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1

Systemic and local injections of lupeol inhibit tumor growth in a melanoma-bearing mouse model  

PubMed Central

Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and it is procured from activated or genetically altered epidermal melanocytes. In the present study, the tumor-suppressive effects of systemic and local injections of lupeol, a triterpene extracted from Indian lettuce (Lactuca indica), in a melanoma-bearing mouse model were evaluated. Mice were injected once with lupeol or olive oil (solvent control) subcutaneously into the skin of the back or into the tumor tissue. Seven days after the injection, the tumor growth rates were calculated and the tumor tissues were collected. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed. The tumor growth rates in the lupeol-injected group were significantly decreased compared to those observed in the non-treated (NT) and solvent control groups. Lupeol also significantly decreased the areas positively stained for Ki-67 and PCNA in the tumor tissues compared to those in the NT and solvent control groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that systemic and local injections of lupeol suppress tumor growth and induce cell cycle arrest in a melanoma-bearing mouse model. These data suggest that lupeol may be effective as a novel therapeutic option for melanoma patients. PMID:24649001

NITTA, MAKIKO; AZUMA, KAZUO; HATA, KEISHI; TAKAHASHI, SAORI; OGIWARA, KIKUMI; TSUKA, TAKESHI; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; YOKOE, INORU; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; MINAMI, SABURO; OKAMOTO, YOSHIHARU

2013-01-01

2

Mouse models of human cancer.  

PubMed

The Helmholtz Alliance Preclinical Comprehensive Cancer Center (PCCC; www.helmholtz-pccc.de) hosted the "1st International Kloster Seeon Meeting on Mouse Models of Human Cancer" in the Seeon monastery (Germany) from March 8 to 11, 2014. The meeting focused on the development and application of novel mouse models in tumor research and high-throughput technologies to overcome one of the most critical bottlenecks in translational bench-to-bedside tumor biology research. Moreover, the participants discussed basic molecular mechanisms underlying tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance, which are the prerequisite for the development of novel treatment strategies and clinical applications in cancer therapy. Cancer Res; 74(17); 4671-5. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25136075

Böck, Barbara C; Stein, Ulrike; Schmitt, Clemens A; Augustin, Hellmut G

2014-09-01

3

Humanized Mouse Models to Study Human Diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Update on humanized mouse models and their use in biomedical research. Recent findings The recent description of immunodeficient mice bearing a mutated IL-2 receptor gamma chain (IL2ry) facilitated greatly the engraftment and function of human hematolymphoid cells and other cells and tissues. These mice permit the development of human immune systems, including functional T and B cells, following engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). The engrafted functional human immune systems are capable of T and B cell-dependent immune responses, antibody production, anti-viral responses, and allograft rejection. Immunodeficient IL2rynull mice also support heightened engraftment of primary human cancers and malignant progenitor cells, permitting in vivo investigation of pathogenesis and function. In addition, human-specific infectious agents for which animal models were previously unavailable can now be studied in vivo using these new generation humanized mice. Summary Immunodeficient mice bearing an IL2rynull mutated gene can be engrafted with functional human cells and tissues, including human immune systems, following engraftment with human hematolymphoid cells. These mice are now used as in vivo models to study human hematopoiesis, immunity, regeneration, stem cell function, cancer, and human-specific infectious agents without putting patients at risk. PMID:20150806

Brehm, Michael A.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Greiner, Dale L.

2010-01-01

4

Mouse models of human thalassemia  

SciTech Connect

The group of diseases called the thalassemias is the largest single-gene health problem in the world according the World Health Organization. The thalassemias are lethal hereditary anemias in which the infants cannot make their own blood. Three mouse mutants are shown to be models of the human disease ..cap alpha..-thalassemia. However, since an additional gene is affected, these mutants represent a particularly severe condition in which death occurs in the homozygous embryo even before globin genes are activated. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics are described. (ACR)

Anderson, W.F.; Martinell, J.; Whitney, J.B. III; Popp, R.A.

1981-01-01

5

Mouse and bovine models for human IVF  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is obvious that the first prerequisite is to define for what purpose a model is needed for humans. There are huge differences in reproductive physiology between the mouse, human and cow. As far as maturation is concerned, the plasticity of the mouse model is not the same in cows and humans. The final stages of oocyte maturation seem to

Yves JR Ménézo; François Hérubel

2002-01-01

6

Mouse and bovine models for human IVF.  

PubMed

It is obvious that the first prerequisite is to define for what purpose a model is needed for humans. There are huge differences in reproductive physiology between the mouse, human and cow. As far as maturation is concerned, the plasticity of the mouse model is not the same in cows and humans. The final stages of oocyte maturation seem to be more finely regulated in cows and humans, where a minimum size of follicle is necessary to complete maturation in vitro. Bovine and human preimplantation embryos seem to be more similar in terms of biochemical and intrinsic paternal and maternal regulatory processes. Once again, interactions between the embryo and the corpus luteum are similar in cows and humans, but mouse and human embryo implantations are closer. Mouse oocytes and embryos should not be overlooked, but excessive generalization between mammalian species must be avoided. PMID:12470581

Ménézo, Yves J R; Hérubel, François

2002-01-01

7

Mouse homologues of human hereditary disease.  

PubMed Central

Details are given of 214 loci known to be associated with human hereditary disease, which have been mapped on both human and mouse chromosomes. Forty two of these have pathological variants in both species; in general the mouse variants are similar in their effects to the corresponding human ones, but exceptions include the Dmd/DMD and Hprt/HPRT mutations which cause little, if any, harm in mice. Possible reasons for phenotypic differences are discussed. In most pathological variants the gene product seems to be absent or greatly reduced in both species. The extensive data on conserved segments between human and mouse chromosomes are used to predict locations in the mouse of over 50 loci of medical interest which are mapped so far only on human chromosomes. In about 80% of these a fairly confident prediction can be made. Some likely homologies between mapped mouse loci and unmapped human ones are also given. Sixty six human and mouse proto-oncogene and growth factor gene homologies are also listed; those of confirmed location are all in known conserved segments. A survey of 18 mapped human disease loci and chromosome regions in which the manifestation or severity of pathological effects is thought to be the result of genomic imprinting shows that most of the homologous regions in the mouse are also associated with imprinting, especially those with homologues on human chromosomes 11p and 15q. Useful methods of accelerating the production of mouse models of human hereditary disease include (1) use of a supermutagen, such as ethylnitrosourea (ENU), (2) targeted mutagenesis involving ES cells, and (3) use of gene transfer techniques, with production of 'knockout mutations'. PMID:8151633

Searle, A G; Edwards, J H; Hall, J G

1994-01-01

8

Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies  

SciTech Connect

The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

Generoso, W.M.

1989-01-01

9

Complex Loci in Human and Mouse Genomes  

PubMed Central

Mammalian genomes harbor a larger than expected number of complex loci, in which multiple genes are coupled by shared transcribed regions in antisense orientation and/or by bidirectional core promoters. To determine the incidence, functional significance, and evolutionary context of mammalian complex loci, we identified and characterized 5,248 cis–antisense pairs, 1,638 bidirectional promoters, and 1,153 chains of multiple cis–antisense and/or bidirectionally promoted pairs from 36,606 mouse transcriptional units (TUs), along with 6,141 cis–antisense pairs, 2,113 bidirectional promoters, and 1,480 chains from 42,887 human TUs. In both human and mouse, 25% of TUs resided in cis–antisense pairs, only 17% of which were conserved between the two organisms, indicating frequent species specificity of antisense gene arrangements. A sampling approach indicated that over 40% of all TUs might actually be in cis–antisense pairs, and that only a minority of these arrangements are likely to be conserved between human and mouse. Bidirectional promoters were characterized by variable transcriptional start sites and an identifiable midpoint at which overall sequence composition changed strand and the direction of transcriptional initiation switched. In microarray data covering a wide range of mouse tissues, genes in cis–antisense and bidirectionally promoted arrangement showed a higher probability of being coordinately expressed than random pairs of genes. In a case study on homeotic loci, we observed extensive transcription of nonconserved sequences on the noncoding strand, implying that the presence rather than the sequence of these transcripts is of functional importance. Complex loci are ubiquitous, host numerous nonconserved gene structures and lineage-specific exonification events, and may have a cis-regulatory impact on the member genes. PMID:16683030

Engstrom, Par G; Suzuki, Harukazu; Ninomiya, Noriko; Akalin, Altuna; Sessa, Luca; Lavorgna, Giovanni; Brozzi, Alessandro; Luzi, Lucilla; Tan, Sin Lam; Yang, Liang; Kunarso, Galih; Ng, Edwin Lian-Chong; Batalov, Serge; Wahlestedt, Claes; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Wells, Christine; Bajic, Vladimir B; Orlando, Valerio; Reid, James F; Lenhard, Boris; Lipovich, Leonard

2006-01-01

10

[Research progress on human acute leukemia xenograft mouse models].  

PubMed

The methods for modeling human acute leukemia in mice include xenotransplantation of human leukemia cells, retroviral transduction/transplantation, transgenesis, chemical mutagenesis and insertional mutagenesis. Establishing human acute leukemia mouse models through xenograft is an important way to study acute leukemia. This review focuses on the newest progress of studies on human acute leukemia xenograft mouse models in the regards of the immunodeficiency mouse, preconditioning, cytokines, cell transplantation, the evaluation and application of model. PMID:24763042

Guo, Yan-Ting; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Jian

2014-04-01

11

Humanized Mouse Models of HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Because of the limited tropism of HIV, in vivo modeling of this virus has been almost exclusively limited to other lentiviruses such as SIV that reproduce many important characteristics of HIV infection. However, there are significant genetic and biological differences among lentiviruses and some HIV-specific interventions are not effective against other lentiviruses in non-human hosts. For these reasons much emphasis has recently been placed on developing alternative animal models that support HIV replication and recapitulate key aspects of HIV infection and pathogenesis in humans. Humanized mice, CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cell transplanted immunodeficient mice and in particular mice also implanted with human thymic/liver tissue (BLT mice) that develop a functional human immune system, have been the focus of a great deal of attention as possible models to study virtually all aspects of HIV biology and pathogenesis. Humanized mice are systemically reconstituted with human lymphoid cells offering rapid, reliable and reproducible experimental systems for HIV research. Peripheral blood of humanized mice can be readily sampled longitudinally to assess reconstitution with human cells and to monitor HIV replication permitting the evaluation of multiple parameters of HIV infection such as viral load levels, CD4+ T cell depletion, immune activation, as well as the effects of therapeutic interventions. Of high relevance to HIV transmission is the extensive characterization and validation of the reconstitution with human lymphoid cells of the female reproductive tract and of the gastrointestinal tract of humanized BLT mice that renders them susceptible to both vaginal and rectal HIV infection. Other important attributes of all types of humanized mice include: 1) their small size and cost that make them broadly accessible; 2) multiple cohorts of humanized mice can be made from multiple human donors and each cohort has identical human cells, permitting control of intragenetic variables; 3) continuous de novo production of human immune cells from the transplanted CD34+ cells within each humanized mouse facilitates long term experiments; 4) both primary and laboratory HIV isolates can be used for experiments; and 5) in addition to therapeutic interventions, rectal and vaginal HIV prevention approaches can be studied. In summary, humanized mice can have an important role in virtually all aspects of HIV research including the analysis of HIV replication, the evaluation of HIV restriction factors, the characterization of successful biomedical HIV prevention strategies, the evaluation of new treatment regimens and the evaluation of novel HIV eradication strategies. PMID:21799532

Denton, Paul W.; Garcia, J. Victor

2013-01-01

12

Comparative Anatomy of Mouse and Human Nail Units  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology. PMID:23408541

Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A.; Sundberg, John P.

2013-01-01

13

Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

Pennacchio, Len A.

2003-03-30

14

PPAR? in human and mouse physiology  

PubMed Central

Summary The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a member in the nuclear receptor superfamily which mediates part of the regulatory effects of dietary fatty acids on gene expression. As PPAR? also coordinates adipocyte differentiation, it is an important component in storing the excess nutritional energy as fat. Our genes have evolved into maximizing energy storage, and PPAR? has a central role in the mismatch between our genes and our affluent western society which results in a broad range of metabolic disturbances, collectively known as the metabolic syndrome. A flurry of human and mouse studies has shed new light on the mechanisms how the commonly used insulin sensitizer drugs and PPAR? activators, thiazolidinediones, act, and which of their physiological effects are dependent of PPAR?. It is now evident that the full activation of PPAR? is less advantageous than targeted modulation of it's activity. Furthermore, new roles for PPAR? signaling have been discovered in inflammation, bone morphogenesis, endothelial function, cancer, longevity, and atherosclerosis, to mention a few. Here we draw together and discuss these recent advances in the research into PPAR? biology. PMID:17475546

Heikkinen, Sami; Auwerx, Johan; Argmann, Carmen A

2007-01-01

15

Glycine transport by single human and mouse embryos.  

PubMed

Mouse zygotes and early cleavage-stage embryos have previously been shown to utilize glycine as an organic osmolyte, accumulating it to oppose any decrease in cell volume. Such glycine uptake in early cleavage-stage mouse embryos is via the glycine-specific Gly transporter. Mouse embryos also possess swelling-activated channels which function to release osmotically active glycine and other osmolytes when cell volume becomes too large. In this study it was found that human cleavage-stage embryos also transported glycine via a similarly saturable, sarcosine-inhibitable transporter, implying that the Gly transporter also mediates glycine transport in human embryos. Mouse zygotes have previously been shown to accumulate more intracellular glycine when cultured at increased osmolarities for 24 h. It was found in the current study that this ability was lost as preimplantation mouse embryo development proceeded, and that early cleavage-stage human embryos may also be capable of such osmosensitive accumulation of glycine. Finally, using spare human eggs which had failed to fertilize or cleave, the presence of swelling-activated currents resembling those in mouse zygotes was demonstrated. These data indicate that osmoregulation in early human embryos occurs via similar mechanisms as in the mouse. PMID:10655315

Hammer, M A; Kolajova, M; Léveillé, M; Claman, P; Baltz, J M

2000-02-01

16

Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we show that, although acute inflammatory stresses from different etiologies result in highly similar genomic responses in humans, the responses in corresponding mouse models correlate poorly with the human conditions and also, one another. Among genes changed significantly in humans, the murine orthologs are close to random in matching their human counterparts (e.g., R(2) between 0.0 and 0.1). In addition to improvements in the current animal model systems, our study supports higher priority for translational medical research to focus on the more complex human conditions rather than relying on mouse models to study human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23401516

Seok, Junhee; Warren, H Shaw; Cuenca, Alex G; Mindrinos, Michael N; Baker, Henry V; Xu, Weihong; Richards, Daniel R; McDonald-Smith, Grace P; Gao, Hong; Hennessy, Laura; Finnerty, Celeste C; López, Cecilia M; Honari, Shari; Moore, Ernest E; Minei, Joseph P; Cuschieri, Joseph; Bankey, Paul E; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Sperry, Jason; Nathens, Avery B; Billiar, Timothy R; West, Michael A; Jeschke, Marc G; Klein, Matthew B; Gamelli, Richard L; Gibran, Nicole S; Brownstein, Bernard H; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Calvano, Steve E; Mason, Philip H; Cobb, J Perren; Rahme, Laurence G; Lowry, Stephen F; Maier, Ronald V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Herndon, David N; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G

2013-02-26

17

Human-IgE-induced degranulation of mouse mast cells.  

PubMed

The relations between human IgE and mouse peritoneal mast cells were studied in vitro. Non-heated human IgE sensitizes the mouse mast cells for degranulation on challenge with anti-human IgE. This capacity is lost after heating of human IgE at 56 degrees C. The degranulation only occurs in determined quantitative IgE-anti-IgE relationships, an excess of one or the other reagent inhibiting the reaction. Sensitization is practically instanteneous, and the degranulation is independent on the order of addition of the human IgE and anti-IgE. The human IgE can be removed from mouse peritoneal mast cells by a single washing. The results show that human IgE is unable to bind firmly to mouse peritoneal mast cells in vitro. It seems to induce the formation of biologically active human IgE-anti-human IgE complexes, which act on mouse mast cells and induce their degranulation. PMID:1244207

Wyczolkowska, J; Prouvost-Danon, A

1976-01-01

18

SCID mouse models of human stem cell engraftment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mouse mutation has provided a tool for establishment of small animal models as hosts for the in vivo analysis of normal and malignant human pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells. Intravenous injection of irradiated scid mice with human bone marrow, cord blood, or G-CSF cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells, all rich in human hemopoietic

Dale L. Greiner; Ruth Ann Hesselton; Leonard D. Shultz

1998-01-01

19

The mouse-human anatomy ontology mapping project  

PubMed Central

The overall objective of the Mouse–Human Anatomy Project (MHAP) was to facilitate the mapping and harmonization of anatomical terms used for mouse and human models by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The anatomy resources designated for this study were the Adult Mouse Anatomy (MA) ontology and the set of anatomy concepts contained in the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt). Several methods and software tools were identified and evaluated, then used to conduct an in-depth comparative analysis of the anatomy ontologies. Matches between mouse and human anatomy terms were determined and validated, resulting in a highly curated set of mappings between the two ontologies that has been used by other resources. These mappings will enable linking of data from mouse and human. As the anatomy ontologies have been expanded and refined, the mappings have been updated accordingly. Insights are presented into the overall process of comparing and mapping between ontologies, which may prove useful for further comparative analyses and ontology mapping efforts, especially those involving anatomy ontologies. Finally, issues concerning further development of the ontologies, updates to the mapping files, and possible additional applications and significance were considered. Database URL: http://obofoundry.org/cgi-bin/detail.cgi?id=ma2ncit PMID:22434834

Hayamizu, Terry F.; de Coronado, Sherri; Fragoso, Gilberto; Sioutos, Nicholas; Kadin, James A.; Ringwald, Martin

2012-01-01

20

Cytoarchitecture of mouse and rat cingulate cortex with human homologies.  

PubMed

A gulf exists between cingulate area designations in human neurocytology and those used in rodent brain atlases with a major underpinning of the former being midcingulate cortex (MCC). The present study used images extracted from the Franklin and Paxinos mouse atlas and Paxinos and Watson rat atlas to demonstrate areas comprising MCC and modifications of anterior cingulate (ACC) and retrosplenial cortices. The laminar architecture not available in the atlases is also provided for each cingulate area. Both mouse and rat have a MCC with neurons in all layers that are larger than in ACC and layer Va has particularly prominent neurons and reduced neuron densities. An undifferentiated ACC area 33 lies along the rostral callosal sulcus in rat but not in mouse and area 32 has dorsal and ventral subdivisions with the former having particularly large pyramidal neurons in layer Vb. Both mouse and rat have anterior and posterior divisions of retrosplenial areas 29c and 30, although their cytology is different in rat and mouse. Maps of the rodent cingulate cortices provide for direct comparisons with each region in the human including MCC and it is significant that rodents do not have a posterior cingulate region composed of areas 23 and 31 like the human. It is concluded that rodents and primates, including humans, possess a MCC and this homology along with those in ACC and retrosplenial cortices permit scientists inspired by human considerations to test hypotheses on rodent models of human diseases. PMID:23229151

Vogt, Brent A; Paxinos, George

2014-01-01

21

End Sequencing and Finger Printing of Human & Mouse BAC Libraries  

SciTech Connect

This project provided for continued end sequencing of existing and new BAC libraries constructed to support human sequencing as well as to initiate BAC end sequencing from the mouse BAC libraries constructed to support mouse sequencing. The clones, the sequences, and the fingerprints are now an available resource for the community at large. Research and development of new metaodologies for BAC end sequencing have reduced costs and increase throughput.

Fraser, C.

2005-09-27

22

MUGEN mouse database; animal models of human immunological diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MUGEN mouse database (MMdb) (www.mugen-noe.org\\/database\\/) is a database of murine models of immune processes and immunological diseases. Its aim is to share and publicize information on mouse strain characteristics and availability from participating institutions. MMdb's basic classification of models is based on three major research application categories: Models of Human Disease, Models of Immune Processes and Transgenic Tools. Data

V. Aidinis; C. Chandras; M. Manoloukos; A. Thanassopoulou; K. Kranidioti; M. Armaka; E. Douni; D. L. Kontoyiannis; M. Zouberakis; G. Kollias

2008-01-01

23

HumanMouse Alignments with BLASTZ Scott Schwartz,1  

E-print Network

Human­Mouse Alignments with BLASTZ Scott Schwartz,1 W. James Kent,2 Arian Smit,3 Zheng Zhang,4 of the human genome that is under selection (F. Chiaromonte, R. Weber, K.M. Roskin, M. Diekhans, W.J. Kent

Miller, Webb

24

Preclinical humanized mouse model with ectopic ovarian tissues  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to establish human ovarian stroma within the mouse subcutaneously, in order for the resulting stroma to serve as a useful preclinical tool to study the progression of human ovarian cancer in a humanized ovarian microenvironment. Normal human ovarian tissues were subcutaneously implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and then the implants were identified by immunohistochemistry. The implants became vascularized and retained their original morphology for about 4 weeks following implantation. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin-7 confirmed the ovarian origin of the epithelial cells. CD34 staining demonstrated human-derived vessels. Positive estrogen receptor and partially-positive progesterone receptor staining indicated the estrogen and progesterone dependence of the implants. Only vascular pericytes expressed ?-smooth muscle actin, indicating the normal ovarian origin of the xenografts. Human ovarian tissue successfully survived in SCID mice and retained its original properties. This humanized mouse model may be used as preclinical tool to investigate ovarian cancer. PMID:25120592

FU, SHILONG; WANG, JUE; SUN, WU; XU, YI; ZHOU, XIAOYU; CHENG, WENJUN

2014-01-01

25

Comparative Epigenomics of Human and Mouse Mammary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing by aberrant epigenetic chromatin alteration is a well-recognized event contributing to tumorigenesis. While genetically engineered tumor-prone mouse models have proven a powerful tool in understanding many aspects of carcinogenesis, to date few studies have focused on epigenetic alterations in mouse tumors. To uncover epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in mouse mammary tumor cells, we conducted initial genome-wide screening by combining the treatment of cultured cells with the DNA demethylating drug 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-azadC) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) with expression microarray. By conducting this initial screen on EMT6 cells and applying protein function and genomic structure criteria to genes identified as upregulated in response to 5-azadC/TSA, we were able to identify 2 characterized breast cancer TSGs (Timp3 and Rprm) and 4 putative TSGs (Atp1B2, Dusp2, FoxJ1 and Smpd3) silenced in this line. By testing a panel of ten mouse mammary tumor lines, we determined that each of these genes is commonly hypermethylated, albeit with varying frequency. Furthermore, by examining a panel of human breast tumor lines and primary tumors we observed that the human orthologs of ATP1B2, FOXJ1 and SMPD3 are aberrantly hypermethylated in the human disease while DUSP2 was not hypermethylated in primary breast tumors. Finally, we examined hypermethylation of several genes targeted for epigenetic silencing in human breast tumors in our panel of ten mouse mammary tumor lines. We observed that the orthologs of Cdh1, RarB, Gstp1, RassF1 genes were hypermethylated, while neither Dapk1 nor Wif1 were aberrantly methylated in this panel of mouse tumor lines. From this study, we conclude that there is significant, but not absolute, overlap in the epigenome of human and mouse mammary tumors. PMID:18836996

Demircan, Berna; Dyer, Lisa M.; Gerace, Mallory; Lobenhofer, Edward K.; Robertson, Keith D.; Brown, Kevin D.

2010-01-01

26

Comparative Analysis of Mouse NotI Linking Clones with Mouse and Human Genomic Sequences and Transcripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notl cleavage sites are frequently associated with CpG islands that identify the 5' regulatory sites of functional genes in the genome. Therefore we analyzed a sample of 22 Notl linking clones prepared from mouse brain DNA, to determine whether these mouse Notl site associated clones could be used for comparative analysis of mouse and human genomes by cross-reaction with both

Christoph PLASS; Jun KAWAI; Iveta KALCHEVA; Leslie DAVIS; Sachihiko WATANABE; Yoshihide HAYASHIZAKI; Verne CHAPMAN

1995-01-01

27

Intraspinal transplantation of mouse and human neural precursor cells  

PubMed Central

This unit describes the preparation and transplantation of human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and mouse neural precursor cells (mNPCs) into the thoracic region of the mouse spinal cord. The techniques in this unit also describe how to prepare the mouse for surgery by performing a laminectomy to expose the spinal cord for transplantation. Here we show NPCs genetically labeled with eGFP transplanted into the spinal cord of a mouse following viralmediated demyelination can efficiently be detected via eGFP expression. Transplantation of these cells into the spinal cord is an efficacious way to determine their effects in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and spinal cord injury. PMID:24510791

Weinger, Jason G.; Chen, Lu; Coleman, Ronald; Leang, Ronika; Plaisted, Warren C.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Lane, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

28

Variations in Substitution Rate in Human and Mouse Genomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to quantify spatial fluctuations of the substitution rate on different length scales throughout genomes of eukaryotes. The fluctuations on large length scales are found to be predominantly a consequence of a coarse-graining effect of fluctuations on shorter length scales. This is verified for both the mouse and the human genome. We also found that the relative standard deviation of fluctuations in substitution rate is about a factor three smaller in mouse than in human. The method allows furthermore to determine time-resolved substitution rate maps of the genomes, where the corresponding autocorrelation functions quantify the velocity of spatial chromosomal reorganization.

von Grünberg, H. H.; Peifer, M.; Timmer, J.; Kollmann, M.

2004-11-01

29

Probing Human Cardiovascular Congenital Disease Using Transgenic Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) impact in utero embryonic viability, children, and surviving adults. Since the first transfer of genes into mice, transgenic mouse models have enabled researchers to experimentally study and genetically test the roles of genes in development, physiology, and disease progression. Transgenic mice have become a bona fide human CHD pathology model and their use has dramatically increased within the past two decades. Now that the entire mouse and human genomes are known, it is possible to knock out, mutate, misexpress, and/or replace every gene. Not only have transgenic mouse models changed our understanding of normal development, CHD processes, and the complex interactions of genes and pathways required during heart development, but they are also being used to identify new avenues for medical therapy. PMID:21377625

Snider, Paige; Conway, Simon J.

2013-01-01

30

Cell Stem Cell The Adult Mouse and Human Pancreas Contain  

E-print Network

Cell Stem Cell Article The Adult Mouse and Human Pancreas Contain Rare Multipotent Stem Cells.smukler@utoronto.ca DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2011.01.015 SUMMARY The search for putative precursor cells within the pancreas has been the focus of extensive research. Previously, we identified rare pancreas-derived mul- tipotent

31

Scientists make mouse model of human cancer, demonstrate cure  

Cancer.gov

UT Southwestern Medical Center scientists report the first successful blocking--in a mouse model--of the development of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), a cancer currently considered incurable in humans. UT Southwestern is home to the Harold C. Simmons Cancer Center. The study included researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Baylor College of Medicine.

32

Assignment of three human markers in chromosome 21q11 to mouse chromosome 16.  

PubMed

Three unique sequence microclones from human chromosome region 21q11 were assigned to mouse chromosome 16 using a mouse/Chinese hamster cell hybrid 96Az2 containing a single mouse chromosome 16. This comparative mapping provides further homology between human chromosome 21 and mouse chromosome 16 to include the very proximal portion of the long arm of human chromosome 21. Since this part of human chromosome 21 is associated with mental retardation in Down syndrome individuals, its homologous mouse region should also be included in the construction of mouse models for studying Down syndrome phenotypes including mental retardation. PMID:9546078

Yu, J; Shen, Y; Tong, S; Kao, F T

1997-09-01

33

Human equivalent of mouse disorganization: Has the case been made?  

PubMed

Temtamy and McKusick suggested mouse disorganization (Ds) as a model for human tibial agenesis, fibular duplication and mirror foot, but the concurrent papers by Winter and Donnai and Donnai and Winter in 1989 kindled interest and led to continued reports of patients hypothesized as human equivalent of Ds (HEDs). Subsequent reports have tended to follow one or other of the two categories outlined; (1) band/constriction with additional anomalies unexplained by bands (ABS); (2) patterns of malformation interpreted as resembling mouse Ds (non-ABS). A review of a series of cases led to a re-read of the original Ds mouse reports by Hummel in 1958 and 1959 and examination of current literature in an attempt to assess the strength of the argument that the patients might represent HEDs. Key to the approach was a paragraph in Hummel's introduction; "some of the developmental anomalies … from action of Ds are similar to those caused by other …genes…teratogens… others are unique…" The corollary is a patient is likelier to represent human DS if the anomaly(s) match these unique malformations/patterns. Presence of anomalies not specifically noted in Ds would weaken the argument for human equivalence. Reports of possible HEDs were ascertained using PubMed and literature cited by authors subsequent to the 1989 papers, up to and including January, 2010. This paper gives an overview of HEDs patients reported and concludes that the ABS type, even with non-band associated anomalies, is not likely to often represent HEDs. Many non-ABS HEDs patients had equally valid alternative hypothesis or diagnoses, malformations unreported or unusual for the Ds mouse, and/or paucity of the more unusual anomalies of the Ds mouse. PMID:21416595

Hunter, Alasdair G W

2011-04-01

34

Of Mice and Men: Aligning Mouse and Human Anatomies  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on the alignment between mouse and human anatomies, a critical resource for comparative science as diseases in mice are used as models of human disease. The two ontologies under investigation are the NCI Thesaurus (human anatomy) and the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary, each comprising about 2500 anatomical concepts. This study compares two approaches to aligning ontologies. One is fully automatic, based on a combination of lexical and structural similarity; the other is manual. The resulting mappings were evaluated by an expert. 715 and 781 mappings were identified by each method respectively, of which 639 are common to both and all valid. The applications of the mapping are discussed from the perspective of biology and from that of ontology. PMID:16779002

Bodenreider, Olivier; Hayamizu, Terry F.; Ringwald, Martin; De Coronado, Sherri; Zhang, Songmao

2005-01-01

35

A new immunodeficient mouse model for human myoblast transplantation.  

PubMed

Design of efficient transplantation strategies for myoblast-based gene therapies in humans requires animal models in which xenografts are tolerated for long periods of time. In addition, such recipients should be able to withstand pretransplantation manipulations for enhancement of graft growth. Here we report that a newly developed immunodeficient mouse carrying two known mutations (the recombinase activating gene 2, RAG2, and the common cytokine receptor gamma, gammac) is a candidate fulfilling these requirements. Skeletal muscles from RAG2(-/-)/gammac(-/-) double mutant mice recover normally after myotoxin application or cryolesion, procedures commonly used to induce regeneration and improve transplantation efficiency. Well-differentiated donor-derived muscle tissue could be detected up to 9 weeks after transplantation of human myoblasts into RAG2(-/-)/gammac(-/-) muscles. These results suggest that the RAG2(-/-)/gammac(-/-) mouse model will provide new opportunities for human muscle research. PMID:11339898

Cooper, R N; Irintchev, A; Di Santo, J P; Zweyer, M; Morgan, J E; Partridge, T A; Butler-Browne, G S; Mouly, V; Wernig, A

2001-05-01

36

Characterization of human and mouse cartilage oligomeric matrix protein  

SciTech Connect

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a 524,000-Da protein that is expressed at high levels in the territorial matrix of chondrocytes. The sequences of rat and bovine COMP indicate that it is a member of the thrombospondin gene family. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced human COMP. Phylogenetic analysis using progressive sequence alignment and two parsimony-based algorithms indicates that the COMP gene and a precursor of the thrombospondin-3 and -4 genes were produced by a gene duplication that occurred 750 million years ago. An interspecific backcross mapping panel has been used to map the murine COMP gene to the central region of mouse chromosome 8. Southern blot analysis of a somatic cell hybrid DNA panel and in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes indicate that the human COMP gene is located on chromosome 19 in band p13.1. These data confirm and extend the known regions of homology between human and mouse chromosomes and establish that COMP, like thrombospondin-1, -2, -3, and -4, is present in the human and mouse genomes. 26 refs., 5 figs.

Newton, G.; Lawler, J.; Weremowicz, S. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); and others

1994-12-01

37

The Human and Mouse Receptors for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility, RHAMM, Genes ( HMMR) Map to Human Chromosome 5q33.2–qter and Mouse Chromosome 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene for the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAMM (designated hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor,HMMR(human) andHmmr(mouse), for mapping purposes), was localized to human chromosome 5q33.2–qter by somatic cell and radiation hybrid analyses. Investigation of two interspecific backcrosses localized the mouse RHAMM (Hmmr) locus 18 cM from the centromere of mouse chromosome 11 within a region of synteny homology with human chromosome 5q23–q35

ANDREW P. SPICER; MICHELLE L. ROLLER; SALLY A. CAMPER; JOHN D. MCPHERSON; JOHN J. WASMUTH; SIMIN HAKIM; CHAO WANG; EVA A. TURLEY; JOHN A. MCDONALD

1995-01-01

38

Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model  

PubMed Central

Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models are unable to support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and NK cells. Here we describe a mouse strain, called MI(S)TRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked in to their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34+ progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MI(S)TRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology. PMID:24633240

Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V.; Teichmann, Lino L.; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.

2014-01-01

39

Genetically engineered mouse models and human osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. Pivotal insight into the genes involved in human osteosarcoma has been provided by the study of rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes. Three kindreds stand out as predisposing to the development of osteosarcoma: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial retinoblastoma and RecQ helicase disorders, which include Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome in particular. These disorders have highlighted the important roles of P53 and RB respectively, in the development of osteosarcoma. The association of OS with RECQL4 mutations is apparent but the relevance of this to OS is uncertain as mutations in RECQL4 are not found in sporadic OS. Application of the knowledge or mutations of P53 and RB in familial and sporadic OS has enabled the development of tractable, highly penetrant murine models of OS. These models share many of the cardinal features associated with human osteosarcoma including, importantly, a high incidence of spontaneous metastasis. The recent development of these models has been a significant advance for efforts to improve our understanding of the genetics of human OS and, more critically, to provide a high-throughput genetically modifiable platform for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics. PMID:23036272

2012-01-01

40

Determinants of Pluripotency in Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Embryonic stem cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos prior to implantation, remain pluripotent\\u000a and self-renewing due to both their inherent properties and the culture conditions in which they are propagated. Recent study\\u000a of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that underlie pluripotency in embryonic stem cells has revealed that mouse and human\\u000a embryonic stem cells have

Leon M. Ptaszek; Chad A. Cowan

41

MEK inhibition exhibits efficacy in human and mouse neurofibromatosis tumors  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients develop benign neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). These incurable peripheral nerve tumors result from loss of NF1 tumor suppressor gene function, causing hyperactive Ras signaling. Activated Ras controls numerous downstream effectors, but specific pathways mediating the effects of hyperactive Ras in NF1 tumors are unknown. We performed cross-species transcriptome analyses of mouse and human neurofibromas and MPNSTs and identified global negative feedback of genes that regulate Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling in both species. Nonetheless, ERK activation was sustained in mouse and human neurofibromas and MPNST. We used a highly selective pharmacological inhibitor of MEK, PD0325901, to test whether sustained Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling contributes to neurofibroma growth in a neurofibromatosis mouse model (Nf1fl/fl;Dhh-Cre) or in NF1 patient MPNST cell xenografts. PD0325901 treatment reduced aberrantly proliferating cells in neurofibroma and MPNST, prolonged survival of mice implanted with human MPNST cells, and shrank neurofibromas in more than 80% of mice tested. Our data demonstrate that deregulated Ras/ERK signaling is critical for the growth of NF1 peripheral nerve tumors and provide a strong rationale for testing MEK inhibitors in NF1 clinical trials. PMID:23221341

Jessen, Walter J.; Miller, Shyra J.; Jousma, Edwin; Wu, Jianqiang; Rizvi, Tilat A.; Brundage, Meghan E.; Eaves, David; Widemann, Brigitte; Kim, Mi-Ok; Dombi, Eva; Sabo, Jessica; Hardiman Dudley, Atira; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Page, Grier P.; Giovannini, Marco; Aronow, Bruce J.; Cripe, Timothy P.; Ratner, Nancy

2012-01-01

42

MOUSE SKIN TUMORS AND HUMAN LUNG CANCER: RELATIONSHIPS WITH COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Historically, mouse skin tumorigenesis has been used to evaluate the tumorigenic effects of complex mixtures including human respiratory carcinogens. his study examines the quantitative relationships between tumor induction in SENCAR mouse skin and the induction of respiratory ca...

43

CARI III inhibits tumor growth in a melanoma-bearing mouse model through induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest.  

PubMed

Mushroom-derived natural products have been used to prevent or treat cancer for millennia. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of CARI (Cell Activation Research Institute) III, which consists of a blend of mushroom mycelia from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice, Inonotus obliquus grown on germinated brown rice, Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice and Ganoderma lucidum. Here, we showed that CARI III exerted anti-cancer activity, which is comparable to Dox against melanoma in vivo. B16F10 cells were intraperitoneally injected into C57BL6 mice to develop solid intra-abdominal tumors. Three hundred milligrams of the CARI III/kg/day p.o. regimen reduced tumor weight, comparable to the doxorubicin (Dox)-treated group. An increase in life span (ILS% = 50.88%) was observed in the CARI III-administered group, compared to the tumor control group. CARI III demonstrates anti-proliferative activity against B16F10 melanoma cells through inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. CARI III inhibits the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK2 and induces p21. Therefore, CARI III could be a potential chemopreventive supplement to melanoma patients. PMID:25221864

Park, Hye-Jin

2014-01-01

44

From XenoMouse technology to panitumumab, the first fully human antibody product from transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have shown limited efficacy and safety owing to immunogenicity of mouse sequences in humans. Among the approaches developed to overcome these hurdles were transgenic mice genetically engineered with a 'humanized' humoral immune system. One such transgenic system, the XenoMouse, has succeeded in recapitulating the human antibody response in mice, by introducing nearly the entire human immunoglobulin loci

Rafael G Amado; Xiaodong Yang; Lorin Roskos; Gisela Schwab; Aya Jakobovits

2007-01-01

45

Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response  

PubMed Central

The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

2009-01-01

46

Mouse liver repopulation with hepatocytes generated from human fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) promise to revolutionize research and therapy of liver diseases by providing a source of hepatocytes for autologous cell therapy and disease modeling. However, despite progress in advancing the differentiation of iPSCs into hepatocytes (iPSC-Heps) in vitro1–3, cells that replicate the ability of human primary adult hepatocytes (aHeps) to proliferate extensively in vivo have not been reported. This deficiency has hampered efforts to recreate human liver diseases in mice, and has cast doubt on the potential of iPSC-Heps for liver cell therapy. The reason is that extensive post-transplant expansion is needed to establish and sustain a therapeutically effective liver cell mass in patients, a lesson learned from clinical trials of aHep transplantation4. As a solution to this problem, we report generation of human fibroblast-derived hepatocytes that can repopulate mouse livers. Unlike current protocols for deriving hepatocytes from human fibroblasts, ours did not generate iPSCs, but shortcut reprogramming to pluripotency to generate an induced multipotent progenitor cell (iMPC) state from which endoderm progenitor cells (iMPC-EPCs) and subsequently hepatocytes (iMPC-Heps) could be efficiently differentiated. For this, we identified small molecules that aided endoderm and hepatocyte differentiation without compromising proliferation. After transplantation into an immune-deficient mouse model of human liver failure, iMPC-Heps proliferated extensively and acquired levels of hepatocyte function similar to aHeps. Unfractionated iMPC-Heps did not form tumors, most likely because they never entered a pluripotent state. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of significant liver repopulation of mice with human hepatocytes generated in vitro, which removes a long-standing roadblock on the path to autologous liver cell therapy. PMID:24572354

Zhu, Saiyong; Rezvani, Milad; Harbell, Jack; Mattis, Aras N.; Wolfe, Alan R.; Benet, Leslie Z.; Willenbring, Holger; Ding, Sheng

2014-01-01

47

Cotransfer of two linked human genes into cultured mouse cells.  

PubMed

Two linked human genes which code for the expression of cytosol thymidine kinase (ATP:thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.75) and galactokinase (ATP:D-galactose 1-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.6) have been cotransferred via purified metaphase chromosomes from the human lymphoblastoid cell line WI-L2a, into mouse L-cells [B82 and LM(TK-)]. Both genes have previously been shown to be closely linked on the human chromosome E17, band q21-22. Coexpression of both human enzyme markers was detected in two out of eight gene transfer clones, whilst the remaining six clones contained only human cytosol thymidine kinase, as shown by electrophoretic techniques. A further 23 human enzyme markers corresponding to 15 different human chromosomes were found to be absent in these gene transfer clones. No human chromosome or chromosomal fragment could be detected by karyotype analyses. Some of the gene transfer clones rapidly lost the transferred donor material when grown in nonselective medium, whereas others expressed a stable phenotype under these conditions. Prolonged maintenance in selective medium favors the survival of gene transfer cells expressing a stable phenotype. Possibly these cells harbor the donor genes integrated into a recipient chromosome. PMID:177984

Willecke, K; Lange, R; Krüger, A; Reber, T

1976-04-01

48

CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing 'humanized' mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how 'human-like' can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1{sub C}YP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+){sub s}evere-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs.

Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori [Department of Biochemistry, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchikami-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610 (Japan); Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise [PhenixBio Co., Ltd., 3-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Makishima, Makoto [Department of Biochemistry, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchikami-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610 (Japan); Yoshizato, Katsutoshi [PhenixBio Co., Ltd., 3-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics (CEG) University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati OH 45267-0056 (United States)], E-mail: dan.nebert@uc.edu

2009-05-15

49

Structural features of mouse telomerase RNA are responsible for the lower activity of mouse telomerase versus human telomerase  

PubMed Central

Human and mouse telomerases show a high degree of similarity in both the protein and RNA components. Human telomerase is more active and more processive than the mouse telomerase. There are two key differences between hTR [human TR (telomerase RNA)] and mTR (mouse TR) structures. First, the mouse telomerase contains only 2 nt upstream of its template region, whereas the human telomerase contains 45 nt. Secondly, the template region of human telomerase contains a 5-nt alignment domain, whereas that of mouse has only 2 nt. We hypothesize that these differences are responsible for the differential telomerase activities. Mutations were made in both the hTR and mTR, changing the template length and the length of the RNA upstream of the template, and telomerase was reconstituted in vitro using mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase generated by in vitro translation. We show that the sequences upstream of the template region, with a potential to form a double-stranded helix (the P1 helix) as in hTR, increase telomerase activity. The longer alignment domain increases telomerase activity only in the context of the P1 helix. Thus the TR contributes to regulating the level of activity of mammalian telomerases. PMID:16669789

Garforth, Scott J.; Wu, Yan Yun; Prasad, Vinayaka R.

2006-01-01

50

Overlapping genes in the human and mouse genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence suggests that overlapping genes are much more common in eukaryotic genomes than previously thought. In this study we identified and characterized the overlapping genes in a set of 13,484 pairs of human-mouse orthologous genes. Results About 10% of the genes under study are overlapping genes, the majority of which are different-strand overlaps. The majority of the same-strand overlaps are embedded forms, whereas most different-strand overlaps are not embedded and in the convergent transcription orientation. Most of the same-strand overlapping gene pairs show at least a tenfold difference in length, much larger than the length difference between non-overlapping neighboring gene pairs. The length difference between the two different-strand overlapping genes is less dramatic. Over 27% of the different-strand-overlap relationships are shared between human and mouse, compared to only ~8% conservation for same-strand-overlap relationships. More than 96% of the same-strand and different-strand overlaps that are not shared between human and mouse have both genes located on the same chromosomes in the species that does not show the overlap. We examined the causes of transition between the overlapping and non-overlapping states in the two species and found that 3' UTR change plays an important role in the transition. Conclusion Our study contributes to the understanding of the evolutionary transition between overlapping genes and non-overlapping genes and demonstrates the high rates of evolutionary changes in the un-translated regions. PMID:18410680

Sanna, Chaitanya R; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Zhang, Liqing

2008-01-01

51

Agonists can discriminate between cloned human and mouse prostacyclin receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of prostacyclin analogues to stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C (PLC) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing cloned human (hIP) or cloned mouse (mIP) prostacyclin receptors has been compared. For hIP, the order of potency (pEC50) for stimulating AC and PLC pathways was similar: AFP-07 (9.3, 8.4)>cicaprost (8.3, 6.9), iloprost (7.9, 6.8)>taprostene (7.4, 6.8)>carbacyclin (6.9, 6.6),

K. B. S. Chow; R. L. Jones; H. Wise

2004-01-01

52

INTERSPECIES SENSITIVITY TO CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOUSE SKIN TUMORS AND HUMAN LUNG CANCER  

EPA Science Inventory

This review focuses on the relationships between mouse skin tumors and human lung cancer and discusses these relationships from several perspectives. hese perspectives include: mouse skin as an experimental test system; metabolic comparisons of the response of mouse skin and huma...

53

Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human and Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Background The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. Methods We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. Results Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural) developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. Conclusion Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE between mouse and man differ with respect to transport and metabolic functions. PMID:24391755

Janssen, Sarah F.; van der Spek, Sophie J. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

2013-01-01

54

Precise and in situ genetic humanization of 6 Mb of mouse immunoglobulin genes  

PubMed Central

Genetic humanization, which involves replacing mouse genes with their human counterparts, can create powerful animal models for the study of human genes and diseases. One important example of genetic humanization involves mice humanized for their Ig genes, allowing for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice) and also providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human antibodies as therapeutics. However, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which they were genetically humanized. Heretofore, most genetic humanizations have involved disruption of the endogenous mouse gene with simultaneous introduction of a human transgene at a new and random location (so-called KO-plus-transgenic humanization). More recent efforts have attempted to replace mouse genes with their human counterparts at the same genetic location (in situ humanization), but such efforts involved laborious procedures and were limited in size and precision. We describe a general and efficient method for very large, in situ, and precise genetic humanization using large compound bacterial artificial chromosome–based targeting vectors introduced into mouse ES cells. We applied this method to genetically humanize 3-Mb segments of both the mouse heavy and ? light chain Ig loci, by far the largest genetic humanizations ever described. This paper provides a detailed description of our genetic humanization approach, and the companion paper reports that the humoral immune systems of mice bearing these genetically humanized loci function as efficiently as those of WT mice. PMID:24706858

Macdonald, Lynn E.; Karow, Margaret; Stevens, Sean; Auerbach, Wojtek; Poueymirou, William T.; Yasenchak, Jason; Frendewey, David; Valenzuela, David M.; Giallourakis, Cosmas C.; Alt, Frederick W.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Murphy, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

55

System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.

1979-01-01

56

HBV life cycle is restricted in mouse hepatocytes expressing human NTCP  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have revealed that human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1 or NTCP) is a functional cellular receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, whether human NTCP can support HBV infection in mouse hepatocyte cell lines has not been clarified. Because an HBV-permissible mouse model would be helpful for the study of HBV pathogenesis, it is necessary to investigate whether human NTCP supports the susceptibility of mouse hepatocyte cell lines to HBV. The results show that exogenous human NTCP expression can render non-susceptible HepG2 (human), Huh7 (human), Hepa1–6 (mouse), AML-12 (mouse) cell lines and primary mouse hepatocyte (PMH) cells susceptible to hepatitis D virus (HDV) which employs HBV envelope proteins. However, human NTCP could only introduce HBV susceptibility in human-derived HepG2 and Huh7 cells, but not in mouse-derived Hepa1–6, AML-12 or PMH cells. These data suggest that although human NTCP is a functional receptor that mediates HBV infection in human cells, it cannot support HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Our study indicated that the restriction of HBV in mouse hepatocytes likely occurs after viral entry but prior to viral transcription. We have excluded the role of mouse hepatocyte nuclear factors in the restriction of the HBV life cycle and showed that knockdown or inhibition of Sting, TBK1, IRF3 or IRF7, the components of the anti-viral signaling pathways, had no effect on HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Therefore, murine restriction factors that limit HBV infection need to be identified before a HBV-permissible mouse line can be created. PMID:24509445

Li, Hanjie; Zhuang, Qiuyu; Wang, Yuze; Zhang, Tianying; Zhao, Jinghua; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Junfang; Lin, Yi; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ningshao; Han, Jiahuai

2014-01-01

57

Principles of regulatory information conservation between mouse and human.  

PubMed

To broaden our understanding of the evolution of gene regulation mechanisms, we generated occupancy profiles for 34 orthologous transcription factors (TFs) in human-mouse erythroid progenitor, lymphoblast and embryonic stem-cell lines. By combining the genome-wide transcription factor occupancy repertoires, associated epigenetic signals, and co-association patterns, here we deduce several evolutionary principles of gene regulatory features operating since the mouse and human lineages diverged. The genomic distribution profiles, primary binding motifs, chromatin states, and DNA methylation preferences are well conserved for TF-occupied sequences. However, the extent to which orthologous DNA segments are bound by orthologous TFs varies both among TFs and with genomic location: binding at promoters is more highly conserved than binding at distal elements. Notably, occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences tend to be pleiotropic; they function in several tissues and also co-associate with many TFs. Single nucleotide variants at sites with potential regulatory functions are enriched in occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences. PMID:25409826

Cheng, Yong; Ma, Zhihai; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Wu, Weisheng; Cayting, Philip; Boyle, Alan P; Sundaram, Vasavi; Xing, Xiaoyun; Dogan, Nergiz; Li, Jingjing; Euskirchen, Ghia; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Visel, Axel; Kawli, Trupti; Yang, Xinqiong; Patacsil, Dorrelyn; Keller, Cheryl A; Giardine, Belinda; Kundaje, Anshul; Wang, Ting; Pennacchio, Len A; Weng, Zhiping; Hardison, Ross C; Snyder, Michael P

2014-11-20

58

Update of the human and mouse SERPIN gene superfamily  

PubMed Central

The serpin family comprises a structurally similar, yet functionally diverse, set of proteins. Named originally for their function as serine proteinase inhibitors, many of its members are not inhibitors but rather chaperones, involved in storage, transport, and other roles. Serpins are found in genomes of all kingdoms, with 36 human protein-coding genes and five pseudogenes. The mouse has 60 Serpin functional genes, many of which are orthologous to human SERPIN genes and some of which have expanded into multiple paralogous genes. Serpins are found in tissues throughout the body; whereas most are extracellular, there is a class of intracellular serpins. Serpins appear to have roles in inflammation, immune function, tumorigenesis, blood clotting, dementia, and cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these proteins will likely reveal potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for disease. PMID:24172014

2013-01-01

59

[The relationship between mouse fertilization antigen 1 gene and the human counterpart gene].  

PubMed

The cloning of human fertilization antigen 1 gene(FA1) ,the supposed counterpart gene of mouse fertilization antigen 1 gene (FA1),was performed using the PCR and PCR products cloned sequencing methods. The result shows that there might be two mistakes in the mouse FA1 gene open reading frame (ORF),and human OTK27 gene and mouse FA1 gene might be homogeneous genes in the two species. PMID:16135423

Li, Jian-ping; Zhang, Si-zhong; Xia, Qing-jie

2002-07-01

60

Aligning mouse models of asthma to human endotypes of disease.  

PubMed

Substantial gains in understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying asthma have been made using preclinical mouse models. However, because asthma is a complex, heterogeneous syndrome that is rarely due to a single allergen and that often presents in the absence of atopy, few of the promising therapeutics that demonstrated effectiveness in mouse models have translated into new treatments for patients. This has resulted in an urgent need to characterize T helper (Th) 2-low, non-eosinophilic subsets of asthma, to study models that are resistant to conventional treatments such as corticosteroids and to develop therapies targeting patients with severe disease. Classifying asthma based on underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, known as endotyping, offers a stratified approach for the development of new therapies for asthma. In preclinical research, new models of asthma are being utilized that more closely resemble the clinical features of different asthma endotypes, including the presence of interleukin-17 and a Th17 response, a biomarker of severe disease. These models utilize more physiologically relevant sensitizing agents, exacerbating factors and allergens, as well as incorporate time points that better reflect the natural history and chronicity of clinical asthma. Importantly, some models better represent non-classical asthma endotypes that facilitate the study of non-Th2-driven pathology and resemble the complex nature of clinical asthma, including corticosteroid resistance. Placing mouse asthma models into the context of human asthma endotypes will afford a more relevant approach to the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of disease that will afford the development of new therapies for those asthmatics that remain difficult to treat. PMID:24811131

Martin, Rebecca A; Hodgkins, Samantha R; Dixon, Anne E; Poynter, Matthew E

2014-08-01

61

Altered Glucose Metabolism in Mouse and Humans Conceived by IVF.  

