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Sample records for human pathogen bartonella

  1. Bartonella spp. as emerging human pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B E; Neuman, M A

    1997-01-01

    Members of the genus Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) were virtually unknown to modern-day clinicians and microbiologists until they were associated with opportunistic infections in AIDS patients about 6 years ago. Since that time, Bartonella species have been associated with cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and a variety of other disease syndromes. Clinical presentation of infection with Bartonella ranges from a relatively mild lymphadenopathy with few other symptoms, seen in cat scratch disease, to life-threatening systemic disease in the immunocompromised patient. In some individuals, infection manifests as lesions that exhibit proliferation of endothelial cells and neovascularization, a pathogenic process unique to this genus of bacteria. As the spectrum of disease attributed to Bartonella is further defined, the need for reliable laboratory methods to diagnose infections caused by these unique organisms also increases. A brief summary of the clinical presentations associated with Bartonella infections is presented, and the current status of laboratory diagnosis and identification of these organisms is reviewed. PMID:9105751

  2. Bats as reservoir hosts of human bacterial pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis.

    PubMed

    Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J; Lilley, Thomas M; Pulliainen, Arto T

    2014-06-01

    A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton's bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:24856523

  3. Detection and Identification of Bartonella Species Pathogenic for Humans by PCR Amplification Targeting the Riboflavin Synthase Gene (ribC)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G.; Ayers, M.; McClure, S. C. C.; Richardson, S. E.; Tellier, R.

    2003-01-01

    Several Bartonella species have now been implicated as human pathogens. The recovery of these fastidious organisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory remains difficult, and current methods are still relatively insensitive. Thus, the bartonellae are good candidates for detection by PCR. We have developed a PCR assay which uses a single primer pair targeting the riboflavin synthase gene (ribC) and detected six Bartonella species that have been implicated in human disease, B. henselae, B. quintana, B. bacilliformis, B. clarridgeiae, B. elizabethae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Species identification is achieved simply by restriction enzyme digestion of the amplicon. This PCR assay appears to be specific for the Bartonella genus because it failed to amplify DNA from several other bacterial species. PMID:12624031

  4. Pestilence, persistence and pathogenicity: infection strategies of Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Minnick, Michael F; Battisti, James M

    2009-01-01

    It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and ‘nonculturable’ endocarditis in homeless people. Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains understudied compared with most other bacterial pathogens. Numerous questions regarding Bartonella's molecular pathogenesis and epidemiology remain unanswered. Virtually every mammal harbors one or more Bartonella species and their transmission typically involves a hematophagous arthropod vector. However, many details regarding epidemiology and the public health threat imposed by these animal reservoirs is unclear. A handful of studies have shown that bartonellae are highly-adapted pathogens whose parasitic strategy has evolved to cause persistent infections of the host. To this end, virulence attributes of Bartonella include the subversion of host cells with effector molecules delivered via a type IV secretion system, induction of pathological angiogenesis through various means, including inhibition of apoptosis and activation of hypoxia-inducing factor 1, use of afimbrial adhesins that are orthologs of Yersinia adhesin A, incorporation of lipopolysaccharides with low endotoxic potency in the outer membrane, and several other virulence factors that help Bartonella infect and persist in erythrocytes and endothelial cells of the host circulatory system. PMID:19659429

  5. Bartonella: emerging pathogen or emerging awareness?

    PubMed

    Mogollon-Pasapera, Elin; Otvos, Laszlo; Giordano, Antonio; Cassone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The number of known Bartonella species is rapidly growing. Some of them are responsible for distinct infectious diseases and show different prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Not only have some vectors of Bartonella not been fully characterized, but also intermediate hosts are actually much more numerous and diverse than previously thought. Among these, dogs differ from cats because they tend to suffer an overt disease similar to humans, thus providing the base for a useful animal indicator and research model. Among the debilitating conditions with an unclear impact on the course of these infections, specific conditions (e.g., homelessness, alcoholism) have been linked to a much higher prevalence and to high risk of unfavorable outcome. Due to the limited arsenal of antibiotics effective in vivo on this peculiar intracellular pathogen, the risk/benefit balance of antibiotic therapy is sometimes difficult to draw. In this evolving picture, the recent discoveries of new species highlights the importance of basic molecular biology resources that would bring major public health benefits if available in endemic areas, and specifically in many areas of Peru and Bolivia. PMID:18621561

  6. Mutation-Driven Divergence and Convergence Indicate Adaptive Evolution of the Intracellular Human-Restricted Pathogen, Bartonella bacilliformis

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sandip; Minnick, Michael F.; Chattopadhyay, Sujay

    2016-01-01

    Among all species of Bartonella, human-restricted Bartonella bacilliformis is the most virulent but harbors one of the most reduced genomes. Carrión’s disease, the infection caused by B. bacilliformis, has been afflicting poor rural populations for centuries in the high-altitude valleys of the South American Andes, where the pathogen’s distribution is probably restricted by its sand fly vector’s range. Importantly, Carrión’s disease satisfies the criteria set by the World Health Organization for a disease amenable to elimination. However, to date, there are no genome-level studies to identify potential footprints of B. bacilliformis (patho)adaptation. Our comparative genomic approach demonstrates that the evolution of this intracellular pathogen is shaped predominantly via mutation. Analysis of strains having publicly-available genomes shows high mutational divergence of core genes leading to multiple sub-species. We infer that the sub-speciation event might have happened recently where a possible adaptive divergence was accelerated by intermediate emergence of a mutator phenotype. Also, within a sub-species the pathogen shows inter-clonal adaptive evolution evidenced by non-neutral accumulation of convergent amino acid mutations. A total of 67 non-recombinant core genes (over-representing functional categories like DNA repair, glucose metabolic process, ATP-binding and ligase) were identified as candidates evolving via adaptive mutational convergence. Such convergence, both at the level of genes and their encoded functions, indicates evolution of B. bacilliformis clones along common adaptive routes, while there was little diversity within a single clone. PMID:27167125

  7. Conjugative DNA transfer into human cells by the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Gunnar; Schuelein, Ralf; Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) mediate interbacterial conjugative DNA transfer and transkingdom protein transfer into eukaryotic host cells in bacterial pathogenesis. The sole bacterium known to naturally transfer DNA into eukaryotic host cells via a T4SS is the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Here we demonstrate T4SS-mediated DNA transfer from a human bacterial pathogen into human cells. We show that the zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae can transfer a cryptic plasmid occurring in the bartonellae into the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 via its T4SS VirB/VirD4. DNA transfer into EA.hy926 cells was demonstrated by using a reporter derivative of this Bartonella-specific mobilizable plasmid generated by insertion of a eukaryotic egfp-expression cassette. Fusion of the C-terminal secretion signal of the endogenous VirB/VirD4 protein substrate BepD with the plasmid-encoded DNA-transport protein Mob resulted in a 100-fold increased DNA transfer rate. Expression of the delivered egfp gene in EA.hy926 cells required cell division, suggesting that nuclear envelope breakdown may facilitate passive entry of the transferred ssDNA into the nucleus as prerequisite for complementary strand synthesis and transcription of the egfp gene. Addition of an eukaryotic neomycin phosphotransferase expression cassette to the reporter plasmid facilitated selection of stable transgenic EA.hy926 cell lines that display chromosomal integration of the transferred plasmid DNA. Our data suggest that T4SS-dependent DNA transfer into host cells may occur naturally during human infection with Bartonella and that these chronically infecting pathogens have potential for the engineering of in vivo gene-delivery vectors with applications in DNA vaccination and therapeutic gene therapy. PMID:21844337

  8. Multi-locus sequence typing of a geographically and temporally diverse sample of the highly clonal human pathogen Bartonella quintana.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Mardjan; Raoult, Didier; Feil, Edward J

    2010-01-01

    Bartonella quintana is a re-emerging pathogen and the causative agent of a variety of disease manifestations in humans including trench fever. Various typing methods have been developed for B. quintana, but these tend to be limited by poor resolution and, in the case of gel-based methods, a lack of portability. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been used to study the molecular epidemiology of a large number of pathogens, including B. henselae, a close relative of B. quintana. We developed a MLST scheme for B. quintana based on the 7 MLST loci employed for B. henselae with two additional loci to cover underrepresented regions of the B. quintana chromosome. A total of 16 B. quintana isolates spanning over 60 years and three continents were characterized. Allelic variation was detected in five of the nine loci. Although only 8/4270 (0.002%) of the nucleotide sites examined were variable over all loci, these polymorphisms resolved the 16 isolates into seven sequence types (STs). We also demonstrate that MLST can be applied on uncultured isolates by direct PCR from cardiac valve tissue, and suggest this method presents a promising approach for epidemiological studies in this highly clonal organism. Phylogenetic and clustering analyses suggest that two of the seven STs form a distinct lineage within the population. PMID:20333257

  9. Molecular Typing of “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” a New Human Pathogen Causing Verruga Peruana

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Kristin E.; Hang, Jun; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguiña, Ciro; Jarman, Richard G.; Blazes, David L.

    2013-01-01

    A recently described clinical isolate, “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” was obtained from a blood sample of a patient presenting with verruga peruana in the Ancash region of Peru. This sample and a second isolate obtained 60 days later from the same patient were molecularly typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The isolates were 100% indistinguishable from each other but phylogenetically distant from Bartonella bacilliformis and considerably divergent from other known Bartonella species, confirming their novelty. PMID:23985925

  10. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Previte, D; Olds, B P; Yoon, K; Sun, W; Muir, W; Paige, K N; Lee, S H; Clark, J; Koehler, J E; Pittendrigh, B R

    2014-04-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days post-infection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days post-infection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

  11. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Previte, D.; Olds, B. P.; Yoon, K.; Sun, W.; Muir, W.; Paige, K. N.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J.; Koehler, J. E.; Pittendrigh, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days postinfection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days postinfection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

  12. Detection of Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks and Bartonella seroprevalence in human populations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Schötta, Anna Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors for many bacterial, protozoan and viral pathogens and are potential vectors for Bartonella species. Hunters and foresters, therefore, may be regarded as high-risk groups for Bartonella infections. The aims of this study were (i) to identify Bartonella species in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in all provinces of Austria, and (ii) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella species in hunters and blood donors in eastern Austria. A total of 515 larval, nymphal and adult I. ricinus, collected throughout Austria in 2005, were selected from the tick library at the Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology of the Medical University of Vienna and screened in a specific real-time PCR that targeted a region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella species. The overall Bartonella infection rate was 2.1% (11/515) and the highest rate, 7.5% (4/53), was found in ticks from Vienna. This finding was confirmed by screening a further 60 I. ricinus collected from Vienna in 2013: of these, 6.7% (4/60) were positive for Bartonella spp. The rate of infection was always higher in adult ticks. Sequence analysis in the Bartonella-positive ticks identified several species, including B. henselae, B. doshiae and B. grahamii. To our knowledge this is the first time that these species have been identified in I. ricinus in Austria. Prevalence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae and B. quintana was determined in serum samples from hunters (100) and blood donors (100): in hunters 23% were positive for B. quintana and in 2 samples (2%), antibodies to both B. quintana and B. henselae were detected; in blood donors 22% were positive for B. quintana, 1% for B. henselae and 5% for both. These results indicate that exposure to ticks does not constitutes a relevant risk for Bartonella infection. PMID:26997137

  13. Limited Diversity among Human Isolates of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, B.; Valenzuela, J.; Don, R.; Blanckenberg, D.; Wigney, D. I.; Malik, R.; Morris, A. J.; Robson, J. M.; Iredell, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 59 isolates of Bartonella henselae reveals relatively limited diversity among those of human origin (n = 28). Either of two distinct alleles of both gltA and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was found in all isolates, with a high level of congruity between 16S and gltA inheritance among proven human pathogens. Human isolates from all over Eastern Australia were most commonly 16S rDNA (Bergmans) type I, with the same gltA allele as the type strain (Houston-1). Comparable feline isolates were more commonly 16S type II, with less congruity of inheritance between 16S and gltA alleles. Previously described arbitrarily primed PCR and EagI-HhaI infrequent restriction site PCR fingerprinting techniques separated Bartonella species effectively but lacked discriminating power within B. henselae. Examination of the 16-23S intergenic spacer region revealed for several strains several point mutations as well as a repeat sequence of unknown significance which is readily detected by HaeIII restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The bacteriophage-associated papA gene was present in all isolates. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR proved to be a useful and robust typing tool and clearly separated human isolates (including imported strains) from the majority of feline isolates. Our data are consistent with published evidence and with previous suggestions of intragenomic rearrangements in the type strain and suggest that human isolates come from a limited subset of B. henselae strains. They strengthen arguments for careful exploration of genotype-phenotype relationships and for the development of a multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing-based approach to the phylogeny of B. henselae. PMID:12454174

  14. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts. PMID:21557057

  15. Rodent-associated Bartonella Febrile Illness, Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Iralu, Jonathan; Bai, Ying; Crook, Larry; Tempest, Bruce; Simpson, Gary; McKenzie, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Serum specimens from 114 patients hospitalized with a febrile illness were tested with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Bartonella antigens prepared from 6 species of sigmodontine rodents and 3 known human Bartonella pathogens: B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae. Acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from 5 of these patients showed seroconversion with an IFA titer >512 to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens. The highest titer was against antigen derived from the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula), although this rodent is not necessarily implicated as the source of infection. Three of the 5 who seroconverted showed no cross-reaction to the 3 Bartonella human pathogens. Common clinical characteristics were fever, chills, myalgias, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and transaminasemia. Although antibodies to Bartonella are cross-reactive, high-titer seroconversions to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens in adults with common clinical characteristics should stimulate the search for additional Bartonella human pathogens. PMID:16836824

  16. Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France

    PubMed Central

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Moutailler, Sara; Féménia, Françoise; Raymond, Philippe; Croce, Olivier; La Scola, Bernard; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp. (B. doshiae, B. schoenbuchensis, and B. tribocorum). Genomic analysis of the isolated strains revealed differences from previously sequenced Bartonella strains. Our investigation identifed 3 novel Bartonella spp. strains with human pathogenic potential and showed that Bartonella spp. may be the cause of undifferentiated chronic illness in humans who have been bitten by ticks. PMID:26885624

  17. Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France.

    PubMed

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Moutailler, Sara; Féménia, Françoise; Raymond, Philippe; Croce, Olivier; La Scola, Bernard; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp. (B. doshiae, B. schoenbuchensis, and B. tribocorum). Genomic analysis of the isolated strains revealed differences from previously sequenced Bartonella strains. Our investigation identifed 3 novel Bartonella spp. strains with human pathogenic potential and showed that Bartonella spp. may be the cause of undifferentiated chronic illness in humans who have been bitten by ticks. PMID:26885624

  18. [Microbiological diagnosis of emerging bacterial pathogens: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia, and Tropheryma whipplei].

    PubMed

    Blanco, José Ramón; Jado, Isabel; Marín, Mercedes; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Portillo, Aránzazu; Anda, Pedro; Pons, Immaculada; Oteo, José Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia and Tropheryma whipplei (formerly called whippelii) are fastidious bacterial organisms, considered the causative agents of potentially severe emerging and re-emerging diseases with repercussions on public health. The recent availability of advanced molecular biology and cell culture techniques has led to the implication of many of these species in human pathologies. These issues are extensively covered in number 27 of the SEIMC microbiological procedure: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones por patógenos bacterianos emergentes: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia y Tropheryma whippelii (Microbiological diagnosis of Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia and Tropheryma whippelii infections) (2nd ed., 2007) (www.seimc.org/documentos/protocolos/microbiologia/). PMID:19100178

  19. Adhesion and host cell modulation: critical pathogenicity determinants of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Franz, Bettina; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (Vir)B/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail. PMID:21489243

  20. Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic Bartonella species in canids from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2012-01-01

    Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55-31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

  1. Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a Potential New Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Canids from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P. V. P.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2012-01-01

    Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55–31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

  2. Bartonella spp. in human and animal populations in Gauteng, South Africa, from 2007 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Trataris, Anastasia N; Rossouw, Jennifer; Arntzen, Lorraine; Karstaedt, Allan; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Bartonellae are highly adaptive organisms that have the ability to evade the host immune system and cause persistent bacteraemia by occupying the host's erythrocytes. Bartonella spp. is under-studied and health care professionals often misdiagnose Bartonella-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of Bartonella spp. circulating in human and animal populations in Gauteng using culturing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection. A total of 424 human, 98 cat, 179 dog, and 124 wild rodent blood samples were plated onto specialised media and incubated for 7-21 days at 37 ºC in CO2. Culture isolates morphologically similar to Bartonella control strains were confirmed by PCR and sequenced to determine species. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from all blood samples and tested by nested PCR. Bartonella could only be cultured from the cat and rodent specimens. Cat isolates were > 99% similar to Bartonella henselae URBHLIE 9, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient, and rat isolates were > 98% similar to either RN24BJ (candidus 'Bartonella thailandensis') or RN28BJ, previously isolated from rodents in China. The PCR prevalences were 22.5% in HIV-positive patients, 9.5% in clinically healthy volunteers, 23.5% in cats, 9% in dogs and 25% in rodents. Findings of this study have important implications for HIV-positive patients. PMID:23327372

  3. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Questing Adult Ixodes pacificus Ticks in California

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C. C.; Chomel, B. B.; Kasten, R. W.; Romano, V.; Tietze, N.

