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Sample records for human mutant sod1

  1. A novel SOD1-ALS mutation separates central and peripheral effects of mutant SOD1 toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Peter I.; Mcgoldrick, Philip; Saccon, Rachele A.; Weber, William; Fratta, Pietro; West, Steven J.; Zhu, Ning; Carter, Sarah; Phatak, Vinaya; Stewart, Michelle; Simon, Michelle; Kumar, Saumya; Heise, Ines; Bros-Facer, Virginie; Dick, James; Corrochano, Silvia; Stanford, Macdonnell J.; Luong, Tu Vinh; Nolan, Patrick M.; Meyer, Timothy; Brandner, Sebastian; Bennett, David L.H.; Ozdinler, P. Hande; Greensmith, Linda; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been critical in furthering our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, such models generally overexpress the mutant protein, which may give rise to phenotypes not directly relevant to the disorder. Here, we have analysed a novel mouse model that has a point mutation in the endogenous mouse Sod1 gene; this mutation is identical to a pathological change in human familial ALS (fALS) which results in a D83G change in SOD1 protein. Homozgous Sod1D83G/D83G mice develop progressive degeneration of lower (LMN) and upper motor neurons, likely due to the same unknown toxic gain of function as occurs in human fALS cases, but intriguingly LMN cell death appears to stop in early adulthood and the mice do not become paralyzed. The D83 residue coordinates zinc binding, and the D83G mutation results in loss of dismutase activity and SOD1 protein instability. As a result, Sod1D83G/D83G mice also phenocopy the distal axonopathy and hepatocellular carcinoma found in Sod1 null mice (Sod1−/−). These unique mice allow us to further our understanding of ALS by separating the central motor neuron body degeneration and the peripheral effects from a fALS mutation expressed at endogenous levels. PMID:25468678

  2. ALS-linked mutant SOD1 damages mitochondria by promoting conformational changes in Bcl-2

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Steve; Sau, Daniela; Guareschi, Stefania; Bogush, Marina; Brown, Robert H.; Naniche, Nicole; Kia, Azadeh; Trotti, Davide; Pasinelli, Piera

    2010-01-01

    In mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), accumulation of misfolded mutant SOD1 in spinal cord mitochondria is thought to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Whether mutant SOD1 is toxic per se or whether it damages the mitochondria through interactions with other mitochondrial proteins is not known. We previously identified Bcl-2 as an interacting partner of mutant SOD1 specifically in spinal cord, but not in liver, mitochondria of SOD1 mice and patients. We now show that mutant SOD1 toxicity relies on this interaction. Mutant SOD1 induces mitochondrial morphological changes and compromises mitochondrial membrane integrity leading to release of Cytochrome C only in the presence of Bcl-2. In cells, mouse and human spinal cord with SOD1 mutations, the binding to mutant SOD1 triggers a conformational change in Bcl-2 that results in the uncovering of its toxic BH3 domain and conversion of Bcl-2 into a toxic protein. Bcl-2 carrying a mutagenized, non-toxic BH3 domain fails to support mutant SOD1 mitochondrial toxicity. The identification of Bcl-2 as a specific target and active partner in mutant SOD1 mitochondrial toxicity suggests new therapeutic strategies to inhibit the formation of the toxic mutant SOD1/Bcl-2 complex and to prevent mitochondrial damage in ALS. PMID:20460269

  3. Extracellular Mutant SOD1 Induces Microglial-Mediated Motoneuron Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weihua; Beers, David R.; Henkel, Jenny S.; Zhang, Wei; Urushitani, Makoto; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Appel, Stanley H.

    2009-01-01

    Through undefined mechanisms, dominant mutations in (Cu/Zn) superoxide dismutase-1 (mSOD1) cause the non-cell-autonomous death of motoneurons in inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Microgliosis at sites of motoneuron injury is a neuropathological hallmark of ALS. Extracellular mSOD1 causes motoneuron injury and triggers microgliosis in spinal cord cultures, but it is unclear whether the injury results from extracellular mSOD1 directly interacting with motoneurons or is mediated through mSOD1-activated microglia. To dissociate these potential mSOD1-mediated neurotoxic mechanisms, the effects of extracellular human mSOD1G93A or mSOD1G85R were assayed using primary cultures of motoneurons and microglia. The data demonstrate that exogenous mSOD1G93A did not cause detectable direct killing of motoneurons. In contrast, mSOD1G93A or mSOD1G85R did induce the morphological and functional activation of microglia, increasing their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and free radicals. Furthermore, only when microglia were co-cultured with motoneurons did extracellular mSOD1G93A injure motoneurons. The microglial activation mediated by mSOD1G93A was attenuated using toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, TLR4 and CD14 blocking antibodies, or when microglia lacked CD14 expression. These data suggest that extracellular mSOD1G93A is not directly toxic to motoneurons but requires microglial activation for toxicity, utilizing CD14 and TLR pathways. This link between mSOD1 and innate immunity may offer novel therapeutic targets in ALS. PMID:19672969

  4. Direct and indirect mechanisms for wild-type SOD1 to enhance the toxicity of mutant SOD1 in bigenic transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guilian; Ayers, Jacob I.; Roberts, Brittany L.; Brown, Hilda; Fromholt, Susan; Green, Cameron; Borchelt, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Co-expression of wild-type human superoxide dismutase 1 (WT-hSOD1) with ALS mutant hSOD1 accelerates disease onset relative to mice expressing only mutant protein. Here, we analyzed the effect of co-expressed WT-hSOD1 in two established mutant mouse models (L126Z and G37R), and a new model that expresses the first 102 amino acids of SOD1 with mutations at histidines 46, 48 and 63 to eliminate Cu binding (Cu-V103Z). A subset of Cu-V103Z mice developed paralysis between 500 and 730 days. Similar to mice expressing L126Z-SOD1, the spinal cords of this new model showed SOD1 immunoreactive fibrillar inclusions. Co-expression of WT-hSOD1 with Cu-V103Z SOD1 moderately accelerated the age to paralysis, similar in magnitude to WT/L126Z mice. In either combination of these bigenic mice, the severity of fibrillar inclusion pathology was diminished and unreactive to antibodies specific for the C terminus of WT protein. Co-expression of WT-hSOD1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (WT-hSOD1:YFP) with G37R-hSOD1 produced earlier disease, and spinal cords of paralyzed bigenic mice showed YFP fluorescent inclusion-like structures. In bigenic L126Z/WT-hSOD1:YFP mice, disease was not accelerated and WT-hSOD1:YFP remained diffusely distributed. A combination of split luciferase complementation assays and affinity capture-binding assays demonstrated that soluble G37R-hSOD1 efficiently and tightly bound soluble WT-hSOD1, whereas soluble forms of the Cu-V103Z and L126Z variants demonstrated low affinity. These data indicate that WT-hSOD1 may indirectly augment the toxicity of mutant protein by competing for protective factors, but disease onset seems to be most accelerated when WT-hSOD1 interacts with mutant SOD1 and becomes misfolded. PMID:25305079

  5. Direct and indirect mechanisms for wild-type SOD1 to enhance the toxicity of mutant SOD1 in bigenic transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guilian; Ayers, Jacob I; Roberts, Brittany L; Brown, Hilda; Fromholt, Susan; Green, Cameron; Borchelt, David R

    2015-02-15

    Co-expression of wild-type human superoxide dismutase 1 (WT-hSOD1) with ALS mutant hSOD1 accelerates disease onset relative to mice expressing only mutant protein. Here, we analyzed the effect of co-expressed WT-hSOD1 in two established mutant mouse models (L126Z and G37R), and a new model that expresses the first 102 amino acids of SOD1 with mutations at histidines 46, 48 and 63 to eliminate Cu binding (Cu-V103Z). A subset of Cu-V103Z mice developed paralysis between 500 and 730 days. Similar to mice expressing L126Z-SOD1, the spinal cords of this new model showed SOD1 immunoreactive fibrillar inclusions. Co-expression of WT-hSOD1 with Cu-V103Z SOD1 moderately accelerated the age to paralysis, similar in magnitude to WT/L126Z mice. In either combination of these bigenic mice, the severity of fibrillar inclusion pathology was diminished and unreactive to antibodies specific for the C terminus of WT protein. Co-expression of WT-hSOD1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (WT-hSOD1:YFP) with G37R-hSOD1 produced earlier disease, and spinal cords of paralyzed bigenic mice showed YFP fluorescent inclusion-like structures. In bigenic L126Z/WT-hSOD1:YFP mice, disease was not accelerated and WT-hSOD1:YFP remained diffusely distributed. A combination of split luciferase complementation assays and affinity capture-binding assays demonstrated that soluble G37R-hSOD1 efficiently and tightly bound soluble WT-hSOD1, whereas soluble forms of the Cu-V103Z and L126Z variants demonstrated low affinity. These data indicate that WT-hSOD1 may indirectly augment the toxicity of mutant protein by competing for protective factors, but disease onset seems to be most accelerated when WT-hSOD1 interacts with mutant SOD1 and becomes misfolded. PMID:25305079

  6. Mutant SOD1 Forms Ion Channel: Implications for ALS Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Michael J.; Lacroix, Jérome J.; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Capone, Ricardo; Whitlock, Jenny L.; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D.; Arnsdorf, Morton F.; Roos, Raymond P.; Lal, Ratnesh

    2011-01-01

    Point mutations in the gene encoding copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) impart a gain-of-function to this protein that underlies 20-25% of all familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) cases. However, the specific mechanism of mutant SOD1 toxicity has remained elusive. Using the complementary techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrophysiology, and cell and molecular biology, here we examine the structure and activity of A4VSOD1, a mutant SOD1. AFM of A4VSOD1 reconstituted in lipid membrane shows discrete tetrameric pore-like structure with outer and inner diameters 12.2 and 3.0 nm respectively. Electrophysiological recordings show distinct ionic conductances across bilayer for A4VSOD1 and none for wild-type SOD1. Mouse neuroblastoma cells exposed to A4VSOD1 undergo membrane depolarization and increases in intracellular calcium. These results provide compelling new evidence that a mutant SOD1 is capable of disrupting cellular homeostasis via an unregulated ion channel mechanism. Such a “toxic channel” mechanism presents a new therapeutic direction for ALS research. PMID:21930207

  7. In vivo pathogenic role of mutant SOD1 localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    PubMed

    Igoudjil, Anissa; Magrané, Jordi; Fischer, Lindsey R; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Hervias, Isabel; Dumont, Magali; Cortez, Czrina; Glass, Jonathan D; Starkov, Anatoly A; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2011-11-01

    Mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant SOD1 causes a complex array of pathological events, through toxic gain of function mechanisms, leading to selective motor neuron degeneration. Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the well established toxic effects of mutant SOD1, but its mechanisms are just starting to be elucidated. A portion of mutant SOD1 is localized in mitochondria, where it accumulates mostly on the outer membrane and inside the intermembrane space (IMS). Evidence in cultured cells suggests that mutant SOD1 in the IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and compromises cell viability. Therefore, to test its pathogenic role in vivo we generated transgenic mice expressing G93A mutant or wild-type (WT) human SOD1 targeted selectively to the mitochondrial IMS (mito-SOD1). We show that mito-SOD1 is correctly localized in the IMS, where it oligomerizes and acquires enzymatic activity. Mito-G93ASOD1 mice, but not mito-WTSOD1 mice, develop a progressive disease characterized by body weight loss, muscle weakness, brain atrophy, and motor impairment, which is more severe in females. These symptoms are associated with reduced spinal motor neuron counts and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, characterized by decreased cytochrome oxidase activity and defective calcium handling. However, there is no evidence of muscle denervation, a cardinal pathological feature of ALS. Together, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 in the mitochondrial IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, but per se it is not sufficient to cause a full-fledged ALS phenotype, which requires the participation of mutant SOD1 localized in other cellular compartments. PMID:22049426

  8. Modifications of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Kyle C.; Zhou, Li; Jordon, Joshua K.; Huang, Yi; Yu, Yanbao; Redler, Rachel L.; Chen, Xian; Caplow, Michael; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2009-01-01

    Over 100 mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) result in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dimer dissociation is the first step in SOD1 aggregation, and studies suggest nearly every amino acid residue in SOD1 is dynamically connected to the dimer interface. Post-translational modifications of SOD1 residues might be expected to have similar effects to mutations, but few modifications have been identified. Here we show, using SOD1 isolated from human erythrocytes, that human SOD1 is phosphorylated at threonine 2 and glutathionylated at cysteine 111. A second SOD1 phosphorylation was observed and mapped to either Thr-58 or Ser-59. Cysteine 111 glutathionylation promotes SOD1 monomer formation, a necessary initiating step in SOD1 aggregation, by causing a 2-fold increase in the Kd. This change in the dimer stability is expected to result in a 67% increase in monomer concentration, 315 nm rather than 212 nm at physiological SOD1 concentrations. Because protein glutathionylation is associated with redox regulation, our finding that glutathionylation promotes SOD1 monomer formation supports a model in which increased oxidative stress promotes SOD1 aggregation. PMID:19299510

  9. HDAC6 Regulates Mutant SOD1 Aggregation through Two SMIR Motifs and Tubulin Acetylation*

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Jozsef; Chen, Jing; Barnett, Kelly R.; Yang, Liuqing; Brumley, Erin; Zhu, Haining

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a tubulin deacetylase that regulates protein aggregation and turnover. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) make the mutant protein prone to aggregation. However, the role of HDAC6 in mutant SOD1 aggregation and the ALS etiology is unclear. Here we report that HDAC6 knockdown increased mutant SOD1 aggregation in cultured cells. Different from its known role in mediating the degradation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, HDAC6 selectively interacted with mutant SOD1 via two motifs similar to the SOD1 mutant interaction region (SMIR) that we identified previously in p62/sequestosome 1. Expression of the aggregation-prone mutant SOD1 increased α-tubulin acetylation, and the acetylation-mimicking K40Q α-tubulin mutant promoted mutant SOD1 aggregation. Our results suggest that ALS-linked mutant SOD1 can modulate HDAC6 activity and increase tubulin acetylation, which, in turn, facilitates the microtubule- and retrograde transport-dependent mutant SOD1 aggregation. HDAC6 impairment might be a common feature in various subtypes of ALS. PMID:23580651

  10. Mutant SOD1-expressing astrocytes release toxic factors that trigger motoneuron death by inducing hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Elsa; Izaurieta, Pamela; Weiss, Alexandra; Mir, Franco R; Rojas, Patricio; Gonzalez, David; Rojas, Fabiola; Brown, Robert H; Madrid, Rodolfo; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2013-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motoneurons starting in adulthood. Recent studies using cell or animal models document that astrocytes expressing disease-causing mutations of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS by releasing a neurotoxic factor(s). Neither the mechanism by which this neurotoxic factor induces motoneuron death nor its cellular site of action has been elucidated. Here we show that acute exposure of primary wild-type spinal cord cultures to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 (ACM-hSOD1(G93A)) increases persistent sodium inward currents (PC(Na)), repetitive firing, and intracellular calcium transients, leading to specific motoneuron death days later. In contrast to TTX, which paradoxically increased twofold the amplitude of calcium transients and killed motoneurons, reduction of hyperexcitability by other specific (mexiletine) and nonspecific (spermidine and riluzole) blockers of voltage-sensitive sodium (Na(v)) channels restored basal calcium transients and prevented motoneuron death induced by ACM-hSOD1(G93A). These findings suggest that riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug with known benefits for ALS patients, acts by inhibiting hyperexcitability. Together, our data document that a critical element mediating the non-cell-autonomous toxicity of ACM-hSOD1(G93A) on motoneurons is increased excitability, an observation with direct implications for therapy of ALS. PMID:23486205

  11. Mutant SOD1-expressing astrocytes release toxic factors that trigger motoneuron death by inducing hyperexcitability

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Elsa; Izaurieta, Pamela; Weiss, Alexandra; Mir, Franco R.; Rojas, Patricio; Gonzalez, David; Rojas, Fabiola; Brown, Robert H.; Madrid, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motoneurons starting in adulthood. Recent studies using cell or animal models document that astrocytes expressing disease-causing mutations of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS by releasing a neurotoxic factor(s). Neither the mechanism by which this neurotoxic factor induces motoneuron death nor its cellular site of action has been elucidated. Here we show that acute exposure of primary wild-type spinal cord cultures to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 (ACM-hSOD1G93A) increases persistent sodium inward currents (PCNa), repetitive firing, and intracellular calcium transients, leading to specific motoneuron death days later. In contrast to TTX, which paradoxically increased twofold the amplitude of calcium transients and killed motoneurons, reduction of hyperexcitability by other specific (mexiletine) and nonspecific (spermidine and riluzole) blockers of voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels restored basal calcium transients and prevented motoneuron death induced by ACM-hSOD1G93A. These findings suggest that riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug with known benefits for ALS patients, acts by inhibiting hyperexcitability. Together, our data document that a critical element mediating the non-cell-autonomous toxicity of ACM-hSOD1G93A on motoneurons is increased excitability, an observation with direct implications for therapy of ALS. PMID:23486205

  12. Mutant SOD1 accumulation in sensory neurons does not associate with endoplasmic reticulum stress features: Implications for differential vulnerability of sensory and motor neurons to SOD1 toxicity.

    PubMed

    Taiana, Michela; Sassone, Jenny; Lauria, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previous papers showed that mutant SOD1 accumulates and undergoes misfolding in motor neurons and that the specific interaction of mutant SOD1 with derlin-1 leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Because evidence shows that mutant SOD1 expression also damages sensory neurons, we hypothesized that, similarly to motor neurons, the sensory neurons of ALS mouse model SOD1(G93A) accumulate mutant/misfolded SOD1 and suffer from ER stress and UPR activation. Our results reveal that SOD1(G93A) sensory neurons accumulate mutant/misfolded SOD1 but, surprisingly, do not suffer from ER stress and UPR activation. Moreover, the sensory neurons do not express detectable levels of the SOD1 interactor derlin-1. These results suggest a potential molecular mechanism underlying the differential vulnerability of motor and sensory neurons to mutant SOD1 toxicity. PMID:27241719

  13. Mutant SOD1 mediated pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simran J; McKeown, Stephanie R; Rashid, Shazia

    2016-02-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neural disorder that causes death of the motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord; this affects the voluntary muscles and gradually leads to paralysis of the whole body. Most ALS cases are sporadic, though about 5-10% are familial. ALS is caused by multiple factors including mutation in any one of a number of specific genes, one of the most frequently affected is superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1. Alterations in SOD 1 have been linked with several variants of familial ALS. SOD 1 is a powerful antioxidant enzyme that protects cells from the damaging effects of superoxide radicals. The enzyme binds both copper and zinc ions that are directly involved in the deactivation of toxic superoxide radicals. Mutated SOD1 gene can acquire both gain and loss of function mutations. The most commonly identified mutations in SOD1 that affect protein activity are D90A, A4V and G93A. Deleterious mutations have been shown to modify SOD1 activity, which leads to the accumulation of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals. Accumulation of these free radicals causes degradation of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and protein misfolding, features which can be used as pathological indicators associated with ALS. Numerous clinical trials have been carried out over last few years with limited success. In some patients advanced techniques like gene and stem cell therapy have been trialed. However no definitive treatment option can provide a cure and currently ALS is managed by drugs and other supportive therapies. Consequently there is a need to identify new approaches for treatment of this ultimately fatal disease. PMID:26657039

  14. Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Is a Target for Mutant SOD1 Toxicity in Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Hibiki; Magrané, Jordi; Kunst, Catherine; King, Michael P.; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease affecting the motor neurons. The majority of familial forms of ALS are caused by mutations in the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). In mutant SOD1 spinal cord motor neurons, mitochondria develop abnormal morphology, bioenergetic defects, and degeneration. However, the mechanisms of mitochondrial toxicity are still unclear. One possibility is that mutant SOD1 establishes aberrant interactions with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins, which can interfere with their normal trafficking from the cytosol to mitochondria. Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KARS), an enzyme required for protein translation that was shown to interact with mutant SOD1 in yeast, is a good candidate as a target for interaction with mutant SOD1 at the mitochondrion in mammals because of its dual cytosolic and mitochondrial localization. Here, we show that in mammalian cells mutant SOD1 interacts preferentially with the mitochondrial form of KARS (mitoKARS). KARS-SOD1 interactions occur also in the mitochondria of the nervous system in transgenic mice. In the presence of mutant SOD1, mitoKARS displays a high propensity to misfold and aggregate prior to its import into mitochondria, becoming a target for proteasome degradation. Impaired mitoKARS import correlates with decreased mitochondrial protein synthesis. Ultimately, the abnormal interactions between mutant SOD1 and mitoKARS result in mitochondrial morphological abnormalities and cell toxicity. mitoKARS is the first described member of a group of mitochondrial proteins whose interaction with mutant SOD1 contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS. PMID:18715867

  15. Drosophila expressing human SOD1 successfully recapitulates mitochondrial phenotypic features of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gallart-Palau, Xavier; Ng, Chee-Hoe; Ribera, Joan; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lim, Kah-Leong

    2016-06-15

    Mitochondrial pathology is a seminal pathogenic hallmark of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) which is extensively manifested by human patients and mutant SOD1(G93A) mammalian models. Rodents expressing human FALS-associated mutations successfully mimic several human disease features; although they are not as amenable to genetic and therapeutic compound screenings as non-mammalian models. In this study, we report a newly generated and characterized Drosophila model that expresses human SOD1(G93A) in muscle fibers. Presence of SOD1(G93A) in thoracic muscles causes mitochondrial pathology and impairs normal motor behavior in these flies. Use of this new FALS-24B-SOD1(G93A) fly model holds promise for better understanding of the mitochondrial affectation process in FALS and for the discovery of novel therapeutic compounds able to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction in this fatal disease. PMID:27163198

  16. Modeling ALS with iPSCs Reveals that Mutant SOD1 Misregulates Neurofilament Balance in Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Qian, Kun; Du, Zhongwei; Cao, Jingyuan; Petersen, Andrew; Liu, Huisheng; Blackbourn, Lisle W.; Huang, CindyTzu-Ling; Errigo, Anthony; Yin, Yingnan; Lu, Jianfeng; Ayala, Melvin; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) presents motoneuron (MN)-selective protein inclusions and axonal degeneration but the underlying mechanisms of such are unknown. Using induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) from patients with mutation in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1)gene, we show that spinal MNs, but rarely non-MNs, exhibited neurofilament (NF) aggregation followed by neurite degeneration when glia were not present. These changes were associated with decreased stability of NF-L mRNA and binding of its 3′ UTR by mutant SOD1 and thus altered protein proportion of NF subunits. Such MN-selective changes were mimicked by expression of a single copy of the mutant SOD1 in human embryonic stem cells and were prevented by genetic correction of the SOD1 mutation in patient’s iPSCs. Importantly, conditional expression of NF-L in the SOD1 iPSC-derived MNs corrected the NF subunit proportion, mitigating NF aggregation and neurite degeneration. Thus, NF misregulation underlies mutant SOD1-mediated NF aggregation and axonal degeneration in ALS MNs. PMID:24704493

  17. In-cell NMR reveals potential precursor of toxic species from SOD1 fALS mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinat, Enrico; Barbieri, Letizia; Rubino, Jeffrey T.; Kozyreva, Tatiana; Cantini, Francesca; Banci, Lucia

    2014-11-01

    Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene are related to familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Here we exploit in-cell NMR to characterize the protein folding and maturation of a series of fALS-linked SOD1 mutants in human cells and to obtain insight into their behaviour in the cellular context, at the molecular level. The effect of various mutations on SOD1 maturation are investigated by changing the availability of metal ions in the cells, and by coexpressing the copper chaperone for SOD1, hCCS. We observe for most of the mutants the occurrence of an unstructured SOD1 species, unable to bind zinc. This species may be a common precursor of potentially toxic oligomeric species, that are associated with fALS. Coexpression of hCCS in the presence of copper restores the correct maturation of the SOD1 mutants and prevents the formation of the unstructured species, confirming that hCCS also acts as a molecular chaperone.

  18. Analysis of Mutant SOD1 Electrophoretic Mobility by Blue Native Gel Electrophoresis; Evidence for Soluble Multimeric Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Hilda H.; Borchelt, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Disease causing mutations have diverse consequences on the activity and half-life of the protein, ranging from complete inactivity and short half-life to full activity and long-half-life. Uniformly, disease causing mutations induce the protein to misfold and aggregate and such aggregation tendencies are readily visualized by over-expression of the proteins in cultured cells. In the present study we have investigated the potential of using immunoblotting of proteins separated by Blue-Native gel electrophoresis (BNGE) as a means to identify soluble multimeric forms of mutant protein. We find that over-expressed wild-type human SOD1 (hSOD1) is generally not prone to form soluble high molecular weight entities that can be separated by BNGE. For ALS mutant SOD1, we observe that for all mutants examined (A4V, G37R, G85R, G93A, and L126Z), immunoblots of BN-gels separating protein solubilized by digitonin demonstrated varied amounts of high molecular weight immunoreactive entities. These entities lacked reactivity to ubiquitin and were partially dissociated by reducing agents. With the exception of the G93A mutant, these entities were not reactive to the C4F6 conformational antibody. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BNGE can be used to assess the formation of soluble multimeric assemblies of mutant SOD1. PMID:25121776

  19. Destabilizing Protein Polymorphisms in the Genetic Background Direct Phenotypic Expression of Mutant SOD1 Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gidalevitz, Tali; Krupinski, Thomas; Garcia, Susana; Morimoto, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic background exerts a strong modulatory effect on the toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins in conformational diseases. In addition to influencing the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the mutant proteins, polymorphisms in putative modifier genes may affect the molecular processes leading to the disease phenotype. Mutations in SOD1 in a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases confer dominant but clinically variable toxicity, thought to be mediated by misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 protein. While the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown, both the nature of the SOD1 mutation and the genetic background in which it is expressed appear important. To address this, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to systematically examine the aggregation behavior and genetic interactions of mutant forms of SOD1. Expression of three structurally distinct SOD1 mutants in C. elegans muscle cells resulted in the appearance of heterogeneous populations of aggregates and was associated with only mild cellular dysfunction. However, introduction of destabilizing temperature-sensitive mutations into the genetic background strongly enhanced the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, resulting in exposure of several deleterious phenotypes at permissive conditions in a manner dependent on the specific SOD1 mutation. The nature of the observed phenotype was dependent on the temperature-sensitive mutation present, while its penetrance reflected the specific combination of temperature-sensitive and SOD1 mutations. Thus, the specific toxic phenotypes of conformational disease may not be simply due to misfolding/aggregation toxicity of the causative mutant proteins, but may be defined by their genetic interactions with cellular pathways harboring mildly destabilizing missense alleles. PMID:19266020

  20. Destabilizing protein polymorphisms in the genetic background direct phenotypic expression of mutant SOD1 toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gidalevitz, Tali; Krupinski, Thomas; Garcia, Susana; Morimoto, Richard I

    2009-03-01

    Genetic background exerts a strong modulatory effect on the toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins in conformational diseases. In addition to influencing the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the mutant proteins, polymorphisms in putative modifier genes may affect the molecular processes leading to the disease phenotype. Mutations in SOD1 in a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases confer dominant but clinically variable toxicity, thought to be mediated by misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 protein. While the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown, both the nature of the SOD1 mutation and the genetic background in which it is expressed appear important. To address this, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to systematically examine the aggregation behavior and genetic interactions of mutant forms of SOD1. Expression of three structurally distinct SOD1 mutants in C. elegans muscle cells resulted in the appearance of heterogeneous populations of aggregates and was associated with only mild cellular dysfunction. However, introduction of destabilizing temperature-sensitive mutations into the genetic background strongly enhanced the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, resulting in exposure of several deleterious phenotypes at permissive conditions in a manner dependent on the specific SOD1 mutation. The nature of the observed phenotype was dependent on the temperature-sensitive mutation present, while its penetrance reflected the specific combination of temperature-sensitive and SOD1 mutations. Thus, the specific toxic phenotypes of conformational disease may not be simply due to misfolding/aggregation toxicity of the causative mutant proteins, but may be defined by their genetic interactions with cellular pathways harboring mildly destabilizing missense alleles. PMID:19266020

  1. Oral treatment with Cu(II)(atsm) increases mutant SOD1 in vivo but protects motor neurons and improves the phenotype of a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Blaine R; Lim, Nastasia K H; McAllum, Erin J; Donnelly, Paul S; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip A; Turner, Bradley J; Price, Katherine A; Lim, Sin Chun; Paterson, Brett M; Hickey, James L; Rhoads, Timothy W; Williams, Jared R; Kanninen, Katja M; Hung, Lin W; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Grubman, Alexandra; Monty, Jean-Francois; Llanos, Roxana M; Kramer, David R; Mercer, Julian F B; Bush, Ashley I; Masters, Colin L; Duce, James A; Li, Qiao-Xin; Beckman, Joseph S; Barnham, Kevin J; White, Anthony R; Crouch, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    Mutations in the metallo-protein Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in humans and an expression level-dependent phenotype in transgenic rodents. We show that oral treatment with the therapeutic agent diacetyl-bis(4-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) [Cu(II)(atsm)] increased the concentration of mutant SOD1 (SOD1G37R) in ALS model mice, but paradoxically improved locomotor function and survival of the mice. To determine why the mice with increased levels of mutant SOD1 had an improved phenotype, we analyzed tissues by mass spectrometry. These analyses revealed most SOD1 in the spinal cord tissue of the SOD1G37R mice was Cu deficient. Treating with Cu(II)(atsm) decreased the pool of Cu-deficient SOD1 and increased the pool of fully metallated (holo) SOD1. Tracking isotopically enriched (65)Cu(II)(atsm) confirmed the increase in holo-SOD1 involved transfer of Cu from Cu(II)(atsm) to SOD1, suggesting the improved locomotor function and survival of the Cu(II)(atsm)-treated SOD1G37R mice involved, at least in part, the ability of the compound to improve the Cu content of the mutant SOD1. This was supported by improved survival of SOD1G37R mice that expressed the human gene for the Cu uptake protein CTR1. Improving the metal content of mutant SOD1 in vivo with Cu(II)(atsm) did not decrease levels of misfolded SOD1. These outcomes indicate the metal content of SOD1 may be a greater determinant of the toxicity of the protein in mutant SOD1-associated forms of ALS than the mutations themselves. Improving the metal content of SOD1 therefore represents a valid therapeutic strategy for treating ALS caused by SOD1. PMID:24899723

  2. Silencing mutant SOD1 using RNAi protects against neurodegeneration and extends survival in an ALS model.

    PubMed

    Ralph, G Scott; Radcliffe, Pippa A; Day, Denise M; Carthy, Janine M; Leroux, Marie A; Lee, Debbie C P; Wong, Liang-Fong; Bilsland, Lynsey G; Greensmith, Linda; Kingsman, Susan M; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; Azzouz, Mimoun

    2005-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease resulting in the selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Some familial cases of ALS are caused by dominant mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The emergence of interfering RNA (RNAi) for specific gene silencing could be therapeutically beneficial for the treatment of such dominantly inherited diseases. We generated a lentiviral vector to mediate expression of RNAi molecules specifically targeting the human SOD1 gene (SOD1). Injection of this vector into various muscle groups of mice engineered to overexpress a mutated form of human SOD1 (SOD1(G93A)) resulted in an efficient and specific reduction of SOD1 expression and improved survival of vulnerable motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. Furthermore, SOD1 silencing mediated an improved motor performance in these animals, resulting in a considerable delay in the onset of ALS symptoms by more than 100% and an extension in survival by nearly 80% of their normal life span. These data are the first to show a substantial extension of survival in an animal model of a fatal, dominantly inherited neurodegenerative condition using RNAi and provide the highest therapeutic efficacy observed in this field to date. PMID:15768029

  3. Mutant SOD1 Increases APP Expression and Phosphorylation in Cellular and Animal Models of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich-Toidman, Polina; Rabinovich-Nikitin, Inna; Ezra, Assaf; Barbiro, Beka; Fogel, Hilla; Slutsky, Inna; Solomon, Beka

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common adult onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons. There is currently no effective treatment for ALS and our understanding of the pathological mechanism is still far away from prevention and/or treatment of this devastating disease. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that undergoes processing either by β-secretase or α-secretase, followed by γ-secretase. In the present study, we show that APP levels, and aberrant phosphorylation, which is associated with enhanced β-secretase cleavage, are increased in SOD1G93A ALS mouse model. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis suggests a close interaction between SOD1 and APP at hippocampal synapses. Notably, SOD1G93A mutation induces APP-SOD1 conformational changes, indicating a crosstalk between these two signaling proteins. Inhibition of APP processing via monoclonal antibody called BBS that blocks APP β-secretase cleavage site, resulted in reduction of mutant SOD1G93A levels in animal and cellular models of ALS, significantly prolonged life span of SOD1G93A mice and diminished inflammation. Beyond its effect on toxic mutant SOD1G93A, BBS treatment resulted in a reduction in the levels of APP, its processing product soluble APPβ and pro-apoptotic p53. This study demonstrates that APP and its processing products contribute to ALS pathology through several different pathways; thus BBS antibody could be a promising neuroprotective strategy for treatment of this disease. PMID:26600047

  4. CHIP promotes proteasomal degradation of familial ALS-linked mutant SOD1 by ubiquitinating Hsp/Hsc70.

    PubMed

    Urushitani, Makoto; Kurisu, Junko; Tateno, Minako; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Nakayama, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2004-07-01

    Over 100 mutants in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are reported in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the precise mechanism by which they are degraded through a ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway (UPP) remains unclear. Here, we report that heat-shock protein (Hsp) or heat-shock cognate (Hsc)70, and the carboxyl terminus of the Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), are involved in proteasomal degradation of mutant SOD1. Only mutant SOD1 interacted with Hsp/Hsc70 in vivo, and in vitro experiments revealed that Hsp/Hsc70 preferentially interacted with apo-SOD1 or dithiothreitol (DTT)-treated holo-SOD1, compared with metallated or oxidized forms. CHIP, a binding partner of Hsp/Hsc70, interacted only with mutant SOD1 and promoted its degradation. Both Hsp70 and CHIP promoted polyubiquitination of mutant SOD1-associated molecules, but not of mutant SOD1, indicating that mutant SOD1 is not a substrate of CHIP. Moreover, mutant SOD1-associated Hsp/Hsc70, a known substrate of CHIP, was polyubiquitinated in vivo, and polyubiquitinated Hsc70 by CHIP interacted with the S5a subunit of the 26S proteasome in vitro. Furthermore, CHIP was predominantly expressed in spinal neurons, and ubiquitinated inclusions in the spinal motor neurons of hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice were CHIP-immunoreactive. Taken together, we propose a novel pathway in which ubiquitinated Hsp/Hsc70 might deliver mutant SOD1 to, and facilitate its degradation, at the proteasome. PMID:15198682

  5. Guanabenz Treatment Accelerates Disease in a Mutant SOD1 Mouse Model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Fernando G.; Ping, Qinggong; Moreno, Andy J.; Kidd, Joshua D.; Thompson, Kenneth; Jiang, Bingbing; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; De Zutter, Gerard S.; Tassinari, Valerie R.; Levine, Beth; Hatzipetros, Theo; Gill, Alan; Perrin, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. The mechanisms leading to motor neuron degeneration in ALS are unclear. However, there is evidence for involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in ALS, notably in mutant SOD1 mediated models of ALS. Stress induced phosphorylation of the eIF2 alpha subunit by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 Perk activates the UPR. Guanabenz is a centrally acting alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonist shown to interact with a regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase, Pp1/Gadd34, and selectively disrupt the dephosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eif2alpha). Here we demonstrate that guanabenz is protective in fibroblasts expressing G93A mutant SOD1 when they are exposed to tunicamycin mediated ER stress. However, in contrast to other reports, guanabenz treatment accelerated ALS-like disease progression in a strain of mutant SOD1 transgenic ALS mice. This study highlights challenges of pharmacological interventions of cellular stress responses in whole animal models of ALS. PMID:26288094

  6. ALS-linked mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) alters mitochondrial protein composition and decreases protein import.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Vande Velde, Christine; Israelson, Adrian; Xie, Jing; Bailey, Aaron O; Dong, Meng-Qui; Chun, Seung-Joo; Roy, Tamal; Winer, Leah; Yates, John R; Capaldi, Roderick A; Cleveland, Don W; Miller, Timothy M

    2010-12-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause familial ALS. Mutant SOD1 preferentially associates with the cytoplasmic face of mitochondria from spinal cords of rats and mice expressing SOD1 mutations. Two-dimensional gels and multidimensional liquid chromatography, in combination with tandem mass spectrometry, revealed 33 proteins that were increased and 21 proteins that were decreased in SOD1(G93A) rat spinal cord mitochondria compared with SOD1(WT) spinal cord mitochondria. Analysis of this group of proteins revealed a higher-than-expected proportion involved in complex I and protein import pathways. Direct import assays revealed a 30% decrease in protein import only in spinal cord mitochondria, despite an increase in the mitochondrial import components TOM20, TOM22, and TOM40. Recombinant SOD1(G93A) or SOD1(G85R), but not SOD1(WT) or a Parkinson's disease-causing, misfolded α-synuclein(E46K) mutant, decreased protein import by >50% in nontransgenic mitochondria from spinal cord, but not from liver. Thus, altered mitochondrial protein content accompanied by selective decreases in protein import into spinal cord mitochondria comprises part of the mitochondrial damage arising from mutant SOD1. PMID:21078990

  7. Sequestosome 1/p62 links familial ALS mutant SOD1 to LC3 via an ubiquitin-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Jozsef; Strom, Anna-Lena; Kwinter, David M.; Kilty, Renee; Zhang, Jiayu; Shi, Ping; Fu, Weisi; Wooten, Marie W.; Zhu, Haining

    2009-01-01

    The p62/sequestosome 1 protein has been identified as a component of pathological protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). P62 has also been implicated in autophagy, a process of mass degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles. Autophagy is a critical pathway for degrading misfolded and/or damaged proteins, including the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutants linked to familial ALS. We previously reported that p62 interacted with ALS mutants of SOD1 and that the ubiquitin-association (UBA) domain of p62 was dispensable for the interaction. In this study, we identified two distinct regions of p62 that were essential to its binding to mutant SOD1: the N-terminal PB1 domain (residues 1-104) and a separate internal region (residues 178–224) termed here as SOD1 mutant interaction region (SMIR). The PB1 domain is required for appropriate oligomeric status of p62 and the SMIR is the actual region interacting with mutant SOD1. Within the SMIR, the conserved W184, H190 and positively charged R183, R186, K187 and K189 residues are critical to the p62-mutant SOD1 interaction since substitution of these residues with alanine resulted in significantly abolished binding. In addition, SMIR and the p62 sequence responsible for the interaction with LC3, a protein essential for autophagy activation, are independent of each other. In cells lacking p62, the existence of mutant SOD1 in acidic autolysosomes decreased, suggesting that p62 can function as an adaptor between mutant SOD1 and the autophagy machinery. This study provides a novel molecular mechanism by which mutant SOD1 can be recognized by p62 in an ubiquitin-independent fashion and targeted for the autophagy-lysosome degradation pathway. PMID:19765191

  8. Inhibition of Pathogenic Mutant SOD1 Aggregation in Cultured Motor Neuronal Cells by Prevention of Its SUMOylation on Lysine 75.