PubMed

In vitro fertilization (IVF) may influence the metabolic health of children. However, in humans, it is difficult to separate out the relative contributions of genetics, environment, or the process of IVF, which includes ovarian stimulation (OS) and embryo culture. Therefore, we examined glucose metabolism in young adult humans and in adult male C57BL/6J mice conceived by IVF versus natural birth under energy-balanced and high-fat-overfeeding conditions. In humans, peripheral insulin sensitivity, as assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (80 mU/m(2)/min), was lower in IVF patients (n = 14) versus control subjects (n = 20) after 3 days of an energy-balanced diet (30% fat). In response to 3 days of overfeeding (+1,250 kcal/day, 45% fat), there was a greater increase in systolic blood pressure in IVF versus controls (P = 0.02). Mice conceived after either OS alone or IVF weighed significantly less at birth versus controls (P < 0.01). However, only mice conceived by IVF displayed increased fasting glucose levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the liver after 8 weeks of consuming either a chow or high-fat diet (60% fat). Thus, OS impaired fetal growth in the mouse, but only embryo culture resulted in changes in glucose metabolism that may increase the risk of the development of metabolic diseases later in life, in both mice and humans. PMID:24760136

Chen, Miaoxin; Wu, Linda; Zhao, Junli; Wu, Fang; Davies, Michael J; Wittert, Gary A; Norman, Robert J; Robker, Rebecca L; Heilbronn, Leonie K

2014-10-01

62

DNA motifs in human and mouse proximal promoters predict tissue-specific expression  

E-print Network

DNA motifs in human and mouse proximal promoters predict tissue-specific expression Andrew D. Smith promoters of human and mouse genes with differential expression across 56 terminally differentiated tissues expression with statistical significance in 80% of the tissues (45 of 56). The predictors also reveal synergy

63

COMPARISON OF SOLUBLE HUMAN AND MOUSE TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS*  

PubMed Central

The molecular and chemical characteristics of membrane components bearing the major transplantation antigen systems in mouse (H-2) and man (HL-A) were compared and found to be strikingly similar. Kinetics of papain solubilization from cell membranes, gel filtration, and electrophoretic patterns of the alloantigenic components were found to be nearly identical. Comparable size heterogeneity of the solubilized materials was also demonstrated. Some differences in amino acid and carbohydrate content of the purified H-2 and HL-A alloantigenic materials were found. The general pattern of distribution of the amino acid residues, however, appears to be quite similar and indicate compositional relatedness in these materials. These physical and chemical similarities in the characteristics of molecules bearing the transplantation antigens are in accord with biologic studies indicating a comparable functional immunologic role for the mouse H-2 and human HL-A antigen systems. These studies support the view that the genes determining these major transplantation antigen systems may have evolved from a common precursor. Images PMID:5271759

Mann, Dean L.; Nathenson, Stanley G.

1969-01-01

64

COMPARATIVE GENOTOXIC RESPONSES TO ARSENITE IN GUINEA PIG, MOUSE, RAT AND HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Comparative genotoxic responses to arsenite in guinea pig, mouse, rat and human lymphocytes. Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen causing skin, lung, and bladder cancer following chronic exposures. Yet, long-term laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies have ...

65

Independent specialization of the human and mouse X chromosomes for the male germ line  

E-print Network

We compared the human and mouse X chromosomes to systematically test Ohno's law, which states that the gene content of X chromosomes is conserved across placental mammals. First, we improved the accuracy of the human ...

Mueller, Jacob L

66

Human embryonic stem cells with biological and epigenetic to those of mouse ESCs  

E-print Network

Human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from blastocyst-stage embryos but have very different biological properties, and molecular analyses suggest that the pluripotent state of human ESCs isolated so far ...

Jaenisch, Rudolf

67

Lentiviral gene transduction in human and mouse NK cell lines.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells play a vital role in the control of cancer and microbial infections. A major hinderance in studying NK cells is the resistance of these cells to gene transfer. Considering over-expression and gene knockdown studies are crucial tools to study the biology of cells, technologies suitable for transferring genes into NK cells are invaluable. Among various technologies available for gene transfer, lentiviral-mediated transduction has been successful in introducing genes into NK cells. We have standardized methods of lentiviral infection in human and mouse NK cell lines. We obtain transduction efficiencies of 15% in the NK-92 cell line and 30-40% in LNK, YT, and DERL7 cell lines. This method allows efficient and stable introduction of genes and shRNAs into NK cell lines. PMID:20033643

Savan, Ram; Chan, Tim; Young, Howard A

2010-01-01

68

The mouse QTL map helps interpret human genome-wide association studies for HDL cholesterol.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful strategy for identifying susceptibility genes for complex diseases in human populations but results must be confirmed and replicated. Because of the close homology between mouse and human genomes, the mouse can be used to add evidence to genes suggested by human studies. We used the mouse quantitative trait loci (QTL) map to interpret results from a GWA study for genes associated with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. We first positioned single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a human GWA study on the genomic map for mouse HDL QTL. We then used mouse bioinformatics, sequencing, and expression studies to add evidence for one well-known HDL gene (Abca1) and three newly identified genes (Galnt2, Wwox, and Cdh13), thus supporting the results of the human study. For GWA peaks that occur in human haplotype blocks with multiple genes, we examined the homologous regions in the mouse to prioritize the genes using expression, sequencing, and bioinformatics from the mouse model, showing that some genes were unlikely candidates and adding evidence for candidate genes Mvk and Mmab in one haplotype block and Fads1 and Fads2 in the second haplotype block. Our study highlights the value of mouse genetics for evaluating genes found in human GWA studies. PMID:21444760

Leduc, Magalie S; Lyons, Malcolm; Darvishi, Katayoon; Walsh, Kenneth; Sheehan, Susan; Amend, Sarah; Cox, Allison; Orho-Melander, Marju; Kathiresan, Sekar; Paigen, Beverly; Korstanje, Ron

2011-06-01

69

Structure guided homology model based design and engineering of mouse antibodies for humanization  

PubMed Central

No universal strategy exists for humanizing mouse antibodies, and most approaches are based on primary sequence alignment and grafting. Although this strategy theoretically decreases the immunogenicity of mouse antibodies, it neither addresses conformational changes nor steric clashes that arise due to grafting of human germline frameworks to accommodate mouse CDR regions. To address these issues, we created and tested a structure-based biologic design approach using a de novo homology model to aid in the humanization of 17 unique mouse antibodies. Our approach included building a structure-based de novo homology model from the primary mouse antibody sequence, mutation of the mouse framework residues to the closest human germline sequence and energy minimization by simulated annealing on the humanized homology model. Certain residues displayed force field errors and revealed steric clashes upon closer examination. Therefore, further mutations were introduced to rationally correct these errors. In conclusion, use of de novo antibody homology modeling together with simulated annealing improved the ability to predict conformational and steric clashes that may arise due to conversion of a mouse antibody into the humanized form and would prevent its neutralization when administered in vivo. This design provides a robust path towards the development of a universal strategy for humanization of mouse antibodies using computationally derived antibody homologous structures. PMID:24966517

Kurella, Vinodh B; Gali, Reddy

2014-01-01

70

Fibrillin genes map to regions of conserved mouse/human synteny on mouse chromosomes 2 and 18.  

PubMed

Fibrillin proteins are major structural components of the 10-nm microfibrils found in elastic and nonelastic connective tissues. Previous studies have mapped the human genes for two fibrillins to chromosome bands 15q21 (FBN1) and 5q23-q31 (FBN2) and have demonstrated that FBN1 mutations are associated with Marfan syndrome, while FBN2 is linked to the gene for congenital contractural arachnodactyly. Here, we report the isolation of genomic clones of the corresponding mouse fibrillin genes (Fbn-1 and Fbn-2). By analyzing a mapping panel of mouse x rodent somatic hybrid cell lines, we have assigned the Fbn-1 gene to mouse chromosome 2 and the Fbn-2 gene to mouse chromosome 18. We then sublocalized the fibrillin genes to bands 2F (Fbn-1) and 18D-E1 (Fbn-2) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. These regions are known to exhibit conserved synteny with the regions on human chromosomes 15 and 5 that carry the homologous human fibrillin genes. In addition, the Fbn-1 gene maps in the vicinity of the gene for a connective tissue disorder on mouse chromosome 2 called Tight-skin (Tsk). PMID:8307578

Li, X; Pereira, L; Zhang, H; Sanguineti, C; Ramirez, F; Bonadio, J; Francke, U

1993-12-01

71

A humanized mouse model for the reduced folate carrier.  

PubMed

The ubiquitously expressed reduced folate carrier (RFC) or SLC19A1 is recognized to be an essential transport system for folates in mammalian cells and tissues. In addition to its generalized role as a folate transporter, RFC provides specialized tissue functions including absorption across intestinal/colonic epithelia, transport across the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubules, transplacental transport of folates, and folate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The human RFC (hRFC) gene is regulated by five major upstream non-coding regions (designated A1/A2, A, B, C, and D), each transcribed from a unique promoter. Altogether, at least 14 distinct hRFC transcripts can be envisaged in which different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) are fused to a common splice acceptor region (positions -1 to -49) within the first coding exon with a common 1776bp coding sequence. The 5' non-coding regions are characterized by alternate transcription start sites, multiple splice forms, and selective tissue distributions. Alternate 5' UTRs impact mRNA stabilities and translation efficiencies, and result in synthesis of modified hRFC proteins translated from upstream AUGs. In this report, we describe production and characterization of transgenic mice (TghRFC1) containing a functional hRFC gene and of humanized mice in which the mRFC gene is inactivated and an active hRFC gene has been introduced. The mice appear to be healthy and to breed well. Analysis of tissue specificity of expression in both the TghRFC1 and humanized hRFC mice by real-time RT-PCR demonstrates that the hRFC gene is expressed with a specificity closely resembling that seen in human tissues. For the humanized hRFC mice, levels of B and A1/A2 5' UTRs predominated in all mice/tissues, thus resembling results in normal human tissues. Lower levels of A and C 5' UTRs were also detected. The availability of humanized mouse models for hRFC will permit investigators to address critical unanswered questions pertinent to human health and disease. These include the ability to analyze the hRFC gene in vivo, to control dietary and other environmental conditions that may impact levels of gene expression, and to control the genetics of the mice in order to assess the effects of hRFC gene alterations on tissue folate uptake and distribution, none of which can be easily achieved in human populations. PMID:17983788

Patterson, David; Graham, Christine; Cherian, Christina; Matherly, Larry H

2008-02-01

72

Review Article Introducing Human APOE into A? Transgenic Mouse Models  

E-print Network

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apoE/amyloid-? (A?) transgenic (Tg) mouse models are critical to understanding apoE-isoform effects on Alzheimer’s disease risk. Compared to wild type, apoE ?/ ? mice exhibit neuronal deficits, similar to apoE4-Tg compared to apoE3-Tg mice, providing a model for A?-independent apoE effects on neurodegeneration. To determine the effects of apoE on A?-induced neuropathology, apoE ?/ ? mice were crossed with A?-Tg mice, resulting in a significant delay in plaque deposition. Surprisingly, crossing human-apoE-Tg mice with apoE ?/ ? /A?-Tg mice further delayed plaque deposition, which eventually developed in apoE4/A?-Tg mice prior to apoE3/A?-Tg. One approach to address hAPOE-induced temporal delay in A? pathology is an additional insult, like head injury. Another is crossing human-apoE-Tg mice with A?-Tg mice that have rapid-onset A? pathology. For example, because 5xFAD mice develop plaques by 2 months, the prediction is that human-apoE/5xFAD-Tg mice develop plaques around 6 months and 12 months before other human-apoE/A?-Tg mice. Thus, tractable models for human-apoE/A?-Tg mice continue to evolve. 1.

Leon M. Tai; Katherine L. Youmans; Lisa Jungbauer; Chunjiang Yu; Mary Jo Ladu

2011-01-01

73

MOUSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.

74

Comparative systems biology of human and mouse as a tool to guide the modeling of human placental pathology  

PubMed Central

Placental abnormalities are associated with two of the most common and serious complications of human pregnancy, maternal preeclampsia (PE) and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), each disorder affecting ?5% of all pregnancies. An important question for the use of the mouse as a model for studying human disease is the degree of functional conservation of genetic control pathways from human to mouse. The human and mouse placenta show structural similarities, but there have been no systematic attempts to assess their molecular similarities or differences. We collected protein and mRNA expression data through shot-gun proteomics and microarray expression analysis of the highly vascular exchange region, microdissected from the human and mouse near-term placenta. Over 7000 ortholog genes were detected with 70% co-expressed in both species. Close to 90% agreement was found between our human proteomic results and 1649 genes assayed by immunohistochemistry for expression in the human placenta in the Human Protein Atlas. Interestingly, over 80% of genes known to cause placental phenotypes in mouse are co-expressed in human. Several of these phenotype-associated proteins form a tight protein–protein interaction network involving 15 known and 34 novel candidate proteins also likely important in placental structure and/or function. The entire data are available as a web-accessible database to guide the informed development of mouse models to study human disease. PMID:19536202

Cox, Brian; Kotlyar, Max; Evangelou, Andreas I; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Ignatchenko, Alex; Whiteley, Kathie; Jurisica, Igor; Adamson, S Lee; Rossant, Janet; Kislinger, Thomas

2009-01-01

75

From Mouse to Human: Evolutionary Genomics Analysis of Human Orthologs of Essential Genes  

PubMed Central

Understanding the core set of genes that are necessary for basic developmental functions is one of the central goals in biology. Studies in model organisms identified a significant fraction of essential genes through the analysis of null-mutations that lead to lethality. Recent large-scale next-generation sequencing efforts have provided unprecedented data on genetic variation in human. However, evolutionary and genomic characteristics of human essential genes have never been directly studied on a genome-wide scale. Here we use detailed phenotypic resources available for the mouse and deep genomics sequencing data from human populations to characterize patterns of genetic variation and mutational burden in a set of 2,472 human orthologs of known essential genes in the mouse. Consistent with the action of strong, purifying selection, these genes exhibit comparatively reduced levels of sequence variation, skew in allele frequency towards more rare, and exhibit increased conservation across the primate and rodent lineages relative to the remainder of genes in the genome. In individual genomes we observed ?12 rare mutations within essential genes predicted to be damaging. Consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in essential genes are risk factors for neurodevelopmental disease, we show that de novo variants in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder are more likely to occur in this collection of genes. While incomplete, our set of human orthologs shows characteristics fully consistent with essential function in human and thus provides a resource to inform and facilitate interpretation of sequence data in studies of human disease. PMID:23675308

Georgi, Benjamin; Voight, Benjamin F.; Bucan, Maja

2013-01-01

76

Genomic cloning of mouse MIF (macrophage inhibitory factor) and genetic mapping of the human and mouse expressed gene and nine mouse pseudogenes  

SciTech Connect

The single functional mouse gene for MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) has been cloned from a P1 library, and its exon/intron structure determined and shown to resemble that of the human gene. The gene was mapped to chromosome 10 using two multilocus crosses between laboratory strains and either Mus musculus or Mus spretus. Nine additional loci containing related sequences, apparently all processed pseudogenes, were also mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 17, and 19. While most of these pseudogenes were also found in inbred mice and M. spretus, some are species specific. This suggests that there have been active phases of pseudogene formation in Mus both before and after the separation of musculus and spretus. The human gene contains no pseudogene; we assigned the human gene to chromosome 19, consistent with the location of mouse and human functional genes for MIF in a region of conserved linkage. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kozak, C.A.; Adamson, M.C.; Buckler, C.E. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others] [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States); and others

1995-06-10

77

The Mouse Genome Database: Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Models of Human Disease  

PubMed Central

The laboratory mouse is the premier animal model for studying human biology because all life stages can be accessed experimentally, a completely sequenced reference genome is publicly available and there exists a myriad of genomic tools for comparative and experimental research. In the current era of genome scale, data-driven biomedical research, the integration of genetic, genomic and biological data are essential for realizing the full potential of the mouse as an experimental model. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org), the community model organism database for the laboratory mouse, is designed to facilitate the use of the laboratory mouse as a model system for understanding human biology and disease. To achieve this goal, MGD integrates genetic and genomic data related to the functional and phenotypic characterization of mouse genes and alleles and serves as a comprehensive catalog for mouse models of human disease. Recent enhancements to MGD include the addition of human ortholog details to mouse Gene Detail pages, the inclusion of microRNA knockouts to MGD’s catalog of alleles and phenotypes, the addition of video clips to phenotype images, providing access to genotype and phenotype data associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) and improvements to the layout and display of Gene Ontology annotations. PMID:23175610

Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

2013-01-01

78

Using the mouse to identify genes involved in human disease Jenny Murdoch  

E-print Network

Lab, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway-University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX ABSTRACT: Allows us to identify the genetic defect that causes the disease Mouse mutant with severe spina bifidaUsing the mouse to identify genes involved in human disease Jenny Murdoch Neural Tube Development

Royal Holloway, University of London

79

The mouse as a model for human biology: a resource guide for complex trait analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse has been a powerful force in elucidating the genetic basis of human physiology and pathophysiology. From its beginnings as the model organism for cancer research and transplantation biology to the present, when dissection of the genetic basis of complex disease is at the forefront of genomics research, an enormous and remarkable mouse resource infrastructure has accumulated. This review

Raymond F. Robledo; Carol J. Bult; Gary A. Churchill; Beverly J. Paigen; Karen L. Svenson; Luanne L. Peters

2007-01-01

80

Epidermal surface antigen (MS17S1) is highly conserved between mouse and human  

SciTech Connect

A mouse monoclonal antibody ECS-1 raised to human keratinocytes detects a 35-kDa epidermal surface antigen (ESA) and causes keratinocyte dissociation in vitro. ECS-1 stains skin of 16-day mouse embryo and 8- to 9-week human fetus. Mouse Esa cDNA encodes a 379-amino-acid protein that is 99.2% identical to the human, differing at only 3 amino acids. The gene (M17S1) was mapped to mouse chromosome 11, highlighting the conserved linkage synteny existing between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11. Although the nude locus has been mapped to the same region of chromosome 11, no abnormalities in protein, mRNA, or cDNA or genomic sequences were detected in nude mice. However, both nude and control mice were found to have a second Esa mRNA transcript that conserves amino acid sequence and molecular weight. The mouse and human 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated sequences are conserved. Similar RNA folding patterns of the 5{prime} untranslated region are predicted despite a 91-bp insertion in the mouse. These data suggest that both the function and the regulation of ESA protein are of importance and that Esa (M17S1) is not the nude locus gene. 42 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Cho, Y.J.; Chema, D.; Cho, M. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); and others

1995-05-20

81

Pre-Clinical Mouse Models of Human Prostate Cancer and their Utility in Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

In vivo animal experiments are essential to current prostate cancer research, and are particularly critical to studying interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment. Numerous pre-clinical animal models of prostate cancer are currently available, including transgenic mouse models and human prostate cancer xenograft mouse models. In contrast to transgenic mouse models producing more heterogeneous cohorts of tumors, xenograft mouse models provide more controlled approaches. This unit describes the detailed procedures necessary to establish several distinct pre-clinical mouse models of human prostate cancer, including an orthotopic prostate xenograft model, an orthotopic bone metastasis model, an experimental metastasis model of intra-cardiac injection, and a vossicle model of tumor-bone interaction. PMID:21483646

Park, Serk In; Kim, Sun Jin; McCauley, Laurie K.; Gallick, Gary E.

2010-01-01

82

Comparison of Immune Responses to Extracellular Domains of Mouse and Human Thyrotropin Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse and human thyrotropin receptors show greater than 87% homology in their amino acid sequences. However, glycosylated extracellular domains of mouse (mET-gp) and human (hET-gp) thyrotropin receptors showed differences in their ability to react with patient autoantibodies to thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). To test for potential differences in their immunogenicity, we immunized BALB\\/c mice with either gel pure non-glycosylated ectodomain

Sai A Patibandla; Ji-Lao Fan; Bellur S Prabhakar; Gattadahalli S Seetharamaiah

1999-01-01

83

Differential Divergence of Three Human Pseudoautosomal Genes and Their Mouse Homologs: Implications for Sex Chromosome Evolution  

PubMed Central

The human pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) is essential for meiotic pairing and recombination, and its deletion causes male sterility. Comparative studies of human and mouse pseudoautosomal genes are valuable in charting the evolution of this interesting region, but have been limited by the paucity of genes conserved between the two species. We have cloned a novel human PAR1 gene, DHRSXY, encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, and isolated a mouse ortholog Dhrsxy. We also searched for mouse homologs of recently reported PGPL and TRAMP genes that flank it within PAR1. We recovered a highly conserved mouse ortholog of PGPL by cross-hybridization, but found no mouse homolog of TRAMP. Like Csf2ra and Il3ra, both mouse homologs are autosomal; Pgpl on chromosome 5, and Dhrsxy subtelomeric on chromosome 4. TRAMP, like the human genes within or near PAR1, is probably very divergent or absent in the mouse genome. We interpret the rapid divergence and loss of pseudoautosomal genes in terms of a model of selection for the concentration of repetitive recombinogenic sequences that predispose to high recombination and translocation. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ293620, AJ296079, and AJ293619.] PMID:11731500

Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Sanges, Remo; Esposito, Teresa; Tempesta, Sergio; Rao, Ercole; Rappold, Gudrun; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Graves, Jennifer A.M.; Forabosco, Antonino; D'Urso, Michele

2001-01-01

84

Differential divergence of three human pseudoautosomal genes and their mouse homologs: implications for sex chromosome evolution.  

PubMed

The human pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) is essential for meiotic pairing and recombination, and its deletion causes male sterility. Comparative studies of human and mouse pseudoautosomal genes are valuable in charting the evolution of this interesting region, but have been limited by the paucity of genes conserved between the two species. We have cloned a novel human PAR1 gene, DHRSXY, encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, and isolated a mouse ortholog Dhrsxy. We also searched for mouse homologs of recently reported PGPL and TRAMP genes that flank it within PAR1. We recovered a highly conserved mouse ortholog of PGPL by cross-hybridization, but found no mouse homolog of TRAMP. Like Csf2ra and Il3ra, both mouse homologs are autosomal; Pgpl on chromosome 5, and Dhrsxy subtelomeric on chromosome 4. TRAMP, like the human genes within or near PAR1, is probably very divergent or absent in the mouse genome. We interpret the rapid divergence and loss of pseudoautosomal genes in terms of a model of selection for the concentration of repetitive recombinogenic sequences that predispose to high recombination and translocation. PMID:11731500

Gianfrancesco, F; Sanges, R; Esposito, T; Tempesta, S; Rao, E; Rappold, G; Archidiacono, N; Graves, J A; Forabosco, A; D'Urso, M

2001-12-01

85

Mitotic Separation of Two Human X-Linked Genes in Man--Mouse Somatic Cell Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six interspecific somatic hybrid cell lines were derived from a mouse line deficient in hypoxanthine: guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and human diploid cells with normal enzyme activity. Human HGPRT was present in all six hybrids and the clones derived from them. However, in two of the six, and in some clones from another two, human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was absent. Since

O. J. Miller; P. R. Cook; P. Meera Khan; S. Shin; M. Siniscalco

1971-01-01

86

G-CSF Reactivates Human Cytomegalovirus in a Latently Infected Humanized Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Summary Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in organ transplant recipients despite the availability of antiviral therapy. Considerable controversy exists regarding the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized blood products from HCMV seropositive donors during stem cell transplantation (SCT) and in patients receiving granulocyte transfusions to treat neutropenia. In order to understand mechanisms of HCMV transmission to patients receiving G-CSF mobilized blood products, we generated a novel NOD-scid IL2R?cnull humanized mouse model in which HCMV establishes a latent infection in human hematopoietic lineage cells. In this model, G-CSF induces the reactivation of latent HCMV in monocytes/macrophages that have migrated into organ tissues. These results suggest that the use of G-CSF mobilized blood products from seropositive donors pose an elevated risk for HCMV transmission to recipients. PMID:20833379

Smith, M. Shane; Goldman, Devorah C.; Bailey, Alexis S.; Pfaffle, Dana L.; Kreklywich, Craig N.; Spencer, Doran B.; Othieno, Florence A.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Garcia, J. Victor; Fleming, William H.; Nelson, Jay A.

2010-01-01

87

A mouse embryonic stem cell bank for inducible overexpression of human chromosome 21 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Dosage imbalance is responsible for several genetic diseases, among which Down syndrome is caused by the trisomy of human\\u000a chromosome 21.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  To elucidate the extent to which the dosage imbalance of specific human chromosome 21 genes perturb distinct molecular pathways,\\u000a we developed the first mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell bank of human chromosome 21 genes. The human chromosome 21-mouse ES

Rossella De Cegli; Antonio Romito; Simona Iacobacci; Lei Mao; Mario Lauria; Anthony O Fedele; Joachim Klose; Christelle Borel; Patrick Descombes; Stylianos E Antonarakis; Diego di Bernardo; Sandro Banfi; Andrea Ballabio; Gilda Cobellis

2010-01-01

88

Selective Expression of Myosin IC Isoform A in Mouse and Human Cell Lines and Mouse Prostate Cancer Tissues  

PubMed Central

Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily. We recently identified a novel isoform and showed that the MYOIC gene in mammalian cells encodes three isoforms (isoforms A, B, and C). Furthermore, we demonstrated that myosin IC isoform A but not isoform B exhibits a tissue specific expression pattern. In this study, we extended our analysis of myosin IC isoform expression patterns by analyzing the protein and mRNA expression in various mammalian cell lines and in various prostate specimens and tumor tissues from the transgenic mouse prostate (TRAMP) model by immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, and by indirect immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded prostate specimen. Analysis of a panel of mammalian cell lines showed an increased mRNA and protein expression of specifically myosin IC isoform A in a panel of human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines but not in non-cancer prostate or other (non-prostate-) cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that myosin IC isoform A expression is significantly increased in TRAMP mouse prostate samples with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and in distant site metastases in lung and liver when compared to matched normal tissues. Our observations demonstrate specific changes in the expression of myosin IC isoform A that are concurrent with the occurrence of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model that closely mimics clinical prostate cancer. These data suggest that elevated levels of myosin IC isoform A may be a potential marker for the detection of prostate cancer. PMID:25259793

Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Sielski, Neil L.; Hofmann, Wilma A.

2014-01-01

89

Radial glia require PDGFD-PDGFR? signalling in human but not mouse neocortex.  

PubMed

Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex underlies many of our unique mental abilities. This expansion has been attributed to the increased proliferative potential of radial glia (RG; neural stem cells) and their subventricular dispersion from the periventricular niche during neocortical development. Such adaptations may have evolved through gene expression changes in RG. However, whether or how RG gene expression varies between humans and other species is unknown. Here we show that the transcriptional profiles of human and mouse neocortical RG are broadly conserved during neurogenesis, yet diverge for specific signalling pathways. By analysing differential gene co-expression relationships between the species, we demonstrate that the growth factor PDGFD is specifically expressed by RG in human, but not mouse, corticogenesis. We also show that the expression domain of PDGFR?, the cognate receptor for PDGFD, is evolutionarily divergent, with high expression in the germinal region of dorsal human neocortex but not in the mouse. Pharmacological inhibition of PDGFD-PDGFR? signalling in slice culture prevents normal cell cycle progression of neocortical RG in human, but not mouse. Conversely, injection of recombinant PDGFD or ectopic expression of constitutively active PDGFR? in developing mouse neocortex increases the proportion of RG and their subventricular dispersion. These findings highlight the requirement of PDGFD-PDGFR? signalling for human neocortical development and suggest that local production of growth factors by RG supports the expanded germinal region and progenitor heterogeneity of species with large brains. PMID:25391964

Lui, Jan H; Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Pollen, Alex A; Javaherian, Ashkan; Kriegstein, Arnold R; Oldham, Michael C

2014-11-13

90

Comparison of exendin-4 on beta-cell replication in mouse and human islet grafts.  

PubMed

Exendin-4 can stimulate ?-cell replication in mice. Whether it can stimulate ?-cell replication in human islet grafts remains unknown. Therefore, we compared the effects of exendin-4 on ?-cell replication in mouse and human islet grafts. Islets, isolated from mouse and human donors at different ages, were transplanted into diabetic mice and/or diabetic nude mice that were given bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) with or without exendin-4. At 4 weeks post-transplantation, islet grafts were removed for insulin and BrdU staining and quantification of insulin(+)/BrdU(+) cells. Although diabetes was reversed in all mice transplanting syngeneic mouse islets from young or old donors, normoglycemia was achieved significantly faster in exendin-4 treated mice. Mouse islet grafts in exendin-4 treated mice had significantly more insulin(+)/BrdU(+) ? cells than in untreated mice (P < 0.01). Human islet grafts from ?22-year-old donors had more insulin(+)/BrdU(+) ? cells in exendin-4 treated mice than that in untreated mice (P < 0.01). However, human islet grafts from ?35-year-old donors contained few insulin(+)/BrdU(+) ? cells in exendin-4 treated or untreated mice. Our data demonstrated that the capacity for ?-cell replication in mouse and human islet grafts is different with and without exendin-4 treatment and indicated that GLP-1 agonists can stimulate ?-cell replication in human islets from young donors. PMID:21627696

Tian, Lei; Gao, Jie; Weng, Guangbin; Yi, Huimin; Tian, Bole; O'Brien, Timothy D; Guo, Zhiguang

2011-08-01

91

A genomic analysis of mouse models of breast cancer reveals molecular features of mouse models and relationships to human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Genomic variability limits the efficacy of breast cancer therapy. To simplify the study of the molecular complexity of breast cancer, researchers have used mouse mammary tumor models. However, the degree to which mouse models model human breast cancer and are reflective of the human heterogeneity has yet to be demonstrated with gene expression studies on a large scale. Methods To this end, we have built a database consisting of 1,172 mouse mammary tumor samples from 26 different major oncogenic mouse mammary tumor models. Results In this dataset we identified heterogeneity within mouse models and noted a surprising amount of interrelatedness between models, despite differences in the tumor initiating oncogene. Making comparisons between models, we identified differentially expressed genes with alteration correlating with initiating events in each model. Using annotation tools, we identified transcription factors with a high likelihood of activity within these models. Gene signatures predicted activation of major cell signaling pathways in each model, predictions that correlated with previous genetic studies. Finally, we noted relationships between mouse models and human breast cancer at both the level of gene expression and predicted signal pathway activity. Importantly, we identified individual mouse models that recapitulate human breast cancer heterogeneity at the level of gene expression. Conclusions This work underscores the importance of fully characterizing mouse tumor biology at molecular, histological and genomic levels before a valid comparison to human breast cancer may be drawn and provides an important bioinformatic resource. PMID:25069779

2014-01-01

92

[Optimization of conditions for human erythropoiesis in human-mouse xenotransplant model].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to investigate the conditions for improving human-mouse xenograft and the erythroid differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the xenotransplant model. The engraftments of different mouse strains (NOD/SCID or NOD/SCID/IL2r?(null)), schemes of irradiation (single-time or 2-times radiation; Co(60)?-ray or X-ray) and strategies of CB CD34(+) cells ex vivo culture time and lentivirus infection were compared. The results showed that at 4 weeks after transplantation, the ratio of hCD45 positive cells in bone marrow of NOD/SCID/IL2r?(null) mice increased to (51.4 ± 13.9)%, and erythroid precursor could be detected. All of the mice receiving X-ray irradiation for 2 times (a dose of 1 Gy, then the second of 1.5 Gy, with an interval of 15 min) survived. Fresh isolated CB CD34(+) cells were cultured and infected with lentivirus for 72 h and then transplanted into receptor mouse. After 4 weeks, higher engraftment [hCD45 (51.4 ± 13.9)%] and better erythroid development [hCD71(+) GPA(+) (5.98 ± 3.46)%] were observed. It is concluded that NOD/SCID/IL2r?(null) mice receiving X-ray irradiation for 2 times and were injected with fresh isolated CB CD34(+) cells cultured and infected with lentivirus ex vivo within 72 h show a better xenograft and erythroid development. PMID:24370057

Zheng, Wei-Wei; Xu, Fei-Fei; Yin, Rong-Hua; Zhan, Yi-Qun; Yang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhang-Yan

2013-12-01

93

Cyclooxygenases in human and mouse skin and cultured human keratinocytes: association of COX-2 expression with human keratinocyte differentiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epidermal expression of the two isoforms of the prostaglandin H-generating cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) was evaluated both by immunohistochemistry performed on human and mouse skin biopsy sections and by Western blotting of protein extracts from cultured human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes. In normal human skin, COX-1 immunostaining is observed throughout the epidermis whereas COX-2 immunostaining increases in the more differentiated, suprabasilar keratinocytes. Basal cell carcinomas express little if any COX-1 or COX-2 immunostaining whereas both isozymes are strongly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas deriving from a more differentiated layer of the epidermis. In human keratinocyte cultures, raising the extracellular calcium concentration, a recognized stimulus for keratinocyte differentiation, leads to an increased expression of both COX-2 protein and mRNA; expression of COX-1 protein, however, shows no significant alteration in response to calcium. Because of a recent report that failed to show COX-2 in normal mouse epidermis, we also looked for COX-1 and COX-2 immunostaining in sections of normal and acetone-treated mouse skin. In agreement with a previous report, some COX-1, but no COX-2, immunostaining is seen in normal murine epidermis. However, following acetone treatment, there is a marked increase in COX-1 expression as well as the appearance of significant COX-2 immunostaining in the basal layer. These data suggest that in human epidermis as well as in human keratinocyte cultures, the expression of COX-2 occurs as a part of normal keratinocyte differentiation whereas in murine epidermis, its constitutive expression is absent, but inducible as previously published.

Leong, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.; Rakhlin, N.; Habib, A.; Maclouf, J.; Goldyne, M. E.

1996-01-01

94

Species-Specific Metastasis of Human Tumor Cells in the Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mouse Engrafted with Human Tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have attempted to model human metastatic disease by implanting human target organs into the immunodeficient C.B-17 scid/scid (severe combined immunodeficiency; SCID) mouse, creating SCID-hu mice. Preferential metastasis to implants of human fetal lung and human fetal bone marrow occurred after i.v. injection of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells into SCID-hu mice; the homologous mouse organs were spared. Clinically more aggressive variant SCLC cells metastasized more efficiently to human fetal lung implants than did cells from classic SCLC. Metastasis of variant SCLC to human fetal bone marrow was enhanced in SCID-hu mice exposed to ?-irradiation or to interleukin 1?. These data indicate that the SCID-hu mice may provide a model in which to study species- and tissue-specific steps of the human metastatic process.

Shtivelman, Emma; Namikawa, Reiko

1995-05-01

95

Mouse LSECtin as a model for a human Ebola virus receptor  

PubMed Central

The biochemical properties of mouse LSECtin, a glycan-binding receptor that is a member of the C-type lectin family found on sinusoidal endothelial cells, have been investigated. The C-type carbohydrate-recognition domain of mouse LSECtin, expressed in bacteria, has been used in solid-phase binding assays, and a tetramerized form has been used to probe a glycan array. In spite of sequence differences near the glycan-binding sites, the mouse receptor closely mimics the properties of the human receptor, showing high affinity binding to glycans bearing terminal GlcNAc?1-2Man motifs. Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to confirm that residues near the binding site that differ between the human and the mouse proteins do not affect this binding specificity. Mouse and human LSECtin have been shown to bind Ebola virus glycoprotein with equivalent affinities, and the GlcNAc?1-2Man disaccharide has been demonstrated to be an effective inhibitor of this interaction. These studies provide a basis for using mouse LSECtin, and knockout mice lacking this receptor, to model the biological properties of the human receptor. PMID:21257728

Pipirou, Zoi; Powlesland, Alex S; Steffen, Imke; Pohlmann, Stefan; Taylor, Maureen E; Drickamer, Kurt

2011-01-01

96

Mouse LSECtin as a model for a human Ebola virus receptor.  

PubMed

The biochemical properties of mouse LSECtin, a glycan-binding receptor that is a member of the C-type lectin family found on sinusoidal endothelial cells, have been investigated. The C-type carbohydrate-recognition domain of mouse LSECtin, expressed in bacteria, has been used in solid-phase binding assays, and a tetramerized form has been used to probe a glycan array. In spite of sequence differences near the glycan-binding sites, the mouse receptor closely mimics the properties of the human receptor, showing high affinity binding to glycans bearing terminal GlcNAc?1-2Man motifs. Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to confirm that residues near the binding site that differ between the human and the mouse proteins do not affect this binding specificity. Mouse and human LSECtin have been shown to bind Ebola virus glycoprotein with equivalent affinities, and the GlcNAc?1-2Man disaccharide has been demonstrated to be an effective inhibitor of this interaction. These studies provide a basis for using mouse LSECtin, and knockout mice lacking this receptor, to model the biological properties of the human receptor. PMID:21257728

Pipirou, Zoi; Powlesland, Alex S; Steffen, Imke; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Taylor, Maureen E; Drickamer, Kurt

2011-06-01

97

Humanized FcRn mouse models for evaluating pharmacokinetics of human IgG antibodies.  

PubMed

A key element for the successful development of novel therapeutic antibodies is to fully understand their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior before performing clinical trials. While many in vitro modeling approaches exist, these simply cannot substitute for data obtained from appropriate animal models. It was established quite early that the unusual long serum half-life of immunoglobulin G's (IgGs) and Fc domains are due to their rescue and recycling by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). The diverse roles of FcRn became apparent after isolation and cloning. Interesting are the significant species differences between rodent and human FcRn reactivity, rendering wild type rodents an inadequate model for studying IgG serum half-life. With the advance of genetic engineering mouse models have been established expressing human FcRn, and lacking mouse FcRn protein. These models have become highly relevant tools for serum half-life analysis of Fc-containing compounds. PMID:23867339

Proetzel, Gabriele; Roopenian, Derry C

2014-01-01

98

GSK3 regulates the expressions of human and mouse c-Myb via different mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background c-Myb is expressed at high levels in immature progenitors of all the hematopoietic lineages. It is associated with the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival of erythroid, myeloid and lymphoid cells, but decreases during the terminal differentiation to mature blood cells. The cellular level of c-Myb is controlled by not only transcriptional regulation but also ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. We recently reported that mouse c-Myb protein is controlled by ubiquitin-dependent degradation by SCF-Fbw7 E3 ligase via glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-mediated phosphorylation of Thr-572 in a Cdc4 phosphodegron (CPD)-dependent manner. However, this critical threonine residue is not conserved in human c-Myb. In this study, we investigated whether GSK3 is involved in the regulatory mechanism for human c-Myb expression. Results Human c-Myb was degraded by ubiquitin-dependent degradation via SCF-Fbw7. Human Fbw7 ubiquitylated not only human c-Myb but also mouse c-Myb, whereas mouse Fbw7 ubiquitylated mouse c-Myb but not human c-Myb. Human Fbw7 mutants with mutations of arginine residues important for recognition of the CPD still ubiquitylated human c-Myb. These data strongly suggest that human Fbw7 ubiquitylates human c-Myb in a CPD-independent manner. Mutations of the putative GSK3 phosphorylation sites in human c-Myb did not affect the Fbw7-dependent ubiquitylation of human c-Myb. Neither chemical inhibitors nor a siRNA for GSK3? affected the stability of human c-Myb. However, depletion of GSK3? upregulated the transcription of human c-Myb, resulting in transcriptional suppression of ?-globin, one of the c-Myb target genes. Conclusions The present observations suggest that human Fbw7 ubiquitylates human c-Myb in a CPD-independent manner, whereas mouse Fbw7 ubiquitylates human c-Myb in a CPD-dependent manner. Moreover, GSK3 negatively regulates the transcriptional expression of human c-Myb but does not promote Fbw7-dependent degradation of human c-Myb protein. Inactivation of GSK3 as well as mutations of Fbw7 may be causes of the enhanced c-Myb expression observed in leukemia cells. We conclude that expression levels of human and mouse c-Myb are regulated via different mechanisms. PMID:21092141

2010-01-01

99

Mouse Models of Human Bladder Cancer as a Tool for Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a deadly condition in dire need of effective new treatments. This unit contains a description of mouse models suitable for the evaluation of potential new therapies. Included is a genetically engineered mouse model of bladder cancer generated by the delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase into the bladder lumen. Also described is an orthotopic mouse model created by the instillation of human bladder tumor cells into the bladder lumen of immune deficient mice. Protocols are also provided on the use of these models for the preclinical evaluation of new chemical entities, with mTOR inhibitors shown as an example. PMID:22294368

Seager, Catherine; Puzio-Kuter, Anna M.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; McKiernan, James; Abate-Shen, Cory

2010-01-01

100

The mouse as a model for human biology: a resource guide for complex trait analysis.  

PubMed

The mouse has been a powerful force in elucidating the genetic basis of human physiology and pathophysiology. From its beginnings as the model organism for cancer research and transplantation biology to the present, when dissection of the genetic basis of complex disease is at the forefront of genomics research, an enormous and remarkable mouse resource infrastructure has accumulated. This review summarizes those resources and provides practical guidelines for their use, particularly in the analysis of quantitative traits. PMID:17173058

Peters, Luanne L; Robledo, Raymond F; Bult, Carol J; Churchill, Gary A; Paigen, Beverly J; Svenson, Karen L

2007-01-01

101

Transcript catalogs of human chromosome 21 and orthologous chimpanzee and mouse regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive representation of the gene content of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21q) remains of interest for\\u000a the study of Down syndrome, its associated phenotypic features, and mouse models. Here we compare transcript catalogs for\\u000a Hsa21q, chimpanzee chromosome 21 (Ptr21q), and orthologous regions of mouse chromosomes 16, 17, and 10 for open reading frame\\u000a (ORF) characteristics and

Xiaolu Sturgeon; Katheleen J. Gardiner

2011-01-01

102

Activity of the human carcinogen MeCCNU in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay  

SciTech Connect

The nitrosourea mustard MeCCNU is the most recent organic chemical to be classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. MeCCNU gave a strong positive response when tested in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Activity was evident using either ip injection or oral gavage of the test chemical. These results further support the correlation between human carcinogens and their genotoxicity.

Tinwell, H.; Ashby, J. (ICI Central Toxicology Lab, Cheshire (England))

1991-01-01

103

PhenoHM: human-mouse comparative phenome-genome server  

PubMed Central

PhenoHM is a human–mouse comparative phenome–genome server that facilitates cross-species identification of genes associated with orthologous phenotypes (http://phenome.cchmc.org; full open access, login not required). Combining and extrapolating the knowledge about the roles of individual gene functions in the determination of phenotype across multiple organisms improves our understanding of gene function in normal and perturbed states and offers the opportunity to complement biologically the rapidly expanding strategies in comparative genomics. The Mammalian Phenotype Ontology (MPO), a structured vocabulary of phenotype terms that leverages observations encompassing the consequences of mouse gene knockout studies, is a principal component of mouse phenotype knowledge source. On the other hand, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is a composite collection of various human-centered biomedical terminologies. In the present study, we mapped terms reciprocally from the MPO to human disease concepts such as clinical findings from the UMLS and clinical phenotypes from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man knowledgebase. By cross-mapping mouse–human phenotype terms, extracting implicated genes and extrapolating phenotype-gene associations between species PhenoHM provides a resource that enables rapid identification of genes that trigger similar outcomes in human and mouse and facilitates identification of potentially novel disease causal genes. The PhenoHM server can be accessed freely at http://phenome.cchmc.org. PMID:20507906

Sardana, Divya; Vasa, Suresh; Vepachedu, Nishanth; Chen, Jing; Gudivada, Ranga Chandra; Aronow, Bruce J.; Jegga, Anil G.

2010-01-01

104

Roles of Intragenic and Intergenic L1s in Mouse and Human  

PubMed Central

Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a retrotransposable element that has shaped the evolution of mammalian genomes. There is increasing evidence that transcriptionally active L1 could have been co-opted through evolution to play various roles including X-inactivation, homologous recombination and gene regulation. Here, we compare putatively active L1 distributions in the mouse with human. L1 density is higher in the mouse except for the Y-chromosome. L1 density is the highest in X-chromosome, implying an X-inactivation role. L1 is more common outside genes (intergenic) except for the Y-chromosome in both species. The structure of mouse L1 is distinguished from human L1 by the presence of a 200 bp repeat in the 5? UTR of the former. We found that mouse intragenic L1 has significantly higher repeat copy numbers than intergenic L1, suggesting that this is important for control of L1 expression. Furthermore, a significant association between the presence of intragenic L1s and down-regulated genes in early embryogenesis was found in both species. In conclusion, the distribution of L1 in the mouse genome points to biological roles of L1 in mouse similar to human. PMID:25409429

Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Tongsima, Sissades; Mutirangura, Apiwat

2014-01-01

105

Cloning, analysis, and chromosomal localization of myoxin (MYH12), the human homologue to the mouse dilute gene  

SciTech Connect

The mouse dilute gene encodes a novel type of non-muscle myosin that structurally combines elements from both nonmuscle myosin type I and nonmuscle myosin type II. Phenotypically, mutations in the mouse dilute gene result not only in the lightening of coat color, but also in the onset of severe neurological defects shortly after birth. This may indicate that the mouse dilute gene is important in maintaining the normal neuronal function in the mouse. The authors report the isolation and sequencing of [open quotes]myoxin[close quotes] (MYH12), the human homologue of the mouse dilute gene, and its assignment to human chromosome 15. 35 refs., 6 figs.

Engle, L.J.; Kennett, R.H. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1994-02-01

106

The human and mouse receptors of hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAMM, genes (HMMR) map to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter and mouse chromosome 11  

SciTech Connect

The gene for the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAAM (designated hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor, HMMR (human) and Hmmr (mouse), for mapping purposes), was localized to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter by somatic cell and radiation hybrid analyses. Investigation of two interspecific back-crosses localized the mouse RHAMM (Hmmr) locus 18 cM from the centromere of mouse chromosome 11 within a region of synteny homology with human chromosome 5q23-q35 genes. The map position of the human RHAMM gene places it in a region comparatively rich in disease-associated genes, including those for low-frequency hearing loss, dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, and myeloid disorders associated with the 5q-syndrome. The RHAMM gene location and its ability to transform cells when overexpressed implicate RHAMM as a possible candidate gene in the pathogenesis of the recently described t(5;14)(q33-q34;q11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias. 18 refs., 1 fig.

Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Roller, M.L.; Camper, S.A. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

107

The human and mouse receptors for hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAMM, genes (HMMR) map to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter and mouse chromosome 11.  

PubMed

The gene for the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAMM (designated hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor, HMMR (human) and Hmmr (mouse), for mapping purposes), was localized to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter by somatic cell and radiation hybrid analyses. Investigation of two interspecific backcrosses localized the mouse RHAMM (Hmmr) locus 18 cM from the centromere of mouse chromosome 11 within a region of synteny homology with human chromosome 5q23-q35 genes. The map position of the human RHAMM gene places it in a region comparatively rich in disease-associated genes, including those for low-frequency hearing loss, dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, and myeloid disorders associated with the 5q- syndrome. The RHAMM gene location and its ability to transform cells when overexpressed implicate RHAMM as a possible candidate gene in the pathogenesis of the recently described t(5;14)(q33-q34;q11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias. PMID:8595891

Spicer, A P; Roller, M L; Camper, S A; McPherson, J D; Wasmuth, J J; Hakim, S; Wang, C; Turley, E A; McDonald, J A

1995-11-01

108

Mouse models of Down syndrome: how useful can they be? Comparison of the gene content of human chromosome 21 with orthologous mouse genomic regions.  

PubMed

With an incidence of approximately 1 in 700 live births, Down syndrome (DS) remains the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. The phenotype is assumed to be due to overexpression of some number of the >300 genes encoded by human chromosome 21. Mouse models, in particular the chromosome 16 segmental trisomies, Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje, are indispensable for DS-related studies of gene-phenotype correlations. Here we compare the updated gene content of the finished sequence of human chromosome 21 (364 genes and putative genes) with the gene content of the homologous mouse genomic regions (291 genes and putative genes) obtained from annotation of the public sector C57Bl/6 draft sequence. Annotated genes fall into one of three classes. First, there are 170 highly conserved, human/mouse orthologues. Second, there are 83 minimally conserved, possible orthologues. Included among the conserved and minimally conserved genes are 31 antisense transcripts. Third, there are species-specific genes: 111 spliced human transcripts show no orthologues in the syntenic mouse regions although 13 have homologous sequences elsewhere in the mouse genomic sequence, and 38 spliced mouse transcripts show no identifiable human orthologues. While these species-specific genes are largely based solely on spliced EST data, a majority can be verified in RNA expression experiments. In addition, preliminary data suggest that many human-specific transcripts may represent a novel class of primate-specific genes. Lastly, updated functional annotation of orthologous genes indicates genes encoding components of several cellular pathways are dispersed throughout the orthologous mouse chromosomal regions and are not completely represented in the Down syndrome segmental mouse models. Together, these data point out the potential for existing mouse models to produce extraneous phenotypes and to fail to produce DS-relevant phenotypes. PMID:14585506

Gardiner, Katheleen; Fortna, Andrew; Bechtel, Lawrence; Davisson, Muriel T

2003-10-30

109

Human monoclonal antibodies specific to hepatitis B virus generated in a human/mouse radiation chimera: the Trimera system.  

PubMed Central

An approach to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies in a human/mouse radiation chimera, the Trimera system, is described. In this system, functional human lymphocytes are engrafted in normal strains of mice which are rendered immuno-incompetent by lethal total body irradiation followed by radioprotection with severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse bone marrow. Following transplantation, human lymphocytes colonize murine lymphatic organs and secrete human immunoglobulins. We have established this system as a tool to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies, and applied it for the generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for hepatitis B virus surface antigen. A strong memory response to hepatitis B surface antigen was elicited in Trimera engrafted with lymphocytes from human donors positive for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. The human specific antibody fraction in the Trimera was 10(2)-10(3)-fold higher as compared with that found in the donors. Spleens were harvested from Trimera mice showing high specific-antibody titres and cells were fused to a human-mouse heteromyeloma fusion partner. Several stable hybridoma clones were isolated and characterized. These hybridomas produce high-affinity, IgG, anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies demonstrating the potential of the Trimera system for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies. The biological function and the neutralizing activity of these antibodies are currently being tested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9616363

Eren, R; Lubin, I; Terkieltaub, D; Ben-Moshe, O; Zauberman, A; Uhlmann, R; Tzahor, T; Moss, S; Ilan, E; Shouval, D; Galun, E; Daudi, N; Marcus, H; Reisner, Y; Dagan, S

1998-01-01

110

Evaluation of perfluoroalkyl acid activity using primary mouse and human hepatocytes.  