    2001-01-01

    Ticks are the vectors of many zoonotic diseases in the United States, including Lyme disease, human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichioses, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Most known Bartonella species are arthropod borne. Therefore, it is important to determine if some Bartonella species, which are emerging pathogens, could be carried or transmitted by ticks. In this study, adult Ixodes pacificus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation in three sites in Santa Clara County, Calif. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing of 273 bp of the gltA gene were applied for Bartonella identification. Twenty-nine (19.2%) of 151 individually tested ticks were PCR positive for Bartonella. Male ticks were more likely to be infected with Bartonella than female ticks (26 versus 12%, P = 0.05). None of the nine ticks collected at Baird Ranch was PCR positive for Bartonella. However, 7 (50%) of 14 ticks from Red Fern Ranch and 22 (17%) of 128 ticks from the Windy Hill Open Space Reserve were infected with Bartonella. In these infected ticks, molecular analysis showed a variety of Bartonella strains, which were closely related to a cattle Bartonella strain and to several known human-pathogenic Bartonella species and subspecies: Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. washoensis, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. These findings indicate that I. pacificus ticks may play an important role in Bartonella transmission among animals and humans. PMID:11283031

  4. Coinfection with Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and with different Bartonella henselae strains in domestic cats.

    PubMed Central

    Gurfield, A N; Boulouis, H J; Chomel, B B; Heller, R; Kasten, R W; Yamamoto, K; Piemont, Y

    1997-01-01

    Bartonella clarridgeiae and several strains of Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease, with variations in the 16S rRNA gene have been found to infect the blood of cats. An epidemiologic study of Bartonella infection in domestic French cats revealed that of 436 cats sampled, 5 cats (1.1%) were coinfected with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae and 2 cats (0.5%) were coinfected with two strains of B. henselae with variations in the 16S rRNA gene, B. henselae type I and type II. In an indirect immunofluorescence assay, coinfected cats tested positive for both Bartonella species at titers of > or = 128. Identification of the colonies was achieved by preformed enzyme analysis, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the citrate synthase gene, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Colony size differences in mixed culture allowed differentiation of the Bartonella species. The coinfection of cats with two Bartonella species or variants of the same species raises concern about the possibility of dual infection in humans. The development of a polyvalent vaccine targeted against the most pathogenic or invasive strains may be a means of protecting cats and man from infection. PMID:9230394

  5. A bipartite signal mediates the transfer of type IV secretion substrates of Bartonella henselae into human cells

    PubMed Central

    Schulein, Ralf; Guye, Patrick; Rhomberg, Thomas A.; Schmid, Michael C.; Schröder, Gunnar; Vergunst, Annette C.; Carena, Ilaria; Dehio, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems mediate the transfer of macromolecular substrates into various target cells, e.g., the conjugative transfer of DNA into bacteria or the transfer of virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The T4S apparatus VirB of the vascular tumor-inducing pathogen Bartonella henselae causes subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. Here we report the identification of multiple protein substrates of VirB, which, upon translocation into HEC, mediate all known VirB-dependent cellular changes. These Bartonella-translocated effector proteins (Beps) A-G are encoded together with the VirB system and the T4S coupling protein VirD4 on a Bartonella-specific pathogenicity island. The Beps display a modular architecture, suggesting an evolution by extensive domain duplication and reshuffling. The C terminus of each Bep harbors at least one copy of the Bep-intracellular delivery domain and a short positively charged tail sequence. This biparte C terminus constitutes a transfer signal that is sufficient to mediate VirB/VirD4-dependent intracellular delivery of reporter protein fusions. The Bep-intracellular delivery domain is also present in conjugative relaxases of bacterial conjugation systems. We exemplarily show that the C terminus of such a conjugative relaxase mediates protein transfer through the Bartonella henselae VirB/VirD4 system into HEC. Conjugative relaxases may thus represent the evolutionary origin of the here defined T4S signal for protein transfer into human cells. PMID:15642951

  6. Detrimental effects of Bartonella henselae are counteracted by L-arginine and nitric oxide in human endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Paola; Casamassimi, Amelia; Sommese, Linda; Fiorito, Carmela; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Rossiello, Raffaele; Avallone, Bice; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Costa, Valerio; Rienzo, Monica; Colicchio, Roberta; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Prudente, Maria Evelina; Abbondanza, Ciro; Lamberti, Florentia; Baroni, Adone; Buommino, Elisabetta; Farzati, Bartolomeo; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Ignarro, Louis Joseph; Napoli, Claudio

    2008-07-01

    The recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of several diseases. Endothelial damage and detachment of endothelial cells are known to occur in infection, tissue ischemia, and sepsis. These detrimental effects in EPCs are unknown. Here we elucidated whether human EPCs internalize Bartonella henselae constituting a circulating niche of the pathogen. B. henselae invades EPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dil-Ac-LDL/lectin double immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of EPCs revealed EPC bioactivity after infection with B. henselae. Nitric oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine (l-arg) exert a plethora of beneficial effects on vascular function and modulation of immune response. Therefore, we tested also the hypothesis that l-arg (1-30 mM) would affect the infection of B. henselae or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in EPCs. Our data provide evidence that l-arg counteracts detrimental effects induced by TNF or Bartonella infections via NO (confirmed by DETA-NO and L-NMMA experiments) and by modulation of p38 kinase phosphorylation. Microarray analysis indicated several genes involved in immune response were differentially expressed in Bartonella-infected EPCs, whereas these genes returned in steady state when cells were exposed to sustained doses of l-arg. This mechanism may have broad therapeutic applications in tissue ischemia, angiogenesis, immune response, and sepsis. PMID:18595894

  7. Detrimental effects of Bartonella henselae are counteracted by l-arginine and nitric oxide in human endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Paola; Casamassimi, Amelia; Sommese, Linda; Fiorito, Carmela; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Rossiello, Raffaele; Avallone, Bice; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Costa, Valerio; Rienzo, Monica; Colicchio, Roberta; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Prudente, Maria Evelina; Abbondanza, Ciro; Lamberti, Florentia; Baroni, Adone; Buommino, Elisabetta; Farzati, Bartolomeo; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Ignarro, Louis Joseph; Napoli, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of several diseases. Endothelial damage and detachment of endothelial cells are known to occur in infection, tissue ischemia, and sepsis. These detrimental effects in EPCs are unknown. Here we elucidated whether human EPCs internalize Bartonella henselae constituting a circulating niche of the pathogen. B. henselae invades EPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dil-Ac-LDL/lectin double immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of EPCs revealed EPC bioactivity after infection with B. henselae. Nitric oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine (l-arg) exert a plethora of beneficial effects on vascular function and modulation of immune response. Therefore, we tested also the hypothesis that l-arg (1–30 mM) would affect the infection of B. henselae or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in EPCs. Our data provide evidence that l-arg counteracts detrimental effects induced by TNF or Bartonella infections via NO (confirmed by DETA-NO and L-NMMA experiments) and by modulation of p38 kinase phosphorylation. Microarray analysis indicated several genes involved in immune response were differentially expressed in Bartonella-infected EPCs, whereas these genes returned in steady state when cells were exposed to sustained doses of l-arg. This mechanism may have broad therapeutic applications in tissue ischemia, angiogenesis, immune response, and sepsis. PMID:18595894

  8. PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood and enrichment blood cultures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cats appear to be the primary reservoir host for Bartonella koehlerae, an alpha Proteobacteria that is most likely transmitted among cat populations by fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Bartonella koehlerae has caused endocarditis in a dog and in one human patient from Israel, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. Despite publication of numerous, worldwide epidemiological studies designed to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. bacteremia in cats, B. koehlerae has never been isolated using conventional blood agar plates. To date, successful isolation of B. koehlerae from cats and from the one human endocarditis patient has consistently required the use of chocolate agar plates. Results In this study, Bartonella koehlerae bacteremia was documented in eight immunocompetent patients by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, either prior to or after enrichment blood culture using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium. Presenting symptoms most often included fatigue, insomnia, joint pain, headache, memory loss, and muscle pain. Four patients were also infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II. After molecular documentation of B. koehlerae infection in these patients, a serological test was developed and serum samples were tested retrospectively. Bartonella koehlerae antibodies were not detected (titers < 1:16) in 30 healthy human control sera, whereas five of eight patient samples had B. koehlerae antibody titers of 1:64 or greater. Conclusions Although biased by a study population consisting of individuals with extensive arthropod and animal exposure, the results of this study suggest that B. koehlerae bacteremia is more common in immunocompetent people than has been previously suspected. Future studies should more thoroughly define modes of transmission and risk factors for acquiring infection with B. koehlerae. In addition, studies are needed to determine if B. koehlerae is a cause or

  9. Bartonella spp. - a chance to establish One Health concepts in veterinary and human medicine.

    PubMed

    Regier, Yvonne; O Rourke, Fiona; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain a remarkable health threat for humans and animals. In the past, the epidemiology, etiology and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals have mostly been investigated in separate studies. However, it is evident, that combined approaches are needed to understand geographical distribution, transmission and infection biology of "zoonotic agents". The genus Bartonella represents a congenial example of the synergistic benefits that can arise from such combined approaches: Bartonella spp. infect a broad variety of animals, are linked with a constantly increasing number of human diseases and are transmitted via arthropod vectors. As a result, the genus Bartonella is predestined to play a pivotal role in establishing a One Health concept combining veterinary and human medicine. PMID:27161111

  10. Effects of rodent community diversity and composition on prevalence of an endemic bacterial pathogen - Bartonella

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Calisher, C.H.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Collinge, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.

  11. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  12. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  13. A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

  14. Molecular Survey of Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Rodent Fleas (Siphonaptera) From Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Adriana M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Rubio, André V; Graham, Christine B; Montenieri, John A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Acosta-Gutiérrez, Roxana; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Gage, Kenneth L; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Rodent fleas from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for the presence of Bartonella and Yersinia pestis. In total, 760 fleas belonging to 10 species were tested with multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the gltA (338-bp) and pla genes (478-bp) of Bartonella and Y. pestis, respectively. Although none was positive for Y. pestis, 307 fleas were infected with Bartonella spp., resulting in an overall prevalence of 40.4%. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of Bartonella is more likely to occur in some flea species. From a subset of Bartonella-positive fleas, phylogenetic analyses of gltA gene sequences revealed 13 genetic variants clustering in five phylogroups (I–V), two of which were matched with known pathogenic Bartonella species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis and Bartonella washoensis) and two that were not related with any previously described species or subspecies of Bartonella. Variants in phylogroup V, which were mainly obtained from Meringis spp. fleas, were identical to those reported recently in their specific rodent hosts (Dipodomys spp.) in the same region, suggesting that kangaroo rats and their fleas harbor other Bartonella species not reported previously. Considering the Bartonella prevalence and the flea genotypes associated with known pathogenic Bartonella species, we suggest that analysis of rodent and flea communities in the region should continue for their potential implications for human health. Given that nearby locations in the United States have reported Y. pestis in wild animals and their fleas, we suggest conducting larger-scale studies to increase our knowledge of this bacterium. PMID:26576933

  15. Analysis of Endothelial Adherence of Bartonella henselae and Acinetobacter baumannii Using a Dynamic Human Ex Vivo Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Weidensdorfer, Marko; Chae, Ju Ik; Makobe, Celestine; Stahl, Julia; Averhoff, Beate; Müller, Volker; Schürmann, Christoph; Brandes, Ralf P.; Wilharm, Gottfried; Ballhorn, Wibke; Christ, Sara; Linke, Dirk; Fischer, Doris; Göttig, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adherence determines the virulence of many human-pathogenic bacteria. Experimental approaches elucidating this early infection event in greater detail have been performed using mainly methods of cellular microbiology. However, in vitro infections of cell monolayers reflect the in vivo situation only partially, and animal infection models are not available for many human-pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, ex vivo infection of human organs might represent an attractive method to overcome these limitations. We infected whole human umbilical cords ex vivo with Bartonella henselae or Acinetobacter baumannii under dynamic flow conditions mimicking the in vivo infection situation of human endothelium. For this purpose, methods for quantifying endothelium-adherent wild-type and trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA)-deficient bacteria were set up. Data revealed that (i) A. baumannii binds in a TAA-dependent manner to endothelial cells, (ii) this organ infection model led to highly reproducible adherence rates, and furthermore, (iii) this model allowed to dissect the biological function of TAAs in the natural course of human infections. These findings indicate that infection models using ex vivo human tissue samples (“organ microbiology”) might be a valuable tool in analyzing bacterial pathogenicity with the capacity to replace animal infection models at least partially. PMID:26712205

  16. Bartonella Species Identified in Rodent and Feline Hosts from Island and Mainland Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, Dave; Adams, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have been described in multiple mammalian hosts with many species capable of causing disease in humans. Cats and various species of rats have been reported to play a role as vertebrate hosts to a number of Bartonella spp. This study aimed to identify Bartonella spp. in Western Australia, Dirk Hartog Island (DHI), and Christmas Island (CI) and to investigate the presence of potential arthropod vectors. Feral cats were collected from CI (n = 35), DHI (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (swWA; n = 58), and black rats were collected from CI (n = 48). Individuals were necropsied, ectoparasites were collected by external examination of carcasses, and splenic tissue was collected for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect Bartonella DNA. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected from two cats and Bartonella koehlerae DNA from one cat in southwest WA, but Bartonella DNA was not identified in cats on DHI or CI. Bartonella phoceensis (28/48 = 58.3%) and a novel Bartonella genotype (8/48 = 16.7%) based on the internal transcribed space region were detected in the spleens of black rats on CI. Detection of Bartonella spp. in each location corresponded to the presence of ectoparasites. Cats from southwest WA harbored four species of fleas, including Ctenocephalides felis, and black rats on CI were infested with multiple species of ectoparasites, including mites, fleas, and lice. Conversely, cats on Dirk Hartog and CI were free of ectoparasites. This study has identified the DNA of Bartonella species from island and mainland swWA with some (B. henselae and B. koehlerae) of known zoonotic importance. This study further extends the geographical range for the pathogenic B. koehlerae. The association of Bartonella with ectoparasites is unsurprising, but little is known about the specific vector competence of the ectoparasites identified in this study. PMID:26900749

  17. Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease. PMID:22232371

  18. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Jaenson, Thomas G.T.; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. Most ticks were Hyalomma rufipes nymphs and larvae with mean infestation rates of 1.7 nymphs and 0.6 larvae per infested bird. Bartonella spp. RNA was not detected in any of the tick specimens. PMID:22957116

  19. Bartonella clarridgeiae, a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen causing inoculation papules, fever, and lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease).