    PubMed

    Dangoumau, Audrey; Marouillat, Sylviane; Burlaud Gaillard, Julien; Uzbekov, Rustem; Veyrat-Durebex, Charlotte; Blasco, Hélène; Arnoult, Christophe; Corcia, Philippe; Andres, Christian R; Vourc'h, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death of motor neurons. Mutations in the SOD1 gene encoding the superoxide dismutase 1 are present in 15% of familial ALS cases and in 2% of sporadic cases. These mutations are associated with the formation of SOD1-positive aggregates. The mechanisms of aggregation remain unknown, but posttranslational modifications of SOD1 may be involved. Here, we report that NSC-34 motor neuronal cells expressing mutant SOD1 contained aggregates positive for small ubiquitin modifier-1 (SUMO-1), and in parallel a reduced level of free SUMO-1. CLEM (correlative light and electron microscopy) analysis showed nonorganized cytosolic aggregates for all mutations tested (SOD1A4V, SOD1V31A, and SOD1G93C). We next show that preventing the SUMOylation of mutant SOD1 by the substitution of lysine 75, the SUMOylation site of SOD1, significantly reduces the number of motor neuronal cells with aggregates. These results support the need for further research on the SUMOylation pathways, which may be a potential therapeutic target in ALS. PMID:26605782

  9. Prion-like propagation of mutant SOD1 misfolding and motor neuron disease spread along neuroanatomical pathways.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Jacob I; Fromholt, Susan E; O'Neal, Veronica M; Diamond, Jeffrey H; Borchelt, David R

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is that symptoms appear to spread along neuroanatomical pathways to engulf the motor nervous system, suggesting a propagative toxic entity could be involved in disease pathogenesis. Evidence for such a propagative entity emerged recently in studies using mice that express G85R-SOD1 mutant protein fused to YFP (G85R-SOD1:YFP). Heterozygous G85R-SOD1:YFP transgenic mice do not develop ALS symptoms out to 20 months of age. However, when newborns are injected with spinal homogenates from paralyzed mutant SOD1 mice, the G85R-SOD1:YFP mice develop paralysis as early as 6 months of age. We now demonstrate that injecting spinal homogenates from paralyzed mutant SOD1 mice into the sciatic nerves of adult G85R-SOD1:YFP mice produces a spreading motor neuron disease within 3.0 ± 0.2 months of injection. The formation of G85R-SOD1:YFP inclusion pathology spreads slowly in this model system; first appearing in the ipsilateral DRG, then lumbar spinal cord, before spreading rostrally up to the cervical cord by the time mice develop paralysis. Reactive astrogliosis mirrors the spread of inclusion pathology and motor neuron loss is most severe in lumbar cord. G85R-SOD1:YFP inclusion pathology quickly spreads to discrete neurons in the brainstem and midbrain that are synaptically connected to spinal neurons, suggesting a trans-synaptic propagation of misfolded protein. Taken together, the data presented here describe the first animal model that recapitulates the spreading phenotype observed in patients with ALS, and implicates the propagation of misfolded protein as a potential mechanism for the spreading of motor neuron disease. PMID:26650262

  10. Effects of ALS-related SOD1 mutants on dynein- and KIF5-mediated retrograde and anterograde axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Ström, Anna-Lena; Gal, Jozsef; Zhu, Haining

    2010-01-01

    Transport of material and signals between extensive neuronal processes and the cell body is essential to neuronal physiology and survival. Slowing of axonal transport has been shown to occur before the onset of symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have previously shown that several familial ALS-linked copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutants (A4V, G85R and G93A) interacted and co-localized with the retrograde dynein-dynactin motor complex in cultured cells and affected tissues of ALS mice. We also found that the interaction between mutant SOD1 and the dynein motor played a critical role in the formation of large inclusions containing mutant SOD1. In this study, we showed that, in contrast to the dynein situation, mutant SOD1 did not interact with anterograde transport motors of the kinesin-1 family (KIF5A, B and C). Using dynein and kinesin accumulation at the sciatic nerve ligation sites as a surrogate measurement of axonal transport, we also showed that dynein mediated retrograde transport was slower in G93A than in WT mice at an early pre-symptomatic stage. While no decrease in KIF5A-mediated anterograde transport was detected, the anterograde transport of dynein heavy chain as a cargo was observed in the pre-symptomatic G93A mice. The results from this study along with other recently published work support that mutant SOD1 might only interact with and interfere with some kinesin members which in turn could result in the impairment of a selective subset of cargos. Although it remains to be further investigated how mutant SOD1 affect different axonal transport motor proteins and various cargos, it is evident that mutant SOD1 can induce defects in axonal transport, which subsequently contribute to the propagation of toxic effects and ultimately motor neuron death in ALS. PMID:20510358

  11. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Fabiola; Cortes, Nicole; Abarzua, Sebastian; Dyrda, Agnieszka; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1G93A contains toxic factor(s) that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s) that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM) that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1G93A and ACM-SOD1G86R) or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43A315T) mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30–60 min) increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress) and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol) strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Nav channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine, or riluzole) prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Nav channel activity. PMID:24570655

  12. An ALS-Linked Mutant SOD1 Produces a Locomotor Defect Associated with Aggregation and Synaptic Dysfunction When Expressed in Neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiou; Farr, George W.; Hall, David H.; Li, Fei; Furtak, Krystyna; Dreier, Lars; Horwich, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    The nature of toxic effects exerted on neurons by misfolded proteins, occurring in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, is poorly understood. One approach to this problem is to measure effects when such proteins are expressed in heterologous neurons. We report on effects of an ALS-associated, misfolding-prone mutant human SOD1, G85R, when expressed in the neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Stable mutant transgenic animals, but not wild-type human SOD1 transgenics, exhibited a strong locomotor defect associated with the presence, specifically in mutant animals, of both soluble oligomers and insoluble aggregates of G85R protein. A whole-genome RNAi screen identified chaperones and other components whose deficiency increased aggregation and further diminished locomotion. The nature of the locomotor defect was investigated. Mutant animals were resistant to paralysis by the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, while exhibiting normal sensitivity to the cholinergic agonist levamisole and normal muscle morphology. When fluorescently labeled presynaptic components were examined in the dorsal nerve cord, decreased numbers of puncta corresponding to neuromuscular junctions were observed in mutant animals and brightness was also diminished. At the EM level, mutant animals exhibited a reduced number of synaptic vesicles. Neurotoxicity in this system thus appears to be mediated by misfolded SOD1 and is exerted on synaptic vesicle biogenesis and/or trafficking. PMID:19165329

  13. An ALS-linked mutant SOD1 produces a locomotor defect associated with aggregation and synaptic dysfunction when expressed in neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiou; Farr, George W; Hall, David H; Li, Fei; Furtak, Krystyna; Dreier, Lars; Horwich, Arthur L

    2009-01-01

    The nature of toxic effects exerted on neurons by misfolded proteins, occurring in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, is poorly understood. One approach to this problem is to measure effects when such proteins are expressed in heterologous neurons. We report on effects of an ALS-associated, misfolding-prone mutant human SOD1, G85R, when expressed in the neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Stable mutant transgenic animals, but not wild-type human SOD1 transgenics, exhibited a strong locomotor defect associated with the presence, specifically in mutant animals, of both soluble oligomers and insoluble aggregates of G85R protein. A whole-genome RNAi screen identified chaperones and other components whose deficiency increased aggregation and further diminished locomotion. The nature of the locomotor defect was investigated. Mutant animals were resistant to paralysis by the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, while exhibiting normal sensitivity to the cholinergic agonist levamisole and normal muscle morphology. When fluorescently labeled presynaptic components were examined in the dorsal nerve cord, decreased numbers of puncta corresponding to neuromuscular junctions were observed in mutant animals and brightness was also diminished. At the EM level, mutant animals exhibited a reduced number of synaptic vesicles. Neurotoxicity in this system thus appears to be mediated by misfolded SOD1 and is exerted on synaptic vesicle biogenesis and/or trafficking. PMID:19165329

  14. Overexpression of survival motor neuron improves neuromuscular function and motor neuron survival in mutant SOD1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Bradley J.; Alfazema, Neza; Sheean, Rebecca K.; Sleigh, James N.; Davies, Kay E.; Horne, Malcolm K.; Talbot, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy results from diminished levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein in spinal motor neurons. Low levels of SMN also occur in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and genetic reduction of SMN levels exacerbates the phenotype of transgenic SOD1G93A mice. Here, we demonstrate that SMN protein is significantly reduced in the spinal cords of patients with sporadic ALS. To test the potential of SMN as a modifier of ALS, we overexpressed SMN in 2 different strains of SOD1G93A mice. Neuronal overexpression of SMN significantly preserved locomotor function, rescued motor neurons, and attenuated astrogliosis in spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice. Despite this, survival was not prolonged, most likely resulting from SMN mislocalization and depletion of gems in motor neurons of symptomatic mice. Our results reveal that SMN upregulation slows locomotor deficit onset and motor neuron loss in this mouse model of ALS. However, disruption of SMN nuclear complexes by high levels of mutant SOD1, even in the presence of SMN overexpression, might limit its survival promoting effects in this specific mouse model. Studies in emerging mouse models of ALS are therefore warranted to further explore the potential of SMN as a modifier of ALS. PMID:24210254

  15. Superoxide Dismutase (Sod-1) Null Mutants of Neurospora Crassa: Oxidative Stress Sensitivity, Spontaneous Mutation Rate and Response to Mutagens

    PubMed Central

    Chary, P.; Dillon, D.; Schroeder, A. L.; Natvig, D. O.

    1994-01-01

    Enzymatic superoxide-dismutase activity is believed to be important in defense against the toxic effects of superoxide. Although superoxide dismutases are among the best studied proteins, numerous questions remain concerning the specific biological roles of the various superoxide-dismutase types. In part, this is because the proposed damaging effects of superoxide are manifold, ranging from inactivation of certain metabolic enzymes to DNA damage. Studies with superoxide-deficient mutants have proven valuable, but surprisingly few such studies have been reported. We have constructed and characterized Neurospora crassa mutants that are null for sod-1, the gene that encodes copper-zinc superoxide dismutase. Mutant strains are sensitive to paraquat and elevated oxygen concentrations, and they exhibit an increased spontaneous mutation rate. They appear to have near wild-type sensitivities to near- and far-UV, heat shock and γ-irradiation. Unlike the equivalent Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant and the sodA sodB double mutant of Escherichia coli, they do not exhibit aerobic auxotrophy. These results are discussed in the context of an attempt to identify consensus phenotypes among superoxide dismutase-deficient mutants. N. crassa sod-1 null mutant strains were also employed in genetic and subcellular fractionation studies. Results support the hypothesis that a single gene (sod-1), located between Fsr-12 and leu-3 on linkage group I, is responsible for most or all CuZn superoxide dismutase activity in this organism. PMID:8088518

  16. Substantially elevating the levels of αB-crystallin in spinal motor neurons of mutant SOD1 mice does not significantly delay paralysis or attenuate mutant protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guilian; Fromholt, Susan; Ayers, Jacob I.; Brown, Hilda; Siemienski, Zoe; Crosby, Keith W.; Mayer, Christopher A.; Janus, Christopher; Borchelt, David R.

    2015-01-01

    There has been great interest in enhancing endogenous protein maintenance pathways such as the heat-shock chaperone response, as it is postulated that enhancing clearance of misfolded proteins could have beneficial disease modifying effects in ALS and other neurodegenerative disorders. In cultured cell models of mutant SOD1 aggregation, co-expression of αB-crystallin (αB-crys) has been shown to inhibit the formation of detergent-insoluble forms of mutant protein. Here, we describe the generation of a new line of transgenic mice that express αB-crys at >6-fold the normal level in spinal cord, with robust increases in immunoreactivity throughout the spinal cord grey matter and, specifically, in spinal motor neurons. Surprisingly, spinal cords of mice expressing αB-crys alone contained 20% more motor neurons per section than littermate controls. Raising αB-crys by these levels in mice transgenic for either G93A or L126Z mutant SOD1 had no effect on the age at which paralysis developed. In the G93A mice, which showed the most robust degree of motor neuron loss, the number of these cells declined by the same proportion as in mice expressing the mutant SOD1 alone. In paralyzed bigenic mice, the levels of detergent-insoluble, misfolded, mutant SOD1 were similar to those of mice expressing mutant SOD1 alone. These findings indicate that raising the levels of αB-crys in spinal motor neurons by 6-fold does not produce the therapeutic effects predicted by cell culture models of mutant SOD1 aggregation. PMID:25557022

  17. Mutant Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase (Gars) Ameliorates SOD1G93A Motor Neuron Degeneration Phenotype but Has Little Affect on Loa Dynein Heavy Chain Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Hazel P.; Chia, Ruth; Achilli, Francesca; Bryson, J. Barney; Greensmith, Linda; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background In humans, mutations in the enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) cause motor and sensory axon loss in the peripheral nervous system, and clinical phenotypes ranging from Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy to a severe infantile form of spinal muscular atrophy. GARS is ubiquitously expressed and may have functions in addition to its canonical role in protein synthesis through catalyzing the addition of glycine to cognate tRNAs. Methodology/Principal Findings We have recently described a new mouse model with a point mutation in the Gars gene resulting in a cysteine to arginine change at residue 201. Heterozygous GarsC201R/+ mice have locomotor and sensory deficits. In an investigation of genetic mutations that lead to death of motor and sensory neurons, we have crossed the GarsC201R/+ mice to two other mutants: the TgSOD1G93A model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the Legs at odd angles mouse (Dync1h1Loa) which has a defect in the heavy chain of the dynein complex. We found the Dync1h1Loa/+;GarsC201R/+ double heterozygous mice are more impaired than either parent, and this is may be an additive effect of both mutations. Surprisingly, the GarsC201R mutation significantly delayed disease onset in the SOD1G93A;GarsC201R/+ double heterozygous mutant mice and increased lifespan by 29% on the genetic background investigated. Conclusions/Significance These findings raise intriguing possibilities for the study of pathogenetic mechanisms in all three mouse mutant strains. PMID:19593442

  18. Mutant SOD1G93A Triggers Mitochondrial Fragmentation in Spinal Cord Motor Neurons: Neuroprotection by SIRT3 and PGC-1α

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjun; Song, Yuting; Kincaid, Brad; Bossy, Blaise; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) gene cause an inherited form of ALS with upper and lower motor neuron loss. The mechanism underlying mutant SOD1-mediated motor neuron degeneration remains unclear. While defects in mitochondrial dynamics contribute to neurodegeneration, including ALS, previous reports remain conflicted. Here, we report an improved technique to isolate, transfect, and culture rat spinal cord motor neurons. Using this improved system, we demonstrate that mutant SOD1G93A triggers a significant decrease in mitochondrial length and an accumulation of round fragmented mitochondria. The increase of fragmented mitochondria coincides with an arrest in both anterograde and retrograde axonal transport and increased cell death. In addition, mutant SOD1G93A induces a reduction in neurite length and branching that is accompanied with an abnormal accumulation of round mitochondria in growth cones. Furthermore, restoration of the mitochondrial fission and fusion balance by dominant-negative dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) expression rescues the mutant SOD1G93A-induced defects in mitochondrial morphology, dynamics, and cell viability. Interestingly, both SIRT3 and PGC-1α protect against mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal cell death by mutant SOD1G93A. This data suggests that impairment in mitochondrial dynamics participates in ALS and restoring this defect might provide protection against mutant SOD1G93A-induced neuronal injury. PMID:22819776

  19. Distinct partitioning of ALS associated TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 mutants into cellular inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Farrawell, Natalie E.; Lambert-Smith, Isabella A.; Warraich, Sadaf T.; Blair, Ian P.; Saunders, Darren N.; Hatters, Danny M.; Yerbury, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Most cases are characterized by TDP-43 positive inclusions, while a minority of familial ALS cases are instead FUS and SOD1 positive respectively. Cells can generate inclusions of variable type including previously characterized aggresomes, IPOD or JUNQ structures depending on the misfolded protein. SOD1 invariably forms JUNQ inclusions but it remains unclear whether other ALS protein aggregates arise as one of these previously described inclusion types or form unique structures. Here we show that FUS variably partitioned to IPOD, JUNQ or alternate structures, contain a mobile fraction, were not microtubule dependent and initially did not contain ubiquitin. TDP-43 inclusions formed in a microtubule independent manner, did not contain a mobile fraction but variably colocalized to JUNQ inclusions and another alternate structure. We conclude that the RNA binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS do not consistently fit the currently characterised inclusion models suggesting that cells have a larger repertoire for generating inclusions than currently thought, and imply that toxicity in ALS does not stem from a particular aggregation process or aggregate structure. PMID:26293199

  20. A comprehensive assessment of the SOD1G93A low-copy transgenic mouse, which models human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Kalmar, Bernadett; Essa, Shafa; Ricketts, Thomas; Joyce, Peter; Kent, Rosie; Rowe, Claire; Parker, Andy; Gray, Anna; Hafezparast, Majid; Thorpe, Julian R; Greensmith, Linda; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2011-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in the death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The disorder generally strikes in mid-life, relentlessly leading to paralysis and death, typically 3-5 years after diagnosis. No effective treatments are available. Up to 10% of ALS is familial, usually autosomal dominant. Several causative genes are known and, of these, mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is by far the most frequently found, accounting for up to 20% of familial ALS. A range of human mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse strains has been produced, and these largely successfully model the human disease. Of these, the most widely used is the SOD1 mouse, which expresses a human SOD1 transgene with a causative G93A mutation. This mouse model is excellent for many purposes but carries up to 25 copies of the transgene and produces a great excess of SOD1 protein, which might affect our interpretation of disease processes. A variant of this strain carries a deletion of the transgene array such that the copy number is dropped to eight to ten mutant SOD1 genes. This 'deleted' 'low-copy' mouse undergoes a slower course of disease, over many months. Here we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of phenotype, including nerve and muscle physiology and histology, to add to our knowledge of this 'deleted' strain and give baseline data for future studies. We find differences in phenotype that arise from genetic background and sex, and we quantify the loss of nerve and muscle function over time. The slowly progressive pathology observed in this mouse strain could provide us with a more appropriate model for studying early-stage pathological processes in ALS and aid the development of therapies for early-stage treatments. PMID:21540242

  1. A comprehensive assessment of the SOD1G93A low-copy transgenic mouse, which models human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Kalmar, Bernadett; Essa, Shafa; Ricketts, Thomas; Joyce, Peter; Kent, Rosie; Rowe, Claire; Parker, Andy; Gray, Anna; Hafezparast, Majid; Thorpe, Julian R.; Greensmith, Linda; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in the death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The disorder generally strikes in mid-life, relentlessly leading to paralysis and death, typically 3–5 years after diagnosis. No effective treatments are available. Up to 10% of ALS is familial, usually autosomal dominant. Several causative genes are known and, of these, mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is by far the most frequently found, accounting for up to 20% of familial ALS. A range of human mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse strains has been produced, and these largely successfully model the human disease. Of these, the most widely used is the SOD1 mouse, which expresses a human SOD1 transgene with a causative G93A mutation. This mouse model is excellent for many purposes but carries up to 25 copies of the transgene and produces a great excess of SOD1 protein, which might affect our interpretation of disease processes. A variant of this strain carries a deletion of the transgene array such that the copy number is dropped to eight to ten mutant SOD1 genes. This ‘deleted’ ‘low-copy’ mouse undergoes a slower course of disease, over many months. Here we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of phenotype, including nerve and muscle physiology and histology, to add to our knowledge of this ‘deleted’ strain and give baseline data for future studies. We find differences in phenotype that arise from genetic background and sex, and we quantify the loss of nerve and muscle function over time. The slowly progressive pathology observed in this mouse strain could provide us with a more appropriate model for studying early-stage pathological processes in ALS and aid the development of therapies for early-stage treatments. PMID:21540242

  2. Solution oxygen-17 NMR application for observing a peroxidized cysteine residue in oxidized human SOD1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Noriko; Yoshihara, Daisaku; Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Eguchi, Hironobu; Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2016-12-01

    NMR active nuclei, 1H, 13C and 15N, are usually used for determination of protein structure. However, solution 17O-NMR application to proteins is extremely limited although oxygen is an essential element in biomolecules. Proteins are oxidized through cysteine residues by two types of oxidation. One is reversible oxidation such as disulphide bonding (Cys-S-S-Cys) and the other is irreversible oxidation to cysteine sulfinic acid (Cys-SO 2H) and cysteine sulfonic acid (Cys-SO 3H). Copper,Zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a key enzyme in the protection of cells from the superoxide anion radical. The SH group at Cys 111 residue in human SOD1 is selectively oxidized to -SO 2H and -SO 3H with atmospheric oxygen, and this oxidized human SOD1 is also suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases, probably mainly via protein aggregation. Therefore, information on the structural and the dynamics of the oxidized cysteine residue would be crucial for the understanding of protein aggregation mechanism. Although the -SO 3H group on proteins cannot be directly detected by conventional NMR techniques, we successfully performed the site-specific 17O-labeling of Cys 111 in SOD1 using ^{17}it {O}2 gas and the 17O-NMR analysis for the first time. We observed clear 17O signal derived from a protein molecule and show that 17O-NMR is a sensitive probe for studying the structure and dynamics of the 17O-labeled protein molecule. This novel and unique strategy can have great impact on many research fields in biology and chemistry.

  3. Mice Overexpressing Both Non-Mutated Human SOD1 and Mutated SOD1G93A Genes: A Competent Experimental Model for Studying Iron Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gajowiak, Anna; Styś, Agnieszka; Starzyński, Rafał R.; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Staroń, Robert; Lipiński, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration and loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Up to 10% of ALS cases are inherited (familial, fALS) and associated with mutations, frequently in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. Rodent transgenic models of ALS are often used to elucidate a complex pathogenesis of this disease. Of importance, both ALS patients and animals carrying mutated human SOD1 gene show symptoms of oxidative stress and iron metabolism misregulation. The aim of our study was to characterize changes in iron metabolism in one of the most commonly used models of ALS – transgenic mice overexpressing human mutated SOD1G93A gene. We analyzed the expression of iron-related genes in asymptomatic, 2-month-old and symptomatic, 4-month-old SOD1G93A mice. In parallel, respective age-matched mice overexpressing human non-mutated SOD1 transgene and control mice were analyzed. We demonstrate that the overexpression of both SOD1 and SOD1G93A genes account for a substantial increase in SOD1 protein levels and activity in selected tissues and that not all the changes in iron metabolism genes expression are specific for the overexpression of the mutated form of SOD1. PMID:26778957

  4. Talampanel reduces the level of motoneuronal calcium in transgenic mutant SOD1 mice only if applied presymptomatically

    PubMed Central

    Paizs, Melinda; Tortarolo, Massimo; Bendotti, Caterina; Engelhardt, Jozsef I; Siklós, László

    2011-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of treatment with talampanel in a mutant SOD1 mouse model of ALS by measuring intracellular calcium levels and loss of spinal motor neurons. We intended to mimic the clinical study; hence, treatment was started when the clinical symptoms were already present. The data were compared with the results of similar treatment started at a presymptomatic stage. Transgenic and wild-type mice were treated either with talampanel or with vehicle, starting in pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stages. The density of motor neurons was determined by the physical disector, and their intracellular calcium level was assayed electron microscopically. Results showed that motor neurons in the SOD1 mice exhibited an elevated calcium level, which could be reduced, but not restored, with talampanel only when the treatment was started presymptomatically. Treatment in either presymptomatic or symptomatic stages failed to rescue the motor neurons. We conclude that talampanel reduces motoneuronal calcium in a mouse model of ALS, but its efficacy declines as the disease progresses, suggesting that medication initiation in the earlier stages of the disease might be more effective. PMID:21623665

  5. Dorfin-CHIP chimeric proteins potently ubiquitylate and degrade familial ALS-related mutant SOD1 proteins and reduce their cellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Niwa, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Shin-ichi; Takahashi, Miho; Ito, Takashi; Sone, Jun; Doyu, Manabu; Urano, Fumihiko; Sobue, Gen

    2007-02-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Dorfin is a ubiquitin ligase (E3) that degrades mutant SOD1 proteins, which are responsible for familial ALS. Although Dorfin has potential as an anti-ALS molecule, its life in cells is short. To improve its stability and enhance its E3 activity, we developed chimeric proteins containing the substrate-binding hydrophobic portion of Dorfin and the U-box domain of the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), which has strong E3 activity through the U-box domain. All the Dorfin-CHIP chimeric proteins were more stable in cells than was wild-type Dorfin (Dorfin(WT)). One of the Dorfin-CHIP chimeric proteins, Dorfin-CHIP(L), ubiquitylated mutant SOD1 more effectively than did Dorfin(WT) and CHIP in vivo, and degraded mutant SOD1 protein more rapidly than Dorfin(WT) does. Furthermore, Dorfin-CHIP(L) rescued neuronal cells from mutant SOD1-associated toxicity and reduced the aggresome formation induced by mutant SOD1 more effectively than did Dorfin(WT). PMID:17157513

  6. Bid Promotes K63-Linked Polyubiquitination of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) and Sensitizes to Mutant SOD1-Induced Proinflammatory Signaling in Microglia123

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, Sinéad

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene contribute to motoneuron degeneration and are evident in 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Mutant SOD1 induces microglial activation through a stimulation of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4). In the present study, we identified the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bid as a positive regulator of mutant SOD1-induced TLR-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in microglia. bid-deficient primary mouse microglia showed reduced NF-κB signaling in response to TLR4 activation or exposure to conditioned medium derived from SOD1 G93A expressing NSC-34 cells. Attenuation of NF-κB signaling in bid-deficient microglia was associated with lower levels of phosphorylated IKKα/β and p65, with a delayed degradation of IκBα and enhanced degradation of Peli1. Upstream of IKK, we found that Bid interacted with, and promoted, the K63-linked polyubiquitination of the E3 ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in microglia. Our study suggests a key role for Bid in the regulation of TLR4-NF-κB proinflammatory signaling during mutant SOD1-induced disease pathology. Bid promotes TLR4-NF-κB signaling by interacting with TRAF6 and promoting TRAF6 K63-linked polyubiquitination in microglia. PMID:27257617

  7. Marked synergism between mutant SOD1 and glutamate transport inhibition in the induction of motor neuronal degeneration in spinal cord slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong Z; Weiss, John H

    2012-04-11

    Loss of astrocytic glutamate transport capacity in ALS spinal cord supports an excitotoxic contribution to motor neuron (MN) damage in the disease, and dominant gain of function mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause certain familial forms of ALS. We have used organotypic slice cultures from wild type and G93A SOD1 mutant rat spinal cords to examine interactions between excitotoxicity and the presence of mutant SOD1 in the induction of MN degeneration. Slice cultures were prepared from 1 week old pups, and after an additional week in vitro, some were exposed to either a low level (30 μM) of the glutamate uptake inhibitor, trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) for 3 weeks, or a higher level (50 μM) for 48 h, followed by histochemical labeling to assess MN injury. In wild type animals these exposures caused relatively little MN degeneration. Similarly, little MN degeneration was seen in slices from SOD1 mutant animals that were not exposed to PDC. However, addition of PDC to SOD1 mutant slices resulted in substantial MN injury, which was markedly attenuated by a Ca2+ permeable AMPA-type (Ca-AMPA) glutamate channel blocker, or by a nitric oxide synthase antagonist. These observations illustrate the utility of the organotypic culture model for the investigation of intracellular interactions underlying MN degeneration in ALS, and support the hypothesis that activation of Ca-AMPA channels on MNs provides a metabolic burden that synergizes with deleterious effects of mutant SOD1 in the induction of MN injury. PMID:22370146

  8. Structural and biophysical properties of metal-free pathogenic SOD1 mutants A4V and G93A

    SciTech Connect

    Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Strange, Richard W.; Whitson, Lisa J.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Narayana, Narendra; Taylor, Alexander B.; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Hasnain, S.Samar; Hart, P. John

    2010-07-19

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the destruction of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. A subset of ALS cases are linked to dominant mutations in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The pathogenic SOD1 variants A4V and G93A have been the foci of multiple studies aimed at understanding the molecular basis for SOD1-linked ALS. The A4V variant is responsible for the majority of familial ALS cases in North America, causing rapidly progressing paralysis once symptoms begin and the G93A SOD1 variant is overexpressed in often studied murine models of the disease. Here we report the three-dimensional structures of metal-free A4V and of metal-bound and metal-free G93A SOD1. In the metal-free structures, the metal-binding loop elements are observed to be severely disordered, suggesting that these variants may share mechanisms of aggregation proposed previously for other pathogenic SOD1 proteins.

  9. A mutation in the dynein heavy chain gene compensates for energy deficit of mutant SOD1 mice and increases potentially neuroprotective IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of motor neurons. ALS patients, as well as animal models such as mice overexpressing mutant SOD1s, are characterized by increased energy expenditure. In mice, this hypermetabolism leads to energy deficit and precipitates motor neuron degeneration. Recent studies have shown that mutations in the gene encoding the dynein heavy chain protein are able to extend lifespan of mutant SOD1 mice. It remains unknown whether the protection offered by these dynein mutations relies on a compensation of energy metabolism defects. Results SOD1(G93A) mice were crossbred with mice harboring the dynein mutant Cramping allele (Cra/+ mice). Dynein mutation increased adipose stores in compound transgenic mice through increasing carbohydrate oxidation and sparing lipids. Metabolic changes that occurred in double transgenic mice were accompanied by the normalization of the expression of key mRNAs in the white adipose tissue and liver. Furthermore, Dynein Cra mutation rescued decreased post-prandial plasma triglycerides and decreased non esterified fatty acids upon fasting. In SOD1(G93A) mice, the dynein Cra mutation led to increased expression of IGF-1 in the liver, increased systemic IGF-1 and, most importantly, to increased spinal IGF-1 levels that are potentially neuroprotective. Conclusions These findings suggest that the protection against SOD1(G93A) offered by the Cramping mutation in the dynein gene is, at least partially, mediated by a reversal in energy deficit and increased IGF-1 availability to motor neurons. PMID:21521523

  10. Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Transiently Opens the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore in Motor Nerve Terminals of Symptomatic Mutant SOD1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khanh T.; Barrett, John N.; García-Chacón, Luis; David, Gavriel; Barrett, Ellen F.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria in motor nerve terminals temporarily sequester large Ca2+ loads during repetitive stimulation. In wild-type mice this Ca2+ uptake produces a small (<5 mV), transient depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm, motor nerve stimulated with at 100 Hz for 5 s). We demonstrate that this stimulation-induced Ψm depolarization attains much higher amplitudes in motor terminals of symptomatic mice expressing the G93A or G85R mutation of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). These large Ψm depolarizations decayed slowly and incremented with successive stimulus trains. Additional Ψm depolarizations occurred that were not synchronized with stimulation. These large Ψm depolarizations were reduced (a) by cyclosporin A (CsA, 1-2 uM), which inhibits opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), or (b) by replacing bath Ca2+ with Sr2+, which enters motor terminals and mitochondria but does not support mPTP opening. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the large Ψm depolarizations evoked by repetitive stimulation in motor terminals of symptomatic fALS mice result from mitochondrial dysfunction that increases the likelihood of transient mPTP opening during Ca2+ influx. Such mPTP openings, a sign of mitochondrial stress, would disrupt motor terminal handling of Ca2+ loads and might thereby contribute to motor terminal degeneration in fALS mice. Ψm depolarizations resembling those in symptomatic fALS mice could be elicited in wild-type mice following 0.5-1 hr exposure to diamide (200 μM), which produces an oxidative stress, but these depolarizations were not reduced by CsA. PMID:21310237

  11. Repetitive nerve stimulation transiently opens the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in motor nerve terminals of symptomatic mutant SOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh T; Barrett, John N; García-Chacón, Luis; David, Gavriel; Barrett, Ellen F

    2011-06-01

    Mitochondria in motor nerve terminals temporarily sequester large Ca(2+) loads during repetitive stimulation. In wild-type mice this Ca(2+) uptake produces a small (<5 mV), transient depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψ(m), motor nerve stimulated at 100 Hz for 5s). We demonstrate that this stimulation-induced Ψ(m) depolarization attains much higher amplitudes in motor terminals of symptomatic mice expressing the G93A or G85R mutation of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). These large Ψ(m) depolarizations decayed slowly and incremented with successive stimulus trains. Additional Ψ(m) depolarizations occurred that were not synchronized with stimulation. These large Ψ(m) depolarizations were reduced (a) by cyclosporin A (CsA, 1-2 μM), which inhibits opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), or (b) by replacing bath Ca(2+) with Sr(2+), which enters motor terminals and mitochondria but does not support mPTP opening. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the large Ψ(m) depolarizations evoked by repetitive stimulation in motor terminals of symptomatic fALS mice result from mitochondrial dysfunction that increases the likelihood of transient mPTP opening during Ca(2+) influx. Such mPTP openings, a sign of mitochondrial stress, would disrupt motor terminal handling of Ca(2+) loads and might thereby contribute to motor terminal degeneration in fALS mice. Ψ(m) depolarizations resembling those in symptomatic fALS mice could be elicited in wild-type mice following a 0.5-1h exposure to diamide (200 μM), which produces an oxidative stress, but these depolarizations were not reduced by CsA. PMID:21310237

  12. TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded human wild-type SOD1 can propagate intercellularly in a prion-like fashion

    PubMed Central

    Pokrishevsky, Edward; Grad, Leslie I.; Cashman, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which appears to spread through the neuroaxis in a spatiotemporally restricted manner, is linked to heritable mutations in genes encoding SOD1, TDP-43, FUS, C9ORF72, or can occur sporadically without recognized genetic mutations. Misfolded human wild-type (HuWt) SOD1 has been detected in both familial and sporadic ALS patients, despite mutations in SOD1 accounting for only 2% of total cases. We previously showed that accumulation of pathological TDP-43 or FUS coexist with misfolded HuWtSOD1 in patient motor neurons, and can trigger its misfolding in cultured cells. Here, we used immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded HuWtSOD1 can propagate from cell-to-cell via conditioned media, and seed cytotoxic misfolding of endogenous HuWtSOD1 in the recipient cells in a prion-like fashion. Knockdown of SOD1 using siRNA in recipient cells, or incubation of conditioned media with misfolded SOD1-specific antibodies, inhibits intercellular transmission, indicating that HuWtSOD1 is an obligate seed and substrate of propagated misfolding. In this system, intercellular spread of SOD1 misfolding is not accompanied by transmission of TDP-43 or FUS pathology. Our findings argue that pathological TDP-43 and FUS may exert motor neuron pathology in ALS through the initiation of propagated misfolding of SOD1. PMID:26926802

  13. Therapeutic rAAVrh10 Mediated SOD1 Silencing in Adult SOD1G93A Mice and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Florie; Gernoux, Gwladys; Cardozo, Brynn; Metterville, Jake P.; Toro Cabreja, Gabriela C.; Song, Lina; Su, Qin; Gao, Guang Ping; Elmallah, Mai K.; Brown, Robert H.; Mueller, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease; survival in ALS is typically 3–5 years. No treatment extends patient survival by more than three months. Approximately 20% of familial ALS and 1–3% of sporadic ALS patients carry a mutation in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). In a transgenic ALS mouse model expressing the mutant SOD1G93A protein, silencing the SOD1 gene prolongs survival. One study reports a therapeutic effect of silencing the SOD1 gene in systemically treated adult ALS mice; this was achieved with a short hairpin RNA, a silencing molecule that has raised multiple safety concerns, and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) 9. We report here a silencing method based on an artificial microRNA termed miR-SOD1 systemically delivered using adeno-associated virus rAAVrh10, a serotype with a demonstrated safety profile in CNS clinical trials. Silencing of SOD1 in adult SOD1G93A transgenic mice with this construct profoundly delayed both disease onset and death in the SOD1G93A mice, and significantly preserved muscle strength and motor and respiratory functions. We also document that intrathecal delivery of the same rAAVrh10-miR-SOD1 in nonhuman primates significantly and safely silences SOD1 in lower motor neurons. This study supports the view that rAAVrh10-miR-SOD1 merits further development for the treatment of SOD1-linked ALS in humans. PMID:26710998

  14. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1).

    PubMed

    Harlan, Benjamin A; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-05-13

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in redox reactions and NAD(+)-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD(+) as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD(+) salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD(+) from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD(+) precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1-2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD(+) content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. PMID:27002158

  15. Differential effect of oxidative or excitotoxic stress on the transcriptional profile of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1 cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Boutahar, Nadia; Wierinckx, Anne; Camdessanche, Jean Philippe; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Reynaud, Evelyne; Lassabliere, François; Lachuer, Joël; Borg, Jacques

    2011-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, lethal, degenerative disorder of motor neurons. The causes of most cases of ALS are as yet undefined. In a previous study, it was shown that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and H(2)O(2) stimuli reduce neuronal survival in cortical neurons in culture (Boutahar et al., 2008). To identify variations in gene expression in response to these neurotoxins in transgenic vs. control cortical neurons cultures, both microarray and RT-PCR analysis were performed. High-density oligonucleotide microarrays showed changes in the expression of about 600 genes involved in protein degradation, neurotrophic factors pathway, cell cycle, inflammation, cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, transcription, or signalling. The most up-regulated genes following H(2)O(2) treatment were involved in cytoskeletal organization and axonal transport, such as ARAP2, KIF17, and DKK2, or in trophic factors pathways, such as insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP4), FGF17, and serpin2. The most down-regulated genes were involved in ion transport, such as TRPV1. After NMDA treatment, the most up-regulated genes were involved in protein degradation, such as ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2I and cathepsin H, and the most down-regulated genes were involved in ion transport, such as SCN7A. We conclude that these neurotoxins act through different transcriptional inductions, and these changes may reflect an adaptative cellular response to the cellular stress induced by the neurotoxins involved in ALS in the presence of mutant human SOD1. PMID:21647936

  16. Translational profiling identifies a cascade of damage initiated in motor neurons and spreading to glia in mutant SOD1-mediated ALS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuying; Sun, Ying; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Ferraiuolo, Laura; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Zou, Yiyang; Drenner, Kevin; Wang, Yin; Ditsworth, Dara; Tokunaga, Seiya; Kopelevich, Alex; Kaspar, Brian K.; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitous expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-causing mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) provokes noncell autonomous paralytic disease. By combining ribosome affinity purification and high-throughput sequencing, a cascade of mutant SOD1-dependent, cell type-specific changes are now identified. Initial mutant-dependent damage is restricted to motor neurons and includes synapse and metabolic abnormalities, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and selective activation of the PRKR-like ER kinase (PERK) arm of the unfolded protein response. PERK activation correlates with what we identify as a naturally low level of ER chaperones in motor neurons. Early changes in astrocytes occur in genes that are involved in inflammation and metabolism and are targets of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and liver X receptor transcription factors. Dysregulation of myelination and lipid signaling pathways and activation of ETS transcription factors occur in oligodendrocytes only after disease initiation. Thus, pathogenesis involves a temporal cascade of cell type-selective damage initiating in motor neurons, with subsequent damage within glia driving disease propagation. PMID:26621731

  17. SALS-linked WT-SOD1 adopts a highly similar helical conformation as FALS-causing L126Z-SOD1 in a membrane environment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Liangzhong; Song, Jianxing

    2016-09-01

    So far >180 mutations have been identified within the 153-residue human SOD1 to cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), while wild-type (WT) SOD1 was intriguingly implicated in sporadic ALS (SALS). SOD1 mutations lead to ALS by a dominant gain of cytotoxicity but its mechanism still remains elusive. Previously functional studies have revealed that SOD1 mutants became unexpectedly associated with organelle membranes. Indeed we decoded that the ALS-causing truncation mutant L126Z-SOD1 with an elevated toxicity completely loses the ability to fold into the native β-barrel structure but acquire a novel capacity to interact with membranes by forming helices over hydrophobic/amphiphilic segments. Very recently, the abnormal insertion of SOD1 mutants into ER membrane has been functionally characterized to trigger ER stress, an initial event of a cascade of cell-specific damages in ALS pathogenesis. Here we attempted to understand the mechanism for gain of cytotoxicity of the WT SOD1. We obtained atomic-resolution evidence that the nascent WT SOD1 without metalation and disulfide bridge is also highly disordered as L126Z. Most importantly, it owns the same capacity in interacting with membranes by forming very similar helices over the first 125 residues identical to L126Z-SOD1, plus an additional hydrophobic helix over Leu144-Ala152. Our study thus implies that the WT and mutant SOD1 indeed converge on a common mechanism for gain of cytotoxicity by abnormally interacting with membranes. Moreover, any genetic/environmental factors which can delay or impair its maturation might act to transform SOD1 into cytotoxic forms with the acquired capacity to abnormally interact with membranes. PMID:27378311

  18. Quercetin protects primary human osteoblasts exposed to cigarette smoke through activation of the antioxidative enzymes HO-1 and SOD-1.

    PubMed

    Braun, Karl F; Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Egaña, José T; Schenck, Thilo L; Buchholz, Arne; Schmitt, Andreas; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Schyschka, Lilianna; Neumaier, Markus; Stöckle, Ulrich; Nussler, Andreas K

    2011-01-01

    Smokers frequently suffer from impaired fracture healing often due to poor bone quality and stability. Cigarette smoking harms bone cells and their homeostasis by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether Quercetin, a naturally occurring antioxidant, can protect osteoblasts from the toxic effects of smoking. Human osteoblasts exposed to cigarette smoke medium (CSM) rapidly produced ROS and their viability decreased concentration- and time-dependently. Co-, pre- and postincubation with Quercetin dose-dependently improved their viability. Quercetin increased the expression of the anti-oxidative enzymes heme-oxygenase- (HO-) 1 and superoxide-dismutase- (SOD-) 1. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abolished the protective effect of Quercetin. Our results demonstrate that CSM damages human osteoblasts by accumulation of ROS. Quercetin can diminish this damage by scavenging the radicals and by upregulating the expression of HO-1 and SOD-1. Thus, a dietary supplementation with Quercetin could improve bone matter, stability and even fracture healing in smokers. PMID:22203790

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1 sequesters Hu antigen R (HuR) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR): implications for impaired post-transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liang; Wang, Shuying; Zheng, Lei; Li, Xuelin; Suswam, Esther A; Zhang, Xiaowen; Wheeler, Crystal G; Nabors, L B; Filippova, Natalia; King, Peter H

    2009-12-01

    Down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the mouse leads to progressive and selective degeneration of motor neurons similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In mice expressing ALS-associated mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), VEGF mRNA expression in the spinal cord declines significantly prior to the onset of clinical manifestations. In vitro models suggest that dysregulation of VEGF mRNA stability contributes to that decline. Here, we show that the major RNA stabilizer, Hu Antigen R (HuR), and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR) colocalize with mutant SOD1 in mouse spinal cord extracts and cultured glioma cells. The colocalization was markedly reduced or abolished by RNase treatment. Immunoanalysis of transfected cells indicated that colocalization occurred in insoluble aggregates and inclusions. RNA immunoprecipitation showed a significant loss of VEGF mRNA binding to HuR and TIAR in mutant SOD1 cells, and there was marked depletion of HuR from polysomes. Ectopic expression of HuR in mutant SOD1 cells more than doubled the mRNA half-life of VEGF and significantly increased expression to that of wild-type SOD1 control. Cellular effects produced by mutant SOD1, including impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, were reversed by HuR in a gene dose-dependent pattern. In summary, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 impairs post-transcriptional regulation by sequestering key regulatory RNA-binding proteins. The rescue effect of HuR suggests that this impairment, whether related to VEGF or other potential mRNA targets, contributes to cytotoxicity in ALS. PMID:19805546

  20. Overexpression of human SOD1 in VDAC1-less yeast restores mitochondrial functionality modulating beta-barrel outer membrane protein genes.

