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Sample records for human oral cancer

  1. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  3. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  4. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  5. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is advanced Other symptoms may include: Chewing problems Mouth sores that may bleed Pain with swallowing Speech difficulties ... Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may ... bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: Gum biopsy ...

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  7. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  9. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  10. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer. PMID:27482300

  11. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions. PMID:26317688

  12. Role of human papillomavirus and tumor suppressor genes in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Manvikar, Vardendra; Kulkarni, Rama; Koneru, Anila; Vanishree, M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high and is associated with many deaths in both Western and Asian countries. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are now well known, including smoking, drinking and consumption of smokeless tobacco products. Genetic predisposition to oral cancer has been found in certain cases, but its components are not yet entirely clear. In accordance with the multi-step theory of carcinogenesis, the natural history of oral cancer seems to gradually evolve through transitional precursor lesions from normal epithelium to a full-blown metastatic phenotype. A number of genomic lesions accompany this transformation and a wealth of related results has appeared in recent literature and is being summarized here. Furthermore, several key genes have been implicated, especially well-known tumor suppressors such as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, TP53 and RB1 and oncogenes such as the cyclin family, epidermal growth factor receptor and RAS. Viral infections, particularly oncogenic human papillomavirus subtypes and Epstein-Barr virus, can have a tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia and their role is discussed, along with potential therapeutic interventions. A brief explanatory theoretical model of oral carcinogenesis is provided and potential avenues for further research are highlighted. PMID:27194871

  13. Role of human papillomavirus and tumor suppressor genes in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manvikar, Vardendra; Kulkarni, Rama; Koneru, Anila; Vanishree, M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high and is associated with many deaths in both Western and Asian countries. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are now well known, including smoking, drinking and consumption of smokeless tobacco products. Genetic predisposition to oral cancer has been found in certain cases, but its components are not yet entirely clear. In accordance with the multi-step theory of carcinogenesis, the natural history of oral cancer seems to gradually evolve through transitional precursor lesions from normal epithelium to a full-blown metastatic phenotype. A number of genomic lesions accompany this transformation and a wealth of related results has appeared in recent literature and is being summarized here. Furthermore, several key genes have been implicated, especially well-known tumor suppressors such as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, TP53 and RB1 and oncogenes such as the cyclin family, epidermal growth factor receptor and RAS. Viral infections, particularly oncogenic human papillomavirus subtypes and Epstein–Barr virus, can have a tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia and their role is discussed, along with potential therapeutic interventions. A brief explanatory theoretical model of oral carcinogenesis is provided and potential avenues for further research are highlighted. PMID:27194871

  14. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  15. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  16. Strategies for Developing Oral Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Induced Cancer using Nanoparticle mediated Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kouzi, Samir A; Hussain, Muhammad Delwar

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small non-enveloped DNA viruses. Some HPVs are classified as low-risk as they are very rarely associated with neoplasia or cancer in the general population, and cause lenient warts. Other HPVs are considered as high-risk types because they are responsible for several important human cancers, including cervical cancer, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Transmission of HPV occurs primarily by skin-to-skin contact. The risk of contracting genital HPV infection and cervical cancer is influenced by sexual activity. Currently two prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil® (Merck, USA) and Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), are available and recommended for mass immunization of adolescents. However, these vaccines have limitations as they are expensive and require cold chain storage and trained personnel to administer them by injection. The use of nano or micro particulate vaccines could address most of these limitations as they are stable at room temperature, inexpensive to produce and distribute to resource poor regions, and can be administered orally without the need for adjuvants in the formulation. Also it is possible to increase the efficiency of these particulate vaccines by decorating the surface of the nano or micro particulates with suitable ligands for targeted delivery. Oral vaccines, which can be delivered using particulate formulations, have the added potential to stimulate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue located in the digestive tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, both of which are important for the induction of effective mucosal response against many viruses. In addition, oral vaccines provide the opportunity to reduce production and administration costs and are very patient compliant. This review elaborately discusses different strategies that can be pursued to develop a nano or micro particulate oral vaccine for HPV induced cancers and

  17. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  18. Data from human salivary proteome – A resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan, Priya; Kumar Gupta, Manoj; Sathe, Gajanan J.; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Palit, Priyanka; Gowda, Harsha; Suresh, Amritha; Abraham Kuriakose, Moni; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Salivary proteins are an important source for developing marker-based assays for oral cancers. To get an insight into the proteins present in human saliva, we applied multiple strategies involving affinity-based depletion of abundant proteins, fractionation of the resulting proteins or their tryptic peptides followed by LC–MS/MS analysis, using high resolution mass spectrometry. By integrating the protein identifications observed by us with those from similar workflows employed in earlier investigations, we compiled an updated salivary proteome. We have mapped the salivary proteome to the published data on differentially expressed proteins from oral cancer tissues and also for their secretory features using prediction tools, SignalP 4.1, TMHMM 2c and Exocarta. Proteotypic peptides for the subset of proteins implicated in oral cancer and mapped to any two of the prediction tools for secretory potential have been listed. The data here are related to the research article “Human saliva proteome – a resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer” in the Journal of Proteomics [1]. PMID:26217819

  19. SL-01, an oral gemcitabine derivative, inhibited human cancer growth more potently than gemcitabine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Cuirong; Yue, Bin; Liu, Huiping; Sun, Cuicui; Li, Wenbao; Qu, Xianjun

    2012-08-01

    SL-01, an oral gemcitabine derivative, was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl)pyrazine-2-carbonyl at the N4-position on the cytidine ring of gemcitabine. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on the growth of human cancers with gemcitabine as control. Experiments were performed on human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 and colon cancer HCT-116 both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays, SL-01 significantly inhibited the growth of cancer cells as determined by the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Further studies indicated that SL-01 induced the cancer cells to apoptosis showing chromatin condensation and externalization of phosphatidylserine. In in vivo studies, we evaluated the efficacy of SL-01 in nude mice bearing human cancer xenografts. SL-01 effectively delayed the growth of NCI-H460 and HCT-116 without significant loss of body weight. Molecular analysis indicated that the high efficacy of SL-01 was associated with its ability to induce apoptosis as evidenced by increase of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining cells, activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in tumor tissues. SL-01 also increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in cancer cells. These biological activities of SL-01 were more potential than that of gemcitabine. Based on these in vitro and in vivo results, SL-01 is proposed as a potent oral anticancer agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine in the clinic. -- Highlights: ► An oral gemcitabine derivative SL-01 was synthesized. ► The effects of SL-01 were evaluated and its efficacy was compared with gemcitabine. ► The biological activities of SL-01 were more potent than that of gemcitabine. ► SL-01 could replace gemcitabine for clinical use.

  20. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  1. SL-01, an oral derivative of gemcitabine, inhibited human breast cancer growth through induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Qin, Yi-Zhuo; Wang, Rui-Qi; Li, Wen-Bao; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine. •SL-01 possessed activity against human breast cancer growth via apoptotic induction. •SL-01’s activity was more potently than that of gemcitabine. •SL-01 inhibited cancer growth without toxicity to mice. -- Abstract: SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine that was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl) pyrazine-2-carbonyl at N4-position on cytidine ring of gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on human breast cancer growth. SL-01 significantly inhibited MCF-7 proliferation as estimated by colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry assay indicated the apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. SL-01 modulated the expressions of p-ATM, p53 and p21 and decrease of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 cells. Further experiments were performed in a MCF-7 xenografts mouse model. SL-01 by oral administration strongly inhibited MCF-7 xenografts growth. This effect of SL-01 might arise from its roles in the induction of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the increase of TUNEL staining cells. Western blotting indicated the modulation of apoptotic proteins in SL-01-treated xenografts. During the course of study, there was no evidence of toxicity to mice. In contrast, the decrease of neutrophil cells in peripheral and increase of AST and ALT levels in serum were observed in the gemcitabine-treated mice. Conclusion: SL-01 possessed similar activity against human breast cancer growth with gemcitabine, whereas, with lower toxicity to gemcitabine. SL-01 is a potent oral agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine.

  2. Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

    2014-11-01

    Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

  3. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  4. High-risk human papillomavirus in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV) detection system. Results Out of 70 women with cervical cancer, four (5.71%) were found to be positive for HR-HPV in their oral cavity. No association of HR-HPV was found with sociodemographic profile, marital status, reproductive history, tobacco and alcohol usage, contraceptive pills usage, and presence of oral lesions (p>0.05). Among children, HR-HPV in the oral cavity was detected in only 1 of the 46 subjects examined (2.17%). Clinically healthy oral mucosa, without any oral lesions, was observed in all the HR-HPV positive subjects. Conclusion The result of this study showed that there is low, if any, risk of HR-HPV infection in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer. Further, our study suggests that there is very low risk for children of women with cervical cancer, to acquire and sustain HR-HPV in their oral cavity until childhood or adolescence. PMID:20550718

  5. Licochalcone A induces apoptosis in KB human oral cancer cells via a caspase-dependent FasL signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    KIM, JAE-SUNG; PARK, MI-RA; LEE, SOOK-YOUNG; KIM, DO KYOUNG; MOON, SUNG-MIN; KIM, CHUN SUNG; CHO, SEUNG SIK; YOON, GOO; IM, HEE-JEONG; YOU, JAE-SEEK; OH, JI-SU; KIM, SU-GWAN

    2014-01-01

    Licochalcone A (Lico-A) is a natural phenol licorice compound with multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and osteogenesis-inducing properties. In the present study, we investigated the Lico-A-induced apoptotic effects and examined the associated apoptosis pathway in KB human oral cancer cells. Lico-A decreased the number of viable KB oral cancer cells. However, Lico-A did not have an effect on primary normal human oral keratinocytes. In addition, the IC50 value of Lico-A was determined to be ~50 μM following dose-dependent stimulation. KB oral cancer cells stimulated with Lico-A for 24 h showed chromatin condensation by DAPI staining, genomic DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and a gradually increased apoptotic cell population by FACS analysis. These data suggest that Lico-A induces apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells. Additionally, Lico-A-induced apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells was mediated by the expression of factor associated suicide ligand (FasL) and activated caspase-8 and −3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, in the KB oral cancer cells co-stimulation with a caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) and Lico-A significantly abolished the apoptotic phenomena. Our findings demonstrated that Lico-A-induced apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells involves the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, which involves a caspase-dependent FasL-mediated death receptor pathway. Our data suggest that Lico-A be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for the management of oral cancer. PMID:24337492

  6. Black tea polyphenols reverse epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppress cancer invasion and proteases in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Ni; Chu, Shu-Chen; Lin, Chin-Yin; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

    2012-08-29

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells is considered to be a prerequisite for acquiring invasive/migratory phenotype and subsequent metastasis. This study provides molecular evidence associated with the antimetastatic effect of black tea polyphenol extracts (BTE), which contain polyphenols including gallic acid, gallocatechin, catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin-3-gallate, and theaflavin 3,3'-digallate, in an an oral squamous cell culture system by showing a nearly complete inhibition on the invasion (p < 0.001) of SCC-4 cells via reduced activities of MMP-2 (p < 0.001) and u-PA (p < 0.001). Immunoblot was performed to find that BTE could induce up-regulation of epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and inhibit mesenchymal markers such as snail-1 and vimentin. BTE inhibited p-FAK and p-paxillin, indicating the anti-EMT effect of BTE in oral squamous cell carcinoma. BTE was evidenced by its inhibition of the tumor growth of SCC-4 cells via cancer cell xenografted nude mice mode. These results suggested that BTE could reduce invasion by reversing EMT in human oral cancer cells. PMID:22827697

  7. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  8. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  9. In vivo detection of oral epithelial cancer using endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging: a pilot human study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Javier A.; Hwang, Dae Yon; Palma, Jorge; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Malik, Bilal; Jabbour, Joey; Cheng, Lisa; Wright, John; Maitland, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) provides direct access to the concomitant functional and biochemical changes accompanying tissue transition from benign to precancerous and cancerous. Since FLIM can noninvasively measure different and complementary biomarkers of precancer and cancer, we hypothesize that it will aid in clinically detecting early oral epithelial cancer. Our group has recently demonstrated the detection of benign from premalignant and malignant lesions based on endogenous multispectral FLIM in the hamster cheek-pouch model. Encouraged by these positive preliminary results, we have developed a handheld endoscope capable of acquiring multispectral FLIM images in real time from the oral mucosa. This novel FLIM endoscope is being used for imaging clinically suspicious pre-malignant and malignant lesions from patients before undergoing tissue biopsy for histopathological diagnosis of oral epithelial cancer. Our preliminary results thus far are already suggesting the potential of endogenous FLIM for distinguishing a variety of benign lesions from advanced dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To the best of out knowledge, this is the first in vivo human study aiming to demonstrate the ability to predict the true malignancy of clinically suspicious lesions using endogenous FLIM. If successful, the resulting clinical tool will allow noninvasive real-time detection of epithelial precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral mucosa and could potentially be used to assist at every step involved on the clinical management of oral cancer patients, from early screening and diagnosis, to treatment and monitoring of recurrence.

  10. Oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the staging of oral cancers. Imaging information is essential for determining tumour resectibility, post resection surgical reconstruction and radiation therapy planning. The aim of this paper is to highlight the natural history of oral cancer spread and how malignant infiltration can be accurately mapped. It focuses on buccal mucosa, hard palate, tongue and floor of mouth carcinoma. PMID:16361136

  11. Imaging in oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist. PMID:23599568

  12. PTHrP promotes malignancy of human oral cancer cell downstream of the EGFR signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tamaki; Tsuda, Masumi; Ohba, Yusuke Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2008-04-11

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is detected in many aggressive tumors and involved in malignant conversion; however, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here, we identified PTHrP as a mediator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to promote the malignancies of oral cancers. PTHrP mRNA was abundantly expressed in most of the quiescent oral cancer cells, and was significantly upregulated by EGF stimulation via ERK and p38 MAPK. PTHrP silencing by RNA interference, as well as EGFR inhibitor AG1478 treatment, significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, combined treatment of AG1478 and PTHrP knockdown achieved synergistic inhibition of malignant phenotypes. Recombinant PTHrP substantially promoted cell motility, and rescued the inhibition by PTHrP knockdown, suggesting the paracrine/autocrine function of PTHrP. These data indicate that PTHrP contributes to the malignancy of oral cancers downstream of EGFR signaling, and may thus provide a therapeutic target for oral cancer.

  13. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  14. Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brian L; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M; Queiroz, Erica L S; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A Ross; DeLacure, Mark D; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B; Albertson, Donna G

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  15. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  16. Anti-Cancer Effects of Imperata cylindrica Leaf Extract on Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cell Line SCC-9 in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Keshava, Rohini; Muniyappa, Nagesh; Gope, Rajalakshmi; Ramaswamaiah, Ananthanarayana Saligrama

    2016-01-01

    Imperata cylindrica, a tall tufted grass which has multiple pharmacological applications is one of the key ingredients in various traditional medicinal formula used in India. Previous reports have shown that I. cylindrica plant extract inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. To our knowledge, no studies have been published on the effect of I. cylindrica leaf extract on human oral cancers. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the anticancer properties of the leaf extract of I. cylindrica using an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCC-9 as an in vitro model system. A methanol extract from dried leaves of I. cylindrica (ICL) was prepared by standard procedures. Effects of the ICL extract on the morphology of SCC-9 cells was visualized by microscopy. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. Effects of the ICL extract on colony forming ability of SCC-9 cells was evaluated using clonogenic assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and induction of apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation assay. The ICL extract treatment caused cytotoxicity and induced cell death in vitro in SCC-9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This treatment also significantly reduced the clonogenic potential and inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assays showed that the observed cell death was caused by apoptosis. This is the first report showing the anticancer activity of the methanol extracts from the leaves of I. cylindrica in human oral cancer cell line. Our data indicates that ICL extract could be considered as one of the lead compounds for the formulation of anticancer therapeutic agents to treat/manage human oral cancers. The natural abundance of I. cylindrica and its wide geographic distribution could render it one of the primary resource materials for preparation of anticancer therapeutic agents. PMID:27221872

  17. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Cancer starts when cells in ... the parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

  18. Aetiology of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, A W; Marnewick, J C

    2012-11-01

    The terms Oral cancer (OC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are used interchangeably, as more than 95% of all OCs are OSCCs. Worldwide up to 275 000 new cases of OC are seen every year. Most of these cases are seen in developing countries such as South Africa. Up to 50% of all patients living with OC will die within five years, and this survival rate has not improved over the last few decades. Tobacco and alcohol usage account for up to 75% of all OC cases. As these causative factors can be avoided, all oral health workers should be aware of the aetiology of OC so that sound preventive advice may be given to their patients. Infections and nutrition play a lesser but still important role in the aetiology of OC. This article reviews the importance of the aetiology of OC, with the emphasis on tobacco and alcohol. PMID:23957094

  19. Management of oral cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. E.; Langdon, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Oral cancer is a serious disease that is on the increase. The most pressing need is early recognition and referral for specialist treatment. Too many cases present with advanced tumours. Radiotherapy and surgery remain the primary modalities of curative treatment, but understanding of tumour pathology and developments in surgical and radiotherapeutic technique have combined to produce a rational approach to management. In many instances 'radical' methods of surgical access can be combined with a more 'conservative' resection of the mandible or cervical lymph nodes. One-stage reconstructive procedures, often incorporating osteotomy techniques, miniature bone plating and free tissue transfer, have minimised the morbidity and functional deficit so often seen after earlier operations. All surgeons involved in the modern management of oral cancer should have expertise in these techniques or be part of a team which can provide them. PMID:8540656

  20. Human Papillomavirus as an Independent Predictor in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dan; Xu, Qin-gan; Chen, Xin-ming; Fan, Ming-wen

    2009-01-01

    Aim There is an increasing evidence for the role of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relevance of HPV infection to the survival and prognosis of OSCC. Methodology Fifty-two patients with OSCC were followed from 4 to 88 months with a median of 50.7 months. HPV DNA was identified in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens by nested PCR with MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ primer pairs and the HPV genotype was determined by direct DNA sequencing. Association between the HPV status and risk factors for cancer as well as tumor-host characteristics were analyzed. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed using the log-rank test. Results HPV was found in 40.4% of the tumors with HPV16 accounting for 63.5%, HPV18 for 30.8%, HPV6 for 3.9% and HPV11 for 1.8%. No infection with more than one HPV genotype was detected. HPV infection was significantly associated with poor histological grade, TNM stage I–II, alcohol usage and no smoking status. Multi-variate analysis showed that HPV had an independent prognostic effect on the overall survival after adjusting other confounding factors such as histological grade, TNM stage and tobacco usage. The presence of HPV was significantly correlated with a better survival in patients with OSCC. Conclusion HPV infection can act as an independent predictor for the survival and prognosis of OSCC. PMID:20695077

  1. Development of an orally-administrative MELK-targeting inhibitor that suppresses the growth of various types of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Suyoun; Suzuki, Hanae; Miyamoto, Takashi; Takamatsu, Naofumi; Tatsuguchi, Ayako; Ueda, Koji; Kijima, Kyoko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuo, Yo

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported MELK (maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase) as a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer. MELK was also reported to be highly upregulated in multiple types of human cancer. It was implied to play indispensable roles in cancer cell survival and indicated its involvement in the maintenance of tumor-initiating cells. We conducted a high-throughput screening of a compound library followed by structure-activity relationship studies, and successfully obtained a highly potent MELK inhibitor OTSSP167 with IC₅₀ of 0.41 nM. OTSSP167 inhibited the phosphorylation of PSMA1 (proteasome subunit alpha type 1) and DBNL (drebrin-like), which we identified as novel MELK substrates and are important for stem-cell characteristics and invasiveness. The compound suppressed mammosphere formation of breast cancer cells and exhibited significant tumor growth suppression in xenograft studies using breast, lung, prostate, and pancreas cancer cell lines in mice by both intravenous and oral administration. This MELK inhibitor should be a promising compound possibly to suppress the growth of tumor-initiating cells and be applied for treatment of a wide range of human cancer. PMID:23283305

  2. Phase 1b Food Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-15

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage 0 Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Laryngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer; Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVA

  3. A targeted proteomic strategy for the measurement of oral cancer candidate biomarkers in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Rebeca; Bollinger, James G.; Rivera, César; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P.; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), are the sixth most common malignancy in the world and are characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate. Saliva is oral fluid with intimate contact with OSCC. Besides non-invasive, simple, and rapid to collect, saliva is a potential source of biomarkers. In this study, we build an SRM assay that targets fourteen OSCC candidate biomarker proteins, which were evaluated in a set of clinically-derived saliva samples. Using Skyline software package, we demonstrated a statistically significant higher abundance of the C1R, LCN2, SLPI, FAM49B, TAGLN2, CFB, C3, C4B, LRG1, SERPINA1 candidate biomarkers in the saliva of OSCC patients. Furthermore, our study also demonstrated that CFB, C3, C4B, SERPINA1 and LRG1 are associated with the risk of developing OSCC. Overall, this study successfully used targeted proteomics to measure in saliva a panel of biomarker candidates for OSCC. PMID:26552850

  4. A targeted proteomic strategy for the measurement of oral cancer candidate biomarkers in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Rebeca; Bollinger, James G; Rivera, César; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Paes Leme, Adriana F; MacCoss, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), are the sixth most common malignancy in the world and are characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate. Saliva is oral fluid with intimate contact with OSCC. Besides non-invasive, simple, and rapid to collect, saliva is a potential source of biomarkers. In this study, we build an SRM assay that targets fourteen OSCC candidate biomarker proteins, which were evaluated in a set of clinically-derived saliva samples. Using Skyline software package, we demonstrated a statistically significant higher abundance of the C1R, LCN2, SLPI, FAM49B, TAGLN2, CFB, C3, C4B, LRG1, SERPINA1 candidate biomarkers in the saliva of OSCC patients. Furthermore, our study also demonstrated that CFB, C3, C4B, SERPINA1 and LRG1 are associated with the risk of developing OSCC. Overall, this study successfully used targeted proteomics to measure in saliva a panel of biomarker candidates for OSCC. PMID:26552850

  5. Epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Christine H.; Bagheri, Ashley; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to cause a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Data regarding oral HPV infection is limited but emerging. HPV infection of the genital tract has been more thoroughly researched and helps inform our understanding of oral HPV infection. In this article we review current data on HPV prevalence, natural history, mode of acquisition, and risk factors for oral HPV infection. PMID:24080455