    PubMed Central

    Kordick, D L; Hilyard, E J; Hadfield, T L; Wilson, K H; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Breitschwerdt, E B

    1997-01-01

    Shortly after adopting a 6-week-old cat, a veterinarian was bitten on the left index finger. Within 3 weeks, he developed headache, fever, and left axillary lymphadenopathy. Initial blood cultures from the cat and veterinarian were sterile. Repeat cultures from the cat grew Bartonella-like organisms with lophotrichous flagella. Sera from the veterinarian were not reactive against Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, or B. elizabethae antigens but were seroreactive (reciprocal titer, 1,024) against the feline isolate. Sequential serum samples from the cat were reactive against antigens of B. henselae (titer, 1,024), B. quintana (titer, 128), and the feline isolate (titer, 2,048). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of this and six additional feline isolates, including microscopic evaluation, biochemical analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and citrate synthase gene identified the isolates as B. clarridgeiae. This is the first report of cat scratch disease associated with B. clarridgeiae. PMID:9196200

  20. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. Bed Bugs Detects Burkholderia multivorans but Not Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Saenz, Virna L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L.; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S–23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector. PMID:24040015

  1. Bartonella Infections in Deer Keds (Lipoptena cervi) and Moose (Alces alces) in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Duodu, Samuel; Madslien, Knut; Hjelm, Eva; Molin, Ylva; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Harris, Philip D.; Colquhoun, Duncan J.

    2013-01-01

    Infections with Bartonella spp. have been recognized as emerging zoonotic diseases in humans. Large knowledge gaps exist, however, relating to reservoirs, vectors, and transmission of these bacteria. We describe identification by culture, PCR, and housekeeping gene sequencing of Bartonella spp. in fed, wingless deer keds (Lipoptena cervi), deer ked pupae, and blood samples collected from moose, Alces alces, sampled within the deer ked distribution range in Norway. Direct sequencing from moose blood sampled in a deer ked-free area also indicated Bartonella infection but at a much lower prevalence. The sequencing data suggested the presence of mixed infections involving two species of Bartonella within the deer ked range, while moose outside the range appeared to be infected with a single species. Bartonella were not detected or cultured from unfed winged deer keds. The results may indicate that long-term bacteremia in the moose represents a reservoir of infection and that L. cervi acts as a vector for the spread of infection of Bartonella spp. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of L. cervi in the transmission of Bartonella to animals and humans and the possible pathogenicity of these bacteria for humans and animals. PMID:23104416

  2. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections.

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M; Raoult, D

    1996-01-01

    Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) quintana is the etiological agent of trench fever, a disease extensively reported during the World Wars. Recent molecular biology approaches have allowed dramatic extension of the spectrum of Bartonella infections. B. quintana is now also recognized as an etiological agent of fever and bacteremia, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, and chronic lymphadenopathy. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and/or homeless people are the most vulnerable to infection. Poverty and louse infestation were the main epidemiological factors associated with B. quintana infections during wartime. Although poverty and chronic alcoholism have been associated with modern cases of trench fever and bacteremia due to B. quintana in Europe and the United States, vectors for B. quintana have not been clearly identified and B. quintana has not been isolated from modern-day lice. Microscopic bacillary angiomatosis lesions are characterized by tumor-like capillary lobules, with proliferating endothelial cells. In vitro experiments have shown that B. quintana survives within endothelial cells and stimulates cell proliferation. These observations, together with the finding that lesions may regress when antibiotic therapy is administered, strongly suggest that B. quintana itself stimulates angiogenesis. Bartonella infections are characterized by a high frequency of relapses after brief courses of antibiotic therapy. It is to be noted that in vitro, although Bartonella species are highly susceptible to antibiotics, only the aminoglycosides have proved to be bactericidal. However, the most effective antibiotic regimen for Bartonella infections remains to be established. PMID:8809460

  3. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis as an Agent of Blood Culture-Negative Endocarditis in a Human

    PubMed Central

    Fenollar, Florence; Sire, Stéphane; Raoult, Didier

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a patient hospitalized with endocarditis. The etiological diagnosis of Bartonella was suggested by detection of high titers of antibodies by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Two different nested PCRs performed on sera identified Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis by sequencing. PMID:15695714

  4. Hemocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus are hosts for human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Coulaud, Pierre-Julien; Lepolard, Catherine; Bechah, Yassina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Ghigo, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pediculus humanus humanus is an human ectoparasite which represents a serious public health threat because it is vector for pathogenic bacteria. It is important to understand and identify where bacteria reside in human body lice to define new strategies to counterstroke the capacity of vectorization of the bacterial pathogens by body lice. It is known that phagocytes from vertebrates can be hosts or reservoirs for several microbes. Therefore, we wondered if Pediculus humanus humanus phagocytes could hide pathogens. In this study, we characterized the phagocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus and evaluated their contribution as hosts for human pathogens such as Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella Quintana, and Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:25688336

  5. Hemocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus are hosts for human bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Coulaud, Pierre-Julien; Lepolard, Catherine; Bechah, Yassina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Ghigo, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pediculus humanus humanus is an human ectoparasite which represents a serious public health threat because it is vector for pathogenic bacteria. It is important to understand and identify where bacteria reside in human body lice to define new strategies to counterstroke the capacity of vectorization of the bacterial pathogens by body lice. It is known that phagocytes from vertebrates can be hosts or reservoirs for several microbes. Therefore, we wondered if Pediculus humanus humanus phagocytes could hide pathogens. In this study, we characterized the phagocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus and evaluated their contribution as hosts for human pathogens such as Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella Quintana, and Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:25688336

  6. Bartonella Species in Bats (Chiroptera) and Bat Flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0–45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25229701

  7. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and Domestic Animals in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Zaid, Taher; Azmi, Kifaya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3%) collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n = 10), B. chomelii (n = 6), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3%) obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 2). Among canine blood samples (n = 110), we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%). The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region. PMID:27540374

  8. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and Domestic Animals in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Zaid, Taher; Azmi, Kifaya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3%) collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n = 10), B. chomelii (n = 6), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3%) obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 2). Among canine blood samples (n = 110), we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%). The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region. PMID:27540374

  9. Development of a serum-free liquid medium for Bartonella species.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Mantlik, Katrin; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-09-01

    The genus Bartonella comprises numerous species with at least 13 species pathogenic for humans. They are fastidious, aerobic, Gram negative, and facultative intracellular bacteria which cause a variety of human and non-human diseases. This study focused on the development of a serum-free liquid medium for culture of Bartonella species. Some liquid media are available commercially but all of them use undefined supplements such as fetal calf serum or defibrinated sheep blood. Our intention was to create a reproducible liquid medium for Bartonella species that can simply be prepared. We tested several supplements that could potentially support the growth of Bartonella species. Slight growth improvement was achieved with glucose and sucrose. However, hemin in particular improved the growth rate. At a temperature of 37 °C, a CO2 concentration of 5 %, a humidified atmosphere, and the use of the supplements glucose, sucrose, and hemin, we developed a medium that does not need serum as an undefined supplement any more. In conclusion, the newly developed medium supports growth of Bartonella species equal to the commercially available media but with the advantage that it has a serum-free formulation. It can be prepared fast and easy and is a useful tool in studying these bacteria. PMID:26842394

  10. Bartonella spp. in bats, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-12-01

    We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in specific host bat species. All isolates from R. aegyptiacus, C. afra, and T. persicus bats clustered in separate monophyletic groups. In contrast, E. helvum and Miniopterus spp. bats harbored strains that clustered in several groups. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these agents are responsible for human illnesses in the region. PMID:21122216

  11. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine. PMID:24247021

  12. The Bartonella henselae VirB/Bep system interferes with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, Florine; Quebatte, Maxime; Mistl, Claudia; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    The vasculotropic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) intimately interacts with human endothelial cells (ECs) and subverts multiple cellular functions. Here we report that Bh specifically interferes with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling in ECs. Bh infection abrogated VEGF-induced proliferation and wound closure of EC monolayers as well as the capillary-like sprouting of EC spheroids. On the molecular level, Bh infection did not alter VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression or cell surface localization, but impeded VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGFR2 at tyrosine(1175) . Consistently, we observed that Bh infection diminished downstream events of the tyrosine(1175) -dependent VEGFR2-signalling pathway leading to EC proliferation, i.e. phospholipase-Cγ activation, cytosolic calcium fluxes and mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Pervanadate treatment neutralized the inhibitory activity of Bh on VEGF signalling, suggesting that Bh infection may activate a phosphatase that alleviates VEGFR2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of VEGFR2 signalling by Bh infection was strictly dependent on a functional VirB type IV secretion system and thereby translocated Bep effector proteins. The data presented in this study underscore the role of the VirB/Bep system as important factor controlling EC proliferation in response to Bh infection; not only as previously reported by counter-acting an intrinsic bacterial mitogenic stimulus, but also by restricting the exogenous angiogenic stimulation by Bh-induced VEGF. PMID:21044238

  13. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans. PMID:26363063

  14. Bartonella spp. Bacteremia in Blood Donors from Campinas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

  15. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  18. Contrasting Patterns in Mammal–Bacteria Coevolution: Bartonella and Leptospira in Bats and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Bonnie R.; Olival, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging bacterial zoonoses in bats and rodents remain relatively understudied. We conduct the first comparative host–pathogen coevolutionary analyses of bacterial pathogens in these hosts, using Bartonella spp. and Leptospira spp. as a model. Methodology/Principal Findings We used published genetic data for 51 Bartonella genotypes from 24 bat species, 129 Bartonella from 38 rodents, and 26 Leptospira from 20 bats. We generated maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies for hosts and bacteria, and tested for coevoutionary congruence using programs ParaFit, PACO, and Jane. Bartonella spp. and their bat hosts had a significant coevolutionary fit (ParaFitGlobal = 1.9703, P≤0.001; m2 global value = 7.3320, P≤0.0001). Bartonella spp. and rodent hosts also indicated strong overall patterns of cospeciation (ParaFitGlobal = 102.4409, P≤0.001; m2 global value = 86.532, P≤0.0001). In contrast, we were unable to reject independence of speciation events in Leptospira and bats (ParaFitGlobal = 0.0042, P = 0.84; m2 global value = 4.6310, P = 0.5629). Separate analyses of New World and Old World data subsets yielded results congruent with analysis from entire datasets. We also conducted event-based cophylogeny analyses to reconstruct likely evolutionary histories for each group of pathogens and hosts. Leptospira and bats had the greatest number of host switches per parasite (0.731), while Bartonella and rodents had the fewest (0.264). Conclusions/Significance In both bat and rodent hosts, Bartonella exhibits significant coevolution with minimal host switching, while Leptospira in bats lacks evolutionary congruence with its host and has high number of host switches. Reasons underlying these variable coevolutionary patterns in host range are likely due to differences in disease-specific transmission and host ecology. Understanding the coevolutionary patterns and frequency of host-switching events between bacterial pathogens and

  19. Zoonotic Bartonella species in cardiac valves of healthy coyotes, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Spencer P; Chomel, Bruno B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kasten, Rickie W; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Sacks, Benjamin N; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-12-01

    We investigated whether Bartonella spp. could cause endocarditis in coyotes or localize to cardiac valves before lesions develop. Bartonella DNA was amplified more often from coyote cardiac valves than spleen. Bartonella infection apparently leads to cardiac valve tropism, which could cause endocarditis, an often lethal complication in mammals, including humans. PMID:25418213

  20. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals. PMID:26344603

  1. Bartonella Species as a Potential Cause of Epistaxis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Maggi, Ricardo; Hawkins, Eleanor; Dyer, Page

    2005-01-01

    Infection with a Bartonella species was implicated in three cases of epistaxis in dogs, based upon isolation, serology, or PCR amplification. These cases, in conjunction with previously published reports, support a potential role for Bartonella spp. as a cause of epistaxis in dogs and potentially in other animals, including humans. PMID:15872304

  2. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24270074

  3. Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Rodents from Georgia (Caucasus).

    PubMed

    Malania, Lile; Bai, Ying; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Katsitadze, Guram; Imnadze, Paata; Kosoy, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Bartonella infections are widespread and highly prevalent in rodents. Several rodent-associated Bartonella species have been related to human diseases. Recently, Bartonella species was reported as the etiology of a human case in the country of Georgia (Caucasus). However, information on Bartonella in rodents in Georgia is absent. Rodent hearts were collected from Georgia to investigate the presence and diversity of Bartonella species. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 37.2% (16/43) of rodents examined, while Bartonella DNA was detected in 41.2% (28/68) of rodents by polymerase chain reaction targeting citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Sequences of gltA showed that rodents in this region harbored multiple Bartonella strains, including Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella grahamii, and an unknown genogroup. The first three Bartonella species, known to be rat-associated and human cases linked, were commonly observed in wood mice (Apodemus [Sylvaemus] uralensis) (5/8 positive with B. elizabethae and B. tribocorum) and social voles (Microtus socialis) (4/6 positive with B. grahamii and B. elizabethae) in this study. The frequent distribution of these Bartonella species suggests that they may contribute to unidentified clinical infections. The unknown genogroup was observed in 24 Bartonella isolates and/or DNA extracts from heart tissues, all of which were obtained from Libyan jirds (Meriones libycus). Further characterization of the bacterial cultures based on sequence analysis of four additional genes (ftsZ, nuoG, rpoB, and ssrA) supported that the jird-associated Bartonella strains comprise a distinct monophyletic clade. The impact of this bacterium on wildlife and human health needs to be determined. PMID:27162268

  4. Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Rodents from Georgia (Caucasus)

    PubMed Central

    Malania, Lile; Bai, Ying; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Katsitadze, Guram; Imnadze, Paata; Kosoy, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella infections are widespread and highly prevalent in rodents. Several rodent-associated Bartonella species have been related to human diseases. Recently, Bartonella species was reported as the etiology of a human case in the country of Georgia (Caucasus). However, information on Bartonella in rodents in Georgia is absent. Rodent hearts were collected from Georgia to investigate the presence and diversity of Bartonella species. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 37.2% (16/43) of rodents examined, while Bartonella DNA was detected in 41.2% (28/68) of rodents by polymerase chain reaction targeting citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Sequences of gltA showed that rodents in this region harbored multiple Bartonella strains, including Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella grahamii, and an unknown genogroup. The first three Bartonella species, known to be rat-associated and human cases linked, were commonly observed in wood mice (Apodemus [Sylvaemus] uralensis) (5/8 positive with B. elizabethae and B. tribocorum) and social voles (Microtus socialis) (4/6 positive with B. grahamii and B. elizabethae) in this study. The frequent distribution of these Bartonella species suggests that they may contribute to unidentified clinical infections. The unknown genogroup was observed in 24 Bartonella isolates and/or DNA extracts from heart tissues, all of which were obtained from Libyan jirds (Meriones libycus). Further characterization of the bacterial cultures based on sequence analysis of four additional genes (ftsZ, nuoG, rpoB, and ssrA) supported that the jird-associated Bartonella strains comprise a distinct monophyletic clade. The impact of this bacterium on wildlife and human health needs to be determined. PMID:27162268

  5. Diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in Bats and Their Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites from South Africa and Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Muriel; Tjale, Mabotse A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Kearney, Teresa; Seamark, Ernest C. J.; Nel, Louis H.; Monadjem, Ara; Markotter, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    In addition to several emerging viruses, bats have been reported to host multiple bacteria but their zoonotic threats remain poorly understood, especially in Africa where the diversity of bats is important. Here, we investigated the presence and diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in bats and their ectoparasites (Diptera and Siphonaptera) collected across South Africa and Swaziland. We collected 384 blood samples and 14 ectoparasites across 29 different bat species and found positive samples in four insectivorous and two frugivorous bat species, as well as their Nycteribiidae flies. Phylogenetic analyses revealed diverse Bartonella genotypes and one main group of Rickettsia, distinct from those previously reported in bats and their ectoparasites, and for some closely related to human pathogens. Our results suggest a differential pattern of host specificity depending on bat species. Bartonella spp. identified in bat flies and blood were identical supporting that bat flies may serve as vectors. Our results represent the first report of bat-borne Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in these countries and highlight the potential role of bats as reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:26999518

  6. Diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in Bats and Their Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites from South Africa and Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Muriel; Tjale, Mabotse A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Kearney, Teresa; Seamark, Ernest C J; Nel, Louis H; Monadjem, Ara; Markotter, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    In addition to several emerging viruses, bats have been reported to host multiple bacteria but their zoonotic threats remain poorly understood, especially in Africa where the diversity of bats is important. Here, we investigated the presence and diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in bats and their ectoparasites (Diptera and Siphonaptera) collected across South Africa and Swaziland. We collected 384 blood samples and 14 ectoparasites across 29 different bat species and found positive samples in four insectivorous and two frugivorous bat species, as well as their Nycteribiidae flies. Phylogenetic analyses revealed diverse Bartonella genotypes and one main group of Rickettsia, distinct from those previously reported in bats and their ectoparasites, and for some closely related to human pathogens. Our results suggest a differential pattern of host specificity depending on bat species. Bartonella spp. identified in bat flies and blood were identical supporting that bat flies may serve as vectors. Our results represent the first report of bat-borne Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in these countries and highlight the potential role of bats as reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:26999518