PubMed

While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) detected in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group has previously evaluated a variety of PFAAs for activity associated with activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?). Here we use primary heptatocytes to further assess the biological activity of a similar group of PFAAs using custom designed Taqman Low Density Arrays. Primary mouse and human hepatoyctes were cultured for 48h in the presence of varying concentrations of 12 different PFAAs or Wy14,643, a known activator of PPAR?. Total RNA was collected and the expression of 48 mouse or human genes evaluated. Gene selection was based on either in-house liver microarray data (mouse) or published data using primary hepatocytes (human). Gene expression in primary mouse hepatocytes was more restricted than expected. Genes typically regulated in whole tissue by PPAR? agonists were not altered in mouse cells including Acox1, Me1, Acaa1a, Hmgcs1, and Slc27a1. Cyp2b10, a gene regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor and a transcript normally up-regulated by in vivo exposure to PFAAs, was also unchanged in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cyp4a14, Ehhadh, Pdk4, Cpt1b, and Fabp1 were regulated as expected in mouse cells. A larger group of genes were differentially expressed in human primary hepatocytes, however, little consistency was observed across compounds with respect to which genes produced a significant dose response making the determination of relative biological activity difficult. This likely reflects weaker activation of PPAR? in human versus rodent cells as well as variation among individual cell donors. Unlike mouse cells, CYP2B6 was up-regulated in human hepatocytes by a number of PFAAs as was PPAR?. Rankings were conducted on the limited dataset. In mouse hepatocytes, the pattern was similar to that previously observed in the COS-1 reporter cell assay. With the exception of PFHxA, longer chain PFAA carboxylates were the most active. The pattern was similar in human hepatocytes, although PFDA and PFOS showed higher activity than previously observed while PFOA showed somewhat less activity. These data reflect inherent challenges in using primary hepatocytes to predict toxicological response. PMID:23567314

Rosen, Mitchell B; Das, Kaberi P; Wood, Carmen R; Wolf, Cynthia J; Abbott, Barbara D; Lau, Christopher

2013-06-01

111

Human and mouse model cognitive phenotypes in Down syndrome: implications for assessment.  

PubMed

The study of cognitive function in Down syndrome (DS) has advanced rapidly in the past decade. Mouse models have generated data regarding the neurological basis for the specific cognitive profile of DS (i.e., deficits in aspects of hippocampal, prefrontal, and cerebellar function) and have uncovered pharmacological treatments with the potential to affect this phenotype. Given this progress, the field is at a juncture in which we require assessments that may effectively translate the findings acquired in mouse models to humans with DS. In this chapter, we describe the cognitive profile of humans with DS and associated mouse models, discussing the ways in which we may merge these findings so as to more fully understand cognitive strengths and weaknesses in this population. New directions for approaches to cognitive assessment in mice and humans are discussed. PMID:22541291

Edgin, Jamie O; Mason, Gina M; Spanň, Goffredina; Fernández, Andrea; Nadel, Lynn

2012-01-01

112

Comparative diversity analysis of gut microbiota in two different human flora-associated mouse strains.  

PubMed

The Kunming (KM) mouse is a closed colony mouse strain widely used in Chinese pharmacology, toxicology, and microbiology research laboratories. However, few studies have examined human flora-associated (HFA) microbial communities in KM mice. In this study, HFA models were built from germ-free KM and C57BL/6J mouse strains, and gut microbial diversity was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing. We found that the two strains of HFA mice were significantly different based on the UPGMA dendrogram and the Richness index, but dice similarity coefficients of mouse replicates were not significantly different between HFA-KM and HFA-C57BL/6J. Most of the dominant phyla of human gut microflora could be transferred into the guts of the two mouse strains. However, the predominant genus that formed in HFA-KM was Clostridium sp. and that in HFA-C57BL/6J was Blautia sp. These results imply that genotypes difference between the two mice strains is a critical factor in shaping the intestinal microflora. However, genetic differences of individuals within KM mouse populations failed to lead to individual difference in microflora. Successful generation of HFA-KM mice will facilitate studies examining how diet affects gut microbial structure, and will enable comparative studies for uncovering genetic factors that shape gut microbial communities. PMID:24807625

Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Benhua; Liu, Zhiwei; Liao, Zhenlin; Li, Wenxai; Wei, Hong; Fang, Xiang

2014-09-01

113

Automated Whole-Genome Multiple Alignment of Rat, Mouse, and Human  

PubMed Central

We have built a whole-genome multiple alignment of the three currently available mammalian genomes using a fully automated pipeline that combines the local/global approach of the Berkeley Genome Pipeline and the LAGAN program. The strategy is based on progressive alignment and consists of two main steps: (1) alignment of the mouse and rat genomes, and (2) alignment of human to either the mouse-rat alignments from step 1, or the remaining unaligned mouse and rat sequences. The resulting alignments demonstrate high sensitivity, with 87% of all human gene-coding areas aligned in both mouse and rat. The specificity is also high: <7% of the rat contigs are aligned to multiple places in human, and 97% of all alignments with human sequence >100 kb agree with a three-way synteny map built independently, using predicted exons in the three genomes. At the nucleotide level <1% of the rat nucleotides are mapped to multiple places in the human sequence in the alignment, and 96.5% of human nucleotides within all alignments agree with the synteny map. The alignments are publicly available online, with visualization through the novel Multi-VISTA browser that we also present. PMID:15060011

Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Salamov, Asaf; Cooper, Gregory M.; Sidow, Arend; Rubin, Edward M.; Solovyev, Victor; Batzoglou, Serafim; Dubchak, Inna

2004-01-01

114

Understanding melatonin receptor pharmacology: latest insights from mouse models, and their relevance to human disease.  

PubMed

Melatonin, the neuro-hormone synthesized during the night, has recently seen an unexpected extension of its functional implications toward type 2 diabetes development, visual functions, sleep disturbances, and depression. Transgenic mouse models were instrumental for the establishment of the link between melatonin and these major human diseases. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated by two types of G protein-coupled receptors, named MT1 and MT2 , which are expressed in many different organs and tissues. Understanding the pharmacology and function of mouse MT1 and MT2 receptors, including MT1 /MT2 heteromers, will be of crucial importance to evaluate the relevance of these mouse models for future therapeutic developments. This review will critically discuss these aspects, and give some perspectives including the generation of new mouse models. PMID:24903552

Tosini, Gianluca; Owino, Sharon; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

2014-08-01

115

Human Prolactin Promotes Human Secondary Immunoglobulin Response in Human\\/SCID Mouse Chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human prolactin (rhPRL) was administered to huPBL-SCID mice to determine its effects on production of human immunoglobulin (Ig). The huPBL-SCID mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 g rhPRL every other day for a total of 10 injections. The results reconfirmed that rhPRL significantly increased the numbers of human CD3 T cells and human CD19 B cells in spleens,

Jian Zhang; Rui Sun; Zhigang Tian

2007-01-01

116

Ex Vivo Expanded Human Regulatory T Cells Can Prolong Survival of a Human Islet Allograft in a Humanized Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Background Human regulatory T cells (Treg) offer an attractive adjunctive therapy to reduce current reliance on lifelong, nonspecific immunosuppression after transplantation. Here, we evaluated the ability of ex vivo expanded human Treg to prevent the rejection of islets of Langerhans in a humanized mouse model and examined the mechanisms involved. Methods We engrafted human pancreatic islets of Langerhans into the renal subcapsular space of immunodeficient BALB/c.rag2?/?.c??/? mice, previously rendered diabetic via injection of the ?-cell toxin streptozocin. After the establishment of stable euglycemia, mice were reconstituted with allogeneic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the resultant alloreactive response studied. Ex vivo expanded CD25highCD4+ human Treg, which expressed FoxP3, CTLA-4, and CD62L and remained CD127low, were then cotransferred together with human PBMC and islet allografts and monitored for evidence of rejection. Results Human islets transplanted into diabetic immunodeficient mice reversed diabetes but were rejected rapidly after the mice were reconstituted with allogeneic human PBMC. Cotransfer of purified, ex vivo expanded human Treg prolonged islet allograft survival resulting in the accumulation of Treg in the peripheral lymphoid tissue and suppression of proliferation and interferon-? production by T cells. In vitro, Treg suppressed activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription and inhibited the effector differentiation of responder T cells. Conclusions Ex vivo expanded Treg retain regulatory activity in vivo, can protect a human islet allograft from rejection by suppressing signal transducers and activators of transcription activation and inhibiting T-cell differentiation, and have clinical potential as an adjunctive cellular therapy. PMID:23917725

Wu, Douglas C.; Hester, Joanna; Nadig, Satish N.; Zhang, Wei; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Gray, Derek; Hughes, Stephen; Johnson, Paul; Wood, Kathryn J.

2013-01-01

117

Defining the molecular pathologies in cloaca malformation: similarities between mouse and human  

PubMed Central

Anorectal malformations are congenital anomalies that form a spectrum of disorders, from the most benign type with excellent functional prognosis, to very complex, such as cloaca malformation in females in which the rectum, vagina and urethra fail to develop separately and instead drain via a single common channel into the perineum. The severity of this phenotype suggests that the defect occurs in the early stages of embryonic development of the organs derived from the cloaca. Owing to the inability to directly investigate human embryonic cloaca development, current research has relied on the use of mouse models of anorectal malformations. However, even studies of mouse embryos lack analysis of the earliest stages of cloaca patterning and morphogenesis. Here we compared human and mouse cloaca development and retrospectively identified that early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca might underlie the most severe forms of anorectal malformation in humans. In mouse, we identified that defective sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling results in early dorsal-ventral epithelial abnormalities prior to the reported defects in septation. This is manifested by the absence of Sox2 and aberrant expression of keratins in the embryonic cloaca of Shh knockout mice. Shh knockout embryos additionally develop a hypervascular stroma, which is defective in BMP signaling. These epithelial and stromal defects persist later, creating an indeterminate epithelium with molecular alterations in the common channel. We then used these animals to perform a broad comparison with patients with mild-to-severe forms of anorectal malformations including cloaca malformation. We found striking parallels with the Shh mouse model, including nearly identical defective molecular identity of the epithelium and surrounding stroma. Our work strongly suggests that early embryonic cloacal epithelial differentiation defects might be the underlying cause of severe forms of anorectal malformations in humans. Moreover, deranged Shh and BMP signaling is correlated with severe anorectal malformations in both mouse and humans. PMID:24524909

Runck, Laura A.; Method, Anna; Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc; Pena, Alberto; Collins, Margaret H.; Gupta, Anita; Shanmukhappa, Shiva; Wells, James M.; Guasch, Geraldine

2014-01-01

118

Pharmacokinetics in melanoma-bearing mice of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a candidate compound for boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed Central

Blood pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a boron carrier with postulated melanin-seeking properties for boron neutron capture therapy, were determined in C57/BL mice with subcutaneous pigmented or non-pigmented B16 melanomas. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) was used as a boron compound without melanin-seeking properties in a comparative biodistribution study in the same animal tumour models. Administration of single doses showed that BPTU was retained better in the pigmented B16 tumour than in the non-pigmented variant. BPTU was found in large concentrations in kidney and liver. Brain boron was approximately 10-fold lower than tumour boron. On a molar basis, BPTU demonstrated higher affinity for B16 tumours than BSH. Owing to solubility limits, tumour boron concentrations in this mouse study were too low for effective application of BNCT. However, the high tumour-to-blood and tumour-to-normal tissues ratios indicate that, with appropriate formulation, BPTU could be a promising candidate for clinical BNCT. PMID:8142252

Verrijk, R.; Smolders, I. J.; Huiskamp, R.; Gavin, P. R.; Philipp, K. H.; Begg, A. C.

1994-01-01

119

Effects of exopolysaccharide fraction (EPSF) from a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis fungus on c-Myc, c-Fos, and VEGF expression in B16 melanoma-bearing mice.  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), one of the traditional Chinese medicines, has been used for the treatment of a wide range of disorders for centuries. It is generally accepted that its cultivated Cs fungi possess the same functions as Cs natural herbs. Although polysaccharide from Cs is one of its bioactive compositions, its antitumor ability has not been confirmed. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the exopolysaccharide fraction (EPSF) of a cultivated Cs fungus on c-Myc, c-Fos, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of tumor-bearing mice. The mice (C57BL/6) were administered three different doses of EPSF peritoneally every 2 days, starting from the day of implantation of B16 melanoma cells through their tail veins for 27 days (14 times). Sections from mouse paraffin-embedded liver and lung tissues were subjected to immunohistochemical analyses. The results of c-Myc, c-Fos, and VEGF expression were analyzed using SimplePCI image analysis software. The c-Myc, c-Fos, and VEGF levels in the lungs and livers of EPSF-treated mice were found to be significantly lower than those of untreated mice (p<0.05). This suggests that EPSF had inhibited tumor growth in the lungs and livers of mice, and that it might be a potential adjuvant in cancer therapy. PMID:16325517

Yang, Jinyu; Zhang, Weiyun; Shi, Peihua; Chen, Jiaping; Han, Xiaodong; Wang, Yong

2005-01-01

120

The relevance of mouse models for investigating age-related bone loss in humans.  

PubMed

Mice are increasingly used for investigation of the pathophysiology of osteoporosis because their genome is easily manipulated, and their skeleton is similar to that of humans. Unlike the human skeleton, however, the murine skeleton continues to grow slowly after puberty and lacks osteonal remodeling of cortical bone. Yet, like humans, mice exhibit loss of cancellous bone, thinning of cortical bone, and increased cortical porosity with advancing age. Histologic evidence in mice and humans alike indicates that inadequate osteoblast-mediated refilling of resorption cavities created during bone remodeling is responsible. Mouse models of progeria also show bone loss and skeletal defects associated with senescence of early osteoblast progenitors. Additionally, mouse models of atherosclerosis, which often occurs in osteoporotic participants, also suffer bone loss, suggesting that common diseases of aging share pathophysiological pathways. Knowledge of the causes of skeletal fragility in mice should therefore be applicable to humans if inherent limitations are recognized. PMID:23689830

Jilka, Robert L

2013-10-01

121

Gene order is conserved within the human chromosome 21 linkage group on mouse chromosome 10  

SciTech Connect

One hundred progeny from each of two intersubspecific mouse backcrosses were used to construct a comparative genetic map of a region of mouse chromosome 10 (MMU10) that is homologous to the distal tip of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The analysis included five genes and three simple sequence repeat markers, two of which flanked the HSA21-homologous cluster on either side. Analysis of 200 backcross progeny detected at least one crossover between each pair of adjacent genes and demonstrated that the proximal to distal orientation of the cluster was reversed between human and mouse. The order was determined to be Fyn-1-D10Mit20-S100b-Col6a1-Itgb2-Pfk1/D10Mit7-D10Mit11. Comparative mapping supports the order of corresponding markers on HSA21 determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and radiation hybrid line data. However, sequence tagged site content mapping of human yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) yielded conflicting data on the relative positions of human COL6A1 and S100B on HSA21. This discrepancy was resolved here by demonstrating that several key YACs used in the human contig analysis were mistyped for S100B. The murine map reported here provides a scaffold for construction of physical maps and yeast artificial chromosome contigs that will be useful in the development of mouse models for the study of Down syndrome. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Irving, N.G.; Cabin, D.E.; Swanson, D.A.; Reeves, R.H. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

1994-05-01

122

Deposition of mouse amyloid ? in human APP\\/PS1 double and single AD model transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of amyloid ? (A?) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles are the two characteristic pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the relation between amyloid precursor protein (APP) production, amyloid ? deposition and the type of A? in deposits, i.e., human and\\/or mouse, we performed a histopathological analysis, using mouse and human specific antibodies, of the neocortex and hippocampus

Thomas van Groen; Amanda J. Kiliaan; Inga Kadish

2006-01-01

123

Rapid spread of mouse mammary tumor virus in cultured human breast cells  

PubMed Central

Background The role of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) as a causative agent in human breast carcinogenesis has recently been the subject of renewed interest. The proposed model is based on the detection of MMTV sequences in human breast cancer but not in healthy breast tissue. One of the main drawbacks to this model, however, was that until now human cells had not been demonstrated to sustain productive MMTV infection. Results Here, we show for the first time the rapid spread of mouse mammary tumor virus, MMTV(GR), in cultured human mammary cells (Hs578T), ultimately leading to the infection of every cell in culture. The replication of the virus was monitored by quantitative PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence imaging. The infected human cells expressed, upon cultivation with dexamethasone, MMTV structural proteins and released spiked B-type virions, the infectivity of which could be neutralized by anti-MMTV antibody. Replication of the virus was efficiently blocked by an inhibitor of reverse transcription, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. The human origin of the infected cells was confirmed by determining a number of integration sites hosting the provirus, which were unequivocally identified as human sequences. Conclusion Taken together, our results show that human cells can support replication of mouse mammary tumor virus. PMID:17931409

Indik, Stanislav; Günzburg, Walter H; Kulich, Pavel; Salmons, Brian; Rouault, Francoise

2007-01-01

124

The Cinderella effect: searching for the best fit between mouse models and human diseases.  

PubMed

A recent publication questions the suitability of mice as a model for the human inflammatory response and has fueled the continuing debate about the suitability of mice as models for human disease. We discuss recent advances in disease modeling using mice, and the genetic factors that need to be considered when trying to recapitulate aspects of human disease. Failure to appreciate the important differences between human and mouse biology and genetics underlying attempts to generate faithful models frequently leads to poor outcomes. Closely coordinated human and model organism studies are essential to provide traction for translational research. PMID:23812235

Sundberg, John P; Roopenian, Derry C; Liu, Edison T; Schofield, Paul N

2013-11-01

125

Isolation of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids producing human prolactin: dominant expression of hormone secretion and regulation.  

PubMed

Human PRL (hPRL)-secreting adenoma cells obtained at hypophysectomy were fused with a mutant mouse fibroblast line (LMTK-) which is aminopterin sensitive due to a deficiency in the enzyme thymidine kinase. After fusion with polyethylene glycol, cells containing nuclear material from the two parental lines (heterokaryons) were selected in medium containing hypoxanthine, aminopterin, and thymidine, and resultant clones were screened for hPRL secretion. Functional human X mouse somatic cell hybrid clones secreting hPRL were isolated in order to study hPRL gene expression and regulation. Positive hybrid clones were subcultured and have sustained hPRL secretion. The hybrid nature of the cells was confirmed by fibroblastic morphology resembling the mouse parental cell, mixed karyotype of mouse and human chromosomes, and mixed isozyme banding pattern for human and mouse glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. Specific expression of the hPRL gene was demonstrated by the presence of electron microscopic secretory granules (650-800 nm), positive immunoperoxidase staining using anti-hPRL serum, and sustained secretion of immunoreactive hPRL, which comigrated with [125I] hPRL standard on Sephadex chromatography. Hormonal modulation of hPRL gene expression by TRH was dominantly expressed in the hybrid cell. Human chromosome 6 was identified in hybrid cells secreting hPRL, and the cells expressed human malic enzyme, a marker for this chromosome, thus confirming the chromosome assignment of the hPRL gene. The results show that functional replicating hybrids secreting hPRL can be isolated. The technique provides a useful in vitro model for the study of hPRL gene expression and modulation. PMID:6404919

Melmed, S

1983-06-01

126

Difference in substrate specificity between human and mouse lysosomal acid lipase: low affinity for cholesteryl ester in mouse lysosomal acid lipase.  

PubMed

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for the intracellular degradation of cholesteryl esters (CE) and triacylglycerols (TG) that are delivered to lysosomes by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mediated endocytosis. We have analysed the difference in the catalytic properties and substrate specificity of human and mouse LALs. LAL activities were measured in human and mouse fibroblasts and in HeLa cells transiently expressing wild-type or site-directed mutant LALs of the two species using the T7 vaccinia system. Cholesteryl esterase and triacylglycerol lipase activities were determined in cellular homogenates with a phospholipid/detergent vesicle assay, an assay frequently used to diagnose human LAL deficiency syndromes, and with LDL particles, a more physiological substrate. Characterisation of human and mouse LAL using these two assays demonstrated marked differences in their TG and CE hydrolysing activities. Compared to human LAL mouse LAL showed a much lower cholesteryl esterase activity in both assays used. The difference was more pronounced in the vesicle assay. The lower cholesteryl esterase activity of mouse LAL did not affect the LDL-CE degradation in intact fibroblasts. The analysis of site-directed mutants suggests a role of the non-conserved cysteine residue at position 240 in cholesteryl esterase activity in human LAL. Our results show a significant difference between human and mouse LAL in their specificity toward cholesteryl esters. The low cholesteryl esterase activity does not result in reduced LDL-cholesterol ester degradation in mouse fibroblasts in situ. In addition, this work emphasises the importance of the physical state of substrates in studies of the specificity and properties of lipolytic enzymes. PMID:11018468

Groener, J E; Bax, W; Stuani, C; Pagani, F

2000-09-27

127

A mouse model of Down syndrome trisomic for all human chromosome 21 syntenic regions.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the presence of an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is the most common genetic cause for developmental cognitive disability. The regions on Hsa21 are syntenically conserved with three regions located on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. In this report, we describe a new mouse model for DS that carries duplications spanning the entire Hsa21 syntenic regions on all three mouse chromosomes. This mouse mutant exhibits DS-related neurological defects, including impaired cognitive behaviors, reduced hippocampal long-term potentiation and hydrocephalus. These results suggest that when all the mouse orthologs of the Hsa21 genes are triplicated, an abnormal cognitively relevant phenotype is the final outcome of the elevated expressions of these orthologs as well as all the possible functional interactions among themselves and/or with other mouse genes. Because of its desirable genotype and phenotype, this mutant may have the potential to serve as one of the reference models for further understanding the developmental cognitive disability associated with DS and may also be used for developing novel therapeutic interventions for this clinical manifestation of the disorder. PMID:20442137

Yu, Tao; Li, Zhongyou; Jia, Zhengping; Clapcote, Steven J; Liu, Chunhong; Li, Shaomin; Asrar, Suhail; Pao, Annie; Chen, Rongqing; Fan, Ni; Carattini-Rivera, Sandra; Bechard, Allison R; Spring, Shoshana; Henkelman, R Mark; Stoica, George; Matsui, Sei-Ichi; Nowak, Norma J; Roder, John C; Chen, Chu; Bradley, Allan; Yu, Y Eugene

2010-07-15

128

Characterization of photolyase/blue-light receptor homologs in mouse and human cells.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized mouse photolyase-like genes, mCRY1 (mPHLL1) and mCRY2 (mPHLL2), which belong to the photolyase family including plant blue-light receptors. The mCRY1 and mCRY2 genes are located on chromosome 10C and 2E, respectively, and are expressed in all mouse organs examined. We raised antibodies specific against each gene product using its C-terminal sequence, which differs completely between the genes. Immunofluorescent staining of cultured mouse cells revealed that mCRY1 is localized in mitochondria whereas mCRY2 was found mainly in the nucleus. The subcellular distribution of CRY proteins was confirmed by immunoblot analysis of fractionated mouse liver cell extracts. Using green fluorescent protein fused peptides we showed that the C-terminal region of the mouse CRY2 protein contains a unique nuclear localization signal, which is absent in the CRY1 protein. The N-terminal region of CRY1 was shown to contain the mitochondrial transport signal. Recombinant as well as native CRY1 proteins from mouse and human cells showed a tight binding activity to DNA Sepharose, while CRY2 protein did not bind to DNA Sepharose at all under the same condition as CRY1. The different cellular localization and DNA binding properties of the mammalian photolyase homologs suggest that despite the similarity in the sequence the two proteins have distinct function(s). PMID:9801304

Kobayashi, K; Kanno, S; Smit, B; van der Horst, G T; Takao, M; Yasui, A

1998-11-15

129

A Human Lung Xenograft Mouse Model of Nipah Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus (family Paramyxoviridae) that causes severe and often lethal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans with high mortality rates (up to 92%). NiV can cause Acute Lung Injury (ALI) in humans, and human-to-human transmission has been observed in recent outbreaks of NiV. While the exact route of transmission to humans is not known, we have previously shown that NiV can efficiently infect human respiratory epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms of NiV-associated ALI in the human respiratory tract are unknown. Thus, there is an urgent need for models of henipavirus infection of the human respiratory tract to study the pathogenesis and understand the host responses. Here, we describe a novel human lung xenograft model in mice to study the pathogenesis of NiV. Following transplantation, human fetal lung xenografts rapidly graft and develop mature structures of adult lungs including cartilage, vascular vessels, ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, and primitive “air” spaces filled with mucus and lined by cuboidal to flat epithelium. Following infection, NiV grows to high titers (107 TCID50/gram lung tissue) as early as 3 days post infection (pi). NiV targets both the endothelium as well as respiratory epithelium in the human lung tissues, and results in syncytia formation. NiV infection in the human lung results in the production of several cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IP-10, eotaxin, G-CSF and GM-CSF on days 5 and 7 pi. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that NiV can replicate to high titers in a novel in vivo model of the human respiratory tract, resulting in a robust inflammatory response, which is known to be associated with ALI. This model will facilitate progress in the fundamental understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis and virus-host interactions; it will also provide biologically relevant models for other respiratory viruses. PMID:24699832

Borisevich, Viktoriya; Goez, Yenny; Rockx, Barry

2014-01-01

130

In vitro metabolism by mouse and human liver preparations of halomon, an antitumor halogenated monoterpene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To characterize the enzymes responsible for and metabolites produced from the metabolism of halomon, a halogenated monoterpene\\u000a that is isolated from the red algae Portieria hornemanii and has in vitro activity in the NCI screen against brain, renal, and colon cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: Mouse and human liver fractions, prepared by homogenization and differential centrifugation, were incubated

Merrill J. Egorin; D. Marc Rosen; Sara E. Benjamin; Patrick S. Callery; Dorothy L. Sentz; Julie L. Eiseman

1997-01-01

131

Patterning Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using Micro-contact Printing  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 Patterning Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using Micro-contact Printing Raheem and immunohistochemistry. Key words: Micro-contact printing, soft lithography, embryonic stem cell, flow cytometry The controlled differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for the purposes of regenerative medicine

Zandstra, Peter W.

132

Circ Res . Author manuscript Nanobodies targeting mouse/human VCAM1 for the nuclear imaging of  

E-print Network

on mouse and human recombinant VCAM1 proteins and endothelial cells and inin vitro in vivo ApoE-deficient (ApoE ) mice. A nontargeting control nanobody was used in all experiments to demonstrate specificity within the aortic arch of ApoE mice were successfully identified by SPECT/CT imaging./- - 99m Tc-cAbVCAM1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

133

Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms that balance food intake and energy expenditure determine who will be obese and who will be lean. One of the molecules that regulates energy balance in the mouse is the obese (ob) gene. Mutation ofobresults in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans. The ob gene product may

Yiying Zhang; Ricardo Proenca; Margherita Maffei; Marisa Barone; Lori Leopold; Jeffrey M. Friedman

1994-01-01

134

Gene entropy-fractal dimension informatics with application to mouse-human translational medicine.  

PubMed

DNA informatics represented by Shannon entropy and fractal dimension have been used to form 2D maps of related genes in various mammals. The distance between points on these maps for corresponding mRNA sequences in different species is used to study evolution. By quantifying the similarity of genes between species, this distance might be indicated when studies on one species (mouse) would tend to be valid in the other (human). The hypothesis that a small distance from mouse to human could facilitate mouse to human translational medicine success is supported by the studied ESR-1, LMNA, Myc, and RNF4 sequences. ID1 and PLCZ1 have larger separation. The collinearity of displacement vectors is further analyzed with a regression model, and the ID1 result suggests a mouse-chimp-human translational medicine approach. Further inference was found in the tumor suppression gene, p53, with a new hypothesis of including the bovine PKM2 pathways for targeting the glycolysis preference in many types of cancerous cells, consistent with quantum metabolism models. The distance between mRNA and protein coding CDS is proposed as a measure of the pressure associated with noncoding processes. The Y-chromosome DYS14 in fetal micro chimerism that could offer protection from Alzheimer's disease is given as an example. PMID:23586047

Holden, T; Cheung, E; Dehipawala, S; Ye, J; Tremberger, G; Lieberman, D; Cheung, T

2013-01-01

135

Gene Entropy-Fractal Dimension Informatics with Application to Mouse-Human Translational Medicine  

PubMed Central

DNA informatics represented by Shannon entropy and fractal dimension have been used to form 2D maps of related genes in various mammals. The distance between points on these maps for corresponding mRNA sequences in different species is used to study evolution. By quantifying the similarity of genes between species, this distance might be indicated when studies on one species (mouse) would tend to be valid in the other (human). The hypothesis that a small distance from mouse to human could facilitate mouse to human translational medicine success is supported by the studied ESR-1, LMNA, Myc, and RNF4 sequences. ID1 and PLCZ1 have larger separation. The collinearity of displacement vectors is further analyzed with a regression model, and the ID1 result suggests a mouse-chimp-human translational medicine approach. Further inference was found in the tumor suppression gene, p53, with a new hypothesis of including the bovine PKM2 pathways for targeting the glycolysis preference in many types of cancerous cells, consistent with quantum metabolism models. The distance between mRNA and protein coding CDS is proposed as a measure of the pressure associated with noncoding processes. The Y-chromosome DYS14 in fetal micro chimerism that could offer protection from Alzheimer's disease is given as an example. PMID:23586047

Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Dehipawala, S.; Ye, J.; Tremberger, G.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

2013-01-01

136

Reprogramming within hours following nuclear transfer into mouse but not human zygotes  

PubMed Central

Fertilized mouse zygotes can reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Human zygotes might therefore be useful for producing patient-derived pluripotent stem cells. However, logistical, legal and social considerations have limited the availability of human eggs for research. Here we show that a significant number of normal fertilized eggs (zygotes) can be obtained for reprogramming studies. Using these zygotes, we found that when the zygotic genome was replaced with that of a somatic cell, development progressed normally throughout the cleavage stages, but then arrested before the morula stage. This arrest was associated with a failure to activate transcription in the transferred somatic genome. In contrast to human zygotes, mouse zygotes reprogrammed the somatic cell genome to a pluripotent state within hours after transfer. Our results suggest that there is a previously unappreciated barrier to successful human nuclear transfer, and that future studies should focus on the requirements for genome activation. PMID:21971503

Egli, Dieter; Chen, Alice E.; Saphier, Genevieve; Ichida, Justin; Fitzgerald, Claire; Go, Kathryn J.; Acevedo, Nicole; Patel, Jay; Baetscher, Manfred; Kearns, William G.; Goland, Robin; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Melton, Douglas A.; Eggan, Kevin

2012-01-01

137

Early B lymphocyte development: Similarities and differences in human and mouse  

PubMed Central

B lymphocytes differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells through a series of distinct stages. Early B cell development proceeds in bone marrow until immature B cells migrate out to secondary lymphoid tissues, such as a spleen and lymph nodes, after completion of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain rearrangement. Although the information about the regulation by numerous factors, including signaling molecules, transcription factors, epigenetic changes and the microenvironment, could provide the clinical application, our knowledge on human B lymphopoiesis is limited. However, with great methodological advances, significant progress for understanding B lymphopoiesis both in human and mouse has been made. In this review, we summarize the experimental models for studies about human adult B lymphopoiesis, and the role of microenvironment and signaling molecules, such as cytokines, transforming growth factor-? superfamily, Wnt family and Notch family, with point-by-point comparison between human and mouse.

Ichii, Michiko; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

2014-01-01

138

The expanding role of mouse genetics for understanding human biology and disease  

PubMed Central

It has taken about 100 years since the mouse first captured our imagination as an intriguing animal for it to become the premier genetic model organism. An expanding repertoire of genetic technology, together with sequencing of the genome and biological conservation, place the mouse at the foremost position as a model to decipher mechanisms underlying biological and disease processes. The combined approaches of embryonic stem cell-based technologies, chemical and insertional mutagenesis have enabled the systematic interrogation of the mouse genome with the aim of creating, for the first time, a library of mutants in which every gene is disrupted. The hope is that phenotyping the mutants will reveal novel and interesting phenotypes that correlate with genes, to define the first functional map of a mammalian genome. This new milestone will have a great impact on our understanding of mammalian biology, and could significantly change the future of medical diagnosis and therapeutic development, where databases can be queried in silico for potential drug targets or underlying genetic causes of illnesses. Emerging innovative genetic strategies, such as somatic genetics, modifier screens and humanized mice, in combination with whole-genome mutagenesis will dramatically broaden the utility of the mouse. More significantly, allowing genome-wide genetic interrogations in the laboratory, will liberate the creativity of individual investigators and transform the mouse as a model for making original discoveries and establishing novel paradigms for understanding human biology and disease. PMID:19048054

Nguyen, Duc; Xu, Tian

2008-01-01

139

The expanding role of mouse genetics for understanding human biology and disease.  

PubMed

It has taken about 100 years since the mouse first captured our imagination as an intriguing animal for it to become the premier genetic model organism. An expanding repertoire of genetic technology, together with sequencing of the genome and biological conservation, place the mouse at the foremost position as a model to decipher mechanisms underlying biological and disease processes. The combined approaches of embryonic stem cell-based technologies, chemical and insertional mutagenesis have enabled the systematic interrogation of the mouse genome with the aim of creating, for the first time, a library of mutants in which every gene is disrupted. The hope is that phenotyping the mutants will reveal novel and interesting phenotypes that correlate with genes, to define the first functional map of a mammalian genome. This new milestone will have a great impact on our understanding of mammalian biology, and could significantly change the future of medical diagnosis and therapeutic development, where databases can be queried in silico for potential drug targets or underlying genetic causes of illnesses. Emerging innovative genetic strategies, such as somatic genetics, modifier screens and humanized mice, in combination with whole-genome mutagenesis will dramatically broaden the utility of the mouse. More significantly, allowing genome-wide genetic interrogations in the laboratory, will liberate the creativity of individual investigators and transform the mouse as a model for making original discoveries and establishing novel paradigms for understanding human biology and disease. PMID:19048054

Nguyen, Duc; Xu, Tian

2008-01-01

140

The Relevance of Mouse Models to Understanding the Development and Progression of Human Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse modeling of human breast cancer has developed tremendously over the past ten years. Human breast cancer is characterized\\u000a by enormous biological diversity and, collectively, the new models have come much closer to encompassing this diversity. They\\u000a have provided a deeper understanding of the fundamental events that mediate the initiation, development, and progression of\\u000a breast cancer, and they offer new

D. Craig Allred; Daniel Medina

2008-01-01

141

The construction of transgenic and gene knockout\\/knockin mouse models of human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic and physiological similarities between mice and humans have focused considerable attention on rodents as potential\\u000a models of human health and disease. Together with the wealth of resources, knowledge, and technologies surrounding the mouse\\u000a as a model system, these similarities have propelled this species to the forefront of biomedical research. The advent of genomic\\u000a manipulation has quickly led to

Alfred Doyle; Michael P. McGarry; Nancy A. Lee; James J. Lee

142

A transgenic mouse model expressing exclusively human hemoglobin E: indications of a mild oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Hemoglobin (Hb) E (?26 Glu?Lys) is the most common abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) variant in the world. Homozygotes for HbE are mildly thalassemic as a result of the alternate splice mutation and present with a benign clinical picture (microcytic and mildly anemic) with rare clinical symptoms. Given that the human red blood cell (RBC) contains both HbE and excess ?-chains along with minor hemoglobins, the consequence of HbE alone on RBC pathophysiology has not been elucidated. This becomes critical for the highly morbid ?(E)-thalassemia disease. We have generated transgenic mice exclusively expressing human HbE (HbEKO) that exhibit the known aberrant splicing of ?(E) globin mRNA, but are essentially non-thalassemic as demonstrated by RBC ?/? (human) globin chain synthesis. These mice exhibit hematological characteristics similar to presentations in human EE individuals: microcytic RBC with low MCV and MCH but normal MCHC; target RBC; mild anemia with low Hb, HCT and mildly elevated reticulocyte levels and decreased osmotic fragility, indicating altered RBC surface area to volume ratio. These alterations are correlated with a mild RBC oxidative stress indicated by enhanced membrane lipid peroxidation, elevated zinc protoporphyrin levels, and by small but significant changes in cardiac function. The C57 (background) mouse and full KO mouse models expressing HbE with the presence of HbS or HbA are used as controls. In select cases, the HbA full KO mouse model is compared but found to be limited due to its RBC thalassemic characteristics. Since the HbEKO mouse RBC lacks an abundance of excess ?-chains that would approximate a mouse thalassemia (or a human thalassemia), the results indicate that the observed in vivo RBC mild oxidative stress arises, at least in part, from the molecular consequences of the HbE mutation. PMID:22260787

Chen, Qiuying; Fabry, Mary E; Rybicki, Anne C; Suzuka, Sandra M; Balazs, Tatiana C; Etzion, Zipora; de Jong, Kitty; Akoto, Edna K; Canterino, Joseph E; Kaul, Dhananjay K; Kuypers, Frans A; Lefer, David; Bouhassira, Eric E; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison

2012-02-15

143

The mouse homologue of the tuberin gene (TSC2) maps to a conserved synteny group between mouse chromosome 17 and human 16p13.3  

SciTech Connect

The tuberous sclerosis gene (TSC2) on human chromosome 16p13.3 has recently been identified. Several markers from this region have previously been shown to be members of a conserved synteny group, in the mouse located on chromosome 17. The mouse region includes markers D17Lon1, D17Lon2, D17Lon3, and D17Lon4, which are linked to the {alpha}-globin pseudogene Hba-ps4 on chromosome 17, while the corresponding human markers, NK12, NK92, sazD, and KM17, are linked to the functional {alpha}-globin locus near the tip of chromosome 16p. Since the human TSC2 maps in close proximity to NK12, we wanted to investigate whether a mouse gene, homologous to TSC2, was present on mouse chromosome 17 and thus included in the conserved synteny group. During the characterization of transcripts from the human PKD1 region on human chromosome 16p13.3, we isolated three short clones encoding fragments of TSC2 from a human fetal brain cDNA library enriched for transcripts from the PKD1 region. These TSC2 clones were used as probes to screen a mouse teratocarcinoma (PCC4) cDNA library (Stratagene), at a final stringency of 0.3 x SSC, 0.1% SDS at 65{degrees}C. One of the positive clones isolated, mTS-1, had a 2.8-kb insert. Two hundred bases from each end of the insert were sequenced, showing 88 and 83.5% identity to the human tuberin nucleotide sequence, with the 5{prime} end of the clone starting at position 2351 and the 3{prime} end ending at position 5265. The high degree of homology to the human tuberin sequence suggests that clone mTS-1 is indeed derived from the mouse homologue of TSC2. 11 refs., 1 fig.

Olsson, P.G.; Sutherland, H.F.; Nowicka, U. [Lincoln`s Inn Fields, London (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Lincoln`s Inn Fields, London (United Kingdom); and others

1995-01-01

144

A human lung xenograft mouse model of Nipah virus infection.  

PubMed

Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus (family Paramyxoviridae) that causes severe and often lethal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans with high mortality rates (up to 92%). NiV can cause Acute Lung Injury (ALI) in humans, and human-to-human transmission has been observed in recent outbreaks of NiV. While the exact route of transmission to humans is not known, we have previously shown that NiV can efficiently infect human respiratory epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms of NiV-associated ALI in the human respiratory tract are unknown. Thus, there is an urgent need for models of henipavirus infection of the human respiratory tract to study the pathogenesis and understand the host responses. Here, we describe a novel human lung xenograft model in mice to study the pathogenesis of NiV. Following transplantation, human fetal lung xenografts rapidly graft and develop mature structures of adult lungs including cartilage, vascular vessels, ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, and primitive "air" spaces filled with mucus and lined by cuboidal to flat epithelium. Following infection, NiV grows to high titers (10(7) TCID50/gram lung tissue) as early as 3 days post infection (pi). NiV targets both the endothelium as well as respiratory epithelium in the human lung tissues, and results in syncytia formation. NiV infection in the human lung results in the production of several cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IP-10, eotaxin, G-CSF and GM-CSF on days 5 and 7 pi. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that NiV can replicate to high titers in a novel in vivo model of the human respiratory tract, resulting in a robust inflammatory response, which is known to be associated with ALI. This model will facilitate progress in the fundamental understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis and virus-host interactions; it will also provide biologically relevant models for other respiratory viruses. PMID:24699832

Valbuena, Gustavo; Halliday, Hailey; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Goez, Yenny; Rockx, Barry

2014-04-01

145

Gene expression profiling of mouse p53-deficient epidermal carcinoma defines molecular determinants of human cancer malignancy  

PubMed Central

Background The epidermal specific ablation of Trp53 gene leads to the spontaneous development of aggressive tumors in mice through a process that is accelerated by the simultaneous ablation of Rb gene. Since alterations of p53-dependent pathway are common hallmarks of aggressive, poor prognostic human cancers, these mouse models can recapitulate the molecular features of some of these human malignancies. Results To evaluate this possibility, gene expression microarray analysis was performed in mouse samples. The mouse tumors display increased expression of cell cycle and chromosomal instability associated genes. Remarkably, they are also enriched in human embryonic stem cell gene signatures, a characteristic feature of human aggressive tumors. Using cross-species comparison and meta-analytical approaches, we also observed that spontaneous mouse tumors display robust similarities with gene expression profiles of human tumors bearing mutated TP53, or displaying poor prognostic outcome, from multiple body tissues. We have obtained a 20-gene signature whose genes are overexpressed in mouse tumors and can identify human tumors with poor outcome from breast cancer, astrocytoma and multiple myeloma. This signature was consistently overexpressed in additional mouse tumors using microarray analysis. Two of the genes of this signature, AURKA and UBE2C, were validated in human breast and cervical cancer as potential biomarkers of malignancy. Conclusions Our analyses demonstrate that these mouse models are promising preclinical tools aimed to search for malignancy biomarkers and to test targeted therapies of prospective use in human aggressive tumors and/or with p53 mutation or inactivation. PMID:20630075

2010-01-01

146

Human chromosome 19 and related regions in mouse: conservative and lineage-specific evolution.  

PubMed

To illuminate the function and evolutionary history of both genomes, we sequenced mouse DNA related to human chromosome 19. Comparative sequence alignments yielded confirmatory evidence for hypothetical genes and identified exons, regulatory elements, and candidate genes that were missed by other predictive methods. Chromosome-wide comparisons revealed a difference between single-copy HSA19 genes, which are overwhelmingly conserved in mouse, and genes residing in tandem familial clusters, which differ extensively in number, coding capacity, and organization between the two species. Finally, we sequenced breakpoints of all 15 evolutionary rearrangements, providing a view of the forces that drive chromosome evolution in mammals. PMID:11441184

Dehal, P; Predki, P; Olsen, A S; Kobayashi, A; Folta, P; Lucas, S; Land, M; Terry, A; Ecale Zhou, C L; Rash, S; Zhang, Q; Gordon, L; Kim, J; Elkin, C; Pollard, M J; Richardson, P; Rokhsar, D; Uberbacher, E; Hawkins, T; Branscomb, E; Stubbs, L

2001-07-01

147

Conservation of exon scrambling in human and mouse  

E-print Network

Exon scrambling is a phenomenon in which the exons of an mRNA transcript are spliced in an order inconsistent with that of the genome. In this thesis, I present a computational analysis of scrambled exons in human and ...

Hamilton, Monica L. (Monica Lauren)

2012-01-01

148

Birth defects caused by mutations in human GLI3 and mouse Gli3 genes.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT GLI3 is the gene responsible for Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS), Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS) and Postaxial polydactyly type-A (PAP-A). Genetic polydactyly mice such as Pdn/Pdn (Polydactyly Nagoya), Xt(H)/Xt(H) (Extra toes) and Xt(J)/Xt(J) (Extra toes Jackson) are the mouse homolog of GCPS, and Gli3(tmlUrtt)/Gli3(tmlUrt) is produced as the mouse homolog of PHS. In the present review, relationships between mutation points of GLI3 and Gli3, and resulting phenotypes in humans and mice are described. It has been confirmed that mutation in the upstream or within the zinc finger domain of the GLI3 gene induces GCPS; that in the post-zinc finger region including the protease cleavage site induces PHS; and that in the downstream of the GLI3 gene induces PAP-A. A mimicking phenomenon was observed in the mouse homolog. Therefore, human GLI3 and mouse Gli3 genes have a common structure, and it is suggested here that mutations in the same functional regions produce similar phenotypes in human and mice. The most important issue might be that GCPS and PHS exhibit an autosomal dominant trait, but mouse homologs, such as Pdn/Pdn, Xt(H)/Xt(H), Xt(J)/Xt(J) and Gli3(tmlUrt)/Gli3(tmlUrt), are autosomal recessive traits in the manifestation of similar phenotypes to human diseases. It is discussed here how the reduced amounts of the GLI3 protein, or truncated mutant GLI3 protein, disrupt development of the limbs, head and face. PMID:20201963

Naruse, Ichiro; Ueta, Etsuko; Sumino, Yoshiki; Ogawa, Masaya; Ishikiriyama, Satoshi

2010-03-01

149

Human androgen deficiency: insights gained from androgen receptor knockout mouse models.  

PubMed

The mechanism of androgen action is complex. Recently, significant advances have been made into our understanding of how androgens act via the androgen receptor (AR) through the use of genetically modified mouse models. A number of global and tissue-specific AR knockout (ARKO) models have been generated using the Cre-loxP system which allows tissue- and/or cell-specific deletion. These ARKO models have examined a number of sites of androgen action including the cardiovascular system, the immune and hemopoetic system, bone, muscle, adipose tissue, the prostate and the brain. This review focuses on the insights that have been gained into human androgen deficiency through the use of ARKO mouse models at each of these sites of action, and highlights the strengths and limitations of these Cre-loxP mouse models that should be considered to ensure accurate interpretation of the phenotype. PMID:24480924

Rana, Kesha; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D

2014-01-01

150

Mouse forward genetics in the study of the peripheral nervous system and human peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics. Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as a human disease gene causing multiple forms of peripheral neuropathy, to the more recent identification of the claw paw and sprawling mutations, forward genetics has long been a tool for probing the physiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of the PNS. Even as spontaneous and mutagenized mice continue to enable the identification of novel genes, provide allelic series for detailed functional studies, and generate models useful for clinical research, new methods, such as the piggyBac transposon, are being developed to further harness the power of forward genetics. PMID:18481175

Douglas, Darlene S.; Popko, Brian

2009-01-01

151

Mouse forward genetics in the study of the peripheral nervous system and human peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics. Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as a human disease gene causing multiple forms of peripheral neuropathy, to the more recent identification of the claw paw and sprawling mutations, forward genetics has long been a tool for probing the physiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of the PNS. Even as spontaneous and mutagenized mice continue to enable the identification of novel genes, provide allelic series for detailed functional studies, and generate models useful for clinical research, new methods, such as the piggyBac transposon, are being developed to further harness the power of forward genetics. PMID:18481175

Douglas, Darlene S; Popko, Brian

2009-01-01

152

Human androgen deficiency: insights gained from androgen receptor knockout mouse models  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of androgen action is complex. Recently, significant advances have been made into our understanding of how androgens act via the androgen receptor (AR) through the use of genetically modified mouse models. A number of global and tissue-specific AR knockout (ARKO) models have been generated using the Cre-loxP system which allows tissue- and/or cell-specific deletion. These ARKO models have examined a number of sites of androgen action including the cardiovascular system, the immune and hemopoetic system, bone, muscle, adipose tissue, the prostate and the brain. This review focuses on the insights that have been gained into human androgen deficiency through the use of ARKO mouse models at each of these sites of action, and highlights the strengths and limitations of these Cre-loxP mouse models that should be considered to ensure accurate interpretation of the phenotype. PMID:24480924

Rana, Kesha; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D

2014-01-01

153

Insights into synaptic function from mouse models of human cognitive disorders  

PubMed Central

Modern approaches to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying human cognitive disease often include multidisciplinary examination of animal models engineered with specific mutations that spatially and temporally restrict expression of a gene of interest. This approach not only makes possible the development of animal models that demonstrate phenotypic similarities to their respective human disorders, but has also allowed for significant progress towards understanding the processes that mediate synaptic function and memory formation in the nondiseased state. Examples of successful mouse models where genetic manipulation of the mouse resulted in recapitulation of the symptomatology of the human disorder and was used to significantly expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying normal synaptic plasticity and memory formation are discussed in this article. These studies have broadened our knowledge of several signal transduction cascades that function throughout life to mediate synaptic physiology. Defining these events is key for developing therapies to address disorders of cognitive ability. PMID:25083141

Banko, Jessica L; Trotter, Justin; Weeber, Edwin J

2013-01-01

154

A new region of conservation is defined between human and mouse X chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

Comparative mapping of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals have revealed distinct regions of conservation as well as evolutionary rearrangements between human and mouse. Recently, we and others mapped the murine homologue of CLCN4 (Chloride channel 4) to band F4 of the X chromosome in Mus spretus but to chromosome 7 in laboratory strains. We now report the mapping of the murine homologues of APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), two genes that are located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3 and in close proximity to CLCN4. Interestingly, Oa1 and Apxl map to bands F2-F3 in both M. spretus and the laboratory strain C57BL/6J, defining a new rearrangement between human and mouse X chromosomes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Dinulos, M.B.; Disteche, C.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Bassi, M.T. [Univ. of Siena (Italy)] [and others] [Univ. of Siena (Italy); and others

1996-07-01

155

The Construction of Transgenic and Gene Knockout/Knockin Mouse Models of Human Disease  

PubMed Central

The genetic and physiological similarities between mice and humans have focused considerable attention on rodents as potential models of human health and disease. Together with the wealth of resources, knowledge, and technologies surrounding the mouse as a model system, these similarities have propelled this species to the forefront of biomedical research. The advent of genomic manipulation has quickly led to the creation and use of genetically engineered mice as powerful tools for cutting edge studies of human disease research, including the discovery, refinement, and utility of many currently available therapeutic regimes. In particular, the creation of genetically modified mice as models of human disease has remarkably changed our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways underlying disease states. Moreover, the mouse models resulting from gene transfer technologies have been important components correlating an individual’s gene expression profile to the development of disease pathologies. The objective of this review is to provide physician-scientists with an expansive historical and logistical overview of the creation of mouse models of human disease through gene transfer technologies. Our expectation is that this will facilitate on-going disease research studies and may initiate new areas of translational research leading to enhanced patient care. PMID:21800101

Doyle, Alfred; McGarry, Michael P.; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.

2012-01-01

156

A Human-Like Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype Is Conserved in Mouse Cells Dependent on Physiological Oxygen  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence irreversibly arrests cell proliferation in response to oncogenic stimuli. Human cells develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which increases the secretion of cytokines and other factors that alter the behavior of neighboring cells. We show here that “senescent” mouse fibroblasts, which arrested growth after repeated passage under standard culture conditions (20% oxygen), do not express a human-like SASP, and differ from similarly cultured human cells in other respects. However, when cultured in physiological (3%) oxygen and induced to senesce by radiation, mouse cells more closely resemble human cells, including expression of a robust SASP. We describe two new aspects of the human and mouse SASPs. First, cells from both species upregulated the expression and secretion of several matrix metalloproteinases, which comprise a conserved genomic cluster. Second, for both species, the ability to promote the growth of premalignant epithelial cells was due primarily to the conserved SASP factor CXCL-1/KC/GRO-?. Further, mouse fibroblasts made senescent in 3%, but not 20%, oxygen promoted epithelial tumorigenesis in mouse xenographs. Our findings underscore critical mouse-human differences in oxygen sensitivity, identify conditions to use mouse cells to model human cellular senescence, and reveal novel conserved features of the SASP. PMID:20169192

Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Beauséjour, Christian M.; Parrinello, Simona; Hodgson, J. Graeme; Chin, Koei; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

2010-01-01

157

Genomic and transcriptomic analyses match medulloblastoma mouse models to their human counterparts.  