  6. Multifunctional effects of honokiol as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drug in human oral squamous cancer cells and xenograft.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Hyoung; Jeon, Young-Joo; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Jung, Seunggon; Park, Hongju; Ryu, Joohyun; Chen, Hanyong; Dong, Zigang; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of honokiol (HK) in two oral squamous cancer cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, HN22 and HSC4, through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 (ERp44). Griess assay, zymography, and quantitative PCR were performed to study iNOS expression and subsequent nitric oxide (NO) production in OSCC cell lines. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis was used to elucidate the proteins associated with ER stress and cellular cytotoxic response induced by HK. Pull-down assay and molecular modeling were performed to better understand how HK interacts with ERp44. In vitro and in vivo experiments in which ERp44 expression was knocked down were performed to better understand the effects of ERp44 on a cellular level and anti-cancer effects of HK. Expression levels of iNOS and subsequent NO secretion were reduced in OSCC cell lines treated with HK. ERp44 was significantly decreased in OSCC cell lines by HK treatment. HK directly bound to ERp44, and ERp44 knock-down significantly inhibited oral cancer cell proliferation and colony formation. Moreover, HK treatment effectively inhibited tumor growth and ERp44 levels in BALB/c nude mice bearing HN22 cell xenografts. Our findings suggest that HK inhibited inflammation and induced apoptosis by suppressing both iNOS/NO and ERp44 expression in HN22 and HSC4 cells and xenograft tumors, and thus could be a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drug candidate for human oral cancer treatment. PMID:25890726

  7. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

  8. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  9. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control. PMID:27521039

  10. Dehydroandrographolide, an iNOS inhibitor, extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-13

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide (DA) are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. and are the main contributors to its therapeutic properties. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide (DA) remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. In addition, DA increased LC3-II expression and reduced p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. DA-induced autophagy was triggered by an activation of JNK1/2 and an inhibition of Akt and p38. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DA induced autophagy in human oral cancer cells by modulating p53 expression, activating JNK1/2, and inhibiting Akt and p38. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer. PMID:26356821

  11. Dehydroandrographolide, an iNOS inhibitor, extracted from from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide (DA) are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. and are the main contributors to its therapeutic properties. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide (DA) remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. In addition, DA increased LC3-II expression and reduced p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. DA-induced autophagy was triggered by an activation of JNK1/2 and an inhibition of Akt and p38. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DA induced autophagy in human oral cancer cells by modulating p53 expression, activating JNK1/2, and inhibiting Akt and p38. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer. PMID:26356821

  12. Kinesin Family member 4A: A Potential Predictor for Progression of Human Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Koike, Hirofumi; Higo, Morihiro; Nakashima, Dai; Kouzu, Yukinao; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A), a microtubule-based motor protein, was implicated in regulation of chromosomal structure and kinetochore microtubule dynamics. Considering the functions of KIF4A, we assumed that KIF4A is involved in progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) via activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, little is known about the relevance of KIF4A in the behavior of OSCC. We investigated the KIF4A expression status and its functional mechanisms in OSCC. Methods The KIF4A expression levels in seven OSCC-derived cells were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. Using a KIF4A knockdown model, we assessed the expression of (SAC)-related molecules (BUB1, MAD2, CDC20, and cyclin B1), cell-cycle, and cellular proliferation. In addition to in vitro data, the clinical correlation between the KIF4A expression levels in primary OSCCs (n = 106 patients) and the clinicopathologic status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) also were evaluated. Results KIF4A mRNA and protein were up-regulated significantly (P < 0.05) in seven OSCC-derived cells compared with human normal oral keratinocytes. In the KIF4A knockdown cells, SAC activation was observed via increased BUB1 expression on the kinetochores, appropriate kinetochore localization of MAD2, down-regulation of CDC20, up-regulation of cyclin B1, and cell-cycle arrested at G2/M phase. The results showed that cellular proliferation of KIF4A knockdown cells decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with control cells. IHC showed that KIF4A expression in primary OSCCs was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in the normal oral counterparts and that KIF4A-positive OSCCs were correlated closely (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Conclusions Our results proposed for the first time that KIF4A controls cellular proliferation via SAC activation. Therefore, KIF4A might be a key regulator for tumoral progression in OSCCs. PMID

  13. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  14. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... South Asia and Southeast Asia, including China and India. Personal history of head and neck cancer A ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  15. Oral Cancer Chernoprevention: Current Status and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Messadi, Diana V; Sato, Kazumichi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to review the current status of cancer chemoprevention and its effectiveness in treatment of oral premalignant lesions and prevention of their progression to oral cancer. The challenges encountered in the different oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials, including lack of surrogate endpoints, reversal of histologic premalignant changes as study endpoints, tobacco use, human papillomavirus, delivery system, adverse effects and risk of bias in clinical studies, are presented. PMID:26930753

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  17. Estimation of Nickel in Different Smokeless Tobacco Products and Their Impact on Human Health of Oral Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam S; Sahito, Oan M

    2015-01-01

    It has been extensively investigated that the chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products may enhance the inflammation of the oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between nickel (Ni) exposure via different SLT products with oral cancer (different sites) incidence in the population of Sindh, Pakistan. The different brands of SLT products (mainpuri, gutkha, and moist snuff) commonly consumed by the studied population were analyzed for Ni contents. The biological samples of oral cancer patients and noncancerous control subjects of both genders, who have or have not consumed SLT products, were collected. The concentration of Ni in biological samples and SLT products were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the Ni level was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). The study suggested that exposure of Ni as a result of chewing different SLT products may be synergistic with risk factors associated with oral cancer. PMID:26368676

  18. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  19. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  20. Clinical implications of epigenetic regulation in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Wendy; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2015-12-01

    Oral cancer is a high incidence cancer which is of major public health concern in India being the most common cancer in males and fifth most common cancer in females in India, contributing to 26% of the global oral cancer burden. The major risk factors of oral cancer are tobacco, alcohol and high risk Human Papilloma Virus type 16/18. However, only 3-12% of the high risk individuals with dysplasia develop oral cancer. Thus, individual genomic variants representing the genomic constitution and epigenetic alterations play a critical role in the development of oral cancer. Extensive epigenetic studies on the molecular lesions including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, genes associated with apoptosis, DNA damage repair have been reported. The current review highlights epigenetic regulation with a focus on molecular biomarkers and epidrug therapy in oral cancer. Epigenetic regulation by hypermethylation, histone modifications and specific microRNAs are often associated with early events and advanced stages in oral cancer, and thus indicate epidrug therapy for intervention. The presence of epigenetic marks in oral lesions, cancers and tumor associated mucosa emphasizes indications as biomarkers and epidrugs with therapeutic potential for better patient management. PMID:26421863

  1. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597

  2. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597

  3. Viral and molecular aspects of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillbertz, Nicolette Salmon; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Jalouli, Jamshid; Jalouli, Miranda M; Sand, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. SCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, virus infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. Herein, we review the available literature regarding high-risk factors such as alcohol and tobacco usage; discuss the roles of human papillomaviruses (HPV), the Epstein-Barr virus, and the human herpes simplex virus (HSV); and evaluate several candidate genes associated with the condition: p53, p16(INK4) and p21(WAF1/CIPI), survivin, B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), keratins, Fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3), FGF4, FGF19, Oral cancer overexpressed gene 1 (ORAOV1), and Cyclin D1 (CCND1). PMID:23060540

  4. Chemoprevention of oral cancer in animal models, and effect on leukoplakias in human patients with ZengShengPing, a mixture of medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Guan, Xiaobing; Li, Ning; Liu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2010-02-01

    ZengShengPing (ZSP), a mixture of six medicinal herbs, has been reported to prevent esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in human patients with dysplasia. This study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive effects of ZSP on oral cancer in animal models and human patients. In the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch model, ZSP (6g/kgBW/day by gavage for 10 weeks) significantly reduced the number of visible tumor, the tumor volume, and the incidence of SCC (P<0.01). Two biomarkers associated with cell proliferation, silver stained nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling index, were also significantly suppressed by ZSP treatment (P<0.01). In the 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced oro-esophageal cancer model in mice, ZSP (10% in diet) also significantly reduced the incidence of tongue SCC from 55.2% (16/29) to 22.2% (6/27) (P<0.05), and slightly reduced the incidence of esophageal SCC from 34.5% (10/29) to 22.2% (6/27). Furthermore, in a randomized clinical trial on patients with oral leukoplakia, ZSP (4 tablets, 3 times per day for 8-12months) reduced the size of oral lesion in 67.8% (40/59) patients, whereas the placebo was effective in 17% (9/53) patients (P<0.01). Such an effect was associated with significant decrease of AgNOR and PCNA-labeling index. In summary, our studies have demonstrated the chemopreventive effects of ZSP on two animal models of oral cancer, and human patients with oral leukoplakia. PMID:20022553

  5. Oral Cancer and Oral Precancerous Lesions in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Roda, Giulia; Brygo, Alexandre; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include age over 40, male sex, several dietary factors, nutritional deficiencies, viruses, sexually transmitted infections, human papillomavirus, chronic irritation, and possibly genetic predisposition. Precancerous lesions in the oral cavity include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and lichen planus. Histology of oral cancer varies widely but the great majority are squamous cell carcinomas.Epidemiological studies and cancer registries have shown a consistently increased risk of oral malignancies in kidney, bone marrow, heart, or liver transplantation, in graft vs host disease, and in patients with HIV infection. Because of the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, it is useful to more accurately delineate the consequences of chronic immunosuppression to the oral cavity. Oral cancer and precancerous oral lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have been scarcely reported and reviews on the topic are lacking.We conducted a literature search using the terms and variants of all cancerous and precancerous oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases. By retrieving the existing literature, it is evident that patients with IBD belong to the high-risk group of developing these lesions, a phenomenon amplified by the increasing HPV prevalence. Education on modifiable risk behaviours in patients with oral cancer is the cornerstone of prevention.Oral screening should be performed for all IBD patients, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or biological drug. PMID:26163301

  6. Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, A. Murali; Sriraman, Rajkumari; Sindhuja, P.; Mohideen, Khadijah; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Muhamed Haris, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid in the early diagnosis of oral cancer. Now a day's many adjunctive oral cancer screening techniques are available for the early diagnosis of cancer. Among these, autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool. These techniques are broadly discussed in this review. PMID:26538880

  7. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A.; Ding, Haiming

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  8. Oral targeted therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Christine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656

  9. Regulation of Apoptotic Effects by Erythrocarpine E, a Cytotoxic Limonoid from Chisocheton erythrocarpus in HSC-4 Human Oral Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Shah Jehan Muttiah, Norliza; Soon Lim, Chong; In, Lionel L. A.; Mohammad, Khalit; Awang, Khalijah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of erythrocarpine E (CEB4), a limonoid extracted from Chisocheton erythrocarpus on human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Based on preliminary dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, CEB4 treated HSC-4 cells demonstrated a cytotoxic effect and inhibited cell proliferation in a time and dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 4.0±1.9 µM within 24 h of treatment. CEB4 was also found to have minimal cytotoxic effects on the normal cell line, NHBE with cell viability levels maintained above 80% upon treatment. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage and DNA fragmentation assay results showed that CEB4 induces apoptosis mediated cell death. Western blotting results demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by CEB4 appeared to be mediated through regulation of the p53 signalling pathway as there was an increase in p53 phosphorylation levels. CEB4 was also found to up-regulate the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, while down-regulating the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Reduced levels of initiator procaspase-9 and executioner caspase-3 zymogen were also observed following CEB4 exposure, hence indicating the involvement of cytochrome c mediated apoptosis. These results demonstrate the cytotoxic and apoptotic ability of erythrocarpine E, and suggest its potential development as a cancer chemopreventive agent. PMID:21858194

  10. [Oral microbiota: a promising predictor of human oral and systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era. PMID:27051943

  11. Oral contraceptives and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    To date, nine case-control studies conducted in developed countries have identified an association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and liver cancer. The most recent population-based data from both developed and developing countries failed to confirm such an association, however. A study conducted by the World Health Organization in eight developing countries (Chile, China, Colombia, Israel, Kenya, Nigeria, Philippines, and Thailand), in which 122 women with liver cancer were matched with 802 controls, found no elevated risk for OC users compared with never-users (relative risk, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.2). This study is particularly significant since it was conducted in countries where hepatitis B virus infection, an important risk factor for primary liver cancer, is widespread. In addition, population mortality data from the US, UK, Japan, and Sweden have failed to document increases in liver cancer cases coincident with increases in OC use. Given that population statistics can detect changes on the magnitude of a 40-50% decrease in the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer related to OC use, they should be able to detect increases of two to 20 times the risk of liver cancer. The increased risk of liver cancer found in the case-control studies may reflect bias resulting from the small size of these studies. PMID:12348250

  12. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

  13. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

  14. A surprising cross-species conservation in the genomic landscape of mouse and human oral cancer identifies a transcriptional signature predicting metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Michael D.; Winkler, Ashley E.; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Chalivendra, Varun; Law, Jonathan H.; Rickert, Charles G.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Judd, Nancy P.; Dunn, Gavin P.; Piccirillo, Jay F.; Lewis, James S.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Uppaluri, Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improved understanding of the molecular basis underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) aggressive growth has significant clinical implications. Herein, cross-species genomic comparison of carcinogen-induced murine and human OSCCs with indolent or metastatic growth yielded results with surprising translational relevance. Experimental Design Murine OSCC cell lines were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) to define their mutational landscape, to define novel candidate cancer genes and to assess for parallels with known drivers in human OSCC. Expression arrays identified a mouse metastasis signature and we assessed its representation in 4 independent human datasets comprising 324 patients using weighted voting and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to stratify outcomes. A qRT-PCR assay based on the mouse signature coupled to a machine-learning algorithm was developed and used to stratify an independent set of 31 patients with respect to metastatic lymphadenopathy. Results NGS revealed conservation of human driver pathway mutations in mouse OSCC including in Trp53, MAPK, PI3K, NOTCH, JAK/STAT and FAT1–4. Moreover, comparative analysis between The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and mouse samples defined AKAP9, MED12L and MYH6 as novel putative cancer genes. Expression analysis identified a transcriptional signature predicting aggressiveness and clinical outcomes, which were validated in 4 independent human OSCC datasets. Finally, we harnessed the translational potential of this signature by creating a clinically feasible assay that stratified OSCC patients with a 93.5% accuracy. Conclusions These data demonstrate surprising cross-species genomic conservation that has translational relevance for human oral squamous cell cancer. PMID:24668645

  15. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003), was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compound 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). When compounds 1 and 2 were combined they synergistically inhibited c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation, and human oral cancer cell proliferation. The present data suggest that the potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins that target two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. PMID:21596018

  16. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Steven M; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Ding, Haiming

    2011-06-10

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF-induced activation of the EGFR (Tyr1173). When compounds 1 and 2 were combined they synergistically inhibited c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation, and human oral cancer cell proliferation. The present data suggest that the potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins that target two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. PMID:21596018

  17. Metformin induces apoptosis by microRNA-26a-mediated downregulation of myeloid cell leukaemia-1 in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Xu, Jincheng; Liu, Hao; Liu, Zhe; Xia, Fei

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, population-based studies and retrospective analyses of clinical studies have shown that metformin treatment is associated with reduced cancer incidence and a decrease in cancer‑associated mortality. However, its mechanism of action remains to be fully understood. The present study demonstrates the effects of metformin on KB human oral cancer cells and explores the role of myeloid cell leukaemia‑1 (Mcl‑1) in metformin‑induced mitochondria‑dependent cellular apoptosis. It was demonstrated that metformin exposure caused significant suppression of KB cell proliferation and induced cell death. Furthermore, metformin induced apoptosis through the downregulation of Mcl‑1 in KB human oral cancer cells, and the overexpression of Mcl‑1 in metformin‑treated KB cells significantly increased cell viability. Consistently, Bax and Bim were upregulated in metformin‑treated cells. The results also reveal that microRNA (miR)‑26a expression was markedly increased by metformin. Subsequent to enforced miR‑26a expression in KB cells using miR‑26a mimics, cell viability and the level of Mcl‑1 decreased. These results suggest that the anti‑proliferative effects of metformin in KB cells may result partly from induction of apoptosis by miR-26a-induced downregulation of Mcl-1. PMID:27082123

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  19. Effect on Quality of Life in Oral Cancer Patients after Radiation and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Quratul Ann; Awan, Kamran Habib

    2016-01-01

    Almost 10% of the tumors that affect the human body are sited in the mouth. Oral cancer has the 6th highest occurrence rate among the diverse forms of malignancies. Excluding skin cancer, oral cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting the head and neck region.(1). PMID:27206995

  20. Treatment concepts of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Bredell, M; Rordorf, T; Studer, G

    2012-11-01

    The mortality of oral cancer (OC) has shown only moderate improvement over recent decades. Treatment of OC remains mainly surgical with increasing contributions from radio- and chemotherapy. Early diagnosis and adequate management improves patient prognosis whilst lymphatic spread worsens the prognosis significantly. Copious extirpation of the tumour achieving tumour-free margins, as well as the effective removal of affected or suspect lymph nodes are vital steps to ensure long-term survival. Reconstructive ablities have improved to such an extent that many patients can be fully integrated in society after treatment. New modalities such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) ensures selective radiation and significantly contributes to improved quality of life. Photodynamic therapy and other targeted therapy options will play an increasingly important role in the future. PMID:23957099

  1. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anti-cancer evaluation of hesperetin-loaded nanoparticles in human oral carcinoma (KB) cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurushankar, K.; Gohulkumar, M.; Rajendra Prasad, N.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2014-03-01

    Hesperetin (HET), a naturally occurring plant bioflavonoid present in citrus fruits, possesses potential anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities but poor aqueous solubility limits its applications. To improve its applicability in cancer therapy, hesperetin was encapsulated in Eudragit® E (EE) 100 nanoparticles in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a stabilizer and its anticancer efficacy in oral carcinoma (KB) cells was studied. Hesperetin-loaded nanoparticles (HETNPs) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results thus displayed that the prepared nanoparticles showed a particle size in the range from 55 to 180 nm. The encapsulation efficiency of hesperetin was 83.4% obtained by UV spectroscopy. The in vitro release kinetics of hesperetin under physiological condition show initial rapid release followed by slow and sustained release. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed higher cytotoxic efficacy of HETNPs than native hesperetin in KB cells. Further, it has been found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage and apoptotic indices in HETNPs treated cells are greater than those in native hesperetin treatment. Hence these findings demonstrate that HETNPs could be a potentially useful drug delivery system to produce better hesperetin therapeutics of cancers.

  2. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  3. Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 48,330 % of All New Cancer Cases 2.9% Estimated Deaths in 2016 9,570 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 300,682 people living with oral cavity and ...

  4. Dissortativity and duplications in oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Pramod; Yadav, Alok; Rai, Aparna; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    More than 300 000 new cases worldwide are being diagnosed with oral cancer annually. Complexity of oral cancer renders designing drug targets very difficult. We analyse protein-protein interaction network for the normal and oral cancer tissue and detect crucial changes in the structural properties of the networks in terms of the interactions of the hub proteins and the degree-degree correlations. Further analysis of the spectra of both the networks, while exhibiting universal statistical behaviour, manifest distinction in terms of the zero degeneracy, providing insight to the complexity of the underlying system.

  5. Viruses and oral cancer. Is there a link?

    PubMed

    Sand, Lars; Jalouli, Jamshid

    2014-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant tumour of the oral cavity. The aetiology of epithelial cancer of the head and neck is considered to be a multifactorial, sequential process. DNA viruses are found in many different cancers and are also capable of transforming cells to a malignant phenotype. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been proposed as risk factors in OSCC development and HPV type 16 is the most important subtype. Other oncogenic virus species i.e., Epstein-Barr Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 have been proposed to be involved in oral carcinogenesis. However, no convincing evidence exist that they are an established risk factor in OSCC. Therefore more studies are needed in order to clarify the different aspects of virus involvement. Here, we review the existing literature on viral involvement in oral cancer. PMID:24613199

  6. Combination oral contraceptives and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Gast, K; Snyder, T

    1990-07-01

    Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the use of oral contraceptives alters the risk for some types of cancer. Use of oral contraceptives for one year or more will reduce the risk of endometrial cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer by 50%, with the protective effect lasting for at least 10 years. The risk for developing cervical cancer in women who have used oral contraceptives appears to be slightly increased, although two independent studies actually found a protective effect associated with oral contraceptive use. The protective effect was probably related to the increased screening frequency found in oral contraceptive users and not related to a biologically protective effect. Therefore, women should be encouraged to undergo regular Pap tests. Data regarding breast cancer, in general, show no increased risk associated with oral contraceptive use. The latency associated with the development of breast cancer does not allow a definitive conclusion, and further study will be required. Oral contraceptives appear to increase the risk for developing benign hepatocellular adenoma, but not hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:2202849

  7. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  8. Control of oral cancer in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world. In Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka it is the most common and accounts for about a third of all cancers. More than 100 000 new cases occur every year in south and south-east Asia, with poor prospects of survival. The importance of oral cancer as a public health priority is underscored by the fact that the suffering, disfigurement, and death it causes need not occur. The commonest cause of oral cancer—tobacco use—is well known and can be eliminated. For the oral cancer cases that do occur, detection at an early stage is possible, allowing simple inexpensive treatment, and resulting in long-term survival. Enough is already known about the disease and its prevention for action to be taken. With firm commitment, correct priorities, and concerted efforts by governments and individuals, strategies can be designed, programmes can be implemented, and the disease can be prevented. The economic saving in health care costs to a country, by itself, justifies these steps; the prevention of suffering and death of oral cancer victims makes them mandatory. This article reviews the current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, prevention, and treatment of oral cancer. It describes a strategy for controlling the disease, sets priorities, and recommends actions that governments and individuals can take. Finally, it identifies targets for future research. PMID:6335843

  9. Autophagic Cell Death by Poncirus trifoliata Rafin., a Traditional Oriental Medicine, in Human Oral Cancer HSC-4 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hye-Yeon; Park, Bong-Soo; Lee, Guem San; Jeong, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Hyungwoo; Ryu, Mi Heon

    2015-01-01

    Poncirus trifoliata Rafin. has long been used as anti-inflammatory and antiallergic agent to treat gastrointestinal disorders and pulmonary diseases such as indigestion, constipation, chest fullness, chest pain, bronchitis, and sputum in Korea. P. trifoliata extract has recently been reported to possess anticancer properties; however, its mechanisms of action remain unclear. In this study, its antiproliferative effects and possible mechanisms were investigated in HSC-4 cells. The methanol extract of P. trifoliata (MEPT) significantly decreased the proliferation of HSC-4 cells (inhibitory concentration (IC)50 = 142.7 μg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. While there were no significant changes observed upon cell cycle analysis and ANNEXIN V and 7-AAD double staining in the MEPT-treated groups, the intensity of acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) staining and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (LC) 3-II protein expression increased in response to MEPT treatment. Furthermore, 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) effectively blocked the MEPT-induced cytotoxicity of HSC-4 cells and triggered the activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) proteins. Taken together, our results indicate that MEPT is a potent autophagy agonist in oral cancer cells with antitumor therapeutic potential that acts through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. PMID:26221173