    PubMed

    Magrì, Andrea; Di Rosa, Maria Carmela; Tomasello, Marianna Flora; Guarino, Francesca; Reina, Simona; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito

    2016-06-01

    Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1), the most important antioxidant defense against ROS in eukaryotic cells, localizes in cytosol and intermembrane space of mitochondria (IMS). Several evidences show a SOD1 intersection with both fermentative and respiratory metabolism. The Voltage Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) is the main pore-forming protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), and is considered the gatekeeper of mitochondrial metabolism. Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking VDAC1 (Δpor1) is a very convenient model system, since it shows an impaired growth rate on non-fermentable carbon source. Transformation of Δpor1 yeast with human SOD1 completely restores the cell growth deficit in non-fermentative conditions and re-establishes the physiological levels of ROS, as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential. No similar result was found upon yeast SOD1 overexpression. A previous report highlighted the action of SOD1 as a transcription factor. Quantitative Real-Time PCR showed that β-barrel outer-membrane encoding-genes por2, tom40, sam50 are induced by hSOD1, but the same effect was not obtained in Δpor1Δpor2 yeast, indicating a crucial function for yVDAC2. Since the lack of VDAC1 in yeast can be considered a stress factor for the cell, hSOD1 could relieve it stimulating the expression of genes bringing to the recovery of the MOM function. Our results suggest a direct influence of SOD1 on VDAC. PMID:26947057

  1. Structures of the G85R Variant of SOD1 in Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xiaohang; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Seetharaman, Sai V.; Whitson, Lisa J.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Strange, Richard W.; Doucette, Peter A.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Padua, Shelby; Cohlberg, Jeffrey A.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Hart, P. John

    2008-07-21

    Mutations in the gene encoding human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a dominant form of the progressive neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Transgenic mice expressing the human G85R SOD1 variant develop paralytic symptoms concomitant with the appearance of SOD1-enriched proteinaceous inclusions in their neural tissues. The process(es) through which misfolding or aggregation of G85R SOD1 induces motor neuron toxicity is not understood. Here we present structures of the human G85R SOD1 variant determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. Alterations in structure of the metal-binding loop elements relative to the wild type enzyme suggest a molecular basis for the metal ion deficiency of the G85R SOD1 protein observed in the central nervous system of transgenic mice and in purified recombinant G85R SOD1. These findings support the notion that metal-deficient and/or disulfide-reduced mutant SOD1 species contribute to toxicity in SOD1-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  2. PGC-1α Silencing Compounds the Perturbation of Mitochondrial Function Caused by Mutant SOD1 in Skeletal Muscle of ALS Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yan; Yin, Xiang; Wang, Shuyu; Jiang, Hongquan; Wang, Xudong; Ren, Ming; Su, Xiang-ping; Lei, Shi; Feng, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease causing death of motor neurons. This study investigated the roles of energy metabolism in the pathogenesis of ALS in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model. Control and SOD1(G93A) mice were administered with shcontrol or shPGC-1α in combination with PBS or thiazolidinedione (TZD) for 8 weeks. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. ROS and fibrosis were assessed with a colorimetric kit and Sirius staining, respectively. Inflammatory cytokines were measured using ELISA kits. The levels of tissue ROS and serum inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in SOD1(G93A) mice compared to control mice, and knocking down peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) drastically increased cytokine levels in both control and SOD1(G93A) mice. Muscle fibrosis was much severer in SOD1(G93A) mice, and worsened by silencing PGC-1α and attenuated by TZD. The expression levels of PGC-1α, SOD1, UCP2, and cytochrome C were substantially reduced by shPGC-1α and increased by TZD in muscle of both control and SOD1(G93A) mice, whereas the level of NF-κB was significantly elevated in SOD1(G93A) mice, which was further increased by PGC-1α silencing. These data indicated that disruption of energy homeostasis would exacerbate the pathological changes caused by SOD1 mutations to promote the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:26539112

  3. Molecular Chaperone Mediated Late-Stage Neuroprotection in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Anna L.; Dick, James R.; Kanuga, Naheed; Kalmar, Bernadett; Greensmith, Linda; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are associated with familial ALS and lead to SOD1 protein misfolding and aggregation. Here we show that the molecular chaperone, HSJ1 (DNAJB2), mutations in which cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy, can reduce mutant SOD1 aggregation and improve motor neuron survival in mutant SOD1 models of ALS. Overexpression of human HSJ1a (hHSJ1a) in vivo in motor neurons of SOD1G93A transgenic mice ameliorated disease. In particular, there was a significant improvement in muscle force, increased motor unit number and enhanced motor neuron survival. hHSJ1a was present in a complex with SOD1G93A and led to reduced SOD1 aggregation at late stages of disease progression. We also observed altered ubiquitin immunoreactivity in the double transgenic animals, suggesting that ubiquitin modification might be important for the observed improvements. In a cell model of SOD1G93A aggregation, HSJ1a preferentially bound to mutant SOD1, enhanced SOD1 ubiquitylation and reduced SOD1 aggregation in a J-domain and ubiquitin interaction motif (UIM) dependent manner. Collectively, the data suggest that HSJ1a acts on mutant SOD1 through a combination of chaperone, co-chaperone and pro-ubiquitylation activity. These results show that targeting SOD1 protein misfolding and aggregation in vivo can be neuroprotective and suggest that manipulation of DnaJ molecular chaperones might be useful in the treatment of ALS. PMID:24023695

  4. Spinal cord pathology is ameliorated by P2X7 antagonism in a SOD1-mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Apolloni, Savina; Amadio, Susanna; Parisi, Chiara; Matteucci, Alessandra; Potenza, Rosa L; Armida, Monica; Popoli, Patrizia; D'Ambrosi, Nadia; Volonté, Cinzia

    2014-09-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the role of P2X7, a receptor for extracellular ATP, in modulating physiopathological mechanisms in the central nervous system. In particular, P2X7 has been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatry, chronic pain, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Remarkably, P2X7 has also been shown to be a 'gene modifier' in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): the receptor is upregulated in spinal cord microglia in human and rat at advanced stages of the disease; in vitro, activation of P2X7 exacerbates pro-inflammatory responses in microglia that have an ALS phenotype, as well as toxicity towards neuronal cells. Despite this detrimental in vitro role of P2X7, in SOD1-G93A mice lacking P2X7, the clinical onset of ALS was significantly accelerated and disease progression worsened, thus indicating that the receptor might have some beneficial effects, at least at certain stages of disease. In order to clarify this dual action of P2X7 in ALS pathogenesis, in the present work we used the antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG), a blood-brain barrier permeable and safe drug that has already been proven to reduce neuroinflammation in traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, neuropathic pain and experimental autoimmune encephalitis. We tested BBG in the SOD1-G93A ALS mouse model at asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic and late pre-symptomatic phases of disease. BBG at late pre-onset significantly enhanced motor neuron survival and reduced microgliosis in lumbar spinal cord, modulating inflammatory markers such as NF-κB, NADPH oxidase 2, interleukin-1β, interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This was accompanied by delayed onset and improved general conditions and motor performance, in both male and female mice, although survival appeared unaffected. Our results prove the twofold role of P2X7 in the course of ALS and establish that P2X7 modulation might represent a promising therapeutic strategy by

  5. The Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on the Central Nervous System and Muscle in an Animal hSOD1G93A Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Cai, MuDan; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the degeneration of lower and upper motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. However, there is no effective drug or therapy to treat ALS. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, herbal medicine, and massage is popular due to the significant limitations of conventional therapy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA), also known as one of pharmacopunctures, has been used in Oriental medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of BVA on the central nervous system (CNS) and muscle in symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice, an animal model of ALS. Our findings show that BVA at ST36 enhanced motor function and decreased motor neuron death in the spinal cord compared to that observed in hSOD1G93A transgenic mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BV. Furthermore, BV treatment at ST36 eliminated signaling downstream of inflammatory proteins such as TLR4 in the spinal cords of symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. However, i.p. treatment with BV reduced the levels of TNF-α and Bcl-2 expression in the muscle hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that BV pharmacopuncture into certain acupoints may act as a chemical stimulant to activate those acupoints and subsequently engage the endogenous immune modulatory system in the CNS in an animal model of ALS. PMID:25781653

  6. Disrupted Zinc-Binding Sites in Structures of Pathogenic SOD1 Variants D124V and H80R

    PubMed Central

    Seetharaman, Sai V.; Winkler, Duane D.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Cao, Xiaohang; Whitson, Lisa J.; Doucette, Peter A.; Valentine, Joan S.; Schirf, Virgil; Demeler, Borries; Carroll, Mark C.; Culotta, Valeria C.; Hart, P. John

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause an inherited form of the fatal neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we present structures of the pathogenic SOD1 variants D124V and H80R, both of which demonstrate compromised zinc-binding sites. The disruption of the zinc-binding sites in H80R SOD1 leads to conformational changes in loop elements, permitting non-native SOD1-SOD1 interactions that mediate the assembly of these proteins into higher order filamentous arrays. Analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments indicate that these SOD1 variants are more prone to monomerization than is the wild type enzyme. Although D124V and H80R SOD1 proteins appear to have fully functional copper-binding sites, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometery (ICP-MS) and anomalous scattering X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that zinc (not copper) occupies the copper-binding sites in these variants. The absence of copper in these proteins, together with the results of covalent thiol modification experiments in yeast strains with and without the gene encoding the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS), suggest that CCS may not fully act on newly translated forms of these polypeptides. Overall, these findings lend support to the hypothesis that immature mutant SOD1 species contribute to toxicity in SOD1-linked ALS. PMID:20515040

  7. An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rotunno, Melissa S.; Bosco, Daryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s) of sporadic ALS, which accounts for ~90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and sporadic ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein to be one such factor that is common to both sporadic and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a “toxic conformation” that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem sporadic ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to sporadic ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and sporadic ALS. PMID:24379756

  8. ALS-linked SOD1 in glial cells enhances ß-N-Methylamino L-Alanine (BMAA)-induced toxicity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Rafique; Zhang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors have been implicated in the etiology of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of environmental agents in ALS remains poorly understood. To this end, we used transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to explore the interaction between mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and chemicals such as ß-N-methylamino L-alanine (BMAA), the herbicide agent paraquat, and superoxide species. We expressed ALS-linked human SOD1 (hSOD1A4V, and hSOD1G85R), hSOD1wt as well as the Drosophila native SOD1 (dSOD1) in motoneurons (MNs) or in glial cells alone and simultaneously in both types of cells. We then examined the effect of BMAA (3 mM), paraquat (20 mM), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1%) on the lifespan of SOD1-expressing flies. Our data show that glial expression of mutant and wild type hSOD1s reduces the ability of flies to climb. Further, we show that while all three chemicals significantly shorten the lifespan of flies, mutant SOD1 does not have a significant additional effect on the lifespan of flies fed on paraquat, but further shortens the lifespan of flies fed on H2O2. Finally, we show that BMAA shows a dramatic cell-type specific effect with mutant SOD1. Flies with expression of mutant hSOD1 in MNs survived longer on BMAA compared to control flies. In contrast, BMAA significantly shortened the lifespan of flies expressing mutant hSOD1 in glia. Consistent with a neuronal protection role, flies expressing these mutant hSOD1s in both MNs and glia also lived longer. Hence, our studies reveal a synergistic effect of mutant SOD1 with H2O2 and novel roles for mutant hSOD1s in neurons to reduce BMAA toxicity and in glia to enhance the toxicity of BMAA in flies. PMID:24627764

  9. Transcriptome Profiling Following Neuronal and Glial Expression of ALS-Linked SOD1 in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kumimoto, Emily L.; Fore, Taylor R.; Zhang, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) generally is a late-onset neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene account for approximately 20% of familial ALS and 2% of all ALS cases. Although a number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain mutant SOD1 toxicity, the molecular mechanisms of the disease remain unclear. SOD1-linked ALS is thought to function in a non–cell-autonomous manner such that motoneurons are critical for the onset, and glia contribute to progression of the disease. Recently, it has been shown in Drosophila melanogaster that expression of human SOD1 in a subset of neuronal cells causes synaptic transmission defects, modified motor function, and altered sensitivity to compounds that induce oxidative stress. Here we used the Gal4-UAS (Upstream Activation Sequence) system to further characterize flies expressing wild-type Drosophila SOD1 (dSOD1) and the mutant human SOD1G85R (G85R) allele in motoneurons and glia. Cell-specific expression of both dSOD1 and G85R was found to influence lifespan, affect sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, and alter lipid peroxidation levels. To better understand the genetic consequences of G85R expression in motoneurons and glia, we conducted microarray analysis of both young flies (5 days old) and old flies (45 days old) expressing G85R selectively in motoneurons or glia and concurrently in motoneurons and glia. Results from this microarray experiment identified candidate genes for further investigation and may help elucidate the individual and combined contributions of motoneurons and glia in ALS. PMID:23550139

  10. FUS and TARDBP but Not SOD1 Interact in Genetic Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kabashi, Edor; Bercier, Valérie; Lissouba, Alexandra; Liao, Meijiang; Brustein, Edna; Rouleau, Guy A.; Drapeau, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the SOD1 and TARDBP genes have been commonly identified in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Recently, mutations in the Fused in sarcoma gene (FUS) were identified in familial (FALS) ALS cases and sporadic (SALS) patients. Similarly to TDP-43 (coded by TARDBP gene), FUS is an RNA binding protein. Using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), we examined the consequences of expressing human wild-type (WT) FUS and three ALS–related mutations, as well as their interactions with TARDBP and SOD1. Knockdown of zebrafish Fus yielded a motor phenotype that could be rescued upon co-expression of wild-type human FUS. In contrast, the two most frequent ALS–related FUS mutations, R521H and R521C, unlike S57Δ, failed to rescue the knockdown phenotype, indicating loss of function. The R521H mutation caused a toxic gain of function when expressed alone, similar to the phenotype observed upon knockdown of zebrafish Fus. This phenotype was not aggravated by co-expression of both mutant human TARDBP (G348C) and FUS (R521H) or by knockdown of both zebrafish Tardbp and Fus, consistent with a common pathogenic mechanism. We also observed that WT FUS rescued the Tardbp knockdown phenotype, but not vice versa, suggesting that TARDBP acts upstream of FUS in this pathway. In addition we observed that WT SOD1 failed to rescue the phenotype observed upon overexpression of mutant TARDBP or FUS or upon knockdown of Tardbp or Fus; similarly, WT TARDBP or FUS also failed to rescue the phenotype induced by mutant SOD1 (G93A). Finally, overexpression of mutant SOD1 exacerbated the motor phenotype caused by overexpression of mutant FUS. Together our results indicate that TARDBP and FUS act in a pathogenic pathway that is independent of SOD1. PMID:21829392

  11. FUS and TARDBP but not SOD1 interact in genetic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; Bercier, Valérie; Lissouba, Alexandra; Liao, Meijiang; Brustein, Edna; Rouleau, Guy A; Drapeau, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Mutations in the SOD1 and TARDBP genes have been commonly identified in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Recently, mutations in the Fused in sarcoma gene (FUS) were identified in familial (FALS) ALS cases and sporadic (SALS) patients. Similarly to TDP-43 (coded by TARDBP gene), FUS is an RNA binding protein. Using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), we examined the consequences of expressing human wild-type (WT) FUS and three ALS-related mutations, as well as their interactions with TARDBP and SOD1. Knockdown of zebrafish Fus yielded a motor phenotype that could be rescued upon co-expression of wild-type human FUS. In contrast, the two most frequent ALS-related FUS mutations, R521H and R521C, unlike S57Δ, failed to rescue the knockdown phenotype, indicating loss of function. The R521H mutation caused a toxic gain of function when expressed alone, similar to the phenotype observed upon knockdown of zebrafish Fus. This phenotype was not aggravated by co-expression of both mutant human TARDBP (G348C) and FUS (R521H) or by knockdown of both zebrafish Tardbp and Fus, consistent with a common pathogenic mechanism. We also observed that WT FUS rescued the Tardbp knockdown phenotype, but not vice versa, suggesting that TARDBP acts upstream of FUS in this pathway. In addition we observed that WT SOD1 failed to rescue the phenotype observed upon overexpression of mutant TARDBP or FUS or upon knockdown of Tardbp or Fus; similarly, WT TARDBP or FUS also failed to rescue the phenotype induced by mutant SOD1 (G93A). Finally, overexpression of mutant SOD1 exacerbated the motor phenotype caused by overexpression of mutant FUS. Together our results indicate that TARDBP and FUS act in a pathogenic pathway that is independent of SOD1. PMID:21829392

  12. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with the SOD1 mutations].

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masashi; Warita, Hitoshi; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2008-11-01

    Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been linked to some familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In familial ALS kinders with mutations in the SOD1 gene, the age of onset of weakness varies greatly but the duration of illness appears to be characteristic to each mutation. For example, in patients with the L84V mutation, the average life expectancy is less than 1.5 year after the onset of symptoms, whereas patients harboring the H46R mutation have an average life expectancy of 18 years after the disease onset. In view of the evidence supporting the idea that familial ALS variants of SOD1 enzymes acquire toxic properties, the variations in the duration of illness in the different kinders might arise because each mutation imparts different degrees of toxicity to the mutant protein. We developed rats that express a human SOD1 transgene with two different ALS-associated mutations (G93A and H46R) develop striking motor neuron degeneration and paralysis. The larger size of this rat model as compared with the ALS mice will facilitate studies involving manipulations of spinal fluid (implantation of intrathecal catheters for chronic therapeutic studies; CSF sampling) and spinal cord (e.g., direct administration of viral- and cell-mediated therapies). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is one of the most potent survival-promoting factors for motor neurons. To examine its both protective effect on motor neurons and therapeutic potential, we administered human recombinant HGF (hrHGF) by continuous intrathecal delivery to G93A transgenic (Tg) rats at onset of paralysis for 4 weeks. Intrathecal administration of hrHGF attenuates motor neuron degeneration and prolonged the duration of the disease by 63%. Our results indicated the therapeutic efficacy of continuous intrathecal administration of hrHGF in Tg rats. The results should prompt further clinical trials in ALS using continuous intrathecal administration of hrHGF. PMID:19198133

  13. The effect of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked exogenous SOD1-G93A on electrophysiological properties and intracellular calcium in cultured rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Milošević, Milena; Bataveljić, Danijela; Nikolić, Ljiljana; Bijelić, Dunja; Andjus, Pavle

    2016-01-01

    Over 150 mutations in the SOD1 gene that encodes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause 20-25% of familial ALS, albeit without a known gain-of-function mechanism. ALS is also non-cell-autonomous, the interactions between motor neurons and their glial neighbours being implicated in disease progression. The aim here was to investigate the biophysical effects of the exogenous human mutant SOD1-G93A on rat astrocytes in culture. Primary cortical astrocyte cultures were treated with recombinant human apo- mSOD1-G93A vs. wild-type control (wtSOD1) and recorded by patch-clamp and calcium imaging. Results showed that exogenous mSOD1 as well as wtSOD1 induced a decrease of membrane resistance, the effect being persistent (up to 13 min) only for the mutant form. Similarly, whole-cell inward currents in astrocytes were augmented by both wt and mSOD1, but the effect was twice larger and only progressed continuously for the latter. Both forms of SOD1 also induced a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) activity, the effect being dependent on external Ca(2+) and again only persisted with mSOD1, becoming significantly different from wtSOD1 only at longer times (14 min). In conclusion, this study points to membrane permeability and Ca(2+) signalling as processes affected by SOD1-G93A that presents the humoral factor triggering the role of astrocytes in ALS pathophysiology. PMID:26892977

  14. Disease Mechanisms in ALS: Misfolded SOD1 Transferred Through Exosome-Dependent and Exosome-Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Judith M; Fernando, Sarah M; Grad, Leslie I; Hill, Andrew F; Turner, Bradley J; Yerbury, Justin J; Cashman, Neil R

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neuromuscular degenerative disorder with a poorly defined etiology. ALS patients experience motor weakness, which starts focally and spreads throughout the nervous system, culminating in paralysis and death within a few years of diagnosis. While the vast majority of clinical ALS is sporadic with no known cause, mutations in human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause about 20 % of inherited cases of ALS. ALS with SOD1 mutations is caused by a toxic gain of function associated with the propensity of mutant SOD1 to misfold, presenting a non-native structure. The mechanisms responsible for the progressive spreading of ALS pathology have been the focus of intense study. We have shown that misfolded SOD1 protein can seed misfolding and aggregation of endogenous wild-type SOD1 similar to amyloid-β and prion protein seeding. Our recent observations demonstrate a transfer of the misfolded SOD1 species from cell to cell, modeling the intercellular transmission of disease through the neuroaxis. We have shown that both mutant and misfolded wild-type SOD1 can traverse cell-to-cell, either as protein aggregates that are released from dying cells and taken up by neighboring cells via macropinocytosis, or in association with vesicles which are released into the extracellular environment. Furthermore, once misfolding of wild-type SOD1 has been initiated in a human cell culture, it can induce misfolding in naïve cell cultures over multiple passages of media transfer long after the initial misfolding template is degraded. Herein we review the data on mechanisms of intercellular transmission of misfolded SOD1. PMID:26908139

  15. Liver specific expression of Cu/ZnSOD extends the lifespan of Sod1 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Liu, Yuhong; Walsh, Michael; Bokov, Alex; Ikeno, Yuji; Jang, Young C.; Perez, Viviana I.; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic ablation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) in mice (Sod1−/− mice) leads to shortened lifespan with a dramatic increase in hepatocellular carcinoma and accelerated aging phenotypes, including early onset sarcopenia. To study the tissue specific effects of oxidative stress in the Sod1−/− mice, we generated mice that only express the human SOD1 gene specifically in the liver of Sod1−/− mice (Sod1−/−/hSOD1alb mice). Expression of hSOD1 in the liver of Sod1−/− mice improved liver function, reduced oxidative damage in liver, and partially restored the expression of several genes involved in tumorigenesis, which are abnormally expressed in the livers of the Sod1−/− mice. However, liver specific expression of hSOD1 did not prevent the loss of body weight and muscle mass and alterations in the structure of neuromuscular junctions. The expression of hSOD1 in the liver of Sod1−/− mice significantly improved the lifespan of Sod1−/− mice; however, the lifespan of the Sod1−/−/hSOD1alb mice was still significantly shorter than wild type mice. PMID:26839948

  16. Wild-type SOD1 overexpression accelerates disease onset of a G85R SOD1 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Han-Xiang; Grisotti, Gabriella; Zhai, Hong; Siddique, Teepu; Roos, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 10% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are familial (FALS), and ∼25% of FALS cases are caused by mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase type 1 (SOD1). Mutant (MT) SOD1 is thought to be pathogenic because it misfolds and aggregates. A number of transgenic mice have been generated that express different MTSOD1s as transgenes and exhibit an ALS-like disease. Although one study found that overexpression of human wild-type (WT) SOD1 did not affect disease in G85R transgenic mice, more recent reports claim that overexpression of WTSOD1 in other MTSOD1 transgenic mice hastened disease, raising a possibility that the effect of WTSOD1 overexpression in this FALS mouse model is mutant-specific. In order to clarify this issue, we studied the effect of WTSOD1 overexpression in a G85R transgenic mouse that we recently generated. We found that G85R/WTSOD1 double transgenic mice had an acceleration of disease onset and shortened survival compared with G85R single transgenic mice; in addition, there was an earlier appearance of pathological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. The spinal cord insoluble fraction from G85R/WTSOD1 mice had evidence of G85R–WTSOD1 heterodimers and WTSOD1 homodimers (in addition to G85R homodimers) with intermolecular disulfide bond cross-linking. These studies suggest that WTSOD1 can be recruited into disease-associated aggregates by redox processes, providing an explanation for the accelerated disease seen in G85R mice following WTSOD1 overexpression, and suggesting the importance of incorrect disulfide-linked protein as key to MTSOD1 toxicity. PMID:19233858

  17. Breed Distribution of SOD1 Alleles Previously Associated with Canine Degenerative Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, R; Coates, JR; Johnson, GC; Hansen, L; Awano, T; Kolicheski, A; Ivansson, E; Perloski, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; O'Brien, DP; Guo, J; Katz, ML; Johnson, GS

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous reports associated 2 mutant SOD1 alleles (SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T) with degenerative myelopathy in 6 canine breeds. The distribution of these alleles in other breeds has not been reported. Objective To describe the distribution of SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T in 222 breeds. Animals DNA from 33,747 dogs was genotyped at SOD1:c.118, SOD1:c.52, or both. Spinal cord sections from 249 of these dogs were examined. Methods Retrospective analysis of 35,359 previously determined genotypes at SOD1:c.118G>A or SOD1:c.52A>T and prospective survey to update the clinical status of a subset of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias. Results The SOD1:c.118A allele was found in cross-bred dogs and in 124 different canine breeds whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele was only found in Bernese Mountain Dogs. Most of the dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A homozygotes, but 8 dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes and had no other sequence variants in their SOD1 amino acid coding regions. The updated clinical conditions of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias suggest that SOD1:c.118A homozygotes are at a much higher risk of developing degenerative myelopathy than are SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes. Conclusions and Clinical Importance We conclude that the SOD1:c.118A allele is widespread and common among privately owned dogs whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele is rare and appears to be limited to Bernese Mountain Dogs. We also conclude that breeding to avoid the production of SOD1:c.118A homozygotes is a rational strategy. PMID:24524809

  18. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) as a Chaperone Inhibiting Accumulation of Misfolded SOD1

    PubMed Central

    Israelson, Adrian; Ditsworth, Dara; Sun, Shuying; Song, SungWon; Liang, Jason; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Abu-Hamad, Salah; Zoltsman, Guy; Shani, Tom; Maldonado, Marcus; Bui, Anh; Navarro, Michael; Zhou, Huilin; Marsala, Martin; Kaspar, Brian K.; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Cleveland, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons and accompanied by accumulation of misfolded SOD1 onto the cytoplasmic faces of intracellular organelles, including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using inhibition of misfolded SOD1 deposition onto mitochondria as an assay, a chaperone activity abundant in non-neuronal tissues is now purified and identified to be the multifunctional macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), whose activities include an ATP-independent protein folding chaperone. Purified MIF is shown to directly inhibit mutant SOD1 misfolding. Elevating MIF in neuronal cells suppresses accumulation of misfolded SOD1 and its association with mitochondria and ER and extends survival of mutant SOD1-expressing motor neurons. Accumulated MIF protein is identified to be low in motor neurons, implicating correspondingly low chaperone activity as a component of vulnerability to mutant SOD1 misfolding and supporting therapies to enhance intracellular MIF chaperone activity. PMID:25801706

  19. Morpholino-mediated SOD1 reduction ameliorates an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Nizzardo, M.; Simone, C.; Rizzo, F.; Ulzi, G.; Ramirez, A.; Rizzuti, M.; Bordoni, A.; Bucchia, M.; Gatti, S.; Bresolin, N.; Comi, G. P.; Corti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity due to the accumulation of mutant proteins is thought to drive pathogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS); these mutations result in progressive motor neuron death through one or more acquired toxicities. Interestingly, SOD1 is not only responsible for fALS but may also play a significant role in sporadic ALS; therefore, SOD1 represents a promising therapeutic target. Here, we report slowed disease progression, improved neuromuscular function, and increased survival in an in vivo ALS model following therapeutic delivery of morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) designed to reduce the synthesis of human SOD1. Neuropathological analysis demonstrated increased motor neuron and axon numbers and a remarkable reduction in astrogliosis and microgliosis. To test this strategy in a human model, we treated human fALS induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons with MOs; these cells exhibited increased survival and reduced expression of apoptotic markers. Our data demonstrated the efficacy of MO-mediated therapy in mouse and human ALS models, setting the stage for human clinical trials. PMID:26878886

  20. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: recent insights from transgenic animal models with SOD1 mutations].

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masashi

    2004-11-01

    Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been linked to some familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In order to reproduce the different degree of toxicity to the mutant protein by mutations, we generated new transgenic mice with two mutations from which the progression of the disease in human family is rapid (L84V) or extremely slow (H46R). By comparing the two transgenic mice with different SOD1 mutations, we demonstrate that the time course and the first symptoms in these mice were likely to human SOD1-mediated familial ALS. In addition, we report here that rats that express a human SOD1 transgene with two different ALS-associated mutations (G93A and H46R) develop striking motor neuron degeneration and paralysis. The larger size of this rat model as compared with the ALS mice will facilitate studies involving manipulations of spinal fluid (implantation of intrathecal catheters for chronic therapeutic studies; CSF sampling) and spinal cord (e.g., direct administration of viral- and cell-mediated therapies). Using this rat model we showed that intrathecal administration of the hepatocyte growth factor attenuates motoneuron death and prolongs the duration of the disease of transgenic rats. PMID:15651292

  1. Prognostic role of "prion-like propagation" in SOD1-linked familial ALS: an alternative view.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Keizo; Nakano, Imaharu

    2014-01-01

    "Prion-like propagation" has recently been proposed for disease spread in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Pathological SOD1 conformers are presumed to propagate via cell-to-cell transmission. In this model, the risk-based kinetics of neuronal cell loss over time appears to be represented by a sigmoidal function that reflects the kinetics of intercellular transmission. Here, we describe an alternative view of prion-like propagation in SOD1-linked ALS - its relation to disease prognosis under the protective-aggregation hypothesis. Nucleation-dependent polymerization has been widely accepted as the molecular mechanism of prion propagation. If toxic species of misfolded SOD1, as soluble oligomers, are formed as on-pathway intermediates of nucleation-dependent polymerization, further fibril extension via sequential addition of monomeric mutant SOD1 would be protective against neurodegeneration. This is because the concentration of unfolded mutant SOD1 monomers, which serve as precursor of nucleation and toxic species of mutant SOD1, would decline in proportion to the extent of aggregation. The nucleation process requires that native conformers exist in an unfolded state that may result from escaping the cellular protein quality control machinery. However, prion-like propagation-SOD1 aggregated form self-propagates by imposing its altered conformation on normal SOD1-appears to antagonize the protective role of aggregate growth. The cross-seeding reaction with normal SOD1 would lead to a failure to reduce the concentration of unfolded mutant SOD1 monomers, resulting in continuous nucleation and subsequent generation of toxic species, and influence disease prognosis. In this alternative view, the kinetics of neuronal loss appears to be represented by an exponential function, with decreasing risk reflecting the protective role of aggregate and the potential for cross-seeding reactions between mutant SOD1 and normal

  2. Mutations in SOD1 associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cause novel protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Kunst, C B; Mezey, E; Brownstein, M J; Patterson, D

    1997-01-01

    A subset of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-a fatal disorder characterised by progressive motor neuron degeneration) cases are due to mutations in the gene encoding Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Two mutations which have been successfully used to generate transgenic mice that develop an ALS-like syndrome are glycine 85 to arginine (G85R) and glycine 93 to alanine (G93A) with the mutant SOD1 allele overexpressed in a normal mouse genetic background. No ALS-like phenotype is observed in mice overexpressing wild-type SOD1 or mice without any SOD1 activity. These dominant mutations, which do not necessarily decrease SOD1 activity, may confer a gain of function that is selectively lethal to motor neurons. The yeast interaction trap system allowed us to determine whether these mutations in SOD1 caused novel protein interactions not observed with wild-type SOD1 and which might participate in the generation of the ALS phenotype. Two proteins, lysyl-tRNA synthetase and translocon-associated protein delta, interact with mutant forms of SOD1 but not with wild-type SOD1. The specificity of the interactions was confirmed by the coimmunoprecipitation of mutant SOD1 and the expressed proteins. These proteins are expressed in ventral cord, lending support to the relevance of this interaction to motor neuron disease. PMID:8988176

  3. Astrocytes expressing ALS-linked mutated SOD1 release factors selectively toxic to motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Makiko; Re, Diane B; Nagata, Tetsuya; Chalazonitis, Alcmène; Jessell, Thomas M; Wichterle, Hynek; Przedborski, Serge

    2007-05-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause a form of the fatal paralytic disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), presumably by a combination of cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous processes. Here, we show that expression of mutated human SOD1 in primary mouse spinal motor neurons does not provoke motor neuron degeneration. Conversely, rodent astrocytes expressing mutated SOD1 kill spinal primary and embryonic mouse stem cell-derived motor neurons. This is triggered by soluble toxic factor(s) through a Bax-dependent mechanism. However, mutant astrocytes do not cause the death of spinal GABAergic or dorsal root ganglion neurons or of embryonic stem cell-derived interneurons. In contrast to astrocytes, fibroblasts, microglia, cortical neurons and myocytes expressing mutated SOD1 do not cause overt neurotoxicity. These findings indicate that astrocytes may play a role in the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons in ALS. Identification of the astrocyte-derived soluble factor(s) may have far-reaching implications for ALS from both a pathogenic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:17435755

  4. Astrocytes expressing ALS-linked mutated SOD1 release factors selectively toxic to motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Makiko; Re, Diane B; Nagata, Tetsuya; Chalazonitis, Alcmène; Jessell, Thomas M; Wichterle, Hynek; Przedborski, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause a form of the fatal paralytic disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), presumably by a combination of cell-autonomous and non–cell-autonomous processes. Here, we show that expression of mutated human SOD1 in primary mouse spinal motor neurons does not provoke motor neuron degeneration. Conversely, rodent astrocytes expressing mutated SOD1 kill spinal primary and embryonic mouse stem cell–derived motor neurons. This is triggered by soluble toxic factor(s) through a Bax-dependent mechanism. However, mutant astrocytes do not cause the death of spinal GABAergic or dorsal root ganglion neurons or of embryonic stem cell–derived interneurons. In contrast to astrocytes, fibroblasts, microglia, cortical neurons and myocytes expressing mutated SOD1 do not cause overt neurotoxicity. These findings indicate that astrocytes may play a role in the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons in ALS. Identification of the astrocyte-derived soluble factor(s) may have far-reaching implications for ALS from both a pathogenic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:17435755

  5. Abnormal Intracellular Calcium Signaling and SNARE-Dependent Exocytosis Contributes to SOD1G93A Astrocyte-Mediated Toxicity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Hibiki; Ng, Seng Kah; Diaz, Natalia; Burstein, Suzanne; Morel, Lydie; Osgood, Alexandra; Sider, Brittany; Higashimori, Haruki; Haydon, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neurons are progressively and predominantly degenerated in ALS, which is not only induced by multiple intrinsic pathways but also significantly influenced by the neighboring glial cells. In particular, astrocytes derived from the SOD1 mutant mouse model of ALS or from human familial or sporadic ALS patient brain tissue directly induce motor neuron death in culture; however, the mechanisms of pathological astroglial secretion remain unclear. Here we investigated abnormal calcium homeostasis and altered exocytosis in SOD1G93A astrocytes. We found that purinergic stimulation induces excess calcium release from the ER stores in SOD1G93A astrocytes, which results from the abnormal ER calcium accumulation and is independent of clearance mechanisms. Furthermore, pharmacological studies suggested that store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), a calcium refilling mechanism responsive to ER calcium depletion, is enhanced in SOD1G93A astrocytes. We found that oxidant-induced increased S-glutathionylation and calcium-independent puncta formation of the ER calcium sensor STIM1 underlies the abnormal SOCE response in SOD1G93A astrocytes. Enhanced SOCE contributes to ER calcium overload in SOD1G93A astrocytes and excess calcium release from the ER during ATP stimulation. In addition, ER calcium release induces elevated ATP release from SOD1G93A astrocytes, which can be inhibited by the overexpression of dominant-negative SNARE. Selective inhibition of exocytosis in SOD1G93A astrocytes significantly prevents astrocyte-mediated toxicity to motor neurons and delays disease onset in SOD1G93A mice. Our results characterize a novel mechanism responsible for calcium dysregulation in SOD1G93A astrocytes and provide the first in vivo evidence that astrocyte exocytosis contributes to the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:24501372

  6. Copper Homeostasis as a Therapeutic Target in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with SOD1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Eiichi; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons, and currently, there is no cure or effective treatment. Mutations in a gene encoding a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), have been first identified as a cause of familial forms of ALS. It is widely accepted that mutant SOD1 proteins cause the disease through a gain in toxicity but not through a loss of its physiological function. SOD1 is a major copper-binding protein and regulates copper homeostasis in the cell; therefore, a toxicity of mutant SOD1 could arise from the disruption of copper homeostasis. In this review, we will briefly review recent studies implying roles of copper homeostasis in the pathogenesis of SOD1-ALS and highlight the therapeutic interventions focusing on pharmacological as well as genetic regulations of copper homeostasis to modify the pathological process in SOD1-ALS. PMID:27136532

  7. A faulty interaction between SOD1 and hCCS in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gareth S. A.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Hasnain, S. Samar

    2016-01-01

    A proportion of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases result from impaired mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) maturation. The copper chaperone for SOD1 (hCCS) forms a transient complex with SOD1 and catalyses the final stages of its maturation. We find that a neurodegenerative disease-associated hCCS mutation abrogates the interaction with SOD1 by inhibiting hCCS zinc binding. Analogously, SOD1 zinc loss has a detrimental effect on the formation, structure and disassociation of the hCCS-SOD1 heterodimer. This suggests that hCCS functionality is impaired by ALS mutations that reduce SOD1 zinc affinity. Furthermore, stabilization of wild-type SOD1 by chemical modification including cisplatination, inhibits complex formation. We hypothesize that drug molecules designed to stabilize ALS SOD1 mutants that also target the wild-type form will lead to characteristics common in SOD1 knock-outs. Our work demonstrates the applicability of chromatographic SAXS when studying biomolecules predisposed to aggregation or dissociation; attributes frequently reported for complexes involved in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27282955

  8. A faulty interaction between SOD1 and hCCS in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gareth S A; Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Hasnain, S Samar

    2016-01-01

    A proportion of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases result from impaired mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) maturation. The copper chaperone for SOD1 (hCCS) forms a transient complex with SOD1 and catalyses the final stages of its maturation. We find that a neurodegenerative disease-associated hCCS mutation abrogates the interaction with SOD1 by inhibiting hCCS zinc binding. Analogously, SOD1 zinc loss has a detrimental effect on the formation, structure and disassociation of the hCCS-SOD1 heterodimer. This suggests that hCCS functionality is impaired by ALS mutations that reduce SOD1 zinc affinity. Furthermore, stabilization of wild-type SOD1 by chemical modification including cisplatination, inhibits complex formation. We hypothesize that drug molecules designed to stabilize ALS SOD1 mutants that also target the wild-type form will lead to characteristics common in SOD1 knock-outs. Our work demonstrates the applicability of chromatographic SAXS when studying biomolecules predisposed to aggregation or dissociation; attributes frequently reported for complexes involved in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27282955

  9. ALS-linked misfolded SOD1 species have divergent impacts on mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Sarah; Semmler, Sabrina; Broom, Helen R; Destroismaisons, Laurie; Legroux, Laurine; Arbour, Nathalie; Meiering, Elizabeth; Cashman, Neil R; Vande Velde, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20 % of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is caused by mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1), which leads to misfolding of the SOD1 protein, resulting in a toxic gain of function. Several conformation-restricted antibodies have been generated that specifically recognize misfolded SOD1 protein, and have been used as therapeutics in pre-clinical models. Misfolded SOD1 selectively associates with spinal cord mitochondria in SOD1 rodent models. Using the SOD1(G93A) rat model, we find that SOD1 conformational specific antibodies AMF7-63 and DSE2-3H1 labeled a fibrillar network concentrated in the anterior horn; while A5C3, B8H10, C4F6 and D3H5 labeled motor neurons as well as puncta in the neuropil. There is a time-dependent accumulation of misfolded SOD1 at the surface of spinal cord mitochondria with AMF7-63-labeled mitochondria having increased volume in contrast to a mitochondrial subset labeled with B8H10. In spinal cord homogenates and isolated mitochondria, AMF7-63, DSE2-3H1 and B8H10 detect misfolded SOD1 aggregates. SOD1 that lacks its metal cofactors has an increased affinity for naïve mitochondria and misfolded SOD1 antibodies B8H10 and DSE2-3H1 readily detect demetalated mutant and wild-type SOD1. Together, these data suggest that multiple non-native species of misfolded SOD1 may exist, some of which are associated with mitochondrial damage. Conformational antibodies are invaluable tools to identify and characterize the variation in misfolded SOD1 species with regards to biochemical characteristics and toxicity. This information is highly relevant to the further development of these reagents as therapeutics. PMID:27121871

  10. Endogenous macrophage migration inhibitory factor reduces the accumulation and toxicity of misfolded SOD1 in a mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Leyton-Jaimes, Marcel F; Benaim, Clara; Abu-Hamad, Salah; Kahn, Joy; Guetta, Amos; Bucala, Richard; Israelson, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. It has been suggested that the toxicity of mutant SOD1 results from its misfolding and accumulation on the cytoplasmic faces of intracellular organelles, including the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of ALS-affected tissues. Recently, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was shown to directly inhibit the accumulation of misfolded SOD1 and its binding to intracellular membranes, but the role of endogenous MIF in modulating SOD1 misfolding in vivo remains unknown. To elucidate this role, we bred MIF-deficient mice with SOD1(G85R) mice, which express a dismutase-inactive mutant of SOD1 and are considered a model of familial ALS. We found that the accumulation of misfolded SOD1, its association with mitochondrial and ER membranes, and the levels of sedimentable insoluble SOD1 aggregates were significantly higher in the spinal cords of SOD1(G85R)-MIF(-/-) mice than in their SOD1(G85R)-MIF(+/+) littermates. Moreover, increasing MIF expression in neuronal cultures inhibited the accumulation of misfolded SOD1 and rescued from mutant SOD1-induced cell death. In contrast, the complete elimination of endogenous MIF accelerated disease onset and late disease progression and shortened the lifespan of the SOD1(G85R) mutant mice. These findings indicate that MIF plays a significant role in the folding and misfolding of SOD1 in vivo, and they have implications for the potential therapeutic role of up-regulating MIF within the nervous system to modulate the selective accumulation of misfolded SOD1. PMID:27551074