PubMed

Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonal brain tumor with highly variable outcome. In order to study the biology of this tumor and to perform preclinical treatment studies, a lot of effort has been put into the generation of appropriate mouse models. The usage of these models, however, has become debatable with the advances in human medulloblastoma subgrouping. This study brings together multiple relevant mouse models and matches genetic alterations and gene expression data of 140 murine tumors with 423 human medulloblastomas in a global way. Using AGDEX analysis and k-means clustering, we show that the Blbp-cre::Ctnnb1(ex3)(Fl/+)Trp53 (Fl/Fl) mouse model fits well to human WNT medulloblastoma, and that, among various Myc- or Mycn-based mouse medulloblastomas, tumors in Glt1-tTA::TRE-MYCN/Luc mice proved to be most specific for human group 3 medulloblastoma. None of the analyzed models displayed a significant match to group 4 tumors. Intriguingly, mice with Ptch1 or Smo mutations selectively modeled SHH medulloblastomas of adulthood, although such mutations occur in all human age groups. We therefore suggest that the infantile or adult gene expression pattern of SHH MBs are not solely determined by specific mutations. This is supported by the observation that human medulloblastomas with PTCH1 mutations displayed more similarities to PTCH1 wild-type tumors of the same age group than to PTCH1-mutated tumors of the other age group. Together, we provide novel insights into previously unrecognized specificity of distinct models and suggest these findings as a solid basis to choose the appropriate model for preclinical studies on medulloblastoma. PMID:24871706

Pöschl, Julia; Stark, Sebastian; Neumann, Philipp; Gröbner, Susanne; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Jones, David T W; Northcott, Paul A; Lichter, Peter; Pfister, Stefan M; Kool, Marcel; Schüller, Ulrich

2014-07-01

158

The Humanized NOD/SCID Mouse as a Preclinical Model to Study the Fate of Encapsulated Human Islets  

PubMed Central

Despite encouraging results in animal models, the transplantation of microencapsulated islets into humans has not yet reached the therapeutic level. Recent clinical trials using microencapsulated human islets in barium alginate showed the presence of dense fibrotic overgrowth around the microcapsules with no viable islets. The major reason for this is limited understanding of what occurs when encapsulated human islets are allografted. This warrants the need for a suitable small animal model. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human PBMCs (called humanized NOD/SCID mice) as a preclinical model. In this model, human T cell engraftment could be achieved, and CD45+ cells were observed in the spleen and peripheral blood. Though the engrafted T cells caused a small fibrotic overgrowth around the microencapsulated human islets, this failed to stop the encapsulated islets from functioning in the diabetic recipient mice. The ability of encapsulated islets to survive in this mouse model might partly be attributed to the presence of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, which are known to induce graft tolerance. In conclusion, this study showed that the hu-NOD/SCID mouse is not a suitable preclinical model to study the allograft rejection mechanisms of encapsulated human islets. As another result, the maintained viability of transplanted islets on the NOD/SCID background emphasized a critical role of protective mechanisms in autoimmune diabetes transplanted subjects due to specific immunoregulatory effects provided by IL-4 and IL-10. PMID:20703439

Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Oberholzer, Jose; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Tuch, Bernard E.

2010-01-01

159

A novel mouse model for Down syndrome that harbor a single copy of human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a limited number of genes from human chromosome 21.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS), also known as Trisomy 21, is the most common chromosome aneuploidy in live-born children and displays a complicated symptom. To date, several kinds of mouse models have been generated to understand the molecular pathology of DS, yet the gene dosage effects and gene(s)-phenotype(s) correlation are not well understood. In this study, we established a novel method to generate a partial trisomy mice using the mouse ES cells that harbor a single copy of human artificial chromosome (HAC), into which a small human DNA segment containing human chromosome 21 genes cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) was recombined. The produced mice were found to maintain the HAC carrying human genes as a mini-chromosome, hence termed as a Trans-Mini-Chromosomal (TMC) mouse, and HAC was transmitted for more than twenty generations independent from endogenous mouse chromosomes. The three human transgenes including cystathionine ?-synthase, U2 auxiliary factor and crystalline alpha A were expressed in several mouse tissues with various expression levels relative to mouse endogenous genes. The novel system is applicable to any of human and/or mouse BAC clones. Thus, the TMC mouse carrying a HAC with a limited number of genes would provide a novel tool for studying gene dosage effects involved in the DS molecular pathogenesis and the gene(s)-phenotype(s) correlation. PMID:24293126

Miyamoto, Kenichi; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Sakai, Kosuke; Asakawa, Shuichi; Okazaki, Tsuneko; Kudoh, Jun; Ikeno, Masashi; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

2014-04-01

160

Mouse Regenerating Myofibers Detected as False-Positive Donor Myofibers with Anti-Human Spectrin  

PubMed Central

Abstract Stem cell transplantation is being tested as a potential therapy for a number of diseases. Stem cells isolated directly from tissue specimens or generated via reprogramming of differentiated cells require rigorous testing for both safety and efficacy in preclinical models. The availability of mice with immune-deficient background that carry additional mutations in specific genes facilitates testing the efficacy of cell transplantation in disease models. The muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, of which Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most severe and common type. Cell-based therapy for muscular dystrophy has been under investigation for several decades, with a wide selection of cell types being studied, including tissue-specific stem cells and reprogrammed stem cells. Several immune-deficient mouse models of muscular dystrophy have been generated, in which human cells obtained from various sources are injected to assess their preclinical potential. After transplantation, the presence of engrafted human cells is detected via immunofluorescence staining, using antibodies that recognize human, but not mouse, proteins. Here we show that one antibody specific to human spectrin, which is commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of transplanted human cells in mouse muscle, detects myofibers in muscles of NOD/Rag1nullmdx5cv, NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R?null mice, or mdx nude mice, irrespective of whether they were injected with human cells. These “reactive” clusters are regenerating myofibers, which are normally present in dystrophic tissue and the spectrin antibody is likely recognizing utrophin, which contains spectrin-like repeats. Therefore, caution should be used in interpreting data based on detection of single human-specific proteins, and evaluation of human stem cell engraftment should be performed using multiple human-specific labeling strategies. PMID:24152287

Rozkalne, Anete; Adkin, Carl; Meng, Jinhong; Lapan, Ariya; Morgan, Jennifer E.

2014-01-01

161

Impact of cigarette smoke on the human and mouse lungs: a gene-expression comparison study.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases. PMID:24663285

Morissette, Mathieu C; Lamontagne, Maxime; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R; Bossé, Yohan

2014-01-01

162

Cell Host & Microbe A Mouse Model for the Human Pathogen  

E-print Network

.09.003 SUMMARY Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening human and for evaluating potential vaccine candidates against typhoid fever. INTRODUCTION Typhoid fever remains a global typhoid fever and no vaccines that can be used in young children. The isolation of multidrug-resistant S

Galan, Jorge E

163

Biallelic expression of HRAS and MUCDHL in human and mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least eight genes clustered in 1 Mb of DNA on human chromosome (Chr) 11p15.5 are subject to parental imprinting, with monoallelic expression in one or more tissues. Orthologues of these genes show conserved linkage and imprinting on distal Chr 7 of mice. The extended imprinted region has a bipartite structure, with at least two differentially methylated DNA elements (DMRs)

Michael Goldberg; Michelle Wei; Luwa Yuan; Vundavalli V. Murty; Benjamin Tycko

2003-01-01

164

Human chromosome 21 gene expression atlas in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide expression analyses have a crucial role in functional genomics. High resolution methods, such as RNA in situ hybridization provide an accurate description of the spatiotemporal distribution of transcripts as well as a three-dimensional `in vivo' gene expression overview. We set out to analyse systematically the expression patterns of genes from an entire chromosome. We chose human chromosome 21 because

Alexandre Reymond; Valeria Marigo; Murat B. Yaylaoglu; Antonio Leoni; Catherine Ucla; Nathalie Scamuffa; Cristina Caccioppoli; Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis; Robert Lyle; Sandro Banfi; Gregor Eichele; Stylianos E. Antonarakis; Andrea Ballabio

2002-01-01

165

Mouse DNA contamination in human tissue tested for XMRV  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We used a PCR-based approach to study the prevalence of genetic sequences related to a gammaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus, XMRV, in human prostate cancer. This virus has been identified in the US in prostate cancer patients and in those with chronic fatigue syndrome. However, with the exception of two patients in Germany, XMRV has not been identified

Mark J Robinson; Otto W Erlwein; Steve Kaye; Jonathan Weber; Oya Cingoz; Anup Patel; Marjorie M Walker; Wun-Jae Kim; Mongkol Uiprasertkul; John M Coffin; Myra O McClure

2010-01-01

166

Development of a Mouse Model of Helicobacter pylori Infection that Mimics Human Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. The pathogenesis of H. pylori infection in vivo was studied by adapting fresh clinical isolates of bacteria to colonize the stomachs of mice. A gastric pathology resembling human disease was observed in infections with cytotoxin-producing strains but not with noncytotoxic strains. Oral immunization with purified H. pylori antigens protected mice from bacterial infection. This mouse model will allow the development of therapeutic agents and vaccines against H. pylori infection in humans.

Marchetti, Marta; Arico, Beatrice; Burroni, Daniela; Figura, Natale; Rappuoli, Rino; Ghiara, Paolo

1995-03-01

167

Human and mouse neuroinflammation markers in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1.  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is an autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder in which a pathological cascade, including neuroinflammation occurs. While data demonstrating neuroinflammation is prevalent in mouse models, data from NPC1 patients is lacking. The current study focuses on identifying potential markers of neuroinflammation in NPC1 from both the Npc1 mouse model and NPC1 patients. We identified in the mouse model significant changes in expression of genes associated with inflammation and compared these results to the pattern of expression in human cortex and cerebellar tissue. From gene expression array analysis, complement 3 (C3) was increased in mouse and human post-mortem NPC1 brain tissues. We also characterized protein levels of inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from NPC1 patients and controls. We found increased levels of interleukin 3, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, interleukin 16 and chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), and decreased levels of interleukin 4, 10, 13 and 12p40 in CSF from NPC1 patients. CSF markers were evaluated with respect to phenotypic severity. Miglustat treatment in NPC1 patients slightly decreased IL-3, IL-10 and IL-13 CSF levels; however, further studies are needed to establish a strong effect of miglustat on inflammation markers. The identification of inflammatory markers with altered levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of NPC1 patients may provide a means to follow secondary events in NPC1 disease during therapeutic trials. PMID:23653225

Cologna, Stephanie M; Cluzeau, Celine V M; Yanjanin, Nicole M; Blank, Paul S; Dail, Michelle K; Siebel, Stephan; Toth, Cynthia L; Wassif, Christopher A; Lieberman, Andrew P; Porter, Forbes D

2014-01-01

168

Decreased insulin production and increased insulin sensitivity in the klotho mutant mouse, a novel animal model for human aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently identified a novel gene, klotho (kl), which may suppress several aging phenotypes. A defect of kl gene expression in the mouse results in a syndrome resembling human aging, such as arteriosclerosis, skin atrophy, osteoporosis, and pulmonary emphysema. To determine whether mouse homozygotes for the kl mutation (kl\\/ kl) show abnormal glucose metabolism, an oral glucose tolerance test

T. Utsugi; T. Ohno; Y. Ohyama; T. Uchiyama; Y. Saito; Y. Matsumura; H. Aizawa; H. Itoh; M. Kurabayashi; S. Kawazu; S. Tomono; Y. Oka; T. Suga; M. Kuro-o; Y. Nabeshima; R. Nagai

2000-01-01

169

SS18-SSX2 and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in mouse and human synovial sarcomas  

PubMed Central

Synovial sarcoma is a deadly malignancy with limited sensitivity to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. SS18-SSX fusion oncogene expression characterizes human synovial sarcomas and drives oncogenesis in a mouse model. Elevated expression of BCL2 is considered a consistent feature of the synovial sarcoma expression profile. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of apoptotic pathway members in synovial sarcomas and interrogate the impact of modulating SS18-SSX expression on this pathway. We show in human and murine synovial sarcoma cells that SS18-SSX increases BCL2 expression, but represses other anti-apoptotic genes, including MCL1 and BCL2A1. This repression is achieved by directly suppressing expression via binding through ATF2 to the cyclic AMP response element in the promoters of these genes and recruiting TLE1/Groucho. The suppression of these two anti-apoptotic pathways silences the typical routes by which other tumors evade BH3-domain peptidomimetic pharmacotherapy. We show that mouse and human synovial sarcoma cells are sensitive in vitro to ABT-263, a BH3-peptidomimetic, much more so than are other tested cancer cell lines. ABT-263 also enhances the sensitivity of these cells to doxorubicin, a traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy used for synovial sarcoma. We also demonstrate the capacity of ABT-263 to stunt synovial sarcomagenesis in vivo in a genetic mouse model. These data recommend pursuit of BH3-peptidomimetic pharmacotherapy in human synovial sarcomas. PMID:22797074

Jones, Kevin B.; Su, Le; Jin, Huifeng; Lenz, Carol; Randall, R. Lor; Underhill, T. Michael; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Sharma, Sunil; Capecchi, Mario R.

2013-01-01

170

SS18-SSX2 and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in mouse and human synovial sarcomas.  

PubMed

Synovial sarcoma is a deadly malignancy with limited sensitivity to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. SS18-SSX fusion oncogene expression characterizes human synovial sarcomas and drives oncogenesis in a mouse model. Elevated expression of BCL2 is considered a consistent feature of the synovial sarcoma expression profile. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of apoptotic pathway members in synovial sarcomas and interrogate the impact of modulating SS18-SSX expression on this pathway. We show in human and murine synovial sarcoma cells that SS18-SSX increases BCL2 expression, but represses other anti-apoptotic genes, including MCL1 and BCL2A1. This repression is achieved by directly suppressing expression via binding through activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) response element (CRE) in the promoters of these genes and recruiting TLE1/Groucho. The suppression of these two anti-apoptotic pathways silences the typical routes by which other tumors evade BH3-domain peptidomimetic pharmacotherapy. We show that mouse and human synovial sarcoma cells are sensitive in vitro to ABT-263, a BH3-peptidomimetic, much more than the other tested cancer cell lines. ABT-263 also enhances the sensitivity of these cells to doxorubicin, a traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy used for synovial sarcoma. We also demonstrate the capacity of ABT-263 to stunt synovial sarcomagenesis in vivo in a genetic mouse model. These data recommend pursuit of BH3-peptidomimetic pharmacotherapy in human synovial sarcomas. PMID:22797074

Jones, K B; Su, L; Jin, H; Lenz, C; Randall, R L; Underhill, T M; Nielsen, T O; Sharma, S; Capecchi, M R

2013-05-01

171

Comparison of epigenetic mediator expression and function in mouse and human embryonic blastomeres  

PubMed Central

A map of human embryo development that combines imaging, molecular, genetic and epigenetic data for comparisons to other species and across pathologies would be greatly beneficial for basic science and clinical applications. Here, we compared mRNA and protein expression of key mediators of DNA methylation and histone modifications between mouse and human embryos, embryos from fertile/infertile couples, and following growth factor supplementation. We observed that individual mouse and human embryos are characterized by similarities and distinct differences in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns especially at the single-cell level. In particular, while mouse embryos first exhibited sub-compartmentalization of different histone modifications between blastomeres at the morula stage and cell sub-populations in blastocysts, differential histone modification expression was detected between blastomeres earlier in human embryos at the four- to eight-cell stage. Likewise, differences in epigenetic mediator expression were also observed between embryos from fertile and infertile couples, which were largely equalized in response to growth factor supplementation, suggesting that select growth factors might prevent alterations in epigenetic profiles during prolonged embryo culture. Finally, we determined that reduced expression via morpholino technologies of a single histone-modifying enzyme, Rps6ka4/Msk2, resulted in cleavage-stage arrest as assessed by time-lapse imaging and was associated with aneuploidy generation. Taken together, data document differences in epigenetic patterns between species with implications for fertility and suggest functional roles for individual epigenetic factors during pre-implantation development. PMID:24821703

Chavez, Shawn L.; McElroy, Sohyun L.; Bossert, Nancy L.; De Jonge, Christopher J.; Rodriguez, Maria Vera; Leong, Denise E.; Behr, Barry; Westphal, Lynn M.; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

2014-01-01

172

Expanded conserved linkage group between human 16p13 and the Scid region of the mouse chromosome 16  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of homologies between human and mouse chromosomes is essential for understanding chromosomal evolution and the development of experimental models for human disease. We have reported the identification of a conserved linkage group between human 16p13 and the centromeric portion of the mouse 16. Defining the extent of this linkage conservation has significant biomedical implications since that region of mouse genome contains the Scid mutation and the human 16p13 contains genes that are involved in DNA repair and certain types of human leukemia as well as other diseases such as Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome. Here, this conserved linkage group has been defined and expanded. It now contains 5 genetic loci and spans more than 3 Mb in human and 23 cM in mouse. The 5 loci are PRM1,2 (protamine 1 and 2), NOP3 (a subclone of D16S237), GSPT1 (a gene involved in the regulation of G1 to S phase transition), MYH11 (a human smooth muscle myosin heavy chain gene) and MRP (multi-drug resistant-associated protein gene). Using a panel of human-rodent hybrids that are informative for different portions of human 16, we have established the following order on human 16p: telomere-NOP3-PRM1,2-GSPT1-(MYH11,MRP)-centromere. The genes were assigned to the mouse chromosome 16 by a mouse-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrid panel informative for mouse chromosomes. Linkage analysis using backcross mice informative for the Scid mutation indicated the following order and genetic distance (in cM) in mouse: centromere-Nop3-11.7-Prm1-1.4-Gspt1-8.2-(Myh11,Mrp)-1.4-Scid-telomere.

Deng, Z.M.; Siciliano, M.J. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Davisson, M.T. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

173

Difference in the production of human interferon-alpha and -beta in mouse cells.  

PubMed

Human interferon-alpha 1 and interferon-beta genes with their flanking regions were introduced into mouse LMTK- cells. Although transfected cells contained the interferon genes with a similar copy number and produced a similar amount of interferon-specific mRNA, cells containing the human interferon-beta gene secreted about 10 times more human interferon than cells transfected with the human interferon-alpha 1 gene. When the coding region of the interferon-beta gene was replaced by that of the interferon-alpha 1 gene (hybrid interferon beta/alpha gene), the human interferon production of transfected cells fell by approx. one order of magnitude. These results show that in the case of exogenous interferon genes a translational or post-translational mechanism might significantly affect the final level of human interferons, resulting in higher titres of interferon-beta than of interferon-alpha. PMID:3171550

Toth, M I; Cendsuren, O; Endresz, V; Karcagi, I; Duda, E

1988-10-01

174

Genetic Regulation of Pituitary Gland Development in Human and Mouse  

PubMed Central

Normal hypothalamopituitary development is closely related to that of the forebrain and is dependent upon a complex genetic cascade of transcription factors and signaling molecules that may be either intrinsic or extrinsic to the developing Rathke’s pouch. These factors dictate organ commitment, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation within the anterior pituitary. Abnormalities in these processes are associated with congenital hypopituitarism, a spectrum of disorders that includes syndromic disorders such as septo-optic dysplasia, combined pituitary hormone deficiencies, and isolated hormone deficiencies, of which the commonest is GH deficiency. The highly variable clinical phenotypes can now in part be explained due to research performed over the last 20 yr, based mainly on naturally occurring and transgenic animal models. Mutations in genes encoding both signaling molecules and transcription factors have been implicated in the etiology of hypopituitarism, with or without other syndromic features, in mice and humans. To date, mutations in known genes account for a small proportion of cases of hypopituitarism in humans. However, these mutations have led to a greater understanding of the genetic interactions that lead to normal pituitary development. This review attempts to describe the complexity of pituitary development in the rodent, with particular emphasis on those factors that, when mutated, are associated with hypopituitarism in humans. PMID:19837867

Kelberman, Daniel; Rizzoti, Karine; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Robinson, Iain C. A. F.; Dattani, Mehul T.

2009-01-01

175

Identification of rabbit and mouse beta-glucuronidases in human fibroblasts following direct interaction with lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Human fibroblasts totally deficient in beta-glucuronidase acquired high levels of enzyme activity when co-cultured with mouse or rabbit lymphocytes. Direct cell-to-cell contact was obligatory for this process. The enzyme acquired by the fibroblasts was shown to be identical to beta-glucuronidase from donor lymphocytes by its position of elution from DEAE-cellulose, thermal stability, mobility on polyacrylamide gels and by its antigenic determinants. The enzyme extracted from deficient fibroblasts after co-culture with lymphocytes showed no evidence of any hybridisation between human and mouse or rabbit sub-units. It is concluded that during direct cell interaction, enzymically active beta-glucuronidase is transferred directly from donor lymphocytes to deficient fibroblasts by a mechanism, previously shown not to involve normal receptor mediated endocytosis. PMID:7159606

Dean, M F; Olsen, I; Muir, H

1982-12-30

176

Yeast artificial chromosome libraries containing large inserts from mouse and human DNA  

SciTech Connect

Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries have been difficult to construct with average insert sizes >400 kilobase pairs when DNA is size-fractionated in low-melting-point agarose. By using yeast chromosomes in mock cloning experiments, the authors found that polyamines should be present whenever agarose containing high molecular weight DNA is melted to protect DNA from degradation. By incorporating polyamines during the cloning procedure, they constructed YAC libraries from mouse and human DNA with average insert sizes of 700 and 620 kilobase pairs, respectively. Several genome equivalents of these YAC libraries were replicated onto the surface of many duplicate agar plates using a 40,000 multipin transfer device. High-density filter replicas were screened by hybridization, and 70 mouse YAC clones from 31 loci and 132 human YAC clones from 49 loci were isolated.

Larin, Z.; Monaco, A.P.; Lehrach, H. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

1991-05-15

177

Metabolism of the anti-tuberculosis drug ethionamide by mouse and human FMO1, FMO2 and FMO3 and mouse and human lung microsomes  

SciTech Connect

Tuberculosis (TB) results from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and remains endemic throughout the world with one-third of the world's population infected. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant strains necessitates the use of more toxic second-line drugs such as ethionamide (ETA), a pro-drug requiring bioactivation to exert toxicity. M. tuberculosis possesses a flavin monooxygenase (EtaA) that oxygenates ETA first to the sulfoxide and then to 2-ethyl-4-amidopyridine, presumably through a second oxygenation involving sulfinic acid. ETA is also a substrate for mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs). We examined activity of expressed human and mouse FMOs toward ETA, as well as liver and lung microsomes. All FMOs converted ETA to the S-oxide (ETASO), the first step in bioactivation. Compared to M. tuberculosis, the second S-oxygenation to the sulfinic acid is slow. Mouse liver and lung microsomes, as well as human lung microsomes from an individual expressing active FMO, oxygenated ETA in the same manner as expressed FMOs, confirming this reaction functions in the major target organs for therapeutics (lung) and toxicity (liver). Inhibition by thiourea, and lack of inhibition by SKF-525A, confirm ETASO formation is primarily via FMO, particularly in lung. ETASO production was attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner by glutathione. FMO3 in human liver may contribute to the toxicity and/or affect efficacy of ETA administration. Additionally, there may be therapeutic implications of efficacy and toxicity in human lung based on the FMO2 genetic polymorphism, though further studies are needed to confirm that suggestion.

Henderson, Marilyn C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-7301 (United States); Morre, Jeffrey T. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-7302 (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States); Williams, David E. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-7301 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-7302 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-6512 (United States)], E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu

2008-12-15

178

Computational promoter analysis of mouse, rat and human antimicrobial peptide-coding genes  

PubMed Central

Background Mammalian antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of the innate immune response. A multitude of signals coming from pathways of mammalian pathogen/pattern recognition receptors and other proteins affect the expression of AMP-coding genes (AMPcgs). For many AMPcgs the promoter elements and transcription factors that control their tissue cell-specific expression have yet to be fully identified and characterized. Results Based upon the RIKEN full-length cDNA and public sequence data derived from human, mouse and rat, we identified 178 candidate AMP transcripts derived from 61 genes belonging to 29 AMP families. However, only for 31 mouse genes belonging to 22 AMP families we were able to determine true orthologous relationships with 30 human and 15 rat sequences. We screened the promoter regions of AMPcgs in the three species for motifs by an ab initio motif finding method and analyzed the derived promoter characteristics. Promoter models were developed for alpha-defensins, penk and zap AMP families. The results suggest a core set of transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the transcription of AMPcg families in mouse, rat and human. The three most frequent core TFs groups include liver-, nervous system-specific and nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs). Out of 440 motifs analyzed, we found that three represent potentially novel TF-binding motifs enriched in promoters of AMPcgs, while the other four motifs appear to be species-specific. Conclusion Our large-scale computational analysis of promoters of 22 families of AMPcgs across three mammalian species suggests that their key transcriptional regulators are likely to be TFs of the liver-, nervous system-specific and NHR groups. The computationally inferred promoter elements and potential TF binding motifs provide a rich resource for targeted experimental validation of TF binding and signaling studies that aim at the regulation of mouse, rat or human AMPcgs. PMID:17254313

Brahmachary, Manisha; Schonbach, Christian; Yang, Liang; Huang, Enli; Tan, Sin Lam; Chowdhary, Rajesh; Krishnan, SPT; Lin, Chin-Yo; Hume, David A; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B

2006-01-01

179

A gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tissue-specific pattern of mRNA expression can indicate important clues about gene function. High-density oligonucleotide arrays offer the opportunity to examine patterns of gene expression on a genome scale. Toward this end, we have designed custom arrays that interrogate the expression of the vast majority of protein-encoding human and mouse genes and have used them to profile a panel of

Andrew I. Su; Tim Wiltshire; Serge Batalov; Hilmar Lapp; Keith A. Ching; David Block; Jie Zhang; Richard Soden; Mimi Hayakawa; Gabriel Kreiman; Michael P. Cooke; John R. Walker; John B. Hogenesch

2004-01-01

180

Comparative analysis of sequence characteristics of imprinted genes in human, mouse, and cattle  

PubMed Central

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that results in monoallelic expression of genes depending on parent-of-origin of the allele. Although the conservation of genomic imprinting among mammalian species has been widely reported for many genes, there is accumulating evidence that some genes escape this conservation. Most known imprinted genes have been identified in the mouse and human, with few imprinted genes reported in cattle. Comparative analysis of genomic imprinting across mammalian species would provide a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanisms regulating the unique expression of imprinted genes. In this study we analyzed the imprinting of 22 genes in human, mouse, and cattle and found that in only 11 was imprinting conserved across the three species. In addition, we analyzed the occurrence of the sequence elements CpG islands, C + G content, tandem repeats, and retrotransposable elements in imprinted and in nonimprinted (control) cattle genes. We found that imprinted genes have a higher G + C content and more CpG islands and tandem repeats. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) were notably fewer in number in imprinted cattle genes compared to control genes, which is in agreement with previous reports for human and mouse imprinted regions. Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and long terminal repeats (LTRs) were found to be significantly underrepresented in imprinted genes compared to control genes, contrary to reports on human and mouse. Of considerable significance was the finding of highly conserved tandem repeats in nine of the genes imprinted in all three species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00335-007-9039-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17653590

Zaitoun, Ismail; Kim, Eui-Soo

2007-01-01

181

N-[(Dihydroxyphenyl)acyl]serotonins as potent inhibitors of tyrosinase from mouse and human melanoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of N-acyl derivatives of tyramine, tryptamine, and serotonin were synthesized and tested on anti-melanogenic activity. The serotonin derivatives such as N-caffeoylserotonin (3) and N-protocatechuoylserotonin (9) were inhibitory to tyrosinase from mouse B16 and human HMV-II melanoma cells, while the corresponding derivatives of tryptamine and 5-methoxytryptamine were almost inactive or less active than the serotonin derivatives. The inhibitory activity

Yoshimitsu Yamazaki; Yasuhiro Kawano; Akiko Yamanaka; Susumu Maruyama

2009-01-01

182

Analysis of LGR4 Receptor Distribution in Human and Mouse Tissues  

PubMed Central

LGR4 is an R-spondin receptor with strong positive effect on Wnt signaling. It plays a critical role in development as its ablation in the mouse led to total embryonic/neonatal lethality with profound defects in multiple organs. Haplotype insufficiency of LGR4 in human was associated with several diseases, including increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, reduced birth weights, electrolyte imbalance, and decreased levels of testosterone, which are similar to the phenotypes of LGR4-hypomorphic mice. Tissue distribution of LGR4 was extensively analyzed in the mouse using gene-trap reporter enzyme alleles. However, its expression pattern in human tissues remained largely unknown. We have developed LGR4-specific monoclonal antibodies and used them to examine the expression of LGR4 in selected adult human and mouse tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Intense LGR4-like immunoreactivity was observed in the epidermis and hair follicle of the skin, pancreatic islet cells, and epithelial cells in both the male and female reproductive organs. Of particular interest is that LGR4 is highly expressed in germ cells and pancreatic islet cells, which have important implications given the role of R-spondin-LGR4 signaling in the survival of adult stem cells. In addition, the majority of colon tumors showed elevated levels of LGR4 receptor. Overall, the expression pattern of LGR4 in human tissues mapped by this IHC analysis is similar to that in the mouse as revealed from gene trap alleles. Importantly, the pattern lends strong support to the important role of LGR4 in the development and maintenance of skin, kidney, reproductive systems, and other organs. PMID:24205130

Yi, Jing; Xiong, Wei; Gong, Xing; Bellister, Seth; Ellis, Lee M.; Liu, Qingyun

2013-01-01

183

Inhibition of human and mouse plasma membrane bound NTPDases by P2 receptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma membrane bound nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase)-1, 2, 3 and 8 are major ectonucleotidases that modulate P2 receptor signaling by controlling nucleotides’ concentrations at the cell surface. In this report, we systematically evaluated the effect of the commonly used P2 receptor antagonists reactive blue 2, suramin, NF279, NF449 and MRS2179, on recombinant human and mouse NTPDase1, 2, 3 and

Mercedes N. Munkonda; Gilles Kauffenstein; Filip Kukulski; Sébastien A. Lévesque; Charlčne Legendre; Julie Pelletier; Élise G. Lavoie; Joanna Lecka; Jean Sévigny

2007-01-01

184

Regulation of human protein C gene expression by the mouse WAP promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4.1 kb mouse whey acidic protein (mWAP) promoter was cloned from a C57BL\\/6 cosmid library. The tissue-specific and developmental pattern of expression of a hybrid gene comprised of the mWAP promoter fragment and the human protein C (HPC) gene was analysed in transgenic mice. The corresponding RNA was detected mainly in the mammary gland, with ‘leakage’ of expression in

Rekha K. Paleyanda; Da-Wei Zhang; Lothar Hennighausen; Robert A. McKnight; Henryk Lubon

1994-01-01

185

Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Human Cancer for Drug Discovery and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models for cancer research, although not perfect, have traditionally been crucial to the drug discovery and development\\u000a process. Recent advances in genetically modified mice have created opportunities to model many aspects of cancer biology,\\u000a which established xenograft models ignore. Selection of the right model will be of increasing importance in the search for\\u000a efficacious human therapeutics. These improved mouse

Rónán C. O’Hagan; Min Wu; William M. Rideout; Yinghui Zhou; Joerg Heyer

186

The Consensus Coding Sequence (Ccds) Project: Identifying a Common Protein-Coding Gene Set for the Human and Mouse Genomes  

E-print Network

Effective use of the human and mouse genomes requires reliable identification of genes and their products. Although multiple public resources provide annotation, different methods are used that can result in similar but ...

Kellis, Manolis

187

A Dual Reporter Mouse Model of the Human ?-Globin Locus: Applications and Limitations  

PubMed Central

The human ?-globin locus contains the ?-like globin genes (i.e. fetal ?-globin and adult ?-globin), which heterotetramerize with ?-globin subunits to form fetal or adult hemoglobin. Thalassemia is one of the commonest inherited disorders in the world, which results in quantitative defects of the globins, based on a number of genome variations found in the globin gene clusters. Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) also caused by similar types of genomic alterations can compensate for the loss of adult hemoglobin. Understanding the regulation of the human ?-globin gene expression is a challenge for the treatment of thalassemia. A mouse model that facilitates high-throughput assays would simplify such studies. We have generated a transgenic dual reporter mouse model by tagging the ?- and ?-globin genes with GFP and DsRed fluorescent proteins respectively in the endogenous human ?-globin locus. Erythroid cell lines derived from this mouse model were tested for their capacity to reactivate the ?-globin gene. Here, we discuss the applications and limitations of this fluorescent reporter model to study the genetic basis of red blood cell disorders and the potential use of such model systems in high-throughput screens for hemoglobinopathies therapeutics. PMID:23272095

Papadopoulos, Petros; Gutierrez, Laura; van der Linden, Reinier; Kong-A-San, John; Maas, Alex; Drabek, Dubravka; Patrinos, George P.; Philipsen, Sjaak; Grosveld, Frank

2012-01-01

188

Number of CpG islands and genes in human and mouse  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of gene number in mammals is difficult due to the high proportion of noncoding DNA within the nucleus. In this study, the authors provide a direct measurement of the number of genes in human and mouse. They have taken advantage of the fact that many mammalian genes are associated with CpG islands whose distinctive properties allow their physical separation from bulk DNA. The results suggest that there are [approx]45,000 CpG islands per haploid genome in humans and 37,000 in the mouse. Sequence comparison confirms that about 20% of the human CpG islands are absent from the homologous mouse genes. Analysis of a selection of germ line followed by CpG loss through mutation. This process appears to be more rapid in rodents. Combining the number of CpG islands with the proportion of island-associated genes, the authors estimate that the total number of genes per haploid genome is [approx]80,000 in both organisms.

Antequera, F.; Bird, A. (Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom))

1993-11-15

189

Surface-based atlases of cerebellar cortex in the human, macaque, and mouse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study describes surface reconstructions and associated flat maps that represent the highly convoluted shape of cerebellar cortex in three species: human, macaque, and mouse. The reconstructions were based on high-resolution structural MRI data obtained from other laboratories. The surface areas determined for the fiducial reconstructions are about 600 cm(2) for the human, 60 cm(2) for the macaque, and 0.8 cm(2) for the mouse. As expected from the ribbon-like pattern of cerebellar folding, the cerebellar flat maps are elongated along the axis parallel to the midline. However, the degree of elongation varies markedly across species. The macaque flat map is many times longer than its mean width, whereas the mouse flat map is only slightly elongated and the human map is intermediate in its aspect ratio. These cerebellar atlases, along with associated software for visualization and for mapping experimental data onto the atlas, are freely available to the neuroscience community (see http:/brainmap.wustl.edu).

Van Essen, David C.

2002-01-01

190

Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts  

PubMed Central

Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

Gagnon, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

191

Mouse mammary tumor virus uses mouse but not human transferrin receptor 1 to reach a low pH compartment and infect cells  

SciTech Connect

Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a pH-dependent virus that uses mouse transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) for entry into cells. Previous studies demonstrated that MMTV could induce pH 5-dependent fusion-from-with of mouse cells. Here we show that the MMTV envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion requires both the entry receptor and low pH (pH 5). Although expression of the MMTV envelope and TfR1 was sufficient to mediate low pH-dependent syncytia formation, virus infection required trafficking to a low pH compartment; infection was independent of cathepsin-mediated proteolysis. Human TfR1 did not support virus infection, although envelope-mediated syncytia formation occurred with human cells after pH 5 treatment and this fusion depended on TfR1 expression. However, although the MMTV envelope bound human TfR1, virus was only internalized and trafficked to a low pH compartment in cells expressing mouse TfR1. Thus, while human TfR1 supported cell-cell fusion, because it was not internalized when bound to MMTV, it did not function as an entry receptor. Our data suggest that MMTV uses TfR1 for all steps of entry: cell attachment, induction of the conformational changes in Env required for membrane fusion and internalization to an appropriate acidic compartment.

Wang Enxiu; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Ying Qihua [Department of Microbiology and Abramson Family Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, 313BRBII/III, 421 Curie Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Meertens, Laurent; Dragic, Tanya [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Davey, Robert A. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX (United States); Ross, Susan R. [Department of Microbiology and Abramson Family Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, 313BRBII/III, 421 Curie Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: rosss@mail.med.upenn.edu

2008-11-25

192

Increased LIS1 expression affects human and mouse brain development.  

PubMed

Deletions of the PAFAH1B1 gene (encoding LIS1) in 17p13.3 result in isolated lissencephaly sequence, and extended deletions including the YWHAE gene (encoding 14-3-3epsilon) cause Miller-Dieker syndrome. We identified seven unrelated individuals with submicroscopic duplication in 17p13.3 involving the PAFAH1B1 and/or YWHAE genes, and using a 'reverse genomics' approach, characterized the clinical consequences of these duplications. Increased PAFAH1B1 dosage causes mild brain structural abnormalities, moderate to severe developmental delay and failure to thrive. Duplication of YWHAE and surrounding genes increases the risk for macrosomia, mild developmental delay and pervasive developmental disorder, and results in shared facial dysmorphologies. Transgenic mice conditionally overexpressing LIS1 in the developing brain showed a decrease in brain size, an increase in apoptotic cells and a distorted cellular organization in the ventricular zone, including reduced cellular polarity but preserved cortical cell layer identity. Collectively, our results show that an increase in LIS1 expression in the developing brain results in brain abnormalities in mice and humans. PMID:19136950

Bi, Weimin; Sapir, Tamar; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A; Hunter, Jill V; Levy, Talia; Shinder, Vera; Peiffer, Daniel A; Gunderson, Kevin L; Nezarati, Marjan M; Shotts, Vern Ann; Amato, Stephen S; Savage, Sarah K; Harris, David J; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Horner, Michele; Lu, Xin-Yan; Sahoo, Trilochan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Beaudet, Arthur L; Cheung, Sau Wai; Martinez, Salvador; Lupski, James R; Reiner, Orly

2009-02-01

193

Genomic analysis of mouse tumorigenesis  

E-print Network

The availability of the human and mouse genome sequences has spurred a growing interest in analyzing mouse models of human cancer using genomic techniques. Comparative genomic studies on mouse and human tumors can be ...

Tam, Mandy Chi-Mun

2006-01-01

194

Rat Genome Database: a unique resource for rat, human, and mouse quantitative trait locus data  

PubMed Central

The rat has been widely used as a disease model in a laboratory setting, resulting in an abundance of genetic and phenotype data from a wide variety of studies. These data can be found at the Rat Genome Database (RGD, http://rgd.mcw.edu/), which provides a platform for researchers interested in linking genomic variations to phenotypes. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) form one of the earliest and core datasets, allowing researchers to identify loci harboring genes associated with disease. These QTLs are not only important for those using the rat to identify genes and regions associated with disease, but also for cross-organism analyses of syntenic regions on the mouse and the human genomes to identify potential regions for study in these organisms. Currently, RGD has data on >1,900 rat QTLs that include details about the methods and animals used to determine the respective QTL along with the genomic positions and markers that define the region. RGD also curates human QTLs (>1,900) and houses >4,000 mouse QTLs (imported from Mouse Genome Informatics). Multiple ontologies are used to standardize traits, phenotypes, diseases, and experimental methods to facilitate queries, analyses, and cross-organism comparisons. QTLs are visualized in tools such as GBrowse and GViewer, with additional tools for analysis of gene sets within QTL regions. The QTL data at RGD provide valuable information for the study of mapped phenotypes and identification of candidate genes for disease associations. PMID:23881287

Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; Hayman, G. Thomas; Smith, Jennifer R.; Wang, Shur-Jen; Lowry, Timothy F.; Petri, Victoria; Pons, Jeff De; Tutaj, Marek; Liu, Weisong; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Munzenmaier, Diane H.; Worthey, Elizabeth A.; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Shimoyama, Mary; Jacob, Howard J.

2013-01-01

195

Constitutive expression of human keratin 14 gene in mouse lung induces premalignant lesions and squamous differentiation  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 20% of all human lung cancers and is strongly linked to cigarette smoking. It develops through premalignant changes that are characterized by high levels of keratin 14 (K14) expression in the airway epithelium and evolve through basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia and dysplasia to carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma. In order to explore the impact of K14 in the pulmonary epithelium that normally lacks both squamous differentiation and K14 expression, human keratin 14 gene hK14 was constitutively expressed in mouse airway progenitor cells using a mouse Clara cell specific 10 kDa protein (CC10) promoter. While the lungs of CC10-hK14 transgenic mice developed normally, we detected increased expression of K14 and the molecular markers of squamous differentiation program such as involucrin, loricrin, small proline-rich protein 1A, transglutaminase 1 and cholesterol sulfotransferase 2B1. In contrast, wild-type lungs were negative. Aging CC10-hK14 mice revealed multifocal airway cell hyperplasia, occasional squamous metaplasia and their lung tumors displayed evidence for multidirectional differentiation. We conclude that constitutive expression of hK14 initiates squamous differentiation program in the mouse lung, but fails to promote squamous maturation. Our study provides a novel model for assessing the mechanisms of premalignant lesions in vivo by modifying differentiation and proliferation of airway progenitor cells. PMID:18701433

Habib Dakir, EL; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Linnoila, R. Ilona

2008-01-01

196

Constitutive expression of human keratin 14 gene in mouse lung induces premalignant lesions and squamous differentiation.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 20% of all human lung cancers and is strongly linked to cigarette smoking. It develops through premalignant changes that are characterized by high levels of keratin 14 (K14) expression in the airway epithelium and evolve through basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia and dysplasia to carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma. In order to explore the impact of K14 in the pulmonary epithelium that normally lacks both squamous differentiation and K14 expression, human keratin 14 gene hK14 was constitutively expressed in mouse airway progenitor cells using a mouse Clara cell specific 10 kDa protein (CC10) promoter. While the lungs of CC10-hK14 transgenic mice developed normally, we detected increased expression of K14 and the molecular markers of squamous differentiation program such as involucrin, loricrin, small proline-rich protein 1A, transglutaminase 1 and cholesterol sulfotransferase 2B1. In contrast, wild-type lungs were negative. Aging CC10-hK14 mice revealed multifocal airway cell hyperplasia, occasional squamous metaplasia and their lung tumors displayed evidence for multidirectional differentiation. We conclude that constitutive expression of hK14 initiates squamous differentiation program in the mouse lung, but fails to promote squamous maturation. Our study provides a novel model for assessing the mechanisms of premalignant lesions in vivo by modifying differentiation and proliferation of airway progenitor cells. PMID:18701433

Dakir, E L Habib; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Linnoila, R Ilona

2008-12-01

197

Physical mapping of the retinoid X receptor B gene in mouse and human  

SciTech Connect

Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are zinc finger-containing nuclear transcription factors. They belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily that contains retinoid receptors, vitamin D receptors, thyroid hormone receptors, and steroid hormone receptors as well as the so-called orphan receptors. We previously mapped all three RXR genes on mouse chromosomes, using a panel of Mus spretus-Mus musculus interspecific backcross mice: namely, the RXRA-gene (Rxra) on Chr 2 near the centromere, the RXRB gene (Rxrb) on Chr 17 in the H2 region, and the RXRG gene (Rxrg) on distal Chr 1. Using cosmid clones that cover the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, we determined the precise physical map positions of the gene encoding mouse and human RXRB, respectively. The mouse gene (Rxrb) maps between H2-Ke4 and H2-Ke5: namely, immediately telomeric to H2-Ke4 which encodes a histidine-rich transmembrane protein, and 12 kilobases centromeric to H2-Ke5 which is expressed in lymphoid tissues, Rxrb and H2-Ke4 are transcribed into opposite directions from a CpG-rich promoter of about 250 base pairs. This gene organization is well conserved also in the human genome at the HLA-DP subregion of Chr 6p, underscoring the strong conservation of the gene organization in the MHC region between the two mammals. 54 refs., 4 figs.

Nagata, T.; Kitagawa, K.; Taketo, M. [Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Weiss, E.H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Abe, K. [Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Ando, A.; Yara-Kikuti, Y.; Inoko, H. [Tokai Univ. School of Medicine, Isehara (Japan); Seldin, M.F. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ozato, K. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1995-01-11

198

The PanK2 Genes of Mouse and Human Specify Proteins with DistinctSubcellular Locations  

SciTech Connect

Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is initiated by pantothenatekinase (PanK) and CoA levels are controlled through differentialexpression and feedback regulation of PanK isoforms. PanK2 is amitochondrial protein in humans, but comparative genomics revealed thatacquisition of a mitochondrial targeting signal was limited to primates.Human and mouse PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, withinhibition by acetylCoA and activation by palmitoylcarnitine. Mouse PanK2localized in the cytosol, and the expression of PanK2 was higher in humanbrain compared to mouse brain. Differences in expression and subcellularlocalization should be considered in developing a mouse model for humanPanK2 deficiency. (c) 2007 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.Published by Elsevier B.V.

Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Lydikis, Athanasios; Stevens,Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Wenner, Brett R.; Bain, James R.; Newgard,Christopher B.; Rock, Charles O.; Jackowski, Suzanne

2007-05-01

199

Hairless mouse skin is limited as a model for assessing the effects of penetration enhancers in human skin.  

PubMed

The permeability coefficient of 5-fluorouracil through human abdominal and hairless mouse skins was used as an indicator of the relative effects of 12-h pretreatment of the skins with either penetration-enhancer mixtures [including laurocapram (Azone), decylmethylsulfoxide, oleic acid, and propylene glycol] or saline (control). After treatment with saline, fluxes of 5-fluorouracil through the two skin types were similar, but the mouse skin showed exaggerated responses to all the penetration-enhancer formulations. There was no consistent relationship between enchancer effects on the two skin types, and we conclude that the hairless mouse model should not be used to predict the effects of penetration enhancers in human skin. After treatment with saline, hairless mouse skin sharply increased in permeability after approximately 50 h hydration, suggesting that the stratum corneum had started to disrupt, whereas the flux through human skin remained unchanged. PMID:3373011

Bond, J R; Barry, B W

1988-06-01

200

Comparative mapping of the actin-binding protein 280 genes in human and mouse  

SciTech Connect

Two genes encode actin-binding protein 280 isoforms. ABP-280 or filamin (FLN1) is present in the cytoskeleton of many cell types, whereas expression of FLN2 is limited to skeletal muscle and heart. FLN1 maps to human chromosome Xq28, and, by physical mapping in YAC clones, the authors have mapped the homologous murine locus (Fln1) to mouse chromosome X, in a region of syntenic homology with human chromosome X. They mapped FLN2 to human chromosome 7q32-q35 by analysis of somatic cell hybrids containing portions of chromosome 7, and, by using a mapping panel from an interspecific murine cross, they mapped the corresponding murine locus (Fln2) to murine chromosome 6 in a region homologous to human chromosome 7. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Gariboldi, M.; Canzian, F.; Manenti, G.; De Gregorio, L. (Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)); Maestrini, E.; Rivella, S. (Istituto di Genetica Biochimica ed Evoluzionistica, Pavia (Italy)); Chatterjee, A.; Herman, G.E. (Universita di Bari (Italy)); Archidiacono, N.; Antonacci, R. (Institute for Molecular Genetics, Houston, TX (United States)) (and others)

1994-05-15

201

Recombinant human lactoferrin induces human and mouse dendritic cell maturation via Toll-like receptors 2 and 4.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin, a key component of innate immunity, is a cationic monomeric 80-kDa glycoprotein of the transferrin superfamily. Recombinant human lactoferrin, known as talactoferrin (TLF), induces a distinct functional maturation program in human dendritic cells (DCs) derived from peripheral blood monocytes. However, the receptors and molecular mechanisms involved in this induction have not been fully determined. By exploiting genome-wide transcription profiling of immature DCs, TNF-?- and IL-1?-matured DCs (m-DCs), and TLF-matured DCs (TLF-DCs), we have detected a set of transcripts specific for m-DCs and one specific for TLF-DCs. Functional network reconstruction highlighted, as expected, the association of m-DC maturation with IL-1?, TNF-?, and NF-?B, whereas TLF-DC maturation was associated with ERK and NF-?B. This involvement of ERK and NF-?B transduction factors suggests direct involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in TLF-induced maturation. We have used MyD88 inhibition and siRNA silencing TLRs on human DCs and mouse TLR-2-knockout cells, to show that TLF triggers the maturation of both human and mouse DCs through TLR-2 and TLR-4. PMID:24088817

Spadaro, Michela; Montone, Monica; Arigoni, Maddalena; Cantarella, Daniela; Forni, Guido; Pericle, Federica; Pascolo, Steve; Calogero, Raffaele A; Cavallo, Federica

2014-01-01

202

Role of LIN28A in Mouse and Human Trophoblast Cell Differentiation1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Proper regulation of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, and function are critical for placenta development and function. The RNA-binding protein, LIN28A, has been well characterized as a potent regulator of differentiation in embryonic stem cells; however, little is known about the function of LIN28A in the placenta. We assessed LIN28A in vitro using mouse trophoblast stem (mTS) cells and human trophoblast cells (ACH-3P). We observed that LIN28A decreased and let-7 miRNA increased when mTS cells were induced to differentiate into mouse trophoblast giant cells (mTGCs) upon the removal of FGF4, heparin and conditioned medium. Similarly, we observed that LIN28A decreased in ACH-3P cells induced to syncytialize with forskolin treatment. To assess LIN28A in vivo we examined Embryonic Day 11.5 mouse placenta and observed abundant LIN28A in the chorioallantoic interface and labyrinth layer, with little LIN28A staining in spongiotrophoblast or differentiated mTGCs. Additionally, shRNA-mediated LIN28A knockdown in ACH-3P cells resulted in increased spontaneous syncytialization, and increased levels of syncytiotrophoblast markers hCG, LGALS13, and ERVW-1 mRNA. Additionally, targeted degradation of LIN28A mRNA increased responsiveness to forskolin-induced differentiation. In contrast, targeted degradation of Lin28a mRNA in mTS cells did not alter cell phenotype when maintained under proliferative culture conditions. Together, these data establish that LIN28A has a functional role in regulating trophoblast differentiation and function, and that loss of LIN28A in human trophoblast is sufficient to induce differentiation, but does not induce differentiation in the mouse. PMID:24006280

Seabrook, Jill L.; Cantlon, Jeremy D.; Cooney, Austin J.; McWhorter, Erin E.; Fromme, Brittany A.; Bouma, Gerrit J.; Anthony, Russell V.; Winger, Quinton A.

2013-01-01

203

Role of LIN28A in mouse and human trophoblast cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Proper regulation of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, and function are critical for placenta development and function. The RNA-binding protein, LIN28A, has been well characterized as a potent regulator of differentiation in embryonic stem cells; however, little is known about the function of LIN28A in the placenta. We assessed LIN28A in vitro using mouse trophoblast stem (mTS) cells and human trophoblast cells (ACH-3P). We observed that LIN28A decreased and let-7 miRNA increased when mTS cells were induced to differentiate into mouse trophoblast giant cells (mTGCs) upon the removal of FGF4, heparin and conditioned medium. Similarly, we observed that LIN28A decreased in ACH-3P cells induced to syncytialize with forskolin treatment. To assess LIN28A in vivo we examined Embryonic Day 11.5 mouse placenta and observed abundant LIN28A in the chorioallantoic interface and labyrinth layer, with little LIN28A staining in spongiotrophoblast or differentiated mTGCs. Additionally, shRNA-mediated LIN28A knockdown in ACH-3P cells resulted in increased spontaneous syncytialization, and increased levels of syncytiotrophoblast markers hCG, LGALS13, and ERVW-1 mRNA. Additionally, targeted degradation of LIN28A mRNA increased responsiveness to forskolin-induced differentiation. In contrast, targeted degradation of Lin28a mRNA in mTS cells did not alter cell phenotype when maintained under proliferative culture conditions. Together, these data establish that LIN28A has a functional role in regulating trophoblast differentiation and function, and that loss of LIN28A in human trophoblast is sufficient to induce differentiation, but does not induce differentiation in the mouse. PMID:24006280

Seabrook, Jill L; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Cooney, Austin J; McWhorter, Erin E; Fromme, Brittany A; Bouma, Gerrit J; Anthony, Russell V; Winger, Quinton A

2013-10-01

204

Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.

Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

1988-11-01

205

Vitamin C in mouse and human red blood cells: an HPLC assay.  