  10. Oral cancer or periimplantitis: A clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Sudhir; Rattan, Vidya; Panda, Naresh; Vaiphei, Kim; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to draw attention to a periimplantitis-like clinical presentation of oral malignancy around dental implants, a phenomenon that may develop without any associated risk factors for oral cancer. Such a benign appearance of oral malignancy may lead to delay in the diagnosis and initiation of ensuing treatment. Therefore, chronic nonhealing inflammatory lesions around dental implants should be considered as highly suspicious. PMID:26803178

  11. An update on oral human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Ankit H; Chotaliya, Kiran; Marfatia, Y S

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) constitutes the majority of newly acquired sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in United States as per the centers for disease control factsheet 2013. Genital HPV is the most common STI with incidence of about 5.5 million world-wide, nearly 75% of sexually active men and women have been exposed to HPV at some point in their lives. Oral Sexual behavior is an important contributor to infection of HPV in the oral mucosa especially in cases known to practice high risk behavior and initiating the same at an early age. HPV infection of the oral mucosa currents is believed to affect 1-50% of the general population, depending on the method used for diagnosis. The immune system clears most HPV naturally within 2 years (about 90%), but the ones that persist can cause serious diseases. HPV is an essential carcinogen being implicated increasingly in association with cancers occurring at numerous sites in the body. Though there does not occur any specific treatment for the HPV infection, the diseases it causes are treatable such as genital warts, cervical and other cancers. PMID:24339456

  12. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  13. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi K; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80%; these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer. PMID:26580700

  14. Influence of oral sex and oral cancer information on young adults' oral sexual-risk cognitions and likelihood of HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections. PMID:22236342

  15. Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Yenwong Fai, Leonard; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133

  16. The iron chelator, deferasirox, as a novel strategy for cancer treatment: oral activity against human lung tumor xenografts and molecular mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Lui, Goldie Y L; Obeidy, Peyman; Ford, Samuel J; Tselepis, Chris; Sharp, Danae M; Jansson, Patric J; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Lovejoy, David B; Richardson, Des R

    2013-01-01

    Deferasirox is an orally effective iron (Fe) chelator currently used for the treatment of iron-overload disease and has been implemented as an alternative to the gold standard chelator, desferrioxamine (DFO). Earlier studies demonstrated that DFO exhibits anticancer activity due to its ability to deplete cancer cells of iron. In this investigation, we examined the in vitro and in vivo activity of deferasirox against cells from human solid tumors. To date, there have been no studies to investigate the effect of deferasirox on these types of tumors in vivo. Deferasirox demonstrated similar activity at inhibiting proliferation of DMS-53 lung carcinoma and SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cell lines compared with DFO. Furthermore, deferasirox was generally similar or slightly more effective than DFO at mobilizing cellular (59)Fe and inhibiting iron uptake from human transferrin depending on the cell type. However, deferasirox potently inhibited DMS-53 xenograft growth in nude mice when given by oral gavage, with no marked alterations in normal tissue histology. To understand the antitumor activity of deferasirox, we investigated its effect on the expression of molecules that play key roles in metastasis, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. We demonstrated that deferasirox increased expression of the metastasis suppressor protein N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 and upregulated the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) while decreasing cyclin D1 levels. Moreover, this agent increased the expression of apoptosis markers, including cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1. Collectively, we demonstrate that deferasirox is an orally effective antitumor agent against solid tumors. PMID:23074173

  17. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  20. Risk Stratification System for Oral Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lutécia H Mateus; Reis, Isildinha M; Reategui, Erika P; Gordon, Claudia; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Duncan, Robert; Gomez, Carmen; Bayers, Stephanie; Fisher, Penelope; Perez, Aymee; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Hu, Jennifer J; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P < .0001, vs. reference group CD44 <2.22 ng/mL and protein <1.23 mg/mL]. Total protein aided prediction above CD44 alone. Sensitivity and specificity in the frequency-matched study was 80% and 48.7%, respectively. However, controls were not representative of the target screening population due, in part, to a high rate of prior cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020654

  1. Improving Oral Cancer Survival: The Role of Dental Providers

    PubMed Central

    MESSADI, DIANA V.; WILDER-SMITH, PETRA; WOLINSKY, LAWRENCE

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer accounts for 2 percent to 4 percent of all cancers diagnosed each year in the United States. In contrast to other cancers, the overall U.S. survival rate from oral cancer has not improved during the past 50 years, mostly due to late-stage diagnosis. Several noninvasive oral cancer detection techniques that emerged in the past decade will be discussed, with a brief overview of most common oral cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:19998655

  2. Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

    2015-04-01

    Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it. PMID:25701438

  3. Dioscorea nipponica Makino inhibits migration and invasion of human oral cancer HSC-3 cells by transcriptional inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 through modulation of CREB and AP-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ming-Hsien; Ying, Tsung-Ho; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chang, Yu-Chao; Yeh, Chia-Ming; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Lee, Wen-Sen; Chang, Jer-Hua; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer mortality has increased during the last decade due to the difficulties in treating related metastasis. Dioscorea nipponica Makino, a popular folk medicine, exerts anti-obesity and anti-inflammation properties. However, the effect of this folk medicine on metastasis of oral cancer has yet to be fully elucidated. The present study demonstrates that D. nipponica extracts (DNE), at a range of concentrations (0-50 μg/mL), concentration-dependently inhibited migration/invasion capacities of human oral cancer cells, HSC-3, without cytotoxic effects. The anti-migration effect of DNE was also observed in two other OSCC cell lines, Ca9-22 and Cal-27. Zymography, real time PCR, and Western blotting analyses revealed that DNE inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) enzyme activity, and RNA and protein expression. The inhibitory effects of DNE on MMP-2 proceeded by up-regulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), as well as suppressing nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) on the MMP-2 promoter in HSC-3 cells. In conclusion, DNE inhibited the invasion of oral cancer cells and may have potential use as a chemopreventive agent against oral cancer metastasis. PMID:22210353

  4. Liver X receptor reduces proliferation of human oral cancer cells by promoting cholesterol efflux via up-regulation of ABCA1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Korehito; Yaginuma, Nanae; Ohkoshi, Chihiro; Tanaka, Mizuko; Sugino, Takashi; Imura, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Chiba, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) contribute not only to maintain cholesterol homeostasis but also to control cell growth. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the LXR-mediated anti-proliferative effects are largely unknown. Here we show, by immunohistochemistry, that LXRα and LXRβ are differentially distributed in oral stratified squamous epithelia. By immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses, we also reveal that LXRα is abundantly expressed in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HOSCC) tissues and cell lines. Cell counting, BrdU labeling and cell cycle assay indicated that LXR stimulation led to significant reduction of proliferation in HOSCC cells. Importantly, our study highlights, by using RNA interference, that the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-accelerated cholesterol efflux is critical for the growth inhibitory action of LXRs in HOSCC cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that LXR activation reduces the growth of xenograft tumour of HOSCC cells in mice accompanied by the upregulation of ABCA1 expression and the decline of cholesterol levels in the tumour. These findings strongly suggested that targeting the LXR-regulated cholesterol transport, yielding in lowering intracellular cholesterol levels, could be a promising therapeutic option for certain types of cancers. PMID:26452260

  5. Orthotopic non-metastatic and metastatic oral cancer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bais, Manish V; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Trackman, Philip C

    2015-05-01

    Oral cancer is characterized by high morbidity and mortality with a predisposition to metastasize to different tissues, including lung, liver, and bone. Despite progress in the understanding of mutational profiles and deregulated pathways in oral cancer, patient survival has not significantly improved over the past decades. Therefore, there is a need to establish in vivo models that recapitulate human oral cancer metastasis to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel drugs. Here we report orthotopic tongue cancer nude mouse models to study oral cancer growth and metastasis using human metastatic (UMSCC2) and non-metastatic (CAL27) cell lines, respectively. Transduction of these cell lines with lentivirus expressing red fluorescent protein (DsRed) followed by injection into tongues of immunodeficient mice generated orthotopic tongue tumors that could be monitored for growth and metastasis by fluorescence measurement with an in vivo Imaging System (IVIS 200). The growth rates of CAL27-DsRed induced tumors were higher than UMSCC2-DsRed tumors after day 15, while UMSCC2-DsRed tumors revealed metastasis beginning on day 21. Importantly, UMSCC2 tumors metastasized to a number of tissues including the submandibular gland, lung, kidney, liver, and bone. Further, immunohistochemical analyses of tongue tumors induced by CAL27 and UMSCC2 cells revealed elevated expression of components of protumorigenic pathways deregulated in human cancers, including Cyclin D1, PCNA, Ki-67, LSD1, LOXL2, MT-MMP1, DPAGT1, E-cadherin, OCT4A, and H3K4me1/2. These orthotopic mouse models are likely to be useful tools for gaining insights into the activity and mechanisms of novel oral cancer drug candidates. PMID:25682387

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Chemoresistance in Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xi Qiang; Hou, Jin Song; Wang, Jian Ning; Huang, Hong Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Oral cancer is an aggressive disease with the propensity for local recurrence and distal metastasis in the head and neck region. Currently, cisplatin-based chemotherapy or concurrent radiochemotherapy is still the first choice to treat the advanced stage cancers, in particular, the unresectable tumours. Unfortunately, innate and acquired resistance to chemotherapy agent greatly limited its effectiveness and often led to treatment failure in these patients. Hence, it is urgent to clarify the mechanisms underlying the development of chemoresistance in patients with oral cancer. In this article, the current understandings on molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in oral cancer were reviewed, including drug efflux, apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, epithelial mesenchymal transition, autophagy and miRNA. PMID:26981604

  7. Oral cancer: exploring the stories in United Kingdom newspaper articles.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C M; Johnson, I G; Morgan, M Z

    2016-09-01

    Objective Reports suggest that patients with oral cancer delay seeking help because they are unaware of the symptoms. The majority of adults (95%) engage with news reports and 40% read newspapers. Newspaper oral cancer stories may influence awareness and health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore how oral cancer is portrayed in UK newspaper print media.Design Qualitative content analysis of articles from ten newspapers with the widest UK print circulation. All articles using the terms 'mouth cancer' and 'oral cancer' over a three year period were retrieved. Duplicates, non-cancer and non-human articles were excluded.Results 239 articles were analysed. Common topics included 'recent research', 'survivor stories', 'health information' and 'celebrity linkage'. Articles were often emotive, featuring smoking, alcohol, sex and celebrity. Articles lacked a proper evidence base and often failed to provide accurate information about signs and symptoms, information about prevention and signposting to treatment.Conclusions Opportunities to save lives are being missed. Further work to improve social responsibility in the media and develop guidance to enhance the quality of information, health reporting and signposting to help are indicated. PMID:27608578

  8. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review.

    PubMed

    BenNasir, E; El Mistiri, M; McGowan, R; Katz, R V

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  9. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review

    PubMed Central

    BenNasir, E.; El Mistiri, M.; McGowan, R.; Katz, R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  10. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Children.

    PubMed

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; Miclăuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; Băbţan, Anida Maria; Mesaros, Anca; Crişan, Bogdan; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-02-01

    Oral human papillomavirus infection is rare in children, but the presence of a villous lesion with slow but continuous growth concerns parents, who need information and therapeutic solutions from the physician. All these aspects are discussed based on a case report of a 9-year-old child with an oral human papillomavirus infection. PMID:26588443

  11. General Information about Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  12. A novel antitubulin agent, DPQZ, induces cell apoptosis in human oral cancer cells through Ras/Raf inhibition and MAP kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Hour, Mann-Jen; Lee, Kun-Tsung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Wu, Chi-Yu; You, Bang-Jau; Chen, Tai-Lin; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2013-05-01

    6-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-2-(naphthalene-1-yl)-4-quinazolinone (DPQZ)-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the characteristics of DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine externalization in human oral cancer HSC-3 cells. The IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value of DPQZ is about 0.25 μM at 24 h. The interference in the dynamics of tubulin and cell division of DPQZ, like vinblastine (0.01 μM), has been proven in this study. Treatment of HSC-3 cells with DPQZ resulted in many of mitotic cells with multipolar spindles. Up-regulation of MAP kinases, such as ERK, JNK, and p38, mediated by DPQZ appears to be involved in DPQZ-induced apoptosis in HSC-3 cells. It is worthy of note that the expression of Ras and c-Raf that lie upstream of ERK were inhibited by DPQZ. In addition, the DPQZ-induced cell death was attenuated by JNK inhibitor SP600125 (3 or 10 μM), not by the ERK or p38 inhibitors. JNK inhibitor abolished the DPQZ-induced increase in the phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and the protein levels of proform caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, indicating that JNK is an upstream activator of Bcl-2 and caspase family members and plays a key role in DPQZ-induced HSC-3 cell apoptosis. We also attempted to develop an anticancer drug that is designed to kill rapidly dividing cancer cells while causing less damage to normal cells. The DPQZ-induced cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts was less than that against HSC-3 cells. Our work provides a new strategy and mechanism for developing anticancer drug and may contribute to clinical anticancer drug discovery and application. PMID:23212307

  13. Cryotherapy for oral precancers and cancers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have used cryotherapy for the treatment of oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cryotherapy is a method that locally destroys lesional tissues by freezing in situ. It can be carried out by either an "open" or a "closed" system. Lesional tissues are destroyed mainly through disruption of cell membrane, cellular dehydration, enzyme and protein damage, cell swelling and rupture, thermal shock injury to cells, damage to vasculature, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Cryotherapy is used frequently for the treatment of OL lesions with promising results. It can also be used to treat OVH and OVC lesions. Because OVH and OVC lesions are usually fungating and bulky, a combination therapy of shave excision and cryotherapy is needed to achieve a complete regression of the lesion. OSCCs have also been treated by cryotherapy. However, cryotherapy is not the main-stream treatment modality for OSCCs. Cryotherapy seems suitable for treatment of thin or relatively thick plaque-typed lesions such as OL lesions. By careful selection of patients, cryotherapy is a simple, safe, easy, conservative, and acceptable treatment modality for certain benign oral lesions and oral precancers. PMID:24560447

  14. 4-Hydroxybutenolide impairs cell migration, and invasion of human oral cancer SCC-4 cells via the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Shun; Lin, Meng-Liang; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Yu, Chien-Chih; Huang, Yi-Ping; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-08-01

    4-Hydroxybutenolide (K87), a synthetic compound from furfuryl alcohol via photooxidation, was used to investigate whether it can inhibit mobility, migration and invasion of SCC-4 human oral cancer cells in vitro. Cell viability was measured by flow cytometric assay, the enzymatic activities of MMP-2/9 were assayed by gelatin zymography analysis, the protein levels were assayed by western blotting, confocal laser microscopy and EMSA assay, and the gene expression of MMP-2/-7, FAK and ROCK1 mRNA were assayed by PCR. K87 decreased the percentage of viable cells in dose-dependent manner. K87 suppressed cell mobility, migration and invasion of SCC-4 cells dose-dependently. K87 inhibited the enzymatic activities of MMP-2/9 of SCC-4 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that K87 decreased the protein levels in NF-κBp65, COX-2, ROCK1 and Rho A, MMP-1, -2,- 7, -9, VEGF, GRB2, SOS1, PI3K, PKC, PERK, p-PERK, FAK, MEKK3, MKK7, ERK1/2, JNK1/2, p-p38, p38, p-c-Jun, AKT, TIMP2, but increased the protein levels of iNOS, Ras, IRE-1α, p-c-JNK, p-AKT(308), p-AKT(473) and TIMP1. Results from PCR indicated that K87 inhibited the gene expression of MMP-2/-7, FAK and ROCK1 mRNA. Furthermore, confocal laser microscopy was used to confirm that K87 inhibited the translocation of RHOA and ROCK1 in SCC-4 cells. EMSA assay also show that K87 suppressed the nuclear activation of NF-κB and these effects are time-dependent. Western blotting assay indicated that expression of NF-κBp105, NF-κBp50 and NF-κBp65 proteins were decreased and these effects are time-dependent. Based on these observations, we suggest that K87 may be used as a potential agent for anticancer metastasis of human oral cancer in the future. PMID:27221634

  15. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  16. Whole genome expression profiling in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Sanjukta; Multani, Shaleen; Dabholkar, Jyoti; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2015-03-01

    The current study was undertaken with a view to identify differential biomarkers in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancer tissues in patients of Indian ethnicity. The gene expression profile was analyzed in oral cancer tissues as compared to clinically normal oral buccal mucosa. We examined 30 oral cancer tissues and 27 normal oral tissues with 16 paired samples from contralateral site of the patient and 14 unpaired samples from different oral cancer patients, for whole genome expression using high-throughput IlluminaSentrix Human Ref-8 v2 Expression BeadChip array. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 425 differentially expressed genes with >1.5-fold expression in the oral cancer tissues as compared to normal tissues in the oral cancer patients. Overexpression of 255 genes and downregulation of 170 genes (p < 0.01) were observed. Further, a minimum twofold overexpression was observed in 32 genes and downregulation in 12 genes, in 30-83% of oral cancer patients. Biological pathway analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome Pathway database revealed that the differentially regulated genes were associated with critical biological functions. The biological functions and representative deregulated genes include cell proliferation (AIM2, FAP, TNFSF13B, TMPRSS11A); signal transduction (FOLR2, MME, HTR3B); invasion and metastasis (SPP1, TNFAIP6, EPHB6); differentiation (CLEC4A, ELF5); angiogenesis (CXCL1); apoptosis (GLIPR1, WISP1, DAPL1); and immune responses (CD300A, IFIT2, TREM2); and metabolism (NNMT; ALDH3A1). Besides, several of the genes have been differentially expressed in human cancers including oral cancer. Our data indicated differentially expressed genes in oral cancer tissues and may identify prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers in oral cancers, postvalidation in larger numbers and varied population samples. PMID:25663065

  17. 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENT Doctor Near You 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Oral, Head and Neck Cancer most commonly refers to squamous ...

  18. Propolis in Dentistry and Oral Cancer Management

    PubMed Central

    S., Vagish Kumar L.

    2014-01-01

    Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer. PMID:25006559

  19. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Cancer English Ung Thư Miệng - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) PDF California Dental Association Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  20. Inherited Oral Cancer: A Rare Reality.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-01-01

    Majority of oral cancers (around 90-95%) found today are caused by various environmental factors. These generally include the chemical and physical carcinogens, like tobacco, diet, microorganisms, radiations, etc. The remaining 5% of the cases are caused by inherited mutated genes carrying the defect. PMID:27018035

  1. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intention among College Men: What's Oral Sex Got to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Nash, Rachel; Younge, Sinead; Head, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify associations between engaging in oral sex and perceived risk of oral cancer among college men. Also, to identify associations, and their moderating factors, between oral sex and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance. Methods: Young men were recruited from 2 university campuses in the South (N = 150). Men completed an…

  2. Of humans and hamsters: a comparative evaluation of carcinogen activation, DNA damage, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in oral cancer patients and hamster buccal pouch carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram; Letchoumy, Paramasivame Vidjaya; A, Thangavelu; Cr, Ramachandran

    2009-06-01

    The hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model is one of the most well characterized animal systems for analyzing the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a common malignancy worldwide. HBP carcinomas that closely mimic human OSCC are useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. The present study is a comparative evaluation of markers of carcinogen activation, oxidative stress, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in human and hamster OSCCs. Enhanced expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 isoforms in both human and hamster oral tumours was associated with significantly increased expression of 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicating oxidative DNA damage. Analysis of markers of cell survival and proliferation revealed increased expression of PCNA, GST-P, and NF-kappaB with downregulation of p21, p53 and IkappaB in both human and hamster OSCCs. In addition, both human and hamster oral carcinomas displayed invasive, and angiogenic properties as revealed by dysregulated cytokeratin expression, downregulation of RECK, and increased expression of uPA, MMP-2 and-9, HIF-1alpha, and VEGF. The results reveal aberrant expression of multiple molecules in key signaling pathways in both human OSCCs and HBP carcinomas rendering the HBP model as an important tool for monitoring oral oncogenesis. PMID:19250857

  3. Cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Zbaeren, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Tumours in the oral cavity and oropharynx differ in presentation and prognosis and the detection of spread of tumour from one subsite to another is essential for the T-staging. This article reviews the anatomy and describes the pattern of spread of different cancers arising in the oral cavity and oropharynx; the imaging findings on computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are also described. Brief mention is made on the role of newer imaging modalities such as [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, perfusion studies and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:20233682

  4. Oral mucositis in myelosuppressive cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J B; Schubert, M M

    1999-09-01

    Because the etiology of mucositis is multifactorial , approaches to prevention and management have also been multifactorial. Effective prevention and management of mucositis will reduce the pain and suffering experienced during cancer treatment. Oropharyngeal pain in cancer patients frequently requires systemic analgesics, adjunctive medications, physical therapy, and psychologic therapy in addition to oral care and topical treatments. Good oral hygiene reduces the severity of oral mucositis and does not increase the risk of bacteremia. Current approaches to management include frequent oral rinsing with saline or bicarbonate rinses, maintaining excellent oral hygiene, and using topical anesthetics and analgesics. Cryotherapy is a potential adjunctive approach in some cases. There are a number of approaches that appear to represent viable candidates for further study. Biologic response modifiers offer the potential for prevention and for acceleration of healing. Various cytokines will enter clinical trials in the near future; these offer the potential for reduction of epithelial cell sensitivity to the toxic effects of cancer therapy or for stimulation of repair of the damaged tissue. Other approaches include the use of medications to reduce exposure of the oral mucosa to chemotherapeutic drugs that are secreted in saliva. Antimicrobial approaches have met with conflicting results, little effect being seen with chlorhexidine and systemic antimicrobials in the prevention of mucositis in radiation patients. In patients with BMT and patients with leukemia, chlorhexidine may not be effective in preventing mucositis, although there may be reduction in oral colonization by Candida. Initial studies of topical antimicrobials that affect the gram-negative oral flora have shown reductions in ulcerative mucositis during radiation therapy but have not been assessed in leukemia/BMT. Among other approaches that require further study are low-energy lasers and anti

  5. The epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wahi, P. N.

    1968-01-01

    Records of the Sarojini Naidu Medical College Hospital, Agra, India, suggested that there was a much higher endemicity of oral and oropharyngeal cancer in Mainpuri district, a rural area about 75 miles (120 km) from Agra City, than there was in Agra district itself. It was decided in 1963 to set up a complete cancer registry in Mainpuri district, based on the Sarojini Naidu Medical College and in association with the WHO International Reference Centre for the Histopathological Nomenclature and Classification of Oropharyngeal Tumours, which would, among other duties, undertake a study of the epidemiology by means of an intensive field-programme in the area. The epidemiological survey was carried out between March 1964 and September 1966. All factors considered to have any relevance to the disease were surveyed and particularly strong correlations were discovered between the prevalence of oral cancer and the use of local tobaccos (adulterated to a greater or lesser extent with various other materials), especially for chewing but also for smoking. There was also some correlation between prevalence of oral cancer and the use of certain alcoholic drinks. A number of other factors, most probably influencing or modifying the use of tobacco and alcohol, were found to be significant also. PMID:5302449

  6. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Genden, Eric M.; Silver, Carl E.; Takes, Robert P.; Suárez, Carlos; Owen, Randall P.; Haigentz, Missak; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Rapidis, Alexander D.; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Rinaldo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction have evolved significantly. Because of the profound functional and cosmetic importance of the oral cavity, management of oral cavity cancers requires a thorough understanding of disease progression, approaches to management and options for reconstruction. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most current management options for oral cavity cancers. PMID:20155361

  7. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Genden, Eric M; Ferlito, Alfio; Silver, Carl E; Takes, Robert P; Suárez, Carlos; Owen, Randall P; Haigentz, Missak; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Shaha, Ashok R; Rapidis, Alexander D; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Rinaldo, Alessandra

    2010-07-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction have evolved significantly. Because of the profound functional and cosmetic importance of the oral cavity, management of oral cavity cancers requires a thorough understanding of disease progression, approaches to management and options for reconstruction. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most current management options for oral cavity cancers. PMID:20155361

  8. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  9. Role of vitamin e in prevention of oral cancer:-a review.