  7. Bartonella quintana Deploys Host and Vector Temperature-Specific Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Previte, Domenic; Yoon, Kyong S.; Clark, J. Marshall; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Koehler, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Bartonella quintana is passed between humans by body lice. B. quintana has adapted to both the human host and body louse vector niches, producing persistent infection with high titer bacterial loads in both the host (up to 105 colony-forming units [CFU]/ml) and vector (more than 108 CFU/ml). Using a novel custom microarray platform, we analyzed bacterial transcription at temperatures corresponding to the host (37°C) and vector (28°C), to probe for temperature-specific and growth phase-specific transcriptomes. We observed that transcription of 7% (93 genes) of the B. quintana genome is modified in response to change in growth phase, and that 5% (68 genes) of the genome is temperature-responsive. Among these transcriptional changes in response to temperature shift and growth phase was the induction of known B. quintana virulence genes and several previously unannotated genes. Hemin binding proteins, secretion systems, response regulators, and genes for invasion and cell attachment were prominent among the differentially-regulated B. quintana genes. This study represents the first analysis of global transcriptional responses by B. quintana. In addition, the in vivo experiments provide novel insight into the B. quintana transcriptional program within the body louse environment. These data and approaches will facilitate study of the adaptation mechanisms employed by Bartonella during the transition between human host and arthropod vector. PMID:23554923

  8. Small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets serve as new reservoirs of Bartonella henselae and potential sources of infection for humans.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Kabeya, H; Shigematsu, Y; Sentsui, H; Une, Y; Minami, M; Murata, K; Ogura, G; Maruyama, S

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella species were investigated in small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets in Japan. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD) was isolated from 15.9% (10/63) of the mongooses and 2.0% (1/50) of the masked palm civets, respectively. The bacteraemic level ranged from 3.0 × 10(1) to 8.9 × 10(3) CFU/mL in mongooses and was 7.0 × 10(3) CFU/mL in the masked palm civet. Multispacer typing (MST) analysis based on nine intergenic spacers resulted in the detection of five MST genotypes (MSTs 8, 14, 37, 58 and 59) for the isolates, which grouped in lineage 1 with MST genotypes of isolates from all CSD patients and most of the cats in Japan. It was also found that MST14 from the mongoose strains was the predominant genotype of cat and human strains. This is the first report on the isolation of B. henselae from small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets. The data obtained in the present study suggest that these animals serve as new reservoirs for B. henselae, and may play a role as potential sources of human infection. PMID:23433322

  9. Absence of serological evidence of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii infections in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Lau, Colleen; Musso, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Weinstein, Philip

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases in American Samoa (Pacific). A review of literature did not identify any published information on human Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or Coxiella burnetii infections in this country. To determine the presence of these diseases, we conducted a serosurvey of American Samoans. The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia conorii, C. burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 197 American Samoan adults. None of the samples had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or C. burnetii (seroprevalence 0%; one-tailed 95% CI 0-1.86%). We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in American Samoa but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. Q fever has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand and French Polynesia; these new data suggest that the prevalence of Q fever is likely to be very low in the Pacific Islands. PMID:26965788

  10. Zebrafish Embryo Model of Bartonella henselae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Amorce; Cha, Byeong J.; Amin, Jahanshah; Smith, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bartonella henselae (Bh) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been associated with a variety of human diseases, including bacillary angiomatosis that is characterized by vasoproliferative tumor-like lesions on the skin of some immunosuppressed individuals. The study of Bh pathogenesis has been limited to in vitro cell culture systems due to the lack of an animal model. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether the zebrafish embryo could be used to model human infection with Bh. Our data showed that Tg(fli1:egfp)y1 zebrafish embryos supported a sustained Bh infection for 7 days with >10-fold bacterial replication when inoculated in the yolk sac. We showed that Bh recruited phagocytes to the site of infection in the Tg(mpx:GFP)uwm1 embryos. Infected embryos showed evidence of a Bh-induced angiogenic phenotype and an increase in the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory factors and pro-angiogenic markers. However, infection of zebrafish embryos with a deletion mutant in the major adhesin (BadA) resulted in little or no bacterial replication and a diminished host response, providing the first evidence that BadA is critical for in vivo infection. Thus, the zebrafish embryo provides the first practical model of Bh infection that will facilitate efforts to identify virulence factors and define molecular mechanisms of Bh pathogenesis. PMID:25026365

  11. Plant innate immunity against human bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Melotto, Maeli; Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana

    2014-01-01

    Certain human bacterial pathogens such as the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are not proven to be plant pathogens yet. Nonetheless, under certain conditions they can survive on, penetrate into, and colonize internal plant tissues causing serious food borne disease outbreaks. In this review, we highlight current understanding on the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against human bacterial pathogens and discuss salient common and contrasting themes of plant interactions with phytopathogens or human pathogens. PMID:25157245

  12. Ectoparasites and associated pathogens of free-roaming and captive animals in zoos of South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Reeves, Will K; Adler, Peter H; Wozniak, Arthur; Wills, William

    2009-10-01

    A survey of ectoparasites and their associated pathogens was conducted in two South Carolina zoos, from 2004 to 2007. Dead, wild birds and mammals, as well as captive animals examined during routine veterinary checks constituted the study populations. Ectoparasites were tested for species of Anaplasma, Bartonella, Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Trypanosoma. Forty-six species of ectoparasites were collected from 133 free-roaming and captive hosts and their associated nesting and bedding materials. Six vector-borne pathogens were detected molecularly in the ectoparasites, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the tick Ixodes dentatus Marx from an eastern cottontail rabbit, Bartonella clarridgeiae in the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) from a Virginia opossum, Bartonella sp. Oh6 in the squirrel flea Orchopeas howardi (Baker) from an eastern grey squirrel, Bartonella sp. T7498 in the sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri Jancke from a squirrel, Rickettsia sp. Rf2125 in C. felis from a zookeeper and a grizzly bear, and Rickettsiales sp. Ib 2006 in Ixodes brunneus Koch from an American crow. While the pathology of some of these pathogens is poorly known, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (causative agent of a disease similar to cat-scratch disease) can infect humans. Ectoparasites and their pathogens, especially those originating from free-roaming animals, present a potential threat to captive animals and humans. PMID:18973443

  13. Bartonella spp. in Small Mammals, Benin.

    PubMed

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Houemenou, Gualbert; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Valladares, Basilio; Feliu, Carlos; Foronda, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella organisms in small mammals in Cotonou, Benin. We captured 163 rodents and 12 insectivores and successfully detected Bartonella DNA from 13 of the 175 small mammal individuals. Bartonella spp., identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum, and Bartonella rochalimae, was detected. A potential new Bartonella species, proposed as Candidatus Bartonella mastomydis, was found in three Mastomys individuals and genetically characterized by targeting two housekeeping genes (rpoB and gltA) and the intergenic species region. However, 20.8% of gray rats were found to be infected with Bartonella spp., and none of the black rats analyzed was positive. This work may be important from a public health point of view due to the zoonotic nature of the Bartonella species detected and warrants further investigation on the unknown zoonotic potential of this newly proposed Bartonella species. PMID:26910412

  14. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella in rodents of northern Thailand: a comparison with Bartonella in rodents from southern China.

    PubMed

    Castle, Kevin T; Kosoy, Michael; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Phelan, Lori; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Leepitakrat, Warisa; Monkanna, Taweesak; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Chandranoi, Kirkvich; Jones, James W; Coleman, Russell E

    2004-04-01

    We report results of the first study to investigate the distribution and diversity of Bartonella in rodents from Thailand. Whole blood from 195 rodents, representing six species, was tested for the presence of Bartonella species using standard culture techniques. Isolates were obtained from 17 (8.7%) of the samples, and 14 of those isolates represented distinct strains, based upon partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates and other Bartonella species indicated that five unique isolates from Bandicota indica form a cluster that may represent a new Bartonella species. Two additional isolates from B. indica clustered together, and were nearly identical to an isolate from Apodemus draco collected in southern China. Importantly, a number of the isolates from Thailand rodents are closely related to B. grahamii and B. elizabethae, species which have been associated with human illness. PMID:15100459

  15. Isolation of Bartonella washoensis from a dog with mitral valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Wey, Aaron C; Kasten, Rickie W

    2003-11-01

    We report the first documented case of Bartonella washoensis bacteremia in a dog with mitral valve endocarditis. B. washoensis was isolated in 1995 from a human patient with cardiac disease. The main reservoir species appears to be ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) in the western United States. Based on echocardiographic findings, a diagnosis of infective vegetative valvular mitral endocarditis was made in a spayed 12-year-old female Doberman pinscher. A year prior to presentation, the referring veterinarian had detected a heart murmur, which led to progressive dyspnea and a diagnosis of congestive heart failure the week before examination. One month after initial presentation, symptoms worsened. An emergency therapy for congestive heart failure was unsuccessfully implemented, and necropsy evaluation of the dog was not permitted. Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the dog was strongly seropositive (titer of 1:4,096) for several Bartonella antigens (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. henselae), highly suggestive of Bartonella endocarditis. Standard aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic cultures were negative. However, a specific blood culture for Bartonella isolation grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism 7 days after being plated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of the isolate, including partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), groEL, and 16S rRNA genes, indicated that this organism was identical to B. washoensis. The dog was seronegative for all tick-borne pathogens tested (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Rickettsia rickettsii), but the sample was highly positive for B. washoensis (titer of 1:8,192) and, according to indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay, weakly positive for phase II Coxiella burnetii infection. PMID:14605197

  16. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

  17. High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

  18. Development of a Novel Genus-Specific Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Bartonella Species and Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ying; Malania, Lile; Winchell, Jonas M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Bartonella includes numerous species with varied host associations, including several that infect humans. Development of a molecular diagnostic method capable of detecting the diverse repertoire of Bartonella species while maintaining genus specificity has been a challenge. We developed a novel real-time PCR assay targeting a 301-bp region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella and demonstrated specific amplification in over 30 Bartonella species, subspecies, and strains. Subsequent analysis of ssrA sequences was sufficient to discriminate Bartonella species and provided phylogenetic data consistent with that of gltA, a commonly used gene for differentiating Bartonella genotypes. Using this assay, we identified Bartonella DNA in 29% and 47% of blood specimens from elk in Wyoming and cattle in the Republic of Georgia, respectively. Sequence analysis of a subset of genotypes from elk specimens revealed a cluster most closely related to Bartonella capreoli, and genotypes from cattle were identified as Bartonella bovis, both Bartonella species commonly found in wild and domestic ruminants. Considering the widespread geographic distribution and infectivity potential to a variety of hosts, this assay may be an effective diagnostic method for identification of Bartonella infections in humans and have utility in Bartonella surveillance studies. PMID:22378904

  19. Neuroretinitis caused by Bartonella quintana.

    PubMed

    Vuković-Arar, Zeljka; Janjetović, Zeljka; Sekelj, Sandra; Sapina, Lidija; Pajić-Penavić, Ivana

    2012-08-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented to the eye clinic for impaired vision on the left eye persisting for three months. Clinical examination revealed massive peripapillary exudate and stellate macular exudate, raising suspicion of a cat-scratch disease. Tetracycline therapy was introduced, followed by azithromycin and topical corticosteroids. Serologic testing for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana was performed. In the first sample, Bartonella quintana IgG titer was 128, and IgM titer 20, whereas in repeat sample the respective findings were 64 and negative. Such a titer dynamics pointed to Bartonella quintana infection. The prescribed therapy resulted in vision improvement and normalization of the clinical picture. After nine months of therapy initiation, macular exudate had almost completely disappeared. Based on the patient's history, symptoms, therapeutic response and IgM pattern, the neuroretinitis must have developed secondary to Bartonella quintana infection. PMID:22926397

  20. Prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic cats in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Bergmans, A M; de Jong, C M; van Amerongen, G; Schot, C S; Schouls, L M

    1997-01-01

    Cats have been shown to provide the only known reservoir of Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease. To determine the prevalence of Bartonella bacteremia and antibodies in Dutch cats, blood samples from 113 cats from shelters (sheltered cats), 50 pet cats, and 25 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) cats were analyzed. Culture and subsequent PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region and 16S rRNA gene PCR-hybridization assays revealed a prevalence of Bartonella bacteremia in 22% of the sheltered cats and showed no bacteremia in the SPF cats. Three spacer RFLP types were found: types A, B, and G, with type B being predominant over types A and G. An important finding was the existence of mixtures of different Bartonella species. Bartonella DNA was detected in 7 of 27 DNA extracts from fleas combed from the sheltered cats (26%). Seropositivity was 50% for sheltered cats and 56% for pet cats, as determined by a B. henselae enzyme-linked immunoassay. PMID:9276397

  1. Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish Family

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Bradley, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species constitute emerging, vector-borne, intravascular pathogens that produce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (natural host or passive carrier of a microorganism) and opportunistic hosts. With the advent of more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, there is evolving microbiological evidence supporting concurrent infection with one or more Bartonella spp. in more than one family member; however, the mode(s) of transmission to or among family members remains unclear. In this study, we provide molecular microbiological evidence of Bartonella henselae genotype San Antonio 2 (SA2) infection in four of six Danish family members, including a child who died of unknown causes at 14 months of age. PMID:25740763

  2. Granuloma annulare: another manifestation of Bartonella infection?

    PubMed

    Smoller, B R; Madhusudhan, K T; Scott, M A; Horn, T D

    2001-12-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a common cutaneous eruption whose pathogenesis remains unknown. Recent literature has suggested a relation between Borrelia infection and GA, a relation that has not been widely accepted. Earlier works attempted unsuccessfully to implicate various other infectious agents. Some reports have demonstrated the increased frequency of GA in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, again raising the possibility of an infectious etiology. Using polymerase chain reaction amplification, we examined 19 biopsy specimens from 19 patients with GA (14 with classic palisading GA and 5 with an interstitial pattern) for the presence of a 153-base pair sequence specific for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana. None of our patients were known to be human immunodeficiency virus-positive. These primers failed to detect B. henselae and B. quintana DNA in any of the specimens examined. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that GA represents a granulomatous reaction pattern to cutaneous Bartonella infection. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude the possibility that there may be a relation in other geographic locations or in immunocompromised patients or that GA represents an autosensitization reaction in response to a distant site of infection. Additional studies are needed to address these hypotheses. PMID:11801791

  3. Bed bugs and possible transmission of human pathogens: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Olivia; Ho, Derek; Glick, Sharon; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-10-01

    The global population of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, family Cimicidae) has undergone a significant resurgence since the late 1990s. This is likely due to an increase in global travel, trade, and the number of insecticide-resistant bed bugs. The global bed bug population is estimated to be increasing by 100-500 % annually. The worldwide spread of bed bugs is concerning, because they are a significant socioeconomic burden and a major concern to public health. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, bed bugs are "a pest of significant health importance." Additionally, 68 % of U.S. pest professionals reported that bed bugs are the most challenging pest to treat. Upwards of 45 disease pathogens have been reported in bed bugs. Recent studies report that bed bugs may be competent vectors for pathogens, such as Bartonella quintana and Trypanosoma cruzi. However, public health reports have thus far failed to produce evidence that major infectious disease outbreaks have been associated with bed bugs. Since many disease pathogens have previously been reported in bed bugs and the worldwide bed bug population is now drastically increasing, it stands to reason to wonder if bed bugs might transmit human pathogens. This review includes a literature search on recently published clinical and laboratory studies (1990-2016) investigating bed bugs as potential vectors of infectious disease, and reports the significant findings and limitations of the reviewed studies. To date, no published study has demonstrated a causal relationship between bed bugs and infectious disease transmission in humans. Also, we present and propose to expand on previous hypotheses as to why bed bugs do not transmit human pathogens. Bed bugs may contain "neutralizing factors" that attenuate pathogen virulence and, thereby, decrease the ability of bed bugs to transmit infectious disease. PMID:27295087

  4. Bartonella henselae Endocarditis in Laos – ‘The Unsought Will Go Undetected’

    PubMed Central

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chu, Vang; Frichitthavong, Khamthavy; Kesone, Pany; Mayxay, Mayfong; Mirabel, Mariana; Newton, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos), probably because people have neglected to look. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective (2006–2012), and subsequent prospective study (2012–2013), at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis. Conclusions/Significance We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than “conventional” endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are

  5. Human fungal pathogens: Why should we learn?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Yoon

    2016-03-01

    Human fungal pathogens that cause invasive infections are hidden killers, taking lives of one and a half million people every year. However, research progress in this field has not been rapid enough to effectively prevent or treat life-threatening fungal diseases. To update recent research progress and promote more active research in the field of human fungal pathogens, eleven review articles concerning the virulence mechanisms and host interactions of four major human fungal pathogens-Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Histoplasma capsulatum-are presented in this special issue. PMID:26920875

  6. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF BARTONELLA SPP. INFECTIONS IN MOOSE (ALCES ALCES) IN FINLAND.