PubMed

Although vitamin C (ascorbate) is present in whole blood, measurements in red blood cells (RBCs) are problematic because of interference, instability, limited sensitivity, and sample volume requirements. We describe a new technique using HPLC with coulometric electrochemical detection for ascorbate measurement in RBCs of humans, wild-type mice, and mice unable to synthesize ascorbate. Exogenously added ascorbate was fully recovered even when endogenous RBC ascorbate was below the detection threshold (25 nM). Twenty microliters of whole blood or 10 ?l of packed RBCs was sufficient for assay. RBC ascorbate was stable for 24h from whole-blood samples at 4°C. Processed, stored samples were stable for >1 month at -80°C. Unlike other tissues, ascorbate concentrations in human and mouse RBCs were linear in relation to plasma concentrations (R=0.8 and 0.9, respectively). In healthy humans, RBC ascorbate concentrations were 9-57 ?M, corresponding to ascorbate plasma concentrations of 15-90 ?M. Mouse data were similar. In human blood stored as if for transfusion, initial RBC ascorbate concentrations varied approximately sevenfold and decreased 50% after 6 weeks of storage under clinical conditions. With this assay, it becomes possible for the first time to characterize ascorbate function in relation to endogenous concentrations in RBCs. PMID:22522059

Li, Hongyan; Tu, Hongbin; Wang, Yaohui; Levine, Mark

2012-07-15

206

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance enhances subclinical doses of chemotherapeutic agents to inhibit human and mouse ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a biological modifier that causes regression of Mullerian ducts in male embryos, is effective as a single agent in vitro and in vivo against human and mouse ovarian cancer cell lines expressing MIS type II receptor; however, little is known about how recombinant human MIS (rhMIS), now being scaled for preclinical trials, could be used in combination with cytotoxic or targeted chemotherapeutic agents. Mouse serous and endometrioid ovarian carcinoma cell lines were tested in vitro against rhMIS alone and with doxorubicin, paclitaxel, or cisplatin as agents in clinical use. Because MIS releases FK506 binding protein (FKBP12), which activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) downstream of Akt, rhMIS and rapamycin combinations were tested. MIS increases p16 protein levels, and 5?-Aza-2?-deoxycytidine (AzadC) induces p16 mRNA; therefore, they were used in combination in vitro and in vivo with a human ovarian cancer cell line. A paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line and its parental line both respond to rhMIS in vitro. Additivity, synergy, or competition was observed with MIS and rapamycin, AzadC, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel, suggesting that MIS in combination with selective targeted therapies might achieve greater activity against ovarian cancer than the use of each individual agent alone. These assays and statistical analyses could be useful in selecting rhMIS and chemotherapeutic agent combinations that enhance clinical efficacy and reduce toxicity. PMID:17088539

Pieretti-Vanmarcke, Rafael; Donahoe, Patricia K.; Pearsall, Lisa A.; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Connolly, Denise C.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Seiden, Michael V.; MacLaughlin, David T.

2006-01-01

207

Epstein-Barr-based episomal chromosomes shuttle 100 kb of self-replicating circular human DNA in mouse cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the microcell fusion transfer of 100--200 kb self-replicating circular human minichromosomes from human into mouse cells. This experimental approach is illustrated through the shuttling of the latent 170 kb double-stranded DNA genome from the human herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, into nonpermissive rodent cells. Using this interspecies transfer strategy, circular episomes carrying 95--105 kb of human DNA were successfully established at low copy number in mouse A9 cells. Selected episomes were stably maintained for 6 months, and unselected episomes were characterized by a 95% episomal retention per cell division. The establishment of a mouse artificial episomal chromosome system should facilitate evolutionary and therapeutic studies of large human DNA in rodent genetic backgrounds.

Kelleher, Z.T.; Fu, H.; Livanos, E.; Wendelburg, B.; Gulino, S.; Vos, J.M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1998-08-01

208

The mouse rumpshaker mutation of the proteolipid protein in human X-linked recessive spastic paraplegia  

SciTech Connect

X-linked recessive spastic paraplegia is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by slowly progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower extremities. We have recently genetically analyzed the original X-linked recessive spastic paraplegia family reported by Johnston and McKusick in 1962. We employed a fluorescent multiplex CA repeat strategy using a 22 locus, 10 cM framework map of the human X chromosome and localized the gene within a 36 cM region of Xq2l.3-q24 which includes the PLP locus. Saugier-Veber et al. recently reported a point mutation (His139Tyr) in exon 3B of the PLP gene in an X-linked recessive spastic paraplegia family (SPG2). This family shows no optic atrophy, in contrast to the family we have studied. This data showed that SPG2 and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease were allelic disorders. We investigated the PLP gene as a candidate gene for the original X-linked recessive spastic paraplegia family using SSCP and direct sequencing methods. We found a point mutation (T to C) in exon 4 of affected males which alters the amino-acid (Ile to Thr) at residue 186. This change was absent in the unaffected males of the family and in 40 unrelated control females (80 X chromosomes). Surprisingly, this mutation is identical to the mutation previously identified in the rumpshaker mouse model. The complete homology between both the mouse and human PLP sequence, and the mouse rumpshaker mutation and human spastic paraplegia mutation in our family, permit direct parallels to be drawn with regards to pathophysiology. Our data indicates that the well-documented and striking clinical differences between Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and X-linked recessive spastic paraplegia is due to the specific effect of different mutations of the human PLP gene on oligodendrocyte differentiation and development and on later myelin production and maintenance.

Kobayashi, H.; Hoffman, E.P.; Matise, T.C. [and others

1994-09-01

209

Interference by human anti-mouse antibodies in CA 125 assay after immunoscintigraphy: Anti-idiotypic antibodies not neutralized by mouse IgG but removed by chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Falsely increased concentrations of the ovarian carcinoma-associated antigen, CA 125, were measured by a monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based double determinant immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in patients who developed antibodies to mouse immunoglobulins (IgGs) after receiving injections of the same MAb as is used in the CA 125 IRMA. Addition of undiluted mouse serum or purified mouse IgG to the assay mixture failed to eliminate the falsely increased CA 125 concentrations in most of the samples, owing to the presence of anti-idiotype antibody. Because of their anti-idiotypic nature, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAS) had only little effect on other immunometric assays, and this effect could be completely eliminated by addition of mouse IgG. To eliminate the effect of HAMA on the CA 125 assay, we studied the ability of various chromatographic methods to separate the interfering HAMA from CA 125. For measuring HAMA in serum and chromatographic fractions we developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Adequate separation of CA 125 and HAMA was achieved by affinity chromatography of patients' sera with solid-phase Protein A, Protein G, cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S, and gel filtration on Superose 6. These results demonstrate that the interference can effectively be removed by rather simple chromatographic procedures.

Turpeinen, U.; Lehtovirta, P.; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U.H. (Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland))

1990-07-01

210

An intraductal human-in-mouse transplantation model mimics the subtypes of ductal carcinoma in situ  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human models of noninvasive breast tumors are limited, and the existing in vivo models do not mimic inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most common type (80%) of noninvasive breast lesions. The aim of this study was to develop an in vivo model whereby the natural progression of human DCIS might be reproduced and studied. To accomplish this goal, the intraductal human-in-mouse (HIM) transplantation model was developed. The resulting models, which mimicked some of the diversity of human noninvasive breast cancers in vivo, were used to show whether subtypes of human DCIS might contain distinct subpopulations of tumor-initiating cells. Methods The intraductal models were established by injection of human DCIS cell lines (MCF10DCIS.COM and SUM-225), as well as cells derived from a primary human DCIS (FSK-H7), directly into the primary mouse mammary ducts via cleaved nipple. Six to eight weeks after injections, whole-mount, hematoxylin and eosin, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to evaluate the type and extent of growth of the DCIS-like lesions. To identify tumor-initiating cells, putative human breast stem/progenitor subpopulations were sorted from MCF10DCIS.COM and SUM-225 with flow cytometry, and their in vivo growth fractions were compared with the Fisher's Exact test. Results Human DCIS cells initially grew within the mammary ducts, followed by progression to invasion in some cases into the stroma. The lesions were histologically almost identical to those of clinical human DCIS. This method was successful for growing DCIS cell lines (MCF10DCIS.COM and SUM-225) as well as a primary human DCIS (FSK-H7). MCF10DCIS.COM represented a basal-like DCIS model, whereas SUM-225 and FSK-H7 cells were models for HER-2+ DCIS. With this approach, we showed that various subtypes of human DCIS appeared to contain distinct subpopulations of tumor-initiating cells. Conclusions The intraductal HIM transplantation model provides an invaluable tool that mimics human breast heterogeneity at the noninvasive stages and allows the study of the distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms of breast cancer progression. PMID:19735549

2009-01-01

211

High Affinity Nuclear and Nongenomic Estradiol Binding Sites in the Human and Mouse Lens  

PubMed Central

Estrogen is reported to be protective against cataracts in women and animal models. Immunodection methods have identified the classic estrogen receptors (ER), ER? and ER?, in human lens epithelial cells and their RNAs have been detected in the rat and human lens. To verify that estrogen binding occurs in the lens, sensitive [125I]-17?-estradiol binding analyses were performed on subcellular lens fractions from women (ages 39-78 years). The presence of high affinity estradiol binding sites in the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane fractions indicate the lens is able to respond to estrogens, even up to age 78, although fewer binding sites were detected in the postmenopausal women. Additionally, due to the importance of mouse models in estrogen action and lens research, lenses from intact female mice were also analyzed. Both the C57BL/6 and FVB/N mouse strains also possessed high affinity binding sites in all three lens fractions. Furthermore, transcripts for ER?, ER?, and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER; previously called GPR30) that bind estradiol with high affinity were expressed in the human and mouse lenses. These data provide the first evidence of GPER expression in the lens. Its role, functions, and subcellular location are currently unknown, but a G-shift assay in the membrane fractions of human and mouse lenses did not show evidence that estradiol induced classic G protein-coupled receptor activation. All three receptor transcripts were also detected in the lens capsule region isolated from female C57BL/6 mice, which is mainly comprised of epithelial cells. In contrast, only ER? and GPER were expressed in the cortex/nuclear region, which is primarily composed of differentiating and organelle-free fiber cells. No significant differences in specific estradiol binding and receptor RNA expression was observed in the lenses between male and female C57BL/6 mice. These findings indicate that the lens is an estrogen target tissue in both sexes. The identification of GPER, in addition to ER? and ER?, in the lens also adds to the complexity of possible estrogen responses in the lens. Accordingly, the protective effects of estrogen in women and animals may be mediated by all three estrogen receptors in the lens. In addition, the similarities in binding and receptor RNA expression in the lenses of both species suggest that mice can be used to model estrogen action in the human lens. PMID:23597597

Kirker, M. Rachel; Gallagher, Katie M.; Witt-Enderby, Paula A.; Davis, Vicki L.

2013-01-01

212

Humanized Mouse Models of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection and Associated Diseases  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus infecting more than 90% of the adult population of the world. EBV is associated with a variety of diseases including infectious mononucleosis, lymphoproliferative diseases, malignancies such as Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). EBV in nature infects only humans, but in an experimental setting, a limited species of new-world monkeys can be infected with the virus. Small animal models, suitable for evaluation of novel therapeutics and vaccines, have not been available. Humanized mice, defined here as mice harboring functioning human immune system components, are easily infected with EBV that targets cells of the hematoimmune system. Furthermore, humanized mice can mount both cellular and humoral immune responses to EBV. Thus, many aspects of human EBV infection, including associated diseases (e.g., lymphoproliferative disease, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and erosive arthritis resembling RA), latent infection, and T-cell-mediated and humoral immune responses have been successfully reproduced in humanized mice. Here we summarize recent achievements in the field of humanized mouse models of EBV infection and show how they have been utilized to analyze EBV pathogenesis and normal and aberrant human immune responses to the virus.

Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Matsuda, Go; Imadome, Ken-Ichi

2013-01-01

213

Comparative Study of Human and Mouse Postsynaptic Proteomes Finds High Compositional Conservation and Abundance Differences for Key Synaptic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Direct comparison of protein components from human and mouse excitatory synapses is important for determining the suitability of mice as models of human brain disease and to understand the evolution of the mammalian brain. The postsynaptic density is a highly complex set of proteins organized into molecular networks that play a central role in behavior and disease. We report the first direct comparison of the proteome of triplicate isolates of mouse and human cortical postsynaptic densities. The mouse postsynaptic density comprised 1556 proteins and the human one 1461. A large compositional overlap was observed; more than 70% of human postsynaptic density proteins were also observed in the mouse postsynaptic density. Quantitative analysis of postsynaptic density components in both species indicates a broadly similar profile of abundance but also shows that there is higher abundance variation between species than within species. Well known components of this synaptic structure are generally more abundant in the mouse postsynaptic density. Significant inter-species abundance differences exist in some families of key postsynaptic density proteins including glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors and adaptor proteins. Furthermore, we have identified a closely interacting set of molecules enriched in the human postsynaptic density that could be involved in dendrite and spine structural plasticity. Understanding synapse proteome diversity within and between species will be important to further our understanding of brain complexity and disease. PMID:23071613

Bayes, Alex; Collins, Mark O.; Croning, Mike D. R.; van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Grant, Seth G. N.

2012-01-01

214

Studies of lymphocyte reconstitution in a humanized mouse model reveal a requirement of T cells for human B cell maturation  

PubMed Central

The hematopoietic humanized mouse (hu-mouse) model is a powerful resource to study and manipulate the human immune system. However, a major and recurrent issue with this model has been the poor maturation of B cells that fail to progress beyond the transitional B cell stage. Interestingly, a similar problem has been reported in transplant patients that receive cord blood stem cells. In this study, we characterize the development of human B and T cells in the lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen of BALB/c-Rag2nullIl2r?null hu-mice. We find a dominant population of immature B cells in the blood and spleen early, followed by a population of human T cells, coincident with the detection of LNs. Notably, in older mice we observe a major population of mature B cells in LNs and in the spleens of mice with higher T cell frequencies. Moreover, we demonstrate that the T cells are necessary for B cell maturation, as introduction of autologous human T cells expedites the appearance of mature B cells, while in vivo depletion of T cells retards B cell maturation. The presence of the mature B cell population correlates with enhanced IgG and Ag-specific responses to both T-dependent and T-independent challenges, indicating their functionality. These findings enhance our understanding of human B cell development, provide increased details of the reconstitution dynamics of hu-mice, and validates the use of this animal model to study mechanisms and treatments for the similar delay of functional B cells associated with cord blood transplantations. PMID:23335750

Lang, Julie; Kelly, Margot; Freed, Brian M.; McCarter, Martin D.; Kedl, Ross M.; Torres, Raul M.; Pelanda, Roberta

2013-01-01

215

The inhibition of CYP enzymes in mouse and human liver by pilocarpine.  

PubMed Central

1. Pilocarpine is a cholinomimetic natural alkaloid. Its interactions with testosterone hydroxylations, coumarin 7-hydroxylase (COH), dimethylnitrosamine N-demethylase (DMNA), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), which are indicative of the activities of cytochrome P4502A5 (CYP2A5) or 6, 2E1, 2B, 1A, were examined in mouse and human liver microsomes. 2. In mouse liver microsomes the IC50 values of pilocarpine were 6 microM for COH and testosterone 15 alpha-hydroxylase (T15 alpha OH) activities, 4 microM for PROD, approximately 100 microM for DMNA and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase (T6 beta OH) activities and > 1 mM for EROD activity. 3. In human liver microsomes, the IC50 value for COH was 6 microM and for DMNA 10 microM; T15 alpha OH and PROD activities were not detectable but T6 beta OH and testosterone 16 beta/2 beta-hydroxylase activities were moderately inhibited (IC50 70 microM). 4. These results suggest that pilocarpine has (i) a high affinity towards phenobarbitone-inducible CYP2A4/5 and CYP2B activities in mouse liver, (ii) a high affinity towards CYP2A6 in human liver microsomes and (iii) a moderate affinity towards CYP3A enzyme(s) in both microsomal preparations. 5. The low IC50 concentrations in vitro indicate potential metabolic interactions between pilocarpine and several P450 enzymes. PMID:7773543

Kimonen, T; Juvonen, R O; Alhava, E; Pasanen, M

1995-01-01

216

Multidrug resistance reversal by 3-formylchromones in human colon cancer and human mdr1 gene-transfected mouse lymphoma cells.  

PubMed

Several new 3-formylchromone derivatives proved to be modifiers of multidrug resistance in mouse lymphoma cells and in human Colo320 colon cancer cells. There is apparently a structure-activity relationship between the antiproliferative multidrug resistance-reversing effect and the chemical structure of the 3-formylchromones. The total polar surface areas and the ground state dipole moments of the molecules are presumed to play a key role in the multidrug resistance-reversing effect. The log P values can provide an adequate explanation for the selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells. PMID:17091772

Baráth, Zoltán; Radics, Rita; Spengler, Gabriella; Ocsovszki, Imre; Kawase, Masami; Motohashi, Noboru; Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Shah, Anamik; Molnár, József

2006-01-01

217

A Mouse to Human Search for Plasma Proteome Changes Associated with Pancreatic Tumor Development  

PubMed Central

Background The complexity and heterogeneity of the human plasma proteome have presented significant challenges in the identification of protein changes associated with tumor development. Refined genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of human cancer have been shown to faithfully recapitulate the molecular, biological, and clinical features of human disease. Here, we sought to exploit the merits of a well-characterized GEM model of pancreatic cancer to determine whether proteomics technologies allow identification of protein changes associated with tumor development and whether such changes are relevant to human pancreatic cancer. Methods and Findings Plasma was sampled from mice at early and advanced stages of tumor development and from matched controls. Using a proteomic approach based on extensive protein fractionation, we confidently identified 1,442 proteins that were distributed across seven orders of magnitude of abundance in plasma. Analysis of proteins chosen on the basis of increased levels in plasma from tumor-bearing mice and corroborating protein or RNA expression in tissue documented concordance in the blood from 30 newly diagnosed patients with pancreatic cancer relative to 30 control specimens. A panel of five proteins selected on the basis of their increased level at an early stage of tumor development in the mouse was tested in a blinded study in 26 humans from the CARET (Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial) cohort. The panel discriminated pancreatic cancer cases from matched controls in blood specimens obtained between 7 and 13 mo prior to the development of symptoms and clinical diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions Our findings indicate that GEM models of cancer, in combination with in-depth proteomic analysis, provide a useful strategy to identify candidate markers applicable to human cancer with potential utility for early detection. PMID:18547137

Faca, Vitor M; Song, Kenneth S; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Qing; Krasnoselsky, Alexei L; Newcomb, Lisa F; Plentz, Ruben R; Gurumurthy, Sushma; Redston, Mark S; Pitteri, Sharon J; Pereira-Faca, Sandra R; Ireton, Renee C; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Glukhova, Veronika; Phanstiel, Douglas; Brenner, Dean E; Anderson, Michelle A; Misek, David; Scholler, Nathalie; Urban, Nicole D; Barnett, Matt J; Edelstein, Cim; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; McIntosh, Martin W; DePinho, Ronald A; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Hanash, Samir M

2008-01-01

218

Human hair melanins: what we have learned and have not learned from mouse coat color pigmentation.  

PubMed

Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes in humans. Melanocytes produce two distinct types of melanin pigment: brown to black, indolic eumelanin and yellow to reddish brown, sulfur-containing pheomelanin. Biochemically, the precursor tyrosine and the key enzyme tyrosinase and the tyrosinase-related proteins are involved in eumelanogenesis, while only the additional presence of cysteine is necessary for pheomelanogenesis. Other important proteins involved in melanogenesis include P protein, MATP protein, ?-MSH, agouti signaling protein (ASIP), MC1R (the receptor for MSH and ASIP), and SLC7A11, a cystine transporter. Many studies have examined the effects of loss-of-function mutations of those proteins on mouse coat color pigmentation. In contrast, much less is known regarding the effects of mutations of the corresponding proteins on human hair pigmentation except for MC1R polymorphisms that lead to pheomelanogenesis. This perspective will discuss what we have/have not learned from mouse coat color pigmentation, with special emphasis on the significant roles of pH and the level of cysteine in melanosomes in controlling melanogenesis. Based on these data, a hypothesis is proposed to explain the diversity of human hair pigmentation. PMID:20726950

Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

2011-02-01

219

Localization of a human homolog of the mouse pericentrin gene (PCNT) to chromosome 21qter  

SciTech Connect

Exon trapping was used to identify portions of genes from cosmid DNA of a human chromosome 21-specific library LL21NC02-Q. More than 650 potential exons have been cloned and characterized to date. Among these, 3 trapped {open_quotes}exons{close_quotes} showed strong homology to different regions of the cDNA for the mouse pericentrin (Pcnt) gene, indicating that these 3 exons are portions of a human homolog of the mouse pericentrin gene. With PCR amplification, Southern blot analysis, and FISH, we have mapped this presumed human pericentrin gene (PCNT) to the long arm of chromosome 21 between marker PFKL and 21qter. Pericentrin is a conserved protein component of the filamentous matrix of the centrosome involved in the initial establishment of the organized microtubule array. No candidate hereditary disorder for pericentrin deficiency/abnormality has yet been mapped in the most distal region of 21q; in addition the role of triplication of the pericentrin gene in the pathophysiology or etiology of trisomy 21 is currently unknown. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Chen, Haiming [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)] [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland); Gos, A.; Morris, M.A. [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others] [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); and others

1996-08-01

220

Visualizing Human Prostate Cancer Cells in Mouse Skeleton Using Bioconjugated Near-infrared Fluorescent Quantum Dots  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To visualize human prostate cancer cells in mouse bone with bioconjugated near-infrared quantum dot (QD) probes. Near-infrared fluorescent probes using QDs can visualize tumors in deep tissues in vivo. METHODS Human prostate cancer C4-2B xenografts grown in mouse tibia were detected by prostate-specific membrane antigen antibody conjugated with QDs emitting light at the near-infrared range of 800 nm (QD800). Images in culture and in vivo were acquired using the IVIS Imaging System. RESULTS As few as 5000 cells can be detected subcutaneously when tagged with QD800 conjugate and injected directly into mice. QD800 conjugate injected intravenously in mice harboring C4-2B tumors in tibia detected signals from a minimum of 500 000 cells. The maximal light emission was detected 30 minutes after intravenous injection of QD800 conjugate in mice with established C4-2B tumors. CONCLUSIONS Bioconjugated near-infrared QD probes are highly sensitive molecular imaging tools for human prostate cancer micrometastases in mice. PMID:19428067

Shi, Chunmeng; Zhu, Ying; Xie, Zhihui; Qian, Weiping; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Nie, Shuming; Su, Yongping; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Chung, Leland W. K.

2010-01-01

221

Incompatibility of nucleus and mitochondria causes xenomitochondrial cybrid unviable across human, mouse, and pig cells.  

PubMed

The nucleus and mitochondria are on correlative dependence; they interact in the process of protein transportation and energy metabolism. The compatibility of nucleus and mitochondria is essential for interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) and xenomitochondrial cybrid. In order to test the compatibility of nucleus and mitochondria among human, mouse, and pig cells, we compared the performances of cybrids that fused inter- and intra-species. The ?0 cells from human and pig cell lines were created as nucleus donors which were transfected with GFP-neo for cell selective system in advance, and mitochondria donor cells were labeled by Mitochondria-RFP. Human and mouse platelets were also used as a mitochondrial donor. Results indicated that all interspecies cybrids declined to die in 2-4 d after the cell fusion in the selection medium, while intraspecies cybrid cells survived and formed stable clones. As a conclusion, the incompatibility between nucleus and mitochondria is the critical factor for the formation of interspecies cybrids. PMID:24555799

Yu, Guanghui; Tian, Jianhui; Yin, Jingdong; Li, Qiuyan; Zhao, Xingbo

2014-04-01

222

The mouse mutation sarcosinemia (sar) maps to chromosome 2 in a region homologous to human 9q33-q34  

SciTech Connect

The autosomal recessive mouse mutation sarcosinemia (sar), which was discovered segregating in the progeny of a male whose premeiotic germ cells had been treated with the mutagen ethylnitrosourea, is characterized by a deficiency in sarcosine dehydrogenase activity. Using an intersubspecific cross, we mapped the sar locus to mouse chromosome 2, approximately 15-18 cM from the centromere. The genetic localization of this locus in the mouse allows the identification of a candidate region in human (9q33-q34) where the homologous disease should map. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Brunialti, A.L.B.; Guenet, J.L. [Institut Pasteur a Paris (France)] [Institut Pasteur a Paris (France); Harding, C.O.; Wolff, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-08-15

223

A detailed analysis of the erythropoietic control system in the human, squirrel, monkey, rat and mouse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The erythropoiesis modeling performed in support of the Body Fluid and Blood Volume Regulation tasks is described. The mathematical formulation of the species independent model, the solutions to the steady state and dynamic versions of the model, and the individual species specific models for the human, squirrel monkey, rat and mouse are outlined. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the species independent model response to parameter changes and how those responses change from species to species is presented. The species to species response to a series of simulated stresses directly related to blood volume regulation during space flight is analyzed.

Nordheim, A. W.

1985-01-01

224

Treatment of NASH with human mesenchymal stem cells in the immunodeficient mouse.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as a severe form of nonalcoholic liver diseases (NAFLD) is one of the prominent liver diseases worldwide. Under favoring conditions it may progress into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which in its end stage strongly requires organ transplantation. Due to the shortage of donor organs, alternative therapeutic approaches like cell therapy treatment are necessary. In this article, an auspicious method of cell therapy with hepatocytic differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells to treat NASH in an immunodeficient mouse model is presented. PMID:25173373

Winkler, Sandra; Christ, Bruno

2014-01-01

225

Transcriptional recapitulation and subversion of embryonic colon development by mouse colon tumor models and human colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The expression of carcino-embryonic antigen by colorectal cancer is an example of oncogenic activation of embryonic gene expression. Hypothesizing that oncogenesis-recapitulating-ontogenesis may represent a broad programmatic commitment, we compared gene expression patterns of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and mouse colon tumor models to those of mouse colon development embryonic days 13.5-18.5. Results We report here that 39 colon tumors from four independent mouse models and 100 human CRCs encompassing all clinical stages shared a striking recapitulation of embryonic colon gene expression. Compared to normal adult colon, all mouse and human tumors over-expressed a large cluster of genes highly enriched for functional association to the control of cell cycle progression, proliferation, and migration, including those encoding MYC, AKT2, PLK1 and SPARC. Mouse tumors positive for nuclear ?-catenin shifted the shared embryonic pattern to that of early development. Human and mouse tumors differed from normal embryonic colon by their loss of expression modules enriched for tumor suppressors (EDNRB, HSPE, KIT and LSP1). Human CRC adenocarcinomas lost an additional suppressor module (IGFBP4, MAP4K1, PDGFRA, STAB1 and WNT4). Many human tumor samples also gained expression of a coordinately regulated module associated with advanced malignancy (ABCC1, FOXO3A, LIF, PIK3R1, PRNP, TNC, TIMP3 and VEGF). Conclusion Cross-species, developmental, and multi-model gene expression patterning comparisons provide an integrated and versatile framework for definition of transcriptional programs associated with oncogenesis. This approach also provides a general method for identifying pattern-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This delineation and categorization of developmental and non-developmental activator and suppressor gene modules can thus facilitate the formulation of sophisticated hypotheses to evaluate potential synergistic effects of targeting within- and between-modules for next-generation combinatorial therapeutics and improved mouse models. PMID:17615082

Kaiser, Sergio; Park, Young-Kyu; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Halberg, Richard B; Yu, Ming; Jessen, Walter J; Freudenberg, Johannes; Chen, Xiaodi; Haigis, Kevin; Jegga, Anil G; Kong, Sue; Sakthivel, Bhuvaneswari; Xu, Huan; Reichling, Timothy; Azhar, Mohammad; Boivin, Gregory P; Roberts, Reade B; Bissahoyo, Anika C; Gonzales, Fausto; Bloom, Greg C; Eschrich, Steven; Carter, Scott L; Aronow, Jeremy E; Kleimeyer, John; Kleimeyer, Michael; Ramaswamy, Vivek; Settle, Stephen H; Boone, Braden; Levy, Shawn; Graff, Jonathan M; Doetschman, Thomas; Groden, Joanna; Dove, William F; Threadgill, David W; Yeatman, Timothy J; Coffey, Robert J; Aronow, Bruce J

2007-01-01

226

Transcriptional recapitulation and subversion of embryonic colon development by mouse colon tumor models and human colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The expression of carcino-embryonic antigen by colorectal cancer is an example of oncogenic activation of embryonic gene expression. Hypothesizing that oncogenesis-recapitulating-ontogenesis may represent a broad programmatic commitment, we compared gene expression patterns of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and mouse colon tumor models to those of mouse colon development embryonic days 13.5-18.5. RESULTS: We report here that 39 colon tumors

Sergio Kaiser; Young-Kyu Park; Jeffrey L Franklin; Richard B Halberg; Ming Yu; Walter J Jessen; Johannes Freudenberg; Xiaodi Chen; Kevin Haigis; Anil G Jegga; Sue Kong; Bhuvaneswari Sakthivel; Huan Xu; Timothy Reichling; Mohammad Azhar; Gregory P Boivin; Reade B Roberts; Anika C Bissahoyo; Fausto Gonzales; Greg C Bloom; Steven Eschrich; Scott L Carter; Jeremy E Aronow; John Kleimeyer; Michael Kleimeyer; Vivek Ramaswamy; Stephen H Settle; Braden Boone; Shawn Levy; Jonathan M Graff; Thomas Doetschman; Joanna Groden; William F Dove; David W Threadgill; Timothy J Yeatman; Robert J Coffey Jr; Bruce J Aronow

2007-01-01

227

Assignment of the gene governing cellular ouabain resistance to Mus musculus chromosome 3 using human\\/mouse microcell hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human\\/mouse microcell hybrids were used to establish the assignment of the gene governing resistance to the cardiac glycoside ouabain (Oua-1) to Mus musculus chromosome 3. Microcells were prepared from primary mouse embryo fibroblasts and fused with HeLa S3 cells, and microcell hybrids were isolated and maintained in medium containing 10-6m ouabain. Resistance to ouabain was not expressed concordantly with any

C. A. Kozak; R. E. K. Fournier; L. A. Leinwand; F. H. Ruddle

1979-01-01

228

Auditory Function in the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome Suggests a Limited Region of Human Chromosome 21 Involved in Otitis Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital disorders leading to a wide range of health problems in humans, including frequent otitis media. The Tc1 mouse carries a significant part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) in addition to the full set of mouse chromosomes and shares many phenotypes observed in humans affected by Down syndrome with trisomy of chromosome

Stephanie Kuhn; Neil Ingham; Selina Pearson; Susan M. Gribble; Stephen Clayton; Karen P. Steel; Walter Marcotti

2012-01-01

229

GENETIC ASSAY FOR ANEUPLOIDY: QUANTITATION OF CHROMOSOME LOSS USING A MOUSE/HUMAN MONOCHROMOSOMAL HYBRID CELL LINE (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

A genetic assay is described in which a mouse/human hybrid cell line R3-5 containing a single human chromosome (a monochromosomal hybrid) is used to detect chemically induced aneuploidy. The hybrid cells are deficient in hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and ...

230

UCSF mouse and human studies indicate that cancer prognosis may be related to newly identified immune cell  

Cancer.gov

A newly discovered population of immune cells in tumors is associated with less severe cancer outcomes in humans, and may have therapeutic potential, according to a new UC San Francisco study of 3,600 human tumors of 12 types, as well as mouse experiments.

231

Comparison of Human Chromosome 6p25 with Mouse Chromosome 13 Reveals a Greatly Expanded Ov-Serpin Gene Repertoire in the Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ov-serpins are intracellular proteinase inhibitors implicated in the regulation of tumor progression, inflammation, and cell death. The 13 human ov-serpin genes are clustered at 6p25 (3 genes) and 18q21 (10 genes), and share common structures. We show here that a 1-Mb region on mouse chromosome 13 contains at least 15 ov-serpin genes compared with the three ov-serpin genes within 0.35

Dion Kaiserman; Susan Knaggs; Katrina L Scarff; Anneliese Gillard; Ghazala Mirza; Matthew Cadman; Richard McKeone; Paul Denny; Jessica Cooley; Charaf Benarafa; Eileen Remold-O'Donnell; Jiannis Ragoussis; Phillip I Bird

2002-01-01

232

Profound human/mouse differences in alpha-dystrobrevin isoforms: a novel syntrophin-binding site and promoter missing in mouse and rat  

PubMed Central

Background The dystrophin glycoprotein complex is disrupted in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and many other neuromuscular diseases. The principal heterodimeric partner of dystrophin at the heart of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in the main clinically affected tissues (skeletal muscle, heart and brain) is its distant relative, ?-dystrobrevin. The ?-dystrobrevin gene is subject to complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, generating a substantial range of isoforms by alternative promoter use, alternative polyadenylation and alternative splicing. The choice of isoform is understood, amongst other things, to determine the stoichiometry of syntrophins (and their ligands) in the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. Results We show here that, contrary to the literature, most ?-dystrobrevin genes, including that of humans, encode three distinct syntrophin-binding sites, rather than two, resulting in a greatly enhanced isoform repertoire. We compare in detail the quantitative tissue-specific expression pattern of human and mouse ?-dystrobrevin isoforms, and show that two major gene features (the novel syntrophin-binding site-encoding exon and the internal promoter and first exon of brain-specific isoforms ?-dystrobrevin-4 and -5) are present in most mammals but specifically ablated in mouse and rat. Conclusion Lineage-specific mutations in the murids mean that the mouse brain has fewer than half of the ?-dystrobrevin isoforms found in the human brain. Our finding that there are likely to be fundamental functional differences between the ?-dystrobrevins (and therefore the dystrophin glycoprotein complexes) of mice and humans raises questions about the current use of the mouse as the principal model animal for studying Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other related disorders, especially the neurological aspects thereof. PMID:19961569

2009-01-01

233

Chromosomal locations of the human and mouse genes for precursors of epidermal growth factor and the. beta. subunit of nerve growth factor  

SciTech Connect

DNA probes for pre-pro-epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the precursor of the ..beta.. subunit of nerve growth factor (NGF) were used to chromosomally map human and mouse EGF and NGF genes in panels of human-mouse and mouse-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids. The EGF and NGF genes were mapped to human chromosomes 4 and 1, respectively, by using human-mouse cell hybrids. A combination of regional mapping using a chromosome 1 translocation and comparative gene mapping suggests that the human NGF gene is in the p21-p22.1 region of chromosome 1. In mouse-Chinese hamster cell hybrids, both genes were assigned to mouse chromosome 3. A knowledge of the chromosomal assignment of these genes should help in our understanding of their regulation and role in development and disease.

Zabel, B.U.; Eddy, R.L.; Lalley, P.A.; Scott, J.; Bell, G.I.; Shows, T.B.

1985-01-01

234

Novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer parallels human colon cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the close parallels between our novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer and human colon cancer. METHODS: Twenty-two wild-type female mice (ages 6-8 wk) were fed the standard control diet (AIN-93G) and an additional 22 female mice (ages 6-8 wk) were fed the control diet supplemented with 0.2% deoxycholic acid [diet + deoxycholic acid (DOC)] for 10 mo. Tumors occurred in the colons of mice fed diet + DOC and showed progression to colon cancer [adenocarcinoma (AC)]. This progression is through the stages of tubular adenoma (TA), TA with high grade dysplasia or adenoma with sessile serrated morphology, intramucosal AC, AC stage T1, and AC stage T2. The mouse tumors were compared to human tumors at the same stages by histopathological analysis. Sections of the small and large intestines of mice and humans were evaluated for glandular architecture, cellular and nuclear morphology including cellular orientation, cellular and nuclear atypia, pleomorphism, mitotic activity, frequency of goblet cells, crypt architecture, ulceration, penetration of crypts through the muscularis mucosa and presence of malignant crypts in the muscularis propria. In addition, preserved colonic tissues from genetically similar male mice, obtained from a prior experiment, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The male mice had been fed the control diet or diet + DOC. Four molecular markers were evaluated: 8-OH-dG, DNA repair protein ERCC1, autophagy protein beclin-1 and the nuclear location of beta-catenin in the stem cell region of crypts. Also, male mice fed diet + DOC plus 0.007% chlorogenic acid (diet + DOC + CGA) were evaluated for ERCC1, beclin-1 and nuclear location of beta-catenin. RESULTS: Humans with high levels of diet-related DOC in their colons are at a substantially increased risk of developing colon cancer. The mice fed diet + DOC had levels of DOC in their colons comparable to that of humans on a high fat diet. The 22 mice without added DOC in their diet had no colonic tumors while 20 of the 22 mice (91%) fed diet + DOC developed colonic tumors. Furthermore, the tumors in 10 of these mice (45% of mice) included an adenocarcinoma. All mice were free of cancers of the small intestine. Histopathologically, the colonic tumor types in the mice were virtually identical to those in humans. In humans, characteristic aberrant changes in molecular markers can be detected both in field defects surrounding cancers (from which cancers arise) and within cancers. In the colonic tissues of mice fed diet + DOC similar changes in biomarkers appeared to occur. Thus, 8-OH-dG was increased, DNA repair protein ERCC1 was decreased, autophagy protein beclin-1 was increased and, in the stem cell region at the base of crypts there was substantial nuclear localization of beta-catenin as well as increased cytoplasmic beta-catenin. However, in mice fed diet + DOC + CGA (with reduced frequency of cancer) and evaluated for ERCC1, beclin-1, and beta-catenin in the stem cell region of crypts, mouse tissue showed amelioration of the aberrancies, suggesting that chlorogenic acid is protective at the molecular level against colon cancer. This is the first diet-related model of colon cancer that closely parallels human progression to colon cancer, both at the histomorphological level as well as in its molecular profile. CONCLUSION: The diet-related mouse model of colon cancer parallels progression to colon cancer in humans, and should be uniquely useful in model studies of prevention and therapeutics. PMID:25024814

Prasad, Anil R; Prasad, Shilpa; Nguyen, Huy; Facista, Alexander; Lewis, Cristy; Zaitlin, Beryl; Bernstein, Harris; Bernstein, Carol

2014-01-01

235

A humanized mouse model of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d-resistant rickets without alopecia.  

PubMed

The syndrome of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR) is a genetic disease of altered mineral homeostasis due to mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. It is frequently, but not always, accompanied by the presence of alopecia. Mouse models that recapitulate this syndrome have been prepared through genetic deletion of the Vdr gene and are characterized by the presence of rickets and alopecia. Subsequent studies have revealed that VDR expression in hair follicle keratinocytes protects against alopecia and that this activity is independent of the protein's ability to bind 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. In the present study, we introduced into VDR-null mice a human VDR (hVDR) bacterial artificial chromosome minigene containing a mutation that converts leucine to serine at amino acid 233 in the hVDR protein, which prevents 1,25(OH)2D3 binding. We then assessed whether this transgene recreated features of the HVDRR syndrome without alopecia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in one strain showed an appropriate level of mutant hVDR expression in all tissues examined including skin. The hVDR-L233S mutant failed to rescue the aberrant systemic and skeletal phenotype characteristic of the VDR null mouse due to the inability of the mutant receptor to activate transcription after treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3. Importantly, however, neither alopecia nor the dermal cysts characteristic of VDR-null mice were observed in the skin of these hVDR-L233S mutant mice. This study confirms that we have created a humanized mouse model of HVDRR without alopecia that will be useful in defining additional features of this syndrome and in identifying potential novel functions of the unoccupied VDR. PMID:25147982

Lee, Seong Min; Goellner, Joseph J; O'Brien, Charles A; Pike, J Wesley

2014-11-01

236

Manipulation of iron transporter genes results in the suppression of human and mouse mammary adenocarcinomas.  

PubMed

Since malignant cells often have a high demand for iron, we hypothesize that breast cancer cells may alter the expression of iron transporter genes including iron importers [transferrin receptor (TFRC) and solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters), member 2 (SLC11A2)] and the iron exporter SLC40A1 (ferroportin), and additionally that the growth of breast cancer can be inhibited by manipulating iron transporter gene expression. To test our hypothesis, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine mRNA expression of iron transporter genes in normal human mammary epithelial MCF-12A cells and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Antisense oligonucleotides were employed to suppress the expression of TFRC gene in the 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma in both cell culture and a mouse tumor model. We found the following: i) the MCF-7 cells have higher expression of TFRC and SLC11A2 compared with MCF-12A epithelia; ii) SLC40A1 was only expressed in MCF-12A epithelia but not in MCF-7 cells; iii) iron increased mRNA levels of the SLC11A2 gene in both MCF-12A and MCF-7 cells; iv) TFRC antisense oligonucleotides reduced TFRC mRNA levels and intracellular total iron, and inhibited the proliferation of the 4T1 cells in cell culture; v) TFRC antisense oligonucleotide inhibited tumor growth and lung metastases in the 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma mouse model. In conclusion, breast cancer cells up-regulate the expression of iron importer genes and down-regulate the expression of iron exporter SLC40A1 to satisfy their increased demand for iron. Suppression of transferrin receptor by antisense results in inhibition of tumor growth and lung metastasis in the 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma mouse model. PMID:20392994

Jiang, Xian P; Elliott, Robert L; Head, Jonathan F

2010-03-01

237

Novel genes in Human Asthma Based on a Mouse Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation and Human Investigations  

PubMed Central

Purpose Based on a previous gene expression study in a mouse model of asthma, we selected 60 candidate genes and investigated their possible roles in human asthma. Methods In these candidate genes, 90 SNPs were genotyped using MassARRAY technology from 311 asthmatic children and 360 healthy controls of the Hungarian (Caucasian) population. Moreover, gene expression levels were measured by RT PCR in the induced sputum of 13 asthmatics and 10 control individuals. t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were carried out in order to assess associations of SNP frequency and expression level with asthma. Permutation tests were performed to account for multiple hypothesis testing. Results The frequency of 4 SNPs in 2 genes differed significantly between asthmatic and control subjects: SNPs rs2240572, rs2240571, rs3735222 in gene SCIN, and rs32588 in gene PPARGC1B. Carriers of the minor alleles had reduced risk of asthma with an odds ratio of 0.64 (0.51-0.80; P=7×10-5) in SCIN and 0.56 (0.42-0.76; P=1.2×10-4) in PPARGC1B. The expression levels of SCIN, PPARGC1B and ITLN1 genes were significantly lower in the sputum of asthmatics. Conclusions Three potentially novel asthma-associated genes were identified based on mouse experiments and human studies. PMID:25374748

Temesi, Gergely; Virag, Viktor; Hadadi, Eva; Ungvari, Ildiko; Fodor, Lili E; Bikov, Andras; Nagy, Adrienne; Galffy, Gabriella; Tamasi, Lilla; Horvath, Ildiko; Kiss, Andras; Hullam, Gabor; Gezsi, Andras; Sarkozy, Peter; Antal, Peter; Buzas, Edit

2014-01-01

238

Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived From Mouse and Human White Mature Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

White mature adipocytes give rise to so-called dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells that spontaneously undergo multilineage differentiation. In this study, we defined stem cell characteristics of DFAT cells as they are generated from adipocytes and the relationship between these characteristics and lineage differentiation. Both mouse and human DFAT cells, prepared from adipose tissue and lipoaspirate, respectively, showed evidence of pluripotency, with a maximum 5–7 days after adipocyte isolation. The DFAT cells spontaneously formed clusters in culture, which transiently expressed multiple stem cell markers, including stage-specific embryonic antigens, and Sca-1 (mouse) and CD105 (human), as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and immunostaining. As the stem cell markers decreased, markers characteristic of the three germ layers and specific lineage differentiation, such as ?-fetoprotein (endoderm, hepatic), Neurofilament-66 (ectoderm, neurogenic), and Troponin I (mesoderm, cardiomyogenic), increased. However, no teratoma formation was detected after injection in immunodeficient mice. A novel modification of the adipocyte isolation aimed at ensuring the initial purity of the adipocytes and avoiding ceiling culture allowed isolation of DFAT cells with pluripotent characteristics. Thus, the adipocyte-derived DFAT cells represent a plastic stem cell population that is highly responsive to changes in culture conditions and may benefit cell-based therapies. PMID:24396033

Abdmaulen, Raushan; Ly, Albert; Cubberly, Mark R.; Shahmirian, Laurine J.; Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Sepideh; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Yao, Yucheng

2014-01-01

239

Assessing Optic Nerve Pathology with Diffusion MRI: from Mouse to Human  

PubMed Central

Optic nerve is often affected in patients with glaucoma and multiple sclerosis (MS). Conventional MRI can detect nerve damage but it does not accurately assess the underlying pathologies. Mean diffusivity and diffusion anisotropy indices derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be sensitive to a variety of central nervous system (CNS) white matter pathologies. Despite being sensitive, the lack of specificity limits the ability of these measures to differentiate the underlying pathology in CNS white matter tissues. Directional (axial and radial) diffusivities, measuring water diffusion parallel and perpendicular to the axonal tracts, have been shown to be specific to axonal and myelin damages in mouse models of optic nerve injury, including retinal ischemia and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The progression of Wallerian degeneration has also been detected using directional diffusivities after retinal ischemia. However, translating these findings to human optic nerve is technically challenging. The current status of human optic nerve diffusion MRI, including the imaging sequences and protocols, are summarized herein. Despite lacking a consensus of the optimal sequence or protocol among different groups, increased mean diffusivity and decreased diffusion anisotropy has been observed in injured optic nerve from chronic optic neuritis patients. Decreased ??, correlating with visual function and recovery, was observed recently in acute optic neuritis patients in a pilot study, suggesting the specificity of ?? to axonal injury. From different mouse models of optic nerve injuries to the emerging studies on optic neuritis patients, directional diffusivities demonstrate great potential to be specific biomarkers for axonal and myelin injury. PMID:18756587

Xu, Junqian; Sun, Shu-Wei; Naismith, Robert T.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cross, Anne H.; Song, Sheng-Kwei

2008-01-01

240

Humanized-BLT mouse model of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection.  

PubMed

Lack of an effective small-animal model to study the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection in vivo has hampered studies on the pathogenesis and transmission of KSHV. The objective of our study was to determine whether the humanized BLT (bone marrow, liver, and thymus) mouse (hu-BLT) model generated from NOD/SCID/IL2r? mice can be a useful model for studying KSHV infection. We have tested KSHV infection of hu-BLT mice via various routes of infection, including oral and intravaginal routes, to mimic natural routes of transmission, with recombinant KSHV over a 1- or 3-mo period. Infection was determined by measuring viral DNA, latent and lytic viral transcripts and antigens in various tissues by PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical staining. KSHV DNA, as well as both latent and lytic viral transcripts and proteins, were detected in various tissues, via various routes of infection. Using double-labeled immune-fluorescence confocal microscopy, we found that KSHV can establish infection in human B cells and macrophages. Our results demonstrate that KSHV can establish a robust infection in the hu-BLT mice, via different routes of infection, including the oral mucosa which is the most common natural route of infection. This hu-BLT mouse not only will be a useful model for studying the pathogenesis of KSHV in vivo but can potentially be used to study the routes and spread of viral infection in the infected host. PMID:24516154

Wang, Lin-Xu; Kang, Guobin; Kumar, Pankaj; Lu, Wuxun; Li, Yue; Zhou, You; Li, Qingsheng; Wood, Charles

2014-02-25

241

FGFR1-WNT-TGF-? signaling in prostate cancer mouse models recapitulates human reactive stroma.  

PubMed

The reactive stroma surrounding tumor lesions performs critical roles ranging from supporting tumor cell proliferation to inducing tumorigenesis and metastasis. Therefore, it is critical to understand the cellular components and signaling control mechanisms that underlie the etiology of reactive stroma. Previous studies have individually implicated fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and canonical WNT/?-catenin signaling in prostate cancer progression and the initiation and maintenance of a reactive stroma; however, both pathways are frequently found to be coactivated in cancer tissue. Using autochthonous transgenic mouse models for inducible FGFR1 (JOCK1) and prostate-specific and ubiquitously expressed inducible ?-catenin (Pro-Cat and Ubi-Cat, respectively) and bigenic crosses between these lines (Pro-Cat × JOCK1 and Ubi-Cat × JOCK1), we describe WNT-induced synergistic acceleration of FGFR1-driven adenocarcinoma, associated with a pronounced fibroblastic reactive stroma activation surrounding prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) lesions found both in in situ and reconstitution assays. Both mouse and human reactive stroma exhibited increased transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling adjacent to pathologic lesions likely contributing to invasion. Furthermore, elevated stromal TGF-? signaling was associated with higher Gleason scores in archived human biopsies, mirroring murine patterns. Our findings establish the importance of the FGFR1-WNT-TGF-? signaling axes as driving forces behind reactive stroma in aggressive prostate adenocarcinomas, deepening their relevance as therapeutic targets. PMID:24305876

Carstens, Julienne L; Shahi, Payam; Van Tsang, Susan; Smith, Billie; Creighton, Chad J; Zhang, Yiqun; Seamans, Amber; Seethammagari, Mamatha; Vedula, Indira; Levitt, Jonathan M; Ittmann, Michael M; Rowley, David R; Spencer, David M

2014-01-15

242

Challenges and advances in mouse modeling for human pancreatic tumorigenesis and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is critical for developed countries, where its rate of diagnosis has been increasing steadily annually. In the past decade, the advances of pancreatic cancer research have not contributed to the decline in mortality rates from pancreatic cancer—the overall 5-year survival rate remains about 5% low. This number only underscores an obvious urgency for us to better understand the biological features of pancreatic carcinogenesis, to develop early detection methods, and to improve novel therapeutic treatments. To achieve these goals, animal modeling that faithfully recapitulates the whole process of human pancreatic cancer is central to making the advancements. In this review, we summarize the currently available animal models for pancreatic cancer and the advances in pancreatic cancer animal modeling. We compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of three major categories of these models: (1) carcinogen-induced; (2) xenograft and allograft; and (3) genetically engineered mouse models. We focus more on the genetically engineered mouse models, a category which has been rapidly expanded recently for their capacities to mimic human pancreatic cancer and metastasis, and highlight the combinations of these models with various newly developed strategies and cell-lineage labeling systems. PMID:23114842

Qiu, Wanglong

2013-01-01

243

Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819

Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

2011-01-01

244

EGFR as a therapeutic target for human, canine, and mouse ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas  

PubMed Central

Cushing disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as a result of an adenoma arising from the ACTH-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary. ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas lead to hypercortisolemia and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Pituitary-directed medications are mostly ineffective, and new treatment options are needed. As these tumors express EGFR, we tested whether EGFR might provide a therapeutic target for Cushing disease. Here, we show that in surgically resected human and canine corticotroph cultured tumors, blocking EGFR suppressed expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the ACTH precursor. In mouse corticotroph EGFR transfectants, ACTH secretion was enhanced, and EGF increased Pomc promoter activity, an effect that was dependent on MAPK. Blocking EGFR activity with gefitinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, attenuated Pomc expression, inhibited corticotroph tumor cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis. As predominantly nuclear EGFR expression was observed in canine and human corticotroph tumors, we preferentially targeted EGFR to mouse corticotroph cell nuclei, which resulted in higher Pomc expression and ACTH secretion, both of which were inhibited by gefitinib. In athymic nude mice, EGFR overexpression enhanced the growth of explanted ACTH-secreting tumors and further elevated serum corticosterone levels. Gefitinib treatment decreased both tumor size and corticosterone levels; it also reversed signs of hypercortisolemia, including elevated glucose levels and excess omental fat. These results indicate that inhibiting EGFR signaling may be a novel strategy for treating Cushing disease. PMID:22105169

Fukuoka, Hidenori; Cooper, Odelia; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Mamelak, Adam; Ren, Song-Guang; Bruyette, Dave; Melmed, Shlomo

2011-01-01

245

Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems.  

PubMed

Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal than comprehensive evidence. To this end, we compare two large compendia of transcriptional profiles of human and mouse immune cell types. Global transcription profiles are conserved between corresponding cell lineages. The expression patterns of most orthologous genes are conserved, particularly for lineage-specific genes. However, several hundred genes show clearly divergent expression across the examined cell lineages, and among them, 169 genes did so even with highly stringent criteria. Finally, regulatory mechanisms--reflected by regulators' differential expression or enriched cis-elements--are conserved between the species but to a lower degree, suggesting that distinct regulation may underlie some of the conserved transcriptional responses. PMID:23382184

Shay, Tal; Jojic, Vladimir; Zuk, Or; Rothamel, Katherine; Puyraimond-Zemmour, David; Feng, Ting; Wakamatsu, Ei; Benoist, Christophe; Koller, Daphne; Regev, Aviv

2013-02-19

246

Mouse, but Not Human, ApoB-100 Lipoprotein Cholesterol Is a Potent Innate Inhibitor of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumolysin  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae produces the pore-forming toxin pneumolysin (PLY), which is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of toxins. The CDCs recognize and bind the 3?-hydroxyl group of cholesterol at the cell surface, which initiates membrane pore formation. The cholesterol transport lipoproteins, which carry cholesterol in their outer monolayer, are potential off-pathway binding targets for the CDCs and are present at significant levels in the serum and the interstitial spaces of cells. Herein we show that cholesterol carried specifically by the ApoB-100-containing lipoprotein particles (CH-ApoB-100) in the mouse, but not that carried by human or guinea pig particles, is a potent inhibitor of the PLY pore-forming mechanism. Cholesterol present in the outer monolayer of mouse ApoB-100 particles is recognized and bound by PLY, which stimulates premature assembly of the PLY oligomeric complex thereby inactivating PLY. These studies further suggest that the vast difference in the inhibitory capacity of mouse CH-ApoB-100 and that of the human and the guinea pig is due to differences in the presentation of cholesterol in the outer monolayer of their ApoB-100 particles. Therefore mouse CH-ApoB-100 represents a significant innate CDC inhibitor that is absent in humans, which may underestimate the contribution of CDCs to human disease when utilizing mouse models of disease. PMID:25188225

Wade, Kristin R.; Hotze, Eileen M.; Briles, David E.; Tweten, Rodney K.