    PubMed

    Iqubal, Md Asad; Khan, Mobeen; Kumar, Prabhakar; Kumar, Anjani; Ajai, Kratika

    2014-10-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threads to public health. The development of oral cancer is tobacco related mainly. Vitamin-E can inhibit reaction of the tobacco specific nitrosamine which undergoes specific activation, detoxification process. Dietary substitute such as vitamin-E can prevent oral cancer at a very early stage that is in premalignant lesions, in premalignant conditions. Main action of vitamin E includes increase immunity, controls free radicals mediated cell disturbances, maintains membrane integrity, inhibit cancer cell growth, cytotoxicity. Many past studies suggest the role of antioxidant (vitamin-E) in treatment of oral mucosal lesions particularly includes oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. Vitamin-E as an antioxidant helps in prevention and slow the growth of Head and Neck cancer, improve the effects of cancer chemotherapy and reduce the side effects from both chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer patients. As prevention modality use of Vitamin-E may be beneficial for human beings. PMID:25478472

  10. Role of Vitamin E in Prevention of Oral Cancer:-A Review

    PubMed Central

    Iqubal, Md. Asad; Kumar, Prabhakar; Kumar, Anjani; Ajai, Kratika

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threads to public health. The development of oral cancer is tobacco related mainly. Vitamin-E can inhibit reaction of the tobacco specific nitrosamine which undergoes specific activation, detoxification process. Dietary substitute such as vitamin-E can prevent oral cancer at a very early stage that is in premalignant lesions, in premalignant conditions. Main action of vitamin E includes increase immunity, controls free radicals mediated cell disturbances, maintains membrane integrity, inhibit cancer cell growth, cytotoxicity. Many past studies suggest the role of antioxidant (vitamin-E) in treatment of oral mucosal lesions particularly includes oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. Vitamin-E as an antioxidant helps in prevention and slow the growth of Head and Neck cancer, improve the effects of cancer chemotherapy and reduce the side effects from both chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer patients. As prevention modality use of Vitamin-E may be beneficial for human beings. PMID:25478472

  11. Effect of NPC-14686 (Fmoc-l-Homophenylalanine) on Ca²⁺ Homeostasis and Viability in OC2 Human Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yih-Do; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Fang, Yi-Chien; Hung, Tzu-Yi; Chang, Hong-Tai; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Ho, Chin-Man; Shieh, Pochuen; Chen, Fu-An; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-10-31

    The effect of the anti-inflammatory compound NPC-14686 on intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺](i)) and viability in OC2 human oral cancer cells was investigated. The Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent probe fura-2 was used to examine [Ca²⁺](i). NPC-14686 induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises in a concentration-dependent fashion. The effect was reduced approximately by 10% by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. NPC-14686- elicited Ca²⁺ signal was decreased by nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365, and GF109203X. In Ca²⁺-free medium, incubation with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished NPC-14686-induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises. Conversely, pretreatment with NPC-14686 abolished thapsigargin or BHQ-induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished NPC-14686-induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises. At 20-100 μM, NPC-14686 inhibited cell viability, which was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). NPC-14686 between 20 μM and 40 μM also induced apoptosis. Collectively, in OC2 cells, NPC-14686 induced [Ca²⁺](i) rises by evoking phospholipase C-dependent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-regulated store-operated Ca²⁺ channels. NPC-14686 also caused Ca²⁺-independent apoptosis. PMID:26387652

  12. Views of oral cancer prevention and early detection: Maryland physicians.

    PubMed

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Horowitz, Alice M; Child, Wendy L

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain in-depth information on Maryland physicians' knowledge, opinions and practices about oral cancer examinations. The qualitative descriptive study used one focus group conducted in a conference facility and nine one-on-one interviews at private medical offices. A criterion-purposeful sampling was used for selection of participants. Generally, we found low awareness of, and surprise about, Maryland's high oral cancer mortality rates. Physicians were not surprised that they detect more lesions than dentists, although most physicians did not provide oral cancer examinations on a routine basis. Physicians were interested in attending continuing medical education (CME) courses on oral cancer prevention and early detection but only if worked into other CME programs on cancer. They were very interested in having hands-on training on performing an oral cancer examination. These findings will be used to implement educational interventions for Maryland physicians to help increase early detection of oral cancers. PMID:12076702

  13. Tetrandrine induces apoptosis Via caspase-8, -9, and -3 and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase dependent pathways and autophagy through beclin-1/ LC3-I, II signaling pathways in human oral cancer HSC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Shun; Yu, Chun-Shu; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Yang, Jiun-Long; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-04-01

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that was found in the Radix Stephania tetrandra S Moore. It had been reported to induce cytotoxic effects on many human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of tetrandrine on human oral cancer HSC-3 cells in vitro. Treatments of HSC-3 cells with tetrandrine significantly decreased the percentage of viable cells through the induction of autophagy and apoptosis and these effects are in concentration-dependent manner. To define the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of tetrandrine, we investigated the critical molecular events known to regulate the apoptotic and autophagic machinery. Tetrandrine induced chromatin condensation, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9, and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) that were associated with apoptosis, and it also enhanced the expression of LC3-I and -II that were associated with the induction of autophagy in human squamous carcinoma cell line (HSC-3) cells. Tetrandrine induced autophagy in HSC-3 cells was significantly attenuated by bafilomycin A1 (inhibitor of autophagy) pre-treatment that confirmed tetrandrine induced cell death may be associated with the autophagy. In conclusion, we suggest that tetrandrine induced cell death may be through the induction of apoptosis as well as autophagy in human oral cancer HSC-3 cells via PARP, caspases/Becline I/LC3-I/II signaling pathways. PMID:25266202

  14. An Overview of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Status in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, José Henrique; Silva, Patrícia Manuela; Reis, Rita Margarida; Moura, Inês Moranguinho; Marques, Sandra; Fonseca, Joana; Monteiro, Luís Silva; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal chromosome number, or aneuploidy, is a common feature of human solid tumors, including oral cancer. Deregulated spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is thought as one of the mechanisms that drive aneuploidy. In normal cells, SAC prevents anaphase onset until all chromosomes are correctly aligned at the metaphase plate thereby ensuring genomic stability. Significantly, the activity of this checkpoint is compromised in many cancers. While mutations are rather rare, many tumors show altered expression levels of SAC components. Genomic alterations such as aneuploidy indicate a high risk of oral cancer and cancer-related mortality, and the molecular basis of these alterations is largely unknown. Yet, our knowledge on the status of SAC components in oral cancer remains sparse. In this review, we address the state of our knowledge regarding the SAC defects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in oral cancer, and discuss their therapeutic relevance, focusing our analysis on the core components of SAC and its target Cdc20. PMID:24995269

  15. Oral Cancer-related Inherited Cancer Syndromes: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Batra, Akshit; Sarode, Sachin C; Yerawadekar, Sujata; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity, which is usually preceded by a myriad of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). In the classification of OPMDs, inherited cancer syndromes (ICSs) were proposed as one of the categories. Inherited cancer syndromes are genetic disorders in which inherited genetic mutation in one or more genes predispose the affected individuals to the development of cancer and may also cause its early onset. Many of these syndromes are caused by mutations in tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and genes involved in angiogenesis. General dental practitioners frequently come across OPMDs in their day-to-day practice. It becomes of paramount importance to have knowledge about these rare but prognostically important OPMDs. With this view in mind, in this article, efforts have been made to comprehensively discuss about various ICSs that have higher potential of transformation into oral cancer. The ICSs discussed in this article are xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), ataxia telangiectasia (AT), Bloom syndrome (BS), Fanconi's anemia (FA), and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), with special emphasis on signs, symptoms, and genetic considerations. PMID:27484606

  16. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jaber, Abeer; Al-Nasser, Lubna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the oral cancer (OC) studies that were conducted in Arab countries with regard to epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis. Methods: A computer-based PubMed literature search was performed to retrieve studies conducted in the Arab world on epidemiology of OC. After screening for exclusion criteria, cross-referencing, and searching local journals, a total of 19 articles were included. Results: Eight prevalence studies found an OC prevalence ranging from 1.8 to 2.13 per 100,000 persons. Oral cancer patients were mostly in their fifth to sixth decade of life, and the incidence in younger age was reported in some Arab countries. Yemenis have an alarming high prevalence of OC among people younger than 45 years. Eleven studies explored determinants or prognosis of OC. Behavioral determinants such as smokeless tobacco (Shamma and Qat), and cigarette smoking were strongly associated with OC. Alcohol drinking and solar radiation exposures were cited as possible risk factors. The most affected sites were tongue, floor of the mouth, and lower lip variations in the affected site were attributed to the socio-cultural behavior of the populations under study. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequently detected cancer, and usually patients were in late stages (III and IV) at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion: No solid evidence exists regarding the true OC prevalence/incidence in most Arab countries due to the lack of national cancer registries and population-based studies. PMID:26905345

  17. Induction of MDM2-P2 transcripts correlates with stabilized wild-type p53 in betel- and tobacco-related human oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Ralhan, R; Sandhya, A; Meera, M; Bohdan, W; Nootan, S K

    2000-08-01

    MDM2, a critical element of cellular homeostasis mechanisms, is involved in complex interactions with important cell-cycle and stress-response regulators including p53. The mdm2-P2 promoter is a transcriptional target of p53. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mdm2-P2 transcripts and the status of the p53 gene in betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) to understand the mechanism of deregulation of MDM2 and p53 expression and their prognostic implications in oral tumorigenesis. Elevated levels of MDM2 proteins were observed in 11 of 25 (44%) oral hyperplastic lesions, nine of 15 (60%) dysplastic lesions, and 71 of 100 (71%) SCCs. The intriguing feature of the study was the identification and different subcellular localization of three isoforms of MDM2 (ie, 90 kd, 76 kd, and 57 kd) in oral SCCs and their correlation with p53 overexpression in each tumor. The hallmark of the study was the detection of mdm2-P2 transcripts in 12 of 20 oral SCCs overexpressing both MDM2 and p53 proteins while harboring wild-type p53 alleles. Furthermore, mdm2 amplification was an infrequent event in betel- and tobacco-associated oral tumorigenesis. The differential compartmentalization of the three isoforms of MDM2 suggests that each has a distinct function, potentially in the regulation of p53 and other gene products implicated in oral tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we report herein the first evidence suggesting that enhanced translation of mdm2-P2 transcripts (S-mdm2) may represent an important mechanism of overexpression and consequent stabilization and functional inactivation of wild-type p53 serving as an adverse prognosticator in betel- and tobacco-related oral cancer. The clinical significance of the functional inactivation of wild-type p53 by MDM2 is underscored by the significantly shorter median disease-free survival time (16 months) observed in p53/MDM2-positive cases as compared to those which did not show co-expression of

  18. Induction of MDM2-P2 Transcripts Correlates with Stabilized Wild-Type p53 in Betel- and Tobacco-Related Human Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ralhan, Ranju; Sandhya, Agarwal; Meera, Mathur; Bohdan, Wasylyk; Nootan, Shukla K.

    2000-01-01

    MDM2, a critical element of cellular homeostasis mechanisms, is involved in complex interactions with important cell-cycle and stress-response regulators including p53. The mdm2-P2 promoter is a transcriptional target of p53. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mdm2-P2 transcripts and the status of the p53 gene in betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) to understand the mechanism of deregulation of MDM2 and p53 expression and their prognostic implications in oral tumorigenesis. Elevated levels of MDM2 proteins were observed in 11 of 25 (44%) oral hyperplastic lesions, nine of 15 (60%) dysplastic lesions, and 71 of 100 (71%) SCCs. The intriguing feature of the study was the identification and different subcellular localization of three isoforms of MDM2 (ie, 90 kd, 76 kd, and 57 kd) in oral SCCs and their correlation with p53 overexpression in each tumor. The hallmark of the study was the detection of mdm2-P2 transcripts in 12 of 20 oral SCCs overexpressing both MDM2 and p53 proteins while harboring wild-type p53 alleles. Furthermore, mdm2 amplification was an infrequent event in betel- and tobacco-associated oral tumorigenesis. The differential compartmentalization of the three isoforms of MDM2 suggests that each has a distinct function, potentially in the regulation of p53 and other gene products implicated in oral tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we report herein the first evidence suggesting that enhanced translation of mdm2-P2 transcripts (S-mdm2) may represent an important mechanism of overexpression and consequent stabilization and functional inactivation of wild-type p53 serving as an adverse prognosticator in betel- and tobacco-related oral cancer. The clinical significance of the functional inactivation of wild-type p53 by MDM2 is underscored by the significantly shorter median disease-free survival time (16 months) observed in p53/MDM2-positive cases as compared to those which did not show co-expression of

  19. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development. PMID:25654476

  20. Combination therapy of potential gene to enhance oral cancer therapeutic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.

  1. BDNF signaling contributes to oral cancer pain in a preclinical orthotopic rodent model

    PubMed Central

    Chodroff, Leah; Bendele, Michelle; Valenzuela, Vanessa; Henry, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The majority of patients with oral cancer report intense pain that is only partially managed by current analgesics. Thus, there is a strong need to study mechanisms as well as develop novel analgesics for oral cancer pain. Current study employed an orthotopic tongue cancer model with molecular and non-reflexive behavioral assays to determine possible mechanisms of oral cancer pain. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells line, HSC2, was injected into the tongue of male athymic mice and tumor growth was observed by day 6. Immunohistological analyses revealed a well-differentiated tumor with a localized immune response and pronounced sensory and sympathetic innervation and vascularization. The tumor expressed TMPRSS2, a protein previously reported with oral squamous cell carcinoma. ATF3 expression in trigeminal ganglia was not altered by tumor growth. Molecular characterization of the model demonstrated altered expression of several pain-related genes, out of which up-regulation of BDNF was most striking. Moreover, BDNF protein expression in trigeminal ganglia neurons was increased and inhibition of BDNF signaling with a tyrosine kinase B antagonist, ANA-12, reversed pain-like behaviors induced by the oral tumor. Oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor growth was also associated with a reduction in feeding, mechanical hypersensitivity in the face, as well as spontaneous pain behaviors as measured by the conditioned place preference test, all of which were reversed by analgesics. Interestingly, injection of HSC2 into the hindpaw did not reproduce this spectrum of pain behaviors; nor did injection of a colonic cancer cell line into the tongue. Taken together, this orthotopic oral cancer pain model reproduces the spectrum of pain reported by oral cancer patients, including higher order cognitive changes, and demonstrates that BDNF signaling constitutes a novel mechanism by which oral squamous cell carcinoma induces pain. Identification of the key role of tyrosine kinase B

  2. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  3. Advances in Computationally Modeling Human Oral Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in experimental high throughput screening (HTS) of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and pharmacokinetic properties, the ADME and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) in silico modeling is still indispensable in drug discovery as it can guide us to wisely select drug candidates prior to expensive ADME screenings and clinical trials. Compared to other ADME-Tox properties, human oral bioavailability (HOBA) is particularly important but extremely difficult to predict. In this paper, the advances in human oral bioavailability modeling will be reviewed. Moreover, our deep insight on how to construct more accurate and reliable HOBA QSAR and classification models will also discussed. PMID:25582307

  4. Advances in computationally modeling human oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun

    2015-06-23

    Although significant progress has been made in experimental high throughput screening (HTS) of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and pharmacokinetic properties, the ADME and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) in silico modeling is still indispensable in drug discovery as it can guide us to wisely select drug candidates prior to expensive ADME screenings and clinical trials. Compared to other ADME-Tox properties, human oral bioavailability (HOBA) is particularly important but extremely difficult to predict. In this paper, the advances in human oral bioavailability modeling will be reviewed. Moreover, our deep insight on how to construct more accurate and reliable HOBA QSAR and classification models will also discussed. PMID:25582307

  5. MicroRNAs: Modulators of the Ras Oncogenes in Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan; Alzahrani, Ali S

    2016-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of the head and neck is one of the six most common cancers in the world. OSCC remains the most common cause of cancer deaths in Asian countries. Conventional treatments for OSCC have not improved the overall 5 years survival and therefore alternative therapeutic targets are often sought. Ras is one of the most frequently deregulated oncogenes in oral cancer. Direct targeting the ras has proven unrealistic and hence, exploring and understanding alternative pathways and/or molecules which regulate ras and its signaling that could pave the way for novel molecular targets and therapy for oral cancer. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to regulate ras oncogenes in human cancers. In this article, we address the microRNA-mediated regulation of the ras oncogenes in oral cancer. We describe extensively the tumor suppressive and oncogenic roles of miRNAs in regulation of ras oncogenes in OSCC. We also discuss the role of miRNA-mediated ras regulation in therapeutic determination of oral cancer. Complete understanding of the miRNA regulation of ras oncogenes in oral cancer may facilitate to plan better strategies for diagnosis, molecular therapeutic targeting and the overall prognosis of this common and deadly cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1424-1431, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26620726

  6. Efficacy of Combination Chemotherapy Using a Novel Oral Chemotherapeutic Agent, TAS-102, with Oxaliplatin on Human Colorectal and Gastric Cancer Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Nukatsuka, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Fumio; Takechi, Teiji

    2015-09-01

    TAS-102 is a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent consisting of trifluridine (FTD) and the thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor tipiracil hydrochloride (at a molar ratio of 1:0.5) that was approved in Japan in 2014 for the treatment of unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. In the present study, the enhancement of therapeutic efficacy using a combination of TAS-102 and oxaliplatin was evaluated in a xenograft-bearing nude mouse model of colorectal and gastric cancer. TAS-102 was orally administered twice-a-day from day 1 to 14, and oxaliplatin was administered intravenously on days 1 and 8. The in vivo growth-inhibitory activity was evaluated based on the tumor volume and the growth-delay period, was estimated based on the period required to reach a tumor volume five-times greater than the initial volume (RTV5). The tumor growth-inhibitory activity and RTV5 in mice administered TAS-102 with oxaliplatin were significantly superior to those associated with either monotherapy in mice with colorectal (HCT 116, SW-48; p<0.001) and gastric cancer (SC-2, MKN74; p<0.001). MKN74/5FU, a 5-fluorouracil-resistant MKN74 sub-line, was sensitive to both FTD and oxaliplatin in vitro. In vivo, TAS-102 alone was effective in MKN74/5FU, and its anti-tumor activity was significantly enhanced in combination with oxaliplatin (p<0.001). No significant decrease in body weight or toxicity was observed compared to either monotherapy. The present pre-clinical findings indicate that combination of TAS-102 and oxaliplatin is a promising treatment option for colorectal or gastric cancer, and can be utilized in both chemo-naïve tumors and recurrent tumors after 5-fluorouracil treatment. PMID:26254349

  7. Anticancer Activity of Apaziquone in Oral Cancer Cells and Xenograft Model: Implications for Oral Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Gunjan; Somasundaram, Raj Thani; Walfish, Paul G.; Ralhan, Ranju

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients diagnosed in late stages have limited chemotherapeutic options underscoring the great need for development of new anticancer agents for more effective disease management. We aimed to investigate the anticancer potential of Apaziquone, [EOquin, USAN, E09, 3-hydroxy-5- aziridinyl-1-methyl-2(1H-indole-4,7-dione)–prop-β-en-α-ol], a pro-drug belonging to a class of anti-cancer agents called bioreductive alkylating agents, for OSCC. Apaziquone treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in OSCC cells in vitro. Apaziquone treated OSCC cells showed increased activation of Caspase 9 and Caspase 3, and Poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage suggesting induction of apoptosis by apaziquone in oral cancer cells. Importantly, apaziquone treatment significantly reduced oral tumor xenograft volume in immunocompromised NOD/SCID/Crl mice without causing apparent toxicity to normal tissues. In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo studies identified and demonstrated the pre-clinical efficacy of Apaziquone, as a potential novel anti-cancer therapeutic candidate for oral cancer management. PMID:26208303

  8. Quercetin inhibits migration and invasion of SAS human oral cancer cells through inhibition of NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wan-Wen; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Chueh, Fu-Shih; Chen, Ya-Yin; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lin, Jing-Pin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-05-01

    Quercetin, a principal flavanoid compound in onions, has been shown to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, including anticancer activities. Our earlier study showed that quercetin induced cytotoxic effects on SAS human oral cancer cells. In this study, we found that quercetin significantly reduced wound closure of SAS cells in culture plates after 12- and 24-h treatments. Results indicated that quercetin inhibited the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, as measured by western blotting and gelatin zymography. The results from western blotting also showed that quercetin reduced the protein levels of MMP-2, -7, -9 and -10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) p65, inductible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinases (PI3K), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IKBα), IKB-α/β, phosphorylated nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor kinase, alpha/beta (p-IKKα/β), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), son of sevenless homolog-1 (SOS1), growth factor receptor-bound protein-2 (GRB2), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-3 (MEKK3), MEKK7, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p-ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38, p-p38, Jun proto-oncogene (c-JUN) and p-c-JUN but it did not affect Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA), Protein kinase C (PKC) and rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (RAS) in SAS cells. Confocal laser microscopy also showed that quercetin promoted the expressions of RhoA and Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase-1 (ROCK1), but inhibited the expression of NF-κB p65 in SAS cells. It is concluded from these data that inhibition of migration and invasion of SAS cells by quercetin is associated with the down

  9. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Oral complications in the pediatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Leggott, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A number of acute oral complications may be associated with cancer therapy in children, but the extent and duration of these complications, and the most effective management techniques. have not been well described. The few studies differ in design, making comparisons difficult. Well-controlled, prospective clinical studies are needed to define the most effective strategies for the management of acute oral complications in children. However, it is clear that dental intervention prior to cancer therapy is an important factor in the optimal preparation of the patient. During cancer therapy, intensive supervised oral preventive protocols appear to be of benefit to the child's oral health, overall comfort, and well-being. Furthermore, the prevention of oral infection may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with cancer therapy. Long-term preventive oral care may help prevent dental disease and infection in medically compromised children and contribute to improving the quality of life. 41 references.