    PubMed

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-04-28

    Moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Finland are heavily infested with deer keds, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboschidae). The deer ked, which carries species of the genus Bartonella, has been proposed as a vector for the transmission of bartonellae to animals and humans. Previously, bartonella DNA was found in deer keds as well as in moose blood collected in Finland. We investigated the prevalence and molecular diversity of Bartonella spp. infection from blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. Given that the deer ked is not present in northernmost Finland, we also investigated whether there were geographic differences in the prevalence of bartonella infection in moose. The overall prevalence of bartonella infection was 72.9% (108/148). Geographically, the prevalence was highest in the south (90.6%) and lowest in the north (55.9%). At least two species of bartonellae were identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Based on logistic regression analysis, there was no significant association between bartonella infection and either age or sex; however, moose from outside the deer ked zone were significantly less likely to be infected (P<0.015) than were moose hunted within the deer ked zone. PMID:26967131

  7. The BatR/BatS Two-Component Regulatory System Controls the Adaptive Response of Bartonella henselae during Human Endothelial Cell Infection ▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Michaela; Tropel, David; Basler, Andrea; Toller, Isabella; Raddatz, Guenter; Engel, Philipp; Huser, Sonja; Schein, Hermine; Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Dehio, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the first comprehensive study of Bartonella henselae gene expression during infection of human endothelial cells. Expression of the main cluster of upregulated genes, comprising the VirB type IV secretion system and its secreted protein substrates, is shown to be under the positive control of the transcriptional regulator BatR. We demonstrate binding of BatR to the promoters of the virB operon and a substrate-encoding gene and provide biochemical evidence that BatR and BatS constitute a functional two-component regulatory system. Moreover, in contrast to the acid-inducible (pH 5.5) homologs ChvG/ChvI of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, BatR/BatS are optimally activated at the physiological pH of blood (pH 7.4). By conservation analysis of the BatR regulon, we show that BatR/BatS are uniquely adapted to upregulate a genus-specific virulence regulon during hemotropic infection in mammals. Thus, we propose that BatR/BatS two-component system homologs represent vertically inherited pH sensors that control the expression of horizontally transmitted gene sets critical for the diverse host-associated life styles of the alphaproteobacteria. PMID:20418395

  8. Identification and functional analysis of invasion associated locus B (IalB) in Bartonella species.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongkuan; Pang, Qiuxiang; Xia, Huiqing; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Yang, Chengliang; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zhao, Bosheng

    2016-09-01

    Bartonellosis is caused by the genus Bartonella. Bartonella is widely distributed in the ruminants, cats, dogs, rodents and other mammals including humans. At least 13 species or subspecies of Bartonella are zoonotic, and each species appears to be highly adapted to one or a limited number of reservoir animals in which it is asymptomatic, while it can be transmitted to humans in which a variety of clinical manifestations can be caused. It was reported that Bartonella henselae infection rate among domestic cats was high in nature, making it one of the leading, important, and easily neglected zoonotic diseases. The aims of this study were to identify the expression, localization, immunogenicity and functional mechanism of Bartonella virulence factor IalB. We found that recombinant IalB protein could react with the serum from infected reservoir hosts and anti-IalB polyclonal antibodies could react with different Bartonella species by western blot analysis. According to these results, we proposed that IalB protein and anti-IalB antibodies would be good candidates for diagnosis of Bartonella infection by antigen-based anti-IalB antibodies or antibody-based IalB antigen capture immunoassay, respectively. We also found that IalB had a putative 22-amino-acid signal sequence and little IalB was localized to the outer membrane of Bartonella birtlesii by electron microscopy assay. Incubation with anti-IalB polyclonal antibodies resulted in inhibition of the invasion of mouse erythrocytes by B. birtlesii. According to these results, we propose that IalB could be a secreted protein that facilitates Bartonella entry into erythrocytes. In conclusion, these results improve our understanding of IalB as a candidate for immunodiagnosis and how IalB affects Bartonella-erythrocyte entry. PMID:27515099

  9. Bartonella spp. in Fruit Bats and Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Cara E.; Bai, Ying; Dobson, Andrew P.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Ranaivoson, Hafaliana C.; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    We captured, ectoparasite-combed, and blood-sampled cave-roosting Madagascan fruit bats (Eidolon dupreanum) and tree-roosting Madagascan flying foxes (Pteropus rufus) in four single-species roosts within a sympatric geographic foraging range for these species in central Madagascar. We describe infection with novel Bartonella spp. in sampled Eidolon dupreanum and associated bat flies (Cyclopodia dubia), which nest close to or within major known Bartonella lineages; simultaneously, we report the absence of Bartonella spp. in Thaumapsylla sp. fleas collected from these same bats. This represents the first documented finding of Bartonella infection in these species of bat and bat fly, as well as a new geographic record for Thaumapsylla sp. We further relate the absence of both Bartonella spp. and ectoparasites in sympatrically sampled Pteropus rufus, thus suggestive of a potential role for bat flies in Bartonella spp. transmission. These findings shed light on transmission ecology of bat-borne Bartonella spp., recently demonstrated as a potentially zoonotic pathogen. PMID:25706653

  10. Bartonella clarridgeiae bacteremia detected in an asymptomatic blood donor.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Sowy, Stanley; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Soares, Tânia Cristina Benetti; Barjas-Castro, Maria de Lourdes; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to Bartonella clarridgeiae has been reported only on the basis of antibody detection. We report for the first time an asymptomatic human blood donor infected with B. clarridgeiae, as documented by enrichment blood culture, PCR, and DNA sequencing. PMID:25392353

  11. Bartonella clarridgeiae Bacteremia Detected in an Asymptomatic Blood Donor

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Sowy, Stanley; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Soares, Tânia Cristina Benetti; Barjas-Castro, Maria de Lourdes; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to Bartonella clarridgeiae has been reported only on the basis of antibody detection. We report for the first time an asymptomatic human blood donor infected with B. clarridgeiae, as documented by enrichment blood culture, PCR, and DNA sequencing. PMID:25392353

  12. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused by Bartonella quintana

    PubMed Central

    Klein, John L.; Nair, Sukumaran K.; Harrison, Tim G.; Hunt, Ian; Fry, Norman K.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first case of Bartonella quintana endocarditis affecting a prosthetic valve in a person with no known risk factors for this infection. Bartonella should be considered as a cause of endocarditis in any clinical setting. PMID:11897074

  13. Gray Foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) as a Potential Reservoir of a Bartonella clarridgeiae-Like Bacterium and Domestic Dogs as Part of a Sentinel System for Surveillance of Zoonotic Arthropod-Borne Pathogens in Northern California▿

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Jennifer B.; Gabriel, Mourad W.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Brown, Richard N.; Theis, Jerold H.; Foley, Janet E.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2007-01-01

    Two species of Bartonella, a novel Bartonella clarridgeiae-like bacterium and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, were isolated from rural dogs and gray foxes in northern California. A novel B. clarridgeiae-like species was isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 182 dogs and 22 (42%) of 53 gray foxes, while B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was isolated from 1 dog (0.5%) and 5 gray foxes (9.4%). PCR and DNA sequence analyses of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region suggested that strains infecting dogs and gray foxes were identical. Fifty-four dogs (29%) and 48 gray foxes (89%) had reciprocal titers of antibodies against Bartonella spp. of ≥64. The high prevalence of bacteremia and seroreactivity to Bartonella spp. in gray foxes suggests that they may act as a reservoir species for the B. clarridgeiae-like species in this region. Domestic dogs were also tested for other arthropod-borne infectious agents. Fifty-one dogs (28%) were positive for Dirofilaria immitis antigen, seventy-four (40%) were seroreactive to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and five (2.7%) were seropositive for Yersinia pestis. Fourteen dogs (7.6%) were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the association of Bartonella antibody titer categories with potential risk factors and the presence of other vector-borne agents in domestic dogs. Older dogs were more likely to be seroreactive to Bartonella spp. There was no association between the exposure of dogs to Bartonella and the exposure of dogs to A. phagocytophilum in this study. PMID:17553970

  14. Characterization of Bartonella clarridgeiae Flagellin (FlaA) and Detection of Antiflagellin Antibodies in Patients with Lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Anna; Zagrosek, Anja; Bredt, Wolfgang; Schiltz, Emile; Piémont, Yves; Lanz, Christa; Dehio, Christoph

    2000-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a frequent clinical outcome of Bartonella henselae infection in humans. Recently, two case reports indicated Bartonella clarridgeiae as an additional causative agent of CSD. Both pathogens have been isolated from domestic cats, which are considered to be their natural reservoir. B. clarridgeiae and B. henselae can be distinguished phenotypically by the presence or absence of flagella, respectively. Separation of the protein content of purified flagella of B. clarridgeiae by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis indicated that the flagellar filament is mainly composed of a polypeptide with a mass of 41 kDa. N-terminal sequencing of 20 amino acids of this protein revealed a perfect match to the N-terminal sequence of flagellin (FlaA) as deduced from the sequence of the flaA gene cloned from B. clarridgeiae. The flagellin of B. clarridgeiae is closely related to flagellins of Bartonella bacilliformis and several Bartonella-related bacteria. Since flagellar proteins are often immunodominant antigens, we investigated whether antibodies specific for the FlaA protein of B. clarridgeiae are found in patients with CSD or lymphadenopathy. Immunoblotting with 724 sera of patients suffering from lymphadenopathy and 100 healthy controls indicated specific FlaA antibodies in 3.9% of the patients' sera but in none of the controls. B. clarridgeiae FlaA is thus antigenic and expressed in vivo, providing a valuable tool for serological testing. Our results further indicate that B. clarridgeiae might be a possible etiologic agent of CSD or lymphadenopathy. However, it remains to be clarified whether antibodies to the FlaA protein of B. clarridgeiae are a useful indicator of acute infection. PMID:10921956

  15. Comparative microbiological features of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog with fever of unknown origin and granulomatous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Drut, Amandine; Bublot, Isabelle; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Chabanne, Luc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    We report the first documented case of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog from France and the first isolation of B. henselae from a dog with fever of unknown origin. This observation contributes to the "One Health" concept focusing on zoonotic pathogens emerging from companion animals. A 1-year-old female German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of fever of unknown origin of 1 month duration. Diagnostic investigations confirmed diffuse pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. The dog became afebrile, and lymph node size normalized in response to a 6-week course of doxycycline. Retrospectively, Bartonella DNA was amplified from an EDTA-anticoagulated blood sample obtained before antimicrobial therapy, with the gtlA fragment sharing 99 % identity with the 350-bp gtlA fragment of the B. henselae Houston-1 strain. The same strain was isolated in the blood of three healthy cats from the household. Two months after discontinuation of doxycycline, the dog experienced a febrile relapse. Bartonella DNA was again amplified from blood prior to and immediately after administration of a 6-week course azithromycin therapy. However, without administration of additional medications, PCR was negative 9 months after azithromycin therapy and the dog remains clinically healthy 12 months following the second course of antibiotics. The medical management of this case raises several clinically relevant comparative infectious disease issues, including the extent to which Bartonella spp. contribute to fever of unknown origin and pyogranulomatous inflammatory diseases in dogs and humans, and the potential of doxycycline and azithromycin treatment failures. The possibility that dogs could constitute an underestimated reservoir for B. henselae transmission to people is also discussed. PMID:24310419

  16. Novel Bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-06-01

    Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (P<0.001). While Bartonella infection was also detected in 45% (23/51) and 10% (3/30) of heart valves of northern and southern sea otters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California. PMID:24629902

  17. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Two Bartonella bacilliformis Strains.

    PubMed

    Guillen, Yolanda; Casadellà, Maria; García-de-la-Guarda, Ruth; Espinoza-Culupú, Abraham; Paredes, Roger; Ruiz, Joaquim; Noguera-Julian, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of Carrion's disease, a highly endemic human bartonellosis in Peru. We performed a whole-genome assembly of two B. bacilliformis strains isolated from the blood of infected patients in the acute phase of Carrion's disease from the Cusco and Piura regions in Peru. PMID:27389274

  18. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Two Bartonella bacilliformis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Guillen, Yolanda; Casadellà, Maria; García-de-la-Guarda, Ruth; Espinoza-Culupú, Abraham; Paredes, Roger; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of Carrion’s disease, a highly endemic human bartonellosis in Peru. We performed a whole-genome assembly of two B. bacilliformis strains isolated from the blood of infected patients in the acute phase of Carrion’s disease from the Cusco and Piura regions in Peru. PMID:27389274

  19. Sexual Reproduction of Human Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958

  20. Rickettsial pathogens in the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Macronyssidae) from Egyptian rats (Rattus spp.).

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Dasch, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    We collected and tested 616 tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) from rats (Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and R. rattus (Linnaeus)) throughout 14 governorates in Egypt and tested DNA extracts from pools of these mites for Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Three different mite-associated bacterial agents, including one Bartonella and two Rickettsia spp., were detected in eight pools of mites. Further research could demonstrate the vector potential of mites and pathogenicity of these agents to humans or animals. PMID:17225079

  1. The Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong-A; Lee, Dong Hwan; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-01-01

    There are an increasing number of outbreaks of human pathogens related to fresh produce. Thus, the growth of human pathogens on plants should be explored. Human pathogens can survive under the harsh environments in plants, and can adhere and actively invade plants. Plant-associated microbiota or insects contribute to the survival and transmission of enteric pathogens in plants. Human enteric pathogens also trigger plant innate immunity, but some pathogens–such as Salmonella–can overcome this defense mechanism. PMID:25288993

  2. Whole-genome sequence analysis and exploration of the zoonotic potential of a rat-borne Bartonella elizabethae.

    PubMed

    Tay, S T; Kho, K L; Wee, W Y; Choo, S W

    2016-03-01

    Bartonella elizabethae has been known to cause endocarditis and neuroretinitis in humans. The genomic features and virulence profiles of a B. elizabethae strain (designated as BeUM) isolated from the spleen of a wild rat in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are described in this study. The BeUM strain has a genome size of 1,932,479bp and GC content of 38.3%. There is a high degree of conservation between the genomes of strain BeUM with B. elizabethae type strains (ATCC 49927 and F9251) and a rat-borne strain, Re6043vi. Of 2137 gene clusters identified from B. elizabethae strains, 2064 (96.6%) are indicated as the core gene clusters. Comparative genome analysis of B. elizabethae strains reveals virulence genes which are known in other pathogenic Bartonella species, including VirB2-11, vbhB2-B11, VirD4, trw, vapA2-5, hbpA-E, bepA-F, bepH, badA/vomp/brp, ialB, omp43/89 and korA-B. A putative intact prophage has been identified in the strain BeUM, in addition to a 8kb pathogenicity island. The whole genome analysis supports the zoonotic potential of the rodent-borne B. elizabethae, and provides basis for future functional and pathogenicity studies of B. elizabethae. PMID:26658020

  3. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  4. IrSPI, a tick serine protease inhibitor involved in tick feeding and Bartonella henselae infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang Ye; de la Fuente, Jose; Cote, Martine; Galindo, Ruth C; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I