  11. Oligomerization of Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Its Hydroperoxides In Vitro: Aggregation Dependence on Fatty Acid Unsaturation and Thiols

    PubMed Central

    Appolinário, Patricia Postilione; Medinas, Danilo Bilches; Chaves-Filho, Adriano B.; Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C.; Cussiol, José Renato Rosa; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares; Augusto, Ohara; Miyamoto, Sayuri

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3, DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid highly enriched in the brain. This fatty acid can be easily oxidized yielding hydroperoxides as primary products. Cu, Zn-Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) aggregation is a common hallmark of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the molecular mechanisms behind their formation are not completely understood. Here we investigated the effect of DHA and its hydroperoxides (DHAOOH) on human SOD1 oligomerization in vitro. DHA induced the formation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) SOD1 species (>700 kDa). Aggregation was dependent on free thiols and occurred primarily with the protein in its apo-form. SOD1 incubation with DHA was accompanied by changes in protein structure leading to exposure of protein hydrophobic patches and formation of non-amyloid aggregates. Site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that Cys 6 and Cys 111 in wild-type and Cys 6 in ALS-linked G93A mutant are required for aggregation. In contrast, DHAOOH did not induce HMW species formation but promoted abnormal covalent dimerization of apo-SOD1 that was resistant to SDS and thiol reductants. Overall, our data demonstrate that DHA and DHAOOH induce distinct types of apo-SOD1 oligomerization leading to the formation of HMW and low-molecular-weight species, respectively. PMID:25928076

  12. Impairment of SOD1-G93A motility is linked to mitochondrial movement in axons of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jae Ryul; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a well-known antioxidant enzyme. Mutation of SOD1 is closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. However, the pathologic pathways linking neurodegenerative diseases with mutation of SOD1 remain elusive. Here, we investigated the motility of SOD1-WT and -G93A (a pathogenic mutant of SOD1), and observed correlation of axonal transport of the mutant protein with mitochondria in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. The SOD1-G93A mutant showed significant accumulation at vGlut1-positive synaptic boutons and in cell bodies, compared to SOD1-WT. The proportions of motile WT and G93A proteins were similar (~30 %) while the motility velocity of SOD1-G93A was significantly slower (~40 %) than that of the WT counterpart. This motility defect of SOD1-G93A was highly correlated with mitochondrial movement. Our results collectively suggest that the SOD1-G93A mutant has a defect in motility that is linked to mitochondrial transport in axons. PMID:27464601

  13. hSOD1 promotes tau phosphorylation and toxicity in the Drosophila model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunpeng; Wu, Zhihao; Zhou, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Tau hyperphosphorylation has been found in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Down syndrome, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, factors affecting tau hyperphosphorylation are not yet clearly understood. SOD1, a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase whose mutations can cause adult-onset ALS, is believed to be involved in the pathology of Down syndrome. In this work, the model organism Drosophila was used to study the possible link between hSOD1 and tau. Our results show that hSOD1, and to a higher degree hSOD1(A4V), can increase tau toxicity in Drosophila and exacerbate the corresponding neurodegeneration phenotype. The increased tau toxicity appears to be explainable by elevated tau phosphorylation. Tau(S2A), a tau mutant with impaired phosphorylation capabilities, does not respond to expression of hSOD1 and hSOD1(A4V). We suggest that increased SOD1 expression can lead to tau hyperphosphorylation, which might serve as an important contributing factor to the etiology of Down syndrome and SOD1-related ALS disease. PMID:25524953

  14. A cytoplasmic Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase SOD1 contributes to hyphal growth and virulence of Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sheng-Hua; Guo, Yan; Wang, Yan-Zhang; Zhang, Dong; Xu, Ling; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are scavengers of superoxide radicals, one of the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. SOD-based ROS scavenging system constitutes the frontline defense against intra- and extracellular ROS, but the roles of SODs in the important cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum are not very clear. There are five SOD genes in F. graminearum genome, encoding cytoplasmic Cu-Zn SOD1 and MnSOD3, mitochondrial MnSOD2 and FeSOD4, and extracellular CuSOD5. Previous studies reported that the expression of SOD1 increased during infection of wheat coleoptiles and florets. In this work we showed that the recombinant SOD1 protein had the superoxide dismutase activity in vitro, and that the SOD1-mRFP fusion protein localized in the cytoplasm of F. graminearum. The Δsod1 mutants had slightly reduced hyphal growth and markedly increased sensitivity to the intracellular ROS generator menadione. The conidial germination under extracellular oxidative stress was significantly delayed in the mutants. Wheat floret infection assay showed that the Δsod1 mutants had a reduced pathogenicity. Furthermore, the Δsod1 mutants had a significant reduction in production of deoxynivalenol mycotoxin. Our results indicate that the cytoplasmic Cu-Zn SOD1 affects fungal growth probably depending on detoxification of intracellular superoxide radicals, and that SOD1-mediated deoxynivalenol production contributes to the virulence of F. graminearum in wheat head infection. PMID:27037138

  15. SOD1 nanozyme with reduced toxicity and MPS accumulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhang; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Rheiner, Steven; Bae, Younsoo; Kabanov, Alexander V; Milligan, Carol; Manickam, Devika S

    2016-06-10

    We previously developed a "cage"-like nano-formulation (nanozyme) for copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) by polyion condensation with a conventional block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-PLL) followed by chemical cross-linking. Herein we report a new SOD1 nanozyme based on PEG-b-poly(aspartate diethyltriamine) (PEG-PAsp(DET), or PEG-DET for short) engineered for chronic dosing. This new nanozyme was spherical (Rg/Rh=0.785), and hollow (60% water composition) nanoparticles with colloidal properties similar to PLL-based nanozyme. It was better tolerated by brain microvessel endothelial/neuronal cells, and accumulated less in the liver and spleen. This formulation reduced the infarct volumes by more than 50% in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. However, it was not effective at preventing neuromuscular junction denervation in a mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To our knowledge, this work is the first report of using PEG-DET for protein delivery and a direct comparison between two cationic block copolymers demonstrating the effect of polymer structure in modulating the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) accumulation of polyion complexes. PMID:26928528

  16. SOD1 mutations disrupt redox-sensitive Rac regulation of NADPH oxidase in a familial ALS model

    PubMed Central

    Harraz, Maged M.; Marden, Jennifer J.; Zhou, Weihong; Zhang, Yulong; Williams, Aislinn; Sharov, Victor S.; Nelson, Kathryn; Luo, Meihui; Paulson, Henry; Schöneich, Christian; Engelhardt, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegeneration in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with enhanced redox stress caused by dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase–1 (SOD1). SOD1 is a cytosolic enzyme that facilitates the conversion of superoxide (O2•–) to H2O2. Here we demonstrate that SOD1 is not just a catabolic enzyme, but can also directly regulate NADPH oxidase–dependent (Nox-dependent) O2•– production by binding Rac1 and inhibiting its GTPase activity. Oxidation of Rac1 by H2O2 uncoupled SOD1 binding in a reversible fashion, producing a self-regulating redox sensor for Nox-derived O2•– production. This process of redox-sensitive uncoupling of SOD1 from Rac1 was defective in SOD1 ALS mutants, leading to enhanced Rac1/Nox activation in transgenic mouse tissues and cell lines expressing ALS SOD1 mutants. Glial cell toxicity associated with expression of SOD1 mutants in culture was significantly attenuated by treatment with the Nox inhibitor apocynin. Treatment of ALS mice with apocynin also significantly increased their average life span. This redox sensor mechanism may explain the gain-of-function seen with certain SOD1 mutations associated with ALS and defines new therapeutic targets. PMID:18219391

  17. Extended survival of misfolded G85R SOD1-linked ALS mice by transgenic expression of chaperone Hsp110

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Maria; Fenton, Wayne A.; Li, Di; Furtak, Krystyna; Horwich, Arthur L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that mammalian cells contain a cytosolic protein disaggregation machinery comprised of Hsc70, DnaJ homologs, and Hsp110 proteins, the last of which acts to accelerate a rate-limiting step of nucleotide exchange of Hsc70. We tested the ability of transgenic overexpression of a Thy1 promoter-driven human Hsp110 protein, HspA4L (Apg1), in neuronal cells of a transgenic G85R SOD1YFP ALS mouse strain to improve survival. Notably, G85R is a mutant version of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) that is unable to reach native form and that is prone to aggregation, with prominent YFP-fluorescent aggregates observed in the motor neurons of the transgenic mice as early as 1 mo of age. The several-fold overexpression of Hsp110 in motor neurons of these mice was associated with an increased median survival from ∼5.5 to 7.5 mo and increased maximum survival from 6.5 to 12 mo. Improvement of survival was also observed for a G93A mutant SOD1 ALS strain. We conclude that neurodegeneration associated with cytosolic misfolding and aggregation can be ameliorated by overexpression of Hsp110, likely enhancing the function of a cytosolic disaggregation machinery. PMID:27114530

  18. Extended survival of misfolded G85R SOD1-linked ALS mice by transgenic expression of chaperone Hsp110.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Maria; Fenton, Wayne A; Li, Di; Furtak, Krystyna; Horwich, Arthur L

    2016-05-10

    Recent studies have indicated that mammalian cells contain a cytosolic protein disaggregation machinery comprised of Hsc70, DnaJ homologs, and Hsp110 proteins, the last of which acts to accelerate a rate-limiting step of nucleotide exchange of Hsc70. We tested the ability of transgenic overexpression of a Thy1 promoter-driven human Hsp110 protein, HspA4L (Apg1), in neuronal cells of a transgenic G85R SOD1YFP ALS mouse strain to improve survival. Notably, G85R is a mutant version of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) that is unable to reach native form and that is prone to aggregation, with prominent YFP-fluorescent aggregates observed in the motor neurons of the transgenic mice as early as 1 mo of age. The several-fold overexpression of Hsp110 in motor neurons of these mice was associated with an increased median survival from ∼5.5 to 7.5 mo and increased maximum survival from 6.5 to 12 mo. Improvement of survival was also observed for a G93A mutant SOD1 ALS strain. We conclude that neurodegeneration associated with cytosolic misfolding and aggregation can be ameliorated by overexpression of Hsp110, likely enhancing the function of a cytosolic disaggregation machinery. PMID:27114530

  19. The Influenza Virus H5N1 Infection Can Induce ROS Production for Viral Replication and Host Cell Death in A549 Cells Modulated by Human Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Overexpression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian; Wang, Ruifang; Zou, Wei; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Wang, Shengyu; Jin, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 infections are often accompanied by excessive pro-inflammatory response, high viral titer, and apoptosis; as such, the efficient control of these infections poses a great challenge. The pathogenesis of influenza virus infection is also related to oxidative stress. However, the role of endogenic genes with antioxidant effect in the control of influenza viruses, especially H5N1 viruses, should be further investigated. In this study, the H5N1 infection in lung epithelial cells decreased Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) expression at mRNA and protein levels. Forced SOD1 expression significantly inhibited the H5N1-induced increase in reactive oxygen species, decreased pro-inflammatory response, prevented p65 and p38 phosphorylation, and impeded viral ribonucleoprotein nuclear export and viral replication. The SOD1 overexpression also rescued H5N1-induced cellular apoptosis and alleviated H5N1-caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, this study described the role of SOD1 in the replication of H5N1 influenza virus and emphasized the relevance of this enzyme in the control of H5N1 replication in epithelial cells. Pharmacological modulation or targeting SOD1 may open a new way to fight H5N1 influenza virus. PMID:26761025

  20. SOD1 Integrates Signals from Oxygen and Glucose to Repress Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Reddi, Amit R.; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) is an abundant enzyme that has been best studied as a regulator of antioxidant defence. Using the yeast S. cerevisiae, we report that SOD1 transmits signals from oxygen and glucose to repress respiration. The mechanism involves SOD1-mediated stabilization of two casein kinase 1-gamma (CK1γ) homologs, Yck1p and Yck2p, required for respiratory repression. SOD1 binds a C-terminal degron we identified in Yck1p/Yck2p, and promotes kinase stability by catalyzing superoxide conversion to peroxide. The effects of SOD1 on CK1γ stability are also observed with mammalian SOD1 and CK1γ and in a human cell line. Therefore in a single circuit, oxygen, glucose, and reactive oxygen can repress respiration through SOD1/ CK1γ signaling. Our data therefore may provide mechanistic insight into how rapidly proliferating cells and many cancers accomplish glucose-mediated repression in favour of aerobic glycolysis. PMID:23332757

  1. Inhibition of Fast Axonal Transport by Pathogenic SOD1 Involves Activation of p38 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morfini, Gerardo A.; Bosco, Daryl A.; Brown, Hannah; Gatto, Rodolfo; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Song, Yuyu; Molla, Linda; Baker, Lisa; Marangoni, M. Natalia; Berth, Sarah; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Bagnato, Carolina; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Pigino, Gustavo F.; Watterson, D. Martin; Huang, Chun-Fang; Banker, Gary; Brown, Robert H.; Brady, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Dying-back degeneration of motor neuron axons represents an established feature of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) associated with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations, but axon-autonomous effects of pathogenic SOD1 remained undefined. Characteristics of motor neurons affected in FALS include abnormal kinase activation, aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation, and fast axonal transport (FAT) deficits, but functional relationships among these pathogenic events were unclear. Experiments in isolated squid axoplasm reveal that FALS-related SOD1 mutant polypeptides inhibit FAT through a mechanism involving a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Mutant SOD1 activated neuronal p38 in mouse spinal cord, neuroblastoma cells and squid axoplasm. Active p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated kinesin-1, and this phosphorylation event inhibited kinesin-1. Finally, vesicle motility assays revealed previously unrecognized, isoform-specific effects of p38 on FAT. Axon-autonomous activation of the p38 pathway represents a novel gain of toxic function for FALS-linked SOD1 proteins consistent with the dying-back pattern of neurodegeneration characteristic of ALS. PMID:23776455

  2. Oxidation of the Tryptophan 32 Residue of Human Superoxide Dismutase 1 Caused by Its Bicarbonate-dependent Peroxidase Activity Triggers the Non-amyloid Aggregation of the Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Fernando R.; Iqbal, Asif; Linares, Edlaine; Silva, Daniel F.; Lima, Filipe S.; Cuccovia, Iolanda M.; Augusto, Ohara

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxidative post-translational modifications of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology is an attractive hypothesis to explore based on several lines of evidence. Among them, the remarkable stability of hSOD1WT and several of its ALS-associated mutants suggests that hSOD1 oxidation may precede its conversion to the unfolded and aggregated forms found in ALS patients. The bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity of hSOD1 causes oxidation of its own solvent-exposed Trp32 residue. The resulting products are apparently different from those produced in the absence of bicarbonate and are most likely specific for simian SOD1s, which contain the Trp32 residue. The aims of this work were to examine whether the bicarbonate-dependent peroxidase activity of hSOD1 (hSOD1WT and hSOD1G93A mutant) triggers aggregation of the enzyme and to comprehend the role of the Trp32 residue in the process. The results showed that Trp32 residues of both enzymes are oxidized to a similar extent to hSOD1-derived tryptophanyl radicals. These radicals decayed to hSOD1-N-formylkynurenine and hSOD1-kynurenine or to a hSOD1 covalent dimer cross-linked by a ditryptophan bond, causing hSOD1 unfolding, oligomerization, and non-amyloid aggregation. The latter process was inhibited by tempol, which recombines with the hSOD1-derived tryptophanyl radical, and did not occur in the absence of bicarbonate or with enzymes that lack the Trp32 residue (bovine SOD1 and hSOD1W32F mutant). The results support a role for the oxidation products of the hSOD1-Trp32 residue, particularly the covalent dimer, in triggering the non-amyloid aggregation of hSOD1. PMID:25237191

  3. In vivo kinetic approach reveals slow SOD1 turnover in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Matthew J.; Mawuenyega, Kwasi G.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reddy, Naveen C.; Chott, Robert; Self, Wade K.; Weihl, Conrad C.; Jockel-Balsarotti, Jennifer; Varadhachary, Arun S.; Bucelli, Robert C.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Bateman, Randall J.; Miller, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies that target disease-associated transcripts are being developed for a variety of neurodegenerative syndromes. Protein levels change as a function of their half-life, a property that critically influences the timing and application of therapeutics. In addition, both protein kinetics and concentration may play important roles in neurodegeneration; therefore, it is essential to understand in vivo protein kinetics, including half-life. Here, we applied a stable isotope-labeling technique in combination with mass spectrometric detection and determined the in vivo kinetics of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), mutation of which causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Application of this method to human SOD1-expressing rats demonstrated that SOD1 is a long-lived protein, with a similar half-life in both the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and the CNS. Additionally, in these animals, the half-life of SOD1 was longest in the CNS when compared with other tissues. Evaluation of this method in human subjects demonstrated successful incorporation of the isotope label in the CSF and confirmed that SOD1 is a long-lived protein in the CSF of healthy individuals. Together, the results of this study provide important insight into SOD1 kinetics and support application of this technique to the design and implementation of clinical trials that target long-lived CNS proteins. PMID:26075819

  4. Accumulation and aggregate formation of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 in canine degenerative myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Nakamae, S; Kobatake, Y; Suzuki, R; Tsukui, T; Kato, S; Yamato, O; Sakai, H; Urushitani, M; Maeda, S; Kamishina, H

    2015-09-10

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder that has recently been linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. We generated a polyclonal antibody against canine SOD1 to further characterize the mutant SOD1 protein and its involvement in DM pathogenesis. This antibody (SYN3554) was highly specific to canine SOD1 and had the ability to reveal distinct cytoplasmic aggregates in cultured cells expressing canine mutant SOD1 and also in the spinal neurons of symptomatic homozygotes. A similar staining pattern was observed in asymptomatic homozygotes. SOD1 aggregates were not detected in the spinal neurons of heterozygotes; the accumulation of SOD1 was also detected in the reactive astrocytes of homozygotes and heterozygotes to a similar extent. Our results support the hypothesis that the cytoplasmic accumulation and aggregate formation of the mutant SOD1 protein, especially in astrocytes, are closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM. Therefore, this disease is regarded as a spontaneous large-animal model of SOD1-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in humans. PMID:26162235

  5. Adeno Associated Viral Vector Delivered RNAi for Gene Therapy of SOD1 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stoica, Lorelei; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are a leading cause of ALS, responsible for up to 20% of familial cases. Although the exact mechanism by which mutant SOD1 causes disease remains unknown, multiple studies have shown that reduction of the mutant species leads to delayed disease onset and extension of lifespan of animal models. This makes SOD1 an ideal target for gene therapy coupling adeno associated virus vector (AAV) gene delivery with RNAi molecules. In this review we summarize the studies done thus far attempting to decrease SOD1 gene expression, using AAV vectors as delivery tools, and RNAi as therapeutic molecules. Current hurdles to be overcome, such as the need for widespread gene delivery through the entire central nervous system (CNS), are discussed. Continued efforts to improve current AAV delivery methods and capsids will accelerate the application of these therapeutics to the clinic. PMID:27531973

  6. Adeno Associated Viral Vector Delivered RNAi for Gene Therapy of SOD1 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Lorelei; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are a leading cause of ALS, responsible for up to 20% of familial cases. Although the exact mechanism by which mutant SOD1 causes disease remains unknown, multiple studies have shown that reduction of the mutant species leads to delayed disease onset and extension of lifespan of animal models. This makes SOD1 an ideal target for gene therapy coupling adeno associated virus vector (AAV) gene delivery with RNAi molecules. In this review we summarize the studies done thus far attempting to decrease SOD1 gene expression, using AAV vectors as delivery tools, and RNAi as therapeutic molecules. Current hurdles to be overcome, such as the need for widespread gene delivery through the entire central nervous system (CNS), are discussed. Continued efforts to improve current AAV delivery methods and capsids will accelerate the application of these therapeutics to the clinic. PMID:27531973

  7. Interaction between dimer interface residues of native and mutated SOD1 protein: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Keerthana, S P; Kolandaivel, P

    2015-04-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a highly conserved bimetallic protein enzyme, used for the scavenging the superoxide radicals (O2 (-)) produced due to aerobic metabolism in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Over 100 mutations have been identified and found to be in the homodimeric structure of SOD1. The enzyme has to be maintained in its dimeric state for the structural stability and enzymatic activity. From our investigation, we found that the mutations apart from the dimer interface residues are found to affect the dimer stability of protein and hence enhancing the aggregation and misfolding tendency of mutated protein. The homodimeric state of SOD1 is found to be held together by the non-covalent interactions. The molecular dynamics simulation has been used to study the hydrogen bond interactions between the dimer interface residues of the monomers in native and mutated forms of SOD1 in apo- and holo-states. The results obtained by this analysis reveal the fact that the loss of hydrogen bond interactions between the monomers of the dimer is responsible for the reduced stability of the apo- and holo-mutant forms of SOD1. The conformers with dimer interface residues in native and mutated protein obtained by the molecular dynamics simulation is subjected to quantum mechanical study using M052X/6-31G(d) level of theory. The charge transfer between N-H···O interactions in the dimer interface residues were studied. The weak interaction between the monomers of the dimer accounts for the reduced dimerization and enhanced deformation energy in the mutated SOD1 protein. PMID:25578810

  8. HIV-TAT mediated protein transduction of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) protects skin cells from ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern during radiotherapy. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, SOD1) is a conserved enzyme for scavenging superoxide radical in cells. Because of the integrity of cell membranes, exogenous molecule is not able to be incorporated into cells, which limited the application of natural SOD1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of HIV-TAT protein transduction domain mediated protein transduction of SOD1 (TAT-SOD1) against ionizing radiation. Methods The recombinant TAT-SOD1 and SOD1 were obtained by prokaryotic–based protein expression system. The transduction effect and biological activity of TAT-SOD1 was measured by immunofluorescence and antioxidant capability assays in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Mito-Tracker staining, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assay, cell apoptosis analysis and malondialdehyde (MDA) assay were used to access the protective effect of TAT- SOD1. Results Uptake of TAT-SOD1 by HaCaT cells retained its biological activity. Compared with natural SOD1, the application of TAT-SOD1 significantly enhanced the viability and decreased the apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation. Moreover, TAT-SOD1 reduced ROS and preserved mitochondrial integrity after radiation exposure in HaCaT cells. Radiation-induced γH2AX foci, which are representative of DNA double strand breaks, were decreased by pretreatment with TAT-SOD1. Furthermore, subcutaneous application of TAT-SOD1 resulted in a significant decrease in 45 Gy electron beam-induced ROS and MDA concentration in the skins of rats. Conclusions This study provides evidences for the protective role of TAT-SOD1 in alleviating radiation-induced damage in HaCaT cells and rat skins, which suggests a new therapeutic strategy for radiation-induced skin injury. PMID:24175971

  9. Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle Fibers of SOD1 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Nagahisa, Hiroshi; Okabe, Kazuma; Iuchi, Yoshihito; Fujii, Junichi; Miyata, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) knockout (KO) mice are known as an aging model in some aspects, but the damage and regeneration process of each fiber type have not been sufficiently studied. In this study, we investigated the damage and satellite cell state of the gastrocnemius muscle in SOD1 KO mice (6 months old) using immunohistochemical staining and real-time RT-PCR. The proportion of central nuclei-containing Type IIx/b fibers in the deep and superficial portions of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly higher in SOD1 KO than control mice. The number of satellite cells per muscle fiber decreased in all muscle fiber types in the deep portion of the gastrocnemius muscle in SOD1 KO mice. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of Pax7 and myogenin, which are expressed in satellite cells in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation states, significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of SOD1 KO mice. Furthermore, mRNA of myosin heavy chain-embryonic, which is expressed in the early phase of muscle regeneration, significantly increased in SOD1 KO mice. It was suggested that muscle is damaged by reactive oxygen species produced in the mitochondrial intermembrane space in Type IIxb fibers, accelerating the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells through growth factors in SOD1 KO mice. PMID:26798428

  10. Strategies for stabilizing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), the protein destabilized in the most common form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Auclair, Jared R.; Boggio, Kristin J.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar; Agar, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder characterized by the death of both upper and lower motor neurons and by 3- to 5-yr median survival postdiagnosis. The only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of ALS, Riluzole, has at best, moderate effect on patient survival and quality of life; therefore innovative approaches are needed to combat neurodegenerative disease. Some familial forms of ALS (fALS) have been linked to mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The dominant inheritance of mutant SOD1 and lack of symptoms in knockout mice suggest a “gain of toxic function” as opposed to a loss of function. A prevailing hypothesis for the mechanism of the toxicity of fALS-SOD1 variants, or the gain of toxic function, involves dimer destabilization and dissociation as an early step in SOD1 aggregation. Therefore, stabilizing the SOD1 dimer, thus preventing aggregation, is a potential therapeutic strategy. Here, we report a strategy in which we chemically cross-link the SOD1 dimer using two adjacent cysteine residues on each respective monomer (Cys111). Stabilization, measured as an increase in melting temperature, of ∼20 °C and ∼45 °C was observed for two mutants, G93A and G85R, respectively. This stabilization is the largest for SOD1, and to the best of our knowledge, for any disease-related protein. In addition, chemical cross-linking conferred activity upon G85R, an otherwise inactive mutant. These results demonstrate that targeting these cysteine residues is an important new strategy for development of ALS therapies. PMID:21098299

  11. Evolutionary Mutant Models for Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, R. Craig; Cresko, William; Detrich, H. William; Postlethwait, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Although induced mutations in traditional laboratory animals have been valuable as models for human diseases, they have some important limitations. Here we propose a complementary approach to discover genes and mechanisms that might contribute to human disorders: the analysis of evolutionary mutant models whose adaptive phenotypes mimic maladaptive human diseases. If the type and mode of action of mutations favored by natural selection in wild populations are similar to those that contribute to human diseases, then studies in evolutionary mutant models have the potential to identify novel genetic factors and gene-by-environment interactions that affect human health and underlie human disease. PMID:19108930

  12. Apparent segregation distortion for the SOD1 mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, J.B.; Pericak-Vance, M.A.; Hentati, A.

    1994-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a short duration form onset to death. Approximately 15% of all ALS cases are familial. Of this a subset of families ({approximately}20%) are caused by mutations in the SOD1 gene on chromosome 21. The recent identification of SOD1 as the causative factor in a subset of families has enabled us to classify at-risk as well as symptomatic SOD1 mutation carriers in completed sibships. Our investigations suggest that the transmission of the SOD1 mutation from parent to child occurs substantially more often than 50% of the time. At the present time we have examined this phenomena in 17 SOD1/ALS families with mutations in exons 1 (N=6 families), 2 (N=2), 4 (N=8) and 5 (N=1). In fully ascertained sibships from a mutation-carrying parent, there were 318 offspring available for mutation evaluation. Of these, 195 were found to have the SOD1 mutation, while 123 were without the mutation. These data result in a segregation ratio of 0.61 [chi-square = 16.3, P<0.0001]. Analysis of the individual exon mutation types indicated that the majority of the distortion was occurring in the exon 4 mutation families [chi-square=13.4, p<0.001 vs. non-4, chi-square=4.97, p<0.05]. These findings are of interest in light of the recent report of meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy locus, a CTG repeat expansion, variable onset, neurological disorder on chromosome 19. Additional SOD1/ALS mutation families are presently under study and these data will be similarily evaluated. Future studies include the genotyping of human sperm specimens for SOD1 mutation-bearing males. The possibility that over 66% of children of a mutation carrier could inherit the mutation preferentially would dramatically alter the counseling risk in such families. These studies provide further evidence of the occurrence of segregation distortion in humans.

  13. Voltage-gated calcium channels are abnormal in cultured spinal motoneurons in the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Martin, Lee J

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motoneurons. Hyperexcitability and excitotoxicity have been implicated in the early pathogenesis of ALS. Studies addressing excitotoxic motoneuron death and intracellular Ca(2+) overload have mostly focused on Ca(2+) influx through AMPA glutamate receptors. However, intrinsic excitability of motoneurons through voltage-gated ion channels may also have a role in the neurodegeneration. In this study we examined the function and localization of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in cultured spinal cord motoneurons from mice expressing a mutant form of human superoxide dismutase-1 with a Gly93→Ala substitution (G93A-SOD1). Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we showed that high voltage activated (HVA) Ca(2+) currents are increased in G93A-SOD1 motoneurons, but low voltage activated Ca(2+) currents are not affected. G93A-SOD1 motoneurons also have altered persistent Ca(2+) current mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels. Quantitative single-cell RT-PCR revealed higher levels of Ca1a, Ca1b, Ca1c, and Ca1e subunit mRNA expression in G93A-SOD1 motoneurons, indicating that the increase of HVA Ca(2+) currents may result from upregulation of Ca(2+) channel mRNA expression in motoneurons. The localizations of the Ca1B N-type and Ca1D L-type Ca(2+) channels in motoneurons were examined by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. G93A-SOD1 motoneurons had increased Ca1B channels on the plasma membrane of soma and dendrites. Ca1D channels are similar on the plasma membrane of soma and lower on the plasma membrane of dendrites of G93A-SOD1 motoneurons. Our study demonstrates that voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels have aberrant functions and localizations in ALS mouse motoneurons. The increased HVA Ca(2+) currents and PCCa current could contribute to early pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:27151771

  14. Motoneuron differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from SOD1G93A mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiao-Li; Ye, Cheng-Hui; Liu, Qiang; Wan, Jian-bo; Zhen, Jun; Xiang, Andy Peng; Li, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Yitao; Su, Huangxing; Lu, Xi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting motor neurons. Mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) account for about 20% of familial ALS patients. A robust supply of motoneurons carrying the mutated gene would help understand the causes of motoneuron death and develop new therapeutics for the disease. Here, we established induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines from SOD1G93A mice and compared their potency in motoneuron generation with normal iPS cells and mouse embryonic stem cells (E14). Our results showed that iPS cells derived from SOD1G93A mice possessed the similar potency in neuronal differentiation to normal iPS cells and E14 cells and can be efficiently driven to motoneuron-like phenotype. These cells exhibited typical neuronal morphology, expressed key motoneuron markers, including ChAT and HB9, and generated repetitive trains of action potentials. Furthermore, these neurons highly expressed human SOD-1 and exhibited shorter neurites compared to controls. The present study provides evidence that ALS-iPS cells can be used as disease models in high-throughput screening and mechanistic studies due to their ability to efficiently differentiate into specific neuronal subtypes. PMID:23724084

  15. Canine degenerative myelopathy: biochemical characterization of superoxide dismutase 1 in the first naturally occurring non-human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Matthew J; Beckett, Jeffrey; Coates, Joan R; Miller, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have recently been shown to cause canine degenerative myelopathy, a disabling neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific breeds of dogs characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and paralysis until death, or more common, euthanasia. This discovery makes canine degenerative myelopathy the first and only naturally occurring non-human model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), closely paralleling the clinical, pathological, and genetic presentation of its human counterpart, SOD1-mediated familial ALS. To further understand the biochemical role that canine SOD1 plays in this disease and how it may be similar to human SOD1, we characterized the only two SOD1 mutations described in affected dogs to date, E40K and T18S. We show that a detergent-insoluble species of mutant SOD1 is present in spinal cords of affected dogs that increases with disease progression. Our in vitro results indicate that both canine SOD1 mutants form enzymatically active dimers, arguing against a loss of function in affected homozygous animals. Further studies show that these mutants, like most human SOD1 mutants, have an increased propensity to form aggregates in cell culture, with 10-20% of cells possessing visible aggregates. Creation of the E40K mutation in human SOD1 recapitulates the normal enzymatic activity but not the aggregation propensity seen with the canine mutant. Our findings lend strong biochemical support to the toxic role of SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy and establish close parallels for the role mutant SOD1 plays in both canine and human disorders. PMID:23707216

  16. Structure of mutant human oncogene protein determined

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, R.

    1989-01-16

    The protein encoded by a mutant human oncogene differs only slightly in structure from the native protein that initiates normal cell division, a finding that may complicate efforts to develop inhibitors of the mutant protein. Previously, the x-ray structure of the protein encoded by the normal c-Ha-ras gene, a protein believed to signal cells to start or stop dividing through its interaction with guanosine triphosphate (GTP), was reported. The structure of the protein encoded by a transforming c-Ha-ras oncogene, in which a valine codon replaces the normal glycine codon at position 12 in the gene, has now been determined. The differences in the structures of the mutant and normal proteins are located primarily in a loop that interacts with the /beta/-phosphate of a bound guanosine diphosphate (GDP) molecule.

  17. Sertoli cells improve survival of motor neurons in SOD1 transgenic mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hemendinger, Richelle; Wang, Jay; Malik, Saafan; Persinski, Rafal; Copeland, Jane; Emerich, Dwaine; Gores, Paul; Halberstadt, Craig; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    Cell replacement therapy has been widely suggested as a treatment for multiple diseases including motor neuron disease. A variety of donor cells have been tested for treatment including isolated preparations from bone marrow and embryonic spinal cord. Another cell source, Sertoli cells, have been successfully used in models of diabetes, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. The ability of these cells to secrete cytoprotective proteins and their role as 'nurse cells' supporting the function of other cell types in the testes suggest their potential use as neuroprotective cells. The current study examines the ability of Sertoli cells injected into the parenchyma of the spinal cord to protect motor neurons in a mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Seventy transgenic mice expressing the mutant (G93A) human Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) received a unilateral spinal injection of Sertoli-enriched testicular cells into the L4-L5 ventral horn (1 x 10(5) cells total) prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. The animals were euthanized at the end stage of the disease. Histological and morphometric analyses of the transplant site were performed. A significant increase in the number of surviving ChAT positive motor neurons was found ipsilateral to the injection compared with contralateral and uninjected spinal cord. The ipsilateral increase in motor neuron density was dependent upon proximity to the injection site. Sections rostral or caudal to the injection site did not display a similar difference in motor neuron density. Implantation of a Sertoli-cell-enriched preparation has a significant neuroprotective benefit to vulnerable motor neurons in the SOD1 transgenic model. The therapeutic benefit may be the result of secreted neurotrophic factors present at a critical stage of motor neuron degeneration in this model. PMID:16242126

  18. Effect of neuroprotective drugs on gene expression in G93A/SOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Ignacio, Sheila; Moore, Dan H; Smith, Andrew P; Lee, Nancy M

    2005-08-01

    Gene expression analysis is a powerful tool that has been used to define the pathological processes underlying many diseases. Several laboratories, including our own, have used this approach to identify molecular abnormalities in the G93A/SOD1 mouse, an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we report the results of analysis of an expanded panel of genes throughout the entire lifetime in the spinal cord of these animals. In addition to upregulation of microglia/neuroinflammatory genes identified previously, we observed upregulation of metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I, MT-II). MT-I and MT-II play an important role in disposition of zinc ion, and other studies have also indicated their levels are altered in development of motor neuron disease in these animals. We also analyzed the effect on these expression profiles of several candidate drugs that have been shown to have neuroprotective effects in vivo or in vitro. That is, we asked whether administration to the G93A/SOD1 mice of any of these drugs could reverse the alterations in gene expression patterns that occur as the animals develop. The mice were given daily doses of these drugs when they were 9-11 weeks old, at a stage early in development of motor neuron disease, continuing for 5 weeks, at which time they were sacrificed. Treatment of the mice with l-carnosine, a dipeptide that scavenges free radicals and chelates zinc, did not affect expression of any of the genes altered in these animals. However, it did upregulate 3 genes unaffected by the presence of the G93A/SOD1 mutation: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT2). In contrast, metallothionein-III (MT-III) was downregulated. Treatment of the animals with baicalein, an herbal extract with anti-inflammatory and numerous other effects, downregulated the microglia markers CD68, CD80, and CD86, all of which were upregulated in untreated mutant animals. Baicalein

  19. Amino acids as biomarkers in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Bame, Monica; Grier, Robert E; Needleman, Richard; Brusilow, William S A

    2014-01-01

    The development of therapies for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) has been hindered by the lack of biomarkers for both identifying early disease and for monitoring the effectiveness of drugs. The identification of ALS biomarkers in presymptomatic individuals might also provide clues to the earliest biochemical correlates of the disease. Previous attempts to use plasma metabolites as biomarkers have led to contradictory results, presumably because of heterogeneity in both the underlying genetics and the disease stage in the clinical population. To eliminate these two sources of heterogeneity we have characterized plasma amino acids and other metabolites in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model for ALS. Presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice have significant differences in concentrations of several plasma metabolites compared to wild type animals, most notably in the concentrations of aspartate, cystine/cysteine, and phosphoethanolamine, and in changes indicative of methylation defects. There are significant changes in amino acid compositions between 50 and 70days of age in both the SOD1(G93A) and wild type mice, and several of the age-related and disease-related differences in metabolite concentration were also gender-specific. Many of the SOD1(G93A)-related differences could be altered by treatment of mice with methionine sulfoximine, which extends the lifespan of this mouse, inhibits glutamine synthetase, and modifies brain methylation reactions. These studies show that assaying plasma metabolites can effectively distinguish transgenic mice from wild type, suggesting that one or more plasma metabolites might be useful biomarkers for the disease in humans, especially if genetic and longitudinal analysis is used to reduce population heterogeneity. PMID:24129262

  20. The Disulfide Bond, but Not Zinc or Dimerization, Controls Initiation and Seeded Growth in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Madhuri; Nwadibia, Ekeoma; Strong, Cynthia D; Gralla, Edith Butler; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Whitelegge, Julian P

    2015-12-18

    Aggregation of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a defining feature of familial ALS caused by inherited mutations in the sod1 gene, and misfolded and aggregated forms of wild-type SOD1 are found in both sporadic and familial ALS cases. Mature SOD1 owes its exceptional stability to a number of post-translational modifications as follows: formation of the intramolecular disulfide bond, binding of copper and zinc, and dimerization. Loss of stability due to the failure to acquire one or more of these modifications is proposed to lead to aggregation in vivo. Previously, we showed that the presence of apo-, disulfide-reduced SOD1, the most immature form of SOD1, results in initiation of fibrillation of more mature forms that have an intact Cys-57-Cys-146 disulfide bond and are partially metallated. In this study, we examine the ability of each of the above post-translational modifications to modulate fibril initiation and seeded growth. Cobalt or zinc binding, despite conferring great structural stability, neither inhibits the initiation propensity of disulfide-reduced SOD1 nor consistently protects disulfide-oxidized SOD1 from being recruited into growing fibrils across wild-type and a number of ALS mutants. In contrast, reduction of the disulfide bond, known to be necessary for fibril initiation, also allows for faster recruitment during seeded amyloid growth. These results identify separate factors that differently influence seeded growth and initiation and indicate a lack of correlation between the overall thermodynamic stability of partially mature SOD1 states and their ability to initiate fibrillation or be recruited by a growing fibril. PMID:26511321

  1. Rab1-dependent ER-Golgi transport dysfunction is a common pathogenic mechanism in SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS-associated ALS.