  10. Tobacco control: an issue twinned with oral cancer control.

    PubMed

    Priya, Mohan; Lando, Harry A

    2014-10-01

    Oral cancer is a silent crisis in India. Thirty per cent of all cancers are oral cancer, and approximately 17% of all cancers in men and 10.5% of all cancers in women are oral cancer. Approximately 70,000 new cases are reported annually and 46,000 oral cancer-related deaths occur each year in India; furthermore, the number of cases is rapidly increasing. With this crescendo there may be an estimated 100,000 new cases by 2020, which is insurmountable, especially in emerging economies like India. This astronomical increase is a direct result of tobacco usage. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey performed in 2010 (GATS-2010) reported that approximately 274.5 million people in India use tobacco in various forms. Increasing use of smokeless tobacco, especially by women and children, is of major concern. The World Health Organisation has identified tobacco control and oral cancer control measures as a health priority. However, prevention of tobacco use in India is a great challenge owing to low overall literacy rates and to greater prevalence among people in lower socio-economic strata. Addressing this problem requires a multidisciplinary approach. This paper presents a situational analysis of oral cancer in India and the role of tobacco in making it the epicentre of the disease, and focuses on the role of dental care-givers in influencing and promoting tobacco-control programmes and early detection of oral cancer. PMID:25146242

  11. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  12. Microbiota, oral microbiome, and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Izard, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Only 30% of patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer survive 1 year after the diagnosis. Progress in understanding the causes of pancreatic cancer has been made, including solidifying the associations with obesity and diabetes, and a proportion of cases should be preventable through lifestyle modifications. Unfortunately, identifying reliable biomarkers of early pancreatic cancer has been extremely challenging, and no effective screening modality is currently available for this devastating form of cancer. Recent data suggest that the microbiota may play a role in the disease process, but many questions remain. Future studies focusing on the human microbiome, both etiologically and as a marker of disease susceptibility, should shed light on how to better tackle prevention, early detection, and treatment of this highly fatal disease. PMID:24855008

  13. Microbiota, Oral Microbiome, and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Dominique S.; Izard, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Only 30% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer survive one year post-diagnosis. Progress in understanding the causes of pancreatic cancer has been made, including solidifying the associations with obesity and diabetes, and a proportion of cases should be preventable through lifestyle modifications. Unfortunately, identifying reliable biomarkers of early pancreatic cancer has been extremely challenging, and no effective screening modality is currently available for this devastating form of cancer. Recent data suggest the microbiota may play a role in the disease process, but many questions remain. Future studies focusing on the human microbiome, both etiologically and as a marker of disease susceptibility, should shed light on how to better tackle prevention, early detection, and treatment of this highly fatal disease. PMID:24855008

  14. Cancer patients with oral mucositis: challenges for nursing care1

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Sarah Nilkece Mesquita; Luz, Maria Helena Barros Araújo; da Silva, Grazielle Roberta Freitas; Andrade, Elaine Maria Leite Rangel; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; Moura, Renata Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze nursing care provided to cancer patients with oral mucositis based on the Nursing Process (NP). METHOD: this exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted with 213 patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in two cancer facilities: one philanthropic and one private service. RESULTS: the participants were mainly female, aged 45.8 years old on average, with up to 11 years of schooling and income of up to one times the minimum wage. Severe mucositis was related to chemotherapy associated with radiotherapy. Only 25.3% of the patients reported having received guidance from nurses during their treatment concerning self-care. The perceptions of patients regarding quality of care did not significantly differ between the private and public facilities. The basic human needs mainly affected were comfort, eating, and hygiene. Based on this finding, one NP was established listing the diagnoses, interventions and expected results to establish an ideal, though individualized, standard of nursing care to be provided to these patients. CONCLUSION: to understand oral mucositis is crucial to establish nursing care that includes prevention based on the implementation of an oral care plan. PMID:26039297

  15. Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of salivary metabolites of oral cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, Manoharan; Udayakumar, Kanniyappan; Jayanth, Vadivel; Prakasa Rao, Aruna; Bharanidharan, Ganesan; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Munusamy, Balu David; Murali Krishna, Chilakapati; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2014-01-01

    A pilot study has been carried out using human saliva in differentiating the normal subjects from that of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, using the autofluorescence spectroscopy at 405nm excitation. A markable difference in the spectral signatures between the saliva of normal subjects and that of oral cancer patients has been noticed. The possible reasons for the altered spectral signature may be due to the presence of endogenous porphyrin, NAD(P)H and FAD in the exfoliated cells from saliva. The elevated level of porphyrin in saliva of OSCC patients may be attributed to the disturbances in the amino acid degradation pathway and heme biosynthetic pathway, during the transformation of normal into malignant cells. The integrated area under the curve of fluorescence emission spectrum at 405nm excitation and also fluorescence excitation spectrum for 625nm emission were compared for the saliva of normal and oral cancer patients. The area under the curve for the emission spectrum provides 85.7% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity, where as the fluorescence excitation spectrum discriminates the same with 84.1% sensitivity and 93.2% specificity. PMID:24333763

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus induced oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, S. Aravind; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV disease is due to its association with opportunistic fungal infection and the most common among them is oral candidiasis. Here, we present a case report on an apparently healthy male patient of 39 years, who had oral candidiasis and was one of the indicators for HIV infection. PMID:26538978

  17. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizen, S. )

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references.

  18. Anti-cancer activity of bromelain nanoparticles by oral administration.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Patnaik, Soma; Srivastava, Amit K; Mudiam, Mohan K R; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya K; Pant, Aditya B; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2014-12-01

    Oral administration of anti-cancer drugs is an effective alternative to improve their efficacy and reduce undesired toxicity. Bromelain (BL) is known as an effective anti-cancer phyto-therapeutic agent, however, its activity is reduced upon oral administration. In addressing the issue, BL was encapsulated in Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to formulate nanoparticles (NPs). Further, the NPs were coated with Eudragit L30D polymer to introduce stability against the gastric acidic conditions. The resultant coated NPs were characterized for BL entrapment, proteolytic activity and mean particle size. The stability and release pattern of NPs were evaluated under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) pH conditions. Cytotoxicity studies carried out in human cell lines of diverse origin have shown significant dose advantage (-7-10 folds) with NPs in reducing the IC50 values compared with free BL. The cellular uptake of NPs in MCF-7, HeLa and Caco-2 cells monolayer was significantly enhanced several folds as compared to free BL. Altered expression of marker proteins associated with apoptosis and cell death (P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax) also confirmed the enhanced anti-carcinogenic potential of formulated NPs. Oral administration of NPs reduced the tumor burden of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and also increased their life-span (160.0 ± 5.8%) when compared with free BL (24 ± 3.2%). The generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential in EAC cells treated with NPs confirmed the suitability of Eudragit coated BL-NPs as a promising candidate for oral chemotherapy. PMID:26000370

  19. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    PubMed

    van der Waal, Isaäc; de Bree, Remco; Brakenhoff, Ruud; Coebergh, Jan-Willem

    2011-05-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading. The delay in diagnosis of oral cancer is caused both by patients' delay and doctors' delay. The total delay, including scheduling delay, work-up delay and treatment planning delay, varies in different studies, but averages some six months. The total delay is more or less evenly distributed between patients' and doctors' delay and is partly due to the unawareness of oral cancer among the public and professionals, and partly to barriers in the health care system that may prevent patients from seeking dental and medical care. Due to the relatively low incidence of oral cancer it will be difficult to increase the awareness of this cancer type among the public, thereby reducing patients' delay. However, it should be possible to considerably reduce doctors' delay by increasing the awareness of oral cancer among professionals and by improving their diagnostic ability. Population-based annual or semi-annual screening for oral cancer is not cost-effective, high-risk groups such as heavy smokers and drinkers perhaps excluded. Dentists and physicians, and also oral hygienists and nurse practitioners, may play a valuable role in such screening programs. PMID:21441877

  20. Clinical and biochemical studies support smokeless tobacco's carcinogenic potential in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Mallery, Susan R; Tong, Meng; Michaels, Gregory C; Kiyani, Amber R; Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented compelling evidence that linked smokeless tobacco use to the development of human oral cancer. Although these findings imply vigorous local carcinogen metabolism, little is known about levels and distribution of phase I, II, and III (drug egress) enzymes in human oral mucosa. In this study here, we integrated clinical data, and imaging and histopathologic analyses of an oral squamous cell carcinoma that arose at the site of smokeless tobacco quid placement in a patient. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were used to identify tumor and normal human oral mucosal smokeless tobacco-associated metabolic activation and detoxification enzymes. Human oral epithelium contains every known phase I enzyme associated with nitrosamine oxidative bioactivation with approximately 2-fold interdonor differences in protein levels. Previous studies have confirmed approximately 3.5-fold interdonor variations in intraepithelial phase II enzymes. Unlike the superficially located enzymes in nonreplicating esophageal surface epithelium, IHC studies confirmed that oral mucosal nitrosamine metabolizing enzymes reside in the basilar and suprabasilar region, which notably is the site of ongoing keratinocyte DNA replication. Clearly, variations in product composition, nitrosamine metabolism, and exposure duration will modulate clinical outcomes. The data presented here form a coherent picture consistent with the abundant experimental data that link tobacco-specific nitrosamines to human oral cancer. PMID:24265177

  1. Oral complications in the treatment of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mosel, D D; Bauer, R L; Lynch, D P; Hwang, S T

    2011-09-01

    While treatment for cancer in terms of chemotherapy and radiation therapy have evolved significantly since their inception, both of these cancer treatment modalities, especially if used in combination (e.g., as with head and neck cancers), have a very real potential to result in painful and debilitating adverse effects that clearly decrease quality of life and, potentially, increase mortality due to cancer. Herein, we discuss the prevalence and etiology of three broad categories of oral complications found during the treatment of cancer patients: mucositis, dysgeusia, and infectious disease. Lastly, we present therapeutic options that may be helpful in ameliorating these uncomfortable and, sometimes, life-threatening oral complications. PMID:21306481

  2. QKI impairs self-renewal and tumorigenicity of oral cancer cells via repression of SOX2

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Feng, Feixue; Xu, Jinke; Lu, Xiaozhao; Wang, Shan; Wang, Lifeng; Lu, Huanyu; Wei, Mengying; Yang, Guodong; Wang, Li; Lu, Zifan; Liu, Yanpu; Lei, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may contribute to tumor initiation, distant metastasis and chemo-resistance. One of RNA-binding proteins, Quaking (QKI), was reported to be a tumor suppressor. Here we showed that reduced QKI levels were observed in many human oral cancer samples. Moreover further reduction of QKI expression in CSCs was detected compared with non-CSCs in oral cancer cell lines. Overexpressing QKI in oral cancer cells significantly reduced CSC sphere formation and stem cell-associated genes. In tumor implanting nude mice model, QKI significantly impeded tumor initiation rates, tumor sizes and lung metastasis rates. As a contrast, knocking down QKI enhanced the above effects. Among the putative CSC target genes, SOX2 expression was negatively affected by QKI, mechanism study revealed that QKI may directly regulate SOX2 expression via specific binding with its 3′UTR in a cis element-dependent way. Loss of SOX2 even completely reversed the sphere forming ability in QKI knockdown cell line. Taken together, these data demonstrated that SOX2 is an important CSC regulator in oral cancer. QKI is a novel CSC inhibitor and impaired multiple oral CSC properties via partial repression of SOX2. Therefore, reduced expression of QKI may provide a novel diagnostic marker for oral cancer. PMID:24918581

  3. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages. PMID:15979385

  4. Selective apoptotic cell death effects of oral cancer cells treated with destruxin B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have revealed that destruxins (Dtx) have potent cytotoxic activities on individual cancer cells, however, data on oral cancer cells especial human are absent. Methods Destruxin B (DB) was isolated and used to evaluate the selective cytotoxicity with human oral cancer cell lines, GNM (Neck metastasis of gingival carcinoma) and TSCCa (Tongue squamous cell carcinoma) cells, and normal gingival fibroblasts (GF) were also included as controls. Cells were tested with different concentrations of DB for 24, 48, and 72 h by MTT assay. Moreover, the mechanism of cytotoxicity was investigated using caspase-3 Immunofluorescence, annexin V/PI staining, and the expression of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 by western blotting after treated with different concentrations of DB for 72 h as parameters for apoptosis analyses. Results The results show that DB exhibited significant (p < 0.01) and selective time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on GNM and TSCCa cells viability but not on GF cells. The data suggested that DB is capable to induce tumor specific growth inhibition in oral GNM and TSCCa cancer cells via Bax/Bcl-2-mediated intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in time- and dose-dependent manners. Conclusions This is the first report on the anti-proliferation effect of DB in oral cancer cells. The results reported here may offer further evidences to the development of DB as a potential complementary chemotherapeutic target for oral cancer complications. PMID:24972848

  5. Preoperative oral health care reduces postoperative inflammation and complications in oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Ono, Shigehiro; Shimasue, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Yoshiaki; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Tada, Misato; Ishida, Fumi; Okui, Gaku; Okumura, Toshiya; Fukui, Akiko; Kubozono, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Yoko; Seino, Sayaka; Hashikata, Miho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Naruse, Takako; Rahman, Mohammad Zeshaan; Uetsuki, Ryo; Nimiya, Akiko; Takamoto, Megumi; Dainobu, Kana; Tokikazu, Tomoko; Nishi, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Takechi, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The records of 70 patients with oral cancer who were treated at a single institution between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed. The body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared between those who had received preoperative oral care (oral care group) and those who had not received any (non-oral care group). When the patients were divided into those who underwent minimally invasive surgery and those who underwent severely invasive surgery, the mean CRP level in the early postoperative period was lower in the oral care group as compared with the non-oral care group in those who underwent minimally invasive surgery as well as those who underwent severely invasive surgery. However, the mean CRP level was most evidently reduced in the severely invasive group on days 1 and 3–5. However, no significant differences were observed with regard to the percentage of postoperative infectious complications (for example, surgical site infection, anastomotic leak and pneumonia) between the oral care (13.6%) and non-oral care (20.8%) groups, though a reduced prevalence of postoperative complications following preoperative oral care was noted. The results of the present study suggest that preoperative oral care can decrease inflammation during the early postoperative stage in patients with oral cancer who undergo severely invasive surgery. PMID:27588111

  6. Plasminogen activation system in oral cancer: Relevance in prognosis and therapy (Review).

    PubMed

    Wyganowska-Świątkowska, Marzena; Jankun, Jerzy

    2015-07-01

    Research on carcinogenesis and progress in cancer treatment have reduced mortality of cancer patients. Mortality rates decreased by 1.5% per year from 2001 through 2010 for most types of cancer in men and women. However, oral cancer is still a significant global health problem since incidence and mortality rates are increasing. Oral cavity cancer is ranked the 8th in men and the 14th in women based on data collected between 2006 and 2010 by the National Institute of Health. Furthermore, an increasing incidence of head and neck neoplasms, particularly the tongue cancer among young adults has been reported recently. It is most likely due to increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or the early start of tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment of oral cancer patients is mainly surgical and often leads to esthetic and functional deformities, with severe impact on the quality of life. Thus, novel form of treatments and selection of patients with high and low risk of mortality is of high priority for clinical studies. The expression of proteolytic enzymes in tumor and stromal tissues has been shown to have prognostic significance in many human cancers and inhibiting proteolysis can reduce tumor growth in many in vivo and in vitro models. Plasmin, with its activators and inhibitors are of great importance in many human malignances and collectively are called plasminogen activation system (PAS). In this comprehensive review we examine expression, possible prognostic markers and importance for therapy of the PAS members in oral cancer. Literature review suggests that overexpression of urokinase and its receptor are markers of poor outcome, thus, their inhibition can be explored in oral cancer therapy. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) is complex and depends on its concentration. Overexpression of PAI-1 favors angiogenesis, metastasis and poor prognosis, although when applied in very high concentrations it inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth, the

  7. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  8. A dielectrophoretic method of discrimination between normal oral epithelium, and oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Graham, K A; Mulhall, H J; Labeed, F H; Lewis, M P; Hoettges, K F; Kalavrezos, N; McCaul, J; Liew, C; Porter, S; Fedele, S; Hughes, M P

    2015-08-01

    Despite the accessibility of the oral cavity to clinical examination, delays in diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma (OOPC) are observed in a large majority of patients, with negative impact on prognosis. Diagnostic aids might help detection and improve early diagnosis, but there remains little robust evidence supporting the use of any particular diagnostic technology at the moment. The aim of the present feasibility first-in-human study was to evaluate the preliminary diagnostic validity of a novel technology platform based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP does not require labeling with antibodies or stains and it is an ideal tool for rapid analysis of cell properties. Cells from OOPC/dysplasia tissue and healthy oral mucosa were collected from 57 study participants via minimally-invasive brush biopsies and tested with a prototype DEP platform using median membrane midpoint frequency as main analysis parameter. Results indicate that the current DEP platform can discriminate between brush biopsy samples from cancerous and healthy oral tissue with a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 81.0%. The present ex vivo results support the potential application of DEP testing for identification of OOPC. This result indicates that DEP has the potential to be developed into a low-cost, rapid platform as an assistive tool for the early identification of oral cancer in primary care; given the rapid, minimally-invasive and non-expensive nature of the test, dielectric characterization represents a promising platform for cost-effective early cancer detection. PMID:26086875

  9. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Merchant, A; Husain, S S; Hosain, M; Fikree, F F; Pitiphat, W; Siddiqui, A R; Hayder, S J; Haider, S M; Ikram, M; Chuang, S K; Saeed, S A

    2000-04-01

    Oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men in Pakistan. Tobacco is smoked and chewed extensively in Pakistan. Paan is a quid of piper betel leaf that contains areca nut, lime, condiment, sweeteners, and sometimes tobacco, which is also used extensively. We did this study to clarify the independent association of paan and oral cancer. Between July 1996 and March 1998, we recruited biopsy-proven, primary cases of oral squamous-cell carcinoma, from 3 tertiary teaching centers in Karachi, Pakistan, and controls pair-matched for age, gender, hospital and time of occurrence, excluding persons with a past or present history of any malignancy. There were 79 cases and 149 controls. Approximately 68% of the cases were men, 49 years old on average, the youngest being 22 years old and the eldest 80. People with oral submucous fibrosis were 19.1 times more likely to develop oral cancer than those without it, after adjusting for other risk factors. People using paan without tobacco were 9.9 times, those using paan with tobacco 8.4 times, more likely to develop oral cancer as compared with non-users, after adjustment for other covariates. This study identifies an independent effect of paan without tobacco in the causation of oral cancer. Its findings may be of significance in South Asian communities where paan is used, and among health-care providers who treat persons from South Asia. PMID:10728606

  10. Early oral intake after reconstruction with a free flap for cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Guidera, Alice K; Kelly, Bronwen N; Rigby, Paul; MacKinnon, Craig A; Tan, Swee T

    2013-04-01

    To allow healing of the surgical wound patients are traditionally given nothing by mouth for 6-12 days after resection and reconstruction of a cancer of the oral cavity. Our aim was to assess the impact of introducing oral intake within 6 days postoperatively. Consecutive patients who had resection and reconstruction of a cancer of the oral cavity with a free flap within an 8-year period were selected from the head and neck database. Personal and social data; type, stage, and site of the tumour; type of resection and free flap; postoperative complications; and duration of hospital stay were recorded, supplemented by review of casenotes for the time that oral intake was started, duration of nasogastric and tracheostomy intubation, and changes in body weight. Patients in the early oral intake group started oral intake within 5 days postoperatively, and those in the late group began feeding from postoperative day 6. The duration of hospital stay in the early group was significantly shorter than that in the late group. There was, however, no difference in the morbidity, including orocutaneous fistula, between the two groups. The duration of nasogastric and tracheostomy intubation was shorter, and weight loss was less, in the early group than in the late group, but not significantly so. Early oral feeding does not increase the morbidity for patients having resection and reconstruction with free flaps for cancers of the oral cavity. Early oral intake is associated with a shorter hospital stay, and this may have implications for improved postoperative outcome. PMID:22776518

  11. Oral human papillomavirus is common in individuals with Fanconi anemia

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Sharon L.; Wells, Susanne I.; Zhang, Xue; Hoskins, Elizabeth E.; Davies, Stella M.; Myers, Kasiani C.; Mueller, Robin; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Brown, Darron R.; Mehta, Parinda A.; Butsch Kovacic, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Background Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder resulting in a loss of function of the FA-related DNA repair pathway. Individuals with FA are predisposed to some cancers including oropharyngeal and gynecological cancers with known associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) in the general population. Since individuals with FA respond poorly to chemotherapy and radiation, prevention of cancer is critical. Methods To determine if individuals with FA are particularly susceptible to oral HPV infection, we analyzed survey-based risk factor data and tested DNA isolated from oral rinses from 126 individuals with FA and 162 unaffected first-degree family members for 37 HPV types. Results Fourteen individuals (11.1%) with FA tested positive, significantly more (p=0.003) than family members (2.5%). While HPV prevalence was even higher for sexually active individuals with FA (17.7% vs. 2.4% in family; p=0.003), HPV positivity also tended to be higher in the sexually inactive (8.7% in FA vs. 2.9% in siblings). Indeed, having FA increased HPV positivity 4.9 fold (95%CI: 1.6–15.4) considering age and sexual experience, but did not differ by other potential risk factors. Conclusion Our studies suggest that oral HPV is more common in individuals with FA. It will be essential to continue to explore associations between risk factors and immune dysfunction on HPV incidence and persistence over time. Impact HPV vaccination should be emphasized in those with FA as a first step to prevent oropharyngeal cancers, although additional studies are needed to determine if the level of protection it offers in this population is adequate. PMID:25809863