    2014-07-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread and abundant tick in Europe, frequently bites humans, and is the vector of several pathogens including those responsible for Lyme disease, Tick-Borne Encephalitis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and bartonellosis. These tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva during blood feeding, and tick salivary gland (SG) factors are likely implicated in transmission. In order to identify such tick factors, we characterized the transcriptome of female I. ricinus SGs using next generation sequencing techniques, and compared transcriptomes between Bartonella henselae-infected and non-infected ticks. High-throughput sequencing of I. ricinus SG transcriptomes led to the generation of 24,539 isotigs. Among them, 829 and 517 transcripts were either significantly up- or down-regulated respectively, in response to bacterial infection. Searches based on sequence identity showed that among the differentially expressed transcripts, 161 transcripts corresponded to nine groups of previously annotated tick SG gene families, while the others corresponded to genes of unknown function. Expression patterns of five selected genes belonging to the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, the tick salivary peptide group 1 protein, the salp15 super-family, and the arthropod defensin family, were validated by qRT-PCR. IrSPI, a member of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors, showed the highest up-regulation in SGs in response to Bartonella infection. IrSPI silencing impaired tick feeding, as well as resulted in reduced bacterial load in tick SGs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of I. ricinus SG transcriptome and contributes significant genomic information about this important disease vector. This in-depth knowledge will enable a better understanding of the molecular interactions between ticks and tick-borne pathogens, and identifies IrSPI, a candidate to study now in detail to estimate its

  5. Do Bartonella Infections Cause Agitation, Panic Disorder, and Treatment-Resistant Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, James L.; Burkland, Glenn A.; Langhoff, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Bartonella is an emerging infection found in cities, suburbs, and rural locations. Routine national labs offer testing for only 2 species, but at least 9 have been discovered as human infections within the last 15 years. Some authors discuss Bartonella cases having atypical presentations, with serious morbidity considered uncharacteristic of more routine Bartonella infections. Some atypical findings include distortion of vision, abdominal pain, severe liver and spleen tissue abnormalities, thrombocytopenic purpura, bone infection, arthritis, abscesses, heart tissue and heart valve problems. While some articles discuss Bartonella as a cause of neurologic illnesses, psychiatric illnesses have received limited attention. Case reports usually do not focus on psychiatric symptoms and typically only as incidental comorbid findings. In this article, we discuss patients exhibiting new-onset agitation, panic attacks, and treatment-resistant depression, all of which may be attributed to Bartonella. Methods Three patients receiving care in an outpatient clinical setting developed acute onset personality changes and agitation, depression, and panic attacks. They were retrospectively examined for evidence of Bartonella infections. The medical and psychiatric treatment progress of each patient was tracked until both were significantly resolved and the Bartonella was cured. Results The patients generally seemed to require higher dosing of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics in order to function normally. Doses were reduced following antibiotic treatment and as the presumed signs of Bartonella infection remitted. All patients improved significantly following treatment and returned to their previously healthy or near-normal baseline mental health status. Discussion New Bartonella species are emerging as human infections. Most do not have antibody or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic testing at this time. Manual differential examinations are of

  6. Detection of hemoplasma and Bartonella species and co-infection with retroviruses in cats subjected to a spaying/neutering program in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi; André, Marcos Rogério; Seki, Meire Christina; Pinto, Aramis Augusto; Machado, Saulo de Tarso Zacarias; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2012-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats that were sampled during a spaying/neutering campaign conducted in Jaboticabal, SP. Three (6.5%) cats were positive for hemoplasmas: two (4.3%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (2.2%) for both M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One of the two 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'-infected cats was also positive for FeLV antigens and showed antibodies for FIV. Two cats (4.3%) were positive for B. henselae. One of them was also positive for FeLV antigens. Eight cats (17.4%) were positive for FeLV, and just one (2.2%) showed anti-FIV antibodies. Bartonella species and hemoplasmas associated with infection due to retroviruses can circulate among apparently healthy cats. PMID:23070430

  7. Ecological diversity of Bartonella species infection among dogs and their owner in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Natalie A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Rossmeisl, John H; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2011-11-01

    Bartonella species comprise a genus of gram-negative, fastidious, intracellular bacteria that have been implicated in association with an increasing spectrum of disease manifestations in dogs and human patients. In this study, chronic canine and human disease, for which causation was not diagnostically defined, were reported by the breeder of a kennel of Doberman pinschers. In addition to other diagnostic tests, serology, polymerase chain reaction, and enrichment blood culture were used to assess the prevalence of Bartonella sp. infection in the dogs and their owner. From five dogs, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype I, multiple Bartonella henselae strains, and a species most similar to Candidatus B. volans, a rodent-associated Bartonella sp., were amplified and sequenced from biopsy tissues, cerebrospinal fluid, or blood enrichment cultures. The owner was bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype I, the same subsp. and genotype detected in one of her dogs. These results further emphasize the ecological complexity of Bartonella sp. transmission in nature. PMID:21736485

  8. Vector Competence of the Tick Ixodes ricinus for Transmission of Bartonella birtlesii

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Caroline; Cote, Martine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Lecuelle, Benoit; Levin, Michael L.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites. PMID:21655306

  9. Prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species in Spanish cats and their fleas.

    PubMed

    Gracia, María Jesús; Marcén, José Miguel; Pinal, Rocio; Calvete, Carlos; Rodes, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis, and Rickettsia typhi in fleas and companion cats (serum and claws) and to assess their presence as a function of host, host habitat, and level of parasitism. Eighty-nine serum and claw samples and 90 flea pools were collected. Cat sera were assayed by IFA for Bartonella henselae and Rickettssia species IgG antibodies. Conventional PCRs were performed on DNA extracted from nails and fleas collected from cats. A large portion (55.8%) of the feline population sampled was exposed to at least one of the three tested vector-borne pathogens. Seroreactivity to B. henselae was found in 50% of the feline studied population, and to R. felis in 16.3%. R. typhi antibodies were not found in any cat. No Bartonella sp. DNA was amplified from the claws. Flea samples from 41 cats (46%) showed molecular evidence for at least one pathogen; our study demonstrated a prevalence rate of 43.3 % of Rickettsia sp and 4.4% of Bartonella sp. in the studied flea population. None of the risk factors studied (cat's features, host habitat, and level of parasitation) was associated with either the serology or the PCR results for Bartonella sp. and Rickettsia sp.. Flea-associated infectious agents are common in cats and fleas and support the recommendation that stringent flea control should be maintained on cats. PMID:26611956

  10. Pathogenic human viruses in coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, J.H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and

  11. Pathogenic Human Viruses in Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, John H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and important field. PMID:12525429

  12. Absence of antibodies to Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Tahiti, French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abtract Background In the Pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. To our knowledge, human infections due to Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. have never been reported in French Polynesia; and infections due to C. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. To evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among French Polynesian blood donors. Methods The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against R. felis, R. typhi, R. conorii, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 472 French Polynesian blood donors collected from 2011 to 2013. In addition, 178 ticks and 36 cat fleas collected in French Polynesia were also collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect Rickettsia spp., B. henselae and Ehrlichia spp. Results None of the blood donors had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. All tested ticks and cat fleas were PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp., B. henselae, and Ehrlichia spp. Conclusion We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in French Polynesia but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. C. burnetii has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. It may also be absent from French Polynesia. PMID:24885466

  13. Burkholderia cepacia Complex as Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    LiPuma, John J.

    2003-01-01

    Although sporadic human infection due to Burkholderia cepacia has been reported for many years, it has been only during the past few decades that species within the B. cepacia complex have emerged as significant opportunistic human pathogens. Individuals with cystic fibrosis, the most common inherited genetic disease in Caucasian populations, or chronic granulomatous disease, a primary immunodeficiency, are particularly at risk of life-threatening infection. Despite advances in our understanding of the taxonomy, microbiology, and epidemiology of B. cepacia complex, much remains unknown regarding specific human virulence factors. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance demonstrated by most strains limits current therapy of infection. Recent research efforts are aimed at a better appreciation of the pathogenesis of human infection and the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies. PMID:19265997

  14. Host-pathogen coevolution in human tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gagneux, Sebastien

    2012-03-19

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of antiquity. Yet TB today still causes more adult deaths than any other single infectious disease. Recent studies show that contrary to the common view postulating an animal origin for TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative agent of TB, emerged as a human pathogen in Africa and colonized the world accompanying the Out-of-Africa migrations of modern humans. More recently, evolutionarily 'modern' lineages of MTBC expanded as a consequence of the global human population increase, and spread throughout the world following waves of exploration, trade and conquest. While epidemiological data suggest that the different phylogenetic lineages of MTBC might have adapted to different human populations, overall, the phylogenetically 'modern' MTBC lineages are more successful in terms of their geographical spread compared with the 'ancient' lineages. Interestingly, the global success of 'modern' MTBC correlates with a hypo-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages, possibly reflecting higher virulence, and a shorter latency in humans. Finally, various human genetic variants have been associated with different MTBC lineages, suggesting an interaction between human genetic diversity and MTBC variation. In summary, the biology and the epidemiology of human TB have been shaped by the long-standing association between MTBC and its human host. PMID:22312052

  15. Host–pathogen coevolution in human tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gagneux, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of antiquity. Yet TB today still causes more adult deaths than any other single infectious disease. Recent studies show that contrary to the common view postulating an animal origin for TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative agent of TB, emerged as a human pathogen in Africa and colonized the world accompanying the Out-of-Africa migrations of modern humans. More recently, evolutionarily ‘modern’ lineages of MTBC expanded as a consequence of the global human population increase, and spread throughout the world following waves of exploration, trade and conquest. While epidemiological data suggest that the different phylogenetic lineages of MTBC might have adapted to different human populations, overall, the phylogenetically ‘modern’ MTBC lineages are more successful in terms of their geographical spread compared with the ‘ancient’ lineages. Interestingly, the global success of ‘modern’ MTBC correlates with a hypo-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages, possibly reflecting higher virulence, and a shorter latency in humans. Finally, various human genetic variants have been associated with different MTBC lineages, suggesting an interaction between human genetic diversity and MTBC variation. In summary, the biology and the epidemiology of human TB have been shaped by the long-standing association between MTBC and its human host. PMID:22312052

  16. Contamination of produce with human pathogens: sources and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the presence of human pathogens have led to increased concern about the prevalence of pathogens in the environment and the vulnerability of fresh produce to contamination by these pathogens. As the FDA strives to mandate treatments to reduce pathogen...

  17. Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

  18. Bartonella apis sp. nov., a honey bee gut symbiont of the class Alphaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kešnerová, Lucie; Moritz, Roxane; Engel, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the culture and characterization of an alphaproteobacterium of the order Rhizobiales, isolated from the gut of the honey bee Apis mellifera. Strain PEB0122T shares >95 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species of the genus Bartonella, a group of mammalian pathogens transmitted by bloodsucking arthropods. Phylogenetic analyses showed that PEB0122T and related strains from the honey bee gut form a sister clade of the genus Bartonella. Optimal growth of strain PEB0122T was obtained on solid media supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood under microaerophilic conditions at 35-37 °C, which is consistent with the cultural characteristics of other species of the genus Bartonella. Reduced growth of strain PEB0122T also occurred under aerobic conditions. The rod-shaped cells of strain PEB0122T had a mean length of 1.2-1.8 μm and revealed hairy surface structures. Strain PEB0122T was positive for catalase, cytochrome c oxidase, urease and nitrate reductase. The fatty acid composition was comparable to those of other species of the genus Bartonella, with palmitic acid (C16 : 0) and isomers of 18- and 19-carbon chains being the most abundant. The genomic DNA G+C content of PEB0122T was determined to be about 45.5 mol%. The high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species of Bartonella and its close phylogenetic position suggest that strain PEB0122T represents a novel species within the genus Bartonella, for which we propose the name Bartonella apis sp. nov. The type strain is PEB0122T ( = NCIMB 14961T = DSM 29779T). PMID:26537852

  19. Human Milk Glycoproteins Protect Infants Against Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Breastfeeding protects the neonate against pathogen infection. Major mechanisms of protection include human milk glycoconjugates functioning as soluble receptor mimetics that inhibit pathogen binding to the mucosal cell surface, prebiotic stimulation of gut colonization by favorable microbiota, immunomodulation, and as a substrate for bacterial fermentation products in the gut. Human milk proteins are predominantly glycosylated, and some biological functions of these human milk glycoproteins (HMGPs) have been reported. HMGPs range in size from 14 kDa to 2,000 kDa and include mucins, secretory immunoglobulin A, bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin, butyrophilin, lactadherin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review summarizes known biological roles of HMGPs that may contribute to the ability of human milk to protect neonates from disease. PMID:23697737

  20. Human pathogenic hantaviruses and prevention of infection

    PubMed Central

    Schönrich, Günther; Klempa, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging viruses which are hosted by small mammals. When transmitted to humans, they can cause two clinical syndromes, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The review compiles the current list of hantaviruses which are thought to be pathogenic in humans on the basis of molecular or at least serological evidence. Whereas induction of a neutralizing humoral immune response is considered to be protective against infection, the dual role of cellular immunity (protection versus immunopathogenicity) is discussed. For immunization, inactivated virus vaccines are licensed in certain Asian countries. Moreover, several classical and molecular vaccine approaches are in pre-clinical stages of development. The development of hantavirus vaccines is hampered by the lack of adequate animal models of hantavirus-associated disease. In addition to active immunization strategies, the review summarizes other ways of infection prevention, as passive immunization, chemoprophylaxis and exposition prophylaxis. PMID:21508676

  1. Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov., isolated from wild Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujinaga, Yuta; Inoue, Kai; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Soichi

    2013-05-01

    Four novel strains of members of the genus Bartonella, OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T), were isolated from the blood of wild-captured greater Egyptian jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus), fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) and golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus). All the animals were imported to Japan as pets from Egypt, Thailand and the Netherlands. The phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (37.4 mol% for strain OY2-1(T), 35.5 mol% for strain BR11-1(T), 35.7 mol% for strain FN15-2(T) and 37.2 mol% for strain KS2-1(T)), and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that those strains belong to the genus Bartonella. Sequence comparisons of gltA and rpoB genes suggested that all of the strains should be classified as novel species of the genus Bartonella. In phylogenetic trees based on the concatenated sequences of five loci, including the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes and the ITS region, and on the concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of three housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gltA and rpoB), all strains formed distinct clades and had unique mammalian hosts that could be discriminated from other known species of the genus Bartonella. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strains OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T) should be classified as representing novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. Type strains of Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are OY2-1(T) ( = JCM 17712(T) = KCTC 23655(T)), BR11-1(T) ( = JCM 17709(T) = KCTC 23909(T)), FN15-2(T) ( = JCM 17714(T) = KCTC 23657(T)) and KS2-1(T) ( = JCM 17706(T

  2. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Ethiopian cats in Addis Ababa, coinfection, and a review of toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the p...

