cells tested between passages 20 and 60. Western blot analysis showed that the hybrid cells expressed human nm23 protein, indicating that at least one gene on the human chromosome 17 was functional. Immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation showed that the metastatic A375 C15 and H7 cells expressed p53 protein, but that the nonmetastatic K1735 C19 melanoma cells did not. Sequencing the human p53 gene in A375 C15N and H7 showed mutations in exon 7. Using a bioassay technique, we showed that K1735 C19 cells can spread from subcutaneous tumors to the lungs of nude mice yet fail to form metastases. With the addition of human chromosome 17 from A375 C15 cells, which carries a mutant p53 gene, the cells readily formed lung metastases. In this melanoma hybrid, a mutant p53 gene appears to confer a survival advantage on cells arrested in the lungs of nude mice and thus contributes to the growth of metastatic cells. PMID:8605733

  8. A Simple Mouse Model for the Study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang Chang; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chang; Park, Ki Hoon; Lee, Hee Jung; Cho, Young Keol; Kim, Sang Il; Kim, Sung Soon; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2016-02-01

    Humanized mouse models derived from immune-deficient mice have been the primary tool for studies of human infectious viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the current protocol for constructing humanized mice requires elaborate procedures and complicated techniques, limiting the supply of such mice for viral studies. Here, we report a convenient method for constructing a simple HIV-1 mouse model. Without prior irradiation, NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ-null (NSG) mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1 × 10(7) adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hu-PBMCs). Four weeks after PBMC inoculation, human CD45(+) cells, and CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells were detected in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver, whereas human CD19(+) cells were observed in lymph nodes and spleen. To examine the usefulness of hu-PBMC-inoculated NSG (hu-PBMC-NSG) mice as an HIV-1 infection model, we intravenously injected these mice with dual-tropic HIV-1DH12 and X4-tropic HIV-1NL4-3 strains. HIV-1-infected hu-PBMC-NSG mice showed significantly lower human CD4(+) T cell counts and high HIV viral loads in the peripheral blood compared with noninfected hu-PBMC-NSG mice. Following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and neutralizing antibody treatment, HIV-1 replication was significantly suppressed in HIV-1-infected hu-PBMC-NSG mice without detectable viremia or CD4(+) T cell depletion. Moreover, the numbers of human T cells were maintained in hu-PBMC-NSG mice for at least 10 weeks. Taken together, our results suggest that hu-PBMC-NSG mice may serve as a relevant HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis model that could facilitate in vivo studies of HIV-1 infection and candidate HIV-1 protective drugs. PMID:26564392

  9. Enzyme replacement therapy of a novel humanized mouse model of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Frank; Andersson, Claes; Stein, Axel; Eistrup, Carl; Fogh, Jens; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Wenger, David A; Matzner, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    An inherited deficiency of β-galactosylceramidase (GALC) causes the lysosomal storage disease globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD). The disease is characterized by the accumulation of the cytotoxic metabolite psychosine (galactosylsphingosine), causing rapid degeneration of myelinating cells. Most patients suffer from the infantile form of GLD with onset of disease between 3 and 6 months after birth and death by 2 years of age. The most widely used animal model of GLD, the twitcher mouse, presents with an even more rapid course of disease and death around 40 days of age. We have generated a novel "humanized" mouse model of GLD by inserting a human GALC cDNA containing an adult-onset patient mutation into the murine GALC gene. Humanized GALC mice exhibit pathological hallmarks of GLD including psychosine accumulation, neuroinflammation, CNS infiltration of macrophages, astrogliosis and demyelination. Residual GALC activities in mouse tissues are low and the mice display a median lifespan of 46 days. Due to the expression of the human transgene, the mice do not develop an immune response against rhGALC, rendering the animal model suitable for therapies based on human enzyme. Intravenously injected rhGALC was able to surmount the blood-brain barrier and was targeted to lysosomes of brain macrophages, astrocytes and neurons. High-dose enzyme replacement therapy started at postnatal day 21 reduced the elevated psychosine levels in the peripheral and central nervous system by 14-16%, but did not ameliorate neuroinflammation, demyelination and lifespan. These results may indicate that treatment must be started earlier before pathology occurs. PMID:25956830

  10. Human mesenchymal stem cells towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in an immunodeficient mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Sandra; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Dollinger, Matthias; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Christ, Bruno

    2014-08-15

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a frequent clinical picture characterised by hepatic inflammation, lipid accumulation and fibrosis. When untreated, NASH bears a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis and consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma requiring liver transplantation in its end-stage. However, donor organ scarcity has prompted the search for alternatives, of which hepatocyte or stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation are regarded auspicious options of treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and thus may represent an alternative cell source to primary hepatocytes. In addition these cells feature anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative characteristics, which might favour liver recovery from NASH. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefit of hepatocyte-like cells derived from human bone marrow MSC in a mouse model of diet-induced NASH. Seven days post-transplant, human hepatocyte-like cells were found in the mouse liver parenchyma. Triglyceride depositions were lowered in the liver but restored to normal in the blood. Hepatic inflammation was attenuated as verified by decreased expression of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, inflammation-associated markers (e.g. lipocalin 2), as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Moreover, the proliferation of host hepatocytes that indicate the regenerative capacity in livers receiving cell transplants was enhanced. Transplantation of MSC-derived human hepatocyte-like cells corrects NASH in mice by restoring triglyceride depositions, reducing inflammation and augmenting the regenerative capacity of the liver. - Highlights: • First time to show NASH in an immune-deficient mouse model. • Human MSC attenuate NASH and improve lipid homeostasis. • MSC act anti-fibrotic and augment liver regeneration by stimulation of proliferation. • Pre-clinical assessment of human MSC for stem cell-based therapy of NASH.