  12. Elevated expression of JMJD6 is associated with oral carcinogenesis and maintains cancer stemness properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Ryul; Lee, Sung Hee; Rigas, Nicole Kristina; Kim, Reuben H; Kang, Mo K; Park, No-Hee; Shin, Ki-Hyuk

    2016-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a small subpopulation of cancer cells within a tumor and responsible for initiation and maintenance of tumor growth. Thus, understanding of molecular regulators of CSCs is of paramount importance for the development of effective cancer therapies. Here, we identified jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) as a novel molecular regulator of oral CSCs. JMJD6 is highly expressed in CSC-enriched populations of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining revealed significantly high level of JMJD6 in OSCC tissues compared to normal human oral epithelia, suggesting that expression of JMJD6 positively correlates with oral carcinogenesis. Subsequent functional analysis showed that knockdown of endogenous JMJD6 in OSCC strongly suppressed self-renewal capacity, a key characteristic of CSCs, and anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, ectopic expression of JMJD6 enhanced CSC characteristics including self-renewal, ALDH1 activity, migration/invasion and drug resistance. Expression of CSC-related genes was also markedly affected by modulating JMJD6 expression. Mechanistically, JMJD6 induces interleukin 4 (IL4) transcription by binding to its promoter region. IL4 rescues self-renewal capacity in JMJD6- knocked down OSCC cells, suggesting the importance of JMJD6-IL4 axis in oral CSCs. Our studies identify JMJD6 as a molecular determinant of CSC phenotype, suggesting that inhibition of JMJD6 may offer an effective therapeutic modality against oral cancer. PMID:26645717

  13. Total, Direct and Indirect Effects of Paan on Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Paan (betel leaf and betel nut quid) used with or without tobacco has been positively associated with oral cancer. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a pre-cancerous condition caused by paan, lies on the causal pathway between paan use and oral cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the effect of paan consumption on oral cancer risk when it is mediated by OSMF. Methods We used mediation methods proposed by Vanderweele, which are based on causal inference principles, to characterize the total, direct and indirect effects of paan, consumed with and without tobacco, on oral cancer mediated by OSMF. We reanalyzed case-control data collected from three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan between July 1996 and March 1998. Results For paan without tobacco the total effect on oral cancer was OR=7.39, 95% CI, 1.01, 38.11, natural indirect effect (due to OSMF among paan users) was OR=2.48, 95% CI, 0.99, 10.44, and the natural direct effect (due to paan with OSMF absent) was OR=3.32, 95% CI, 0.68, 10.07. For paan with tobacco the total direct effect was OR=15.68, 95% CI, 3.00, 54.90, natural indirect effect was OR=2.18, 95% CI,0.82, 5.52, and the natural direct effect was OR=7.27, 95% CI,2.15, 20.43. Conclusions Paan, whether or not it contained tobacco, raised oral cancer risk irrespective of OSMF. Oral cancer risk was higher among those who used paan with tobacco. PMID:25542140

  14. A Chemopreventive Nanodiamond Platform for Oral Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yen, Albert; Zhang, Kangyi; Daneshgaran, Giulia; Kim, Ho-Joong; Ho, Dean

    2016-02-01

    Standard oral cancer therapy generally includes a combination of surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. This treatment paradigm has not changed in some time. In this paper, we propose a chemopreventive nanodiamond platform for the delivery of celecoxib (Celebrex) to oral cancer lesions. This innovative platform allows for sustained drug release under physiological conditions, potentially enhancing chemopreventive efficacy of celecoxib without the physical and toxicological damage associated with conventional means of drug delivery. PMID:26930755

  15. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726-0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  16. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. PMID:21055997

  17. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726–0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  18. Antioncogenes and human cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Knudson, A G

    1993-01-01

    The antioncogenes, or tumor suppressor genes, as negative regulators of cell division, stand in contrast to oncogenes. For most human cancers, the more frequently mutated genes are the antioncogenes, the principal exception being the leukemias and lymphomas. Persons heterozygous for germ-line mutations in antioncogenes are strongly predisposed to one or more kinds of cancer, and most dominantly inherited cancer is attributable to such heterozygosity. Seven antioncogenes have been cloned through the study of these persons, and several others have been mapped. An eighth one was mapped and cloned through the investigation of tumors and is not yet known in hereditary form. Three dominantly inherited forms of cancer are not attributable to mutations in antioncogenes. The corresponding nonhereditary forms of most cancers generally reveal abnormalities of the same antioncogenes that are found in the hereditary forms but may also show additional ones. Some cancers, especially the embryonal tumors of children, have a small number of antioncogene mutations; some others, such as most sarcomas, have more, and the common carcinomas have the most, reflecting a hierarchy of controls over growth of stem cell populations. Still more members of this gene category remain to be mapped and cloned through the study of cancer families and of tumors. The genes that have been cloned act at diverse points in the signal transduction pathway in cells, from the outer cell membranes to sites of gene transcription, in some cases as negative regulators of oncogene expression. PMID:7902574

  19. Awareness regarding oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions among rural population of Belgaum district, India.

    PubMed

    Sankeshwari, Roopali; Ankola, Anil; Hebbal, Mamata; Muttagi, Sidramesh; Rawal, Nilam

    2016-09-01

    Belgaum district of Karnataka state is well known for high production and consumption of tobacco in Southern India. This study aimed to investigate the rural population's awareness of oral cancer, precancerous lesions and their risk factors. Data were collected via face to face interviews using a pretested and validated questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised two parts: part one had questions concerning socio-demographic data and part two consisted of 25 questions pertaining to people's attitudes to and awareness of risk factors for oral cancer and precancerous lesions. One researcher interviewed participants and recorded the responses verbatim. Of the participants, 17% identified all the symptoms of oral cancer and 27.8% identified all the symptoms of oral precancerous lesions. Approximately 90% of the participants had never noticed statutory warnings on tobacco and alcohol products. Awareness was especially poor in people of lower socio-economic status. This study highlights a need for education concerning the risk factors for oral cancer, its clinical manifestations and the impact of adverse habits on long term health. Health education campaigns emphasizing oral cancer need to be integrated with broader public health messages. PMID:25758170

  20. Human oral viruses are personal, persistent and gender-consistent

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Shira R; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Ly, Melissa; Lum, Andrew G; Salzman, Julia; Boehm, Tobias K; Pride, David T

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant members of the human oral microbiome, yet relatively little is known about their biodiversity in humans. To improve our understanding of the DNA viruses that inhabit the human oral cavity, we examined saliva from a cohort of eight unrelated subjects over a 60-day period. Each subject was examined at 11 time points to characterize longitudinal differences in human oral viruses. Our primary goals were to determine whether oral viruses were specific to individuals and whether viral genotypes persisted over time. We found a subset of homologous viral genotypes across all subjects and time points studied, suggesting that certain genotypes may be ubiquitous among healthy human subjects. We also found significant associations between viral genotypes and individual subjects, indicating that viruses are a highly personalized feature of the healthy human oral microbiome. Many of these oral viruses were not transient members of the oral ecosystem, as demonstrated by the persistence of certain viruses throughout the entire 60-day study period. As has previously been demonstrated for bacteria and fungi, membership in the oral viral community was significantly associated with the sex of each subject. Similar characteristics of personalized, sex-specific microflora could not be identified for oral bacterial communities based on 16S rRNA. Our findings that many viruses are stable and individual-specific members of the oral ecosystem suggest that viruses have an important role in the human oral ecosystem. PMID:24646696

  1. Human oral viruses are personal, persistent and gender-consistent.

    PubMed

    Abeles, Shira R; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Ly, Melissa; Lum, Andrew G; Salzman, Julia; Boehm, Tobias K; Pride, David T

    2014-09-01

    Viruses are the most abundant members of the human oral microbiome, yet relatively little is known about their biodiversity in humans. To improve our understanding of the DNA viruses that inhabit the human oral cavity, we examined saliva from a cohort of eight unrelated subjects over a 60-day period. Each subject was examined at 11 time points to characterize longitudinal differences in human oral viruses. Our primary goals were to determine whether oral viruses were specific to individuals and whether viral genotypes persisted over time. We found a subset of homologous viral genotypes across all subjects and time points studied, suggesting that certain genotypes may be ubiquitous among healthy human subjects. We also found significant associations between viral genotypes and individual subjects, indicating that viruses are a highly personalized feature of the healthy human oral microbiome. Many of these oral viruses were not transient members of the oral ecosystem, as demonstrated by the persistence of certain viruses throughout the entire 60-day study period. As has previously been demonstrated for bacteria and fungi, membership in the oral viral community was significantly associated with the sex of each subject. Similar characteristics of personalized, sex-specific microflora could not be identified for oral bacterial communities based on 16S rRNA. Our findings that many viruses are stable and individual-specific members of the oral ecosystem suggest that viruses have an important role in the human oral ecosystem. PMID:24646696

  2. Oral cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Zheng, Rongshou; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To descript the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer among Chinese population in 2011, and provide valuable data for oral cancer prevention and research. Methods Data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributed in 28 provinces were accepted for this study after evaluation based on quality control criteria, covering a total of 175,310,169 populations and accounting for 13.01% of the overall national population in 2011. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by area, gender and age groups. The numbers of new cases and deaths were estimated using the 5-year age-specific cancer incidence/mortality rates and the corresponding populations. The Chinese population in 2000 and World Segi’s population were used for age-standardized rates. Results The estimate of new cases diagnosed with oral cancer was 39,450 including 26,160 males and 13,290 females. The overall crude incidence rate for oral cancer was 2.93/100,000. The age-standardized rates by China (ASRCN) population and by World population (ASRwld) were 2.22/100,000 and 2.17/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative incidence rate was 0.25%. The estimated number of oral cancer deaths of China in 2011 was 16,933, including 11,794 males and 5,139 females. The overall crude mortality rate was 1.26/100,000, accounting for 0.80% of all cancer deaths. The ASRCN and ASRwld for mortality were 0.90/100,000 and 0.89/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative mortality rate was 0.10%. The incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer were much higher in males and urban areas than in females and rural areas. In addition, the incidence and mortality rates were increased by the raising of ages. Conclusions Results in the study may have important roles for oral cancer prevention and research. Although oral cancer burden of China is not high, we must pay attention to this malignancy as well. In addition, further researches need to be done for

  3. Human Papilloma Virus in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - The Enigma Unravelled.

    PubMed

    Khot, Komal P; Deshmane, Swati; Choudhari, Sheetal

    2016-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) has long been regarded as a disease entity having a remarkable incidence worldwide and a fairly onerous prognosis; thus encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Squamous cell carcinomas encompass at least 90% of all oral malignancies. Several factors like tobacco and tobacco-related products, alcohol, genetic predisposition and hormonal factors are suspected as possible causative factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical cancer also appears to be involved in the aetiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. HPVpositive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) seems to differ from HPV-negative SCC. Many questions about the natural history of oral HPV infection remain under investigation. The aim of this review is to highlight the current understanding of HPV-associated oral cancer with an emphasis on its prognosis, detection and management. PMID:26981603

  4. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Julie E; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A; Fahey, Jed W; Normolle, Daniel P; Grandis, Jennifer R; Kensler, Thomas W; Johnson, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared with vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 547-57. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27339168

  5. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), a Novel Potential Therapeutic Target for Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alhazzazi, Turki Y; Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Joo, Nam; Huang, Jing-Yi; Verdin, Eric; D'Silva, Nisha J; Kapila, Yvonne L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several sirtuin family members (SIRT1-7), which are evolutionarily conserved NAD-dependent deacetylases, play an important role in carcinogenesis. However, their role in oral cancer has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether sirtuins play a role in oral cancer carcinogenesis. METHODS The expression levels of all sirtuins in several oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines were compared with normal human oral keratinocytes and observed that SIRT3 was highly expressed. Therefore, tissue microarrays were used to evaluate the clinical relevance of this overexpression. SIRT3 down-regulation in OSCC cell proliferation and survival was investigated and analyzed by using cell-proliferation and cell-viability assays. Ionizing radiation and cisplatin were used to investigate whether SIRT3 down-regulation could increase the sensitivity of OSCC to both treatments. To further assess the in vivo role of SIRT3 in OSCC carcinogenesis, a floor-of-mouth oral cancer murine model was used to study the effect of SIRT3 down-regulation on OSCC tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. RESULTS The current results demonstrated for the first time that SIRT3 is overexpressed in OSCC in vitro and in vivo compared with other sirtuins. Down-regulation of SIRT3 inhibited OSCC cell growth and proliferation and increased OSCC cell sensitivity to radiation and cisplatin treatments in vitro. SIRT3 down-regulation also reduced tumor burden in vivo. CONCLUSIONS The current investigation revealed a novel role for SIRT3 in oral cancer carcinogenesis as a promoter of cell proliferation and survival, thus implicating SIRT3 as a new potential therapeutic target to treat oral cancer. Cancer 2011. © 2010 American Cancer Society. PMID:21472714

  6. Human cancer databases (review).

    PubMed

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Michalopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the four major non‑communicable diseases (NCD), responsible for ~14.6% of all human deaths. Currently, there are >100 different known types of cancer and >500 genes involved in cancer. Ongoing research efforts have been focused on cancer etiology and therapy. As a result, there is an exponential growth of cancer‑associated data from diverse resources, such as scientific publications, genome‑wide association studies, gene expression experiments, gene‑gene or protein‑protein interaction data, enzymatic assays, epigenomics, immunomics and cytogenetics, stored in relevant repositories. These data are complex and heterogeneous, ranging from unprocessed, unstructured data in the form of raw sequences and polymorphisms to well‑annotated, structured data. Consequently, the storage, mining, retrieval and analysis of these data in an efficient and meaningful manner pose a major challenge to biomedical investigators. In the current review, we present the central, publicly accessible databases that contain data pertinent to cancer, the resources available for delivering and analyzing information from these databases, as well as databases dedicated to specific types of cancer. Examples for this wealth of cancer‑related information and bioinformatic tools have also been provided. PMID:25369839

  7. Oral health after breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Amódio, Juliana; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Carrara, Helio Humberto Angotti; Tiezzi, Daniel Guimaraes; de Andrade, Jurandyr Moreira; dos Reis, Francisco José Candido

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Oral health can affect a patient's general health and quality of life. Given the increase in breast cancer survival rates, investigations of factors influencing the quality of life of survivors have gained importance. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize oral health in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study. Forty-eight women who survived breast cancer (age 62.1±9.1 years) and 48 healthy controls (age 61.8±8.6 years) were included. For each case and control, a complete oral evaluation chart was completed. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic periodontal disease was 98% in breast cancer survivors and 87% in controls. The breast cancer survivors had a median of 16 remaining teeth, whereas controls had a median of 22 remaining teeth (p = 0.03). The percentage of sites with gingival bleeding was 16.05% (0-100%) in breast cancer survivors and 0% (0-72%) in controls (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Chronic periodontal disease and tooth loss were highly prevalent in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. To improve survivors' quality of life, a preventive oral health evaluation should be available prior to cancer treatment. PMID:25518024

  8. PBK/TOPK Expression Predicts Prognosis in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chin-Fang; Chen, Sung-Lang; Sung, Wen-Wei; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Chen, Li-Hsin; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chou, Ming-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a common cancer with poor prognosis. We evaluated the expression of PBK/TOPK (PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase) and its prognostic significance in oral cancer. PBK/TOPK expression was measured by immunohistochemical staining of samples from 287 patients with oral cancer. The association between PBK/TOPK expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The prognostic value of PBK/TOPK for overall survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. A high PBK/TOPK expression level was correlated with long overall survival. The prognostic role of PBK/TOPK expression was significant in young patients (p < 0.05), patients with smoking habits (p < 0.05), and late stage disease (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that PBK/TOPK expression is enhanced in oral cancer. High PBK/TOPK expression, either alone or in subgroups according to clinicopathological features, may serve as a favorable prognostic marker for patients with oral cancer. PMID:27347940

  9. PBK/TOPK Expression Predicts Prognosis in Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Fang; Chen, Sung-Lang; Sung, Wen-Wei; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Chen, Li-Hsin; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chou, Ming-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a common cancer with poor prognosis. We evaluated the expression of PBK/TOPK (PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase) and its prognostic significance in oral cancer. PBK/TOPK expression was measured by immunohistochemical staining of samples from 287 patients with oral cancer. The association between PBK/TOPK expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The prognostic value of PBK/TOPK for overall survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. A high PBK/TOPK expression level was correlated with long overall survival. The prognostic role of PBK/TOPK expression was significant in young patients (p < 0.05), patients with smoking habits (p < 0.05), and late stage disease (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that PBK/TOPK expression is enhanced in oral cancer. High PBK/TOPK expression, either alone or in subgroups according to clinicopathological features, may serve as a favorable prognostic marker for patients with oral cancer. PMID:27347940

  10. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals in human oral cancer cells bearing mutated p53 gene after exposure to high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Yosuke; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kajihara, Atsuhisa; Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Imai, Yuichiro; Ota, Ichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Mori, Eiichiro; Noda, Taichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation induces efficiently apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined whether high-LET radiation depresses the Akt-survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation depresses of survival signals even in the mp53 cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation activates Caspase-9 through depression of survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation suppresses cell growth through depression of survival signals. -- Abstract: Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status in cancer cells. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signaling were analyzed with Western Blotting 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis. Akt-related protein levels decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G{sub 2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and suppresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signaling, even in mp

  11. Metabolic and Community Synergy of Oral Bacteria in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Nielson T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oral periodontopathic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum has been repeatedly associated with colorectal tumors. Molecular analysis has identified specific virulence factors that promote tumorigenesis in the colon. However, other oral community members, such as members of the Porphyromonas spp., are also found with F. nucleatum on colonic tumors, and thus, narrow studies of individual pathogens do not take community-wide virulence properties into account. A broader view of oral bacterial physiology and pathogenesis identifies two factors that could promote colonization and persistence of oral bacterial communities in the colon. The polymicrobial nature of oral biofilms and the asaccharolytic metabolism of many of these species make them well suited to life in the microenvironment of colonic lesions. Consideration of these two factors offers a novel perspective on the role of oral microbiota in the initiation, development, and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:27303740

  12. Oral cancer in Myanmar: a preliminary survey based on hospital-based cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Oo, Htun Naing; Myint, Yi Yi; Maung, Chan Nyein; Oo, Phyu Sin; Cheng, Jun; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Yagi, Minoru; Sawair, Faleh A; Saku, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of oral cancer is not clearly known in Myanmar, where betel quid chewing habits are widely spread. Since betel quid chewing has been considered to be one of the important causative factors for oral cancer, the circumstantial situation for oral cancer should be investigated in this country. We surveyed oral cancer cases as well as whole body cancers from two cancer registries from Yangon and Mandalay cities, both of which have representative referral hospitals in Myanmar, and we showed that oral cancer stood at the 6th position in males and 10th in females, contributing to 3.5% of whole body cancers. There was a male predominance with a ratio of 2.1:1. Their most frequent site was the tongue, followed by the palate, which was different from that in other countries with betel quid chewing habits. About 90% of male and 44% of female patients had habitual backgrounds of chewing and smoking for more than 15 years. The results revealed for the first time reliable oral cancer frequencies in Myanmar, suggesting that longstanding chewing and smoking habits are etiological backgrounds for oral cancer patients. PMID:20819123

  13. Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Patton, Lauren L

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications. PMID:24034072

  14. Orthotopic non-metastatic and metastatic oral cancer mouse models ⋆

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Manish V.; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Trackman, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral cancer is characterized by high morbidity and mortality with a predisposition to metastasize to different tissues, including lung, liver, and bone. Despite progress in the understanding of mutational profiles and deregulated pathways in oral cancer, patient survival has not significantly improved over the past decades. Therefore, there is a need to establish in vivo models that recapitulate human oral cancer metastasis to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel drugs. Here we report orthotopic tongue cancer nude mouse models to study oral cancer growth and metastasis using human metastatic (UMSCC2) and non-metastatic (CAL27) cell lines, respectively. Transduction of these cell lines with lentivirus expressing red fluorescent protein (DsRed) followed by injection into tongues of immunodeficient mice generated orthotopic tongue tumors that could be monitored for growth and metastasis by fluorescence measurement with an in vivo Imaging System (IVIS 200). The growth rates of CAL27-DsRed induced tumors were higher than UMSCC2-DsRed tumors after day 15, while UMSCC2-DsRed tumors revealed metastasis beginning on day 21. Importantly, UMSCC2 tumors metastasized to a number of tissues including the submandibular gland, lung, kidney, liver, and bone. Further, immunohistochemical analyses of tongue tumors induced by CAL27 and UMSCC2 cells revealed elevated expression of components of protumorigenic pathways deregulated in human cancers, including Cyclin D1, PCNA, Ki-67, LSD1, LOXL2, MT-MMP1, DPAGT1, E-cadherin, OCT4A, and H3K4me1/2. These orthotopic mouse models are likely to be useful tools for gaining insights into the activity and mechanisms of novel oral cancer drug candidates. PMID:25682387

  15. Dental Calculus and the Evolution of the Human Oral Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Warinner, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Characterizing the evolution of the oral microbiome is a challenging, but increasingly feasible, task. Recently, dental calculus has been shown to preserve ancient biomolecules from the oral microbiota, host tissues and diet for tens of thousands of years. As such, it provides a unique window into the ancestral oral microbiome. This article reviews recent advancements in ancient dental calculus research and emerging insights into the evolution and ecology of the human oral microbiome. PMID:27514153

  16. An oral cancer awareness intervention in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; Lowe, D; Catleugh, M; Edwards, D

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the impact on 95 community pharmacies of an educational package on awareness of oral cancer, which consisted of a training evening, pharmacy protocol, and information for patients. Results of a questionnaire and the experience of a mystery shopper before the intervention and 6 months later were used to evaluate its effectiveness. Before the intervention 29% of pharmacies advised "my 60-year-old friend who has had an ulcer in his mouth for 4 weeks" to see a doctor or a dentist. Afterwards this rose to 45% with advice being confined to seeing a doctor. There was also a substantial reduction in advice being given to buy a product. The questionnaire showed that although responses between the baseline and follow up were similar regarding health behaviours and signs and symptoms in relation to oral cancer, more (74-89%) thought that drinking alcohol, and less (46-36%) thought that passive smoking increased the risk of oral cancer. There was also an increase in the number who thought that burning sensations (42-57%), white patches (52-76%), red patches (57-76%), speckled patches (46-68%), and a persistent ulcer (82-91%) might be signs or symptoms of oral cancer. The intervention was well received, and changes in knowledge and practice were evident, but the study showed that there is potential for much greater awareness of oral cancer amongst pharmacists and their staff. PMID:19959266