2014-01-01

247

Expression and In Vivo Rescue of Human ABCC6 Disease-Causing Mutants in Mouse Liver  

PubMed Central

Loss-of-function mutations in ABCC6 can cause chronic or acute forms of dystrophic mineralization described in disease models such as pseudoxanthoma elasticum (OMIM 26480) in human and dystrophic cardiac calcification in mice. The ABCC6 protein is a large membrane-embedded organic anion transporter primarily found in the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. We have established a complex experimental strategy to determine the structural and functional consequences of disease-causing mutations in the human ABCC6. The major aim of our study was to identify mutants with preserved transport activity but failure in intracellular targeting. Five missense mutations were investigated: R1138Q, V1298F, R1314W, G1321S and R1339C. Using in vitro assays, we have identified two variants; R1138Q and R1314W that retained significant transport activity. All mutants were transiently expressed in vivo, in mouse liver via hydrodynamic tail vein injections. The inactive V1298F was the only mutant that showed normal cellular localization in liver hepatocytes while the other mutants showed mostly intracellular accumulation indicating abnormal trafficking. As both R1138Q and R1314W displayed endoplasmic reticulum localization, we tested whether 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a drug approved for clinical use, could restore their intracellular trafficking to the plasma membrane in MDCKII and mouse liver. The cellular localization of R1314W was significantly improved by 4-PBA treatment, thus potentially rescuing its physiological function. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of the in vivo rescue of cellular maturation of some ABCC6 mutants in physiological conditions very similar to the biology of the fully differentiated human liver and could have future human therapeutic application. PMID:21935449

Le Saux, Olivier; Fulop, Krisztina; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Ilias, Attila; Szabo, Zalan; Brampton, Christopher N.; Pomozi, Viola; Huszar, Krisztina; Aranyi, Tamas; Varadi, Andras

2011-01-01

248

Expression and in vivo rescue of human ABCC6 disease-causing mutants in mouse liver.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function mutations in ABCC6 can cause chronic or acute forms of dystrophic mineralization described in disease models such as pseudoxanthoma elasticum (OMIM 26480) in human and dystrophic cardiac calcification in mice. The ABCC6 protein is a large membrane-embedded organic anion transporter primarily found in the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. We have established a complex experimental strategy to determine the structural and functional consequences of disease-causing mutations in the human ABCC6. The major aim of our study was to identify mutants with preserved transport activity but failure in intracellular targeting. Five missense mutations were investigated: R1138Q, V1298F, R1314W, G1321S and R1339C. Using in vitro assays, we have identified two variants; R1138Q and R1314W that retained significant transport activity. All mutants were transiently expressed in vivo, in mouse liver via hydrodynamic tail vein injections. The inactive V1298F was the only mutant that showed normal cellular localization in liver hepatocytes while the other mutants showed mostly intracellular accumulation indicating abnormal trafficking. As both R1138Q and R1314W displayed endoplasmic reticulum localization, we tested whether 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a drug approved for clinical use, could restore their intracellular trafficking to the plasma membrane in MDCKII and mouse liver. The cellular localization of R1314W was significantly improved by 4-PBA treatment, thus potentially rescuing its physiological function. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of the in vivo rescue of cellular maturation of some ABCC6 mutants in physiological conditions very similar to the biology of the fully differentiated human liver and could have future human therapeutic application. PMID:21935449

Le Saux, Olivier; Fülöp, Krisztina; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Iliás, Attila; Szabó, Zalán; Brampton, Christopher N; Pomozi, Viola; Huszár, Krisztina; Arányi, Tamás; Váradi, András

2011-01-01

249

Localization of the photoreceptor gene ROM1 to human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 19: Sublocalization to human 11q13 between PGA and PYGM  

SciTech Connect

Rom-1 is a retinal integral membrane protein that, together with the product of the human retinal degeneration slow gene (RDS), defines a photoreceptor-specific protein family. The gene for rom-1 (HGM symbol: ROM1) has been assigned to human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 19 by Southern blot analysis of somatic cell hybrid DNAs. ROM1 was regionally sublocalized to human 11p13-11q13 by using three mouse-human somatic cell hybrids; in situ hybridization refined the sublocalization to human 11q13. Analysis of somatic cell hybrids suggested that the most likely localization of ROM1 is in the [approximately] 2-cM interval between human PGA (human pepsinogen A) and PYGM (muscle glycogen phosphorylase). ROM1 appears to be a new member of a conserved syntenic group whose members include such genes as CD5, CD20, and OSBP (oxysterol-binding protein), on human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 19. Localization of the ROM1 gene will permit the examination of its linkage to hereditary retinopathies in man and mouse. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bascom, R.A.; McInnes, R.R. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada)); Garcia-Heras, J.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Hsieh, C.L.; Francke, U.; Willard, F.; Jones, C.

1992-11-01

250

Phenotypes of Myopathy-Related Beta-Tropomyosin Mutants in Human and Mouse Tissue Cultures  

PubMed Central

Mutations in TPM2 result in a variety of myopathies characterised by variable clinical and morphological features. We used human and mouse cultured cells to study the effects of ?-TM mutants. The mutants induced a range of phenotypes in human myoblasts, which generally changed upon differentiation to myotubes. Human myotubes transfected with the E41K-?-TMEGFP mutant showed perinuclear aggregates. The G53ins-?-TMEGFP mutant tended to accumulate in myoblasts but was incorporated into filamentous structures of myotubes. The K49del-?-TMEGFP and E122K-?-TMEGFP mutants induced the formation of rod-like structures in human cells. The N202K-?-TMEGFP mutant failed to integrate into thin filaments and formed accumulations in myotubes. The accumulation of mutant ?-TMEGFP in the perinuclear and peripheral areas of the cells was the striking feature in C2C12. We demonstrated that human tissue culture is a suitable system for studying the early stages of altered myofibrilogenesis and morphological changes linked to myopathy-related ?-TM mutants. In addition, the histopathological phenotype associated with expression of the various mutant proteins depends on the cell type and varies with the maturation of the muscle cell. Further, the phenotype is a combinatorial effect of the specific amino acid change and the temporal expression of the mutant protein. PMID:24039757

Abdul-Hussein, Saba; Rahl, Karin; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Tajsharghi, Homa

2013-01-01

251

Chromosomally unstable mouse tumours have genomic alterations similar to diverse human cancers  

PubMed Central

Highly rearranged and mutated cancer genomes present major challenges in the identification of pathogenetic events driving the neoplastic transformation process. Here we engineered lymphoma-prone mice with chromosomal instability to assess the usefulness of mouse models in cancer gene discovery and the extent of cross-species overlap in cancer-associated copy number aberrations. Along with targeted re-sequencing, our comparative oncogenomic studies identified FBXW7 and PTEN to be commonly deleted both in murine lymphomas and in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-ALL). The murine cancers acquire widespread recurrent amplifications and deletions targeting loci syntenic to those not only in human T-ALL but also in diverse human haematopoietic, mesenchymal and epithelial tumours. These results indicate that murine and human tumours experience common biological processes driven by orthologous genetic events in their malignant evolution. The highly concordant nature of genomic events encourages the use of genomically unstable murine cancer models in the discovery of biological driver events in the human oncogenome. PMID:17515920

Maser, Richard S.; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Campbell, Peter J.; Feng, Bin; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Protopopov, Alexei; O'Neil, Jennifer; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ivanova, Elena; Perna, Ilana; Lin, Eric; Mani, Vidya; Jiang, Shan; McNamara, Kate; Zaghlul, Sara; Edkins, Sarah; Stevens, Claire; Brennan, Cameron; Martin, Eric S.; Wiedemeyer, Ruprecht; Kabbarah, Omar; Nogueira, Cristina; Histen, Gavin; Aster, Jon; Mansour, Marc; Duke, Veronique; Foroni, Letizia; Fielding, Adele K.; Goldstone, Anthony H.; Rowe, Jacob M.; Wang, Yaoqi A.; Look, A. Thomas; Stratton, Michael R.; Chin, Lynda; Futreal, P. Andrew; DePinho, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

252

Chromosomally unstable mouse tumours have genomic alterations similar to diverse human cancers.  

PubMed

Highly rearranged and mutated cancer genomes present major challenges in the identification of pathogenetic events driving the neoplastic transformation process. Here we engineered lymphoma-prone mice with chromosomal instability to assess the usefulness of mouse models in cancer gene discovery and the extent of cross-species overlap in cancer-associated copy number aberrations. Along with targeted re-sequencing, our comparative oncogenomic studies identified FBXW7 and PTEN to be commonly deleted both in murine lymphomas and in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-ALL). The murine cancers acquire widespread recurrent amplifications and deletions targeting loci syntenic to those not only in human T-ALL but also in diverse human haematopoietic, mesenchymal and epithelial tumours. These results indicate that murine and human tumours experience common biological processes driven by orthologous genetic events in their malignant evolution. The highly concordant nature of genomic events encourages the use of genomically unstable murine cancer models in the discovery of biological driver events in the human oncogenome. PMID:17515920

Maser, Richard S; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Campbell, Peter J; Feng, Bin; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Protopopov, Alexei; O'Neil, Jennifer; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ivanova, Elena; Perna, Ilana; Lin, Eric; Mani, Vidya; Jiang, Shan; McNamara, Kate; Zaghlul, Sara; Edkins, Sarah; Stevens, Claire; Brennan, Cameron; Martin, Eric S; Wiedemeyer, Ruprecht; Kabbarah, Omar; Nogueira, Cristina; Histen, Gavin; Aster, Jon; Mansour, Marc; Duke, Veronique; Foroni, Letizia; Fielding, Adele K; Goldstone, Anthony H; Rowe, Jacob M; Wang, Yaoqi A; Look, A Thomas; Stratton, Michael R; Chin, Lynda; Futreal, P Andrew; DePinho, Ronald A

2007-06-21

253

Mouse model of human beta zero thalassemia: targeted deletion of the mouse beta maj- and beta min-globin genes in embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed Central

beta zero-Thalassemia is an inherited disorder characterized by the absence of beta-globin polypeptides derived from the affected allele. The molecular basis for this deficiency is a mutation of the adult beta-globin structural gene or cis regulatory elements that control beta-globin gene expression. A mouse model of this disease would enable the testing of therapeutic regimens designed to correct the defect. Here we report a 16-kb deletion that includes both adult beta-like globin genes, beta maj and beta min, in mouse embryonic stem cells. Heterozygous animals derived from the targeted cells are severely anemic with dramatically reduced hemoglobin levels, abnormal red cell morphology, splenomegaly, and markedly increased reticulocyte counts. Homozygous animals die in utero; however, heterozygous mice are fertile and transmit the deleted allele to progeny. The anemic phenotype is completely rescued in progeny derived from mating beta zero-thalassemic animals with transgenic mice expressing high levels of human hemoglobin A. The beta zero-thalassemic mice can be used to test genetic therapies for beta zero-thalassemia and can be bred with transgenic mice expressing high levels of human hemoglobin HbS to produce an improved mouse model of sickle cell disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568113

Ciavatta, D J; Ryan, T M; Farmer, S C; Townes, T M

1995-01-01

254

Evaluation of depigmenting activity by 8-hydroxydaidzein in mouse B16 melanoma cells and human volunteers.  

PubMed

In our previous study, 8-hydroxydaidzein (8-OHDe) was demonstrated to be a potent and unique suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. In this study, the compound was evaluated for in vitro cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory activities in mouse B16 melanoma cells and for in vivo skin-whitening activity in human volunteers. Tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in the cell culture incubated with 10 microM of 8-OHDe were decreased to 20.1% and 51.8% of control, respectively, while no obvious cytotoxicity was observed in this concentration. In contrast, a standard tyrosinase inhibitor, kojic acid, showed 69.9% and 71.3% of control in cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis activity, respectively, at a concentration as high as 100 microM. Hence, 8-OHDe exhibited more than an inhibitory effects on melanin production in B16 cells 10-fold stronger than kojic acid. In addition, when a cream containing 4% 8-OHDe was applied to human skin in an in vivo study, significant increases in the dL*-values were observed after three weeks. Moreover, the increase in the dL*-values after 8-week treatment with 4% 8-OHDe (from -0.57 to 1.94) is stronger than those of 2% 8-OHDe treatment (from 0.26 to 0.94) and 2% ascorbic acid-2-glucoside treatment (from 0.07 to 1.54). From the results of the study, it was concluded that 8-OHDe, the potent suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase, has depigmenting activities in both mouse melanoma cells and in human volunteers. Thus, the compound has significant potential for use in cosmetics as a skin-whitening ingredient. PMID:20057943

Tai, Sorgan Shou-Ku; Lin, Ching-Gong; Wu, Mon-Han; Chang, Te-Sheng

2009-10-01

255

Evaluation of Depigmenting Activity by 8-Hydroxydaidzein in Mouse B16 Melanoma Cells and Human Volunteers  

PubMed Central

In our previous study, 8-hydroxydaidzein (8-OHDe) was demonstrated to be a potent and unique suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. In this study, the compound was evaluated for in vitro cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory activities in mouse B16 melanoma cells and for in vivo skin-whitening activity in human volunteers. Tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in the cell culture incubated with 10 ?M of 8-OHDe were decreased to 20.1% and 51.8% of control, respectively, while no obvious cytotoxicity was observed in this concentration. In contrast, a standard tyrosinase inhibitor, kojic acid, showed 69.9% and 71.3% of control in cellular tyrosinase and melanogenesis activity, respectively, at a concentration as high as 100 ?M. Hence, 8-OHDe exhibited more than an inhibitory effects on melanin production in B16 cells 10-fold stronger than kojic acid. In addition, when a cream containing 4% 8-OHDe was applied to human skin in an in vivo study, significant increases in the dL*-values were observed after three weeks. Moreover, the increase in the dL*-values after 8-week treatment with 4% 8-OHDe (from ?0.57 to 1.94) is stronger than those of 2% 8-OHDe treatment (from 0.26 to 0.94) and 2% ascorbic acid-2-glucoside treatment (from 0.07 to 1.54). From the results of the study, it was concluded that 8-OHDe, the potent suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase, has depigmenting activities in both mouse melanoma cells and in human volunteers. Thus, the compound has significant potential for use in cosmetics as a skin-whitening ingredient. PMID:20057943

Tai, Sorgan Shou-Ku; Lin, Ching-Gong; Wu, Mon-Han; Chang, Te-Sheng

2009-01-01

256

The contribution of Kv7 channels to pregnant mouse and human myometrial contractility.  

PubMed

Premature birth accounts for approximately 75% of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Despite this, methods for identifying and treating women at risk of preterm labour are limited and many women still present in preterm labour requiring tocolytic therapy to suppress uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of Kv7 channel activators as potential uterine smooth muscle (myometrium) relaxants in tissues from pregnant mice and women. Myometrium was obtained from early and late pregnant mice and from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice (day 15 of gestation; model of infection in pregnancy). Human myometrium was obtained at the time of Caesarean section from women at term (38-41 weeks). RT-PCR/qRT-PCR detected KCNQ and KCNE expression in mouse and human myometrium. In mice, there was a global suppression of all KCNQ isoforms, except KCNQ3, in early pregnancy (n= 6, P < 0.001 versus late pregnant); expression subsequently increased in late pregnancy (n= 6). KCNE isoforms were also gestationally regulated (P < 0.05). KCNQ and KCNE isoform expression was slightly down-regulated in myometrium from LPS-treated-mice versus controls (P < 0.05, n= 3-4). XE991 (10 ?M, Kv7 inhibitor) significantly increased spontaneous myometrial contractions in vitro in both human and mouse myometrial tissues (P < 0.05) and retigabine/flupirtine (20 ?M, Kv7 channel activators) caused profound myometrial relaxation (P < 0.05). In summary, Kv7 activators suppressed myometrial contraction and KCNQ gene expression was sustained throughout gestation, particularly at term. Consequently, activation of the encoded channels represents a novel mechanism for treatment of preterm labour. PMID:20132415

McCallum, Laura A; Pierce, Stephanie L; England, Sarah K; Greenwood, Iain A; Tribe, Rachel M

2011-03-01

257

Differential transcriptome analysis of diabetes-resistant and -sensitive mouse islets reveals significant overlap with human diabetes susceptibility genes.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes in humans and in obese mice is polygenic. In recent genome-wide association studies, genetic markers explaining a small portion of the genetic contribution to the disease were discovered. However, functional evidence linking these genes with the pathogenesis of diabetes is scarce. We performed RNA sequencing-based transcriptomics of islets from two obese mouse strains, a diabetes-susceptible (NZO) and a diabetes-resistant (B6-ob/ob) mouse, after a short glucose challenge and compared these results with human data. Alignment of 2,328 differentially expressed genes to 106 human diabetes candidate genes revealed an overlap of 20 genes, including TCF7L2, IGFBP2, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, GRB10, and PRC1. The data provide a functional validation of human diabetes candidate genes, including those involved in regulating islet cell recovery and proliferation, and identify additional candidates that could be involved in human ?-cell failure. PMID:25053586

Kluth, Oliver; Matzke, Daniela; Schulze, Gunnar; Schwenk, Robert W; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schürmann, Annette

2014-12-01

258

Comparative Sequence of Human and Mouse BAC Clones from the mnd2 Region of Chromosome 2p13  

PubMed Central

The mnd2 mutation on mouse chromosome 6 produces a progressive neuromuscular disorder. To determine the gene content of the 400-kb mnd2 nonrecombinant region, we sequenced 108 kb of mouse genomic DNA and 92 kb of human genomic sequence from the corresponding region of chromosome 2p13.3. Three genes with the indicated sizes and intergenic distances were identified: D6Mm5e (?81 kb)–787 bp–DOK (2 kb)–845 bp–LOR2 (?6 kb). D6Mm5e is expressed in many tissues at very low abundance and the predicted 526-residue protein contains no known functional domains. DOK encodes the p62dok rasGAP binding protein involved in signal transduction. LOR2 encodes a novel lysyl oxidase-related protein of 757 amino acid residues. We describe a simple search protocol for identification of conserved internal exons in genomic sequence. Evolutionary conservation proved to be a useful criterion for distinguishing between authentic exons and artifactual products obtained by exon amplification, RT–PCR, and 5? RACE. Conserved noncoding sequence elements longer than 80 bp with ?75% nucleotide sequence identity comprise ?1% of the genomic sequence in this region. Comparative analysis of this human and mouse genomic DNA sequence was an efficient method for gene identification and is independent of developmental stage or quantitative level of gene expression. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under the following accession numbers: AC003061, mouse BAC clone 245c12; AC003065, human BAC clone h173(E10); AF053368, mouse Lor2 cDNA; AF084363, 108-kb contig from mouse BAC 245c12; AF084364, mouse D6Mm5e cDNA.] PMID:9927484

Jang, Wonhee; Hua, Axin; Spilson, Sandra V.; Miller, Webb; Roe, Bruce A.; Meisler, Miriam H.

1999-01-01

259

Mosaic variegated aneuploidy in mouse BubR1 deficient embryos and pregnancy loss in human.  

PubMed

Chromosome aberrations (aneuploidies mostly) are the cause of the majority of spontaneous abortions in humans. However, little is known about defects in the underlying molecular mechanisms resulting in chromosome aberrations and following failure of preimplantation embryo development, initiation of implantation and postimplantation pregnancy loss. We suggest that defects of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) are responsible for aneuploidy and the following abortions. To develop our hypothesis, we modeled this process in the mouse after inactivation of protein BubR1, one of the key players of SAC. We found that soon after implantation, more than 50 % of cells of BubR1 (-/-) embryos were aneuploid and had an increased level of premature sister chromatid separation (PSCS). Aneuploid cells do not have a predominant gain or loss of some specific chromosomes, but they have mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA), which is characterised by random mixture of different chromosomes. MVA leads to growth retardation, stochastic massive apoptosis, disruption of bilateral symmetry, and embryo death between embryonic days 7.5 to 13.5. Analysis published human data revealed that human recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) embryos and rare infant patients carrying BubR1 mutations that have been described so far have the PSCS and MVA as in BubR1 deficient/insufficient mice. Based on this data, we predict that deficiency/insufficiency of BubR1 and other components of the SAC in human are responsible for a significant fraction of both early and late RPLs. PMID:24981203

Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Tian, Qi; Hanlon Newell, Amy E; Gessler, Manfred; Olson, Susan B; Rosenwald, Andreas; Kneitz, Burkhard; Fedorov, Lev M

2014-09-01

260

Human endometrial cell coculture reduces the endocrine disruptor toxicity on mouse embryo development  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Previous studies suggested that endocrine disruptors (ED) are toxic on preimplantation embryos and inhibit development of embryos in vitro culture. However, information about the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on preimplantation development of embryo in human reproductive environment is lacking. Methods Bisphenol A (BPA) and Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls) were used as endocrine disruptors in this study. Mouse 2-cell embryos were cultured in medium alone or vehicle or co-cultured with human endometrial epithelial layers in increasing ED concentrations. Results At 72 hours the percentage of normal blastocyst were decreased by ED in a dose-dependent manner while the co-culture system significantly enhanced the rate and reduced the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on the embryonic development in vitro. Conclusions In conclusion, although EDs have the toxic effect on embryo development, the co-culture with human endometrial cell reduced the preimplantation embryo from it thereby making human reproductive environment protective to preimplantation embryo from the toxicity of endocrine disruptors. PMID:22546201

2012-01-01

261

Checkpoint-apoptosis uncoupling in human and mouse embryonic stem cells: a source of karyotpic instability  

PubMed Central

Karyotypic abnormalities in cultured embryonic stem cells (ESCs), especially near-diploid aneuploidy, are potential obstacles to ESC use in regenerative medicine. Events causing chromosomal abnormalities in ESCs may be related to events in tumor cells causing chromosomal instability (CIN) in human disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Using multiparametric permeabilized-cell flow cytometric analysis, we found that the mitotic-spindle checkpoint, which helps maintain chromosomal integrity during all cell divisions, functions in human and mouse ESCs, but does not initiate apoptosis as it does in somatic cells. This allows an unusual tolerance to polyploidy resulting from failed mitosis, which is common in rapidly proliferating cell populations and which is reduced to near-diploid aneuploidy, which is also common in human neoplastic disease. Checkpoint activation in ESC-derived early-differentiated cells results in robust apoptosis without polyploidy/aneuploidy similar to that in somatic cells. Thus, the spindle checkpoint is “uncoupled” from apoptosis in ESCs and is a likely source of karyotypic abnormalities. This natural behavior of ESCs to tolerate/survive varying degrees of ploidy change could complicate genome-reprogramming studies and stem-cell plasticity studies, but could also reveal clues about the mechanisms of CIN in human tumors. PMID:17289813

Guo, Ying; Lee, Man Ryul; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Han, Myung-Kwan; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Fukuda, Seiji; Yoder, Mervin C.; Pelus, Louis M.

2007-01-01

262

Ultrastructural and biochemical alterations induced in human, rat and mouse hepatocytes in primary culture exposed to selected carcinogens  

SciTech Connect

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB{sub 1}), dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and actinomycin D are all potential human liver carcinogens. In order to investigate carcinogenic susceptibility of human liver to these agents, primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes were exposed to the four carcinogens. In the first series of experiments, human, rat, and mouse hepatocytes in primary culture were exposed to actinomycin D, AFB{sub 1}, and DMN for 24 h and examined for ultrastructural alterations. In an effort to relate the ultrastructural effects with total covalent binding of the carcinogen to DNA, human, rat and mouse hepatocytes were exposed to 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M ({sup 3}H)AFB{sub 1} for 24 h. Hepatocytes from male rats had the highest degree of ({sup 3}H)AFB{sub 1}-DNA binding. Human hepatocytes contained the next highest binding level, while hepatocytes from female rats bound 38 pmoles/mg DNA. The AFB{sub 1}-DNA binding level in mouse hepatocytes was 1.4 pmoles/mg DNA. In similar experiments, human, and male and female rat hepatocytes in primary culture were exposed to the carcinogen 2-acetylamino (9-{sup 14}C)fluorene for 24 h. It was determined that male rat hepatocytes had the highest amount of radiolabeled 2-AAF bound to their DNA, female rats contained 0.57 nmoles/mg DNA, while human hepatocytes contained 0.29 nmoles/mg DNA.

Cole, K.H.

1987-01-01

263

Inotropic action of the puberty hormone kisspeptin in rat, mouse and human: cardiovascular distribution and characteristics of the kisspeptin receptor.  

PubMed

Kisspeptins, the ligands of the kisspeptin receptor known for its roles in reproduction and cancer, are also vasoconstrictor peptides in atherosclerosis-prone human aorta and coronary artery. The aim of this study was to further investigate the cardiovascular localisation and function of the kisspeptins and their receptor in human compared to rat and mouse heart. Immunohistochemistry and radioligand binding techniques were employed to investigate kisspeptin receptor localisation, density and pharmacological characteristics in cardiac tissues from all three species. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect kisspeptin peptide levels in human normal heart and to identify any pathological changes in myocardium from patients transplanted for cardiomyopathy or ischaemic heart disease. The cardiac function of kisspeptin receptor was studied in isolated human, rat and mouse paced atria, with a role for the receptor confirmed using mice with targeted disruption of Kiss1r. The data demonstrated that kisspeptin receptor-like immunoreactivity localised to endothelial and smooth muscle cells of intramyocardial blood vessels and to myocytes in human and rodent tissue. [(125)I]KP-14 bound saturably, with subnanomolar affinity to human and rodent myocardium (K(D)?=?0.12 nM, human; K(D)?=?0.44 nM, rat). Positive inotropic effects of kisspeptin were observed in rat, human and mouse. No response was observed in mice with targeted disruption of Kiss1r. In human heart a decrease in cardiac kisspeptin level was detected in ischaemic heart disease. Kisspeptin and its receptor are expressed in the human, rat and mouse heart and kisspeptins possess potent positive inotropic activity. The cardiovascular actions of the kisspeptins may contribute to the role of these peptides in pregnancy but the consequences of receptor activation must be considered if kisspeptin receptor agonists are developed for use in the treatment of reproductive disorders or cancer. PMID:22132116

Maguire, Janet J; Kirby, Helen R; Mead, Emma J; Kuc, Rhoda E; d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Colledge, William H; Davenport, Anthony P

2011-01-01

264

Toxoplasma gondii triggers release of human and mouse neutrophil extracellular traps.  

PubMed

Neutrophils have recently been shown to release DNA-based extracellular traps that contribute to microbicidal killing and have also been implicated in autoimmunity. The role of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the host response to nonbacterial pathogens has received much less attention. Here, we show that the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii elicits the production of NETs from human and mouse neutrophils. Tachyzoites of each of the three major parasite strain types were efficiently entrapped within NETs, resulting in decreased parasite viability. We also show that Toxoplasma activates a MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in neutrophils and that the inhibition of this pathway leads to decreased NET formation. To determine if Toxoplasma induced NET formation in vivo, we employed a mouse intranasal infection model. We found that the administration of tachyzoites by this route induced a rapid tissue recruitment of neutrophils with evidence of extracellular DNA release. Taken together, these data indicate a role for NETs in the host innate response to protozoan infection. We propose that NET formation limits infection by direct microbicidal effects on Toxoplasma as well as by interfering with the ability of the parasite to invade target host cells. PMID:22104111

Abi Abdallah, Delbert S; Lin, Changyou; Ball, Carissa J; King, Michael R; Duhamel, Gerald E; Denkers, Eric Y

2012-02-01

265

Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

Lee, Kang Kyoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyang Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Joon Pio [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lsw@amc.seoul.kr; Sohn, Jung Sook [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Soo Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Department of Radiology, Iksan General Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung-Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sun Rock [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wonkwang School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-07-15

266

Direct Reprogramming of Mouse and Human Fibroblasts into Multipotent Neural Stem Cells with a Single Factor  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and induced neuronal (iN) cells from somatic cells provides new avenues for basic research and potential transplantation therapies for neurological diseases. However, clinical applications must consider the risk of tumor formation by iPS cells and the inability of iN cells to self-renew in culture. Here we report the generation of induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) from mouse and human fibroblasts by direct reprogramming with a single factor, Sox2. iNSCs express NSC markers and resemble wild-type NSCs in their morphology, self-renewal, ability to form neurospheres, and gene expression profiles. Cloned iNSCs differentiate into several types of mature neurons, as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, indicating multipotency. Implanted iNSCs can survive and integrate in mouse brains and, unlike iPS cell-derived NSCs, do not generate tumors. Thus, self-renewable and multipotent iNSCs without tumorigenic potential can be generated directly from fibroblasts by reprogramming. PMID:22683203

Ring, Karen L.; Tong, Leslie M.; Balestra, Maureen E.; Javier, Robyn; Andrews-Zwilling, Yaisa; Li, Gang; Walker, David; Zhang, William R.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Huang, Yadong

2012-01-01

267

Chromosomal aberrations involving telomeres in BRCA1 deficient human and mouse cell lines.  

PubMed

Cells defective in BRCA1 show genomic instability as evidenced by increased radiosensitivity, the presence of chromosomal abnormalities and the loss of heterozygosity at many loci. Reported chromosomal abnormalities in BRCA1 deficient cells include dicentric chromosomes. Dicentric chromosomes, in some cases, may arise as a result of end-to-end chromosome fusions, which represent signatures of telomere dysfunction. In this study we examined BRCA1 deficient human and mouse cells for the presence of chromosomal aberrations indicative of telomere dysfunction. We identified a lymphoblastoid cell line, GM14090, established from a BRCA1 carrier that showed elevated levels of dicentric chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic analysis revealed that these dicentric chromosomes result from end-to-end chromosome fusions. The frequency of end-to-end chromosome fusions did not change after exposure of GM14090 cells to bleomycin but we observed elevated levels of chromosomal abnormalities involving interactions between DNA double strand breaks and uncapped telomeres in this cell line. We observed similar chromosomal abnormalities involving telomeres in the breast cancer cell line, HCC1937, homozygous for BRCA1 mutation. Finally, we analyzed mouse embryonic stem cells lacking functional Brca1 and observed the presence of telomere dysfunction following exposure of these cells to bleomycin. Our results reveal cytogenetic evidence of telomere dysfunction in BRCA1 deficient cells. PMID:15905643

Al-Wahiby, S; Slijepcevic, P

2005-01-01

268

Humanized mouse model of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency for in vivo assessment of hemolytic toxicity  

PubMed Central

Individuals with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk for the development of hemolytic anemia when given 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQs), an important class of antimalarial/antiinfective therapeutics. However, there is no suitable animal model that can predict the clinical hemolytic potential of drugs. We developed and validated a human (hu)RBC-SCID mouse model by giving nonobese diabetic/SCID mice daily transfusions of huRBCs from G6PD-deficient donors. Treatment of SCID mice engrafted with G6PD-deficient huRBCs with primaquine, an 8-AQ, resulted in a dose-dependent selective loss of huRBCs. To validate the specificity of this model, we tested known nonhemolytic antimalarial drugs: mefloquine, chloroquine, doxycycline, and pyrimethamine. No significant loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs was observed. Treatment with drugs known to cause hemolytic toxicity (pamaquine, sitamaquine, tafenoquine, and dapsone) resulted in loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs comparable to primaquine. This mouse model provides an important tool to test drugs for their potential to cause hemolytic toxicity in G6PD-deficient populations. PMID:24101478

Rochford, Rosemary; Ohrt, Colin; Baresel, Paul C.; Campo, Brice; Sampath, Aruna; Magill, Alan J.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.

2013-01-01

269

Immunopathology of human T cell responses to skin, artery and endothelial cell grafts in the human peripheral blood lymphocyte\\/severe combined immunodeficient mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood vessels and their endothelial lining are major stimulators and targets of the rejection response. The immunological properties of human endothelial cells differ significantly from those of other species and new models are needed for proper study of human vessels in the transplant setting. We have employed the human peripheral blood lymphocyte\\/severe combined immunodeficiency (huPBL\\/SCID) mouse for this purpose. We

Jordan S. Pober; Alfred L. M. Bothwell; Marc I. Lorber; Jennifer M. McNiff; Jeffrey S. Schechner; George Tellides

2003-01-01

270

A genetically engineered ovarian cancer mouse model based on fallopian tube transformation mimics human high-grade serous carcinoma development.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from the epithelium of the fallopian tube. However, most mouse models are based on the previous prevailing view that ovarian cancer develops from the transformation of the ovarian surface epithelium. Here, we report the extensive histological and molecular characterization of the mogp-TAg transgenic mouse, which expresses the SV40 large T-antigen (TAg) under the control of the mouse müllerian-specific Ovgp-1 promoter. Histological analysis of the fallopian tubes of mogp-TAg mice identified a variety of neoplastic lesions analogous to those described as precursors to ovarian HGSC. We identified areas of normal-appearing p53-positive epithelium that are similar to 'p53 signatures' in the human fallopian tube. More advanced proliferative lesions with nuclear atypia and epithelial stratification were also identified that were morphologically and immunohistochemically reminiscent of human serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a potential precursor of ovarian HGSC. Beside these non-invasive precursor lesions, we also identified invasive adenocarcinoma in the ovaries of 56% of the mice. Microarray analysis revealed several genes differentially expressed between the fallopian tube of mogp-TAg and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6. One of these genes, Top2a, which encodes topoisomerase II?, was shown by immunohistochemistry to be concurrently expressed with elevated p53 and was specifically elevated in mouse STICs but not in the surrounding tissues. TOP2A protein was also found elevated in human STICs, low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma. The mouse model reported here displays a progression from normal tubal epithelium to invasive HGSC in the ovary, and therefore closely simulates the current emerging model of human ovarian HGSC pathogenesis. This mouse therefore has the potential to be a very useful new model for elucidating the mechanisms of serous ovarian tumourigenesis, as well as for developing novel approaches for the prevention, diagnosis and therapy of this disease. PMID:24652535

Sherman-Baust, Cheryl A; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Valle, Blanca L; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J; Wang, Tian-Li; Amano, Tomokazu; Ko, Minoru S H; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Araki, Yoshihiko; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Morin, Patrice J

2014-07-01

271

Genes affected by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) proviral insertions in mouse mammary tumors are deregulated or mutated in primary human mammary tumors  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of mutations is a contributing factor in the initiation of premalignant mammary lesions and their progression to malignancy and metastasis. We have used a mouse model in which the carcinogen is the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) which induces clonal premalignant mammary lesions and malignant mammary tumors by insertional mutagenesis. Identification of the genes and signaling pathways affected in MMTV-induced mouse mammary lesions provides a rationale for determining whether genetic alteration of the human orthologues of these genes/pathways may contribute to human breast carcinogenesis. A high-throughput platform for inverse PCR to identify MMTV-host junction fragments and their nucleotide sequences in a large panel of MMTV-induced lesions was developed. Validation of the genes affected by MMTV-insertion was carried out by microarray analysis. Common integration site (CIS) means that the gene was altered by an MMTV proviral insertion in at least two independent lesions arising in different hosts. Three of the new genes identified as CIS for MMTV were assayed for their capability to confer on HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells the ability for invasion, anchorage independent growth and tumor development in nude mice. Analysis of MMTV induced mammary premalignant hyperplastic outgrowth (HOG) lines and mammary tumors led to the identification of CIS restricted to 35 loci. Within these loci members of the Wnt, Fgf and Rspo gene families plus two linked genes (Npm3 and Ddn) were frequently activated in tumors induced by MMTV. A second group of 15 CIS occur at a low frequency (2-5 observations) in mammary HOGs or tumors. In this latter group the expression of either Phf19 or Sdc2 was shown to increase HC11 cells invasion capability. Foxl1 expression conferred on HC11 cells the capability for anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar and tumor development in nude mice. The published transcriptome and nucleotide sequence analysis of gene expression in primary human breast tumors was interrogated. Twenty of the human orthologues of MMTV CIS associated genes are deregulated and/or mutated in human breast tumors. PMID:23131872

Callahan, Robert; Mudunuri, Uma; Bargo, Sharon; Raafat, Ahmed; McCurdy, David; Boulanger, Corinne; Lowther, William; Stephens, Robert; Luke, Brian T.; Stewart, Claudia; Wu, Xiaolin; Munroe, David; Smith, Gilbert H.

2012-01-01

272

Global gene expression of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 during human and mouse infection.  

PubMed

Little is known about the expression of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genes during infection conditions. Here, we described the transcriptome of the clinical MRSA strain USA300 derived from human cutaneous abscesses, and compared it with USA300 bacteria derived from infected kidneys in a mouse model. Remarkable similarity between the transcriptomes allowed us to identify genes encoding multiple proteases and toxins, and iron- and peptide-transporter molecules, which are upregulated in both infections and are likely important for establishment of infection. We also showed that disruption of the global transcriptional regulators agr and sae prevents in vivo upregulation of many toxins and proteases, protecting mice from lethal infection dose, and hinting at the role of these transcriptional regulators in the pathology of MRSA infection. PMID:24286981

Date, Shailesh V; Modrusan, Zora; Lawrence, Michael; Morisaki, J Hiroshi; Toy, Karen; Shah, Ishita M; Kim, Janice; Park, Summer; Xu, Min; Basuino, Li; Chan, Liana; Zeitschel, Deborah; Chambers, Henry F; Tan, Man-Wah; Brown, Eric J; Diep, Binh An; Hazenbos, Wouter L W

2014-05-15

273

Integration of Human and Mouse Genetics Reveals Pendrin Function in Hearing and Deafness  

PubMed Central

Genomic technology has completely changed the way in which we are able to diagnose human genetic mutations. Genomic techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction, linkage analysis, Sanger sequencing, and most recently, massively parallel sequencing, have allowed researchers and clinicians to identify mutations for patients with Pendred syndrome and DFNB4 non-syndromic hearing loss. While thus far most of the mutations have been in the SLC26A4 gene coding for the pendrin protein, other genetic mutations may contribute to these phenotypes as well. Furthermore, mouse models for deafness have been invaluable to help determine the mechanisms for SLC26A4-associated deafness. Further work in these areas of research will help define genotype-phenotype correlations and develop methods for therapy in the future. PMID:22116368

Dror, Amiel A.; Brownstein, Zippora; Avraham, Karen B.

2011-01-01

274

HLA reduces KIR expression level and frequency in a humanized mouse model1  

PubMed Central

Many human Natural Killer (NK) cells are prevented from killing autologous cells by virtue of inhibitory Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) binding `self' HLA class I molecules. Individual NK cells stably express a selected set of KIR, but it is currently disputed whether the fraction of NK cells expressing a particular inhibitory KIR is influenced by the presence of the corresponding HLA ligand. This issue has been particularly hard to tackle in a statistically meaningful way due to the extreme polymorphism of the KIR and HLA loci, with widely varying affinities for individual KIR and HLA allele combinations. Here, we use a transgenic mouse model to investigate the effect of HLA on KIR repertoire and function. In this model system, a functional interaction between HLA-Cw3 and KIR2DL2 reduced both the surface expression of KIR2DL2 as well as the frequency of KIR2DL2+ cells. PMID:23390293

van Bergen, Jeroen; Thompson, Allan; Retiere, Christelle; van Pel, Melissa; Salvatori, Daniela; Lemonnier, Francois; Raulet, David; Trowsdale, John; Koning, Frits

2014-01-01

275

Novel insights into embryonic stem cell self-renewal revealed through comparative human and mouse systems biology networks.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell lineages, are a powerful model for biomedical research and developmental biology. Human and mouse ESCs share many features, yet have distinctive aspects, including fundamental differences in the signaling pathways and cell cycle controls that support self-renewal. Here, we explore the molecular basis of human ESC self-renewal using Bayesian network machine learning to integrate cell-type-specific, high-throughput data for gene function discovery. We integrated high-throughput ESC data from 83 human studies (~1.8 million data points collected under 1,100 conditions) and 62 mouse studies (~2.4 million data points collected under 1,085 conditions) into separate human and mouse predictive networks focused on ESC self-renewal to analyze shared and distinct functional relationships among protein-coding gene orthologs. Computational evaluations show that these networks are highly accurate, literature validation confirms their biological relevance, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation supports our predictions. Our results reflect the importance of key regulatory genes known to be strongly associated with self-renewal and pluripotency in both species (e.g., POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG), identify metabolic differences between species (e.g., threonine metabolism), clarify differences between human and mouse ESC developmental signaling pathways (e.g., leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-activated JAK/STAT in mouse; NODAL/ACTIVIN-A-activated fibroblast growth factor in human), and reveal many novel genes and pathways predicted to be functionally associated with self-renewal in each species. These interactive networks are available online at www.StemSight.org for stem cell researchers to develop new hypotheses, discover potential mechanisms involving sparsely annotated genes, and prioritize genes of interest for experimental validation. PMID:24307629

Dowell, Karen G; Simons, Allen K; Bai, Hao; Kell, Braden; Wang, Zack Z; Yun, Kyuson; Hibbs, Matthew A

2014-05-01

276

No Evidence of Non-Homologous Insertions in Mouse Model of MDD Created by Replacement of Homologous Mouse DNA Sequence With Pathogenic 6-base Human CREB1 Promoter Sequence  

PubMed Central

We have recently reported the creation and initial characterization of the first etiology-based recombinant mouse model of major depressive disorder (MDD). This was achieved by replacing the corresponding mouse DNA sequence with a 6-base DNA sequence from the human CREB1 promoter that is associated with the development of MDD in families identified by probands with recurrent, early-onset MDD. The current study explored whether the desired homologous recombination event at the mouse Creb1 gene that resulted in the creation of the mouse model was also accompanied by insertions of the targeting vector at unintended non-homologous locations in the mouse genome. No evidence of insertions of targeting vector sequence was observed at regions other than the mouse Creb1 gene. PMID:22180334

Zubenko, George S.; Hughes, Hugh B.

2011-01-01

277

EEEEK--A Mouse!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of how engineering solved the problem of human/computer interface. Learners disassemble a mouse and explore the movement on the X/Y axis that determines mouse positioning. Learners explore design enhancements to the mouse over time, and as a team of "engineers" add further enhancements to current mouse design.

Ieee

2014-05-22

278

Bacterial and human cell mutagenicity and mouse lung tumorigenicity of the oxygenated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon phenalenone.  

PubMed

Phenalenone (perinaphthenone) is a major oxygenated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (oxy-PAH) atmospheric pollutant formed from the combustion of fossil fuels. Mutagenicity of phenalenone was measured in quantitative forward mutation assays with Salmonella typhimurium TM677 and metabolically competent human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (MCL-5 and h1A1v2 cells), and its tumorigenicity was also assessed in a newborn mouse assay. Phenalenone was mutagenic in Salmonella in the presence of rat liver postmitochondrial supernatant (PMS) at a minimum detectable mutagen concentration (MDMC) of 12 micrograms/ml, but was not mutagenic in the absence of PMS at concentrations up to 100 micrograms/ ml. Phenalenone was not significantly mutagenic in either human cell line after 28 hr treatment, although mutant fractions were increased by nearly fivefold in h1A1v2 cells (at the tk locus) exposed at 30 micrograms/ml. However, after 72 hr treatment, phenalenone was mutagenic at the hprt locus in h1A1v2 cells with an MDMC of 3 micrograms/ml. Phenalenone was also tumorigenic in male BLU:Ha mice with a lung tumor incidence of 33% 6 months after injection with 4.2 mg phenalenone, the highest dose tested. Lung tumor multiplicity in this treatment group was 0.5 tumor/mouse. No increase in lung tumors in female mice was observed. Indices of lung tumor incidence (ED50) and multiplicity (TM1.0) for male mice were 29.3 and 34.9 mumol, respectively. These data suggest that phenalenone does not contribute significantly to the mutagenicity or carcinogenicity of combustion emission extracts. PMID:8921339

Wang, J S; Busby, W F

1996-10-01

279

Human CRB1-Associated Retinal Degeneration: Comparison with the rd8 Crb1-Mutant Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the human disease due to CRB1 mutations and compare results with the Crb1-mutant rd8 mouse. Methods. Twenty-two patients with CRB1 mutations were studied. Function was assessed with perimetry and electroretinography (ERG) and retinal structure with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Cortical structure and function were quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rd8 mice underwent ERG, OCT, and retinal histopathology. Results. Visual acuities ranged from 20/25 to light perception. Rod ERGs were not detectable; small cone signals were recordable. By perimetry, small central visual islands were separated by midperipheral scotomas from far temporal peripheral islands. The central islands were cone mediated, whereas the peripheral islands retained some rod function. With OCT, there were small foveal islands of thinned outer nuclear layer (ONL) surrounded by thick delaminated retina with intraretinal hyperreflective lesions. MRI showed structurally normal optic nerves and only subtle changes to occipital lobe white and gray matter. Functional MRI indicated that whole-brain responses from patients were of reduced amplitude and spatial extent compared with those of normal controls. Rd8 mice had essentially normal ERGs; OCT and histopathology showed patchy retinal disorganization with pseudorosettes more pronounced in ventral than in dorsal retina. Photoreceptor degeneration was associated with dysplastic regions. Conclusions. CRB1 mutations lead to early-onset severe loss of vision with thickened, disorganized, nonseeing retina. Impaired peripheral vision can persist in late disease stages. Rd8 mice also have a disorganized retina, but there is sufficient photoreceptor integrity to produce largely normal retinal function. Differences between human and mouse diseases will complicate proof-of-concept studies intended to advance treatment initiatives. PMID:21757580

Aleman, Tomas S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Huang, Wei Chieh; Mullins, Cristina L.; Roman, Alejandro J.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Olivares, Melani B.; Tsai, Frank F.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Limberis, Maria P.; Stone, Edwin M.; Bell, Peter; Wilson, James M.

2011-01-01

280

Mouse p53-Deficient Cancer Models as Platforms for Obtaining Genomic Predictors of Human Cancer Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the TP53 gene are very common in human cancers, and are associated with poor clinical outcome. Transgenic mouse models lacking the Trp53 gene or that express mutant Trp53 transgenes produce tumours with malignant features in many organs. We previously showed the transcriptome of a p53-deficient mouse skin carcinoma model to be similar to those of human cancers with TP53 mutations and associated with poor clinical outcomes. This report shows that much of the 682-gene signature of this murine skin carcinoma transcriptome is also present in breast and lung cancer mouse models in which p53 is inhibited. Further, we report validated gene-expression-based tests for predicting the clinical outcome of human breast and lung adenocarcinoma. It was found that human patients with cancer could be stratified based on the similarity of their transcriptome with the mouse skin carcinoma 682-gene signature. The results also provide new targets for the treatment of p53-defective tumours. PMID:22880004

Duenas, Marta; Santos, Mirentxu; Aranda, Juan F.; Bielza, Concha; Martinez-Cruz, Ana B.; Lorz, Corina; Taron, Miquel; Ciruelos, Eva M.; Rodriguez-Peralto, Jose L.; Martin, Miguel; Larranaga, Pedro; Dahabreh, Jubrail; Stathopoulos, George P.; Rosell, Rafael; Paramio, Jesus M.; Garcia-Escudero, Ramon

2012-01-01

281

CYTOGENETIC COMPARISON OF THE RESPONSES OF MOUSE AND HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES TO 60CO GAMMA RADIATION (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were conducted to compare the chromosome damaging effects of (60)Co gamma radiation on mouse and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Either whole blood or isolated and pelleted mononuclear leucocytes (MNLs) were irradiated with a (60)Co unit to yield exposures ...

282

Expression of membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase XIV on neurons and axons in mouse and human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although long suspected from histochemical evidence for carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity on neurons and observations that CA inhibitors enhance the extracellular alkaline shifts associated with synaptic transmission, an extracellular CA in brain had not been identified. A candidate for this CA was suggested by the recent discovery of membrane CA (CA XIV) whose mRNA is expressed in mouse and human

Seppo Parkkila; Anna-Kaisa Parkkila; Hannu Rajaniemi; Gul N. Shah; Jeffrey H. Grubb; Abdul Waheed; William S. Sly

2001-01-01

283

A p53-dependent mechanism underlies macrocytic anemia in a mouse model of human 5q– syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of the genes associated with chromosomal translocation breakpoints has fundamentally changed understanding of the molecular basis of hematological malignancies. By contrast, the study of chromosomal deletions has been hampered by the large number of genes deleted and the complexity of their analysis. We report the generation of a mouse model for human 5q– syndrome using large-scale chromosomal engineering.

Jillian L Barlow; Lesley F Drynan; Duncan R Hewett; Luke R Holmes; Silvia Lorenzo-Abalde; Helen E Jolin; Richard Pannell; Angela J Middleton; See Heng Wong; Alan J Warren; James S Wainscoat; Jacqueline Boultwood; Andrew N J McKenzie

2009-01-01

284

Mouse FGF15 is the ortholog of human and chick FGF19, but is not uniquely required for otic induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inner ear develops from an ectodermal placode that is specified by inductive signals from the adjacent neurectoderm and underlying mesoderm. In chick, fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-19 is expressed in mesoderm underlying the presumptive otic placode, and human FGF19 induces expression of otic markers in a tissue explant containing neural plate and surface ectoderm. We show here that mouse Fgf15

Tracy J Wright; Raj Ladher; John McWhirter; Cornelis Murre; Gary C Schoenwolf; Suzanne L Mansour

2004-01-01

285

DG-CST (Disease Gene Conserved Sequence Tags), a database of human-mouse conserved elements associated to disease genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification and study of evolutionarily con- served genomic sequences that surround disease- related genes is a valuable tool to gain insight into the functional role of these genes and to better eluci- date the pathogenetic mechanisms of disease. We created the DG-CST (Disease Gene Conserved Sequence Tags) database for the identification and detailed annotation of human-mouse conserved genomic sequences

Angelo Boccia; Mauro Petrillo; Diego Di Bernardo; Alessandro Guffanti; Flavio Mignone; Stefano Confalonieri; Lucilla Luzi; Graziano Pesole; Giovanni Paolella; Andrea Ballabio; Sandro Banfi

2005-01-01

286

A mouse model for human short-stature syndromes identifies Shox2 as an upstream regulator of Runx2  

E-print Network

of short-stature conditions, including Turner syndrome, Leri­Weill dyschondrosteosis, and Langer mesomelic as a candidate gene for the short-stature phenotype associated with Turner syndrome (1, 2). Whereas the contribuA mouse model for human short-stature syndromes identifies Shox2 as an upstream regulator of Runx2

Cobb, John

287

Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1  

PubMed Central

The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration–time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process.

Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E.

2014-01-01

288

Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1.  

PubMed

The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration-time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E

2014-10-01

289

Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis in a mouse medulloblastoma model defines networks that discriminate between human molecular subgroups.  