    PubMed

    Soo, Kai Y; Halloran, Mark; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Parakh, Sonam; Toth, Reka P; Southam, Katherine A; McLean, Catriona A; Lock, Peter; King, Anna; Farg, Manal A; Atkin, Julie D

    2015-11-01

    Several diverse proteins are linked genetically/pathologically to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) including SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS. Using a variety of cellular and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that ALS-associated mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 inhibit protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus in neuronal cells. ER-Golgi transport was also inhibited in embryonic cortical and motor neurons obtained from a widely used animal model (SOD1(G93A) mice), validating this mechanism as an early event in disease. Each protein inhibited transport by distinct mechanisms, but each process was dependent on Rab1. Mutant TDP-43 and mutant FUS both inhibited the incorporation of secretory protein cargo into COPII vesicles as they bud from the ER, and inhibited transport from ER to the ER-Golgi intermediate (ERGIC) compartment. TDP-43 was detected on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane, whereas FUS was present within the ER, suggesting that transport is inhibited from the cytoplasm by mutant TDP-43, and from the ER by mutant FUS. In contrast, mutant SOD1 destabilised microtubules and inhibited transport from the ERGIC compartment to Golgi, but not from ER to ERGIC. Rab1 performs multiple roles in ER-Golgi transport, and over-expression of Rab1 restored ER-Golgi transport, and prevented ER stress, mSOD1 inclusion formation and induction of apoptosis, in cells expressing mutant TDP-43, FUS or SOD1. Rab1 also co-localised extensively with mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 in neuronal cells, and Rab1 formed inclusions in motor neurons of spinal cords from sporadic ALS patients, which were positive for ubiquitinated TDP-43, implying that Rab1 is misfolded and dysfunctional in sporadic disease. These results demonstrate that ALS-mutant forms of TDP-43, FUS, and SOD1 all perturb protein transport in the early secretory pathway, between ER and Golgi compartments. These data also imply that restoring Rab1-mediated ER

  2. Genome-wide association analysis reveals a SOD1 mutation in canine degenerative myelopathy that resembles amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Awano, Tomoyuki; Johnson, Gary S; Wade, Claire M; Katz, Martin L; Johnson, Gayle C; Taylor, Jeremy F; Perloski, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Baranowska, Izabella; Long, Sam; March, Philip A; Olby, Natasha J; Shelton, G Diane; Khan, Shahnawaz; O'Brien, Dennis P; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Coates, Joan R

    2009-02-24

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease prevalent in several dog breeds. Typically, the initial progressive upper motor neuron spastic and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs occurs at 8 years of age or older. If euthanasia is delayed, the clinical signs will ascend, causing flaccid tetraparesis and other lower motor neuron signs. DNA samples from 38 DM-affected Pembroke Welsh corgi cases and 17 related clinically normal controls were used for genome-wide association mapping, which produced the strongest associations with markers on CFA31 in a region containing the canine SOD1 gene. SOD1 was considered a regional candidate gene because mutations in human SOD1 can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset fatal paralytic neurodegenerative disease with both upper and lower motor neuron involvement. The resequencing of SOD1 in normal and affected dogs revealed a G to A transition, resulting in an E40K missense mutation. Homozygosity for the A allele was associated with DM in 5 dog breeds: Pembroke Welsh corgi, Boxer, Rhodesian ridgeback, German Shepherd dog, and Chesapeake Bay retriever. Microscopic examination of spinal cords from affected dogs revealed myelin and axon loss affecting the lateral white matter and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions that bind anti-superoxide dismutase 1 antibodies. These inclusions are similar to those seen in spinal cord sections from ALS patients with SOD1 mutations. Our findings identify canine DM to be the first recognized spontaneously occurring animal model for ALS. PMID:19188595

  3. Enhancing mitochondrial calcium buffering capacity reduces aggregation of misfolded SOD1 and motor neuron cell death without extending survival in mouse models of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Han, Joo Seok; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Vetto, Anne P; Lee, Sandra K; Tseng, Eva; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-03-13

    Mitochondria have been proposed as targets for toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive, fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons. A decrease in the capacity of spinal cord mitochondria to buffer calcium (Ca(2+)) has been observed in mice expressing ALS-linked mutants of SOD1 that develop motor neuron disease with many of the key pathological hallmarks seen in ALS patients. In mice expressing three different ALS-causing SOD1 mutants, we now test the contribution of the loss of mitochondrial Ca(2+)-buffering capacity to disease mechanism(s) by eliminating ubiquitous expression of cyclophilin D, a critical regulator of Ca(2+)-mediated opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore that determines mitochondrial Ca(2+) content. A chronic increase in mitochondrial buffering of Ca(2+) in the absence of cyclophilin D was maintained throughout disease course and was associated with improved mitochondrial ATP synthesis, reduced mitochondrial swelling, and retention of normal morphology. This was accompanied by an attenuation of glial activation, reduction in levels of misfolded SOD1 aggregates in the spinal cord, and a significant suppression of motor neuron death throughout disease. Despite this, muscle denervation, motor axon degeneration, and disease progression and survival were unaffected, thereby eliminating mutant SOD1-mediated loss of mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering capacity, altered mitochondrial morphology, motor neuron death, and misfolded SOD1 aggregates, as primary contributors to disease mechanism for fatal paralysis in these models of familial ALS. PMID:23486940

  4. The SOD1 transgene expressed in erythroid cells alleviates fatal phenotype in congenic NZB/NZW-F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Saori; Lee, Jaeyong; Okada, Futoshi; Iuchi, Yoshihito; Homma, Takujiro; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress due to a superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) deficiency causes anemia and autoimmune responses, which are phenotypically similar to autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in C57BL/6 mice and aggravates AIHA pathogenesis in New Zealand black (NZB) mice. We report herein on an evaluation of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a model mouse with inherited SLE, that is, F1 mice of the NZB × New Zealand white (NZW) strain. The ROS levels within red blood cells (RBCs) of the F1 mice were similar to the NZW mice but lower compared to the NZB mice throughout adult period. Regarding SLE pathogenesis, we examined the effects of an SOD1 deficiency or the overexpression of human SOD1 in erythroid cells by establishing corresponding congenic F1 mice. A SOD1 deficiency caused an elevation in ROS production, methemoglobin content, and hyperoxidation of peroxiredoxin in RBC of the F1 mice, which were all consistent with elevated oxidative stress. However, while the overexpression of human SOD1 in erythroid cells extended the life span of the congenic F1 mice, the SOD1 deficiency had no effect on life span compared to wild-type F1 mice. It is generally recognized that NZW mice possess a larval defect in the immune system and that NZB mice trigger an autoimmune reaction in the F1 mice. Our results suggest that the oxidative insult originated from the NZB mouse background has a functional role in triggering an aberrant immune reaction, leading to fatal responses in F1 mice. PMID:27080108

  5. Wild-type Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase stabilizes mutant variants by heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Anna; Besemer, Anna S; Liebl, Martina; Hellmann, Nadja; Koziollek-Drechsler, Ingrid; Ip, Philbert; Decker, Heinz; Robertson, Janice; Chakrabartty, Avijit; Behl, Christian; Clement, Albrecht M

    2014-02-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for a subset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases presumably by the acquisition of as yet unknown toxic properties. Additional overexpression of wild-type SOD1 in mutant SOD1 transgenic mice did not improve but rather accelerated the disease course. Recently, it was documented that the presence of wild-type SOD1 (SOD(WT)) reduced the aggregation propensity of mutant SOD1 by the formation of heterodimers between mutant and SOD1(WT) and that these heterodimers displayed at least a similar toxicity in cellular and animal models. In this study we investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of obligate SOD1 dimers that were connected by a peptide linker. Circular dichroism spectra indicate an increased number of unstructured residues in SOD1 mutants. However, SOD1(WT) stabilized the folding of heterodimers compared to mutant homodimers as evidenced by an increase in resistance against proteolytic degradation. Heterodimerization also reduced the affinity of mutant SOD1 to antibodies detecting misfolded SOD1. In addition, the formation of obligate dimers resulted in a detection of substantial dismutase activity even of the relatively labile SOD1(G85R) mutant. These data indicate that soluble, dismutase-active SOD1 dimers might contribute at least partially to mutant SOD1 toxicity. PMID:24200866

  6. Genetic Biomarkers for ALS Disease in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Ana C.; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Oliván, Sara; Muñoz, María J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vázquez, Pilar; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies. PMID:22412900

  7. The WldS gene modestly prolongs survival in the SOD1G93A fALS mouse.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Lindsey R; Culver, Deborah G; Davis, Albert A; Tennant, Philip; Wang, Minsheng; Coleman, Michael; Asress, Seneshaw; Adalbert, Robert; Alexander, Guillermo M; Glass, Jonathan D

    2005-01-01

    The "slow Wallerian degeneration" (Wld(S)) gene is neuroprotective in numerous models of axonal degeneration. Axonal degeneration is an early feature of disease progression in the SOD1G93A mouse, a widely used model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). We crossed the Wld(S) mouse with the SOD1G93A mouse to investigate whether the Wld(S) gene could prolong survival and modify neuropathology in these mice. SOD/Wld(S) mice showed levels of motor axon loss similar to that seen in SOD1G93A mice. The presence of the Wld(S) gene, however, modestly prolonged survival and delayed denervation at the neuromuscular junction. Prolonged survival was more prominent in female mice and did not depend on whether animals were heterozygous or homozygous for the Wld(S) gene. We also report that SOD1G93A mice show significant degeneration of sensory axons during the course of disease, supporting previous data from humans demonstrating that ALS is not purely a motor disorder. PMID:15837585

  8. Aggregation-triggering segments of SOD1 fibril formation support a common pathway for familial and sporadic ALS.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Magdalena I; Sievers, Stuart A; Guenther, Elizabeth L; Johnson, Lisa M; Winkler, Duane D; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Sawaya, Michael R; Hart, P John; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-01

    ALS is a terminal disease of motor neurons that is characterized by accumulation of proteinaceous deposits in affected cells. Pathological deposition of mutated Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) accounts for ∼20% of the familial ALS (fALS) cases. However, understanding the molecular link between mutation and disease has been difficult, given that more than 140 different SOD1 mutants have been observed in fALS patients. In addition, the molecular origin of sporadic ALS (sALS) is unclear. By dissecting the amino acid sequence of SOD1, we identified four short segments with a high propensity for amyloid fibril formation. We find that fALS mutations in these segments do not reduce their propensity to form fibrils. The atomic structures of two fibril-forming segments from the C terminus, (101)DSVISLS(107) and (147)GVIGIAQ(153), reveal tightly packed β-sheets with steric zipper interfaces characteristic of the amyloid state. Based on these structures, we conclude that both C-terminal segments are likely to form aggregates if available for interaction. Proline substitutions in (101)DSVISLS(107) and (147)GVIGIAQ(153) impaired nucleation and fibril growth of full-length protein, confirming that these segments participate in aggregate formation. Our hypothesis is that improper protein maturation and incompletely folded states that render these aggregation-prone segments available for interaction offer a common molecular pathway for sALS and fALS. PMID:24344300

  9. Aggregation-triggering segments of SOD1 fibril formation support a common pathway for familial and sporadic ALS

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Magdalena I.; Sievers, Stuart A.; Guenther, Elizabeth L.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Winkler, Duane D.; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Sawaya, Michael R.; Hart, P. John; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    ALS is a terminal disease of motor neurons that is characterized by accumulation of proteinaceous deposits in affected cells. Pathological deposition of mutated Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) accounts for ∼20% of the familial ALS (fALS) cases. However, understanding the molecular link between mutation and disease has been difficult, given that more than 140 different SOD1 mutants have been observed in fALS patients. In addition, the molecular origin of sporadic ALS (sALS) is unclear. By dissecting the amino acid sequence of SOD1, we identified four short segments with a high propensity for amyloid fibril formation. We find that fALS mutations in these segments do not reduce their propensity to form fibrils. The atomic structures of two fibril-forming segments from the C terminus, 101DSVISLS107 and 147GVIGIAQ153, reveal tightly packed β-sheets with steric zipper interfaces characteristic of the amyloid state. Based on these structures, we conclude that both C-terminal segments are likely to form aggregates if available for interaction. Proline substitutions in 101DSVISLS107 and 147GVIGIAQ153 impaired nucleation and fibril growth of full-length protein, confirming that these segments participate in aggregate formation. Our hypothesis is that improper protein maturation and incompletely folded states that render these aggregation-prone segments available for interaction offer a common molecular pathway for sALS and fALS. PMID:24344300

  10. Soma size and Cav1.3 channel expression in vulnerable and resistant motoneuron populations of the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Shoenfeld, Liza; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Fisher, Erika; Quinlan, Katharina A.; Tysseling, Vicki M.; Powers, Randall K.; Heckman, Charles J.; Binder, Marc D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although the loss of motoneurons is an undisputed feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in man and in its animal models (SOD1 mutant mice), how the disease affects the size and excitability of motoneurons prior to their degeneration is not well understood. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that motoneurons in mutant SOD1G93A mice exhibit an enlargement of soma size (i.e., cross‐sectional area) and an increase in Cav1.3 channel expression at postnatal day 30, well before the manifestation of physiological symptoms that typically occur at p90 (Chiu et al. 1995). We made measurements of spinal and hypoglossal motoneurons vulnerable to degeneration, as well as motoneurons in the oculomotor nucleus that are resistant to degeneration. Overall, we found that the somata of motoneurons in male SOD1G93A mutants were larger than those in wild‐type transgenic males. When females were included in the two groups, significance was lost. Expression levels of the Cav1.3 channels were not differentiated by genotype, sex, or any interaction of the two. These results raise the intriguing possibility of an interaction between male sex steroid hormones and the SOD1 mutation in the etiopathogenesis of ALS. PMID:25107988

  11. Comparative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Histopathological Correlates in Two SOD1 Transgenic Mouse Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Caron, Ilaria; Micotti, Edoardo; Paladini, Alessandra; Merlino, Giuseppe; Plebani, Laura; Forloni, Gianluigi; Modo, Michel; Bendotti, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal disease due to motoneuron degeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming a promising non-invasive approach to monitor the disease course but a direct correlation with neuropathology is not feasible in human. Therefore in this study we aimed to examine MRI changes in relation to histopathology in two mouse models of ALS (C57BL6/J and 129S2/SvHsd SOD1G93A mice) with different disease onset and progression. A longitudinal in vivo analysis of T2 maps, compared to ex vivo histological changes, was performed on cranial motor nuclei. An increased T2 value was associated with a significant tissue vacuolization that occurred prior to motoneuron loss in the cranial nuclei of C57 SOD1G93A mice. Conversely, in 129Sv SOD1G93A mice, which exhibit a more severe phenotype, MRI detected a milder increase of T2 value, associated with a milder vacuolization. This suggests that alteration within brainstem nuclei is not predictive of a more severe phenotype in the SOD1G93A mouse model. Using an ex vivo paradigm, Diffusion Tensor Imaging was also applied to study white matter spinal cord degeneration. In contrast to degeneration of cranial nuclei, alterations in white matter and axons loss reflected the different disease phenotype of SOD1G93A mice. The correspondence between MRI and histology further highlights the potential of MRI to monitor progressive motoneuron and axonal degeneration non-invasively in vivo. The identification of prognostic markers of the disease nevertheless requires validation in multiple models of ALS to ensure that these are not merely model-specific. Eventually this approach has the potential to lead to the development of robust and validated non-invasive imaging biomarkers in ALS patients, which may help to monitor the efficacy of therapies. PMID:26132656

  12. Comparative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Histopathological Correlates in Two SOD1 Transgenic Mouse Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Ilaria; Micotti, Edoardo; Paladini, Alessandra; Merlino, Giuseppe; Plebani, Laura; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal disease due to motoneuron degeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming a promising non-invasive approach to monitor the disease course but a direct correlation with neuropathology is not feasible in human. Therefore in this study we aimed to examine MRI changes in relation to histopathology in two mouse models of ALS (C57BL6/J and 129S2/SvHsd SOD1G93A mice) with different disease onset and progression. A longitudinal in vivo analysis of T2 maps, compared to ex vivo histological changes, was performed on cranial motor nuclei. An increased T2 value was associated with a significant tissue vacuolization that occurred prior to motoneuron loss in the cranial nuclei of C57 SOD1G93A mice. Conversely, in 129Sv SOD1G93A mice, which exhibit a more severe phenotype, MRI detected a milder increase of T2 value, associated with a milder vacuolization. This suggests that alteration within brainstem nuclei is not predictive of a more severe phenotype in the SOD1G93A mouse model. Using an ex vivo paradigm, Diffusion Tensor Imaging was also applied to study white matter spinal cord degeneration. In contrast to degeneration of cranial nuclei, alterations in white matter and axons loss reflected the different disease phenotype of SOD1G93A mice. The correspondence between MRI and histology further highlights the potential of MRI to monitor progressive motoneuron and axonal degeneration non-invasively in vivo. The identification of prognostic markers of the disease nevertheless requires validation in multiple models of ALS to ensure that these are not merely model-specific. Eventually this approach has the potential to lead to the development of robust and validated non-invasive imaging biomarkers in ALS patients, which may help to monitor the efficacy of therapies. PMID:26132656

  13. Characterization of early pathogenesis in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS: part I, background and methods

    PubMed Central

    Vinsant, Sharon; Mansfield, Carol; Jimenez-Moreno, Ramon; Del Gaizo Moore, Victoria; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Hampton, Thomas G; Prevette, David; Caress, James; Oppenheim, Ronald W; Milligan, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Charcot first described amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in 1869; however, its causes remain largely unknown and effective, long-term treatment strategies are not available. The first mouse model of ALS was developed after the identification of mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene in 1993, and accordingly most of our knowledge of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease comes from studies carried out using this animal model. Although numerous preclinical trials have been conducted in the mutant SOD1 mouse models, the results have been disappointing because they did not positively translate to clinical trials. One explanation may be that current understanding of when and where pathogenesis begins is insufficient to accurately guide preclinical trials. Further characterization of these early events may provide insight into disease onset, help in the discovery of presymptomatic diagnostic disease markers, and identify novel therapeutic targets. Here, we describe the rationale, approach, and methods for our extensive analysis of early changes that included an ultrastructural examination of central and peripheral components of the neuromuscular system in the SOD1G93A mouse and correlated these alterations with early muscle denervation, motor dysfunction, and motoneuron death. We also provide a discussion of published work to review what is known regarding early pathology in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS. The significance of this work is that we have examined early pathology simultaneously in both the spinal cord and peripheral neuromuscular system, and the results are presented in the companion paper (Part II, Results and Discussion). Our results provide evidence as to why a thorough characterization of animal models throughout the life span is critical for a strong foundation to design preclinical trials that may produce meaningful results. PMID:24381807

  14. Reduced net charge and heterogeneity of pI isoforms in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutants of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Roudeau, Stéphane; Chevreux, Sylviane; Carmona, Asuncion; Ortega, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) are related to mutations of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Aggregation of SOD1 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of fALS and altered metallation of SOD1 mutants could be involved in this process. Using IEF gel electrophoresis under non-denaturating conditions and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, we studied the pI distribution and metallation status of fALS SOD1 mutants (A4V, G93A, D125H) compared to human wild-type (hWT). SOD1 fALS mutants are characterized by a variable number of isoforms and higher pI compared to hWT, reflecting a reduced net charge that might explain their greater propensity to precipitation and aggregation. Cu/Zn ratios were slightly different for the predominant expressed isoforms of A4V, G93A, and D125H mutants compared to hWT. Differences in metallation were observed within each genotype, the more basic isoforms exhibiting lower Cu/Zn ratios. Moreover, we revealed the existence of a pool of fALS mutants SOD1 pI isoforms, slightly expressed (<10%), with a low Cu/Zn ratio and high pI values. Overall, IEF-PIXE results suggest that the toxicity of SOD1 mutants should be studied at the pI isoform level with a particular attention to the species with the lowest charges. PMID:26084641

  15. Aggregated α-Synuclein Increases SOD1 Oligomerization in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Yvonne; Helferich, Anika M; Steinacker, Petra; Oeckl, Patrick; Walther, Paul; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Danzer, Karin M; Otto, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Aggregation of misfolded disease-related proteins is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregate propagation accompanying disease progression has been demonstrated for different proteins (eg, for α-synuclein). Additional evidence supports aggregate cross-seeding activity for α-synuclein. For mutated superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which causes familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), self-propagation of aggregation and cell-to-cell transmission have been demonstrated in vitro. However, there is a prominent lack of in vivo data concerning aggregation and cross-aggregation processes of SOD1. We analyzed the effect of α-synuclein and SOD1 seeds in cell culture using protein fragment complementation assay and intracerebral injection of α-synuclein and SOD1 seeds into SOD1(G93A) transgenic ALS mice. Survival of injected mice was determined, and SOD1 aggregates in the facial nuclei were quantified during disease course. We found that α-synuclein preformed fibrils increased the oligomerization rate of SOD1 in vivo and in vitro, whereas aggregated SOD1 did not exert any effect in both experimental setups. Notably, survival of ALS mice was not changed after inoculation of preformed fibrils. We conclude that misfolded α-synuclein can increase SOD1 aggregation and suppose that α-synuclein seeds are transported from the temporal cortex to the facial nuclei. However, unlike other proteins, the further enhancement of a self-aggregation process by additional SOD1 could not be confirmed in our models. PMID:27322773

  16. Monoaminergic control of spinal locomotor networks in SOD1G93A newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Milan, Léa; Barrière, Grégory; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe; Cazalets, Jean-René; Bertrand, Sandrine S

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene that encodes Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are the cause of approximately 20% of familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. While ALS symptoms appear in adulthood, spinal motoneurons exhibit functional alterations as early as the embryonic and postnatal stages in the murine model of ALS, the SOD1 mice. Monoaminergic - i.e., dopaminergic (DA), serotoninergic (5-HT), and noradrenergic (NA) - pathways powerfully control spinal networks and contribute significantly to their embryonic and postnatal maturation. Alterations in monoaminergic neuromodulation during development could therefore lead to impairments in the motoneuronal physiology. In this study, we sought to determine whether the monoaminergic spinal systems are modified in the early stages of development in SOD1 mice. Using a post-mortem analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), monoaminergic neuromodulators and their metabolites were quantified in the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1 and wild-type (WT) mice aged one postnatal day (P1) and P10. This analysis underscores an increased content of DA in the SOD1 lumbar spinal cord compared to that of WT mice but failed to reveal any modification of the other monoaminergic contents. In a next step, we compared the efficiency of the monoaminergic compounds in triggering and modulating fictive locomotion in WT and SOD1 mice. This study was performed in P1-P3 SOD1 mice and age-matched control littermates using extracellular recordings from the lumbar ventral roots in the in vitro isolated spinal cord preparation. This analysis revealed that the spinal networks of SOD1(G93A) mice could generate normal locomotor activity in the presence of NMA-5-HT. Interestingly, we also observed that SOD1 spinal networks have an increased sensitivity to NA compared to WT spinal circuits but exhibited similar DA responses. PMID:25071458

  17. Altered calcium homeostasis in spinal motoneurons but not in oculomotor neurons of SOD-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Siklós, L; Engelhardt, J I; Reaume, A G; Scott, R W; Adalbert, R; Obál, I; Appel, S H

    2000-05-01

    SOD-1-deficient mice demonstrate no loss of motoneurons but are still vulnerable to axotomy and ischemic insults. To investigate possible reasons for vulnerability of motoneuron populations, we studied changes in ultrastructural calcium distribution during maturation in spinal- and oculomotor neurons in SOD-1(-/-) mice. Between 3 and 11 months the cytoplasmic component of the intracellular calcium changed at a lower rate in spinal motoneurons and motor axon terminals in the interosseus muscle of SOD-1(-/-) animals compared to wild-type controls. No such dissimilarities were noted in the oculomotor system, or in mitochondrial calcium contents of either cell type. These data suggest that the lack of SOD-1 may be associated with vulnerability to insult by depletion of non-mitochondrial calcium stores selectively in motoneurons lacking parvalbumin and/or calbindin D28K. PMID:10805095

  18. Genetic analysis and SOD1 mutation screening in Iranian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afagh; Nafissi, Shahriar; Rohani, Mohammad; Zamani, Babak; Sedighi, Behnaz; Shamshiri, Hosein; Fan, Jian-Bing; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Elahi, Elahe

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease, and the most common in European populations. Results of genetic analysis and mutation screening of SOD1 in a cohort of 60 Iranian ALS patients are here reported. Initially, linkage analysis in 4 families identified a disease-linked locus that included the known ALS gene, SOD1. Screening of SOD1 identified homozygous p.Asp90Ala causing mutations in all the linked families. Haplotype analysis suggests that the p.Asp90Ala alleles in the Iranian patients might share a common founder with the renowned Scandinavian recessive p.Asp90Ala allele. Subsequent screening in all the patients resulted in identification of 3 other mutations in SOD1, including p.Leu84Phe in the homozygous state. Phenotypic features of the mutation-bearing patients are presented. SOD1 mutations were found in 11.7% of the cohort, 38.5% of the familial ALS probands, and 4.25% of the sporadic ALS cases. SOD1 mutations contribute significantly to ALS among Iranians. PMID:23062701

  19. Genetic Disruption of SOD1 Gene Causes Glucose Intolerance and Impairs β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Salmon, Adam B.; Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Li, Mengyao; Balas, Bogdan; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Giaccari, Andrea; Reddick, Robert L.; Reyna, Sara M.; Weir, Gordon; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether oxidative damage is a cause or a consequence of the metabolic abnormalities present in diabetic subjects. The goal of this study was to determine whether inducing oxidative damage through genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) leads to abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. We studied SOD1-null mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. Glucose tolerance was evaluated with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was quantitated with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. β-Cell function was determined with the hyperglycemic clamp and morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets. Genetic ablation of SOD1 caused glucose intolerance, which was associated with reduced in vivo β-cell insulin secretion and decreased β-cell volume. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not significantly altered in SOD1-null mice. High-fat diet caused glucose intolerance in WT mice but did not further worsen the glucose intolerance observed in standard chow–fed SOD1-null mice. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress per se does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and demonstrate that oxidative stress caused by SOD1 ablation leads to glucose intolerance secondary to β-cell dysfunction. PMID:24009256

  20. SOD1A4V-mediated ALS: absence of a closely linked modifier gene and origination in Asia.

    PubMed

    Broom, W J; Johnson, D V; Auwarter, K E; Iafrate, A J; Russ, C; Al-Chalabi, A; Sapp, P C; McKenna-Yasek, D; Andersen, P M; Brown, R H

    2008-01-17

    Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) accounts for 10% of all ALS. Approximately 20% of cases are due to mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1). In North America, SOD1(A4V) is the most common SOD1 mutation. Carriers of the SOD1(A4V) mutation share a common phenotype with rapid disease progression and death on average occurring at 1.4 years (versus 3-5 years with other dominant SOD1 mutations). Previous studies of SOD1(A4V) carriers identified a common haplotype around the SOD1 locus, suggesting a common founder for most SOD1(A4V) patients. In the current study we sequenced the entire common haplotypic region around SOD1 to test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in either previously undescribed coding regions or non-coding regions around SOD1 are responsible for the more aggressive phenotype in SOD1(A4V)-mediated ALS. We narrowed the conserved region around the SOD1 gene in SOD1(A4V) ALS to 2.8Kb and identified five novel SNPs therein. None of these variants was specifically found in all SOD1(A4V) patients. It therefore appears likely that the aggressive nature of the SOD1(A4V) mutation is not a result of a modifying factor within the region around the SOD1 gene. Founder analysis estimates that the A4V mutation occurred 540 generations (approximately 12,000 years) ago (95% CI 480-700). The conserved minimal haplotype is statistically more similar to Asian than European population DNA sets, suggesting that the A4V mutation arose in native Asian-Americans who reached the Americas through the Bering Strait. PMID:18055113

  1. SOD1 (Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase) Deficiency Drives Amyloid β Protein Oligomerization and Memory Loss in Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kazuma; Murata, Nakaba; Noda, Yoshihiro; Tahara, Shoichi; Kaneko, Takao; Kinoshita, Noriaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Barnham, Kevin J.; Irie, Kazuhiro; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is closely linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers cause cognitive impairment and synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the relationship between oligomers, oxidative stress, and their localization during disease progression is uncertain. Our previous study demonstrated that mice deficient in cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, SOD1) have features of drusen formation, a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (Imamura, Y., Noda, S., Hashizume, K., Shinoda, K., Yamaguchi, M., Uchiyama, S., Shimizu, T., Mizushima, Y., Shirasawa, T., and Tsubota, K. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 11282–11287). Amyloid assembly has been implicated as a common mechanism of plaque and drusen formation. Here, we show that Sod1 deficiency in an amyloid precursor protein-overexpressing mouse model (AD mouse, Tg2576) accelerated Aβ oligomerization and memory impairment as compared with control AD mouse and that these phenomena were basically mediated by oxidative damage. The increased plaque and neuronal inflammation were accompanied by the generation of Nϵ-carboxymethyl lysine in advanced glycation end products, a rapid marker of oxidative damage, induced by Sod1 gene-dependent reduction. The Sod1 deletion also caused Tau phosphorylation and the lower levels of synaptophysin. Furthermore, the levels of SOD1 were significantly decreased in human AD patients rather than non-AD age-matched individuals, but mitochondrial SOD (Mn-SOD, SOD2) and extracellular SOD (CuZn-SOD, SOD3) were not. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic superoxide radical plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of AD. Activation of Sod1 may be a therapeutic strategy for the inhibition of AD progression. PMID:22072713

  2. Acute intermittent hypoxia induced phrenic long-term facilitation despite increased SOD1 expression in a rat model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Nicole L; Satriotomo, Irawan; Harrigan, Daniel J; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron death. Since most ALS patients succumb to ventilatory failure from loss of respiratory motor neurons, any effective ALS treatment must preserve and/or restore breathing capacity. In rats over-expressing mutated super-oxide dismutase-1 (SOD1(G93A)), the capacity to increase phrenic motor output is decreased at disease end-stage, suggesting imminent ventilatory failure. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory motor plasticity with potential to restore phrenic motor output in clinical disorders that compromise breathing. Since pLTF requires NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, it is blocked by NADPH oxidase inhibition and SOD mimetics in normal rats. Thus, we hypothesized that SOD1(G93A) (mutant; MT) rats do not express AIH-induced pLTF due to over-expression of active mutant superoxide dismutase-1. AIH-induced pLTF and hypoglossal (XII) LTF were assessed in young, pre-symptomatic and end-stage anesthetized MT rats and age-matched wild-type littermates. Contrary to predictions, pLTF and XII LTF were observed in MT rats at all ages; at end-stage, pLTF was actually enhanced. SOD1 levels were elevated in young and pre-symptomatic MT rats, yet superoxide accumulation in putative phrenic motor neurons (assessed with dihydroethidium) was unchanged; however, superoxide accumulation significantly decreased at end-stage. Thus, compensatory mechanisms appear to maintain ROS homoeostasis until late in disease progression, preserving AIH-induced respiratory plasticity. Following intrathecal injections of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin; 600 μM; 12 μL), pLTF was abolished in pre-symptomatic, but not end-stage MT rats, demonstrating that pLTF is NADPH oxidase dependent in pre-symptomatic, but NADPH oxidase independent in end-stage MT rats. Mechanisms

  3. Caspase 6 has a protective role in SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Marion C; Mitchem, Mollie R; König, Hans-Georg; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2016-06-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it has been suggested that the process of neurodegeneration starts at the neuromuscular junction and is propagated back along axons towards motor neurons. Caspase-dependent pathways are well established as a cause of motor neuron death, and recent work in other disease models indicated a role for caspase 6 in axonal degeneration. Therefore we hypothesised that caspase 6 may be involved in motor neuron death in ALS. To investigate the role of caspase 6 in ALS we profiled protein levels of caspase-6 throughout disease progression in the ALS mouse model SOD1(G93A); this did not reveal differences in caspase 6 levels during disease. To investigate the role of caspase 6 further we generated a colony with SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice lacking caspase 6. Analysis of the transgenic SOD1(G93A); Casp6(-/-) revealed an exacerbated phenotype with motor dysfunction occurring earlier and a significantly shortened lifespan when compared to transgenic SOD1(G93A); Casp6(+/+) mice. Immunofluorescence analysis of the neuromuscular junction revealed no obvious difference between caspase 6(+/+) and caspase 6(-/-) in non-transgenic mice, while the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice showed severe degeneration compared to non-transgenic mice in both genotypes. Our data indicate that caspase-6 does not exacerbate ALS pathogenesis, but may have a protective role. PMID:26976329

  4. Polymorphism of the SOD1-DNA aggregation species can be modulated by DNA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Yin, Jun; Liu, Liang; Wang, Li; Liu, Changlin

    2008-12-01

    Proteinaceous aggregates rich in copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been found in both in vivo and in vitro models. We have shown that double-stranded DNA that acts as a template accelerates the in vitro formation of wild-type SOD1 aggregates. Here, we examined the polymorphism of templated-SOD1 aggregates generated in vitro upon association with DNA under different conditions. Electron microscopy imaging indicates that this polymorphism is capable of being manipulated by the shapes, structures, and doses of the DNAs tested. The nanometer- and micrometer-scale aggregates formed under acidic conditions and under neutral conditions containing ascorbate fall into three classes: aggregate monomers, oligomeric aggregates, and macroaggregates. The aggregate monomers observed at given DNA doses exhibit a polymorphism that is markedly corresponded to the coiled shapes of linear DNA and structures of plasmid DNA. On the other hand, the regularly branched structures observed under both atomic force microscopy and optical microscope indicate that the DNAs tested are simultaneously condensed into a nanoparticle with a specific morphology during SOD1 aggregation, revealing that SOD1 aggregation and DNA condensation are two concurrent phenomena. The results might provide the basis of therapeutic approaches to suppress the formation of toxic protein oligomers or aggregates by screening the toxicity of the protein aggregates with various sizes and morphologies. PMID:18690666

  5. Lactobacillus crispatus and its nonaggregating mutant in human colonization trials.

    PubMed

    Cesena, C; Morelli, L; Alander, M; Siljander, T; Tuomola, E; Salminen, S; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Vilpponen-Salmela, T; von Wright, A

    2001-05-01

    A wild-type Lactobacillus crispatus, showing a cell aggregation phenotype and its spontaneous nonaggregating mutant were compared for their in vitro adhesion properties to human ileal mucus and to a cultured human colonic cell line (Caco2) and for their in vivo colonization and adhesion potential with colonoscopy patients as volunteers in feeding trials. The wild-type strain adhered better to mucus or to Caco2 cells than did the mutant. Altogether, three human trials with the wild type and two with the mutant strain were performed. In two of the trials, the wild type could be recovered from either fecal samples or biopsies taken from the colon, while the mutant strain could not be demonstrated in either of the trials where it was used. The L. crispatus colonies recovered from the trials were often mixed, and several enterococci and lactobacillus strains coaggregating with L. crispatus wild type could be isolated. The results indicate that the surface-mediated properties, such as aggregation, of lactobacilli can have a role in adhesion and colonization. PMID:11384025

  6. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders. PMID:26436900

  7. Antidepressants upregulate messenger RNA levels of the neuroprotective enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD1).

    PubMed Central

    Li, X M; Chlan-Fourney, J; Juorio, A V; Bennett, V L; Shrikhande, S; Bowen, R C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of amitriptyline, bupropion, doxepin or venlafaxine on the gene expression of the neuroprotective enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in a catecholamine cell in vitro model. DESIGN: Molecular study of a cultured cell line. INTERVENTIONS: Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were incubated in 1 and 10 mumol/L of various antidepressant medications for 24 or 48 hours. OUTCOME MEASURES: Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Amitriptyline up-regulated SOD1 messenger RNA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The greatest up-regulation was following incubation with 10 mumol/L amitriptyline for 48 hours. The addition of bupropion, doxepin or venlafaxine to PC12 cell cultures also up-regulated SOD1 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that some antidepressants have the ability to positively regulate neuroprotective genes. Images Fig. 2 PMID:10721683

  8. Loss of RAD-23 Protects Against Models of Motor Neuron Disease by Enhancing Mutant Protein Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Angela M.; Lamitina, Todd; Liachko, Nicole F.; Sabatella, Mariangela; Lu, Jiayin; Zhang, Lei; Ostrow, Lyle W.; Gupta, Preetika; Wu, Chia-Yen; Doshi, Shachee; Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Jelena; Lans, Hannes; Wang, Jiou; Kraemer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Misfolded proteins accumulate and aggregate in neurodegenerative disease. The existence of these deposits reflects a derangement in the protein homeostasis machinery. Using a candidate gene screen, we report that loss of RAD-23 protects against the toxicity of proteins known to aggregate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Loss of RAD-23 suppresses the locomotor deficit of Caenorhabditis elegans engineered to express mutTDP-43 or mutSOD1 and also protects against aging and proteotoxic insults. Knockdown of RAD-23 is further neuroprotective against the toxicity of SOD1 and TDP-43 expression in mammalian neurons. Biochemical investigation indicates that RAD-23 modifies mutTDP-43 and mutSOD1 abundance, solubility, and turnover in association with altering the ubiquitination status of these substrates. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord, we find that RAD-23 abundance is increased and RAD-23 is mislocalized within motor neurons. We propose a novel pathophysiological function for RAD-23 in the stabilization of mutated proteins that cause neurodegeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this work, we identify RAD-23, a component of the protein homeostasis network and nucleotide excision repair pathway, as a modifier of the toxicity of two disease-causing, misfolding-prone proteins, SOD1 and TDP-43. Reducing the abundance of RAD-23 accelerates the degradation of mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 and reduces the cellular content of the toxic species. The existence of endogenous proteins that act as “anti-chaperones” uncovers new and general targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26490867

  9. Soluble RAGE Treatment Delays Progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in SOD1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Juranek, Judyta K.; Daffu, Gurdip K.; Geddis, Matthew S.; Li, Huilin; Rosario, Rosa; Kaplan, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Lauren; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal motor neuron disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and spasticity, remains largely unknown. Approximately 5–10% of cases are familial, and of those, 15–20% are associated with mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Mutations of the SOD1 gene interrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to cellular toxicity evoked by the presence of altered SOD1, along with other toxic species, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs trigger activation of their chief cell surface receptor, RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), and induce RAGE-dependent cellular stress and inflammation in neurons, thereby affecting their function and leading to apoptosis. Here, we show for the first time that the expression of RAGE is higher in the SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS vs. wild-type mouse spinal cord. We tested whether pharmacological blockade of RAGE may delay the onset and progression of disease in this mouse model. Our findings reveal that treatment of SOD1 transgenic mice with soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a natural competitor of RAGE that sequesters RAGE ligands and blocks their interaction with cell surface RAGE, significantly delays the progression of ALS and prolongs life span compared to vehicle treatment. We demonstrate that in sRAGE-treated SOD1 transgenic animals at the final stage of the disease, a significantly higher number of neurons and lower number of astrocytes is detectable in the spinal cord. We conclude that RAGE antagonism may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for ALS intervention. PMID:27242430

  10. Tempol moderately extends survival in a hSOD1(G93A) ALS rat model by inhibiting neuronal cell loss, oxidative damage and levels of non-native hSOD1(G93A) forms.

    PubMed

    Linares, Edlaine; Seixas, Luciana V; dos Prazeres, Janaina N; Ladd, Fernando V L; Ladd, Aliny A B L; Coppi, Antonio A; Augusto, Ohara

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive dysfunction and death of motor neurons by mechanisms that remain unclear. Evidence indicates that oxidative mechanisms contribute to ALS pathology, but classical antioxidants have not performed well in clinical trials. Cyclic nitroxides are an alternative worth exploring because they are multifunctional antioxidants that display low toxicity in vivo. Here, we examine the effects of the cyclic nitroxide tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-1-oxyl) on ALS onset and progression in transgenic female rats over-expressing the mutant hSOD1(G93A) . Starting at 7 weeks of age, a high dose of tempol (155 mg/day/rat) in the rat´s drinking water had marginal effects on the disease onset but decelerated disease progression and extended survival by 9 days. In addition, tempol protected spinal cord tissues as monitored by the number of neuronal cells, and the reducing capability and levels of carbonylated proteins and non-native hSOD1 forms in spinal cord homogenates. Intraperitoneal tempol (26 mg/rat, 3 times/week) extended survival by 17 days. This group of rats, however, diverted to a decelerated disease progression. Therefore, it was inconclusive whether the higher protective effect of the lower i.p. dose was due to higher tempol bioavailability, decelerated disease development or both. Collectively, the results show that tempol moderately extends the survival of ALS rats while protecting their cellular and molecular structures against damage. Thus, the results provide proof that cyclic nitroxides are alternatives worth to be further tested in animal models of ALS. PMID:23405225

  11. Tempol Moderately Extends Survival in a hSOD1G93A ALS Rat Model by Inhibiting Neuronal Cell Loss, Oxidative Damage and Levels of Non-Native hSOD1G93A Forms

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Edlaine; Seixas, Luciana V.; dos Prazeres, Janaina N.; Ladd, Fernando V. L.; Ladd, Aliny A. B. L.; Coppi, Antonio A.; Augusto, Ohara

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive dysfunction and death of motor neurons by mechanisms that remain unclear. Evidence indicates that oxidative mechanisms contribute to ALS pathology, but classical antioxidants have not performed well in clinical trials. Cyclic nitroxides are an alternative worth exploring because they are multifunctional antioxidants that display low toxicity in vivo. Here, we examine the effects of the cyclic nitroxide tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-1-oxyl) on ALS onset and progression in transgenic female rats over-expressing the mutant hSOD1G93A . Starting at 7 weeks of age, a high dose of tempol (155 mg/day/rat) in the rat´s drinking water had marginal effects on the disease onset but decelerated disease progression and extended survival by 9 days. In addition, tempol protected spinal cord tissues as monitored by the number of neuronal cells, and the reducing capability and levels of carbonylated proteins and non-native hSOD1 forms in spinal cord homogenates. Intraperitoneal tempol (26 mg/rat, 3 times/week) extended survival by 17 days. This group of rats, however, diverted to a decelerated disease progression. Therefore, it was inconclusive whether the higher protective effect of the lower i.p. dose was due to higher tempol bioavailability, decelerated disease development or both. Collectively, the results show that tempol moderately extends the survival of ALS rats while protecting their cellular and molecular structures against damage. Thus, the results provide proof that cyclic nitroxides are alternatives worth to be further tested in animal models of ALS. PMID:23405225

  12. A Cystine-Rich Whey Supplement (Immunocal(®)) Delays Disease Onset and Prevents Spinal Cord Glutathione Depletion in the hSOD1(G93A) Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Erika K; Winter, Aimee N; Wilkins, Heather M; Sumner, Whitney A; Duval, Nathan; Patterson, David; Linseman, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of the endogenous antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), underlies progression of the devastating neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Thus, strategies aimed at elevating GSH may yield new therapeutics for ALS. Here, we investigated the effects of a unique non-denatured whey protein supplement, Immunocal(®), in the transgenic Gly position 93 to Ala (G93A) mutant hSOD1 (hSOD1(G93A)) mouse model of ALS. Immunocal(®) is rich in the GSH precursor, cystine, and is therefore capable of bolstering GSH content. Transgenic hSOD1(G93A) mice receiving Immunocal(®) displayed a significant delay in disease onset compared to untreated hSOD1(G93A) controls. Additionally, Immunocal(®) treatment significantly decreased the rate of decline in grip strength and prevented disease-associated reductions in whole blood and spinal cord tissue GSH levels in end-stage hSOD1(G93A) mice. However, Immunocal(®) did not extend survival, likely due to its inability to preserve the mitochondrial GSH pool in spinal cord. Combination treatment with Immunocal(®) and the anti-glutamatergic compound, riluzole, delayed disease onset and extended survival in hSOD1(G93A) mice. These findings demonstrate that sustaining tissue GSH with Immunocal(®) only modestly delays disease onset and slows the loss of skeletal muscle strength in hSOD1(G93A) mice. Moreover, the inability of Immunocal(®) to rescue mitochondrial GSH in spinal cord provides a possible mechanism for its lack of effect on survival and is a limiting factor in the potential utility of this supplement as a therapeutic for ALS. PMID:26785244

  13. A Cystine-Rich Whey Supplement (Immunocal®) Delays Disease Onset and Prevents Spinal Cord Glutathione Depletion in the hSOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Erika K.; Winter, Aimee N.; Wilkins, Heather M.; Sumner, Whitney A.; Duval, Nathan; Patterson, David; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of the endogenous antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), underlies progression of the devastating neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Thus, strategies aimed at elevating GSH may yield new therapeutics for ALS. Here, we investigated the effects of a unique non-denatured whey protein supplement, Immunocal®, in the transgenic Gly position 93 to Ala (G93A) mutant hSOD1 (hSOD1G93A) mouse model of ALS. Immunocal® is rich in the GSH precursor, cystine, and is therefore capable of bolstering GSH content. Transgenic hSOD1G93A mice receiving Immunocal® displayed a significant delay in disease onset compared to untreated hSOD1G93A controls. Additionally, Immunocal® treatment significantly decreased the rate of decline in grip strength and prevented disease-associated reductions in whole blood and spinal cord tissue GSH levels in end-stage hSOD1G93A mice. However, Immunocal® did not extend survival, likely due to its inability to preserve the mitochondrial GSH pool in spinal cord. Combination treatment with Immunocal® and the anti-glutamatergic compound, riluzole, delayed disease onset and extended survival in hSOD1G93A mice. These findings demonstrate that sustaining tissue GSH with Immunocal® only modestly delays disease onset and slows the loss of skeletal muscle strength in hSOD1G93A mice. Moreover, the inability of Immunocal® to rescue mitochondrial GSH in spinal cord provides a possible mechanism for its lack of effect on survival and is a limiting factor in the potential utility of this supplement as a therapeutic for ALS. PMID:26785244

  14. Paradoxical roles of serine racemase and D-serine in the G93A mSOD1 mouse model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Misty; Marecki, John C.; Marinesco, Stephane; Labrie, Viviane; Roder, John C.; Barger, Steven W.; Crow, John P.