  17. Chloroform Extract of Solanum lyratum Induced G0/G1 Arrest via p21/p16 and Induced Apoptosis via Reactive Oxygen Species, Caspases and Mitochondrial Pathways in Human Oral Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chiz-Hao; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Jing-Pin; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Huang, Yi-Ping; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lin, Meng-Liang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Solanum lyratum (SLEC) Thunberg (Solanaceae) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in China for centuries. Numerous studies have shown that SLEC Thunberg (Solanaceae) extract inhibited cancer cell growth in vitro. Herein, we investigated cell death-induced by EcoAc, water, chloroform, butanol extract of SLEC in human oral cancer cell lines (HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27) in vitro. Different SLEC extract induced cytotoxic effects in human oral cancer cells were examined by contrast phase microscopy. We selected the chloroform extract of SLEC to examine the cytotoxic effects by using DAPI staining, comet assays, flow cytometric assay, Western blotting and examination of confocal laser microscopy. SLEC decreased the percentage of viable cells, induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis. These effects were concentration- and time-dependent manners. SLEC increased protein levels of p21, p16, CDK2, and cyclin D1 in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. Also, SLEC increased CDK6 in HSC-3 and CAL-27 cells, but inhibited CDK6 in SAS cells. Cyclin E in HSC-3 and SAS cells was increased by SLEC, but it was inhibited in CAL-27 cells. SLEC suppressed the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, but increased the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. SLEC promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca²⁺, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and stimulated NO production in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. Specific caspase inhibitors (caspase-8 inhibitor: Z-IETD-FMK; caspase-9 inhibitor: Z-LEHD-FMK and caspase-3 inhibitor: Z-DEVD-FMK) for caspase-8, -9, and -3 blocked SLE-activated caspase-8, -9, and -3 activities which were associated with an increase in the percentage of viable cells. Taken together, SLE induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis via extrinsic- and intrinsic-dependent pathways in HSC-3, SAS, and CAL-27 cells. PMID:26477797

  18. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Oue, Erika; Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei; Iimura, Tadahiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kayamori, Kou; Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral cancer cells synthesize CXCL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2 synthesized by oral cancer is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2-neutralizing antibody inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by oral cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first report the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. -- Abstract: To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first

  19. Assessment of quality of life in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Infante-Cossío, Pedro; Hernández-Guisado, José María; Hens-Aumente, Elena; Gutierrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2008-11-01

    Quality of life (QL) in oral cancer patients has become one of the most important parameters to consider in the diagnosis and post-treatment follow-up. The purpose of this article has been to review the papers published that study the QL in oral cancer patients, the different QL questionnaires used, the clinical results obtained, and the systematic revisions available in the indexed literature for the last 10 years. The term QL appears as a keyword in an increasing number of articles throughout the past 10 years; however, few studies focus on oral cancer. Most of them assess all head and neck cancers, which conform to a heterogeneous group with several different features depending on location (oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx and salivary glands). Most studies evaluate QL in short periods of time, normally within the first year after the diagnosis. Series do not discern between different therapeutic options, and they generally center on Northern European or Northern American populations. There are few instruments translated and validated into Spanish that measure QL, a fundamental characteristic to link QL to own patients' socio-cultural parameters. Data related with QL are mostly related to patient (age, sex, co-morbidity), tumour (location, size), and treatment (surgical treatment, radiotherapy association, reconstruction, cervical dissection, and/or feeding tube). Nowadays QL's assessment is considered an essential component of an oral cancer patient as well as the survival, morbidity and years free of disease. Although many aspects related to QL in oral cancer patients have been published throughout the past 10 years, more systematic research is needed to be able to apply it on a daily basis. PMID:18978717

  20. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  1. Print and online newspaper coverage of the link between HPV and oral cancer in the UK: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Rachael H; Marlow, Laura A V; Forster, Alice S; Waller, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in some oral cancers has been reported in the news press, though little is known about the content of these articles. This study aimed to examine how frequently the link between HPV and oral cancer has been reported in the news press and to examine the content of these articles. Design UK media articles were searched for articles relating to oral cancer and HPV in the database NexisUK. Of 854 articles identified by the initial search, 112 were eligible for inclusion (2002–2014) and content analysis was used to determine the main themes discussed. Results Themes included actor Michael Douglas’ claim that his throat cancer was caused by HPV, the riskiness of oral sex, health information (including HPV as a cause of oral cancer) and the need to vaccinate boys against HPV. Many articles also referred to the link between HPV and cervical cancer and the increasing incidence of HPV-related oral cancer. The largest peak in articles occurred when Michael Douglas discussed his cancer (June 2013). Facts about HPV and references to research were provided in some articles. Conclusions The link between HPV and oral cancer and the transmission of HPV via oral sex was regularly discussed, yet coverage often lacked detailed health information. This could increase awareness of the link between oral sex and HPV risk, but may also lead to public concern about oral sex as a sexual behaviour. PMID:26920439

  2. Association between Chronic Periodontitis and Oral/Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Costa de; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo da Silva; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case control study was to assess the association between the extent and severity of chronic periodontitis and oral cavity and/or oropharyngeal cancer. The case group comprised 35 patients (mean age 56.1±8.4), diagnosed for oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer. The control group comprised 40 individuals (mean age 55.4±9.4) without diagnostic of cancer. All individuals were subjected to a periodontal examination, including bleeding on probing, plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and decayed, extracted and filled teeth index (DMFT). The case group had significantly more sites with plaque. GI and BOP had similar values in both groups. The median PPD and CAL values were significantly higher for the case group. Chronic generalized periodontitis was predominant in 80% of patients with oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer. Eighty nine percent of the patients in the case group presented severe chronic periodontitis. There was no significant difference between groups for median values of DMFT. The extent and severity of chronic periodontitis remained as risk indicators for oral cavity and/or oropharyngeal cancer even after the adjustments for traditional confound factors, i.e. smoking and alcohol consumption. PMID:27224557

  3. Fluorescence-guided surgical resection of oral cancer reduces recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Pierre; Poh, Catherine F.; Durham, J. Scott; Zhang, Lewei; Lam, Sylvia F.; Rosin, Miriam; MacAulay, Calum

    2011-03-01

    Approximately 36,000 people in the US will be newly diagnosed with oral cancer in 2010 and it will cause 8,000 new deaths. The death rate is unacceptably high because oral cancer is usually discovered late in its development and is often difficult to treat or remove completely. Data collected over the last 5 years at the BC Cancer Agency suggest that the surgical resection of oral lesions guided by the visualization of the alteration of endogenous tissue fluorescence can dramatically reduce the rate of cancer recurrence. Four years into a study which compares conventional versus fluorescence-guided surgical resection, we reported a recurrence rate of 25% (7 of 28 patients) for the control group compared to a recurrence rate of 0% (none of the 32 patients) for the fluorescence-guided group. Here we present resent results from this ongoing study in which patients undergo either conventional surgical resection of oral cancer under white light illumination or using tools that enable the visualization of naturally occurring tissue fluorescence.

  4. Usefulness of a fluorescence visualization system for the detection of oral precancerous and early cancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yuichi; Fujii, Tomoko; Ugaki, Yoshihide; Yasui, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Dateoka, Suguru; Kakudo, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Early detection of precancerous and early cancerous lesions could greatly reduce both the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to analyze a fluorescence visualization (FV) system for the detection of precancerous and early cancerous lesions in rat tongue carcinogenesis and human oral cancerous lesions using for the first time a 4NQO rat model and human tissue. Based on the results from the rat tongue carcinogenesis model, under direct FV, the normal oral mucosa emitted various shades of pale green autofluorescence. In the precancerous and early cancerous cases, the lesion appeared as an irregular dark area. Histological examination of the lesions showed that the VELscope system had a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 100% in discriminating normal mucosa from dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (CIS) or invasive carcinoma. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein level was gradually increased with progression of carcinogenic transformation. Furthermore, the results of PCNA and FV loss (FVL) were correlated. Next, results from 17 patients were also presented. Histological examination of the lesions showed that the VELscope system had a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 100% in discriminating normal mucosa from severe dysplasia/CIS or invasive carcinoma. There were no normal epithelium cells in any of the FVL regions. Furthermore, to clarify the usefulness of FV compared to vital staining with iodine, we investigated the surgical margins of early oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and compared the FVL and iodine unstained area (IU). The percentage of various types of dysplasia were almost equal when comparing the FVL and IU. These results suggest that this direct FV device has the potential for simple, cost-effective screening, detection and margin determination of oral precancerous and early cancerous lesions. PMID:27121913

  5. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  6. A Survey of Oral Cancer Screening Insurance Coverage in New York City.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Goh, Charlene; Zavras, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies show that fewer than 25% of people who visit a dentist regularly are screened for oral cancer, and that the majority of oral cancers present at an advanced stage, when cure rates are already abysmal. This study explores the current status of oral cancer screening coverage among a variety of insurance providers in New York City. The study focuses on determining the coverage and frequency of the cluster of salient CDT (dental) codes surrounding oral cancer screenings. PMID:27209714

  7. Curcumin modulates cellular AP-1, NF-kB, and HPV16 E6 proteins in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Alok; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Abhishek; Kohaar, Indu; Hedau, Suresh; Bharti, Alok C; Sarker, Subhodeep; Dey, Dipankar; Saluja, Daman; Das, Bhudev

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the natural antioxidant curcumin on the HPV16-positive oral carcinoma cell line 93VU147T and demonstrated that curcumin is not only a potent inhibitor for the activity of host nuclear transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB but it also selectively suppresses transcription of the HPV16/E6 oncogene during the carcinogenic process in oral cancer cells. This study suggests a therapeutic potential of curcumin for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected oral cancers. PMID:25932049

  8. Curcumin modulates cellular AP-1, NF-kB, and HPV16 E6 proteins in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Alok; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Abhishek; Kohaar, Indu; Hedau, Suresh; Bharti, Alok C; Sarker, Subhodeep; Dey, Dipankar; Saluja, Daman; Das, Bhudev

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the natural antioxidant curcumin on the HPV16-positive oral carcinoma cell line 93VU147T and demonstrated that curcumin is not only a potent inhibitor for the activity of host nuclear transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB but it also selectively suppresses transcription of the HPV16/E6 oncogene during the carcinogenic process in oral cancer cells. This study suggests a therapeutic potential of curcumin for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected oral cancers. PMID:25932049

  9. Role of general practice in the diagnosis of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Crossman, Timothy; Warburton, Fiona; Richards, Michael A; Smith, Helen; Ramirez, Amanda; Forbes, Lindsay J L

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of oral cancer is increasing in the United Kingdom. There is evidence that early diagnosis and effective treatment improve survival, but the poor 5-year survival rate (50%), which has not improved for several decades, has been attributed to advanced stage at presentation. To investigate the symptoms associated with cancer of the oral cavity and to explore the role of general practitioners (GP) in the identification and referral of patients, we sent 200 patients questionnaires on the route to diagnosis, symptoms, delay in presentation, and outcomes of consultations with their GP. Of 161 respondents, over half (56%) had been referred to secondary care by their GP and a third (32%) by their dentist. The most commonly reported symptoms were a mouth ulcer (32%), a lump in the face or neck (28%), and pain or soreness in the mouth or throat (27%). Fifteen per cent delayed presentation for more than 3 months. After consultation with a GP (n=109), 53% were referred to a specialist, 22% were referred for tests, 12% were told that their symptom was not serious, and 12% were treated for another condition. GPs have an important role in the identification and referral of people with oral cancer, and the clearly recognised symptoms identified in this study can be used to aid assessment and decision-making. Interventions to promote the prompt identification of oral cancer in general practice such as the opportunistic screening of high-risk patients may help to improve the poor survival rates. PMID:26682494

  10. Dual role of podoplanin in oral cancer development.

    PubMed

    Cîrligeriu, Laura; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Raica, Marius; Doroş, Caius Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Podoplanin plays a crucial role for normal and pathological tissue development. Known as a lymphatic endothelial marker, podoplanin has been found to be overexpressed in tumor cells of various cancers with a certified involvement in tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. Oral cancer includes a heterogeneous group of malignancies with unpredictable behaviour and sometimes poor prognosis. Based on these facts, development of new molecular markers with a more reliable impact on therapy and prognosis is required. The present study was designed to characterize podoplanin expression in tumor cells of lip, oral cavity, tongue and pharynx squamous cell carcinomas, together with lymphatic vessels distribution, morphology, density and their impact on tumor progression. Evaluation of podoplanin by D2-40 immunohistochemistry assessement on 56 cases of oral cancers, revealed two different expression patterns in tumor cells depending on their location. Peri-tumor and intra-tumor lymphatic vessels density, morphology and distribution were correlated with lymph node status but not with tumor stage. The highest number of lymphatic vessels was observed in grade 3 squamous cell carcinomas. Dual expression of podoplanin in tumor cells and lymphatics with particular patterns correlated with histopathology and lymph node status in oral cancer, representing the molecular basis for testing podoplanin as a potential target for anti D2-40 antibody based therapy. PMID:24815836

  11. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  12. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  13. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Management of mucositis during therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Miaskowski, C. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the purposes of an oral care protocol, the major components of an oral care regimen, and oral care protocols and studies done to date. Many questions remain in the area of optimal oral care for the patient experiencing mucositis as a sequela of cancer treatment. Research is needed on types and use of mouth rinses, effective, harmless, and pleasant lip lubricants, appropriate analgesic and anti-inflammatory combinations, and the effectiveness of a variety of devices for oral cleansing, to name a few areas. As outpatient oncology services grow, oral care protocols must be developed to meet the needs of ambulatory patient populations. Oral care regimens must be safe, easy to use, and economical as well as effective to ensure patient and staff compliance. Research on the management of mucositis must be conducted in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Finally, in order to obtain sufficient sample sizes and optimize data collection, these studies will need to be conducted by multidisciplinary teams (including dentists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and nurses) across multiple sites. Not until large-scale clinical trials are done on the treatment of mucositis will we be able to optimize the therapeutic regimen for the patient. 43 references.

  14. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse oral cavity: a potential new model for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guttenplan, Joseph B.; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Kun-Ming; Aliaga, Cesar; DelTondo, Joseph; Cooper, Timothy; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Zhang, Shang-Min; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Sharma, Arun K.; Amin, Shantu; Ahn, Kwangmi; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a serious disease, affecting about 30,000 individuals in US annually. There are several animal models of oral cancer, but each has certain disadvantages. As a new model, we investigated whether topical application of the tobacco smoke carcinogen, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is mutagenic and carcinogenic in the oral cavity of the B6C3F1 lacI and B6C3F1 mouse, respectively. B6C3F1 lacI mice received DB[a,l]P (0, 3, 6, 12 nmol) 3× per week. B6C3F1 mice received the same doses and also 24 nmol. At 38 weeks mutagenesis was measured in oral tissues in lacI mice. For the high dose group, the mutant fraction (MF) in upper mucosa and tongue increased about twofold relative to that in vehicle-alone. The increases were statistically significant. The mutational profile in the DB[a,l]P-induced mutants was compared with that induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oral tissue. BaP is mutagenic in many tissues when administered by gavage. The mutational profile for DB[a,l]P was more similar to that reported for p53 mutations in head and neck cancers than was that of BaP. At 47 weeks, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were found in 31% of the high-dose B6C3F1 group. Elevations of p53 and COX-2 protein were observed in tumor and dysplastic tissue. As DB[a,l]P induces mutations and tumors in the oral cavity, and has a mutational profile in oral tissue similar to that found in p53 in human OSCC, the treatment protocol described here may represent a new and relevant model for cancer of the oral cavity. PMID:21815141

  15. Natural chemopreventive alternatives in oral cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Scrobota, I; Bolfa, P; Filip, A G; Catoi, C; Alb, C; Pop, O; Tatomir, C; Baciut, G

    2016-02-01

    We studied the effect of grape seed extract Burgund Mare (BM) on oral carcinogenesis and compared it with that of curcumin (CU). Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 10): 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) oral carcinogenesis was induced to groups 1 - 5; groups 2 and 3 received BM and CU respectively during initiation and groups 4 and 5 BM and CU during post-initiation of carcinogenesis; group 6 represented the negative control group. Total malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assayed fluorometrically in oral tissue (gingival, jugal, palatal, lingual mucosa) and serum. Histopathological exam was performed and a dysplasia score given to each oral mucosal lesion. Ki67, cyclin D1, p63, Bcl2 and p53 were immunohistochemically evaluated. BM and CU reduced tissue MDA values elevated by 4NQO (P = 0.000). The difference between CU and BM effect was significant in the initiation (P = 0.02) but not in the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis (P = 0.58). Tissue GSH levels decreased by 4NQO (P < 0.001) were not significantly modified by BM or CU. Serum MDA levels increased by 4NQO (P = 0.000) were significantly lowered by CU (P = 0.04) and BM (P = 0.04) during initiation and by CU during post-initiation of carcinogenesis (P = 0.01). CU was more potent than BM during post-initiation of carcinogenesis (P = 0.01). Serum GSH lowered by 4NQO (P = 0.55) was significantly decreased by BM and CU (P < 0.012), with no significant difference between groups receiving BM or CU. Moderate dysplasia was the most advanced dysplasia induced and gingival localization the most frequent. Both BM and CU lowered dysplasia scores, with BM being the most efficient during post-initiation of carcinogenesis (P = 0.001). Ki67, cyclin D1, p63, Bcl2 and p53 expression increased with dysplasia scores. BM showed chemopreventive properties during initiation and post-initiation of oral carcinogenesis, reducing local and general oxidative stress and the intensity of dysplasia

  16. Recent advances in optical diagnosis of oral cancers: Review and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Ibrahim, Ola; Byrne, Hugh J; Mikkonen, Jopi W; Koistinen, Arto P; Kullaa, Arja M; Lyng, Fiona M

    2016-04-01

    Optical diagnosis techniques offer several advantages over traditional approaches, including objectivity, speed, and cost, and these label-free, noninvasive methods have the potential to change the future workflow of cancer management. The oral cavity is particularly accessible and, thus, such methods may serve as alternate/adjunct tools to traditional methods. Recently, in vivo human clinical studies have been initiated with a view to clinical translation of such technologies. A comprehensive review of optical methods in oral cancer diagnosis is presented. After an introduction to the epidemiology and etiological factors associated with oral cancers currently used, diagnostic methods and their limitations are presented. A thorough review of fluorescence, infrared absorption, and Raman spectroscopic methods in oral cancer diagnosis is presented. The applicability of minimally invasive methods based on serum/saliva is also discussed. The review concludes with a discussion on future demands and scope of developments from a clinical point of view. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2403-E2411, 2016. PMID:26613806

  17. Combinations of FUT2 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors are associated with oral cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuo-Jung; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Su, Shih-Chi; Yu, Yung-Luen; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-05-01

    In humans, fucosyltransferase-2 (FUT2) plays an important role in α1,2- linkage of fucose and participates in complex cellular processes such as fertilization, embryogenesis, and immune responses. However, little information is available concerning the FUT2 expression in tumorigenesis. The aim of this work was to investigate the combined effect of FUT2 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinic pathological characteristics of oral cancer. Four SNPs of the FUT2 gene (rs281377, rs1047781, rs601338, and rs602662) from 1200 non-cancer controls and 700 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples were further analyzed to clarify the associations between these gene polymorphisms and the risk of OSCC, and the impact of these SNPs on the susceptibility and clinic pathological characteristics of OSCC. After adjusting for other covariant, we observed that betel quid chewing among 1255 smokers who carrying at least one C genotype (TC and CC) at rs281377 and least one T genotype (TA and TT) at rs1047781 were exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and cigarette use) on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Taken together, our results support gene-environment interactions of FUT2 polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid chewing habits possibly altering oral cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first study of association between FUT2 gene variants and OSCC risk. PMID:26646561

  18. Ethanol versus Phytochemicals in Wine: Oral Cancer Risk in a Light Drinking Perspective.

    PubMed

    Varoni, Elena M; Lodi, Giovanni; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review aims to summarize the current controversy on the balance between ethanol and phytochemicals in wine, focusing on light drinking and oral cancer. Extensive literature search included PUBMED and EMBASE databases to identify in human studies and systematic reviews (up to March 2015), which contributed to elucidate this issue. Independently from the type of beverage, meta-analyses considering light drinking (≤1 drinks/day or ≤12.5 g/day of ethanol) reported relative risks (RR) for oral, oro-pharyngeal, or upper aero-digestive tract cancers, ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. One meta-analysis measured the overall wine-specific RR, which corresponded to 2.1. Although little evidence exists on light wine intake, phytochemicals seem not to affect oral cancer risk, being probably present below the effective dosages and/or due to their low bioavailability. As expected, the risk of oral cancer, even in light drinking conditions, increases when associated with smoking habit and high-risk genotypes of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. PMID:26225960

  19. Ethanol versus Phytochemicals in Wine: Oral Cancer Risk in a Light Drinking Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Varoni, Elena M.; Lodi, Giovanni; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review aims to summarize the current controversy on the balance between ethanol and phytochemicals in wine, focusing on light drinking and oral cancer. Extensive literature search included PUBMED and EMBASE databases to identify in human studies and systematic reviews (up to March 2015), which contributed to elucidate this issue. Independently from the type of beverage, meta-analyses considering light drinking (≤1 drinks/day or ≤12.5 g/day of ethanol) reported relative risks (RR) for oral, oro-pharyngeal, or upper aero-digestive tract cancers, ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. One meta-analysis measured the overall wine-specific RR, which corresponded to 2.1. Although little evidence exists on light wine intake, phytochemicals seem not to affect oral cancer risk, being probably present below the effective dosages and/or due to their low bioavailability. As expected, the risk of oral cancer, even in light drinking conditions, increases when associated with smoking habit and high-risk genotypes of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. PMID:26225960

  20. ER-Dependent Ca++-mediated Cytosolic ROS as an Effector for Induction of Mitochondrial Apoptotic and ATM-JNK Signal Pathways in Gallic Acid-treated Human Oral Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Liang; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2016-02-01