  3. Human pathogenic streptococcal proteomics and vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jason N; Henningham, Anna; Gillen, Christine M; Ramachandran, Vidiya; Walker, Mark J

    2008-03-01

    Gram-positive streptococci are non-motile, chain-forming bacteria commonly found in the normal oral and bowel flora of warm-blooded animals. Over the past decade, a proteomic approach combining 2-DE and MS has been used to systematically map the cellular, surface-associated and secreted proteins of human pathogenic streptococcal species. The public availability of complete streptococcal genomic sequences and the amalgamation of proteomic, genomic and bioinformatic technologies have recently facilitated the identification of novel streptococcal vaccine candidate antigens and therapeutic agents. The objective of this review is to examine the constituents of the streptococcal cell wall and secreted proteome, the mechanisms of transport of surface and secreted proteins, and describe the current methodologies employed for the identification of novel surface-displayed proteins and potential vaccine antigens. PMID:21136841

  4. Inter- and intraspecies identification of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) species.

    PubMed

    Roux, V; Raoult, D

    1995-06-01

    Species of the genus Rochalimaea, recently renamed Bartonella, are of a growing medical interest. Bartonella quintana was reported as the cause of trench fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae has been implicated in symptoms and infections of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, such as fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis, and is involved in the etiology of cat scratch disease. Such a wide spectrum of infections makes it necessary to obtain an intraspecies identification tool in order to perform epidemiological studies. B. vinsonii, B. elizabethae, seven isolates of B. quintana, and four isolates of B. henselae were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after restriction with the infrequently cutting endonucleases NotI, EagI, and SmaI. Specific profiles were obtained for each of the four Bartonella species. Comparison of genomic fingerprints of isolates of the same species showed polymorphism in DNA restriction patterns, and a specific profile was obtained for each isolate. A phylogenetic analysis of the B. quintana isolates was obtained by using the Dice coefficient, UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages), and Package Philip programming. Amplification by PCR and subsequent sequencing using an automated laser fluorescent DNA sequencer (Pharmacia) was performed on the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between the 16 and 23S rRNA genes. It was found that each B. henselae isolate had a specific sequence, while the B. quintana isolates fell into only two groups. When endonuclease restriction analysis of the ITS PCR product was done, three enzymes, TaqI, HindIII, and HaeIII, allowed species identification of Bartonella spp. Restriction fragment length polymorphism after PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS may be useful for rapid species identification, and PFGE could be an efficient method for isolate identification. PMID:7650189

  5. Isolation of Bartonella capreoli from elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Cross, P.C.; Malania, L.; Kosoy, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella infections in elk populations. We report the isolation of four Bartonella strains from 55 elk blood samples. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all four strains belong to Bartonella capreoli, a bacterium that was originally described in the wild roe deer of Europe. Our finding first time demonstrated that B. capreoli has a wide geographic range, and that elk may be another host for this bacterium. Further investigations are needed to determine the impact of this bacterium on wildlife.

  6. A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G.; Dehio, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ΔbepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ΔbepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ΔbepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ΔbepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that

  7. O34-pathogen sensing by human odontoblasts.

    PubMed

    Fargues, J-C; Keller, J-F; Carrouel, F; Kufer, T A; Baudouin, C; Msika, P; Bleicher, F; Staquet, M-J

    2010-01-01

    Human odontoblasts are neural crest-derived, dentin-producing mesenchymal cells aligned at the periphery of the dental pulp. They become exposed to cariogenic oral bacteria as these progressively demineralise enamel then dentin to gain access to the pulp. Due to their situation at the dentin-pulp interface, odontoblasts are the first cells encountered by invading pathogens and/or their released components, and represent, in the tooth, the first line of defence for the host. Previous studies have shown that odontoblasts are able to sense pathogens and elicit innate immunity. In particular, they express several pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain (NOD) families, which allow them to recognize specific bacterial and viral components. So far, most studies aiming at elucidating the role of odontoblasts in the dental pulp innate response have focused on Gram-positive bacteria, as these largely dominate the carious microflora in initial and moderate dentin caries lesions. In vitro, odontoblasts were found to be sensitive to Gram-positive bacteria-derived components, mainly lipoteichoic acid which is recognized through cell membrane TLR2. Our studies have shown that engagement of odontoblast TLR2 by LTA triggers TLR2 and NOD2 up-regulation, NF-B nuclear translocation, production of various chemokines including CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL8 and CXCL10, while promoting immature dendritic cell recruitment. Conversely, LTA down-regulates major dentin matrix components, including collagen type I and dentin sialophosphoprotein, as well as TGF-b1, a known inducer of dentin formation. We provide here additional data showing the fine localization of NOD2 in healthy dental pulps, as well as differential regulation of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, CCL2 and CXCL8 genes by LTA and the synthetic TLR2 agonists Pam2CSK4 and Pam3CSK4. It appears from the aforementioned data that odontoblast-triggered immune events constitute

  8. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil. PMID:26344604

  9. Streptococcus pluranimalium: A novel human pathogen?

    PubMed Central

    Aryasinghe, Lasanthi; Sabbar, Saweera; Kazim, Yasmin; Awan, Liaqat Mahmood; Khan, Hammad Khan Nadir

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We present the first case of a subdural empyema caused by Streptococcus pluranimalium, in a healthy adolescent male as a possible complication of subclinical frontal sinusitis. Clinical features, diagnostic approach and management of subdural empyema are discussed. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 17-year-old male with a 2 day history of headache and nausea was referred to our Emergency Department (ED) as a case of possible meningitis. He was afebrile, lethargic and drowsy with significant neck stiffness on examination. Computerized tomography (CT) revealed a large frontotemporoparietal subdural fluid collection with significant midline shift. Subsequent contrast-enhanced CT established the presence of intracranial empyema; the patient underwent immediate burr-hole evacuation of the pus and received 7 weeks of intravenous antibiotics, recovering with no residual neurological deficit. DISCUSSION The diagnosis of subdural empyema as a complication of asymptomatic sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient with no history of fever or upper respiratory symptoms was unanticipated. Furthermore, the organism Streptococcus pluranimalium that was cultured from the pus has only been documented twice previously in medical literature to cause infection in humans, as it is primarily a pathogen responsible for infection in bovine and avian species. CONCLUSION Subdural empyema represents a neurosurgical emergency and if left untreated is invariably fatal. Rapid diagnosis, surgical intervention and intensive antibiotic therapy improve both morbidity and mortality. PMID:25437686

  10. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion. PMID:26999057

  11. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1–9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3–13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion. PMID:26999057

  12. Evolution of Bacterial Pathogens within the Human Host

    PubMed Central

    Bliven, Kimberly A.; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Selective pressures within the human host, including interactions with innate and adaptive immune responses, exposure to medical interventions such as antibiotics, and competition with commensal microbiota all facilitate the evolution of bacterial pathogens. In this chapter, we present examples of pathogen strategies which emerged as a result of selective pressures within the human host niche, and discuss the resulting co-evolutionary ‘arms race’ between these organisms. In bacterial pathogens, many of the genes responsible for these strategies are encoded on mobile pathogenicity islands (PAIs) or plasmids, underscoring the importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the emergence of virulent microbial species. PMID:26999399

  13. Cryptosporidium species a "new" human pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Casemore, D P; Sands, R L; Curry, A

    1985-01-01

    Publications describing aspects of the coccidian protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, increased greatly during 1983 and 1984 as a result of not only increasing veterinary interest but also in the role of the parasite in the newly recognised acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The reports reflected widespread collaboration, not only between clinicians, microbiologists, and histopathologists, but also between veterinary and human health care workers. Cryptosporidium was first described in mice in 1907 and subsequently in various other species; it was not described in man until 1976. Several likely putative species have been described, but there is probably little host specificity. Experimental and clinical studies have greatly increased the knowledge about the organism's biology. The parasite undergoes its complete life cycle within the intestine, although it may occasionally occur in other sites. The main symptom produced is a non-inflammatory diarrhoea, which, in patients with AIDS and children in Third World countries, may be life threatening: even in immunocompetent subjects this symptom is usually protracted. Attempts to find effective chemotherapeutic agents have been unsuccessful. Epidemiologically the infection was thought to be zoonotic in origin, but there is increasing evidence of person to person transmission. Diagnosis has depended upon histological examination, but simple methods of detection have now been described: more invasive methods need no longer be used. The parasite, which is found more commonly in children, occurs in about 2% of faecal specimens examined and seems to be closely associated with production of symptoms. A serological response has been shown. Much remains to be learned about its epidemiology and pathogenic mechanisms, while the expected increase in incidence of AIDS makes an effective form of treatment essential. Images PMID:3908490

  14. Bartonella quintana detection in Demodex from erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Nathalia; Mediannikov, Oleg; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier

    2014-12-01

    We report here the presence of Bartonella quintana in a demodex. Demodex are arthropods associated with acnea. Bartonella quintana was found by broad Spectrum 16rDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, and confirmed by specific PCR. Bartonella quintana may parasite several arthropods and not only lice. PMID:25449254

  15. Molecular basis of host specificity in human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaolei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jing-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria display various levels of host specificity or tropism. While many bacteria can infect a wide range of hosts, certain bacteria have strict host selectivity for humans as obligate human pathogens. Understanding the genetic and molecular basis of host specificity in pathogenic bacteria is important for understanding pathogenic mechanisms, developing better animal models and designing new strategies and therapeutics for the control of microbial diseases. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial host specificity are much less understood than those of viral pathogens, in part due to the complexity of the molecular composition and cellular structure of bacterial cells. However, important progress has been made in identifying and characterizing molecular determinants of bacterial host specificity in the last two decades. It is now clear that the host specificity of bacterial pathogens is determined by multiple molecular interactions between the pathogens and their hosts. Furthermore, certain basic principles regarding the host specificity of bacterial pathogens have emerged from the existing literature. This review focuses on selected human pathogenic bacteria and our current understanding of their host specificity. PMID:26038515

  16. Infection with Bartonella weissii and Detection of Nanobacterium Antigens in a North Carolina Beef Herd

    PubMed Central

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Sontakke, Sushama; Cannedy, Allen; Hancock, Susan I.; Bradley, Julie M.

    2001-01-01

    Very recently, Bartonella organisms have been isolated from large ruminants (deer, elk, and dairy and beef cattle) located in the United States and in France. In this study, we report the serologic, microbiologic, and molecular findings related to the isolation of a Bartonella species in North Carolina beef cattle and the detection of nanobacterial antigen using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Between August 1998 and September 1999, blood was collected from 38 cattle ranging in age from 1 month to 6.5 years. After a 1-month incubation period, a Bartonella sp. was isolated on a 5% rabbit blood agar plate from three of six EDTA blood samples. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from all three isolates resulted in a DNA sequence that was 100% identical to that of B. weissii 16S rRNA (GenBank no. AF199502). By IFA testing, 36 of 38 cattle had antibodies (≥1:64) to Bartonella weissii (bovine origin) antigens. Nanobacterial antigen was detected in 22 of 22 serum samples. We conclude that infection with an organism similar or closely related to B. weissii can occur in North Carolina cattle and that although their actual existence is still controversial Nanobacterium antigens were detected with a commercially available test kit. The epidemiology, vector biology, and potential pathogenicity of these organisms in cattle deserve future consideration. PMID:11230398

  17. Contamination of fresh produce with human pathogens: sources and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1991 there have been several outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the presence of human pathogens on fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These outbreaks have led to increased concern about the prevalence of pathogens in the environment and the vulnerability of fresh produce...

  18. Thermal inactivation of four human pathogens on catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods identified four human pathogens requiring thermal inactivation data on finfish. The thermal kinetics (D-10 value) for mixtures of each pathogen group, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylo...

  19. Prostatitis, Steatitis, and Diarrhea in a Dog following Presumptive Flea-Borne Transmission of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. PMID:24920774

  20. Vibrio fluvialis: an emerging human pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio fluvialis is a pathogen commonly found in coastal environs. Considering recent increase in numbers of diarrheal outbreaks and sporadic extraintestinal cases, V. fluvialis has been considered as an emerging pathogen. Though this pathogen can be easily isolated by existing culture methods, its identification is still a challenging problem due to close phenotypic resemblance either with Vibrio cholerae or Aeromonas spp. However, using molecular tools, it is easy to identify V. fluvialis from clinical and different environmental samples. Many putative virulence factors have been reported, but its mechanisms of pathogenesis and survival fitness in the environment are yet to be explored. This chapter covers some of the major discoveries that have been made to understand the importance of V. fluvialis. PMID:24653717

  1. Heat shock response and groEL sequence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana.

    PubMed

    Haake, D A; Summers, T A; McCoy, A M; Schwartzman, W

    1997-08-01

    Transmission of Bartonella species from ectoparasites to the mammalian host involves adaptation to thermal and other forms of stress. In order to better understand this process, the heat shock response of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana was studied. Cellular proteins synthesized after shift to higher temperatures were intrinsically labelled with [25S]methionine and analysed by gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The apparent molecular masses of three of the major heat shock proteins produced by the two Bartonella species were virtually identical, migrating at 70, 60 and 10 kDa. A fourth major heat shock protein was larger in B. quintana (20 kDa) than in B. henselae (17 kDa). The maximum heat shock response in B. quintana and B. henselae was observed at 39 degrees C and 42 degrees C, respectively. The groEL genes of both Bartonella species were amplified, sequenced and compared to other known groEL genes. The phylogenetic tree based on the groEL alignment places B. quintana and B. henselae in a monophyletic group with Bartonella bacilliformis. The deduced amino acid sequences of Bartonella GroEL homologues contain signature sequences that are uniquely shared by members of the Gram-negative alpha-purple subdivision of bacteria, which live within eukaryotic cells. Recombinant His6-GroEL fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli to generate specific rabbit antisera. The GroEL antisera were used to confirm the identity of the 60 kDa Bartonella heat shock protein. These studies provide a foundation for evaluating the role of the heat shock response in the pathogenesis of Bartonella infection. PMID:9274034

  2. Pathogen reduction in human plasma using an ultrashort pulsed laser.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Kingsley, David H; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Sizemore, Sara; Vaiana, Sara M; Anderson, Jeanne; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma. PMID:25372037

  3. Pathogen Reduction in Human Plasma Using an Ultrashort Pulsed Laser

    PubMed Central

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Kingsley, David H.; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Sizemore, Sara; Vaiana, Sara M.; Anderson, Jeanne; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma. PMID:25372037

  4. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

  5. Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.–bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

  6. Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.

    PubMed

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2013-05-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation. PMID:23473225

  7. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y.; Tito, Raul Y.; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars; Samaniego Castruita, José Alfredo; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian; Olsen, Jesper V.; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M.; Collins, Matthew J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize: (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) the first evidence of ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, “red-complex” pathogens, and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity, and diet, thereby extending the direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188

  8. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y; Tito, Raul Y; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars H; Castruita, José Alfredo Samaniego; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M; Collins, Matthew J; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, 'red complex' pathogens and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity and diet, thereby extending direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188

  9. Corynebacterium ulcerans, an emerging human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Elena; Antunes, Camila A; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L; Burkovski, Andreas; Tauch, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    While formerly known infections of Corynebacterium ulcerans are rare and mainly associated with contact to infected cattle, C. ulcerans has become an emerging pathogen today. In Western Europe, cases of respiratory diphtheria caused by C. ulcerans have been reported more often than infections by Corynebacterium diphtheria, while systemic infections are also increasingly reported. Little is known about factors that contribute to host colonization and virulence of this zoonotic pathogen. Research in this field has received new impetus by the publication of several C. ulcerans genome sequences in the past years. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the basic knowledge of C. ulcerans, as well as the recent advances made in the analysis of putative virulence factors. PMID:27545005

  10. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to

  11. Bacterial tick-borne diseases caused by Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. among patients with cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewski, Tomasz; Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Fiecek, Beata; Rorot, Urszula; Sędrowicz, Elżbieta; Werenowska, Małgorzata; Kopacz, Dorota; Hevelke, Agata; Michniewicz, Magdalena; Kęcik, Dariusz; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanisława

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical data have shown that tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. can affect the central nervous system, including the eye. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between the incidence of cataract and evidence of bacterial infections transmitted by ticks. Material/Methods Fluid with lenticular masses from inside of the eye and blood from 109 patients were tested by PCR and sequencing. Sera from patients and the control group were subjected to serological tests to search specific antibodies to the bacteria. Results Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of Bartonella sp. DNA in intraoperative specimens from the eye in 1.8% of patients. Serological studies have shown that infections caused by B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. were detected in 34.8% and 4.6% of patients with cataract surgery, respectively. Conclusions Presence of DNA of yet uncultured and undescribed species of Bartonella in eye liquid indicates past infection with this pathogen. Specific antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. are detected more frequently in patients with cataract compared to the control group. This could indicate a possible role of these organisms in the pathological processes within the eyeball, leading to changes in the lens. Further studies are needed to identify Bartonella species, as well as to recognize the infectious mechanisms involved in cataract development. PMID:24902636

  12. Multiple Infections of Rodents with Zoonotic Pathogens in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S.; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H.; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host–pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans. PMID

  13. A New Clade of African Body and Head Lice Infected by Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis-Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Davoust, Bernard; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases-specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively-that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Here, we describe a fourth mitochondrial clade, Clade D, comprising head and body lice. Clade D may be a vector of B. quintana and Y. pestis, which is prevalent in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:26392158

  14. Bats and bacterial pathogens: a review.

    PubMed

    Mühldorfer, K

    2013-02-01

    The occurrence of emerging infectious diseases and their relevance to human health has increased the interest in bats as potential reservoir hosts and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. But while previous and ongoing research activities predominantly focused on viral agents, the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in bats and their impact on bat mortality have largely neglected. Enteric pathogens found in bats are often considered to originate from the bats' diet and foraging habitats, despite the fact that little is known about the actual ecological context or even transmission cycles involving bats, humans and other animals like pets and livestock. For some bacterial pathogens common in human and animal diseases (e.g. Pasteurella, Salmonella, Escherichia and Yersinia spp.), the pathogenic potential has been confirmed for bats. Other bacterial pathogens (e.g. Bartonella, Borrelia and Leptospira spp.) provide evidence for novel species that seem to be specific for bat hosts but might also be of disease importance in humans and other animals. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of bacterial pathogens identified in bats and to consider factors that might influence the exposure and susceptibility of bats to bacterial infection but could also affect bacterial transmission rates between bats, humans and other animals. PMID:22862791

  15. Subtyping Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, an emerging zoonotic pathogen in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium ubiquitum is an emerging and important human pathogen with a broad range of mammalian hosts. Linkage between human and animal cases of C. ubiquitum has not been possible because of a lack of subtyping tools. In this study, we utilized the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene of C. ubiquitum to d...