PubMed

The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen is a powerful tool to facilitate the discovery of cancer genes that drive tumorigenesis in mouse models. In this study, we sought to identify genes that functionally cooperate with sonic hedgehog signaling to initiate medulloblastoma (MB), a tumor of the cerebellum. By combining SB mutagenesis with Patched1 heterozygous mice (Ptch1(lacZ/+)), we observed an increased frequency of MB and decreased tumor-free survival compared with Ptch1(lacZ/+) controls. From an analysis of 85 tumors, we identified 77 common insertion sites that map to 56 genes potentially driving increased tumorigenesis. The common insertion site genes identified in the mutagenesis screen were mapped to human orthologs, which were used to select probes and corresponding expression data from an independent set of previously described human MB samples, and surprisingly were capable of accurately clustering known molecular subgroups of MB, thereby defining common regulatory networks underlying all forms of MB irrespective of subgroup. We performed a network analysis to discover the likely mechanisms of action of subnetworks and used an in vivo model to confirm a role for a highly ranked candidate gene, Nfia, in promoting MB formation. Our analysis implicates candidate cancer genes in the deregulation of apoptosis and translational elongation, and reveals a strong signature of transcriptional regulation that will have broad impact on expression programs in MB. These networks provide functional insights into the complex biology of human MB and identify potential avenues for intervention common to all clinical subgroups. PMID:24167280

Genovesi, Laura A; Ng, Ching Ging; Davis, Melissa J; Remke, Marc; Taylor, Michael D; Adams, David J; Rust, Alistair G; Ward, Jerrold M; Ban, Kenneth H; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G; Wainwright, Brandon J

2013-11-12

290

Cytotoxicity of purified listeriolysin O on mouse and human leukocytes and leukaemia cells  

PubMed Central

Background Listeriolysin O (LLO) is the main virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes and facilitates the intracellular survival of the pathogen. Some of its characteristics endorse the growing popularity of LLO for use in biotechnology, particularly in the development of novel vaccines. Here, we evaluate the use of LLO to eradicate leukaemia cells. Results A purified LLO preparation was obtained by affinity chromatography. The LLO preparation procedure was optimized and purified LLO was tested for optimal conditions of storage including temperature, application of proteinase inhibitors and serum components. We demonstrated the possibility of regulating LLO activity by adjusting cell membrane cholesterol content. The LLO preparation had haemolytic activity and had a cytotoxic effect on the human T-leukaemia Jurkat cell line as well as mouse and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions LLO has a very potent cytotoxic activity towards human leukocytes. Importantly, the cytotoxic activity was easily regulated in vitro and could be restricted to areas containing malignant cells, raising the possibility of future clinical application of LLO for leukaemia treatment. PMID:25134983

2014-01-01

291

[Expression in mouse L cells of mos-related ORAgp5 locus cloned from the human genome].  

PubMed

The recombinant locus ORAgp5 containing the regions homologous to protooncogene mos was previously cloned from the human genome. In order to monitor the expression of this human genome region, we have transfected the recombinant phage gp5 into mouse LMtk cells. One of these transfectants contained several copies of gp5. ORAgp5 sequences were found to be expressed in 1.5 kb RNA from this clone. PMID:1693124

Tret'iakov, L O; Chumakov, I M

1990-01-01

292

Mutant Human Presenilin 1 Protects presenilin 1 Null Mouse against Embryonic Lethality and Elevates A?1–42\\/43 Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in presenilin 1 (PS1) are linked to early onset of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) and are shown to foster production of A?1–42\\/43 in FAD patients and transgenic mice. PS1 null mice are embryonic lethal and exhibit axial skeleton malformation and CNS defects. We show that transgenic mouse lines expressing either the wild-type human PS1 protein or human PS1 with

Su Qian; Ping Jiang; Xiao-Ming Guan; Gurparkash Singh; Myrna E. Trumbauer; Hong Yu; Howard Y. Chen; Hui Zheng

1998-01-01

293

Novel insights into the relationships between dendritic cell subsets in human and mouse revealed by genome-wide expression profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are a complex group of cells that play a critical role in vertebrate immunity. Lymph-node resident DCs (LN-DCs) are subdivided into conventional DC (cDC) subsets (CD11b and CD8? in mouse; BDCA1 and BDCA3 in human) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). It is currently unclear if these various DC populations belong to a unique hematopoietic lineage and if the subsets identified in the mouse and human systems are evolutionary homologs. To gain novel insights into these questions, we sought conserved genetic signatures for LN-DCs and in vitro derived granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) DCs through the analysis of a compendium of genome-wide expression profiles of mouse or human leukocytes. Results We show through clustering analysis that all LN-DC subsets form a distinct branch within the leukocyte family tree, and reveal a transcriptomal signature evolutionarily conserved in all LN-DC subsets. Moreover, we identify a large gene expression program shared between mouse and human pDCs, and smaller conserved profiles shared between mouse and human LN-cDC subsets. Importantly, most of these genes have not been previously associated with DC function and many have unknown functions. Finally, we use compendium analysis to re-evaluate the classification of interferon-producing killer DCs, lin-CD16+HLA-DR+ cells and in vitro derived GM-CSF DCs, and show that these cells are more closely linked to natural killer and myeloid cells, respectively. Conclusion Our study provides a unique database resource for future investigation of the evolutionarily conserved molecular pathways governing the ontogeny and functions of leukocyte subsets, especially DCs. PMID:18218067

Robbins, Scott H; Walzer, Thierry; Dembele, Doulaye; Thibault, Christelle; Defays, Axel; Bessou, Gilles; Xu, Huichun; Vivier, Eric; Sellars, MacLean; Pierre, Philippe; Sharp, Franck R; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe; Dalod, Marc

2008-01-01

294

The gene for the retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 is localized to human 1p31 and mouse 3  

SciTech Connect

The human and murine chromosomal localization for the gene for the retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 was determined. Using interspecific backcross analysis, the authors mapped Rpe65 to the distal end of mouse chromosome 3. In the human, using a human-hamster hybrid panel, RPE65 was mapped to chromosome 1. By the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization, this localization was refined to 1p31. The mouse and human loci for this potential candidate gene for hereditary retinal disease do not match those of any known disease in mouse or man. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Hamel, C.P.; Redmond, T.M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Jenkins, N.A.; Gilbert, D.J.; Copeland, N.G. (Mammalian Genetics Lab., Frederick, MD (United States))

1994-04-01

295

Smad3 and Snail show circadian expression in human gingival fibroblasts, human mesenchymal stem cell, and in mouse liver.  

PubMed

Smads are intracellular signaling mediators. Complexes of Smad2 and Smad3 with Smad4 transmit transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) receptor-induced signaling. Snail plays important roles in mesoderm formation, gastrulation, neural crest development, and epithelial mesenchymal transition. However, it remains unknown whether Smad3 and Snail expression is circadian rhythm-dependent. Here, we showed for the first time that Smad3 and Snail show circadian expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) after serum shock. They also showed circadian expression in the mouse liver. We confirmed that BMAL1/2, DEC1/2, VEGF, and PER1/2/3 also show circadian expression in both HGF-1 and MSC. The mRNA peaks and phases in circadian expression of these genes differed between HGF-1 and MSC. In a luciferase assay, Smad3 promoter activity was upregulated by CLOCK/BMAL1. These findings suggest that Smad3 and Snail have circadian rhythm in vitro and vivo, and that circadian expression of Smad3 depends on CLOCK/BMAL1. PMID:22382019

Sato, Fuyuki; Sato, Hiroyasu; Jin, Daiki; Bhawal, Ujjal Kumar; Wu, Yunyan; Noshiro, Mitsuhide; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Katsumi; Seino, Hiroko; Morohashi, Satoko; Kato, Yukio; Kijima, Hiroshi

2012-03-01

296

Mouse strain and conditioning regimen determine survival and function of human leucocytes in immunodeficient mice  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice represents an important barrier to the successful engraftment of human cells. Different genetic and pharmacological strategies improve the graft survival. Non-obese diabetic (NOD)-SCID mice are better hosts for reconstitution with human peripheral blood leucocytes (Hu-PBL) because of their reduced natural killer cell and macrophage activity next to defective T and B cell functions. We investigated effects of TM-?1, a rat monoclonal antibody recognizing the mouse IL-2 receptor ?-chain, on Hu-PBL survival and function in NOD-SCID and SCID mice. Relative to untreated littermates, TM-?1 improved Hu-PBL survival in SCID and NOD-SCID mice. Moreover, TM-?1-pretreated NOD-SCID mice displayed significantly better Hu-PBL survival and tissue distribution than TM-?1-pretreated SCID mice. Irradiation of NOD-SCID mice further enhanced the effects of TM-?1. However, these animals died within 3 weeks post-grafting due to graft-versus-host disease. Secondary immune responses were evaluated with Hu-PBL from a donor immune to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). In TM-?1-pretreated NOD-SCID mice, human HBsAg-specific memory B cells produced high titres of anti-HBsAg immunoglobulin irrespective of the administration of a secondary antigen booster dose. This contrasts with secondary immune responses in TM-?1-pretreated SCID mice where high titred antigen-specific immunoglobulins were produced when the appropriate antigen booster was given. In conclusion, reducing the function of the innate immune system in immunodeficient mice improves survival of the human graft and can result in an activation of the memory B cells without the need for recall antigen exposure. PMID:10606988

Tournoy, K G; Depraetere, S; Pauwels, R A; Leroux-Roels, G G

2000-01-01

297

Sulfated glycosaminoglycan-assisted receptor specificity of human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 signaling in a mouse system is different from that in a human system.  

PubMed

The endocrine action of human (h) intestine-derived fibroblast growth factor 19 (hFGF19) toward liver cells necessitates a highly specific recognition system. We previously reported that at physiological concentrations (~30 pM), hFGF19 requires sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) for its signaling via human FGF receptor 4 (hFGFR4) in the presence of a co-receptor, human ?Klotho (hKLB), thus establishing specific targeting. Here we report that the specificity of hFGF19 signaling is greatly altered in a mouse model system. In in vitro cellular systems, at concentrations achievable in transgenic animals and in pharmacologic animal experiments (1-100 nM), hFGF19 activates mouse (m)FGFR1c, mFGFR2c, and mFGFR3c but not mFGFR4 in the presence of mKLB and nonheparin authentic sGAGs. Furthermore, in the presence of hepatic sGAGs or heparin, nanomolar hFGF19 activates mFGFR4, even in the absence of co-expressed mKLB. Taken together, these results indicate that the sGAG-assisted receptor specificity of hFGF19 signaling achieved in experimental mouse systems differs greatly from that in physiological human systems. This suggests the function and mechanism of hFGF19 signaling identified using mouse systems should be reevaluated. PMID:23064887

Nakamura, Masao; Uehara, Yuriko; Asada, Masahiro; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru

2013-03-01

298

Effects of methylmercury exposure on neuronal differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

The establishment of more efficient in vitro approaches has been widely acknowledged as a critical need for toxicity testing. In this study, we examined the effects of methylmercury (MeHg), which is a well-known developmental neurotoxicant, in two neuronal differentiation systems of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (mESCs and hESCs, respectively). Embryoid bodies were generated from gathering of mESCs and hESCs using a micro-device and seeded onto ornithine-laminin-coated plates to promote proliferation and neuronal differentiation. The cells were exposed to MeHg from the start of neuronal induction until the termination of cultures, and significant reductions of mESCs and hESCs were observed in the cell viability assays at 1,10,100 and 1000nM, respectively. Although the mESC derivatives were more sensitive than the hESC derivatives to MeHg exposure in terms of cell viability, the morphological evaluation demonstrated that the neurite length and branch points of hESC derivatives were more susceptible to a low concentration of MeHg. Then, the mRNA levels of differentiation markers were examined using quantitative RT-PCR analysis and the interactions between MeHg exposure and gene expression levels were visualized using a network model based on a Bayesian algorithm. The Bayesian network analysis showed that a MeHg-node was located on the highest hierarchy in the hESC derivatives, but not in the mESC derivatives, suggesting that MeHg directly affect differentiation marker genes in hESCs. Taken together, effects of MeHg were observed in our neuronal differentiation systems of mESCs and hESCs using a combination of morphological and molecular markers. Our study provided possible, but limited, evidences that human ESC models might be more sensitive in particular endpoints in response to MeHg exposure than that in mouse ESC models. Further investigations that expand on the findings of the present paper may solve problems that occur when the outcomes from laboratory animals are extrapolated for human risk evaluation. PMID:22555245

He, Xiaoming; Imanishi, Satoshi; Sone, Hideko; Nagano, Reiko; Qin, Xian-Yang; Yoshinaga, Jun; Akanuma, Hiromi; Yamane, Junko; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

2012-07-01

299

Analysis of telomere length and function in radiosensitive mouse and human cells in response to DNA-PKcs inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Telomeres, the physical ends of chromosomes, play an important role in preserving genomic integrity. This protection is supported by telomere binding proteins collectively known as the shelterin complex. The shelterin complex protects chromosome ends by suppressing DNA damage response and acting as a regulator of telomere length maintenance by telomerase, an enzyme that elongates telomeres. Telomere dysfunction manifests in different forms including chromosomal end-to-end fusion, telomere shortening and p53-dependent apoptosis and/or senescence. An important shelterin-associated protein with critical role in telomere protection in human and mouse cells is the catalytic subunit of DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). DNA-PKcs deficiency in mouse cells results in elevated levels of spontaneous telomeric fusion, a marker of telomere dysfunction, but does not cause telomere length shortening. Similarly, inhibition of DNA-PKcs with chemical inhibitor, IC86621, prevents chromosomal end protection through mechanism reminiscent of dominant-negative reduction in DNA-PKcs activity. Results We demonstrate here that the IC86621 mediated inhibition of DNA-PKcs in two mouse lymphoma cell lines results not only in elevated frequencies of chromosome end-to-end fusions, but also accelerated telomere shortening in the presence of telomerase. Furthermore, we observed increased levels of spontaneous telomeric fusions in Artemis defective human primary fibroblasts in which DNA-PKcs was inhibited, but no significant changes in telomere length. Conclusion These results confirm that DNA-PKcs plays an active role in chromosome end protection in mouse and human cells. Furthermore, it appears that DNA-PKcs is also involved in telomere length regulation, independently of telomerase activity, in mouse lymphoma cells but not in human cells. PMID:23521760

2013-01-01

300

Mouse models of human INAD by Pla2g6 deficiency.  

PubMed

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease characterized by its early onset. PLA2G6, which encodes a phospholipase A2, iPLA??, has been identified as a causative gene of INAD. iPLA?? has been shown to be involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including immunity, cell death, and cell membrane homeostasis. Gene targeted mice with a null mutation of Pla2g6 develop the INAD phenotype as late as approximately 1 to 2 years after birth. Recently, another INAD mouse model, Pla2g6-INAD mice line, has been established. The Pla2g6-INAD mice bear a point mutation in the ankyrin repeat domain of Pla2g6 generated by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis. These mutant mice develop severe motor dysfunction and hematopoietic abnormality in a manner following Mendelian law. The mice showed the abnormal gait and poor performance as early as 7 to 8 weeks of age, detected by hanging grip test. Neuropathological examination revealed widespread formation of spheroids containing tubulovesicular membranes similar to human INAD. Molecular and biochemical analysis revealed that the mutant mice expressed Pla2g6 mRNA and protein, but the mutated Pla2g6 protein had no glycerophospholipid-catalyzing enzyme activity. When analyzed the offspring which bear Pla2g6 knockout allele and Pla2g6-INAD allele, abnormal gait appeared slightly later than Pla2g6-INAD homozygotes but with earlier onset than the Pla2g6 knockout homozygotes. This result suggests that mutant Pla2g6 protein contributes to early onset of INAD symptoms in the absence of intact Pla2g6 protein. The analysis of various INAD mouse models may help to understand the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including INAD. PMID:23467909

Wada, Haruka; Kojo, Satoshi; Seino, Ken-ichiro

2013-08-01

301

EFFECT OF HUMAN 15-LIPOXYGENASE-1 METABOLITES ON VASCULAR FUNCTION IN MOUSE MESENTERIC ARTERIES AND HEARTS  

PubMed Central

Lipoxygenases regulate vascular function by metabolizing arachidonic acid (AA) to dilator eicosanoids. Previously, we showed that endothelium-targeted adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer of the human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h15-LO-1) enhances arterial relaxation through the production of vasodilatory hydroxyepoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) and trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA) metabolites. To further define this function, a transgenic (Tg) mouse line that overexpresses h15-LO-1 was studied. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR results confirmed expression of 15-LO-1 transgene in tissues, especially high quantity in coronary arterial wall, of Tg mice. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of [14C]-AA metabolites in heart tissues revealed enhanced 15-HETE synthesis in Tg vs. WT mice. Among the 15-LO-1 metabolites, 15-HETE, erythro-13-H-14,15-EETA, and 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA relaxed the mouse mesenteric arteries to the greatest extent. The presence of h15-LO-1 increased acetylcholine- and AA-mediated relaxation in mesenteric arteries of Tg mice compared to WT mice. 15-LO-1 expression was most abundant in heart; therefore, we used the Langendorff heart model to test the hypothesis that elevated 15-LO-1 levels would increase coronary flow following a short ischemia episode. Both peak flow and excess flow of reperfused hearts were significantly elevated in hearts from Tg compared to WT mice being 2.03 and 3.22 times greater, respectively. These results indicate that h15-LO-1-derived metabolites are highly vasoactive and may play a critical role in regulating coronary blood flow. PMID:23872364

Kriska, Tamas; Cepura, Cody; Siangjong, Lawan; Wan, Tina C.; Auchampach, John A.; Shaish, Aviv; Haratz, Dror; Kumar, Ganesh; Falck, John R.; Gauthier, Kathryn M.; Campbell, William B.

2013-01-01

302

Segmental trisomy of chromosome 17: A mouse model of human aneuploidy syndromes  

PubMed Central

Triplication of whole autosomes or large autosomal segments is detrimental to the development of a mammalian embryo. The trisomy of human chromosome (Chr) 21, known as Down's syndrome, is regularly associated with mental retardation and a variable set of other developmental anomalies. Several mouse models of Down's syndrome, triplicating 33–104 genes of Chr16, were designed in an attempt to analyze the contribution of specific orthologous genes to particular developmental features. However, a recent study challenged the concept of dosage-sensitive genes as a primary cause of an abnormal phenotype. To distinguish between the specific effects of dosage-sensitive genes and nonspecific effects of a large number of arbitrary genes, we revisited the mouse Ts43H/Ph segmental trisomy. It encompasses >310 known genes triplicated within the proximal 30 megabases (Mb) of Chr17. We refined the distal border of the trisomic segment to the interval bounded by bacterial artificial chromosomes RP23-277B13 (location 29.0 Mb) and Cbs gene (location 30.2 Mb). The Ts43H mice, viable on a mixed genetic background, exhibited spatial learning deficits analogous to those observed in Ts65Dn mice with unrelated trisomy. Quantitative analysis of the brain expression of 20 genes inside the trisomic interval and 12 genes lying outside on Chr17 revealed 1.2-fold average increase of mRNA steady-state levels of triplicated genes and 0.9-fold average down-regulation of genes beyond the border of trisomy. We propose that systemic comparisons of unrelated segmental trisomies, such as Ts65Dn and Ts43H, will elucidate the pathways leading from the triplicated sequences to the complex developmental traits. PMID:15755806

Vacík, Tomáš; Ort, Michael; Gregorová, So?a; Strnad, Petr; Blatný, Radek; Conte, Nathalie; Bradley, Allan; Bureš, Jan; Forejt, Ji?í

2005-01-01

303

Alternative Splicing Generates Different Parkin Protein Isoforms: Evidences in Human, Rat, and Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2) gene mutations are the most frequent causes of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson's disease and juvenile Parkinson disease. Parkin deficiency has also been linked to other human pathologies, for example, sporadic Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, autism, and cancer. PARK2 primary transcript undergoes an extensive alternative splicing, which enhances transcriptomic diversification. To date several PARK2 splice variants have been identified; however, the expression and distribution of parkin isoforms have not been deeply investigated yet. Here, the currently known PARK2 gene transcripts and relative predicted encoded proteins in human, rat, and mouse are reviewed. By analyzing the literature, we highlight the existing data showing the presence of multiple parkin isoforms in the brain. Their expression emerges from conflicting results regarding the electrophoretic mobility of the protein, but it is also assumed from discrepant observations on the cellular and tissue distribution of parkin. Although the characterization of each predicted isoforms is complex, since they often diverge only for few amino acids, analysis of their expression patterns in the brain might account for the different pathogenetic effects linked to PARK2 gene mutations. PMID:25136611

Drago, Filippo

2014-01-01

304

The storm and stress of adolescence: insights from human imaging and mouse genetics.  

PubMed

The characterization of adolescence as a time of "storm and stress" remains an open debate. Intense and frequent negative affect during this period has been hypothesized to explain the increased rates of affective disorders, suicide, and accidental death during this time of life. Yet some teens emerge from adolescence with minimal turmoil. We provide a neurobiological model of adolescence that proposes an imbalance in the development of subcortical limbic (e.g., amygdala) relative to prefrontal cortical regions as a potential mechanism for heightened emotionality during this period. Empirical support for this model is provided from recent behavioral and human imaging studies on the development of emotion regulation. We then provide examples of environmental factors that may exacerbate imbalances in amygdala-ventrofrontal function increasing risk for anxiety related behaviors. Finally we present data from human and mouse studies to illustrate how genetic factors may enhance or diminish this risk. Together, these studies provide a converging methods approach for understanding the highly variable stress and turmoil experienced in adolescence. PMID:20222060

Casey, B J; Jones, Rebecca M; Levita, Liat; Libby, Victoria; Pattwell, Siobhan S; Ruberry, Erika J; Soliman, Fatima; Somerville, Leah H

2010-04-01

305

The Storm and Stress of Adolescence: Insights from Human Imaging and Mouse Genetics  

PubMed Central

The characterization of adolescence as a time of “storm and stress” remains an open debate. Intense and frequent negative affect during this period has been hypothesized to explain the increased rates of affective disorders, suicide, and accidental death during this time of life. Yet some teens emerge from adolescence with minimal turmoil. We provide a neurobiological model of adolescence that proposes an imbalance in the development of subcortical limbic (e.g., amygdala) relative to prefrontal cortical regions as a potential mechanism for heightened emotionality during this period. Empirical support for this model is provided from recent behavioral and human imaging studies on the development of emotion regulation. We then provide examples of environmental factors that may exacerbate imbalances in amygdala-ventrofrontal function increasing risk for anxiety related behaviors. Finally we present data from human and mouse studies to illustrate how genetic factors may enhance or diminish this risk. Together, these studies provide a converging methods approach for understanding the highly variable stress and turmoil experienced in adolescence. PMID:20222060

Casey, BJ; Jones, Rebecca M.; Levita, Liat; Libby, Victoria; Pattwell, Siobhan; Ruberry, Erika; Soliman, Fatima; Somerville, Leah H.

2010-01-01

306

Computational analyses of mammalian lactate dehydrogenases: human, mouse, opossum and platypus LDHs.  

PubMed

Computational methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences and gene locations for mammalian lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) genes and proteins using genome sequence databanks. Human LDHA, LDHC and LDH6A genes were located in tandem on chromosome 11, while LDH6B and LDH6C genes were on chromosomes 15 and 12, respectively. Opossum LDHC and LDH6B genes were located in tandem with the opossum LDHA gene on chromosome 5 and contained 7 (LDHA and LDHC) or 8 (LDH6B) exons. An amino acid sequence prediction for the opossum LDH6B subunit gave an extended N-terminal sequence, similar to the human and mouse LDH6B sequences, which may support the export of this enzyme into mitochondria. The platypus genome contained at least 3 LDH genes encoding LDHA, LDHB and LDH6B subunits. Phylogenetic studies and sequence analyses indicated that LDHA, LDHB and LDH6B genes are present in all mammalian genomes examined, including a monotreme species (platypus), whereas the LDHC gene may have arisen more recently in marsupial mammals. PMID:19679512

Holmes, Roger S; Goldberg, Erwin

2009-10-01

307

Modulation of ?-catenin function maintains mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell self-renewal  

PubMed Central

Wnt/?-catenin signalling has a variety of roles in regulating stem cell fates. Its specific role in mouse epiblast stem cell self-renewal, however, remains poorly understood. Here we show that Wnt/?-catenin functions in both self-renewal and differentiation in mouse epiblast stem cells. Stabilization and nuclear translocation of ?-catenin and its subsequent binding to T-cell factors induces differentiation. Conversely, retention of stabilized ?-catenin in the cytoplasm maintains self-renewal. Cytoplasmic retention of ?-catenin is effected by stabilization of Axin2, a downstream target of ?-catenin, or by genetic modifications to ?-catenin that prevent its nuclear translocation. We also find that human embryonic stem cell and mouse epiblast stem cell fates are regulated by ?-catenin through similar mechanisms. Our results elucidate a new role for ?-catenin in stem cell self-renewal that is independent of its transcriptional activity and will have broad implications in understanding the molecular regulation of stem cell fate. PMID:23985566

Kim, Hoon; Wu, Jun; Ye, Shoudong; Tai, Chih-I; Zhou, Xingliang; Yan, Hexin; Li, Ping; Pera, Martin; Ying, Qi-Long

2014-01-01

308

Experimental models of lymphoproliferative disease. The mouse as a model for human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and related leukemias.  

PubMed Central

The present review focuses on the mouse as an experimental immunopathologic model for human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and related leukemias. Immunomorphologic evidence is presented that clearly demonstrates that B- and T-cell subtypes of mouse (murine) lymphoma/leukemia closely resemble and are analogous to B- and T-cell subtypes of human lymphoma/leukemia as defined by recently proposed immunomorphologic classifications. Further evidence is presented that favors the hypothesis that certain types of murine and human B-cell lymphoma develop out of prodromal, prelymphomatous states, which exhibit antecedent morphologic and immunologic abnormalities. The many experimental advantages of the murine systems are stressed, as well as the concept that the presently defined immunomorphologic approach should be effectively combined with molecular and cytogenetic parameters. Images Table 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Table 9 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6605691

Pattengale, P. K.; Taylor, C. R.

1983-01-01

309

Position of Human Chromosomes is Conserved in Mouse Nuclei Indicating a Species-Independent Mechanism for Maintaining Genome Organization  

PubMed Central

The non-random positioning of chromosome territories in eukaryotic cells is largely correlated with gene density and is conserved throughout evolution. Gene rich chromosomes are predominantly central while gene poor chromosomes are peripherally localized in interphase nuclei. We previously demonstrated that artificially introduced human chromosomes assume a position equivalent to their endogenous homologues in the diploid colon cancer cell line DLD-1. These chromosomal aneuploidies result in a significant increase in transcript levels, suggesting a relationship between genomic copy number, gene expression and chromosome position. We previously proposed that each chromosome is marked by a “zip-code” that determines its non-random position in the nucleus. Here we investigated (1) whether mouse nuclei recognize such determinants of nuclear position on human chromosomes to facilitate their distinct partitioning and (2) if chromosome positioning and transcriptional activity remain coupled under these trans-species conditions. Using 3D-FISH, confocal microscopy and gene expression profiling, we show (i) that gene poor and gene rich human chromosomes maintain their divergent but conserved positions in mouse-human hybrid nuclei and (ii) that a foreign human chromosome is actively transcribed in mouse nuclei. Our results suggest a species-independent conserved mechanism for the non-random positioning of chromosomes in the 3-dimensional interphase nucleus. PMID:18563425

Sengupta, Kundan; Camps, Jordi; Mathews, Priya; Barenboim-Stapleton, Linda; Nguyen, Quang Tri; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ried, Thomas

2008-01-01

310

Development of HPLC methods for the determination of vancomycin in human plasma, mouse serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

PubMed

Two high-performance liquid chromatography methods utilizing a protein precipitation technique were developed to analyze vancomycin in human plasma, mouse serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The mobile phase consisted of ammonium phosphate buffer with acetonitrile. A cross-matrix validation was performed to ensure that the mouse serum was comparable to the original biological matrix of human plasma. Murine BAL samples were run on a saline standard curve. For saline samples, the mobile phase from the human plasma study was used with the addition of 1M sodium hydroxide (0.2%) to avoid interfering peaks. A reversed-phase column was used with an ultraviolet detector set at 240 nm for human plasma and 198 nm for saline to increase peak size. The standard curves were liner over the ranges of 1 to 80 µg/mL for human plasma and 0.1 to 10 µg/mL for saline. These assays are simple, reproducible and accurate. These analytical techniques were successfully applied to analyze vancomycin concentrations in mouse serum and BAL samples. PMID:22851425

Hagihara, Mao; Sutherland, Christina; Nicolau, David P

2013-03-01

311

Quantification of Chitinase mRNA Levels in Human and Mouse Tissues by Real-Time PCR: Species-Specific Expression of Acidic Mammalian Chitinase in Stomach Tissues  

PubMed Central

Chitinase hydrolyzes chitin, which is an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer that is present in a wide range of organisms, including insects, parasites and fungi. Although mammals do not contain any endogenous chitin, humans and mice express two active chitinases, chitotriosidase (Chit1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). Because the level of expression of these chitinases is increased in many inflammatory conditions, including Gaucher disease and mouse models of asthma, both chitinases may play important roles in the pathophysiologies of these and other diseases. We recently established a quantitative PCR system using a single standard DNA and showed that AMCase mRNA is synthesized at extraordinarily high levels in mouse stomach tissues. In this study, we applied this methodology to the quantification of chitinase mRNAs in human tissues and found that both chitinase mRNAs were widely expressed in normal human tissues. Chit1 mRNA was highly expressed in the human lung, whereas AMCase mRNA was not overexpressed in normal human stomach tissues. The levels of these mRNAs in human tissues were significantly lower than the levels of housekeeping genes. Because the AMCase expression levels were quite different between the human and mouse stomach tissues, we developed a quantitative PCR system to compare the mRNA levels between human and mouse tissues using a human-mouse hybrid standard DNA. Our analysis showed that Chit1 mRNA is expressed at similar levels in normal human and mouse lung. In contrast, the AMCase expression level in human stomach was significantly lower than that expression level observed in mouse stomach. These mRNA differences between human and mouse stomach tissues were reflecting differences in the chitinolytic activities and levels of protein expression. Thus, the expression level of the AMCase in the stomach is species-specific. PMID:23826286

Ohno, Misa; Togashi, Yuto; Tsuda, Kyoko; Okawa, Kazuaki; Kamaya, Minori; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka

2013-01-01

312

Molecular Determinants of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Pathogenesis and Virulence in Young and Aged Mouse Models of Human Disease  

PubMed Central

SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory tract disease characterized by diffuse alveolar damage and hyaline membrane formation. This pathology often progresses to acute respiratory distress (such as acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS]) and atypical pneumonia in humans, with characteristic age-related mortality rates approaching 50% or more in immunosenescent populations. The molecular basis for the extreme virulence of SARS-CoV remains elusive. Since young and aged (1-year-old) mice do not develop severe clinical disease following infection with wild-type SARS-CoV, a mouse-adapted strain of SARS-CoV (called MA15) was developed and was shown to cause lethal infection in these animals. To understand the genetic contributions to the increased pathogenesis of MA15 in rodents, we used reverse genetics and evaluated the virulence of panels of derivative viruses encoding various combinations of mouse-adapted mutations. We found that mutations in the viral spike (S) glycoprotein and, to a much less rigorous extent, in the nsp9 nonstructural protein, were primarily associated with the acquisition of virulence in young animals. The mutations in S likely increase recognition of the mouse angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor not only in MA15 but also in two additional, independently isolated mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs. In contrast to the findings for young animals, mutations to revert to the wild-type sequence in nsp9 and the S glycoprotein were not sufficient to significantly attenuate the virus compared to other combinations of mouse-adapted mutations in 12-month-old mice. This panel of SARS-CoVs provides novel reagents that we have used to further our understanding of differential, age-related pathogenic mechanisms in mouse models of human disease. PMID:22072787

Yount, Boyd; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Page, Carly; Donaldson, Eric; Roberts, Anjeanette; Vogel, Leatrice; Woodruff, Becky; Scorpio, Diana; Subbarao, Kanta; Baric, Ralph S.

2012-01-01

313

Keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)/human growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) chemokines and pro-inflammatory chemokine networks in mouse and human ovarian epithelial cancer cells.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation is an important underlying condition for ovarian tumor development, growth and progression. Since chemokine networks are activated by inflammation, patterns of chemokine gene expression were investigated in ovarian cancer cells. Chemokine specific microarrays were performed after mouse (ID8) and human (SKOV-3) ovarian surface epithelial cancer cells were exposed to the inflammatory agent bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 microg/ml) and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1, 10 ng/ml) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF, 10 ng/ml). In the mouse ID8 cells, LPS, IL-1 and TNF led to robust upregulation of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) chemokines CXCL1/2, mouse homologues of human growth-regulated oncogenes (GRO). Other chemokines, interferong inducible protein (IP)-10 (CXCL10), CCL7 and CCL20 were moderately upregulated. ID8 cells constitutively expressed CXCL16 and CCL2, but only CCL2 expression was enhanced by LPS, IL-1 and TNF. In the human SKOV-3 cells, LPS had no effect on chemokines expression due to the absence of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, IL-1 and TNF induced GROalpha/beta (CXCL1/2) in human SKOV-3 cells in a similar manner as observed with mouse ID8 cells. In SKOV-3 cells, IL-8 (CXCL8) was highly expressed and other chemokines GROgamma (CXCL3) and CCL20 were moderately expressed in response to IL-1 and TNF. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a known mediator of cytokine and chemokines signaling. The NFkappaB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 attenuated expression of inflammatory-induced chemokines in the mouse and human ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, the results indicate that KC/GRO chemokines are the principal chemokines induced by LPS and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF via NFkappaB signaling in ovarian surface epithelial cancer cells. PMID:17712227

Son, Deok-Soo; Parl, Angelika K; Rice, Valerie Montgomery; Khabele, Dineo

2007-08-01

314

Sequence of human FEN-1, a structure-specific endonuclease, and chromosomal localization of the gene (FEN1) in mouse and human  

SciTech Connect

We recently purified and cloned the gene for a DNA structure-specific endonuclease, FEN-1, from murine cells. The murine protein recognizes 5{prime} DNA flap structures that have been proposed in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Here, we report the sequence of the human FEN1 gene. The translated sequence is identical to peptide sequence obtained from maturation factor-1, which is 1 of the 10 essential proteins for cell-free DNA replication. The human protein has the same structure-specific DNA endonuclease activity as the murine protein. Two human chromosomal hybridization signals, 11q12 and 1p22.2, were observed by FISH analysis using human genomic clones homologous to the mouse Fen-1 gene. The localization on human 11q12 was confirmed using radiation-reduced hybrids. The mouse Fen-1 gene is assigned to chromosome 19 based on somatic cell hybrids. The significance of these FEM gene localizations in human and mouse is discussed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Hiraoka, L.R.; Harrington, J.J.; Gerhard, D.S. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)] [and others] [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States); and others

1995-01-01

315

The cyp2e1-humanized transgenic mouse: role of cyp2e1 in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450 (P450) CYP2E1 enzyme metabolizes and activates a wide array of toxicological substrates, including alcohols, the widely used analgesic acetaminophen, acetone, benzene, halothane, and carcinogens such as azoxymethane and dimethylhydrazine. Most studies on the biochemical and pharmacological actions of CYP2E1 are derived from studies with rodents, rabbits, and cultured hepatocytes; therefore, extrapolation of the results to humans can be difficult. Creating "humanized" mice by introducing the human CYP2E1 gene into Cyp2e1-null mice can circumvent this disadvantage. A transgenic mouse line expressing the human CYP2E1 gene was established. Western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses revealed human CYP2E1 protein expression and enzymatic activity in the liver of CYP2E1-humanized mice. Treatment of mice with the CYP2E1 inducer acetone demonstrated that human CYP2E1 was inducible in this transgenic model. The response to the CYP2E1 substrate acetaminophen was explored in the CYP2E1-humanized mice. Hepatotoxicity, resulting from the CYP2E1-mediated activation of acetaminophen, was demonstrated in the livers of CYP2E1-humanized mice by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels, increased hepatocyte necrosis, and decreased P450 levels. These data establish that in this humanized mouse model, human CYP2E1 is functional and can metabolize and activate different CYP2E1 substrates such as chlorzoxazone, p-nitrophenol, acetaminophen, and acetone. CYP2E1-humanized mice will be of great value for delineating the role of human CYP2E1 in ethanol-induced oxidative stress and alcoholic liver damage. They will also function as an important in vivo tool for predicting drug metabolism and disposition and drug-drug interactions of chemicals that are substrates for human CYP2E1. PMID:15576447

Cheung, Connie; Yu, Ai-Ming; Ward, Jerrold M; Krausz, Kristopher W; Akiyama, Taro E; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Gonzalez, Frank J

2005-03-01

316

Human and mouse mast cells use the tetraspanin CD9 as an alternate interleukin-16 receptor  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-16 (IL-16) induces the chemotaxis and activation of mast cells (MCs) and other cell types. While it has been concluded that CD4 is the primary IL-16 receptor on T cells, at least one other IL-16 receptor exists. We now show that the IL-16–responsive human MC line HMC-1 lacks CD4, and that the IL-16–mediated chemotactic and Ca2+ mobilization responses of this cell can be blocked by anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) but not by mAbs directed against CD4 or other tetraspanins. Anti-CD9 mAbs also inhibited the IL-16–mediated activation of nontransformed human cord blood–derived MCs and mouse bone marrow–derived MCs by 50% to 60%. The chemotactic response of HMC-1 cells to IL-16, as well as the binding of the cytokine to the cell's plasma membrane, was inhibited by CD9-specific antisense oligonucleotides. CD9 is therefore essential for the IL-16–mediated chemotaxis and activation of the HMC-1 cell line. In support of this conclusion, IL-16 bound to CD9-expressing CHO cell transfectants. The ability of wortmannin and xestopongin C to inhibit the IL-16–mediated chemotactic response of these cells suggests that the cytokine activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/inositol trisphosphate–dependent signaling pathway in MCs. This is the first report of a tetraspanin that plays a prominent role in a cytokine-mediated chemotactic response of human MCs. PMID:16144798

Qi, Jian C.; Wang, Jing; Mandadi, Sravan; Tanaka, Kumiko; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Madigan, Michele C.; Lai, Kenneth; Yan, Feng; Chong, Beng H.; Stevens, Richard L.; Krilis, Steven A.

2006-01-01

317

The human\\/mouse imprinted genes IGF2, H19, SNRPN and ZNF127 map to two conserved autosomal clusters in a marsupial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four genesIGF2, H19, SNRPN andZNF127 are imprinted in mouse and human.IGF2 andH19 form one conserved cluster on the distal part of mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosome 11p15.5, whereasSNRPN andZNF127 form another on the middle of mouse chromosome 7 and on human chromosome 15q11-13. We have explored the evolution of these imprinted regions by cloning and mappingIGF2, H19, SNRPN

R. Toder; S. A. Wilcox; M. Smithwick; J. A. M. Graves

1996-01-01

318

Mouse Forward Genetics in the Study of the Peripheral Nervous System and Human Peripheral Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics.\\u000a Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study\\u000a of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as

Darlene S. Douglas; Brian Popko

2009-01-01

319

Phenobarbital induces cell cycle transcriptional responses in mouse liver humanized for constitutive androstane and pregnane x receptors.  

PubMed

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR) are closely related nuclear receptors involved in drug metabolism and play important roles in the mechanism of phenobarbital (PB)-induced rodent nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we have used a humanized CAR/PXR mouse model to examine potential species differences in receptor-dependent mechanisms underlying liver tissue molecular responses to PB. Early and late transcriptomic responses to sustained PB exposure were investigated in liver tissue from double knock-out CAR and PXR (CAR(KO)-PXR(KO)), double humanized CAR and PXR (CAR(h)-PXR(h)), and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Wild-type and CAR(h)-PXR(h) mouse livers exhibited temporally and quantitatively similar transcriptional responses during 91 days of PB exposure including the sustained induction of the xenobiotic response gene Cyp2b10, the Wnt signaling inhibitor Wisp1, and noncoding RNA biomarkers from the Dlk1-Dio3 locus. Transient induction of DNA replication (Hells, Mcm6, and Esco2) and mitotic genes (Ccnb2, Cdc20, and Cdk1) and the proliferation-related nuclear antigen Mki67 were observed with peak expression occurring between 1 and 7 days PB exposure. All these transcriptional responses were absent in CAR(KO)-PXR(KO) mouse livers and largely reversible in wild-type and CAR(h)-PXR(h) mouse livers following 91 days of PB exposure and a subsequent 4-week recovery period. Furthermore, PB-mediated upregulation of the noncoding RNA Meg3, which has recently been associated with cellular pluripotency, exhibited a similar dose response and perivenous hepatocyte-specific localization in both wild-type and CAR(h)-PXR(h) mice. Thus, mouse livers coexpressing human CAR and PXR support both the xenobiotic metabolizing and the proliferative transcriptional responses following exposure to PB. PMID:24690595

Luisier, Raphaëlle; Lempiäinen, Harri; Scherbichler, Nina; Braeuning, Albert; Geissler, Miriam; Dubost, Valerie; Müller, Arne; Scheer, Nico; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Hara, Hisanori; Picard, Frank; Theil, Diethilde; Couttet, Philippe; Vitobello, Antonio; Grenet, Olivier; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Thomson, John P; Meehan, Richard R; Elcombe, Clifford R; Henderson, Colin J; Wolf, C Roland; Schwarz, Michael; Moulin, Pierre; Terranova, Rémi; Moggs, Jonathan G

2014-06-01

320

Construction and analysis of tag single nucleotide polymorphism maps for six human-mouse orthologous candidate genes in type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One strategy to help identify susceptibility genes for complex, multifactorial diseases is to map disease loci in a representative animal model of the disorder. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model for human type 1 diabetes. Linkage and congenic strain analyses have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, which have been mapped to small chromosome

Lisa M Maier; Deborah J Smyth; Adrian Vella; Felicity Payne; Jason D Cooper; Rebecca Pask; Christopher Lowe; John Hulme; Luc J Smink; Heather Fraser; Carolyn Moule; Kara M Hunter; Giselle Chamberlain; Neil Walker; Sarah Nutland; Dag E Undlien; Kjersti S Rřnningen; Cristian Guja; Constantin Ionescu-Tîrgovi?te; David A Savage; David P Strachan; Laurence B Peterson; John A Todd; Linda S Wicker; Rebecca C Twells

2005-01-01

321

microPIR2: a comprehensive database for human–mouse comparative study of microRNA–promoter interactions  

PubMed Central

microRNA (miRNA)–promoter interaction resource (microPIR) is a public database containing over 15 million predicted miRNA target sites located within human promoter sequences. These predicted targets are presented along with their related genomic and experimental data, making the microPIR database the most comprehensive repository of miRNA promoter target sites. Here, we describe major updates of the microPIR database including new target predictions in the mouse genome and revised human target predictions. The updated database (microPIR2) now provides ?80 million human and 40 million mouse predicted target sites. In addition to being a reference database, microPIR2 is a tool for comparative analysis of target sites on the promoters of human–mouse orthologous genes. In particular, this new feature was designed to identify potential miRNA–promoter interactions conserved between species that could be stronger candidates for further experimental validation. We also incorporated additional supporting information to microPIR2 such as nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of miRNAs and miRNA–disease association. Extra search features were also implemented to enable various investigations of targets of interest. Database URL: http://www4a.biotec.or.th/micropir2 PMID:25425035

Piriyapongsa, Jittima; Bootchai, Chaiwat; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Tongsima, Sissades

2014-01-01

322

Cerebellar degeneration-related antigen: a highly conserved neuroectodermal marker mapped to chromosomes X in human and mouse.  

PubMed Central

Cerebellar degeneration-related antigen (designated CDR34) was previously cloned by antibody screening of a cDNA library and was shown to be one of the target molecules recognized by autoantibodies in patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. This molecule is distinctive in that it contains a tandem hexapeptide repetitive structure, presumably the basis for its high immunogenicity. In this study, we cloned the human CDR34 gene and proved that the entire repetitive sequence is encoded by a single exon without introns. We also showed that the nucleotide repeats are preserved only in the protein-coding sequences, suggesting evolutionary constraint in this region of the gene. Corresponding mouse cDNA clones were also isolated, which encoded a larger molecule with very similar hexapeptide repeating units. Comparison of the human and mouse repeats revealed a highly conserved Glu-Asp core in each unit, implicating the functional significance of this motif. Chromosomal mapping by somatic cell hybrid analysis mapped CDR34 to both human and mouse chromosomes X, and in situ hybridization further assigned CDR34 to human Xq24-q27. Images PMID:2326268

Chen, Y T; Rettig, W J; Yenamandra, A K; Kozak, C A; Chaganti, R S; Posner, J B; Old, L J

1990-01-01

323

Genetic mapping in human and mouse of the locus encoding TRBP, a protein that binds the TAR region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)  

SciTech Connect

Productive infection with HIV-1, the virus responsible for AIDS, requires the involvement of host cell factors for completion of the replicative cycle, but the identification of these factors and elucidation of their specific functions has been difficult. A human cDNA, TRBP, was recently cloned and characterized as a positive regulator of gene expression that binds to the TAR region of the HIV-1 genome. Here we demonstrate that this factor is encoded by a gene, TARBP2, that maps to human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 15, and we also identify and map one human pseudogene (TARBP2P) and two mouse TRBP-related sequences. The map location of the expressed gene identifies it as a candidate for the previously identified factor encoded on human chromosome 12 that has been shown to be important for expression of HIV-1 genes. Western blotting indicates that despite high sequence conservation in human and mouse, the TARBP2 protein differs in apparent size in primate and rodent cells. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Kozak, C.A.; Gatignol, A.; Graham, K. [National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Behesda, MD (United States)] [and others] [National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Behesda, MD (United States); and others

1995-01-01

324

Targeting of MCL-1 kills MYC-driven mouse and human lymphomas even when they bear mutations in p53  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional regulator c-MYC is abnormally overexpressed in many human cancers. Evasion from apoptosis is critical for cancer development, particularly c-MYC-driven cancers. We explored which anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member (expressed under endogenous regulation) is essential to sustain c-MYC-driven lymphoma growth to reveal which should be targeted for cancer therapy. Remarkably, inducible Cre-mediated deletion of even a single Mcl-1 allele substantially impaired the growth of c-MYC-driven mouse lymphomas. Mutations in p53 could diminish but not obviate the dependency of c-MYC-driven mouse lymphomas on MCL-1. Importantly, targeting of MCL-1 killed c-MYC-driven human Burkitt lymphoma cells, even those bearing mutations in p53. Given that loss of one allele of Mcl-1 is well tolerated in healthy tissues, our results suggest that therapeutic targeting of MCL-1 would be an attractive therapeutic strategy for MYC-driven cancers. PMID:24395247

Kelly, Gemma L.; Grabow, Stephanie; Glaser, Stefan P.; Fitzsimmons, Leah; Aubrey, Brandon J.; Okamoto, Toru; Valente, Liz J.; Robati, Mikara; Tai, Lin; Fairlie, W. Douglas; Lee, Erinna F.; Lindstrom, Mikael S.; Wiman, Klas G.; Huang, David C.S.; Bouillet, Philippe; Rowe, Martin; Rickinson, Alan B.; Herold, Marco J.; Strasser, Andreas

2014-01-01

325

Regulation of factor IXa in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. Role of the endothelium and the plasma proteinase inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

The regulation of human Factor IXa was studied in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. In human plasma, approximately 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to antithrombin III (ATIII) by 2 h, with no binding to alpha 2-macroglobulin or alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, as assessed by gel electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose beads. In the presence of heparin, virtually 100% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII by 1 min. The distribution of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa in mouse plasma was similar. The clearance of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was rapid (50% clearance in 2 min) and biphasic and was inhibited by large molar excesses of ATIII-thrombin and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin, but not alpha 2-macro-globulin-trypsin; it was also inhibited by large molar excesses of diisopropylphosphoryl - (DIP-) Factor Xa, DIP-thrombin, and Factor IX, but not by prothrombin or Factor X. The clearance of Factor IX was also rapid (50% clearance in 2.5 min) and was inhibited by a large molar excess of Factor IX, but not by large molar excesses of Factor X, prothrombin, DIP-Factor Xa, or DIP-thrombin. Electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose bead studies confirmed that by 2 min after injection into the murine circulation, 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII. Organ distribution studies with /sup 125/I-Factor IXa demonstrated that most of the radioactivity was in the liver. These studies suggest that Factor IXa binds to at least two classes of binding sites on endothelial cells. One site apparently recognizes both Factors IX and IXa, but not Factor X, Factor Xa, prothrombin, or thrombin. The other site recognizes thrombin, Factor Xa, and Factor IXa, but not the zymogen forms of these clotting factors. After this binding, Factor IXa is bound to ATIII and the complex is cleared from the circulation by hepatocytes.

Fuchs, H.E.; Trapp, H.G.; Griffith, M.J.; Roberts, H.R.; Pizzo, S.V.

1984-06-01

326

Missense mutation in mouse GALC mimics human gene defect and offers new insights into Krabbe disease  

PubMed Central

Krabbe disease is a devastating pediatric leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene. A significant subset of the infantile form of the disease is due to missense mutations that result in aberrant protein production. The currently used mouse model, twitcher, has a nonsense mutation not found in Krabbe patients, although it is similar to the human 30 kb deletion in abrogating GALC expression. Here, we identify a spontaneous mutation in GALC, GALCtwi-5J, that precisely matches the E130K missense mutation in patients with infantile Krabbe disease. GALCtwi-5J homozygotes show loss of enzymatic activity despite normal levels of precursor protein, and manifest a more severe phenotype than twitcher, with half the life span. Although neuropathological hallmarks such as gliosis, globoid cells and psychosine accumulation are present throughout the nervous system, the CNS does not manifest significant demyelination. In contrast, the PNS is severely hypomyelinated and lacks large diameter axons, suggesting primary dysmyelination, rather than a demyelinating process. Our data indicate that early demise is due to mechanisms other than myelin loss and support an important role for neuroinflammation in Krabbe disease progression. Furthermore, our results argue against a causative relationship between psychosine accumulation, white matter loss and gliosis. PMID:23620143

Potter, Gregory B.; Santos, Marta; Davisson, Muriel T.; Rowitch, David H.; Marks, Dan L.; Bongarzone, Ernesto R.; Petryniak, Magdalena A.

2013-01-01

327

Derivation and Expansion of PAX7-Positive Muscle Progenitors from Human and Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.  

PubMed

Cell therapies treating pathological muscle atrophy or damage requires an adequate quantity of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) not currently attainable from adult donors. Here, we generate cultures of approximately 90% skeletal myogenic cells by treating human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 followed by FGF2 and N2 supplements. Gene expression analysis identified progressive expression of mesoderm, somite, dermomyotome, and myotome markers, following patterns of embryonic myogenesis. CHIR99021 enhanced transcript levels of the pan-mesoderm gene T and paraxial-mesoderm genes MSGN1 and TBX6; immunofluorescence confirmed that 91% ± 6% of cells expressed T immediately following treatment. By 7 weeks, 47% ± 3% of cells were MYH(+ve) myocytes/myotubes surrounded by a 43% ± 4% population of PAX7(+ve) MPCs, indicating 90% of cells had achieved myogenic identity without any cell sorting. Treatment of mouse ESCs with these factors resulted in similar enhancements of myogenesis. These studies establish a foundation for serum-free and chemically defined monolayer skeletal myogenesis of ESCs. PMID:25241748

Shelton, Michael; Metz, Jeff; Liu, Jun; Carpenedo, Richard L; Demers, Simon-Pierre; Stanford, William L; Skerjanc, Ilona S

2014-09-01

328

Survival of Free and Encapsulated Human and Rat Islet Xenografts Transplanted into the Mouse Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

Meier, Raphael P. H.; Seebach, Jörg D.; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H.; Muller, Yannick D.

2014-01-01

329

Guiding the osteogenic fate of mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells through feedback system control.  