    Release of calcium (Ca(++)) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been proposed to be involved in induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Using inhibitor of ER Ca(++) release dantrolene and inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(++) uptake Ru-360, we demonstrated that Ca(++) release from the ER was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis of human oral cancer (OC) cells induced by gallic acid (GA). Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase inhibited tunicamycin-induced induction of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, pro-caspase-12 cleavage, cytosolic Ca(++) increase and apoptosis, but did not attenuate the increase in cytosolic Ca(++) level and apoptosis induced by GA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis by GA was blocked by dantrolene. The specificity of ROS-mediated ATM-JNK activation was confirmed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger. Blockade of ATM activation by specific inhibitor KU55933, short hairpin RNA, or kinase-dead ATM overexpression suppressed JNK phosphorylation but did not completely inhibit cytosolic ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, pro-caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis induced by GA. Taken together, these results indicate that GA induces OC cell apoptosis by inducing the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic and ATM-JNK signal pathways, likely through ER Ca(++)-mediated ROS production. PMID:26851027

  1. Quality of life in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Infante-Cossio, P; Torres-Carranza, E; Cayuela, A; Gutierrez-Perez, J L; Gili-Miner, M

    2009-03-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important aspect in the clinical assessment and management of patients with cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate QoL at the time of diagnosis in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer and to establish the influence of variables such as gender, age, tumor location and tumor staging. The authors studied 149 patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer for 2 years. QoL was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and its specific modules for head and neck cancer QLQ-H&N 35. Variable deterioration of QoL was observed before therapy. The emotional domain showed the greatest alterations, while pain was the most remarkable symptom variable. QoL seems to be associated with gender (female patients obtained worse scores in most of the functional scales), age (patients < 65 years scored better), tumor location (orpharyngeal tumors showed worse prognosis) and tumor staging (early stages obtained better scores than advances ones). Many patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer show poor QoL before initiating treatment. The present study of a homogeneous group of patients is the first carried out in Spain following the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire and its results may serve for future reference. These results are similar to those obtained in populations from the north and centre of Europe. PMID:19135864

  2. Early Stage Diagnosis of Oral Cancer Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics12

    PubMed Central

    Tiziani, Stefano; Lopes, Victor; Günther, Ulrich L

    2009-01-01

    Oral cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and represents a significant disease burden. If detected at an early stage, survival from oral cancer is better than 90% at 5 years, whereas late stage disease survival is only 30%. Therefore, there is an obvious clinical utility for novel metabolic markers that help to diagnose oral cancer at an early stage and to monitor treatment response. In the current study, blood samples of oral cancer patients were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to derive a metabolic signature for oral cancer. Using multivariate chemometric analysis, we obtained an excellent discrimination between serum samples from cancer patients and from a control group and could also discriminate between different stages of disease. The metabolic profile obtained for oral cancer is significant, even for early stage disease and relatively small tumors. This suggests a systemic metabolic response to cancer, which bears great potential for early diagnosis. PMID:19242608

  3. Incidence of oral cancer in relation to nickel and arsenic concentrations in farm soils of patients' residential areas in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To explore if exposures to specific heavy metals in the environment is a new risk factor of oral cancer, one of the fastest growing malignancies in Taiwan, in addition to the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing. Methods This is an observational study utilized the age-standardized incidence rates of oral cancer in the 316 townships and precincts of Taiwan, local prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, demographic factors, socio-economic conditions, and concentrations in farm soils of the eight kinds of heavy metal. Spatial regression and GIS (Geographic Information System) were used. The registration contained 22,083 patients, who were diagnosed with oral cancer between 1982 and 2002. The concentrations of metal in the soils were retrieved from a nation-wide survey in the 1980s. Results The incidence rate of oral cancer is geographically related to the concentrations of arsenic and nickel in the patients' residential areas, with the prevalence of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing as controlled variables. Conclusions Beside the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, arsenic and nickel in farm soils may be new risk factors for oral cancer. These two kinds of metal may involve in the development of oral cancer. Further studies are required to understand the pathways via which metal in the farm soils exerts its effects on human health. PMID:20152030

  4. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Maeve M; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  5. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  6. The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Wu, Ju-Hui; Huang, Jhen-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Ka-Wo

    2014-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS. PMID:25389533

  7. Classification of oral cancers using Raman spectroscopy of serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Talathi, Sneha; Sawant, Sharada; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Oral cancers are the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with low 5-year disease free survival rates, attributable to late detection due to lack of reliable screening modalities. Our in vivo Raman spectroscopy studies have demonstrated classification of normal and tumor as well as cancer field effects (CFE), the earliest events in oral cancers. In view of limitations such as requirement of on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions of this approach, feasibility of classification of normal and cancer using serum was explored using 532 nm excitation. In this study, strong resonance features of β-carotenes, present differentially in normal and pathological conditions, were observed. In the present study, Raman spectra of sera of 36 buccal mucosa, 33 tongue cancers and 17 healthy subjects were recorded using Raman microprobe coupled with 40X objective using 785 nm excitation, a known source of excitation for biomedical applications. To eliminate heterogeneity, average of 3 spectra recorded from each sample was subjected to PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Findings indicate average classification efficiency of ~70% for normal and cancer. Buccal mucosa and tongue cancer serum could also be classified with an efficiency of ~68%. Of the two cancers, buccal mucosa cancer and normal could be classified with a higher efficiency. Findings of the study are quite comparable to that of our earlier study, which suggest that there exist significant differences, other than β- carotenes, between normal and cancerous samples which can be exploited for the classification. Prospectively, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  8. Distant metastasis from oral cancer: A review and molecular biologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Irani, Soussan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been estimated to be the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The distant metastasis plays a critical role in the management and prognosis in oral cancer patients. Regarding the distant metastasis from the oral cancer, the hypopharynx is the most common primary site, followed by the base of tongue and anterior tongue. The present review article analyzes the characteristics of the distant metastases from the oral cavity from 1937 to 2015. PMID:27583211

  9. Distant metastasis from oral cancer: A review and molecular biologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been estimated to be the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The distant metastasis plays a critical role in the management and prognosis in oral cancer patients. Regarding the distant metastasis from the oral cancer, the hypopharynx is the most common primary site, followed by the base of tongue and anterior tongue. The present review article analyzes the characteristics of the distant metastases from the oral cavity from 1937 to 2015. PMID:27583211

  10. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Oue, Erika; Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei; Iimura, Tadahiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kayamori, Kou; Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-08-01

    To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first report showing the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. PMID:22771802

  11. Areca nut contributes to oral malignancy through facilitating the conversion of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Chen; Chang, Joseph T; Chiu, Crystal; Lu, Ya-Ching; Li, Yan-Liang; Chiang, Chang-Hsu; You, Guo-Rung; Lee, Li-Yu; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2016-05-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequent malignant diseases worldwide, and areca nut is a primary carcinogen causing this cancer in Southeast Asia. Previous studies to examine the effects of this carcinogen often used short-term and high-dose treatment of area nut extract as a research model, which do not recapitulate the conditions of patients with long-term and habitual use of this substance. To approach authentic mechanism of areca nut-induced oral carcinogenesis that occurs in human, we established four isogenic sublines of oral cells which were chronic exposed to areca nut extract. Without eliciting cytotoxicity or senescence, these four sublines cells exhibited significant increase in invasive ability, along with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These cells also showed resistance to chemotherapeutic drug and irradiation, accompanying with the augmentation of ABCG2 protein efflux and increased ROS clearance. Moreover, these sublines possessed the characteristics of cancer stemness, as demonstrated by enriched CD24-/CD44+ and CD133+ sub-populations, enhanced spheroid cell formation, and induced expressions of pluripotent stemness regulators, including Gp96, Grp78, Slug, Sox9, Snail, and Foxc2. These stemness regulators were further shown up-regulations in oral cancer patients with areca nut-chewing habit, and were statistically correlated with CD44 expression, a stemness marker. In conclusion, our findings suggested that areca nut contributes to oral malignancy through facilitating the conversion of cancer stem cells. This study may further contribute to clinical applications in disease prevention, risk assessment or molecular therapeutics on areca nut- associated diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26087469

  12. Fenofibrate Suppresses Oral Tumorigenesis via Reprogramming Metabolic Processes: Potential Drug Repurposing for Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Chia-Ing; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Chia Jen; Chang, Nai Wen

    2016-01-01

    One anticancer strategy suggests targeting mitochondrial metabolism to trigger cell death through slowing down energy production from the Warburg effect. Fenofibrate is a clinical lipid-lowering agent and an effective anticancer drug. In the present study, we demonstrate that fenofibrate provided novel mechanisms for delaying oral tumor development via the reprogramming of metabolic processes. Fenofibrate induced cytotoxicity by decreasing oxygen consumption rate (OCR) that was accompanied with increasing extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and reducing ATP content. Moreover, fenofibrate caused changes in the protein expressions of hexokinase II (HK II), pyruvate kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which are associated with the Warburg effect. In addition, fenofibrate reprogrammed the metabolic pathway by interrupting the binding of HK II to VDAC. In an oral cancer mouse model, fenofibrate exhibited both preventive and therapeutic efficacy on oral tumorigenesis. Fenofibrate administration suppressed the incidence rate of tongue lesions, reduced the tumor sizes, decreased the tumor multiplicity, and decreased the immunoreactivities of VDAC and mTOR. The molecular mechanisms involved in fenofibrate's ability to delay tumor development included the down-regulation of mTOR activity via TSC1/2-dependent signaling through activation of AMPK and inactivation of Akt, or via a TSC1/2-independent pathway through direct suppression of raptor. Our findings provide a molecular rationale whereby fenofibrate exerts anticancer and additional beneficial effects for the treatment of oral cancer patients. PMID:27313493

  13. Fenofibrate Suppresses Oral Tumorigenesis via Reprogramming Metabolic Processes: Potential Drug Repurposing for Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jan, Chia-Ing; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Chia Jen; Chang, Nai Wen

    2016-01-01

    One anticancer strategy suggests targeting mitochondrial metabolism to trigger cell death through slowing down energy production from the Warburg effect. Fenofibrate is a clinical lipid-lowering agent and an effective anticancer drug. In the present study, we demonstrate that fenofibrate provided novel mechanisms for delaying oral tumor development via the reprogramming of metabolic processes. Fenofibrate induced cytotoxicity by decreasing oxygen consumption rate (OCR) that was accompanied with increasing extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and reducing ATP content. Moreover, fenofibrate caused changes in the protein expressions of hexokinase II (HK II), pyruvate kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which are associated with the Warburg effect. In addition, fenofibrate reprogrammed the metabolic pathway by interrupting the binding of HK II to VDAC. In an oral cancer mouse model, fenofibrate exhibited both preventive and therapeutic efficacy on oral tumorigenesis. Fenofibrate administration suppressed the incidence rate of tongue lesions, reduced the tumor sizes, decreased the tumor multiplicity, and decreased the immunoreactivities of VDAC and mTOR. The molecular mechanisms involved in fenofibrate's ability to delay tumor development included the down-regulation of mTOR activity via TSC1/2-dependent signaling through activation of AMPK and inactivation of Akt, or via a TSC1/2-independent pathway through direct suppression of raptor. Our findings provide a molecular rationale whereby fenofibrate exerts anticancer and additional beneficial effects for the treatment of oral cancer patients. PMID:27313493

  14. What Are the Key Statistics about Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are the key statistics about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? The American ... increase the risk for these second cancers. For statistics related to survival, see the section “ Survival rates ...

  15. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Is a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ying-Yu; Jim, Wai-Tim; Su, Liang-Cheng; Chung, Chi-Jung; Lin, Ching-Yu; Huo, Chieh; Tseng, Jen-Chih; Huang, Shih-Han; Lai, Chih-Jen; Chen, Bo-Chih; Wang, Bi-Juan; Chan, Tzu-Min; Lin, Hui-Ping; Chang, Wun-Shaing Wayne; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancers, which affect 650,000 people and cause 350,000 deaths per year, is the sixth leading cancer by cancer incidence and eighth by cancer-related death worldwide. Oral cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The overall five-year survival rate of OSCC patients is approximately 63%, which is due to the low response rate to current therapeutic drugs. In this review we discuss the possibility of using caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as an alternative treatment for oral cancer. CAPE is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. Recent studies indicate that CAPE treatment can effectively suppress the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of oral cancer cells. CAPE treatment inhibits Akt signaling, cell cycle regulatory proteins, NF-κB function, as well as activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Therefore, CAPE treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in oral cancer cells. According to the evidence that aberrations in the EGFR/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling, NF-κB function, COX-2 activity, and MMPs activity are frequently found in oral cancers, and that the phosphorylation of Akt, EGFR, and COX-2 correlates to oral cancer patient survival and clinical progression, we believe that CAPE treatment will be useful for treatment of advanced oral cancer patients. PMID:25984601

  16. Caffeic Acid phenethyl ester is a potential therapeutic agent for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ying-Yu; Jim, Wai-Tim; Su, Liang-Cheng; Chung, Chi-Jung; Lin, Ching-Yu; Huo, Chieh; Tseng, Jen-Chih; Huang, Shih-Han; Lai, Chih-Jen; Chen, Bo-Chih; Wang, Bi-Juan; Chan, Tzu-Min; Lin, Hui-Ping; Chang, Wun-Shaing Wayne; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancers, which affect 650,000 people and cause 350,000 deaths per year, is the sixth leading cancer by cancer incidence and eighth by cancer-related death worldwide. Oral cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The overall five-year survival rate of OSCC patients is approximately 63%, which is due to the low response rate to current therapeutic drugs. In this review we discuss the possibility of using caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as an alternative treatment for oral cancer. CAPE is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. Recent studies indicate that CAPE treatment can effectively suppress the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of oral cancer cells. CAPE treatment inhibits Akt signaling, cell cycle regulatory proteins, NF-κB function, as well as activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Therefore, CAPE treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in oral cancer cells. According to the evidence that aberrations in the EGFR/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling, NF-κB function, COX-2 activity, and MMPs activity are frequently found in oral cancers, and that the phosphorylation of Akt, EGFR, and COX-2 correlates to oral cancer patient survival and clinical progression, we believe that CAPE treatment will be useful for treatment of advanced oral cancer patients. PMID:25984601

  17. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  18. Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.

  19. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Sanatkhani, Majid; Zabihi Marani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration. Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%). The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+. Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. PMID:25745611

  20. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Pride, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  1. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Boehm, Tobias K; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  2. Early diagnosis of asymptomatic oral and oropharyngeal squamous cancers.

    PubMed

    Mashberg, A; Samit, A

    1995-01-01

    An examination of the oral cavity and oropharynx in asymptomatic patients at high risk requires an orderly visual inspection of the entire oral and oropharyngeal mucosa with particular attention to the tongue, floor of mouth, soft palate, uvula, tonsillar pillars, and the lingual aspects of the retromolar trigones. Completion and clear documentation of the entire examination should be recorded. Detected lesions that do not resolve in a reasonable length of time--two to three weeks--require intense and assiduous investigation. The following specifics should be considered. 1. Alcohol drinkers and cigarette smokers, especially those 40 years of age and older, are at very high risk for the development of upper aerodigestive tract and lung squamous carcinomas. 2. The floor of the mouth, the ventrolateral tongue, and the soft palate complex are the high-risk sites within the oral cavity and oropharynx. 3. Persistent mucosal erythroplasia rather than leukoplakia is the earliest visual sign of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. These lesions should not be regarded merely as precancerous changes. The evidence indicates that these lesions in high-risk sites should be considered to be invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ unless proven otherwise by biopsy. 4. Toluidine blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct, particularly as a method of ruling out false-negative clinical impressions. It may also be used as a rinse in high-risk patients to encompass the entire oral mucosa after a negative clinical examination and as a guide to improve biopsy yields. 5. If oral or oropharyngeal cancer is identified, evaluations of the larynx, hypopharynx, esophagus, and lungs should be performed to rule out multiple primary cancers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7583906

  3. Cancer therapy and oral mucositis. An appraisal of drug prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Verdi, C J

    1993-09-01

    Oral mucositis as a consequence of cytotoxic therapy is a major cause of morbidity in cancer patients. Cancer therapy-induced tissue damage leading to mucositis can occur through either direct or indirect stomatotoxicity. Once mucositis has occurred, treatment consists of measures to palliate symptoms. The prevention of cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis is less standardised. Numerous drugs have been used as prophylactic agents to prevent chemo- and radiotherapy-induced mucositis. Controlled trials have shown some degree of prophylactic efficacy for sucralfate, chlorhexidine and benzydamine. Positive but non-placebo-controlled trials requiring more study have been conducted with dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2), silver nitrate, beta-carotene, pentoxifylline and lozenges containing polymixin B, tobramycin and amphotericin B. Current studies have shown a lack of efficacy with allopurinol and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Nonpharmacological methods such as oral cryotherapy and helium-neon laser treatments have shown some promise. At the present time no agent has been shown to be uniformly efficacious and can be accepted as standard therapy. Additional studies combining several agents or incorporating nonpharmacological manoeuvres for mucositis prevention are needed. PMID:8240724

  4. MMP-13 is involved in oral cancer cell metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shun-Hong; Law, Ching-Hsuan; Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Hu, Ren-Yu; Yang, Ching-Chieh; Chung, Ting-Wen; Li, Ji-Min; Lin, Li-Hsun; Liu, Yi-Chung; Liao, En-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wei, Yu-Shan; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chien-Wen; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Wang, Wen-Ching; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr; Wang, Lu-Hai; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chan, Hong-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    The oral cancer cell line OC3-I5 with a highly invasive ability was selected and derived from an established OSCC line OC3. In this study, we demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases protein MMP-13 was up-regulated in OC3-I5 than in OC3 cells. We also observed that expression of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including Twist, p-Src, Snail1, SIP1, JAM-A, and vinculin were increased in OC3-I5 compared to OC3 cells, whereas E-cadherin expression was decreased in the OC3-I5 cells. Using siMMP-13 knockdown techniques, we showed that siMMP-13 not only reduced the invasion and migration, but also the adhesion abilities of oral cancer cells. In support of the role of MMP-13 in metastasis, we used MMP-13 expressing plasmid-transfected 293T cells to enhance MMP-13 expression in the OC3 cells, transplanting the MMP-13 over expressing OC3 cells into nude mice led to enhanced lung metastasis. In summary, our findings show that MMP-13 promotes invasion and metastasis in oral cancer cells, suggesting altered expression of MMP-13 may be utilized to impede the process of metastasis. PMID:26958809

  5. A novel target for oral cancer chemoprevention? Notch quite, yet….

    PubMed

    William, William N; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2015-04-01

    The two major goals of oral cancer chemoprevention efforts are the ability to segregate the high-risk patients and the identification of an effective pharmacologic agent that halts progression to invasive cancer. Considerable progress has recently been achieved in profiling invasive head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, particularly with the use of high-throughput technologies. A similar molecular characterization of potentially malignant oral epithelial lesions (OPML; leukoplakia and erythroplakia) is yet to be accomplished. It is postulated, though, that molecular profiling could lead to the discovery of novel markers of cancer risk that could also serve as potential targets for chemoprevention. In this perspective, we comment on the work by Izumchenko and colleagues that reports a high prevalence of NOTCH1 gain-of-function mutations in Chinese patients with OPMLs. Although additional studies are needed to validate the findings, the study is the first to link alterations in this gene in oral premalignancy. These findings could serve as a first prototype of a single gene mutation as a potential target in clinical chemoprevention setting. PMID:25712052

  6. Chemokine Function in Periodontal Disease and Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahingur, Sinem Esra; Yeudall, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines, comprise a superfamily of polypeptides with a wide range of activities that include recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, as well as stimulation of cell proliferation. As such, they function as antimicrobial molecules and play a central role in host defenses against pathogen challenge. However, their ability to recruit leukocytes and potentiate or prolong the inflammatory response may have profound implications for the progression of oral diseases such as chronic periodontitis, where tissue destruction may be widespread. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that chronic inflammation is a key component of tumor progression. Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is mediated in large part by secreted factors such as chemokines, and serves to enhance the malignant phenotype in oral and other cancers. In this article, we will outline the biological and biochemical mechanisms of chemokine action in host–microbiome interactions in periodontal disease and in oral cancer, and how these may overlap and contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:25999952

  7. Continuing education in oral cancer prevention for dentists in Spain.

    PubMed

    Seoane, Juan; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Tomás, Inmaculada; Seoane-Romero, Juan; Diz, Pedro; Takkouche, Bahi

    2012-09-01

    Continuing education (CE) can have a large impact on dentists' oral cancer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior. Reading scientific journals is a key component of CE. The objective of this study was to assess preventive and clinical attitudes of the participants in an educational intervention on oral cancer in Spain based on scientific journals. Members of the Spanish Board of Dentists and Stomatologists participated in an online, cross-sectional study, using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. There were 791 general dental practitioners (GDPs) invited to participate in the study. The large majority reported that they deliver tobacco-cessation counseling (93.6 percent) as well as advice on alcohol consumption (66.6 percent), but advice on vegetable intake was less frequently provided (42.4 percent). Alcohol intake advice, routine mucosa exploration, and biopsy performance on lesions suspicious of malignancy are preventive attitudes related to training. Compared with those who did not benefit from CE courses or did so only once, the GDPs who took four or more CE courses showed a doubling in the odds of giving alcohol advice to their patients and a tenfold increased odds of performing mucosa check on a routine basis; they were 3.5 times as likely to take biopsies of suspicious lesions. A longer experience as a GDP did not increase the probability of adopting preventive attitudes. In addition to presenting the results of this study, the article also discusses the general usefulness of other preventive measures in oral cancer. PMID:22942420

  8. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  9. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  10. Reproducibility and validity of oral visual inspection by trained health workers in the detection of oral precancer and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, B.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Sunilkumar, K. B.; Kuruvila, B.; Pisani, P.; Nair, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    A randomized intervention trial is in progress in Kerala, India, to evaluate the effectiveness of oral visual inspection by trained health workers (HWs) in the prevention of oral cancer. Fourteen health workers with college graduation as the basic qualification were trained in oral visual inspection to identify oral cancers and precancers among the participants of the screening trial and to refer them for further confirmation and management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the screening test provided by the health worker against the reference oral visual findings of three physicians. A total of 2069 subjects who had already been examined were re-examined by the health workers and physicians. The sensitivity and the specificity of the oral visual inspection were 94.3% and 99.3% respectively. There was moderate agreement between the findings of the initial and the repeat mouth examinations carried out by the health workers, which were on average 6 months apart. There was almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.85) between the findings of the health workers and the physicians in identifying the different types of oral precancerous lesions. The findings of our study indicate that it is possible to train resource persons to perform the oral cancer screening test as accurately as doctors, although experience appears to be a crucial component of health workers' accuracy. The efficacy of such an approach to reduce the incidence of and mortality from oral cancer, however, remains to be proven. PMID:9252209