    2012-01-01

    D-serine is an endogenous neurotransmitter that binds to the NMDA receptor, thereby increasing the affinity for glutamate, and the potential for excitotoxicity. The primary source of D-serine in vivo is enzymatic racemization by serine racemase (SR). Regulation of D-serine in vivo is poorly understood, but is thought to involve a combination of controlled production, synaptic reuptake by transporters, and intracellular degradation by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). However, SR itself possesses a well-characterized eliminase activity which effectively degrades D-serine as well. D-serine is increased two-fold in spinal cords of G93A SOD1 mice – the standard model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS mice with SR disruption show earlier symptom onset, but survive longer (progression phase is slowed), in an SR-dependent manner. Paradoxically, administration of D-serine to ALS mice dramatically lowers cord levels of D-serine, leading to changes in onset and survival very similar to SR deletion. D-serine treatment also increases cord levels of the transporter Asc-1. Although the mechanism by which SOD1 mutations increases D-serine is not known, these results strongly suggest that SR and D-serine are fundamentally involved in both the presymptomatic and progression phases of disease, and offer a direct link between mutant SOD1 and a glial-derived toxic mediator. PMID:22117694

  15. Sensorimotor and cognitive functions in a SOD1(G37R) transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filali, Mohammed; Lalonde, Robert; Rivest, Serge

    2011-11-20

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurological disorder involving degeneration of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles and, ultimately, paralysis and death. Copper-mediated oxidative damage is proposed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) - linked hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To understand more clearly the pathogenesis of sensorimotor dysfunction and to find the most appropriate methods for early detection of symptoms and for monitoring them across time, a murine model was assessed at three time points (5, 8, and 11 months). Transgenic mice with the G37R mutation of human SOD1 exhibited earliest signs of dysfunction at 8 months in terms of a pathological hindpaw clasping reflex, as well as slowed movement time on a suspended bar, anomalies in footprint patterns, weaker grip strength, raised somatosensory thresholds, and deficits in passive avoidance learning, yielding a margin of 3-4 months before death to test experimental therapies. PMID:21816178

  16. An inactivating mutation in the SOD 1 gene causes familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pramatarova, A.; Rouleau, G.A.; Goto, J.

    1994-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by highly selective death of large motor neurons in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The familial form of ALS (FALS) accounts for approximately 10% of the cases and is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. Recently the defective gene causing chromosome 21-linked FALS was shown to be the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD 1). However, the precise mechanism of neurotoxicity seen in FALS with SOD 1 mutations is still unknown. Until now all SOD 1 mutations reported were single base pair substitutions (missense). We have identified a nonsense mutation in exon 5 of the SOD 1 gene in a FALS kindred. This two base pair deletion provokes a frameshift and a predicted premature truncation of the protein. The region affected has a very important structural and functional role: it contains part of the active loop and is involved in dimer contact. We would predict that the loss of these structures would impair the functioning of the enzyme.

  17. CTT1 overexpression increases life span of calorie-restricted Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in Sod1.

    PubMed

    Rona, Germana; Herdeiro, Ricardo; Mathias, Cristiane Juliano; Torres, Fernando Araripe; Pereira, Marcos Dias; Eleutherio, Elis

    2015-06-01

    Studies using different organisms revealed that reducing calorie intake, without malnutrition, known as calorie restriction (CR), increases life span, but its mechanism is still unkown. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as eukaryotic model, we observed that Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1p) is required to increase longevity, as well as to confer protection against lipid and protein oxidation under CR. Old cells of sod1 strain also presented a premature induction of apoptosis. However, when CTT1 (which codes for cytosolic catalase) was overexpressed, sod1 and WT strains showed similar survival rates. Furthermore, CTT1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and delayed the induction of apoptotic process. Superoxide is rapidly converted to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase, but it also undergoes spontaneous dismutation albeit at a slower rate. However, the quantity of peroxide produced from superoxide in this way is two-fold higher. Peroxide degradation, catalyzed by catalase, is of vital importance, because in the presence of a reducer transition metal peroxide is reduced to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical, which reacts indiscriminately with most cellular constituents. These findings might explain why overexpression of catalase was able to overcome the deficiency of Sod1p, increasing life span in response to CR. PMID:25573485

  18. Degenerative myelopathy in German Shepherd Dog: comparison of two molecular assays for the identification of the SOD1:c.118G>A mutation.

    PubMed

    Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Spalenza, Veronica; Biasibetti, Elena; Bottero, Maria Teresa; Rasero, Roberto; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Sacchi, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a late-onset, slowly progressive degeneration of spinal cord white matter which is reported primarily in large breed dogs. The missense mutation SOD1:c.118G>A is associated with this pathology in several dog breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog (GSD). The aims of the present study were to develop a tool for the rapid screening of the SOD1 mutation site in dogs and to evaluate the association of the polymorphism with DM in the German Shepherd breed. Two different techniques were compared: a minisequencing test and a real-time pcr allelic discrimination assay. Both approaches resulted effective and efficient. A sample of 47 dogs were examined. Ten subjects presented the symptoms of the illness; for one of them the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem investigations and it resulted to be an A/A homozygote. In another clinically suspected dog, heterozygote A/G, the histopathological examination of the medulla showed moderate axon and myelin degenerative changes. GSD shows a frequency of the mutant allele equal to 0.17, quite high being a high-risk allele. Because canine DM has a late onset in adulthood and homozygous mutant dogs are likely as fertile as other genotypes, the natural selection is mild and the mutant allele may reach high frequencies. A diagnostic test, easy to implement, may contribute to control the gene diffusion in populations. The SOD1:c.118G>A mutation could be a useful marker for breeding strategies intending to reduce the incidence of DM. PMID:24390315

  19. Human ARF4 expression rescues sec7 mutant yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, S B; Wu, C; Silve, S; Howell, K E; Melançon, P; Kahn, R A; Franzusoff, A

    1996-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated traffic between compartments of the yeast secretory pathway involves recruitment of multiple cytosolic proteins for budding, targeting, and membrane fusion events. The SEC7 gene product (Sec7p) is a constituent of coat structures on transport vesicles en route to the Golgi complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify mammalian homologs of Sec7p and its interacting proteins, we used a genetic selection strategy in which a human HepG2 cDNA library was transformed into conditional-lethal yeast sec7 mutants. We isolated several clones capable of rescuing sec7 mutant growth at the restrictive temperature. The cDNA encoding the most effective suppressor was identified as human ADP ribosylation factor 4 (hARF4), a member of the GTPase family proposed to regulate recruitment of vesicle coat proteins in mammalian cells. Having identified a Sec7p-interacting protein rather than the mammalian Sec7p homolog, we provide evidence that hARF4 suppressed the sec7 mutation by restoring secretory pathway function. Shifting sec7 strains to the restrictive temperature results in the disappearance of the mutant Sec7p cytosolic pool without apparent changes in the membrane-associated fraction. The introduction of hARF4 to the cells maintained the balance between cytosolic and membrane-associated Sec7p pools. These results suggest a requirement for Sec7p cycling on and off of the membranes for cell growth and vesicular traffic. In addition, overexpression of the yeast GTPase-encoding genes ARF1 and ARF2, but not that of YPT1, suppressed the sec7 mutant growth phenotype in an allele-specific manner. This allele specificity indicates that individual ARFs are recruited to perform two different Sec7p-related functions in vesicle coat dynamics. PMID:8668142

  20. Peripheral hyperstimulation alters site of disease onset and course in SOD1 rats.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Angelo C; Tolmie, Christopher; O'Donnell, John; Wright, Megan C; Dejea, Christine; Rauck, Britta; Hoke, Ahmet; Ignagni, Anthony R; Onders, Raymond P; Maragakis, Nicholas J

    2010-09-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the exogenous temporal triggers that result in initial motor neuron death are not understood. Overactivation and consequent accelerated loss of vulnerable motor neurons is one theory of disease initiation. The vulnerability of motor neurons in response to chronic peripheral nerve hyperstimulation was tested in the SOD1(G93A) rat model of ALS. A novel in vivo technique for peripheral phrenic nerve stimulation was developed via intra-diaphragm muscle electrode implantation at the phrenic motor endpoint. Chronic bilateral phrenic nerve hyperstimulation in SOD1(G93A) rats accelerated disease progression, including shortened lifespan, hastened motor neuron loss and increased denervation at diaphragm neuromuscular junctions. Hyperstimulation also resulted in focal decline in adjacent forelimb function. These results show that peripheral phrenic nerve hyperstimulation accelerates cell death of vulnerable spinal motor neurons, modifies both temporal and anatomical onset of disease, and leads to involvement of disease in adjacent anatomical regions in this ALS model. PMID:20381620

  1. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage: importance in non-SOD1 ALS

    PubMed Central

    Carrì, Maria Teresa; Valle, Cristiana; Bozzo, Francesca; Cozzolino, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that mitochondrial damage (MD) is both the major contributor to oxidative stress (OS) (the condition arising from unbalance between production and removal of reactive oxygen species) and one of the major consequences of OS, because of the high dependance of mitochondrial function on redox-sensitive targets such as intact membranes. Conditions in which neuronal cells are not able to cope with MD and OS seem to lead or contribute to several neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), at least in the most studied superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-linked genetic variant. As summarized in this review, new evidence indicates that MD and OS play a role also in non-SOD1 ALS and thus they may represent a target for therapy despite previous failures in clinical trials. PMID:25741238

  2. SOD1 mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Results from a multicenter Italian study.

    PubMed

    Battistini, Stefania; Giannini, Fabio; Greco, Giuseppe; Bibbò, Giuseppe; Ferrera, Loreta; Marini, Valeria; Causarano, Renzo; Casula, Michela; Lando, Giuliana; Patrosso, Maria Cristina; Caponnetto, Claudia; Origone, Paola; Marocchi, Alessandro; Del Corona, Alberto; Siciliano, Gabriele; Carrera, Paola; Mascia, Vincenzo; Giagheddu, Marcello; Carcassi, Carlo; Orrù, Sandro; Garrè, Cecilia; Penco, Silvana

    2005-07-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), the most common form among motoneuron diseases, is characterized by a progressive neurodegenerative process involving motor neurons in the motor cortex, brain stem and spinal cord. Sporadic (SALS) accounts for the majority of patients but in about 10% of ALS cases the disease is inherited (FALS), usually as an autosomal dominant trait. In the present study we show the results of a referred based multicenter study on the distribution of SOD1 gene mutations in the largest cohort of Italian ALS patients described so far. Two hundred and sixty-four patients (39 FALS and 225 SALS) of Italian origin were studied. In 7 out of 39 FALS patients we found the following SOD1 gene mutations: i) a new G12R missense mutation in exon 1, found in a patient with a slowly progressive disease course; ii) the G41S mutation, in four unrelated patients with rapidly progressive course complicated with cognitive decline in two of them; iii) the L114F mutation, in a patient with a slowly progressive phenotype; iv) the D90A mutation, in a heterozygous patient with atypical phenotype. In addition, in one SALS patient a previously reported synonymous variant S59S was identified. In 17 (3 FALS and 14 SALS) out of 264 patients (6.4 %) the polymorphism A-->C at position 34 of intron 3 (IVS3: + 34 A-->C) was found, and in one FALS patient a novel variant IVS3 + 62 T-->C was identified. The frequency of SOD1 gene mutations (17.9 %) in FALS cases was comparable with that found in other surveys with a similar sample size of ALS cases. No SOD1 gene mutations have been identified in SALS cases. Within FALS cases, The most frequent mutation was the G41S identified in four FALS. PMID:15789135

  3. Th17 Cell Response in SOD1(G93A) Mice following Motor Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Ni, Allen; Yang, Tao; Mesnard-Hoaglin, Nichole A; Gutierrez, Rafael; Stubbs, Evan B; McGuire, Susan O; Sanders, Virginia M; Jones, Kathryn J; Foecking, Eileen M; Xin, Junping

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of ALS has been reported for veterans, varsity athletes, and professional football players. The mechanism underlying the increased risk in these populations has not been identified; however, it has been proposed that motor nerve injury may trigger immune responses which, in turn, can accelerate the progression of ALS. Accumulating evidence indicates that abnormal immune reactions and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of ALS, but the specific immune cells involved have not been clearly defined. To understand how nerve injury and immune responses may contribute to ALS development, we investigated responses of CD4(+) T cell after facial motor nerve axotomy (FNA) at a presymptomatic stage in a transgenic mouse model of ALS (B6SJL SOD1(G93A)). SOD1(G93A) mice, compared with WT mice, displayed an increase in the basal activation state of CD4(+) T cells and higher frequency of Th17 cells, which were further enhanced by FNA. In conclusion, SOD1(G93A) mice exhibit abnormal CD4(+) T cell activation with increased levels of Th17 cells prior to the onset of neurological symptoms. Motor nerve injury exacerbates Th17 cell responses and may contribute to the development of ALS, especially in those who carry genetic susceptibility to this disease. PMID:27194826

  4. Th17 Cell Response in SOD1G93A Mice following Motor Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Allen; Yang, Tao; Mesnard-Hoaglin, Nichole A.; Gutierrez, Rafael; Stubbs, Evan B.; McGuire, Susan O.; Sanders, Virginia M.; Jones, Kathryn J.; Foecking, Eileen M.; Xin, Junping

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of ALS has been reported for veterans, varsity athletes, and professional football players. The mechanism underlying the increased risk in these populations has not been identified; however, it has been proposed that motor nerve injury may trigger immune responses which, in turn, can accelerate the progression of ALS. Accumulating evidence indicates that abnormal immune reactions and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of ALS, but the specific immune cells involved have not been clearly defined. To understand how nerve injury and immune responses may contribute to ALS development, we investigated responses of CD4+ T cell after facial motor nerve axotomy (FNA) at a presymptomatic stage in a transgenic mouse model of ALS (B6SJL SOD1G93A). SOD1G93A mice, compared with WT mice, displayed an increase in the basal activation state of CD4+ T cells and higher frequency of Th17 cells, which were further enhanced by FNA. In conclusion, SOD1G93A mice exhibit abnormal CD4+ T cell activation with increased levels of Th17 cells prior to the onset of neurological symptoms. Motor nerve injury exacerbates Th17 cell responses and may contribute to the development of ALS, especially in those who carry genetic susceptibility to this disease. PMID:27194826

  5. Thermal fluctuations of immature SOD1 lead to separate folding and misfolding pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Ashok; Rumfeldt, Jessica AO; Broom, Helen R; Doyle, Colleen M; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Meiering, Elizabeth M; Kay, Lewis E

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving cytotoxic conformations of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). A major challenge in understanding ALS disease pathology has been the identification and atomic-level characterization of these conformers. Here, we use a combination of NMR methods to detect four distinct sparsely populated and transiently formed thermally accessible conformers in equilibrium with the native state of immature SOD1 (apoSOD12SH). Structural models of two of these establish that they possess features present in the mature dimeric protein. In contrast, the other two are non-native oligomers in which the native dimer interface and the electrostatic loop mediate the formation of aberrant intermolecular interactions. Our results show that apoSOD12SH has a rugged free energy landscape that codes for distinct kinetic pathways leading to either maturation or non-native association and provide a starting point for a detailed atomic-level understanding of the mechanisms of SOD1 oligomerization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07296.001 PMID:26099300

  6. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-03-23

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Intrathecal Delivery of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protects the Structure of Altered Perineuronal Nets in SOD1 Rats and Amends the Course of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Forostyak, Serhiy; Homola, Ales; Turnovcova, Karolina; Svitil, Pavel; Jendelova, Pavla; Sykova, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in a lethal outcome. We studied changes in ventral horn perineuronal nets (PNNs) of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) rats during the normal disease course and after the intrathecal application (5 × 105 cells) of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) postsymptom manifestation. We found that MSCs ameliorated disease progression, significantly improved motor activity, and prolonged survival. For the first time, we report that SOD1 rats have an abnormal disorganized PNN structure around the spinal motoneurons and give different expression profiles of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), such as versican, aggrecan, and phosphacan, but not link protein-1. Additionally, SOD1 rats had different profiles for CSPG gene expression (Versican, Hapln1, Neurocan, and Tenascin-R), whereas Aggrecan and Brevican profiles remained unchanged. The application of MSCs preserved PNN structure, accompanied by better survival of motorneurons. We measured the concentration of cytokines (IL-1α, MCP-1, TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-4, and IFN-γ) in the rats' cerebrospinal fluid and found significantly higher concentrations of IL-1α and MCP-1. Our results show that PNN and cytokine homeostasis are altered in the SOD1 rat model of ALS. These changes could potentially serve as biological markers for the diagnosis, assessment of treatment efficacy, and prognosis of ALS. We also show that the administration of human MSCs is a safe procedure that delays the loss of motor function and increases the overall survival of symptomatic ALS animals, by remodeling the recipients' pattern of gene expression and having neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects. Stem Cells 2014;32:3163–3172 PMID:25113670

  8. Activation of EGFR by small compounds through coupling the generation of hydrogen peroxide to stable dimerization of Cu/Zn SOD1

    PubMed Central

    Sakanyan, Vehary; Hulin, Philippe; Alves de Sousa, Rodolphe; Silva, Viviane A. O.; Hambardzumyan, Artur; Nedellec, Steven; Tomasoni, Christophe; Logé, Cédric; Pineau, Charles; Roussakis, Christos; Fleury, Fabrice; Artaud, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Activation of cell signaling by reactive chemicals and pollutants is an important issue for human health. It has been shown that lipophilic nitro-benzoxadiazole (NBD) compounds rapidly move across the plasma membrane and enhance Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. Unlike ligand-dependent activation, the mechanism of this induction relies on the generation of hydrogen peroxide, which is involved in the activation of the catalytic site of the receptor and the inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B. Production of H2O2 during redox transformation of NBD compounds is associated with the transition of a monomeric form of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) to stable dimers. The highly stable and functionally active SOD1 dimer, in the absence of adequate activities in downstream reactions, promotes the disproportionate production and accumulation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide shortly after exposure to NBD compounds. The intrinsic fluorescence of small compounds was used to demonstrate their binding to SOD1. Our data indicate that H2O2 and concomitantly generated electrophilic intermediates behave as independent entities, but all contribute to the biological reactivity of NBD compounds. This study opens a promising path to identify new biomarkers of oxidative/electrophilic stress in the progression of cancer and other diseases. PMID:26883293

  9. Activation of EGFR by small compounds through coupling the generation of hydrogen peroxide to stable dimerization of Cu/Zn SOD1.

    PubMed

    Sakanyan, Vehary; Hulin, Philippe; Alves de Sousa, Rodolphe; Silva, Viviane A O; Hambardzumyan, Artur; Nedellec, Steven; Tomasoni, Christophe; Logé, Cédric; Pineau, Charles; Roussakis, Christos; Fleury, Fabrice; Artaud, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Activation of cell signaling by reactive chemicals and pollutants is an important issue for human health. It has been shown that lipophilic nitro-benzoxadiazole (NBD) compounds rapidly move across the plasma membrane and enhance Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. Unlike ligand-dependent activation, the mechanism of this induction relies on the generation of hydrogen peroxide, which is involved in the activation of the catalytic site of the receptor and the inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B. Production of H2O2 during redox transformation of NBD compounds is associated with the transition of a monomeric form of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) to stable dimers. The highly stable and functionally active SOD1 dimer, in the absence of adequate activities in downstream reactions, promotes the disproportionate production and accumulation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide shortly after exposure to NBD compounds. The intrinsic fluorescence of small compounds was used to demonstrate their binding to SOD1. Our data indicate that H2O2 and concomitantly generated electrophilic intermediates behave as independent entities, but all contribute to the biological reactivity of NBD compounds. This study opens a promising path to identify new biomarkers of oxidative/electrophilic stress in the progression of cancer and other diseases. PMID:26883293

  10. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Cohen-Hadad, Yaara; Aharoni, Shira; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Zeligson, Sharon; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX) human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA) from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19), monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19) and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC) line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve. PMID:26473610

  11. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Cohen-Hadad, Yaara; Aharoni, Shira; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Zeligson, Sharon; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX) human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA) from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19), monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19) and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC) line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve. PMID:26473610

  12. Oxidative Stress Induced Age Dependent Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 (Sod1) Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Osama M. A.; Dogru, Murat; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Ayako; Kojima, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Inaba, Takaaki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate alterations in the meibomian gland (MG) in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1−/−) mouse. Methods Tear function tests [Break up time (BUT) and cotton thread] and ocular vital staining test were performed on Sod1−/− male mice (n = 24) aged 10 and 50 weeks, and age and sex matched wild–type (+/+) mice (n = 25). Tear and serum samples were collected at sacrifice for inflammatory cytokine assays. MG specimens underwent Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Mallory staining for fibrosis, Oil Red O lipid staining, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry stainings for 4HNE, 8-OHdG and CD45. Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was also performed. Results Corneal vital staining scores in the Sod1−/− mice were significantly higher compared with the wild type mice throughout the follow-up. Tear and serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels also showed significant elevations in the 10 to 50 week Sod1−/− mice. Oil Red O staining showed an accumulation of large lipid droplets in the Sod1−/− mice at 50 weeks. Immunohistochemistry revealed both increased TUNEL and oxidative stress marker stainings of the MG acinar epithelium in the Sod1−/− mice compared to the wild type mice. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD45 showed increasing inflammatory cell infiltrates from 10 to 50 weeks in the Sod1−/− mice compared to the wild type mice. TEM revealed prominent mitochondrial changes in 50 week Sod1−/− mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a vital role in the pathogensis of meibomian gland dysfunction. The Sod1−/− mouse appears to be a promising model for the study of reactive oxygen species associated MG alterations. PMID:25036096

  13. A possible human homologue for the mouse mutant disorganisation.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, R M; Donnai, D

    1989-01-01

    The mouse mutant disorganisation (Ds) is a semidominant gene with variable penetrance in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes; 67% of heterozygotes have multiple defects and the rest have single defects. Fifty-three percent have cranioschisis and execephaly, 40% have hamartomas represented by papillae of variable size and shape protruding from the body, sometimes containing cartilage, and 33% have limb abnormalities. A child is presented with defects similar to those seen in mice heterozygous for Ds. He had shortening of the upper and lower segments of the right leg with a popliteal web and nine toes on the same side. A finger-like structure arose from the abdomen and one kidney was absent. The homology between this infant and Ds mice is discussed and published reports of human cases with similar abnormalities are reviewed. Images PMID:2664177

  14. The multivariate Meixner polynomials as matrix elements of SO(d, 1) representations on oscillator states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Miki, Hiroshi; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    The multivariate Meixner polynomials are shown to arise as matrix elements of unitary representations of the SO(d, 1) group on oscillator states. These polynomials depend on d discrete variables and are orthogonal with respect to the negative multinomial distribution. The emphasis is put on the bivariate case for which the SO(2, 1) connection is used to derive the main properties of the polynomials: orthogonality relation, raising/lowering relations, generating function, recurrence relations and difference equations as well as explicit expressions in terms of standard (univariate) Krawtchouk and Meixner polynomials. It is explained how these results generalize directly to d variables.

  15. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Smietana, Michael J.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V.; Larkin, Lisa M.

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These

  16. Involvement of sensory innervation in the skin of SOD1(G93A) ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Miguel A; Herrando-Grabulosa, Mireia; Vilches, Jorge J; Navarro, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Sensory alterations have been described in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and mouse models. While involvement of intraepidermal and subepidermal axons has been shown in skin biopsies of ALS patients, it is unclear if the SOD1(G93A) mouse presents similar alterations. We analyzed the epidermal and dermal innervation, based on PGP9.5 immunostaining, of SOD1(G93A) mice at different stages. The results showed a marked reduction of intraepidermal nerve fibers, Meissner's corpuscles, and subepidermal nerve density already at 4 weeks. This loss of innervation progressed over time. Dermal axonal density decreased at a later stage of the disease. There was a gradient of axonal loss, with a more severe decline in the epidermis compared with deeper structures, indicating a distal axonal neuropathy as the mechanism of degeneration. These findings suggest that the analysis of the cutaneous sensory innervation may be an accessible and useful tool to assess the neurodegeneration process in motoneuron diseases. PMID:26880731

  17. Cytosolic localization of Fox proteins in motor neurons of G93A SOD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxing; Turnbull, Patrick C; Crapper, Eli Prentice; Wang, Henan; Drannik, Anna; Jiang, Fan; Xia, Sean; Turnbull, John

    2016-05-01

    NeuN is a nuclear protein expressed exclusively in mature neurons and has served for many years as a reliable neuronal marker in immunohistochemical labeling studies. In 2009, NeuN was identified as Fox3, one of three closely related RNA binding proteins important in pre-mRNA splicing. During the course of a previous study using G93A SOD1 mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we observed that NeuN was significantly redistributed to the cytosol. Since altered splicing may be important in the pathogenesis of ALS, we compared the localization (predominantly nuclear or cytosolic) of all three Fox proteins in the lumbar spinal cord of wild-type and G93A SOD1 mice before and after the development of clinical signs of disease. The Fox proteins regulate their own splicing, and we also examined the major Fox protein isoforms in nuclear and cytosolic fractions of lumbar spinal cord by Western blotting. We report here that Fox3 and Fox2 undergo a major cytosolic relocalization in this ALS model that increases with age and that is associated with progressive alterations in the splicing profiles of all three Fox proteins. PMID:26724814

  18. Phenotypes of Myopathy-Related Beta-Tropomyosin Mutants in Human and Mouse Tissue Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hussein, Saba; Rahl, Karin; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Tajsharghi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in TPM2 result in a variety of myopathies characterised by variable clinical and morphological features. We used human and mouse cultured cells to study the effects of β-TM mutants. The mutants induced a range of phenotypes in human myoblasts, which generally changed upon differentiation to myotubes. Human myotubes transfected with the E41K-β-TMEGFP mutant showed perinuclear aggregates. The G53ins-β-TMEGFP mutant tended to accumulate in myoblasts but was incorporated into filamentous structures of myotubes. The K49del-β-TMEGFP and E122K-β-TMEGFP mutants induced the formation of rod-like structures in human cells. The N202K-β-TMEGFP mutant failed to integrate into thin filaments and formed accumulations in myotubes. The accumulation of mutant β-TMEGFP in the perinuclear and peripheral areas of the cells was the striking feature in C2C12. We demonstrated that human tissue culture is a suitable system for studying the early stages of altered myofibrilogenesis and morphological changes linked to myopathy-related β-TM mutants. In addition, the histopathological phenotype associated with expression of the various mutant proteins depends on the cell type and varies with the maturation of the muscle cell. Further, the phenotype is a combinatorial effect of the specific amino acid change and the temporal expression of the mutant protein. PMID:24039757

  19. Expression of a pathogenic mutation of SOD1 sensitizes aprataxin-deficient cells and mice to oxidative stress and triggers hallmarks of premature ageing

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jean; Page, Tristan K.W.; Chiang, Shih-Chieh; Kalmar, Bernadett; Bode, David; Greensmith, Linda; Mckinnon, Peter J; Thorpe, Julian R.; Hafezparast, Majid; El-Khamisy, Sherif F.

    2015-01-01

    Aprataxin (APTX) deficiency causes progressive cerebellar degeneration, ataxia and oculomotor apraxia in man. Cell free assays and crystal structure studies demonstrate a role for APTX in resolving 5′-adenylated nucleic acid breaks, however, APTX function in vertebrates remains unclear due to the lack of an appropriate model system. Here, we generated a murine model in which a pathogenic mutant of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1G93A) is expressed in an Aptx−/− mouse strain. We report a delayed population doubling and accelerated senescence in Aptx−/− primary mouse fibroblasts, which is not due to detectable telomere instability or cell cycle deregulation but is associated with a reduction in transcription recovery following oxidative stress. Expression of SOD1G93A uncovers a survival defect ex vivo in cultured cells and in vivo in tissues lacking Aptx. The surviving neurons feature numerous and deep nuclear envelope invaginations, a hallmark of cellular stress. Furthermore, they possess an elevated number of high-density nuclear regions and a concomitant increase in histone H3 K9 trimethylation, hallmarks of silenced chromatin. Finally, the accelerated cellular senescence was also observed at the organismal level as shown by down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a hallmark of premature ageing. Together, this study demonstrates a protective role of Aptx in vivo and suggests that its loss results in progressive accumulation of DNA breaks in the nervous system, triggering hallmarks of premature ageing, systemically. PMID:25274775

  20. Expression of a pathogenic mutation of SOD1 sensitizes aprataxin-deficient cells and mice to oxidative stress and triggers hallmarks of premature ageing.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jean; Page, Tristan K W; Chiang, Shih-Chieh; Kalmar, Bernadett; Bode, David; Greensmith, Linda; Mckinnon, Peter J; Thorpe, Julian R; Hafezparast, Majid; El-Khamisy, Sherif F

    2015-02-01

    Aprataxin (APTX) deficiency causes progressive cerebellar degeneration, ataxia and oculomotor apraxia in man. Cell free assays and crystal structure studies demonstrate a role for APTX in resolving 5'-adenylated nucleic acid breaks, however, APTX function in vertebrates remains unclear due to the lack of an appropriate model system. Here, we generated a murine model in which a pathogenic mutant of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1(G93A)) is expressed in an Aptx-/- mouse strain. We report a delayed population doubling and accelerated senescence in Aptx-/- primary mouse fibroblasts, which is not due to detectable telomere instability or cell cycle deregulation but is associated with a reduction in transcription recovery following oxidative stress. Expression of SOD1(G93A) uncovers a survival defect ex vivo in cultured cells and in vivo in tissues lacking Aptx. The surviving neurons feature numerous and deep nuclear envelope invaginations, a hallmark of cellular stress. Furthermore, they possess an elevated number of high-density nuclear regions and a concomitant increase in histone H3 K9 trimethylation, hallmarks of silenced chromatin. Finally, the accelerated cellular senescence was also observed at the organismal level as shown by down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a hallmark of premature ageing. Together, this study demonstrates a protective role of Aptx in vivo and suggests that its loss results in progressive accumulation of DNA breaks in the nervous system, triggering hallmarks of premature ageing, systemically. PMID:25274775

  1. SOD1 Overexpression Preserves Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate with an Increase of Aortic Depressor Nerve Function.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jeffrey; Gu, He; Cheng, Zixi Jack

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical (O2 (∙-)), is associated with diseases which compromise cardiac autonomic function. Overexpression of SOD1 may offer protection against ROS damage to the cardiac autonomic nervous system, but reductions of O2 (∙-) may interfere with normal cellular functions. We have selected the C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse as a model to determine whether SOD1 overexpression alters cardiac autonomic function, as measured by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and aortic depressor nerve (ADN) recordings, as well as evaluation of baseline heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Under isoflurane anesthesia, C57 wild-type and SOD1 mice were catheterized with an arterial pressure transducer and measurements of HR and MAP were taken. After establishing a baseline, hypotension and hypertension were induced by injection of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively, and ΔHR versus ΔMAP were recorded as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). SNP and PE treatment were administered sequentially after a recovery period to measure arterial baroreceptor activation by recording aortic depressor nerve activity. Our findings show that overexpression of SOD1 in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse preserved the normal HR, MAP, and BRS but enhanced aortic depressor nerve function. PMID:26823951

  2. SOD1 Overexpression Preserves Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate with an Increase of Aortic Depressor Nerve Function

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Jeffrey; Gu, He; Cheng, Zixi (Jack)

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical (O2∙−), is associated with diseases which compromise cardiac autonomic function. Overexpression of SOD1 may offer protection against ROS damage to the cardiac autonomic nervous system, but reductions of O2∙− may interfere with normal cellular functions. We have selected the C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse as a model to determine whether SOD1 overexpression alters cardiac autonomic function, as measured by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and aortic depressor nerve (ADN) recordings, as well as evaluation of baseline heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Under isoflurane anesthesia, C57 wild-type and SOD1 mice were catheterized with an arterial pressure transducer and measurements of HR and MAP were taken. After establishing a baseline, hypotension and hypertension were induced by injection of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively, and ΔHR versus ΔMAP were recorded as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). SNP and PE treatment were administered sequentially after a recovery period to measure arterial baroreceptor activation by recording aortic depressor nerve activity. Our findings show that overexpression of SOD1 in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mouse preserved the normal HR, MAP, and BRS but enhanced aortic depressor nerve function. PMID:26823951

  3. Use of recombinant approaches to construct human cytomegalovirus mutants.

    PubMed

    Dekhtiarenko, Iryna; Cičin-Šain, Luka; Messerle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To fully understand the function of cytomegalovirus (CMV) genes, it is imperative that they be studied in the context of infection. Therefore, the targeted deletion of individual viral genes and the comparison of loss of function viral mutants to the wild-type virus allow the identification of the relevance and role for a particular gene in the viral replication cycle. Targeted CMV mutagenesis has made huge advances over the past 15 years. The cloning of CMV genomes into (E. coli) as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) allows not only quick and efficient deletion of viral genomic regions, individual genes, or single nucleotide exchanges in the viral genome but also the insertion of heterologous genetic sequences for gain of function approaches. The conceptual advantage of this strategy is that it overcomes the restrictions of recombinant technologies in cell culture systems. Namely, recombination in infected cells occurs only in a few clones, and their selection is not possible if the targeted genes are relevant for virus replication and are not able to compete for growth against the unrecombined viruses. On the other hand, BAC mutagenesis enables the selection for antibiotic resistance in E. coli, allowing a selective growth advantage to the recombined genomes. Here we describe the methods used for the generation of a CMV BAC, targeted mutagenesis of BAC clones, and transfection of human cells with CMV BAC DNA in order to reconstitute the viral infection process. PMID:24639218

  4. Astrocytes drive upregulation of the multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1 (P-Glycoprotein) in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier in mutant superoxide dismutase 1-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Qosa, Hisham; Lichter, Jessica; Sarlo, Mark; Markandaiah, Shashirekha S; McAvoy, Kevin; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Jablonski, Michael R; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Pasinelli, Piera; Trotti, Davide

    2016-08-01

    The efficacy of drugs targeting the CNS is influenced by their limited brain access, which can lead to complete pharmacoresistance. Recently a tissue-specific and selective upregulation of the multidrug efflux transporter ABCB1 or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the spinal cord of both patients and the mutant SOD1-G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease that prevalently kills motor neurons has been reported. Here, we extended the analysis of P-gp expression in the SOD1-G93A ALS mouse model and found that P-gp upregulation was restricted to endothelial cells of the capillaries, while P-gp expression was not detected in other cells of the spinal cord parenchyma such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. Using both in vitro human and mouse models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we found that mutant SOD1 astrocytes were driving P-gp upregulation in endothelial cells. In addition, a significant increase in reactive oxygen species production, Nrf2 and NFκB activation in endothelial cells exposed to mutant SOD1 astrocytes in both human and murine BBB models were observed. Most interestingly, astrocytes expressing FUS-H517Q, a different familial ALS-linked mutated gene, also drove NFκB-dependent upregulation of P-gp. However, the pathway was not dependent on oxidative stress but rather involved TNF-α release. Overall, these findings indicated that nuclear translocation of NFκB was a converging mechanism used by endothelial cells of the BBB to upregulate P-gp expression in mutant SOD1-linked ALS and possibly other forms of familial ALS. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1298-1313. PMID:27158936

  5. Degenerative myelopathy associated with a missense mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene progresses to peripheral neuropathy in Pembroke Welsh corgis and boxers.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G Diane; Johnson, Gayle C; O'Brien, Dennis P; Katz, Martin L; Pesayco, Jill P; Chang, Brian J; Mizisin, Andrew P; Coates, Joan R

    2012-07-15

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease with many similarities to an upper-motor-neuron-onset form of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), that results from mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. DM occurs in many dog breeds, including the Pembroke Welsh Corgi and Boxer. The initial upper motor neuron degeneration produces spastic paraparesis and affected dogs develop general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs. Dog owners usually elect euthanasia when their dog becomes paraplegic. When euthanasia is delayed, lower motor neuron signs including ascending tetraparesis, flaccid paralysis and widespread muscle atrophy emerge. For this study, muscle and peripheral nerve specimens were evaluated at varying disease stages from DM-affected Pembroke Welsh Corgis and Boxers that were homozygous for the SOD1 mutation and had spinal cord histopathology consistent with DM. Comparisons were made with age- and breed-matched control dogs. Here we provide evidence that Pembroke Welsh Corgis and Boxers with chronic DM develop muscle atrophy consistent with denervation, peripheral nerve pathology consistent with an axonopathy, and to a lesser degree demyelination. Canine DM has been proposed as a potential spontaneous animal disease model of human ALS. The results of this study provide further support that canine DM recapitulates one form of the corresponding human disorder and should serve as a valuable animal model to develop therapeutic strategies. PMID:22542607

  6. Arresting Amyloid with Coulomb’s Law: Acetylation of ALS-Linked SOD1 by Aspirin Impedes Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Abdolvahabi, Alireza; Shi, Yunhua; Rhodes, Nicholas R.; Cook, Nathan P.; Martí, Angel A.; Shaw, Bryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the magnitude of a protein’s net charge (Z) can control its rate of self-assembly into amyloid, and its interactions with cellular membranes, the net charge of a protein is not viewed as a druggable parameter. This article demonstrates that aspirin (the quintessential acylating pharmacon) can inhibit the amyloidogenesis of superoxide dismutase (SOD1) by increasing the intrinsic net negative charge of the polypeptide, i.e., by acetylation (neutralization) of multiple lysines. The protective effects of acetylation were diminished (but not abolished) in 100 mM NaCl and were statistically significant: a total of 432 thioflavin-T amyloid assays were performed for all studied proteins. The acetylation of as few as three lysines by aspirin in A4V apo-SOD1—a variant that causes familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)—delayed amyloid nucleation by 38% and slowed amyloid propagation by twofold. Lysines in wild-type- and ALS-variant apo-SOD1 could also be peracetylated with aspirin after fibrillization, resulting in supercharged fibrils, with increases in formal net charge of ∼2 million units. Peracetylated SOD1 amyloid defibrillized at temperatures below unacetylated fibrils, and below the melting temperature of native Cu2,Zn2-SOD1 (e.g., fibril Tm = 84.49°C for acetylated D90A apo-SOD1 fibrils). Targeting the net charge of native or misfolded proteins with small molecules—analogous to how an enzyme’s Km or Vmax are medicinally targeted—holds promise as a strategy in the design of therapies for diseases linked to protein self-assembly. PMID:25762331

  7. Accelerated Human Mutant Tau Aggregation by Knocking Out Murine Tau in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Kunie; Leroy, Karelle; Héraud, Céline; Yilmaz, Zehra; Authelet, Michèle; Suain, Valèrie; De Decker, Robert; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Many models of human tauopathies have been generated in mice by expression of a human mutant tau with maintained expression of mouse endogenous tau. Because murine tau might interfere with the toxic effects of human mutant tau, we generated a model in which a pathogenic human tau protein is expressed in the absence of wild-type tau protein, with the aim of facilitating the study of the pathogenic role of the mutant tau and to reproduce more faithfully a human tauopathy. The Tg30 line is a tau transgenic mouse model overexpressing human 1N4R double-mutant tau (P301S and G272V) that develops Alzheimer's disease-like neurofibrillary tangles in an age-dependent manner. By crossing Tg30 mice with mice invalidated for their endogenous tau gene, we obtained Tg30xtau−/− mice that express only exogenous human double-mutant 1N4R tau. Although Tg30xtau−/− mice express less tau protein compared with Tg30, they exhibit signs of decreased survival, increased proportion of sarkosyl-insoluble tau in the brain and in the spinal cord, increased number of Gallyas-positive neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampus, increased number of inclusions in the spinal cord, and a more severe motor phenotype. Deletion of murine tau accelerated tau aggregation during aging of this mutant tau transgenic model, suggesting that murine tau could interfere with the development of tau pathology in transgenic models of human tauopathies. PMID:21281813

  8. T2-weighted MRI detects presymptomatic pathology in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Matthew C; Serres, Sébastien; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A; Stolp, Helen B; Anthony, Daniel C; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R; Sibson, Nicola R

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but relevant biomarkers are needed. The superoxide dismutase (SOD1)G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS offers a unique opportunity to study and potentially manipulate presymptomatic pathology. While T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive to pathologic changes at symptom onset, no earlier biomarkers were previously identified and the underlying histopathologic correlates remain uncertain. To address these issues, we used a multimodal MRI approach targeting structural (T2, T1, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR)), vascular (gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid), and endothelial (vascular cell adhesion molecule–microparticles of iron oxide) changes, together with histopathologic analysis from presymptomatic to symptomatic stages of disease. Presymptomatic changes in brainstem nuclei were evident on T2-weighted images from as early as 60 days (P<0.05). Histologic indices of vacuolation, astro- and microglial activation all correlated with T2-weighted changes. Significant reductions in ADC (P<0.01) and MTR (P<0.05) were found at 120 days in the same brainstem nuclei. No changes in T1 relaxation, vascular permeability, or endothelial activation were found at any stage of disease. These findings suggest that T2-weighted MRI offers the strongest biomarker potential in this model, and that MRI has unique potential for noninvasive and longitudinal assessment of presymptomatically applied therapeutic and neuroprotective agents. PMID:24496176

  9. T₂-weighted MRI detects presymptomatic pathology in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Evans, Matthew C; Serres, Sébastien; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A; Stolp, Helen B; Anthony, Daniel C; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R; Sibson, Nicola R

    2014-05-01

    Neuroinflammation has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but relevant biomarkers are needed. The superoxide dismutase (SOD1)(G93A) transgenic mouse model of ALS offers a unique opportunity to study and potentially manipulate presymptomatic pathology. While T₂-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive to pathologic changes at symptom onset, no earlier biomarkers were previously identified and the underlying histopathologic correlates remain uncertain. To address these issues, we used a multimodal MRI approach targeting structural (T₂, T₁, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR)), vascular (gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid), and endothelial (vascular cell adhesion molecule-microparticles of iron oxide) changes, together with histopathologic analysis from presymptomatic to symptomatic stages of disease. Presymptomatic changes in brainstem nuclei were evident on T₂-weighted images from as early as 60 days (P<0.05). Histologic indices of vacuolation, astro- and microglial activation all correlated with T₂-weighted changes. Significant reductions in ADC (P<0.01) and MTR (P<0.05) were found at 120 days in the same brainstem nuclei. No changes in T₁ relaxation, vascular permeability, or endothelial activation were found at any stage of disease. These findings suggest that T₂-weighted MRI offers the strongest biomarker potential in this model, and that MRI has unique potential for noninvasive and longitudinal assessment of presymptomatically applied therapeutic and neuroprotective agents. PMID:24496176

  10. Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for SOD1-Associated Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Pathogenesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chestkov, I. V.; Vasilieva, E. A.; Illarioshkin, S. N.; Lagarkova, M. A.; Kiselev, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic reprogramming technology allows one to generate pluripotent stem cells for individual patients. These cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), can be an unlimited source of specialized cell types for the body. Thus, autologous somatic cell replacement therapy becomes possible, as well as the generation of in vitro cell models for studying the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and drug discovery. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a loss of upper and lower motor neurons. About 10% of cases are genetically inherited, and the most common familial form of ALS is associated with mutations in the SOD1 gene. We used the reprogramming technology to generate induced pluripotent stem cells with patients with familial ALS. Patient-specific iPS cells were obtained by both integration and transgene-free delivery methods of reprogramming transcription factors. These iPS cells have the properties of pluripotent cells and are capable of direct differentiation into motor neurons. PMID:24772327

  11. Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for SOD1-Associated Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Pathogenesis Studies.