PubMed

Stem cell-based disease modeling presents unique opportunities for mechanistic elucidation and therapeutic targeting. The stable induction of fate-specific differentiation is an essential prerequisite for stem cell-based strategy. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) initiates receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation, leading to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) in vitro; however, it requires supra-physiological concentrations, presenting a bottleneck problem for large-scale drug screening. Here, we report the use of a double-objective feedback system control (FSC) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm to identify osteogenic cocktails of extrinsic factors. Cocktails containing significantly reduced doses of BMP-2 in combination with physiologically relevant doses of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, heparin, retinoic acid and vitamin D achieved accelerated in vitro mineralization of mouse and human MSC. These results provide insight into constructive approaches of FSC to determine the applicable functional and physiological environment for MSC in disease modeling, drug screening and tissue engineering. PMID:24305548

Honda, Yoshitomo; Ding, Xianting; Mussano, Federico; Wiberg, Akira; Ho, Chih-Ming; Nishimura, Ichiro

2013-01-01

330

Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed

Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

Meier, Raphael P H; Seebach, Jörg D; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H; Muller, Yannick D

2014-01-01

331

Suppression of microglial activation is neuroprotective in a mouse model of human retinitis pigmentosa.  

PubMed

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a photoreceptor-degenerative disease caused by various mutations and is characterized by death of rod photoreceptor cell followed by gradual death of cone photoreceptors. The molecular mechanisms that lead to rod and cone death are not yet fully understood. Neuroinflammation contributes to the progression of many chronic neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains to be determined how microglia contribute to photoreceptor disruption in RP. In this study, we explored the role of microglia as a contributor to photoreceptor degeneration in the rd10 mouse model of RP. First, we demonstrated that microglia activation was an early alteration in RP retinas. Inhibition of microglia activation by minocycline reduced photoreceptor apoptosis and significantly improved retinal structure and function and visual behavior in rd10 mice. Second, we identified that minocycline exerted its neuroprotective effects through both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Third, we found that Cx3cr1 deficiency dysregulated microglia activation and subsequently resulted in increased photoreceptor vulnerability in rd10 mice, suggesting that the Cx3cl1/Cx3cr1 signaling pathway might protect against microglia neurotoxicity. We concluded that suppression of neuroinflammatory responses could be a potential treatment strategy aimed at improving photoreceptor survival in human RP. PMID:24920619

Peng, Bo; Xiao, Jia; Wang, Ke; So, Kwok-Fai; Tipoe, George L; Lin, Bin

2014-06-11

332

Mouse and human islets survive and function after coating by biosilicification  

PubMed Central

Inorganic materials have properties that can be advantageous in bioencapsulation for cell transplantation. Our aim was to engineer a hybrid inorganic/soft tissue construct by inducing pancreatic islets to grow an inorganic shell. We created pancreatic islets surrounded by porous silica, which has potential application in the immunoprotection of islets in transplantation therapies for type 1 diabetes. The new method takes advantage of the islet capsule surface as a template for silica formation. Mouse and human islets were exposed to medium containing saturating silicic acid levels for 9–15 min. The resulting tissue constructs were then cultured for up to 4 wk under normal conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to monitor the morphology and elemental composition of the material at the islet surface. A cytokine assay was used to assess biocompatibility with macrophages. Islet survival and function were assessed by confocal microscopy, glucose-stimulated insulin release assays, oxygen flux at the islet surface, expression of key genes by RT-PCR, and syngeneic transplant into diabetic mice. PMID:24002572

Jaroch, David B.; Lu, Jing; Madangopal, Rajtarun; Stull, Natalie D.; Stensberg, Matthew; Shi, Jin; Kahn, Jennifer L.; Herrera-Perez, Ruth; Zeitchek, Michael; Sturgis, Jennifer; Robinson, J. Paul; Yoder, Mervin C.; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.

2013-01-01

333

Cadherin-10 is a novel blood-brain barrier adhesion molecule in human and mouse.  

PubMed

Maintenance of the specialised environment of the central nervous system requires barriers provided by the endothelium of brain microvessels (the blood-brain barrier (BBB)) or the epithelium lining the ventricles (CSF-brain barrier) or the choroid plexus (blood-CSF barrier). Inter-endothelial junctions are more extensive in the BBB than in other tissues, with elaborate tight junctions. However, few differences in the molecular composition of these junctions have been described. Here, we show, in both human and mouse brain, that the type II classical cadherin, cadherin-10, is expressed in BBB and retinal endothelia, but not in the leaky microvessels of brain circumventricular organs (CVO), or in those of non-CNS tissues. This expression pattern is distinct from, and reciprocal to, VE-cadherin, which is reduced or absent in tight cortical microvessels, but present in leaky CVO vessels. In CVO, the barrier function is switched from the microvasculature to the adjacent ventricular epithelium, which we also find to express cadherin-10. In the vessels of gliobastoma multiforme tumours, where BBB is lost, cadherin-10 is not detected. This demonstration of a distinctive expression pattern of cadherin-10 suggests that it has a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of brain barriers. PMID:16181616

Williams, Matthew J; Lowrie, Margaret B; Bennett, Jonathan P; Firth, J Anthony; Clark, Peter

2005-10-01

334

Complexity and multifractality of neuronal noise in mouse and human hippocampal epileptiform dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractal methods offer an invaluable means of investigating turbulent nonlinearity in non-stationary biomedical recordings from the brain. Here, we investigate properties of complexity (i.e. the correlation dimension, maximum Lyapunov exponent, 1/f? noise and approximate entropy) and multifractality in background neuronal noise-like activity underlying epileptiform transitions recorded at the intracellular and local network scales from two in vitro models: the whole-intact mouse hippocampus and lesional human hippocampal slices. Our results show evidence for reduced dynamical complexity and multifractal signal features following transition to the ictal epileptiform state. These findings suggest that pathological breakdown in multifractal complexity coincides with loss of signal variability or heterogeneity, consistent with an unhealthy ictal state that is far from the equilibrium of turbulent yet healthy fractal dynamics in the brain. Thus, it appears that background noise-like activity successfully captures complex and multifractal signal features that may, at least in part, be used to classify and identify brain state transitions in the healthy and epileptic brain, offering potential promise for therapeutic neuromodulatory strategies for afflicted patients suffering from epilepsy and other related neurological disorders. This paper is based on chapter 5 of Serletis (2010 PhD Dissertation Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto).

Serletis, Demitre; Bardakjian, Berj L.; Valiante, Taufik A.; Carlen, Peter L.

2012-10-01

335

Cardiac electrical activity in a genomically "humanized" chromogranin a monogenic mouse model with hyperadrenergic hypertension.  

PubMed

The prohormone chromogranin A (CHGA) is ubiquitously found in vesicles of adrenal chromaffin cells and adrenergic neurons, and it is processed to the hypotensive hormone peptide catestatin (CST). Both CHGA and CST regulate blood pressure and cardiac function. This study addresses their role in cardiac electrical activity. We have generated two genomically "humanized" transgenic mouse strains (Tg31CHGA+/+; Chga-/- (HumCHGA31) and Tg19CHGA+/+; Chga-/- (HumCHGA19)) with varied CHGA expression and the ability to rescue the Chga-/- phenotype (hypertensive, hyperadrenergic with dilated cardiomyopathy). The normotensive HumCHGA31 mice express CHGA at levels comparable to wild-type. In contrast, the hypertensive HumCHGA19 mice have low levels of CHGA. EKG recordings revealed that the QT interval, R-amplitude, and QRS time-voltage integral are markedly longer in HumCHGA19 compared to wild-type and HumCHGA31 mice. These differences are accompanied by increased heart rate and QT variability, indicating that ventricular assault happens in a status of low levels of circulating CST. PMID:24821335

Dev, Nagendu B; Mir, Saiful A; Gayen, Jiaur R; Siddiqui, Jawed A; Mustapic, Maja; Vaingankar, Sucheta M

2014-07-01

336

Establishment and Genomic Characterization of Mouse Xenografts of Human Primary Prostate Tumors  

PubMed Central

Serum prostate-specific antigen screening has led to earlier detection and surgical treatment of prostate cancer, favoring an increasing incidence-to-mortality ratio. However, about one third of tumors that are diagnosed when still confined to the prostate can relapse within 10 years from the first treatment. The challenge is therefore to identify prognostic markers of aggressive versus indolent tumors. Although several preclinical models of advanced prostate tumors are available, a model that recapitulates the genetic and growth behavior of primary tumors is still lacking. Here, we report a complete histopathological and genomic characterization of xenografts derived from primary localized low- and high-grade human prostate tumors that were implanted under the renal capsule of immunodeficient mice. We obtained a tumor take of 56% and show that these xenografts maintained the histological as well as most genomic features of the parental tumors. Serum prostate-specific antigen levels were measurable only in tumor xenograft-bearing mice, but not in those implanted with either normal prostate tissue or in tumors that likely regressed. Finally, we show that a high proliferation rate, but not the pathological stage or the Gleason grade of the original tumor, was a fundamental prerequisite for tumor take in mice. This mouse xenograft model represents a useful preclinical model of primary prostate tumors for their biological characterization, biomarker discovery, and drug testing. PMID:20167861

Priolo, Carmen; Agostini, Michelle; Vena, Natalie; Ligon, Azra H.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Shin, Eyoung; Farsetti, Antonella; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Sicinska, Ewa; Loda, Massimo

2010-01-01

337

Hyperpolarized singlet lifetimes of pyruvate in human blood and in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Hyperpolarized NMR is a promising technique for non-invasive imaging of tissue metabolism in vivo. However, the pathways that can be studied are limited by the fast T1 decay of the nuclear spin order. In metabolites containing pairs of coupled nuclear spins-1/2, the spin order may be maintained by exploiting the non-magnetic singlet (spin-0) state of the pair. This may allow preservation of the hyperpolarization in vivo during transport to tissues of interest, such as tumors, or to detect slower metabolic reactions. We show here that in human blood and in a mouse in vivo at millitesla fields the 13C singlet lifetime of [1,2-13C2]pyruvate was significantly longer than the 13C T1, although it was shorter than the T1 at field strengths of several tesla. We also examine the singlet-derived NMR spectrum observed for hyperpolarized [1,2-13C2]lactate, originating from the metabolism of [1,2-13C2]pyruvate. © 2013 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23946252

Marco-Rius, Irene; Tayler, Michael C D; Kettunen, Mikko I; Larkin, Timothy J; Timm, Kerstin N; Serrao, Eva M; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Pileio, Giuseppe; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Levitt, Malcolm H; Brindle, Kevin M

2013-01-01

338

Cysteine proteinase inhibitors regulate human and mouse osteoclastogenesis by interfering with RANK signaling.  

PubMed

The cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage cultures, an effect associated with decreased mRNA expression of Acp5, Calcr, Ctsk, Mmp9, Itgb3, and Atp6i, without effect on proliferation or apoptosis. The effects were concentration dependent with half-maximal inhibition at 0.3 ?M. Cystatin C also inhibited osteoclast formation when RANKL-stimulated osteoclasts were cultured on bone, leading to decreased formation of resorption pits. RANKL-stimulated cells retained characteristics of phagocytotic macrophages when cotreated with cystatin C. Three other cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatin D, Z-RLVG-CHN2 (IC50 0.1 ?M), and E-64 (IC50 3 ?M), also inhibited osteoclast formation in RANKL-stimulated macrophages. In addition, cystatin C, Z-RLVG-CHN2, and E-64 inhibited osteoclastic differentiation of RANKL-stimulated CD14(+) human monocytes. The effect by cystatin C on differentiation of bone marrow macrophages was exerted at an early stage after RANKL stimulation and was associated with early (4 h) inhibition of c-Fos expression and decreased protein and nuclear translocation of c-Fos. Subsequently, p52, p65, I?B?, and Nfatc1 mRNA were decreased. Cystatin C was internalized in osteoclast progenitors, a process requiring RANKL stimulation. These data show that cystatin C inhibits osteoclast differentiation and formation by interfering intracellularly with signaling pathways downstream RANK. PMID:23572233

Strĺlberg, Fredrik; Henning, Petra; Gjertsson, Inger; Kindlund, Bert; Souza, Pedro P C; Persson, Emma; Abrahamson, Magnus; Kasprzykowski, Franciszek; Grubb, Anders; Lerner, Ulf H

2013-07-01

339

Expression of the human apolipoprotein E gene suppresses steroidogenesis in mouse Y1 adrenal cells  

SciTech Connect

The lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (apoE), is expressed in many peripheral tissues in vivo including the adrenal gland and testes. To investigate the role of apoE in adrenal cholesterol homeostasis, the authors have expressed a human apoE genomic clone in the Y1 mouse adrenocortical cell line. Y1 cells do not express endogenous apoE mRNA or protein. Expression of apoE in Y1 cells resulted in a dramatic decrease in basal steroidogenesis; secretion of fluorogenic steroid was reduced 7- to {gt}100-fold relative to Y1 parent cells. Addition of 5-cholesten-3{beta},25-idol failed to overcome the suppression of steroidogenesis in these cells. Cholesterol esterification under basal conditions, as measured by the production of cholesteryl ({sup 14}C)oleate, was similar in the Y1 parent and the apoE-transfected cell lines. Upon incubation with adrenocorticotropin or dibutyryl cAMP, production of cholesteryl ({sup 14}C)oleate decreased 5-fold in the Y1 parent cells but was unchanged in the apoE-transfected cell lines. These results suggest that apoE may be an important modulator of cholesterol utilization and steroidogenesis in adrenal cells.

Reyland, M.E.; Forgez, P.; Prack, M.M.; Williams, D.L. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States)); Gwynne, J.T. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))

1991-03-15

340

Guiding the osteogenic fate of mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells through feedback system control  

PubMed Central

Stem cell-based disease modeling presents unique opportunities for mechanistic elucidation and therapeutic targeting. The stable induction of fate-specific differentiation is an essential prerequisite for stem cell-based strategy. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) initiates receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation, leading to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) in vitro; however, it requires supra-physiological concentrations, presenting a bottleneck problem for large-scale drug screening. Here, we report the use of a double-objective feedback system control (FSC) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm to identify osteogenic cocktails of extrinsic factors. Cocktails containing significantly reduced doses of BMP-2 in combination with physiologically relevant doses of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, heparin, retinoic acid and vitamin D achieved accelerated in vitro mineralization of mouse and human MSC. These results provide insight into constructive approaches of FSC to determine the applicable functional and physiological environment for MSC in disease modeling, drug screening and tissue engineering. PMID:24305548

Honda, Yoshitomo; Ding, Xianting; Mussano, Federico; Wiberg, Akira; Ho, Chih-ming; Nishimura, Ichiro

2013-01-01

341

High-resolution mapping of the human 4q21 and the mouse 5E3 SCYB chemokine cluster by fiber-fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

The CXC chemokine or small inducible cytokine B (SCYB) subfamily includes the T-cell chemoattractants MIG (CXCL9, SCYB9), IP-10 (CXCL10, SCYB10), and I-TAC (CXCL11, SCYB11). These three highly homologous chemokines lack the glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif and signal via the CXCR3 receptor. Previous work showed that the genes encoding these chemokines are localized in an individual mini-cluster on human Chromosome (Chr) 4 at position 4q21.2. Recently, we identified mouse Scyb11 and mapped this gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to mouse Chr 5E3, the orthologous locus to human 4q21 where the other two homologous mouse genes, Scyb9 and Scyb10, have also been localized. Since SCYB10 and SCYB11 are not represented in the recently published draft sequence of the human genome, we wanted to clarify exactly the order and distances of the three chemokine genes using two-color FISH on stretched DNA fiber preparations. Here, we report the simultaneous localization of all three genes and provide high-resolution visual maps of this chemokine cluster from both mouse and human. The three chemokine genes were found within a range of 32 kb on mouse and 29 kb on human DNA fiber targets. The precise physical distances were defined, and an almost identical arrangement of the human and mouse homologues was identified, indicating that this CXC chemokine mini-cluster has been completely conserved evolutionarily since the divergence of mouse and human. Our results refine previous maps of the three genes, support the hypothesis that they resulted from gene duplication that took place in a common ancestor of mouse and human, and provide complementary information on a region of the draft sequence of human Chr 4 that is not yet covered. PMID:11685476

Erdel, M; Theurl, M; Meyer, M; Duba, H C; Utermann, G; Werner-Felmayer, G

2001-09-01

342

Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunopathogenesis in a Humanized Mouse Model: Induction of Human-Specific Liver Fibrosis and M2-Like Macrophages  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of chronic HBV infection and immunopathogenesis are poorly understood due to a lack of a robust small animal model. Here we report the development of a humanized mouse model with both human immune system and human liver cells by reconstituting the immunodeficient A2/NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice with human HLA-A2 transgene) with human hematopoietic stem cells and liver progenitor cells (A2/NSG-hu HSC/Hep mice). The A2/NSG-hu HSC/Hep mouse supported HBV infection and approximately 75% of HBV infected mice established persistent infection for at least 4 months. We detected human immune responses, albeit impaired in the liver, chronic liver inflammation and liver fibrosis in infected animals. An HBV neutralizing antibody efficiently inhibited HBV infection and associated liver diseases in humanized mice. In addition, we found that the HBV mediated liver disease was associated with high level of infiltrated human macrophages with M2-like activation phenotype. Importantly, similar M2-like macrophage accumulation was confirmed in chronic hepatitis B patients with liver diseases. Furthermore, gene expression analysis showed that induction of M2-like macrophage in the liver is associated with accelerated liver fibrosis and necrosis in patients with acute HBV-induced liver failure. Lastly, we demonstrate that HBV promotes M2-like activation in both M1 and M2 macrophages in cell culture studies. Our study demonstrates that the A2/NSG-hu HSC/Hep mouse model is valuable in studying HBV infection, human immune responses and associated liver diseases. Furthermore, results from this study suggest a critical role for macrophage polarization in hepatitis B virus-induced immune impairment and liver pathology. PMID:24651854

Bility, Moses T.; Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Zheng; Luan, Yan; Li, Feng; Chi, Liqun; Zhang, Liguo; Tu, Zhengkun; Gao, Yanhang; Fu, Yangxin; Niu, Junqi; Wang, Fusheng; Su, Lishan

2014-01-01

343

The Hand-mouse: A Human Interface Suitable for Augmented Reality Environments Enabled by Visual Wearables  

E-print Network

This paper describes a wearable input interface the functions of which is similar to the usual mouse. The Hand-mouse is realized by classifying each pixel as a hand pixel or a background pixel based on approximation of a color histogram with the Gaussian mixture model and by tting the simple model of hand shapes into the classi ed hand pixels.

Takeshi Kurata Y; Takashi Okuma Y; Masakatsu Kourogi Z; Katsuhiko Sakaue Y

344

Hyaluronan Esters Drive Smad Gene Expression and Signaling Enhancing Cardiogenesis in Mouse Embryonic and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDevelopment of molecules chemically modifying the expression of crucial orchestrator(s) of stem cell commitment may have significant biomedical impact. We have recently developed hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic acids (HBR), turning cardiovascular stem cell fate into a high-yield process. The HBR mechanism(s) remain still largely undefined.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe show that in both mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and human

Margherita Maioli; Sara Santaniello; Andrea Montella; Pasquale Bandiera; Silvia Cantoni; Claudia Cavallini; Francesca Bianchi; Vincenzo Lionetti; Flavio Rizzolio; Irene Marchesi; Luigi Bagella; Carlo Ventura; Branden Nelson

2010-01-01

345

An additional human chromosome 21 causes suppression of neural fate of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in a teratoma model  

PubMed Central

Background Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21), is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation in humans. Among complex phenotypes, it displays a number of neural pathologies including smaller brain size, reduced numbers of neurons, reduced dendritic spine density and plasticity, and early Alzheimer-like neurodegeneration. Mouse models for DS show behavioural and cognitive defects, synaptic plasticity defects, and reduced hippocampal and cerebellar neuron numbers. Early postnatal development of both human and mouse-model DS shows the reduced capability of neuronal precursor cells to generate neurons. The exact molecular cause of this reduction, and the role played by increased dosage of individual HSA21 genes, remain unknown. Results We have subcutaneously injected mouse pluripotent ES cells containing a single freely segregating supernumerary human chromosome 21 (HSA21) into syngeneic mice, to generate transchromosomic teratomas. Transchromosomic cells and parental control cells were injected into opposite flanks of thirty mice in three independent experiments. Tumours were grown for 30 days, a time-span equivalent to combined intra-uterine, and early post-natal mouse development. When paired teratomas from the same animals were compared, transchromosomic tumours showed a three-fold lower percentage of neuroectodermal tissue, as well as significantly reduced mRNA levels for neuron specific (Tubb3) and glia specific (Gfap) genes, relative to euploid controls. Two thirds of transchromosomic tumours also showed a lack of PCR amplification with multiple primers specific for HSA21, which were present in the ES cells at the point of injection, thus restricting a commonly retained trisomy to less than a third of HSA21 genes. Conclusion We demonstrate that a supernumerary chromosome 21 causes Inhibition of Neuroectodermal DIfferentiation (INDI) of pluripotent ES cells. The data suggest that trisomy of less than a third of HSA21 genes, in two chromosomal regions, might be sufficient to cause this effect. PMID:18047653

Mensah, Afua; Mulligan, Claire; Linehan, Jackie; Ruf, Sandra; O'Doherty, Aideen; Grygalewicz, Beata; Shipley, Janet; Groet, Juergen; Tybulewicz, Victor; Fisher, Elizabeth; Brandner, Sebastian; Nizetic, Dean

2007-01-01

346

Novel Human and Mouse Annexin A10 Are Linked to the Genome Duplications during Early Chordate Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified and characterized a 12th subfamily of vertebrate annexins by systematic analysis of the primary structure, chromosomal mapping, and molecular evolution of unique cDNA and protein sequences from human and mouse. Distinctive features included rare expression, a codon deletion in conserved repeat 3, and an unusual ablation of the type II calcium-binding sites in tetrad core repeats 1,

Reginald O. Morgan; Nancy A. Jenkins; Debra J. Gilbert; Neal G. Copeland; Binaifer R. Balsara; Joseph R. Testa; M. Pilar Fernandez

1999-01-01

347

From zebrafish heart jogging genes to mouse and human orthologs: using Gene Ontology to investigate mammalian heart development.  

PubMed Central

For the majority of organs in developing vertebrate embryos, left-right asymmetry is controlled by a ciliated region; the left-right organizer node in the mouse and human, and the Kuppfer’s vesicle in the zebrafish. In the zebrafish, laterality cues from the Kuppfer’s vesicle determine asymmetry in the developing heart, the direction of ‘heart jogging’ and the direction of ‘heart looping’.  ‘Heart jogging’ is the term given to the process by which the symmetrical zebrafish heart tube is displaced relative to the dorsal midline, with a leftward ‘jog’. Heart jogging is not considered to occur in mammals, although a leftward shift of the developing mouse caudal heart does occur prior to looping, which may be analogous to zebrafish heart jogging. Previous studies have characterized 30 genes involved in zebrafish heart jogging, the majority of which have well defined orthologs in mouse and human and many of these orthologs have been associated with early mammalian heart development.    We undertook manual curation of a specific set of genes associated with heart development and we describe the use of Gene Ontology term enrichment analyses to examine the cellular processes associated with heart jogging.  We found that the human, mouse and zebrafish ‘heart jogging orthologs’ are involved in similar organ developmental processes across the three species, such as heart, kidney and nervous system development, as well as more specific cellular processes such as cilium development and function. The results of these analyses are consistent with a role for cilia in the determination of left-right asymmetry of many internal organs, in addition to their known role in zebrafish heart jogging.    This study highlights the importance of model organisms in the study of human heart development, and emphasises both the conservation and divergence of developmental processes across vertebrates, as well as the limitations of this approach. PMID:24627794

Lovering, Ruth C

2014-01-01

348

The amino acid sequences of the carboxyl termini of human and mouse hepatic lipase influence cell surface association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hepatic lipase (hHL) mainly exists cell sur- face bound, whereas mouse HL (mHL) circulates in the blood stream. Studies have suggested that the carboxyl terminus of HL mediates cell surface binding. We prepared recombinant hHL, mHL, and chimeric proteins (hHLmt and mHLht) in which the carboxyl terminal 70 amino acids of hHL were ex- changed with the corresponding sequence

Robert J. Brown; Joshua R. Schultz; Kerry W. S. Ko; John S. Hill; Tanya A. Ramsamy; Ann L. White; Daniel L. Sparks; Zemin Yao

2003-01-01

349

Headbobber: A Combined Morphogenetic and Cochleosaccular Mouse Model to Study 10qter Deletions in Human Deafness  

PubMed Central

The recessive mouse mutant headbobber (hb) displays the characteristic behavioural traits associated with vestibular defects including headbobbing, circling and deafness. This mutation was caused by the insertion of a transgene into distal chromosome 7 affecting expression of native genes. We show that the inner ear of hb/hb mutants lacks semicircular canals and cristae, and the saccule and utricle are fused together in a single utriculosaccular sac. Moreover, we detect severe abnormalities of the cochlear sensory hair cells, the stria vascularis looks severely disorganised, Reissner's membrane is collapsed and no endocochlear potential is detected. Myo7a and Kcnj10 expression analysis show a lack of the melanocyte-like intermediate cells in hb/hb stria vascularis, which can explain the absence of endocochlear potential. We use Trp2 as a marker of melanoblasts migrating from the neural crest at E12.5 and show that they do not interdigitate into the developing strial epithelium, associated with abnormal persistence of the basal lamina in the hb/hb cochlea. We perform array CGH, deep sequencing as well as an extensive expression analysis of candidate genes in the headbobber region of hb/hb and littermate controls, and conclude that the headbobber phenotype is caused by: 1) effect of a 648 kb deletion on distal Chr7, resulting in the loss of three protein coding genes (Gpr26, Cpmx2 and Chst15) with expression in the inner ear but unknown function; and 2) indirect, long range effect of the deletion on the expression of neighboring genes on Chr7, associated with downregulation of Hmx3, Hmx2 and Nkx1.2 homeobox transcription factors. Interestingly, deletions of the orthologous region in humans, affecting the same genes, have been reported in nineteen patients with common features including sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular problems. Therefore, we propose that headbobber is a useful model to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying deafness in human 10qter deletion syndrome. PMID:23457544

Buniello, Annalisa; Hardisty-Hughes, Rachel E.; Pass, Johanna C.; Bober, Eva; Smith, Richard J.; Steel, Karen P.

2013-01-01

350

Pyroglutamate-3 Amyloid-? Deposition in the Brains of Humans, Non-Human Primates, Canines, and Alzheimer Disease-Like Transgenic Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

Amyloid-? (A?) peptides, starting with pyroglutamate at the third residue (pyroGlu-3 A?), are a major species deposited in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Recent studies suggest that this isoform shows higher toxicity and amyloidogenecity when compared to full-length A? peptides. Here, we report the first comprehensive and comparative IHC evaluation of pyroGlu-3 A? deposition in humans and animal models. PyroGlu-3 A? immunoreactivity (IR) is abundant in plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy of AD and Down syndrome patients, colocalizing with general A? IR. PyroGlu-3 A? is further present in two nontransgenic mammalian models of cerebral amyloidosis, Caribbean vervets, and beagle canines. In addition, pyroGlu-3 A? deposition was analyzed in 12 different AD-like transgenic mouse models. In contrast to humans, all transgenic models showed general A? deposition preceding pyroGlu-3 A? deposition. The findings varied greatly among the mouse models concerning age of onset and cortical brain region. In summary, pyroGlu-3 A? is a major species of ?-amyloid deposited early in diffuse and focal plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in humans and nonhuman primates, whereas it is deposited later in a subset of focal and vascular amyloid in AD-like transgenic mouse models. Given the proposed decisive role of pyroGlu-3 A? peptides for the development of human AD pathology, this study provides insights into the usage of animal models in AD studies. PMID:23747948

Frost, Jeffrey L.; Le, Kevin X.; Cynis, Holger; Ekpo, Elizabeth; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Palmour, Roberta M.; Ervin, Frank R.; Snigdha, Shikha; Cotman, Carl W.; Saido, Takaomi C.; Vassar, Robert J.; George-Hyslop, Peter St.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Lemere, Cynthia A.

2014-01-01

351

Genetic manipulation by means of microcell-mediated transfer of normal human chromosomes into recipient mouse cells.  

PubMed

Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer is an innovative approach to the production of karyotypically simple hybrids. This method of gene transfer, employing micronuclei formed by prolonged Colcemid treatment, has been utilized for rodent systems. Expansion of this technology to include transfer of normal human genetic material has been hindered because large micronucleate populations from diploid human cells have been unobtainable. This report describes the production of micronuclei in 40-60% of normal human fibroblasts. These micronucleated cells have been enucleated by combining centrifugation and cytochalasin B treatment, and the resultant microcells have been purified and fused to recipient mouse (LMTK-) cells. Microcell hybrid clones containing a single human chromosome have been isolated from three separate fusion experiments. The time course for production of these hybrids, from fusion to karyotypic analysis, was 6 weeks. With a transfer frequency of about 2 x 10(-6), a single intact human chromosome has become a functioning element of the murine genome. PMID:7001478

McNeill, C A; Brown, R L

1980-09-01

352

Mouse Autosomal Homolog of DAZ,a Candidate Male Sterility Gene in Humans, Is Expressed in Male Germ Cells before and after Puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deletion of theAzoospermia Factor(AZF) region of the human Y chromosome results in spermatogenic failure. While the identity of the critical missing gene has yet to be established, a strong candidate is the putative RNA-binding protein DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia). Here we describe the mouse homolog of DAZ. Unlike humanDAZ,which is Y-linked, in mouse theDazh(DAZ homolog) gene maps to chromosome 17.

Renee Reijo; Judith Seligman; Mary Beth Dinulos; Tom Jaffe; Laura G. Brown; Christine M. Disteche; David C. Page

1996-01-01

353

Species differences in Cl? affinity and in electrogenicity of SLC26A6-mediated oxalate/Cl? exchange correlate with the distinct human and mouse susceptibilities to nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

The mouse is refractory to lithogenic agents active in rats and humans, and so has been traditionally considered a poor experimental model for nephrolithiasis. However, recent studies have identified slc26a6 as an oxalate nephrolithiasis gene in the mouse. Here we extend our earlier demonstration of different anion selectivities of the orthologous mouse and human SLC26A6 polypeptides to investigate the correlation between species-specific differences in SLC26A6 oxalate/anion exchange properties as expressed in Xenopus oocytes and in reported nephrolithiasis susceptibility. We find that human SLC26A6 mediates minimal rates of Cl? exchange for Cl?, sulphate or formate, but rates of oxalate/Cl? exchange roughly equivalent to those of mouse slc2a6. Both transporters exhibit highly cooperative dependence of oxalate efflux rate on extracellular [Cl?], but whereas the K1/2 for extracellular [Cl?] is only 8 mm for mouse slc26a6, that for human SLC26A6 is 62 mm. This latter value approximates the reported mean luminal [Cl?] of postprandial human jejunal chyme, and reflects contributions from both transmembrane and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains of human SLC26A6. Human SLC26A6 variant V185M exhibits altered [Cl?] dependence and reduced rates of oxalate/Cl? exchange. Whereas mouse slc26a6 mediates bidirectional electrogenic oxalate/Cl? exchange, human SLC26A6-mediated oxalate transport appears to be electroneutral. We hypothesize that the low extracellular Cl? affinity and apparent electroneutrality of oxalate efflux characterizing human SLC26A6 may partially explain the high human susceptibility to nephrolithiasis relative to that of mouse. SLC26A6 sequence variant(s) are candidate risk modifiers for nephrolithiasis. PMID:18174209

Clark, Jeffrey S; Vandorpe, David H; Chernova, Marina N; Heneghan, John F; Stewart, Andrew K; Alper, Seth L

2008-01-01

354

Real-time PCR-based assay to quantify the relative amount of human and mouse tissue present in tumor xenografts  

PubMed Central

Background Xenograft samples used to test anti-cancer drug efficacies and toxicities in vivo contain an unknown mix of mouse and human cells. Evaluation of drug activity can be confounded by samples containing large amounts of contaminating mouse tissue. We have developed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay using TaqMan technology to quantify the amount of mouse tissue that is incorporated into human xenograft samples. Results The forward and reverse primers bind to the same DNA sequence in the human and the mouse genome. Using a set of specially designed fluorescent probes provides species specificity. The linearity and sensitivity of the assay is evaluated using serial dilutions of single species and heterogeneous DNA mixtures. We examined many xenograft samples at various in vivo passages, finding a wide variety of human:mouse DNA ratios. This variation may be influenced by tumor type, number of serial passages in vivo, and even which part of the tumor was collected and used in the assay. Conclusions This novel assay provides an accurate quantitative assessment of human and mouse content in xenograft tumors. This assay can be performed on aberrantly behaving human xenografts, samples used in bioinformatics studies, and periodically for tumor tissue frequently grown by serial passage in vivo. PMID:22176647

2011-01-01

355

Neuron-Enriched Gene Expression Patterns are Regionally Anti-Correlated with Oligodendrocyte-Enriched Patterns in the Adult Mouse and Human Brain  

PubMed Central

An important goal in neuroscience is to understand gene expression patterns in the brain. The recent availability of comprehensive and detailed expression atlases for mouse and human creates opportunities to discover global patterns and perform cross-species comparisons. Recently we reported that the major source of variation in gene transcript expression in the adult normal mouse brain can be parsimoniously explained as reflecting regional variation in glia to neuron ratios, and is correlated with degree of connectivity and location in the brain along the anterior-posterior axis. Here we extend this investigation to two gene expression assays of adult normal human brains that consisted of over 300 brain region samples, and perform comparative analyses of brain-wide expression patterns to the mouse. We performed principal components analysis (PCA) on the regional gene expression of the adult human brain to identify the expression pattern that has the largest variance. As in the mouse, we observed that the first principal component is composed of two anti-correlated patterns enriched in oligodendrocyte and neuron markers respectively. However, we also observed interesting discordant patterns between the two species. For example, a few mouse neuron markers show expression patterns that are more correlated with the human oligodendrocyte-enriched pattern and vice-versa. In conclusion, our work provides insights into human brain function and evolution by probing global relationships between regional cell type marker expression patterns in the human and mouse brain. PMID:23440889

Tan, Powell Patrick Cheng; French, Leon; Pavlidis, Paul

2013-01-01

356

Development of a Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Cocktail for Post-exposure Rabies Prophylaxis in Humans  

PubMed Central

As the demand for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatments has increased exponentially in recent years, the limited supply of human and equine rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG and ERIG) has failed to provide the required passive immune component in PEP in countries where canine rabies is endemic. Replacement of HRIG and ERIG with a potentially cheaper and efficacious alternative biological for treatment of rabies in humans, therefore, remains a high priority. In this study, we set out to assess a mouse monoclonal antibody (MoMAb) cocktail with the ultimate goal to develop a product at the lowest possible cost that can be used in developing countries as a replacement for RIG in PEP. Five MoMAbs, E559.9.14, 1112-1, 62-71-3, M727-5-1, and M777-16-3, were selected from available panels based on stringent criteria, such as biological activity, neutralizing potency, binding specificity, spectrum of neutralization of lyssaviruses, and history of each hybridoma. Four of these MoMAbs recognize epitopes in antigenic site II and one recognizes an epitope in antigenic site III on the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein, as determined by nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of unique MoMAb neutralization-escape mutants. The MoMAbs were produced under Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) conditions. Unique combinations (cocktails) were prepared, using different concentrations of the MoMAbs that were capable of targeting non-overlapping epitopes of antigenic sites II and III. Blind in vitro efficacy studies showed the MoMab cocktails neutralized a broad spectrum of lyssaviruses except for lyssaviruses belonging to phylogroups II and III. In vivo, MoMAb cocktails resulted in protection as a component of PEP that was comparable to HRIG. In conclusion, all three novel combinations of MoMAbs were shown to have equal efficacy to HRIG and therefore could be considered a potentially less expensive alternative biological agent for use in PEP and prevention of rabies in humans. PMID:19888334

Muller, Thomas; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Ertl, Hildegund; Fooks, Anthony R.; Freuling, Conrad; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Kliemt, Jeannette; Meslin, Francois X.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Tordo, Noel; Wanderler, Alexander I.; Kieny, Marie Paule

2009-01-01

357

Evolutionary origin and methylation status of human intronic CpG islands that are not present in mouse.  

PubMed

Imprinting of the human RB1 gene is due to the presence of a differentially methylated CpG island (CGI) in intron 2, which is part of a retrocopy derived from the PPP1R26 gene on chromosome 9. The murine Rb1 gene does not have this retrocopy and is not imprinted. We have investigated whether the RB1/Rb1 locus is unique with respect to these differences. For this, we have compared the CGIs from human and mouse by in silico analyses. We have found that the human genome does not only contain more CGIs than the mouse, but the proportion of intronic CGIs is also higher (7.7% vs. 3.5%). At least 2,033 human intronic CGIs are not present in the mouse. Among these CGIs, 104 show sequence similarities elsewhere in the human genome, which suggests that they arose from retrotransposition. We could narrow down the time points when most of these CGIs appeared during evolution. Their methylation status was analyzed in two monocyte methylome data sets from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and in 18 published methylomes. Four CGIs, which are located in the RB1, ASRGL1, PARP11, and PDXDC1 genes, occur as methylated and unmethylated copies. In contrast to imprinted methylation at the RB1 locus, differential methylation of the ASRGL1 and PDXDC1 CGIs appears to be sequence dependent. Our study supports the notion that the epigenetic fate of the retrotransposed DNA depends on its sequence and selective forces at the integration site. PMID:24923327

Rademacher, Katrin; Schröder, Christopher; Kanber, Deniz; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Wallner, Stefan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Horsthemke, Bernhard

2014-07-01

358

Arsenic Compromises Conducting Airway Epithelial Barrier Properties in Primary Mouse and Immortalized Human Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4?M [~300 ?g/L (ppb)] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 ?M) and submicromolar (0.8 ?M) arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl) Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-). We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway. PMID:24349408

Sherwood, Cara L.; Liguori, Andrew E.; Olsen, Colin E.; Lantz, R. Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Boitano, Scott

2013-01-01

359

Pharmacologic induction of epidermal melanin and protection against sunburn in a humanized mouse model.  

PubMed

Fairness of skin, UV sensitivity and skin cancer risk all correlate with the physiologic function of the melanocortin 1 receptor, a Gs-coupled signaling protein found on the surface of melanocytes. Mc1r stimulates adenylyl cyclase and cAMP production which, in turn, up-regulates melanocytic production of melanin in the skin. In order to study the mechanisms by which Mc1r signaling protects the skin against UV injury, this study relies on a mouse model with "humanized skin" based on epidermal expression of stem cell factor (Scf). K14-Scf transgenic mice retain melanocytes in the epidermis and therefore have the ability to deposit melanin in the epidermis. In this animal model, wild type Mc1r status results in robust deposition of black eumelanin pigment and a UV-protected phenotype. In contrast, K14-Scf animals with defective Mc1r signaling ability exhibit a red/blonde pigmentation, very little eumelanin in the skin and a UV-sensitive phenotype. Reasoning that eumelanin deposition might be enhanced by topical agents that mimic Mc1r signaling, we found that direct application of forskolin extract to the skin of Mc1r-defective fair-skinned mice resulted in robust eumelanin induction and UV protection (1). Here we describe the method for preparing and applying a forskolin-containing natural root extract to K14-Scf fair-skinned mice and report a method for measuring UV sensitivity by determining minimal erythematous dose (MED). Using this animal model, it is possible to study how epidermal cAMP induction and melanization of the skin affect physiologic responses to UV exposure. PMID:24056496

Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Vanover, Jillian C; Scott, Timothy L; D'Orazio, John A

2013-01-01

360

Multiple Intravenous Administrations of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Benefit in a Mouse Model of ALS  

PubMed Central

Background A promising therapeutic strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the use of cell-based therapies that can protect motor neurons and thereby retard disease progression. We recently showed that a single large dose (25×106 cells) of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood (MNC hUCB) administered intravenously to pre-symptomatic G93A SOD1 mice is optimal in delaying disease progression and increasing lifespan. However, this single high cell dose is impractical for clinical use. The aim of the present pre-clinical translation study was therefore to evaluate the effects of multiple low dose systemic injections of MNC hUCB cell into G93A SOD1 mice at different disease stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice received weekly intravenous injections of MNC hUCB or media. Symptomatic mice received 106 or 2.5×106 cells from 13 weeks of age. A third, pre-symptomatic, group received 106 cells from 9 weeks of age. Control groups were media-injected G93A and mice carrying the normal hSOD1 gene. Motor function tests and various assays determined cell effects. Administered cell distribution, motor neuron counts, and glial cell densities were analyzed in mouse spinal cords. Results showed that mice receiving 106 cells pre-symptomatically or 2.5×106 cells symptomatically significantly delayed functional deterioration, increased lifespan and had higher motor neuron counts than media mice. Astrocytes and microglia were significantly reduced in all cell-treated groups. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that multiple injections of MNC hUCB cells, even beginning at the symptomatic disease stage, could benefit disease outcomes by protecting motor neurons from inflammatory effectors. This multiple cell infusion approach may promote future clinical studies. PMID:22319620

Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Rodrigues, Maria C. O.; Mirtyl, Santhia; Turner, Shanna; Mitha, Shazia; Sodhi, Jasmine; Suthakaran, Subatha; Eve, David J.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R.

2012-01-01

361

Human and Mouse Microglia Express Connexin36, and Functional Gap Junctions Are Formed Between Rodent Microglia and Neurons  

PubMed Central

Microglia, the tissue macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), intimately interact with neurons physically and through soluble factors that can affect microglial activation state and neuronal survival and physiology. We report here a new mechanism of interaction between these cells, provided by the formation of gap junctions composed of connexin (Cx) 36. Among eight Cxs tested, expression of Cx36 mRNA and protein was found in microglial cultures prepared from human and mouse, and Cx45 mRNA was found in mouse microglial cultures. Electrophysiological measurements found coupling between one-third of human or mouse microglial pairs that averaged below 30 pico-Siemens and displayed electrical properties consistent with Cx36 gap junctions. Importantly, similar frequency of low-strength electrical coupling was also obtained between microglia and neurons in cocultures prepared from neocortical or hippocampal rodent tissue. Lucifer yellow dye coupling between neurons and microglia was observed in 4% of pairs tested, consistent with the low strength and incidence of electrical coupling. Cx36 expression level and/or the degree of coupling between microglia did not significantly change in the presence of activating agents, including lipopolysaccharide, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-?, and tumor necrosis factor-?, except for some reduction of Cx36 protein when exposed to the latter two agents. Our findings that intercellular coupling occurs between neuronal and microglial populations through Cx36 gap junctions have potentially important implications for normal neural physiology and microglial responses in neuronopathology in the mammalian CNS. PMID:16211561

Dobrenis, K.; Chang, H.-Y.; Pina-Benabou, M.H.; Woodroffe, A.; Lee, S.C.; Rozental, R.; Spray, D.C.; Scemes, E.

2008-01-01

362

Genetic and cytogenetic localisation of the homeo box containing genes on mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 7.  

PubMed Central

Probes from the m6 homeo box cluster were mapped to mouse chromosome 6 by somatic cell genetics, in situ hybridisation, and by a Mus spretus--Mus musculus backcross mapping system. In addition, the testis-specific homeo box containing cDNA, clone, HBT-1, has been mapped using the same back-cross system and the B X D recombinant inbred strain set. Close genetic and physical linkage between the m6 cluster and HBT-1 was demonstrated, positioning these sequences to the same local cluster of homeo box containing genes. The map location of this cluster between IgK and Tcrb coincides with the morphological mutation hypodactyly (Hd). Synteny has been observed between a region of mouse chromosome 6 and the long arm of human chromosome 7 encompassing the markers Cpa, Tcrb and Try-1. Here we localise human sequences hybridising to the mouse m6 probes to the short arm of chromosome 7, breaking the region of synteny. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2878803

Bucan, M; Yang-Feng, T; Colberg-Poley, A M; Wolgemuth, D J; Guenet, J L; Francke, U; Lehrach, H

1986-01-01

363

Animal models of human prostate cancer: The Consensus Report of the New York Meeting of the Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium Prostate Pathology Committee  

PubMed Central

Animal models, particularly mouse models, play a central role in the study of the etiology, prevention and treatment of human prostate cancer (PCa). While tissue culture models are extremely useful in understanding the biology of PCa, they cannot recapitulate the complex cellular interactions within the tumor microenvironment that play a key role in cancer initiation and progression. The NCI Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium convened a group of human and veterinary pathologists to review the current animal models of PCa and make recommendations regarding the pathological analysis of these models. Over 40 different models with 439 samples were reviewed including genetically engineered mouse models, xenograft, rat and canine models. Numerous relevant models have been developed over the last 15 years and each approach has strengths and weaknesses. Analysis of multiple genetically engineered models has shown that reactive stroma formation is present in all the models developing invasive carcinomas. In addition, numerous models with multiple genetic alterations display aggressive phenotypes characterized by sarcomatoid carcinomas and metastases, which is presumably a histological manifestation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The significant progress in development of improved models of PCa has already accelerated our understanding the complex biology of PCa and promises to enhance development of new approaches to prevention, detection and treatment of this common malignancy. PMID:23610450

Ittmann, Michael; Huang, Jiaoti; Radaelli, Enrico; Martin, Philip; Signoretti, Sabina; Sullivan, Ruth; Simons, Brian W.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Robinson, Brian D.; Chu, Gerald C.; Loda, Massimo; Thomas, George; Borowsky, Alexander; Cardiff, Robert D.

2013-01-01

364

DNA synthesis of benign human breast tumors in the untreated athymic "nude" mouse. An in vivo model to study hormonal influences on growth of human breast tissues.  

PubMed

DNA synthesis in 33 human benign breast tissue biopsy specimens (HBT) was determined by 3H-thymidine radioautography 0, 15, 30, and 60 days after s.c. transplantation to female nude mice. A third of the grafts was removed from each mouse at each time period. Grafts and 0-day slices were exposed to 3H-thymidine in vitro. Labeling indices (LI) [number of radiolabeled epithelial cells per unit area epithelium (0.1 mm2)] were calculated for 0-day slices and grafts from each mouse at each time period. The LI of high 0-day HBT grafts (LI greater than 15) decreased significantly between 0 and 15 and 0 and 30 days. The LI of low 0-day HBT grafts (LI less than 15) increased significantly at 15 days then decreased to 0-day levels at 30 days. No significant differences in LI of HBT grafts were observed between 30 and 60 days. Thus, a model has been proposed for studies of factors effecting the growth of human breast tissues transplanted to nude mice in which (1) each mouse is used as its own control by measuring DNA synthesis of grafts before and after treatment, and (2) the treatment is initiated 30 days or more after transplantation of breast tissues when graft DNA synthesis is stabilized. Using this model, we have observed marked increases in HBT graft DNA snythesis induced by human placental lactogen treatment of host nude mice from day 42 to day 60 after HBT transplantation. PMID:7370957

McManus, M J; Welsch, C W

1980-04-15

365

Mislocalization and Degradation of Human P23H-Rhodopsin-GFP in a Knockin Mouse Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To engineer a knockin mouse model that can be used to monitor the effects of treatments on degradation and mislocalization of proline-to-histidine change at codon 23 (P23H) rhodopsin, a common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). The goal was to introduce a gene that expressed rhodopsin at low levels to avoid rapid retinal degeneration, and with a readily visible tag to make it easy to distinguish from wild type rhodopsin. Methods. One copy of the endogenous mouse rhodopsin gene was replaced with a mutant human rhodopsin gene that encodes P23H-rhodopsin fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) at its C terminus. The gene includes a LoxP site in the sequence corresponding to the 5?-untranslated region, which greatly reduces translation efficiency. Characterized are the resulting heterozygous and homozygous P23H-hRho-GFP mouse lines for mRNA and protein expression, P23H-rhodopsin localization in rod cells, effects on visual function, and retinal degeneration. Results. The retinas of heterozygous P23H-hRho-GFP mice are morphologically and functionally very similar to those of wild type mice, and they display little cell death over time. P23H-hRho-GFP mice transcribe the knockin gene as efficiently as the endogenous mouse allele, but they contain much less of the protein product than do knockin mice expressing nonmutant hRho-GFP, indicating that substantial degradation of P23H-rRho-GFP occurs in mouse rod cells. The remaining P23H-hRho-GFP mislocalizes to the inner segment and outer nuclear layer, with only approximately 20% in rod outer segments. Conclusions. P23H-hRho-GFP mice provide a valuable tool for evaluating the efficacy of potential therapies for ADRP that influence the levels or localization of P23H-rhodopsin. PMID:22110080

Price, Brandee A.; Sandoval, Ivette M.; Chan, Fung; Simons, David L.; Wu, Samuel M.; Wensel, Theodore G.

2011-01-01

366

A p53-dependent mechanism underlies macrocytic anemia in a mouse model of human 5q? syndrome  

PubMed Central

The identification of the genes associated with chromosomal translocation breakpoints has fundamentally changed our understanding of the molecular basis of hematological malignancies. By contrast, the study of chromosomal deletions has been hampered by the large number of genes deleted and the complexity of their analysis. We report the generation of a mouse model for the human 5q? syndrome using large-scale chromosomal engineering. Haploinsufficiency of the Cd74 – Nid67 interval (containing the Ribosomal protein S14 gene – Rps14) causes macrocytic anemia, prominent erythroid dysplasia and monolobulated megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. This is associated with defective bone marrow progenitor development, increased apoptosis and the appearance of bone marrow cells expressing high levels of p53. Notably, intercrossing with p53-deficient mice, completely rescues the progenitor cell defect, restoring CMP/MEP, GMP and HSC bone marrow populations. This novel mouse model suggests that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the 5q? syndrome. PMID:19966810

Barlow, Jillian L.; Drynan, Lesley F.; Hewett, Duncan R.; Holmes, Luke R.; Lorenzo-Abalde, Silvia; Lane, Alison L.; Jolin, Helen E.; Pannell, Richard; Middleton, Angela J.; Wong, See Heng; Warren, Alan J; Wainscoat, James S.; Boultwood, Jacqueline; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.

2009-01-01

367

Severe combined immunodeficiency mouse-psoriatic human skin xenograft model: a modern tool connecting bench to bedside.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease. Research into the pathogenesis of this disease is hindered by the lack of a proper animal model. Over the past two decades, many scientists were involved in the development of animal models that nearly mirror the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. One such model, which has opened doors to the study of molecular complexities of psoriasis as well as its treatment, is the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse-human skin chimera model. This model not only mirrors the clinical and histopathological features of psoriasis but also help in the study of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, function of T cells, neurogenic inflammation and cytokines involved in inflammatory reactions. In this article, we have reviewed the prospects and the limitations of the SCID mouse model of psoriasis. PMID:24823397

Kundu-Raychaudhuri, Smriti; Datta-Mitra, Ananya; Abria, Christine J; Peters, John; Raychaudhuri, Siba P

2014-01-01

368

Activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha by perfluoroalkyl acids of different functional groups and chain lengths.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are surfactants used in consumer products and persist in the environment. Some PFAAs elicit adverse effects on rodent development and survival. PFAAs can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and may act via PPARalpha to produce some of their effects. This study evaluated the ability of numerous PFAAs to induce mouse and human PPARalpha activity in a transiently transfected COS-1 cell assay. COS-1 cells were transfected with either a mouse or human PPARalpha receptor-luciferase reporter plasmid. After 24 h, cells were exposed to either negative controls (water or dimethyl sulfoxide, 0.1%); positive control (WY-14643, PPARalpha agonist); perfluorooctanoic acid or perfluorononanoic acid at 0.5-100 microM; perfluorobutanoic acid, perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonate, or perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) at 5-100 microM; or perfluorobutane sulfonate or perfluorooctane sulfonate at 1-250 microM. After 24 h of exposure, luciferase activity from the plasmid was measured. Each PFAA activated both mouse and human PPARalpha in a concentration-dependent fashion, except PFDA with human PPARalpha. Activation of PPARalpha by PFAA carboxylates was positively correlated with carbon chain length, up to C9. PPARalpha activity was higher in response to carboxylates compared to sulfonates. Activation of mouse PPARalpha was generally higher compared to that of human PPARalpha. We conclude that, in general, (1) PFAAs of increasing carbon backbone chain lengths induce increasing activity of the mouse and human PPARalpha with a few exceptions, (2) PFAA carboxylates are stronger activators of mouse and human PPARalpha than PFAA sulfonates, and (3) in most cases, the mouse PPARalpha appears to be more sensitive to PFAA