    PubMed

    Chestkov, I V; Vasilieva, E A; Illarioshkin, S N; Lagarkova, M A; Kiselev, S L

    2014-01-01

    The genetic reprogramming technology allows one to generate pluripotent stem cells for individual patients. These cells, called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), can be an unlimited source of specialized cell types for the body. Thus, autologous somatic cell replacement therapy becomes possible, as well as the generation of in vitro cell models for studying the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and drug discovery. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a loss of upper and lower motor neurons. About 10% of cases are genetically inherited, and the most common familial form of ALS is associated with mutations in the SOD1 gene. We used the reprogramming technology to generate induced pluripotent stem cells with patients with familial ALS. Patient-specific iPS cells were obtained by both integration and transgene-free delivery methods of reprogramming transcription factors. These iPS cells have the properties of pluripotent cells and are capable of direct differentiation into motor neurons. PMID:24772327

  12. Muscle Expression of SOD1G93A Modulates microRNA and mRNA Transcription Pattern Associated with the Myelination Process in the Spinal Cord of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Bernardini, Camilla; Martini, Martina; Baranzini, Mirko; Barba, Marta; Musarò, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A crucial system severely affected in several neuromuscular diseases is the loss of effective connection between muscle and nerve, leading to a pathological non-communication between the two tissues. One of the best examples of impaired interplay between muscle and nerve is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of motor neurons and muscle atrophy. Increasing evidences suggest that damage to motor neurons is enhanced by alterations in the neighboring non-neuronal cells and indicate that altered skeletal muscle might be the source of signals that impinge motor neuron activity and survival. Here we investigated whether muscle selective expression of SOD1G93A mutant gene modulates mRNAs and miRNAs expression at the level of spinal cord of MLC/SOD1G93A mice. Using a Taqman array, the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.0 ST approach and the MiRwalk 2.0 database, which provides information on miRNA and their predicted target genes, we revealed that muscle specific expression of SOD1G93A modulates relevant molecules of the genetic and epigenetic circuitry of myelin homeostasis in spinal cord of transgenic mice. Our study provides insights into the pathophysiological interplay between muscle and nerve and supports the hypothesis that muscle is a source of signals that can either positively or negatively affect the nervous system. PMID:26648847

  13. SOD1 overexpression prevents acute hyperglycemia-induced cerebral myogenic dysfunction: relevance to contralateral hemisphere and stroke outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coucha, Maha; Li, Weiguo; Hafez, Sherif; Abdelsaid, Mohammed; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Fagan, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Admission hyperglycemia (HG) amplifies vascular injury and neurological deficits in acute ischemic stroke, but the mechanisms remain controversial. We recently reported that ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury impairs the myogenic response in both hemispheres via increased nitration. However, whether HG amplifies contralateral myogenic dysfunction and whether loss of tone in the contralateral hemisphere contributes to stroke outcomes remain to be determined. Our hypothesis was that contralateral myogenic dysfunction worsens stroke outcomes after acute hyperglycemic stroke in an oxidative stress-dependent manner. Male wild-type or SOD1 transgenic rats were injected with saline or 40% glucose solution 10 min before surgery and then subjected to 30 min of ischemia/45 min or 24 h of reperfusion. In another set of animals (n = 5), SOD1 was overexpressed only in the contralateral hemisphere by stereotaxic adenovirus injection 2–3 wk before I/R. Myogenic tone and neurovascular outcomes were determined. HG exacerbated myogenic dysfunction in contralateral side only, which was associated with infarct size expansion, increased edema, and more pronounced neurological deficit. Global and selective SOD1 overexpression restored myogenic reactivity in ipsilateral and contralateral sides, respectively, and enhanced neurovascular outcomes. In conclusion, our results show that SOD1 overexpression nullified the detrimental effects of HG on myogenic tone and stroke outcomes and that the contralateral hemisphere may be a novel target for the management of acute hyperglycemic stroke. PMID:25552308

  14. Characterization of the Contribution of Genetic Background and Gender to Disease Progression in the SOD1 G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pfohl, Stephen R.; Halicek, Martin T.; Mitchell, Cassie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The SOD1 G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequently used model to examine ALS pathophysiology. There is a lack of homogeneity in usage of the SOD1 G93A mouse, including differences in genetic background and gender, which could confound the field’s results. Objective In an analysis of 97 studies, we characterized the ALS progression for the high transgene copy control SOD1 G93A mouse on the basis of disease onset, overall lifespan, and disease duration for male and female mice on the B6SJL and C57BL/6J genetic backgrounds and quantified magnitudes of differences between groups. Methods Mean age at onset, onset assessment measure, disease duration, and overall lifespan data from each study were extracted and statistically modeled as the response of linear regression with the sex and genetic background factored as predictors. Additional examination was performed on differing experimental onset and endpoint assessment measures. Results C57BL/6 background mice show delayed onset of symptoms, increased lifespan, and an extended disease duration compared to their sex-matched B6SJL counterparts. Female B6SJL generally experience extended lifespan and delayed onset compared to their male counterparts, while female mice on the C57BL/6 background show delayed onset but no difference in survival compared to their male counterparts. Finally, different experimental protocols (tremor, rotarod, etc.) for onset determination result in notably different onset means. Conclusions Overall, the observed effect of sex on disease endpoints was smaller than that which can be attributed to the genetic background. The often-reported increase in lifespan for female mice was observed only for mice on the B6SJL background, implicating a strain-dependent effect of sex on disease progression that manifests despite identical mutant SOD1 expression. PMID:26594635

  15. Calpastatin inhibits motor neuron death and increases survival of hSOD1(G93A) mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mala V; Campbell, Jabbar; Palaniappan, Arti; Kumar, Asok; Nixon, Ralph A

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease with a poorly understood cause and no effective treatment. Given that calpains mediate neurodegeneration in other pathological states and are abnormally activated in ALS, we investigated the possible ameliorative effects of inhibiting calpain over-activation in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic (Tg) mice in vivo by neuron-specific over-expression of calpastatin (CAST), the highly selective endogenous inhibitor of calpains. Our data indicate that over-expression of CAST in hSOD1(G93A) mice, which lowered calpain activation to levels comparable to wild-type mice, inhibited the abnormal breakdown of cytoskeletal proteins (spectrin, MAP2 and neurofilaments), and ameliorated motor axon loss. Disease onset in hSOD1(G93A) /CAST mice compared to littermate hSOD1(G93A) mice is delayed, which accounts for their longer time of survival. We also find that neuronal over-expression of CAST in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice inhibited production of putative neurotoxic caspase-cleaved tau and activation of Cdk5, which have been implicated in neurodegeneration in ALS models, and also reduced the formation of SOD1 oligomers. Our data indicate that inhibition of calpain with CAST is neuroprotective in an ALS mouse model. CAST (encoding calpastatin) inhibits hyperactivated calpain to prevent motor neuron disease operating through a cascade of events as indicated in the schematic, with relevance to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We propose that over-expression of CAST in motor neurons of hSOD1(G93A) mice inhibits activation of CDK5, breakdown of cytoskeletal proteins (NFs, MAP2 and Tau) and regulatory molecules (Cam Kinase IV, Calcineurin A), and disease-causing proteins (TDP-43, α-Synuclein and Huntingtin) to prevent neuronal loss and delay neurological deficits. In our experiments, CAST could also inhibit cleavage of Bid, Bax, AIF to prevent mitochondrial, ER and lysosome-mediated cell death mechanisms. Similarly

  16. TDP-43 modification in the hSOD1(G93A) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cai, MuDan; Lee, Kang-Woo; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset disease that produces gradual motor neuron cell death in the spinal cord (SP). Recently, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), a critical component of insoluble ubiquitinated inclusions, has received attention in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and ALS. TDP-43 modifications, including hyperphosphorylation, truncation, and ubiquitination, have been reported in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). However, the pathogenic mechanism of TDP-43 in ALS is unclear. To determine the association between TDP-43 and neurotoxicity in an ALS model, we characterized TDP-43 expression in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice (Tg) as an ALS animal model. TDP-43 was expressed by astrocytes and microglial cells in the SP of hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated and truncated TDP-43 increased in the SP of ALS mice compared with age-matched non-Tg. Furthermore, the serum iron concentration and expression of transferrin, a homeostasis-related iron protein, in the SP were increased relative to non-Tg. The protein expression level of HO-1 related to oxidative stress was increased in the SP of hSOD1(G93A) Tg relative to non-Tg. We show that an increase of TDP-43 modification, including phosphorylation or truncation, associates with dysfunctional iron homeostasis and an increase in oxidative stress in the SP of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) Tg. These findings suggest that modified TDP-43 may be involved in motor neuron death in the SP of a SOD1(G93A)-expressing familial ALS (fALS) animal model. PMID:25213598

  17. SOD1, but not SOD3, deficiency accelerates diabetic renal injury in C57BL/6-Ins2Akita diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hiroki; Fujishima, Hiromi; Takahashi, Keiko; Sato, Takehiro; Shimizu, Tatsunori; Morii, Tsukasa; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shirasawa, Takuji; Qi, Zhonghua; Breyer, Matthew D.; Harris, Raymond C.; Yamada, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Takamune

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a major defender against excessive superoxide generated under hyperglycemia. We have recently reported that renal SOD1 (cytosolic CuZn-SOD) and SOD3 (extracellular CuZn-SOD) isoenzymes are remarkably down-regulated in KK/Ta-Ins2Akita diabetic mice, which exhibit progressive diabetic nephropathy (DN), but not in DN-resistant C57BL/6- Ins2Akita (C57BL/6-Akita) diabetic mice. To determine the role of SOD1 and SOD3 in DN, we generated C57BL/6-Akita diabetic mice with deficiency of SOD1 and/or SOD3 and investigated their renal phenotype at the age of 20 weeks. Increased glomerular superoxide levels were observed in SOD1−/−SOD3+/+ and SOD1−/−SOD3−/− C57BL/6-Akita mice but not in SOD1+/+SOD3−/− C57BL/6-Akita mice. The SOD1−/−SOD3+/+ and SOD1−/−SOD3−/− C57BL/6-Akita mice exhibited higher glomerular filtration rate, increased urinary albumin levels, and advanced mesangial expansion as compared with SOD1+/+SOD3+/+ C57BL/6-Akita mice, yet the severity of DN did not differ between the SOD1−/−SOD3+/+ and SOD1−/−SOD3−/− C57BL/6-Akita groups. Increased renal mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), reduced glomerular nitric oxide (NO), and increased renal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were noted in the SOD1−/−SOD3+/+ and SOD1−/−SOD3−/− C57BL/6-Akita mice. This finding indicates that such renal changes in fibrogenic cytokines, NO, and PGE2, possibly caused by superoxide excess, would contribute to the development of overt albuminuria by promoting mesangial expansion, endothelial dysfunction, and glomerular hyperfiltration. The present results demonstrate that deficiency of SOD1, but not SOD3, increases renal superoxide in the setting of diabetes and causes overt renal injury in nephropathy-resistant diabetic mice, and that SOD3 deficiency does not provide additive effects on the severity of DN in SOD1-deficient C57BL/6-Akita mice

  18. Structures of PmSOD1 and PmSOD2, two superoxide dismutases from the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Schott, Eric J; Vasta, Gerardo R; Silva, Abelardo M

    2006-11-01

    Perkinsus marinus, a facultative intracellular parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, is responsible for mass mortalities of oyster populations. P. marinus trophozoites survive and proliferate within oyster hemocytes, invading most tissues and fluids, thus causing a systemic infection that eventually kills the host. The phagocytosis of P. marinus trophozoites lacks a respiratory burst, suggesting that the parasite has mechanisms that actively abrogate the host's oxidative defense responses. One mechanism and the first line of defense against oxidative damage is the dismutation of superoxide radical to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutases (SODs). P. marinus possesses two iron-cofactored SODs, PmSOD1 and PmSOD2. Here, the crystallization and X-ray structures of both PmSOD1 and PmSOD2 are presented. PMID:17077482

  19. Screening of SOD1, FUS and TARDBP genes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in central-southern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lihua; Jiao, Bin; Xiao, Tingting; Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Zhifan; Du, Juan; Yan, Xinxiang; Wang, Junling; Tang, Beisha; Shen, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain, brainstem and spinal cord. To date, mutations in more than 30 genes have been linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. Among them, SOD1, FUS and TARDBP are ranked as the three most common genes associated with ALS. However, no mutation analysis has been reported in central-southern China. In this study, we sequenced SOD1, FUS and TARDBP in a central-southern Chinese cohort of 173 patients with ALS (15 familial ALS and 158 sporadic ALS) to detect mutations. As a result, five missense mutations in SOD1, namely, p.D101N, p.D101G, p.C111Y, p.N86S and p.V87A, were identified in three unrelated familial probands and three sporadic cases; two mutations in FUS were found in two unrelated familial probands, including an insertion mutation (p.P525_Y526insY) and a missense mutation (p.R521H); no variants of TARDBP were observed in patients. Therefore, SOD1 mutations were present in 20.0% of familial ALS patients and 1.9% of sporadic ALS patients, while FUS mutations were responsible for 13.3% of familial ALS cases, and TARDBP mutations were rare in either familial or sporadic ALS cases. This study broadens the known mutational spectrum in patients with ALS and further demonstrates the necessity for genetic screening in ALS patients from central-southern China. PMID:27604643

  20. Screening of SOD1, FUS and TARDBP genes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in central-southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lihua; Jiao, Bin; Xiao, Tingting; Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Zhifan; Du, Juan; Yan, Xinxiang; Wang, Junling; Tang, Beisha; Shen, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain, brainstem and spinal cord. To date, mutations in more than 30 genes have been linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. Among them, SOD1, FUS and TARDBP are ranked as the three most common genes associated with ALS. However, no mutation analysis has been reported in central-southern China. In this study, we sequenced SOD1, FUS and TARDBP in a central-southern Chinese cohort of 173 patients with ALS (15 familial ALS and 158 sporadic ALS) to detect mutations. As a result, five missense mutations in SOD1, namely, p.D101N, p.D101G, p.C111Y, p.N86S and p.V87A, were identified in three unrelated familial probands and three sporadic cases; two mutations in FUS were found in two unrelated familial probands, including an insertion mutation (p.P525_Y526insY) and a missense mutation (p.R521H); no variants of TARDBP were observed in patients. Therefore, SOD1 mutations were present in 20.0% of familial ALS patients and 1.9% of sporadic ALS patients, while FUS mutations were responsible for 13.3% of familial ALS cases, and TARDBP mutations were rare in either familial or sporadic ALS cases. This study broadens the known mutational spectrum in patients with ALS and further demonstrates the necessity for genetic screening in ALS patients from central-southern China. PMID:27604643

  1. Rosmarinic Acid Alleviates Neurological Symptoms in the G93A-SOD1 Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Seon; Choi, Juli; Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in paralysis of voluntary skeletal muscles and eventually death, usually within 2~3 years of symptom onset. The pathophysiology mechanism underlying ALS is not yet clearly understood. Moreover the available medication for treating ALS, riluzole, only modestly improves neurological symptoms and increases survival by a few months. Therefore, improved therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In the present study, we investigated whether rosmarinic acid has a therapeutic potential to alleviate neurological deterioration in the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS. Treatment of G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice with rosmarinic acid from 7 weeks of age at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day significantly extended survival, and relieved motor function deficits. Specifically, disease onset and symptom progression were delayed by more than one month. These symptomatic improvements were correlated with decreased oxidative stress and reduced neuronal loss in the ventral horns of G93A-SOD1 mice. These results support that rosmarinic acid is a potentially useful supplement for relieving ALS symptoms. PMID:26713081

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis lipophosphoglycan mutants have reduced adherence and cytotoxicity to human ectocervical cells.

    PubMed

    Bastida-Corcuera, Felix D; Okumura, Cheryl Y; Colocoussi, Angie; Johnson, Patricia J

    2005-11-01

    The extracellular human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis is covered by a dense glycocalyx thought to play a role in host-parasite interactions. The main component of the glycocalyx is lipophosphoglycan (LPG), a polysaccharide anchored in the plasma membrane by inositol phosphoceramide. To study the role of LPG in trichomonads, we produced T. vaginalis LPG mutants by chemical mutagenesis and lectin selection and characterized them using morphological, biochemical, and functional assays. Two independently selected LPG mutants, with growth rates comparable to that of the wild-type (parent) strain, lost the ability to bind the lectins Ricinnus comunis agglutinin I (RCA120) and wheat germ agglutinin, indicating alterations in surface galactose and glucosamine residues. LPG isolated from mutants migrated faster than parent strain LPG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, suggesting the mutants had shorter LPG molecules. Dionex high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection analyses revealed galactosamine, glucosamine, galactose, glucose, mannose/xylose, and rhamnose as the main monosaccharides of T. vaginalis parent strain LPG. LPG from both mutants showed a reduction of galactose and glucosamine, corresponding with the reduced size of their LPG molecules and inability to bind the lectins RCA120 and wheat germ agglutinin. Mutant parasites were defective in attachment to plastic, a characteristic associated with avirulent strains of T. vaginalis. Moreover, the mutants were less adherent and less cytotoxic to human vaginal ectocervical cells in vitro than the parental strain. Finally, while parent strain LPG could inhibit the attachment of parent strain parasites to vaginal cells, LPG from either mutant could not inhibit attachment. These combined results demonstrate that T. vaginalis adherence to host cells is LPG mediated and that an altered LPG leads to reduced adherence and cytotoxicity of this parasite. PMID

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis Lipophosphoglycan Mutants Have Reduced Adherence and Cytotoxicity to Human Ectocervical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bastida-Corcuera, Felix D.; Okumura, Cheryl Y.; Colocoussi, Angie; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2005-01-01

    The extracellular human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis is covered by a dense glycocalyx thought to play a role in host-parasite interactions. The main component of the glycocalyx is lipophosphoglycan (LPG), a polysaccharide anchored in the plasma membrane by inositol phosphoceramide. To study the role of LPG in trichomonads, we produced T. vaginalis LPG mutants by chemical mutagenesis and lectin selection and characterized them using morphological, biochemical, and functional assays. Two independently selected LPG mutants, with growth rates comparable to that of the wild-type (parent) strain, lost the ability to bind the lectins Ricinnus comunis agglutinin I (RCA120) and wheat germ agglutinin, indicating alterations in surface galactose and glucosamine residues. LPG isolated from mutants migrated faster than parent strain LPG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, suggesting the mutants had shorter LPG molecules. Dionex high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection analyses revealed galactosamine, glucosamine, galactose, glucose, mannose/xylose, and rhamnose as the main monosaccharides of T. vaginalis parent strain LPG. LPG from both mutants showed a reduction of galactose and glucosamine, corresponding with the reduced size of their LPG molecules and inability to bind the lectins RCA120 and wheat germ agglutinin. Mutant parasites were defective in attachment to plastic, a characteristic associated with avirulent strains of T. vaginalis. Moreover, the mutants were less adherent and less cytotoxic to human vaginal ectocervical cells in vitro than the parental strain. Finally, while parent strain LPG could inhibit the attachment of parent strain parasites to vaginal cells, LPG from either mutant could not inhibit attachment. These combined results demonstrate that T. vaginalis adherence to host cells is LPG mediated and that an altered LPG leads to reduced adherence and cytotoxicity of this parasite. PMID

  4. Extra virgin olive oil intake delays the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with reduced reticulum stress and autophagy in muscle of SOD1G93A mice.

    PubMed

    Oliván, Sara; Martínez-Beamonte, Roberto; Calvo, Ana C; Surra, Joaquín C; Manzano, Raquel; Arnal, Carmen; Osta, Rosario; Osada, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease associated with mutations in antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase 1. Albeit there is no treatment for this disease, new insights related to an exacerbated lipid metabolism have been reported. In connection with the hypermetabolic lipid status, the hypothesis whether nature of dietary fat might delay the progression of the disease was tested by using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses the human SOD1G93A variant. For this purpose, SOD1G93A mice were assigned randomly to one of the following three experimental groups: (1) a standard chow diet (control, n=21), (2) a chow diet enriched with 20% (w/w) extra virgin olive oil (EVOO, n=22) and (3) a chow diet containing 20% palm oil (palm, n=20). They received the diets for 8 weeks and the progression of the disease was assessed. On the standard chow diet, average plasma cholesterol levels were lower than those mice receiving the high-fat diets. Mice fed an EVOO diet showed a significant higher survival and better motor performance than control mice. EVOO group mice survived longer and showed better motor performance and larger muscle fiber area than animals receiving palm. Moreover, the EVOO-enriched diet improved the muscle status as shown by expression of myogenic factors (Myod1 and Myog) and autophagy markers (LC3 and Beclin1), as well as diminished endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through decreasing Atf6 and Grp78. Our results demonstrate that EVOO may be effective in increasing survival rate, improving motor coordination together with a potential amelioration of ER stress, autophagy and muscle damage. PMID:24917047

  5. Unglycosylated recombinant human glutathione peroxidase 3 mutant from Escherichia coli is active as a monomer.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Yu, Yang; Xing, Ruiqing; Guo, Xiao; Liu, Dali; Wei, Jingyan; Song, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) is a glycosylated member of GPx family and can catalyze the reaction of different types of peroxides with GSH to form their corresponding alcohols in vitro. The active center of GPx3 is selenocysteine (Sec), which is incorporated into proteins by a specific mechanism. In this study, we prepared a recombinant human GPx3 (rhGPx3) mutant with all Cys changed to Ser from a Cys auxotrophic strain of E. coli, BL21(DE3)cys. Although lacking post-translational modification, rhGPx3 mutant still retained the ability to reduce H2O2 and PLPC-OOH. Study on the quaternary structure suggested that rhGPx3 mutant existed as a monomer in solution, which is different from native tetrameric GPx3. Loss of the catalytic activity was considered to be attributed to both the absence of glycosylation and the failure of the tetramer. Further analysis was performed to compare the structures of rhGPx3 and GPx4 mutant, which were quite similar except for oligomerization loop. The differences of amino acid composition and electrostatic potentials on the oligomerization loop may affect the binding of large substrates to rhGPx3 mutant. This research provides an important foundation for biosynthesis of functionally selenium-containing GPx3 mutant in E.coli. PMID:25331785

  6. Marked changes in dendritic structure and spine density precede significant neuronal death in vulnerable cortical pyramidal neuron populations in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Matthew J; Mu, Erica W H; Noakes, Peter G; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Bellingham, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by the death of upper (corticospinal) and lower motor neurons (MNs) with progressive muscle weakness. This incurable disease is clinically heterogeneous and its aetiology remains unknown. Increased excitability of corticospinal MNs has been observed prior to symptoms in human and rodent studies. Increased excitability has been correlated with structural changes in neuronal dendritic arbors and spines for decades. Here, using a modified Golgi-Cox staining method, we have made the first longitudinal study examining the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the motor cortex, medial pre-frontal cortex, somatosensory cortex and entorhinal cortex of hSOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermate controls at postnatal (P) days 8-15, 28-35, 65-75 and 120. Progressive decreases in dendritic length and spine density commencing at pre-symptomatic ages (P8-15 or P28-35) were observed in layer V pyramidal neurons within the motor cortex and medial pre-frontal cortex of SOD1 mice compared to WT mice. Spine loss without concurrent dendritic pathology was present in the pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex from disease-onset (P65-75). Our results from the SOD1 model suggest that dendritic and dendritic spine changes foreshadow and underpin the neuromotor phenotypes present in ALS and may contribute to the varied cognitive, executive function and extra-motor symptoms commonly seen in ALS patients. Determining if these phenomena are compensatory or maladaptive may help explain differential susceptibility of neurons to degeneration in ALS. PMID:27488828

  7. Expression of human AChR extracellular domain mutants with improved characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Giastas, Petros; Bitzopoulou, Kalliopi; Evangelakou, Panagiota; Sideri, Anastasia; Tzartos, Socrates J

    2014-02-01

    The muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has a central role in neuromuscular transmission, and is the major target in the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis (MG). We created mutants of the extracellular domains (ECDs) of the human α1, β1, δ and ε AChR subunits, whereby their Cys-loop was exchanged for that of the acetylcholine binding protein. The mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and had improved solubility resulting in 2- to 43-fold higher expression yields compared to the wild type. An additional mutant was created for the α1 ECD restoring its glycosylation site within the Cys-loop and its α-bungarotoxin binding ability. Furthermore, we constructed dimeric and pentameric concatamers of the mutant ECDs. All concatamers were successfully expressed as soluble secreted proteins, although the pentamers had about 10-fold lower expression than the dimers and were more susceptible to fragmentation. Initial crystallizations with the mutant ECDs were promising, and we reproducibly obtained crystals of the β1 ECD, diffracting at ~12 Å. Further optimization is underway to obtain crystals suitable for high resolution crystallography. The proteins described herein are useful tools in structural studies of the human muscle AChR and can be used in applications requiring high yields such as therapeutic adsorbents for MG autoantibodies. PMID:24246999

  8. GT198 Expression Defines Mutant Tumor Stroma in Human Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheqiong; Peng, Min; Cheng, Liang; Jones, Kimya; Maihle, Nita J; Mivechi, Nahid F; Ko, Lan

    2016-05-01

    Human breast cancer precursor cells remain to be elucidated. Using breast cancer gene product GT198 (PSMC3IP; alias TBPIP or Hop2) as a unique marker, we revealed the cellular identities of GT198 mutant cells in human breast tumor stroma. GT198 is a steroid hormone receptor coactivator and a crucial factor in DNA repair. Germline mutations in GT198 are present in breast and ovarian cancer families. Somatic mutations in GT198 are present in ovarian tumor stromal cells. Herein, we show that human breast tumor stromal cells carry GT198 somatic mutations and express cytoplasmic GT198 protein. GT198(+) stromal cells share vascular smooth muscle cell origin, including myoepithelial cells, adipocytes, capillary pericytes, and stromal fibroblasts. Frequent GT198 mutations are associated with GT198(+) tumor stroma but not with GT198(-) tumor cells. GT198(+) progenitor cells are mostly capillary pericytes. When tested in cultured cells, mutant GT198 induces vascular endothelial growth factor promoter, and potentially promotes angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Our results suggest that multiple lineages of breast tumor stromal cells are mutated in GT198. These findings imply the presence of mutant progenitors, whereas their descendants, carrying the same GT198 mutations, are collectively responsible for forming breast tumor microenvironment. GT198 expression is, therefore, a specific marker of mutant breast tumor stroma and has the potential to facilitate diagnosis and targeted treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:27001628

  9. Modulation of cellular and viral promoters by mutant human p53 proteins found in tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deb, S; Jackson, C T; Subler, M A; Martin, D W

    1992-01-01

    Wild-type p53 has recently been shown to repress transcription from several cellular and viral promoters. Since p53 mutations are the most frequently reported genetic defects in human cancers, it becomes important to study the effects of mutations of p53 on promoter functions. We, therefore, have studied the effects of wild-type and mutant human p53 on the human proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter and on several viral promoters, including the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL9 promoter, the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter-enhancer, and the long terminal repeat promoters of Rous sarcoma virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. HeLa cells were cotransfected with a wild-type or mutant p53 expression vector and a plasmid containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene under viral (or cellular) promoter control. As expected, expression of the wild-type p53 inhibited promoter function. Expression of a p53 with a mutation at any one of the four amino acid positions 175, 248, 273, or 281, however, correlated with a significant increase of the PCNA promoter activity (2- to 11-fold). The viral promoters were also activated, although to a somewhat lesser extent. We also showed that activation by a mutant p53 requires a minimal promoter containing a lone TATA box. A more significant increase (25-fold) in activation occurs when the promoter contains a binding site for the activating transcription factor or cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. Using Saos-2 cells that do not express p53, we showed that activation by a mutant p53 was a direct enhancement. The mutant forms of p53 used in this study are found in various cancer cells. The activation of PCNA by mutant p53s may indicate a way to increase cell proliferation by the mutant p53s. Thus, our data indicate a possible functional role for the mutants of p53 found in cancer cells in activating several important loci, including PCNA. Images PMID:1356162

  10. Consequences of zygote injection and germline transfer of mutant human mitochondrial DNA in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D; Chou, Tsung-Han; Porciatti, Vittorio; Mehta, Arpit; Hentall, Ian D; Chiodo, Vince A; Boye, Sanford L; Hauswirth, William W; Lewin, Alfred S; Guy, John

    2015-10-20

    Considerable evidence supports mutations in mitochondrial genes as the cause of maternally inherited diseases affecting tissues that rely primarily on oxidative energy metabolism, usually the nervous system, the heart, and skeletal muscles. Mitochondrial diseases are diverse, and animal models currently are limited. Here we introduced a mutant human mitochondrial gene responsible for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) into the mouse germ line using fluorescence imaging for tissue-specific enrichment in the target retinal ganglion cells. A mitochondria-targeted adeno-associated virus (MTS-AAV) containing the mutant human NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4) gene followed by mitochondrial-encoded mCherry was microinjected into zygotes. Female founders with mCherry fluorescence on ophthalmoscopy were backcrossed with normal males for eight generations. Mutant human ND4 DNA was 20% of mouse ND4 and did not integrate into the host genome. Translated human ND4 protein assembled into host respiratory complexes, decreasing respiratory chain function and increasing oxidative stress. Swelling of the optic nerve head was followed by progressive demise of ganglion cells and their axons, the hallmarks of human LHON. Early visual loss that began at 3 mo and progressed to blindness 8 mo after birth was reversed by intraocular injection of MTS-AAV expressing wild-type human ND4. The technology of introducing human mitochondrial genes into the mouse germ line has never been described, to our knowledge, and has implications not only for creating animal models recapitulating the counterpart human disorder but more importantly for reversing the adverse effects of the mutant gene using gene therapy to deliver the wild-type allele. PMID:26438859

  11. Neurodegenerative mutants in Drosophila: a means to identify genes and mechanisms involved in human diseases?

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Doris

    2005-11-01

    There are 50 ways to leave your lover (Simon 1987) but many more to kill your brain cells. Several neurodegenerative diseases in humans, like Alzheimer's disease, have been intensely studied but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unknown for most of them. For those syndromes where associated gene products have been identified their biochemistry and physiological as well as pathogenic function is often still under debate. This is in part due to the inherent limitations of genetic analyses in humans and other mammals and therefore experimentally accessible invertebrate in vivo models, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have recently been introduced to investigate neurodegenerative syndromes. Several laboratories have used transgenic approaches in Drosophila to study the human genes associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This has added substantially to our understanding of the mechanisms leading to neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The isolation and characterization of Drosophila mutants, which display a variety of neurodegenerative phenotypes, also provide valuable insights into genes, pathways, and mechanisms causing neurodegeneration. So far only about two dozen such mutants have been described but already their characterization reveals an involvement of various cellular functions in neurodegeneration, ranging from preventing oxidative stress to RNA editing. Some of the isolated genes can already be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases and hopefully the isolation and characterization of more of these mutants, together with an analysis of homologous genes in vertebrate models, will provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of human neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:16187075

  12. Neuroprotective Effect of Bexarotene in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Riancho, Javier; Ruiz-Soto, María; Berciano, María T.; Berciano, José; Lafarga, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive weakness and muscle atrophy related to the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs) without a curative treatment. There is experimental evidence suggesting that retinoids may be involved in ALS pathogenesis. Bexarotene (Bxt) is a retinoid-X receptor agonist used in the treatment of cutaneous lymphoma with a favorable safety profile whose effects have been recently investigated in other neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we analyze the potential therapeutic effect of Bxt in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. Mice were treated with Bxt or vehicle five times per week from day 60 onward. Survival, weight, and neuromuscular function studies together with histological and biochemical analyses were performed. Bxt significantly delayed motor function deterioration, ameliorated the loss of body weight, and extended mice survival up to 30% of the symptomatic period. Histological analyses of the lumbosacral spinal cord revealed that Bxt markedly delayed the early motor-neuron degeneration occurring at presymptomatic stages in ALS-transgenic mice. Bxt treatment contributed to preserve the MN homeostasis in the SOD1G93A mice. Particularly, it reduced the neuronal loss and the chromatolytic response, induced nucleolar hypertrophy, decreased the formation of ubiquitylated inclusions, and modulated the lysosomal response. As an agonist of the retinoic-X receptor (RXR) pathway, Bxt notably increased the nuclear expression of the RXRα throughout transcriptionally active euchromatin domains. Bxt also contributed to protect the MN environment by reducing reactive astrogliosis and preserving perisomatic synapsis. Overall, these neuroprotective effects suggest that treatment with Bxt could be useful in ALS, particularly in those cases related to SOD1 mutations. PMID:26190974

  13. Comparison of dendritic calcium transients in juvenile wild type and SOD1(G93A) mouse lumbar motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Katharina A; Lamano, Jonathan B; Samuels, Julienne; Heckman, C J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of spinal motoneurons in the SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have shown alterations long before disease onset, including increased dendritic branching, increased persistent Na(+) and Ca(2+) currents, and impaired axonal transport. In this study dendritic Ca(2+) entry was investigated using two photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and whole-cell patch-clamp of juvenile (P4-11) motoneurons. Neurons were filled with both Ca(2+) Green-1 and Texas Red dextrans, and line scans performed throughout. Steps were taken to account for different sources of variability, including (1) dye filling and laser penetration, (2) dendritic anatomy, and (3) the time elapsed from the start of recording. First, Ca(2+) Green-1 fluorescence was normalized by Texas Red; next, neurons were reconstructed so anatomy could be evaluated; finally, time was recorded. Customized software detected the largest Ca(2+) transients (area under the curve) from each line scan and matched it with parameters above. Overall, larger dendritic diameter and shorter path distance from the soma were significant predictors of larger transients, while time was not significant up to 2 h (data thereafter was dropped). However, Ca(2+) transients showed additional variability. Controlling for previous factors, significant variation was found between Ca(2+) signals from different processes of the same neuron in 3/7 neurons. This could reflect differential expression of Ca(2+) channels, local neuromodulation or other variations. Finally, Ca(2+) transients in SOD1(G93A) motoneurons were significantly smaller than in non-transgenic motoneurons. In conclusion, motoneuron processes show highly variable Ca(2+) transients, but these transients are smaller overall in SOD1(G93A) motoneurons. PMID:25914627

  14. A human brain tumor-derived PDGFR-alpha deletion mutant is transforming.

    PubMed

    Clarke, I D; Dirks, P B

    2003-02-01

    Aberrant receptor tyrosine kinase signaling plays an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of brain tumors. We have been studying a previously identified human glioblastoma-derived PDGFR-alpha mutant that has an in-frame deletion in the extracellular domain, causing loss of exons 8 and 9 (PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9)). In the primary tumor, this deletion mutant receptor was shown to be amplified and overexpressed. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression, activity, localization, and transformation properties of this deletion mutant. In the absence of serum, or PDGF-AA, PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9) was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, indicating ligand-independent autoactivation. Localization by staining and cell surface biotinylation studies revealed expression of the deletion mutant predominantly in the cytoplasm, with very little present on the cell surface. To determine if PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9) was oncogenic, we transfected wild-type and mutant receptors into Rat1 cells and performed analyses of cell growth, in vitro transformation, and subcutaneous growth in the nude mouse. PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9)-expressing cells displayed enhanced cell growth and survival in low serum, and formed foci in monolayer cultures. PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9)-expressing Rat1 cells were also tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Expression of PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9) was also associated with increased c-Jun phosphorylation in the absence of PDGF ligand, demonstrating also that the mutant receptor is associated with altered intracellular signaling. These data demonstrate that PDGFR-alpha(delta8,9) is transforming, and it is the first demonstration of a naturally occurring tumor-derived mutant PDGFR-alpha with oncogenic properties. PMID:12569364

  15. Recent progress towards an effective treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using the SOD1 mouse model in a preclinical setting.

    PubMed

    Browne, Elisse C; Abbott, Belinda M

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disorder. Motor neurone degeneration can be caused by genetic mutation but the exact etiology of the disease, particularly for sporadic illness, still remains unclear. Therapeutics which target known pathogenic mechanisms involved in ALS, such as protein aggregation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria dysfunction, are currently being pursued in order to provide neuroprotection which may be able to slow down, or perhaps even halt, disease progression. This present review focuses on the compounds which have been recently evaluated using the SOD1 mouse model, the most widely used preclinical model for ALS research. PMID:27012524

  16. Transcriptional profiling of human smooth muscle cells infected with gingipain and fimbriae mutants of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boxi; Sirsjö, Allan; Khalaf, Hazem; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is considered to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of different virulence factors produced by P. gingivalis in this process is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional profiling of human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) infected with wild type, gingipain mutants or fimbriae mutants of P. gingivalis. AoSMCs were exposed to wild type (W50 and 381), gingipain mutants (E8 and K1A), or fimbriae mutants (DPG-3 and KRX-178) of P. gingivalis. We observed that wild type P. gingivalis changes the expression of a considerable larger number of genes in AoSMCs compare to gingipain and fimbriae mutants, respectively. The results from pathway analysis revealed that the common differentially expressed genes for AoSMCs infected by 3 different wild type P. gingivalis strains were enriched in pathways of cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and MAPK signaling pathway. Disease ontology analysis showed that various strains of P. gingivalis were associated with different disease profilings. Our results suggest that gingipains and fimbriae, especially arginine-specific gingipain, produced by P. gingivalis play important roles in the association between periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. PMID:26907358

  17. Transcriptional profiling of human smooth muscle cells infected with gingipain and fimbriae mutants of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Boxi; Sirsjö, Allan; Khalaf, Hazem; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is considered to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of different virulence factors produced by P. gingivalis in this process is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional profiling of human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) infected with wild type, gingipain mutants or fimbriae mutants of P. gingivalis. AoSMCs were exposed to wild type (W50 and 381), gingipain mutants (E8 and K1A), or fimbriae mutants (DPG-3 and KRX-178) of P. gingivalis. We observed that wild type P. gingivalis changes the expression of a considerable larger number of genes in AoSMCs compare to gingipain and fimbriae mutants, respectively. The results from pathway analysis revealed that the common differentially expressed genes for AoSMCs infected by 3 different wild type P. gingivalis strains were enriched in pathways of cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and MAPK signaling pathway. Disease ontology analysis showed that various strains of P. gingivalis were associated with different disease profilings. Our results suggest that gingipains and fimbriae, especially arginine-specific gingipain, produced by P. gingivalis play important roles in the association between periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. PMID:26907358

  18. Time-Point Dependent Activation of Autophagy and the UPS in SOD1G93A Mice Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Oliván, Sara; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Gasco, Samanta; Muñoz, María Jesús; Zaragoza, Pilar; Osta, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons together with a progressive muscle weakness. Albeit the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease remain unknown, growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle can be a target of ALS toxicity. In particular, the two main intracellular degradation mechanisms, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome degradative system (UPS) have been poorly studied in this tissue. In this study we investigated the activation of autophagy and the UPS as well as apoptosis in the skeletal muscle from SOD1G93A mice along disease progression. Our results showed a significant upregulation of proteasome activity at early symptomatic stage, while the autophagy activation was found at presymptomatic and terminal stages. The mRNA upregulated levels of LC3, p62, Beclin1, Atg5 and E2f1 were only observed at symptomatic and terminal stages, which reinforced the time-point activation of autophagy. Furthermore, no apoptosis activation was observed along disease progression. The combined data provided clear evidence for the first time that there is a time-point dependent activation of autophagy and UPS in the skeletal muscle from SOD1G93A mice. PMID:26244336

  19. Activation of AMPK attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury by upregulation of PGC1α and SOD1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guizuo; Song, Yang; Feng, Wei; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Yanting; Xie, Xinming; Pan, Yilin; Ke, Rui; Li, Shaojun; Li, Fangwei; Yang, Lan; Li, Manxiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that an imbalance between oxidation and antioxidation is involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to inhibit the occurrence of ALI/ARDS. However, it is unknown whether activation of AMPK benefits ALI/ARDS by restoration of the oxidant and antioxidant balance, and which mechanisms are responsible for this process. The present study aimed to address these issues. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pronounced pathological changes of ALI in mice; these were accompanied by elevated production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with control mice. Prior treatment of mice with the AMPK agonist metformin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced development of ALI, reduced the elevation of MDA and increased the activity of SOD. Further analysis indicated that activation of AMPK also stimulated the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This study suggests that activation of AMPK by metformin inhibits oxidative stress by upregulation of PGC1α and SOD1, thereby suppressing the development of ALI/ARDS, and has potential value in the clinical treatment of such conditions. PMID:27602077

  20. Experimental therapy of human glioma by means of a genetically engineered virus mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Martuza, R.L.; Malick, A.; Markert, J.M.; Ruffner, K.L.; Coen, D.M. )

    1991-05-10

    Malignant gliomas are the most common malignant brain tumors and are almost always fatal. A thymidine kinase-negative mutant of herpes simplex virus-1 (dlsptk) that is attenuated for neurovirulence was tested as a possible treatment for gliomas. In cell culture, dlsptk killed two long-term human glioma lines and three short-term human glioma cell populations. In nude mice with implanted subcutaneous and subrenal U87 human gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk caused growth inhibition. In nude mice with intracranial U87 gliomas, intraneoplastic inoculation of dlsptk prolonged survival. Genetically engineered viruses such as dlsptk merit further evaluation as novel antineoplastic agents.

  1. A novel 10-base pair insertion mutation in exon 5 of the SOD1 gene in a Chinese family with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyu; Li, Mao; Zhu, Wenjia; Mao, Fengbiao; Wang, Jiesi; Sun, Zhongsheng; Huang, Xusheng

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease. Several genes are associated with ALS. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in ALS, and more than 160 mutations in SOD1 have been reported. We reported a novel heterozygous insertion mutation that led to a frameshift and a premature termination at position 136 in exon 5 of the SOD1 gene (c.392_393insGCAAAGGTGG; p.N132Qfs*5) in a Chinese familial ALS pedigree. This mutation in the pedigree demonstrated an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and a phenotype characterized by an early onset (approximately 34 years old) with a relatively rapid course (approximately 2 years) and limb onset with respiratory involvement. The clinical feature of the p.N132Qfs*5 mutation was nearly identical to a previously reported mutation (Gly127insTGGG). Experiments in G127X mice demonstrated that the G127X mutation was pathogenic. SOD1 activity in the p.N132Qfs*5 mutation carriers in the family decreased significantly compared with normal family members. In conclusion, we identified a novel SOD1 mutation in an ALS family, which is an important addition to the catalog of SOD1 mutations in ALS. PMID:27297615

  2. GLT1 overexpression in SOD1(G93A) mouse cervical spinal cord does not preserve diaphragm function or extend disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hala, Tamara J; Seetharam, Suneil; Poulsen, David J; Wright, Megan C; Lepore, Angelo C

    2015-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by relatively rapid degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons, with death normally occurring 2-5years following diagnosis primarily due to respiratory paralysis resulting from phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) loss and consequent diaphragm denervation. In ALS, cellular abnormalities are not limited to MNs. For example, decreased levels and aberrant functioning of the major central nervous system (CNS) glutamate transporter, GLT1, occur in spinal cord and motor cortex astrocytes of both humans with ALS and in SOD1(G93A) rodents, a widely studied ALS animal model. This results in dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis and consequent glutamate excitotoxicity, a primary mechanism responsible for MN loss in ALS animal models and in the human disease. Given these observations of GLT1 dysfunction in areas of MN loss, as well as the importance of testing therapeutic strategies for preserving PhMNs in ALS, we evaluated intraspinal delivery of an adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8)-Gfa2 vector to the cervical spinal cord ventral horn of SOD1(G93A) ALS mice for focally restoring intraspinal GLT1 expression. AAV8 was specifically injected into the ventral horn bilaterally throughout the cervical enlargement at 110days of age, a clinically-relevant time point coinciding with phenotypic/symptomatic disease onset. Intraspinal delivery of AAV8-Gfa2-GLT1 resulted in robust transduction primarily of GFAP(+) astrocytes that persisted until disease endstage, as well as a 2-3-fold increase in total intraspinal GLT1 protein expression in the ventral horn. Despite this robust level of astrocyte transduction and GLT1 elevation, GLT1 overexpression did not protect PhMNs, preserve histological PhMN innervation of the diaphragm NMJ, or prevent decline in diaphragmatic respiratory function as assessed by phrenic nerve-diaphragm compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recordings compared to control AAV8-Gfa2-eGFP injected

  3. Pharmacological NAD-Boosting Strategies Improve Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Human Complex I-Mutant Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Felici, Roberta; Lapucci, Andrea; Cavone, Leonardo; Pratesi, Sara; Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are devastating genetic diseases for which efficacious therapies are still an unmet need. Recent studies report that increased availability of intracellular NAD obtained by inhibition of the NAD-consuming enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 or supplementation with the NAD-precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) ameliorates energetic derangement and symptoms in mouse models of mitochondrial disorders. Whether these pharmacological approaches also improve bioenergetics of human cells harboring mitochondrial defects is unknown. It is also unclear whether the same signaling cascade is prompted by PARP-1 inhibitors and NR supplementation to improve mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we show that human fibroblasts mutant for the NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1 (NDUFS1) subunit of respiratory complex I have similar ATP, NAD, and mitochondrial content compared with control cells, but show reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, mutant cells also show increased transcript levels of mitochondrial DNA but not nuclear DNA respiratory complex subunits, suggesting activation of a compensatory response. At variance with prior work in mice, however, NR supplementation, but not PARP-1 inhibition, increased intracellular NAD content in NDUFS1 mutant human fibroblasts. Conversely, PARP-1 inhibitors, but not NR supplementation, increased transcription of mitochondrial transcription factor A and mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes constitutively induced in mutant cells. Still, both NR and PARP-1 inhibitors restored mitochondrial membrane potential and increased organelle content as well as oxidative activity of NDUFS1-deficient fibroblasts. Overall, data provide the first evidence that in human cells harboring a mitochondrial respiratory defect exposure to NR or PARP-1, inhibitors activate different signaling pathways that are not invariantly prompted by NAD increases, but equally able to improve energetic

  4. Effectors and potential targets selectively upregulated in human KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinyu; Sordella, Raffaella; Powers, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and proteomic analysis of human tumor samples can provide an important compliment to information obtained from model systems. Here we examined protein and gene expression from the Cancer Genome and Proteome Atlases (TCGA and TCPA) to characterize proteins and protein-coding genes that are selectively upregulated in KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas. Phosphoprotein activation of several MAPK signaling components was considerably stronger in KRAS-mutants than any other group of tumors, even those with activating mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and BRAF. Co-occurring mutations in KRAS-mutants were associated with differential activation of PDK1 and PKC-alpha. Genes showing strong activation in RNA-seq data included negative regulators of RTK/RAF/MAPK signaling along with potential oncogenic effectors including activators of Rac and Rho proteins and the receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase genes PTPRM and PTPRE. These results corroborate RAF/MAPK signaling as an important therapeutic target in KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas and pinpoint new potential targets. PMID:27301828

  5. Conformational stability and warfarin-binding properties of human serum albumin studied by recombinant mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, H; Kragh-Hansen, U; Tanase, S; Nakajou, K; Mitarai, M; Iwao, Y; Maruyama, T; Otagiri, M

    2001-01-01

    Correctly folded recombinant wild-type human serum albumin and the single-residue mutants K199A, W214A, R218H and H242Q were produced with the use of a yeast expression system. The changes in R218H resulted in a pronounced decrease in intrinsic fluorescence. Thermodynamic parameters for thermal denaturation of the present mutants and of five additional mutants have been determined, showing small increases in stability for two mutants (R218H and H242Q) and a larger decrease in stability for one (W214A). In the last of these, denaturation was a heterogeneous process starting at physiological temperature. The high-affinity binding constant for warfarin at pH 7.4 was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy: there was a significant increase in affinity for binding of warfarin to H242Q and K199A and a smaller decrease in affinity for W214A and R218H. The findings show that Trp-214 is not as essential for the high-affinity binding of warfarin as has previously been thought. PMID:11415459

  6. Cross-triggered and cascaded recycling amplification for ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing of the mutant human p53 gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuiyun; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Based on an endonuclease-assisted, cross-triggered and cascaded recycling amplification strategy, the construction of a simple electrochemical sensing platform for the ultrasensitive detection of the mutant p53 gene in human serum is described. Using this new signal amplification approach, the sub-femtomolar level of the mutant p53 gene can be selectively detected. PMID:27331773

  7. Group II archaeal chaperonin recognition of partially folded human γD-crystallin mutants.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Oksana A; Yang, Jingkun; King, Jonathan A; Knee, Kelly M

    2014-06-01

    The features in partially folded intermediates that allow the group II chaperonins to distinguish partially folded from native states remain unclear. The archaeal group II chaperonin from Methanococcus Mauripaludis (Mm-Cpn) assists the in vitro refolding of the well-characterized β-sheet lens protein human γD-crystallin (HγD-Crys). The domain interface and buried cores of this Greek key conformation include side chains, which might be exposed in partially folded intermediates. We sought to assess whether particular features buried in the native state, but absent from the native protein surface, might serve as recognition signals. The features tested were (a) paired aromatic side chains, (b) side chains in the interface between the duplicated domains of HγD-Crys, and (c) side chains in the buried core which result in congenital cataract when substituted. We tested the Mm-Cpn suppression of aggregation of these HγD-Crys mutants upon dilution out of denaturant. Mm-Cpn was capable of suppressing the off-pathway aggregation of the three classes of mutants indicating that the buried residues were not recognition signals. In fact, Mm-Cpn recognized the HγD-Crys mutants better than (wild-type) WT and refolded most mutant HγD-Crys to levels twice that of WT HγD-Crys. This presumably represents the increased population or longer lifetimes of the partially folded intermediates of the mutant proteins. The results suggest that Mm-Cpn does not recognize the features of HγD-Crys tested-paired aromatics, exposed domain interface, or destabilized core-but rather recognizes other features of the partially folded β-sheet conformation that are absent or inaccessible in the native state of HγD-Crys. PMID:24615724

  8. Human Sco1 functional studies and pathological implications of the P174L mutant

    PubMed Central

    Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Leontari, Iliana; Martinelli, Manuele; Palumaa, Peep; Sillard, Rannar; Wang, Shenlin

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenic mutant (P174L) of human Sco1 produces respiratory chain deficiency associated with cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) assembly defects. The solution structure of the mutant in its Cu(I) form shows that Leu-174 prevents the formation of a well packed hydrophobic region around the metal-binding site and causes a reduction of the affinity of copper(I) for the protein. KD values for Cu(I)WT-HSco1 and Cu(I)P174L-HSco1 are ≈10−17 and ≈10−13, respectively. The reduction potentials of the two apo proteins are similar, but slower reduction/oxidation rates are found for the mutant with respect to the WT. The mitochondrial metallochaperone in the partially oxidized Cu1(I)Cox172S-S form, at variance with the fully reduced Cu4(I)Cox17, interacts transiently with both WT-HSco1 and the mutant, forming the Cox17/Cu(I)/HSco1 complex, but copper is efficiently transferred only in the case of WT protein. Cu1(I)Cox172S-S indeed has an affinity for copper(I) (KD ≈ 10−15) higher than that of the P174L-HSco1 mutant but lower than that of WT-HSco1. We propose that HSco1 mutation, altering the structure around the metal-binding site, affects both copper(I) binding and redox properties of the protein, thus impairing the efficiency of copper transfer to CcO. The pathogenic mutation therefore could (i) lessen the Sco1 affinity for copper(I) and hence copper supply for CcO or (ii) decrease the efficiency of reduction of CcO thiols involved in copper binding, or both effects could be produced by the mutation. PMID:17182746

  9. Group II archaeal chaperonin recognition of partially folded human γD-crystallin mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sergeeva, Oksana A; Yang, Jingkun; King, Jonathan A; Knee, Kelly M

    2014-01-01

    The features in partially folded intermediates that allow the group II chaperonins to distinguish partially folded from native states remain unclear. The archaeal group II chaperonin from Methanococcus Mauripaludis (Mm-Cpn) assists the in vitro refolding of the well-characterized β-sheet lens protein human γD-crystallin (HγD-Crys). The domain interface and buried cores of this Greek key conformation include side chains, which might be exposed in partially folded intermediates. We sought to assess whether particular features buried in the native state, but absent from the native protein surface, might serve as recognition signals. The features tested were (a) paired aromatic side chains, (b) side chains in the interface between the duplicated domains of HγD-Crys, and (c) side chains in the buried core which result in congenital cataract when substituted. We tested the Mm-Cpn suppression of aggregation of these HγD-Crys mutants upon dilution out of denaturant. Mm-Cpn was capable of suppressing the off-pathway aggregation of the three classes of mutants indicating that the buried residues were not recognition signals. In fact, Mm-Cpn recognized the HγD-Crys mutants better than (wild-type) WT and refolded most mutant HγD-Crys to levels twice that of WT HγD-Crys. This presumably represents the increased population or longer lifetimes of the partially folded intermediates of the mutant proteins. The results suggest that Mm-Cpn does not recognize the features of HγD-Crys tested—paired aromatics, exposed domain interface, or destabilized core—but rather recognizes other features of the partially folded β-sheet conformation that are absent or inaccessible in the native state of HγD-Crys. PMID:24615724

  10. Depressed excitability and ion currents linked to slow exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gallardo, Enrique; de Pascual, Ricardo; Fernández-Morales, José-Carlos; Arranz-Tagarro, Juan-Alberto; Maroto, Marcos; Nanclares, Carmen; Gandía, Luis; de Diego, Antonio M G; Padín, Juan-Fernando; García, Antonio G

    2015-01-01

    Altered synaptic transmission with excess glutamate release has been implicated in the loss of motoneurons occurring in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Hyperexcitability or hypoexcitability of motoneurons from mice carrying the ALS mutation SOD1(G93A) (mSOD1) has also been reported. Here we have investigated the excitability, the ion currents, and the kinetics of the exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells from postnatal day 90 to postnatal day 130 mSOD1 mice, when motor deficits are already established. With respect to wild-type (WT), mSOD1 chromaffin cells had a decrease in the following parameters: 95% in spontaneous action potentials, 70% in nicotinic current for acetylcholine (ACh), 35% in Na(+) current, 40% in Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current, and 53% in voltage-dependent K(+) current. Ca(2+) current was increased by 37%, but the ACh-evoked elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) was unchanged. Single exocytotic spike events triggered by ACh had the following differences (mSOD1 vs. WT): 36% lower rise rate, 60% higher decay time, 51% higher half-width, 13% lower amplitude, and 61% higher quantal size. The expression of the α3-subtype of nicotinic receptors and proteins of the exocytotic machinery was unchanged in the brain and adrenal medulla of mSOD1, with respect to WT mice. A slower fusion pore opening, expansion, and closure are likely linked to the pronounced reduction in cell excitability and in the ion currents driving action potentials in mSOD1, compared with WT chromaffin cells. PMID:25377090

  11. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid. PMID:19117321

  12. Quantitative assessment of hsp70, IL-1β and TNF-α in the spinal cord of dogs with E40K SOD1-associated degenerative myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Lovett, M C; Coates, J R; Shu, Y; Oglesbee, M J; Fenner, W; Moore, S A

    2014-05-01

    Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disease commonly associated with an E40K missense mutation in the SOD1 gene. DM has many similarities to some familial forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and may serve as an important disease model for therapy development. Pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and heat shock protein (hsp) 70 play a role in the pathogenesis of ALS. The focus of the current work was to determine whether an inflammatory phenotype is present in canine DM as defined by IL-1β, TNF-α, and hsp70 responses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and spinal cord tissue. Concentrations of hsp70, IL-1β and TNF-α were below the limits of detection by ELISA in the CSF of both normal and DM-affected dogs. Immunohistochemical staining for hsp70 was significantly increased in ependymal cells lining the spinal cord central canal of DM-affected dogs (P = 0.003). This was not associated with increased IL-1β or TNF-α staining, but was associated with increased CD18 staining in the gray matter of DM-affected dogs. These results suggest that hsp70 in spinal cord tissue is a potential inflammatory signature in canine DM. PMID:24662024

  13. Femtosecond Fluorescence Spectra of Tryptophan in Human γ-Crystallin Mutants: Site-Dependent Ultrafast Quenching

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Jiejin; Toptygin, Dmitri; Tcherkasskaya, Olga; Callis, Patrik; King, Jonathan; Brand, Ludwig; Knutson, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    The eye lens crystallin proteins are subject to UV irradiation throughout life, and the photochemistry of damage proceeds through the excited state; thus, their tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence lifetimes are physiologically important properties. The time resolved fluorescence spectra of single Trps in human γD- and γS-crystallins have been measured with both an upconversion spectrophotofluorometer on the 300fs to 100ps time scale, and a time correlated single photon counting apparatus on the 100ps to 10ns time scale, respectively. Three Trps in each wild type protein were replaced by phenylalanine, leading to single-Trp mutants: W68-only and W156-only of HγD- and W72-only and W162-only of HγS-crystallin. These proteins exhibit similar ultrafast signatures: positive definite decay associated spectra (DAS) for 50 – 65ps decay constants that indicate dominance of fast, heterogeneous quenching. The quenched population (judged by amplitude) of this DAS differs among mutants. Trps 68, 156 in human γD- and Trp72 in human γS-crystallin are buried, but water can reach amide oxygen and ring HE1 atoms through narrow channels. QM-MM simulations of quenching by electron transfer predict heterogeneous decay times from 50–500 ps that agree with our experimental results. Further analysis of apparent radiative lifetimes allow us to deduce that substantial subpopulations of Trp are fully quenched in even faster (sub-300 fs) processes for several of the mutants. The quenching of Trp fluorescence of human γD- and γS-crystallin may protect them from ambient light induced photo damage. PMID:19919143

  14. Enhancement of P53-Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wenshu; Lee Yijang; Yu Yichu; Hsaio Chinghui

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to ascertain the protein levels of {gamma}-H2AX, phospho-Chk2, active caspase-3, PARP cleavage, phospho-p38, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2. Results: Fisetin pretreatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells but not human keratocyte HaCaT cells; it also prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, enhanced radiation-induced cell growth arrest in HT-29 cells, and suppressed radiation-induced phospho-H2AX (Ser-139) and phospho-Chk2 (Thr-68) in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with fisetin enhanced radiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Fisetin pretreatment augmented radiation-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in caspase-mediated apoptosis, and SB202190 significantly reduced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in fisetin-pretreated HT-29 cells. By contrast, both phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, which are involved in cell proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways, were suppressed after irradiation combined with fisetin pretreatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence that fisetin exerts a radiosensitizing effect in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Fisetin could potentially be developed as a novel radiosensitizer against radioresistant human cancer cells.

  15. Interactions of Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP Mutant with Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Nadia L.; Gomez, Ana B.; Neyrolles, Olivier; Gicquel, Brigitte; Martin, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis phoP mutant SO2 derived from a clinical isolate was shown to be attenuated in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and in vivo mouse infection model and has demonstrated a high potential as attenuated vaccine candidate against tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyze the adhesion and the intracellular growth and trafficking of SO2 in human macrophages. Our results indicate an enhanced adhesion to phagocitic cells and impaired intracellular replication of SO2 in both monocyte-derived macrophages and human cell line THP-1 in comparison with the wild type strain, consistent with murine model. Intracellular trafficking analysis in human THP-1 cells suggest that attenuation of SO2 within macrophages could be due to an impaired ability to block phagosome-lysosome fusion compared with the parental M. tuberculosis strain. No differences were found between SO2 and the wild-type strains in the release and mycobacterial susceptibility to nitric oxide (NO) produced by infected macrophages. Conclusions/Significance SO2 has enhanced ability to bind human macrophages and differs in intracellular trafficking as to wild-type M. tuberculosis. The altered lipid profile expression of the phoP mutant SO2 and its inability to secrete ESAT-6 is discussed. PMID:20885976

  16. Effects of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (sod1) Genotype and Genetic Background on Growth, Reproduction and Defense in Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kaitlin M.; Bayne, Christopher J.; Larson, Maureen K.; Blouin, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to the trematode Schistosoma mansoni is correlated with allelic variation at copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod1). We tested whether there is a fitness cost associated with carrying the most resistant allele in three outbred laboratory populations of snails. These three populations were derived from the same base population, but differed in average resistance. Under controlled laboratory conditions we found no cost of carrying the most resistant allele in terms of fecundity, and a possible advantage in terms of growth and mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to drive resistant alleles of sod1 into natural populations of the snail vector for the purpose of controlling transmission of S. mansoni. However, we did observe a strong effect of genetic background on the association between sod1 genotype and resistance. sod1 genotype explained substantial variance in resistance among individuals in the most resistant genetic background, but had little effect in the least resistant genetic background. Thus, epistatic interactions with other loci may be as important a consideration as costs of resistance in the use of sod1 for vector manipulation. PMID:22724037

  17. Trophic and proliferative effects of Shh on motor neurons in embryonic spinal cord culture from wildtype and G93A SOD1 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The developmental morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) may continue to play a trophic role in the support of terminally-differentiated motor neurons, of potential relevance to motor neuron disease. In addition, it may support the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous stem cells along motor neuronal lineages. As such, we have examined the trophic and proliferative effects of Shh supplementation or Shh antagonism in embryonic spinal cord cell cultures derived from wildtype or G93A SOD1 mice, a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Results Shh supported survival, and stimulated growth of motor neurons, neurite outgrowth, and neurosphere formation in primary culture derived from both G93A SOD1 and WT mice. Shh increased the percentage of ciliated motor neurons, especially in G93A SOD1 culture. Shh-treated cultures showed increased neuronal proliferation compared to controls and especially cyclopamine treated cultures, from G93A SOD1 and WT mice. Moreover, Shh enhanced cell survival and differentiation of motor neuron precursors in WT culture. Conclusions Shh is neurotrophic to motor neurons and has mitogenic effects in WT and mSOD1 G93A culture in vitro. PMID:24119209

  18. Mutant p53 cooperates with ETS and selectively up-regulates human MDR1 not MRP1.

    PubMed

    Sampath, J; Sun, D; Kidd, V J; Grenet, J; Gandhi, A; Shapiro, L H; Wang, Q; Zambetti, G P; Schuetz, J D

    2001-10-19

    The most frequently expressed drug resistance genes, MDR1 and MRP1, occur in human tumors with mutant p53. However, it was unknown if mutant p53 transcriptionally regulated both MDR1 and MRP1. We demonstrated that mutant p53 did not activate either the MRP1 promoter or the endogenous gene. In contrast, mutant p53 strongly up-regulated the MDR1 promoter and expression of the endogenous MDR1 gene. Notably, cells that expressed either a transcriptionally inactive mutant p53 or the empty vector showed no endogenous MDR1 up-regulation. Transcriptional activation of the MDR1 promoter by mutant p53 required an Ets binding site, and mutant p53 and Ets-1 synergistically activated MDR1 transcription. Biochemical analysis revealed that Ets-1 interacted exclusively with mutant p53s in vivo but not with wild-type p53. These findings are the first to demonstrate the induction of endogenous MDR1 by mutant p53 and provide insight into the mechanism. PMID:11483599

  19. Production of functional small interfering RNAs by an amino-terminal deletion mutant of human Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Edward M.; Whisnant, Adam W.; Kornepati, Anand V. R.; Marshall, Joy B.; Bogerd, Hal P.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Although RNA interference (RNAi) functions as a potent antiviral innate-immune response in plants and invertebrates, mammalian somatic cells appear incapable of mounting an RNAi response and few, if any, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can be detected. To examine why siRNA production is inefficient, we have generated double-knockout human cells lacking both Dicer and protein kinase RNA-activated. Using these cells, which tolerate double-stranded RNA expression, we show that a mutant form of human Dicer lacking the amino-terminal helicase domain can process double-stranded RNAs to produce high levels of siRNAs that are readily detectable by Northern blot, are loaded into RNA-induced silencing complexes, and can effectively and specifically inhibit the expression of cognate mRNAs. Remarkably, overexpression of this mutant Dicer, but not wild-type Dicer, also resulted in a partial inhibition of Influenza A virus—but not poliovirus—replication in human cells. PMID:26621737

  20. Receptor tyrosine kinases exert dominant control over PI3K signaling in human KRAS mutant colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ebi, Hiromichi; Corcoran, Ryan B.; Singh, Anurag; Chen, Zhao; Song, Youngchul; Lifshits, Eugene; Ryan, David P.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Benes, Cyril; Settleman, Jeffrey; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Cantley, Lewis C.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Therapies inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are effective against some human cancers when they lead to simultaneous downregulation of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling. However, mutant KRAS has the capacity to directly activate ERK and PI3K signaling, and this is thought to underlie the resistance of KRAS mutant cancers to RTK inhibitors. Here, we have elucidated the molecular regulation of both the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells and identified combination therapies that lead to robust cancer cell apoptosis. KRAS knockdown using shRNA suppressed ERK signaling in all of the human KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cell lines examined. However, no decrease, and actually a modest increase, in AKT phosphorylation was often seen. By performing PI3K immunoprecipitations, we determined that RTKs, often IGF-IR, regulated PI3K signaling in the KRAS mutant cell lines. This conclusion was also supported by the observation that specific RTK inhibition led to marked suppression of PI3K signaling and biochemical assessment of patient specimens. Interestingly, combination of RTK and MEK inhibitors led to concomitant inhibition of PI3K and MEK signaling, marked growth suppression, and robust apoptosis of human KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro and upon xenografting in mice. These findings provide a framework for utilizing RTK inhibitors in the treatment of KRAS mutant colorectal cancers. PMID:21985784

  1. Gene expression changes in spinal motoneurons of the SOD1G93A transgenic model for ALS after treatment with G-CSF

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Alexandre; Kastner, Stefan; Chatzikonstantinou, Eva; Pitzer, Claudia; Plaas, Christian; Kirsch, Friederike; Wafzig, Oliver; Krüger, Carola; Spoelgen, Robert; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Gretz, Norbert; Schneider, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable fatal motoneuron disease with a lifetime risk of approximately 1:400. It is characterized by progressive weakness, muscle wasting, and death ensuing 3–5 years after diagnosis. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a drug candidate for ALS, with evidence for efficacy from animal studies and interesting data from pilot clinical trials. To gain insight into the disease mechanisms and mode of action of G-CSF, we performed gene expression profiling on isolated lumbar motoneurons from SOD1G93A mice, the most frequently studied animal model for ALS, with and without G-CSF treatment. Results: Motoneurons from SOD1G93A mice present a distinct gene expression profile in comparison to controls already at an early disease stage (11 weeks of age), when treatment was initiated. The degree of deregulation increases at a time where motor symptoms are obvious (15 weeks of age). Upon G-CSF treatment, transcriptomic deregulations of SOD1G93A motoneurons were notably restored. Discriminant analysis revealed that SOD1 mice treated with G-CSF has a transcriptom close to presymptomatic SOD1 mice or wild type mice. Some interesting genes modulated by G-CSF treatment relate to neuromuscular function such as CCR4-NOT or Prss12. Conclusions: Our data suggest that G-CSF is able to re-adjust gene expression in symptomatic SOD1G93A motoneurons. This provides further arguments for G-CSF as a promising drug candidate for ALS. PMID:25653590

  2. Early gene expression changes in skeletal muscle from SOD1(G93A) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis animal model.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriela P; Maximino, Jessica R; Maschietto, Mariana; Zanoteli, Edmar; Puga, Renato D; Lima, Leandro; Carraro, Dirce M; Chadi, Gerson

    2014-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. Familial ALS is strongly associated to dominant mutations in the gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Recent evidences point to skeletal muscle as a primary target in the ALS mouse model. Wnt/PI3 K signaling pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have important roles in maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle. Wnt/PI3 K pathways and EMT gene expression profile were investigated in gastrocnemius muscle from SOD1(G93A) mouse model and age-paired wild-type control in the presymptomatic ages of 40 and 80 days aiming the early neuromuscular abnormalities that precede motor neuron death in ALS. A customized cDNA microarray platform containing 326 genes of Wnt/PI3 K and EMT was used and results revealed eight up-regulated (Loxl2, Pik4ca, Fzd9, Cul1, Ctnnd1, Snf1lk, Prkx, Dner) and nine down-regulated (Pik3c2a, Ripk4, Id2, C1qdc1, Eif2ak2, Rac3, Cds1, Inppl1, Tbl1x) genes at 40 days, and also one up-regulated (Pik3ca) and five down-regulated (Cd44, Eef2 k, Fzd2, Crebbp, Piki3r1) genes at 80 days. Also, protein-protein interaction networks grown from the differentially expressed genes of 40 and 80 days old mice have identified Grb2 and Src genes in both presymptomatic ages, thus playing a potential central role in the disease mechanisms. mRNA and protein levels for Grb2 and Src were found to be increased in 80 days old ALS mice. Gene expression changes in the skeletal muscle of transgenic ALS mice at presymptomatic periods of disease gave further evidence of early neuromuscular abnormalities that precede motor neuron death. The results were discussed in terms of initial triggering for neuronal degeneration and muscle adaptation to keep function before the onset of symptoms. PMID:24442855

  3. Superoxide dismutases, SOD1 and SOD2, play a distinct role in the fat body during pupation in silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Yosui; Ito, Katsuhiko; Ono, Hiromasa; Nakazato, Takeru; Bono, Hidemasa; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Sato, Ryoichi; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Satoh, Jun-ichi; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Fugo, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    One way that aerobic biological systems counteract the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is with superoxide dismutase proteins SOD1 and SOD2 that metabolize superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide or scavenge oxygen radicals produced by the extensive oxidation-reduction and electron-transport reactions that occur in mitochondria. We characterized SOD1 and SOD2 of Bombyx mori isolated from the fat body of larvae. Immunological analysis demonstrated the presence of BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 in the silk gland, midgut, fat body, Malpighian tubules, testis and ovary from larvae to adults. We found that BmSOD2 had a unique expression pattern in the fat body through the fifth instar larval developmental stage. The anti-oxidative functions of BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 were assessed by exposing larvae to insecticide rotenone or vasodilator isosorbide dinitrate, which is an ROS generator in BmN4 cells; however, exposure to these compounds had no effect on the expression levels of either BmSOD protein. Next, we investigated the physiological role of BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 under environmental oxidative stress, applied through whole-body UV irradiation and assayed using quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and microarray analysis. The mRNA expression level of both BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 was markedly increased but protein expression level was increased only slightly. To examine the differences in mRNA and protein level due to UV irradiation intensity, we performed microarray analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that genes in the insulin signaling pathway and PPAR signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after 6 and 12 hours of UV irradiation. Taken together, the activities of BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 may be related to the response to UV irradiation stress in B. mori. These results suggest that BmSOD1 and BmSOD2 modulate environmental oxidative stress in the cell and have a specific role in fat body of B. mori during pupation. PMID:25714339

  4. Human Neural Stem Cell Replacement Therapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by Spinal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hefferan, Michael P.; Galik, Jan; Kakinohana, Osamu; Sekerkova, Gabriela; Santucci, Camila; Marsala, Silvia; Navarro, Roman; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Johe, Karl; Feldman, Eva; Cleveland, Don W.; Marsala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutation in the ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (SOD1) causes an inherited form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Mutant synthesis in motor neurons drives disease onset and early disease progression. Previous experimental studies have shown that spinal grafting of human fetal spinal neural stem cells (hNSCs) into the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1G93A rats leads to a moderate therapeutical effect as evidenced by local α-motoneuron sparing and extension of lifespan. The aim of the present study was to analyze the degree of therapeutical effect of hNSCs once grafted into the lumbar spinal ventral horn in presymptomatic immunosuppressed SOD1G93A rats and to assess the presence and functional integrity of the descending motor system in symptomatic SOD1G93A animals. Methods/Principal Findings Presymptomatic SOD1G93A rats (60–65 days old) received spinal lumbar injections of hNSCs. After cell grafting, disease onset, disease progression and lifespan were analyzed. In separate symptomatic SOD1G93A rats, the presence and functional conductivity of descending motor tracts (corticospinal and rubrospinal) was analyzed by spinal surface recording electrodes after electrical stimulation of the motor cortex. Silver impregnation of lumbar spinal cord sections and descending motor axon counting in plastic spinal cord sections were used to validate morphologically the integrity of descending motor tracts. Grafting of hNSCs into the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1G93A rats protected α-motoneurons in the vicinity of grafted cells, provided transient functional improvement, but offered no protection to α-motoneuron pools distant from grafted lumbar segments. Analysis of motor-evoked potentials recorded from the thoracic spinal cord of symptomatic SOD1G93A rats showed a near complete loss of descending motor tract conduction, corresponding to a significant (50–65%) loss of large caliber descending motor axons. Conclusions/Significance These data

  5. Introduction of yeast artificial chromosomes containing mutant human amyloid precursor protein genes into transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Call, L.M.; Lamb, B.T.; Boese, K.F.

    1994-09-01

    Several hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed for the generation and deposition of the amyloid beta (A{beta}) peptide in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). These include overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene, as suggested by Down Syndrome (DS, trisomy 21), and mutation of APP, as suggested by mutations associated with the presence of disease/amyloid deposition in some cases of familial AD (FAD). Although numerous in vitro studies have lead to certain insights into the molecular basis for amyloid deposition, the mechanisms(s) of amyloidogenesis in vivo remains poorly defined. To examine the effect of FAD mutations on amyloidogenesis in an animal model, we have focused on producing APP YAC transgenic mice containing the human APP gene with FAD mutations. These APP YAC transgenics are being produced by introduction of a 650 kb APP YAC through lipid-mediated transfection of ES cells. This strategy has two principal advantages: the APP genomic sequences contain transcriptional regulatory elements required for proper spatial and temporal expression and contain appropriate splice donor and acceptor sites needed to generate the entire spectrum of alternatively spliced APP transcripts. As a first step, we cloned the genomic regions surrounding APP exons 16 and 17 from an APP YAC sublibrary. Both the Swedish and the 717 mutations were then introduced into exons 16 and 17, respectively, by PCR mutagenesis, and subsequently transferred into the 650 kb APP YAC by a two step gene replacement in yeast. The mutant YACs have been introduced into ES cells, and we have determined that these cells are expressing human mutant APP mRNA and protein. These cells are being used to generate transgenic mice. This paradigm should provide the appropriate test of whether a mutant APP gene is capable of producing AD-like pathology in a mouse model.

  6. The silkworm mutant lemon (lemon lethal) is a potential insect model for human sepiapterin reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Katsuma, Susumu; Daimon, Takaaki; Banno, Yutaka; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

    2009-04-24

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for aromatic acid hydroxylases, which control the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters. BH4 deficiency has been associated with many neuropsychological disorders. An inherited defect in BH4 biosynthesis is caused by the deficiency of sepiapterin reductase (SPR), which catalyzes the biosynthesis of BH4 from guanosine triphosphate at the terminal step. The human SPR gene has been mapped at the PARK3 locus, which is related to the onset of Parkinson disease. In this study, we report that mutant strains, lemon (lem) and its lethal allele lemon lethal (lem(1)) with yellow body coloration, of the silkworm Bombyx mori could be used as the first insect model for human SPR deficiency diseases. We demonstrated that mutations in the SPR gene (BmSpr) were responsible for the irregular body coloration of lem and lem(l). Moreover, biochemical analysis revealed that SPR activity in lem(l) larvae was almost completely diminished, resulting in a lethal phenotype that the larvae cannot feed and that die immediately after the first ecdysis. Oral administration of BH4 and dopamine to lem(l) larvae effectively increased their survival rates and feeding abilities. Our data demonstrate that BmSPR plays a crucial role in the generation of BH4, and monoamine neurotransmitters in silkworms and the lem (lem(l)) mutant strains will be an invaluable resource to address many questions regarding SPR and BH4 deficiencies. PMID:19246455

  7. Resveratrol Ameliorates Motor Neuron Degeneration and Improves Survival in SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lin; Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Jia; Le, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol has recently been used as a supplemental treatment for several neurological and nonneurological diseases. It is not known whether resveratrol has neuroprotective effect on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To assess the effect of resveratrol on the disease, we tested this agent on an ALS model of SOD1G93A transgenic mouse. Rotarod measurement was performed to measure the motor function of the ALS mice. Nissl staining and SMI-32 immunofluorescent staining were used to determine motor neurons survival in the spinal cord of the ALS mice. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome oxidase (COX) staining were applied to pathologically analyze the skeletal muscles of the ALS mice. We found that resveratrol treatment significantly delayed the disease onset and prolonged the lifespan of the ALS mice. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment attenuated motor neuron loss, relieved muscle atrophy, and improved mitochondrial function of muscle fibers in the ALS mice. In addition, we demonstrated that resveratrol exerted these neuroprotective effects mainly through increasing the expression of Sirt1, consequently suppressing oxidative stress and downregulating p53 and its related apoptotic pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol might provide a promising therapeutic intervention for ALS. PMID:25057490

  8. Defining peripheral nervous system dysfunction in the SOD-1G93A transgenic rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riva, Nilo; Chaabane, Linda; Peviani, Marco; Ungaro, Daniela; Domi, Teuta; Dina, Giorgia; Bianchi, Francesca; Spano, Giorgia; Cerri, Federica; Podini, Paola; Corbo, Massimo; Carro, Ubaldo Del; Comi, Giancarlo; Bendotti, Caterina; Quattrini, Angelo

    2014-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that alterations within the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are involved at an early stage in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenetic cascade. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurophysiologic analyses, and histologic analyses were used to monitor the extent of PNS damage in the hSOD-1 ALS rat model. The imaging signature of the disease was defined using in vivo MRI of the sciatic nerve. Initial abnormalities were detected in the nerves by an increase in T2 relaxation time before the onset of clinical disease; diffusion MRI showed a progressive increase in mean and radial diffusivity and reduction of fractional anisotropy at advanced stages of disease. Histologic analysis demonstrated early impairment of the blood-nerve barrier followed by acute axonal degeneration associated with endoneurial edema and macrophage response in motor nerve compartments. Progressive axonal degeneration and motor nerve fiber loss correlated with MRI and neurophysiologic changes. These functional and morphologic investigations of the PNS might be applied in following disease progression in preclinical therapeutic studies. This study establishes the PNS signature in this rat ALS model (shedding new light into pathogenesis) and provides a rationale for translating into future systematic MRI studies of PNS involvement in patients with ALS. PMID:24918640

  9. Mechanics of actin networks crosslinked with mutant human α-actinin-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, Sabine; Blair, Daniel; Kasza, Karen; Weitz, David

    2007-03-01

    Globular actin can be polymerized in vitro to form F-actin in the presence of various binding proteins. These networks often exhibit dramatic nonlinear rheological response to imposed strains. We study the rheological properties of F-actin networks crosslinked with human α-actinin-4. A single genetic mutation of the α-actinin-4 protein is associated with focal and segmented glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), a genetic disorder which leads to renal failure. Mechanically, the mutant crosslinker has an increased binding strength compared to the wild type. We will show that human α-actinin-4, displays a unique stiffening response. Moreover, we also demonstrate that a single point mutation dramatically effects the inherent relaxation time of the crosslinked network.

  10. Tryptophan 32 potentiates aggregation and cytotoxicity of a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mutant associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David M; Gibbs, Bernard F; Kabashi, Edor; Minotti, Sandra; Durham, Heather D; Agar, Jeffrey N

    2007-06-01

    One familial form of the neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1). This study provides in vivo evidence that normally occurring oxidative modification to SOD-1 promotes aggregation and toxicity of mutant proteins. The oxidation of Trp-32 was identified as a normal modification being present in both wild-type enzyme and SOD-1 with the disease-causing mutation, G93A, isolated from erythrocytes. Mutating Trp-32 to a residue with a slower rate of oxidative modification, phenylalanine, decreased both the cytotoxicity of mutant SOD-1 and its propensity to form cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons of dissociated mouse spinal cord cultures. PMID:17389599