  16. Association of Bartonella spp bacteremia with Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and arrhythmias in patients from South America.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, F G; Pontes, C L S; Verzola, R M M; Mateos, J C P; Velho, P E N F; Schijman, A G; Selistre-de-Araujo, H S

    2012-07-01

    Infection with Bartonella spp may cause cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis and endocarditis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and endocarditis, arrhythmia and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from Brazil and Argentina. We screened for the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA in human blood by PCR using oligonucleotides to amplify a 185-bp bacterial DNA fragment. Blood samples were taken from four groups of subjects in Brazil and Argentina: i) control patients without clinical disease, ii) patients with negative blood-culture endocarditis, iii) patients with arrhythmias, and iv) patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PCR products were analyzed on 1.5% agarose gel to visualize the 185-bp fragment and then sequenced to confirm the identity of DNA. Sixty of 148 patients (40.5%) with cardiac disease and 1 of 56 subjects (1.8%) from the control group presented positive PCR amplification for Bartonella spp, suggesting a positive association of the bacteria with these diseases. Separate analysis of the four groups showed that the risk of a Brazilian patient with endocarditis being infected with Bartonella was 22 times higher than in the controls. In arrhythmic patients, the prevalence of infection was 45 times higher when compared to the same controls and 40 times higher for patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and Chagas disease. The present data may be useful for epidemiological and prevention studies in Brazil and Argentina. PMID:22584639

  17. Association of Bartonella spp bacteremia with Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and arrythmias in patients from South America

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, F.G.; Pontes, C.L.S.; Verzola, R.M.M.; Mateos, J.C.P.; Velho, P.E.N.F.; Schijman, A.G.; Selistre-de-Araujo, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Bartonella spp may cause cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis and endocarditis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and endocarditis, arrhythmia and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from Brazil and Argentina. We screened for the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA in human blood by PCR using oligonucleotides to amplify a 185-bp bacterial DNA fragment. Blood samples were taken from four groups of subjects in Brazil and Argentina: i) control patients without clinical disease, ii) patients with negative blood-culture endocarditis, iii) patients with arrhythmias, and iv) patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PCR products were analyzed on 1.5% agarose gel to visualize the 185-bp fragment and then sequenced to confirm the identity of DNA. Sixty of 148 patients (40.5%) with cardiac disease and 1 of 56 subjects (1.8%) from the control group presented positive PCR amplification for Bartonella spp, suggesting a positive association of the bacteria with these diseases. Separate analysis of the four groups showed that the risk of a Brazilian patient with endocarditis being infected with Bartonella was 22 times higher than in the controls. In arrhythmic patients, the prevalence of infection was 45 times higher when compared to the same controls and 40 times higher for patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and Chagas disease. The present data may be useful for epidemiological and prevention studies in Brazil and Argentina. PMID:22584639

  18. Bacillus cereus, a Volatile Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Bottone, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent β-lactamase conferring marked resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. PMID:20375358

  19. Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bottone, Edward J

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent beta-lactamase conferring marked resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. PMID:20375358

  20. Isolation of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae: effects of methods of blood collection and handling.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, S A; Rooney, J A; Manzewitsch, P; Regnery, R L

    1997-01-01

    Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae causes cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, and fever in humans. B. henselae can be difficult to culture axenically, and as many as 5 weeks may be required before colonies are visible. We compared how different methods of blood collection and handling affect isolation of this pathogen. Blood specimens from B. henselae-infected cats were collected in both EDTA and Isolator blood-lysis tubes and were subsequently plated onto rabbit blood-brain heart infusion agar by using three different schedules: plating immediately, plating after 24 h at 25 degrees C, and plating after 26 days at -65 degrees C. Colonies were counted 14 and 35 days after plating. Blood collected in tubes containing EDTA, frozen at -65 degrees C, and then plated on blood agar yielded a median of 60,000 CFU/ml, compared with 25,333 CFU/ml after collection in the Isolator tubes (P < 0.01). Frozen blood yielded the largest number of B. henselae colonies for any of the schedules tested. These results support previous observations that the Isolator system is more sensitive than tubes containing EDTA for isolation of B. henselae and suggest that, for cat blood, collection in tubes containing EDTA and subsequent freezing may further improve the sensitivity of detection of B. henselae. PMID:9041385

  1. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  2. Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic, alpha Proteobacterium, historically associated with cat scratch disease (CSD), but more recently associated with persistent bacteremia, fever of unknown origin, arthritic and neurological disorders, and bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis in immunocompromised patients. A family from the Netherlands contacted our laboratory requesting to be included in a research study (NCSU-IRB#1960), designed to characterize Bartonella spp. bacteremia in people with extensive arthropod or animal exposure. All four family members had been exposed to tick bites in Zeeland, southwestern Netherlands. The mother and son were exhibiting symptoms including fatigue, headaches, memory loss, disorientation, peripheral neuropathic pain, striae (son only), and loss of coordination, whereas the father and daughter were healthy. Methods Each family member was tested for serological evidence of Bartonella exposure using B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III, B. henselae and B. koehlerae indirect fluorescent antibody assays and for bacteremia using the BAPGM enrichment blood culture platform. Results The mother was seroreactive to multiple Bartonella spp. antigens and bacteremia was confirmed by PCR amplification of B. henselae DNA from blood, and from a BAPGM blood agar plate subculture isolate. The son was not seroreactive to any Bartonella sp. antigen, but B. henselae DNA was amplified from several blood and serum samples, from BAPGM enrichment blood culture, and from a cutaneous striae biopsy. The father and daughter were seronegative to all Bartonella spp. antigens, and negative for Bartonella DNA amplification. Conclusions Historically, persistent B. henselae bacteremia was not thought to occur in immunocompetent humans. To our knowledge, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of persistent B. henselae bacteremia in immunocompetent persons from Europe. Cat or flea contact was considered an unlikely

  3. YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA: AN IMPORTANT HUMAN FOODBORNE PATHOGEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative microbe of public health importance and is under national FoodNet surveillance in the United States. The majority of human yersiniosis cases are foodborne. Consumption of dairy products (milk, ice cream), water, vegetables (tofu), and pork have been linke...

  4. Bartonella, a common cause of endocarditis: a report on 106 cases and review.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Sophie; Nabet, Cecile; Lepidi, Hubert; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-03-01

    Bartonella spp. are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative endocarditis and have been increasingly reported. In this study, we included all patients retrospectively and prospectively diagnosed with Bartonella endocarditis in our French reference center between 2005 and 2013. Our diagnosis was based on the modified Duke criteria and microbiological findings, including serological and PCR results. To review the published literature, we searched all human Bartonella endocarditis cases published in the PubMed database between January 2005 and October 2013. We report here a large series of 106 cases, which include 59 cases that had not previously been reported or mentioned. Indirect immunofluorescence assays, Western blotting, and real-time PCR from total blood, serum, and valve tissue exhibited sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 33%, 36%, and 91%, respectively. The number of cases reported in the literature between 2005 and 2013 increased to reach a cumulative number of 196 cases. The number of cases reported in the literature by other centers is increasing more rapidly than that reported by our French reference center (P < 10(-2)). Currently, there is a lack of criteria for the diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis. We suggest that a positive PCR result from a cardiac valve or blood specimen, an IgG titer of ≥800 using an immunofluorescence assay, or a positive Western blot assay be considered major Duke criteria for Bartonella endocarditis. There is no real increase in the incidence of these infections but rather a better understanding and interest in the disease resulting from the improvement of diagnostic tools. PMID:25540398

  5. Rhodococcus equi: an animal and human pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, J F

    1991-01-01

    Recent isolations of Rhodococcus equi from cavitatory pulmonary disease in patients with AIDS have aroused interest among medical microbiologists in this unusual organism. Earlier isolations from humans had also been in immunosuppressed patients following hemolymphatic tumors or renal transplantation. This organism has been recognized for many years as a cause of a serious pyogranulomatous pneumonia of young foals and is occasionally isolated from granulomatous lesions in several other species, in some cases following immunosuppression. The last decade has seen many advances in understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and immunity to infection in foals. The particular susceptibility of the foal is not understood but can be explained in part by a combination of heavy challenge through the respiratory route coinciding with declining maternally derived antibody in the absence of fully competent foal cellular immune mechanisms. R. equi is largely a soil organism but is widespread in the feces of herbivores. Its growth in soil is considerably improved by simple nutrients it obtains from herbivore manure. About one-third of human patients who have developed R. equi infections had contact in some way with herbivores or their manure. Others may have acquired infection from contact with soil or wild bird manure. R. equi is an intracellular parasite, which explains the typical pyogranulomatous nature of R. equi infections, the predisposition to infection in human patients with defective cell-mediated immune mechanisms, and the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs that penetrate phagocytic cells. Images PMID:2004346

  6. Focus on food safety: Human pathogens on plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces the first Focus Issue of Phytopathology, a dedicated issue of the journal that highlights a topic of significant interest to our readership. This first Focus Issue addresses the topic of food safety and the biology of human pathogens on plants, a relatively new problem in pla...

  7. Biological approach for control of human pathogens on produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional washing and sanitizing technologies are not sufficiently effective in reducing the populations of human pathogens naturally present on the surfaces of fresh produce. Since complete elimination of sources of contamination on the farm is not feasible, more effective intervention strategi...

  8. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: Intersecting Humans, Animals, and the Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eurasian-African H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused an unprecedented epizootic affecting mainly poultry, but has crossed multiple species barriers to infect captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. There is still great concern over the continued infecti...

  9. Natural soil reservoirs for human pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boschiroli, Maria L; Falkinham, Joseph; Favre-Bonte, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie; Piveteau, Pascal; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Delaquis, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Soils receive inputs of human pathogenic and indicator bacteria through land application of animal manures or sewage sludge, and inputs by wildlife. Soil is an extremely heterogeneous substrate and contains meso- and macrofauna that may be reservoirs for bacteria of human health concern. The ability to detect and quantify bacteria of human health concern is important in risk assessments and in evaluating the efficacy of agricultural soil management practices that are protective of crop quality and protective of adjacent water resources. The present chapter describes the distribution of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in soils. Methods for detecting and quantifying soilborne bacteria including extraction, enrichment using immunomagnetic capture, culturing, molecular detection and deep sequencing of metagenomic DNA to detect pathogens are overviewed. Methods for strain phenotypic and genotypic characterization are presented, as well as how comparison with clinical isolates can inform the potential for human health risk.

  10. Salmonella typhi: from a human pathogen to a vaccine vector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lian; Jeza, Victor Tunje; Pan, Qin

    2008-04-01

    Salmonella (S.) typhi is an important intracellular pathogen. Among the more than 2,300 closely-related Salmonella serovars bacteria recognized, S. typhi is the only one that is pathogenic exclusively for humans, in whom it causes typhoid or enteric fever. The pathogen has been around for many years and many studies have been done in an effort to combat it. Molecular and biologic features of S. typhi and host factors and immune responses involved in Salmonella invasion have been extensively studies. Vaccines that have been developed most notably are Vi polysaccharide and Ty21a. However, as the results show, there is still a long way to go. It is also shown that multi-drug resistance has occurred to the few available antibiotics. More and more studies have shown that Salmonella can be used as a vaccine vector carrying antigens of other pathogens. This has been promising in that the immune system can be elicited in response to both the Salmonella bacteria and the antigen of the pathogen in question. This review aims to highlight some of the milestones attained in the fight against the disease from the time S. typhi was seen as a pathogen causing typhoid fever to the use of Salmonella as a vaccine vector. PMID:18445338

  11. Human adenovirus: Viral pathogen with increasing importance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the biology of human adenovirus (HAdV), the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and to present a practical update on its diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. There are two well-defined adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis clinical syndromes: epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF), which are caused by different HAdV serotypes. The exact incidence of adenoviral conjunctivitis is still poorly known. However, cases are more frequent during warmer months. The virus is endemic in the general population, and frequently causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients, especially the pediatric patients. Contagion is possible through direct contact or fomites, and the virus is extremely resistant to different physical and chemical agents. The clinical signs or symptoms of conjunctival infection are similar to any other conjunctivitis, with a higher incidence of pseudomembranes. In the cornea, adenoviral infection may lead to keratitis nummularis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, but its etiology can be confirmed using cell cultures, antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction or immunochromatography. Multiple treatments have been tried for this disease, but none of them seem to be completely effective. Prevention is the most reliable and recommended strategy to control this contagious infection. PMID:24678403

  12. Comparative Genomics and the Evolution of Pathogenicity in Human Pathogenic Fungi ▿

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Gary P.; Coleman, David C.; Sullivan, Derek J.

    2011-01-01

    Because most fungi have evolved to be free-living in the environment and because the infections they cause are usually opportunistic in nature, it is often difficult to identify specific traits that contribute to fungal pathogenesis. In recent years, there has been a surge in the number of sequenced genomes of human fungal pathogens, and comparison of these sequences has proved to be an excellent resource for exploring commonalities and differences in how these species interact with their hosts. In order to survive in the human body, fungi must be able to adapt to new nutrient sources and environmental stresses. Therefore, genes involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and transport and genes encoding secondary metabolites tend to be overrepresented in pathogenic species (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus). However, it is clear that human commensal yeast species such as Candida albicans have also evolved a range of specific factors that facilitate direct interaction with host tissues. The evolution of virulence across the human pathogenic fungi has occurred largely through very similar mechanisms. One of the most important mechanisms is gene duplication and the expansion of gene families, particularly in subtelomeric regions. Unlike the case for prokaryotic pathogens, horizontal transfer of genes between species and other genera does not seem to have played a significant role in the evolution of fungal virulence. New sequencing technologies promise the prospect of even greater numbers of genome sequences, facilitating the sequencing of multiple genomes and transcriptomes within individual species, and will undoubtedly contribute to a deeper insight into fungal pathogenesis. PMID:21076011

  13. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-30

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26645342

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W. Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong

    2016-01-01

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26645342

  15. Adhesins in Human Fungal Pathogens: Glue with Plenty of Stick

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Piet W. J.; Bader, Oliver; de Boer, Albert D.; Weig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of an infectious disease is critical for developing new methods to prevent infection and diagnose or cure disease. Adherence of microorganisms to host tissue is a prerequisite for tissue invasion and infection. Fungal cell wall adhesins involved in adherence to host tissue or abiotic medical devices are critical for colonization leading to invasion and damage of host tissue. Here, with a main focus on pathogenic Candida species, we summarize recent progress made in the field of adhesins in human fungal pathogens and underscore the importance of these proteins in establishment of fungal diseases. PMID:23397570

  16. Aeromonas dhakensis, an Increasingly Recognized Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Lin; Lamy, Brigitte; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas dhakensis was first isolated from children with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh and described in 2002. In the past decade, increasing evidence indicate this species is widely distributed in the environment and can cause a variety of infections both in human and animals, especially in coastal areas. A. dhakensis is often misidentified as A. hydrophila, A. veronii, or A. caviae by commercial phenotypic tests in the clinical laboratory. Correct identification relies on molecular methods. Increasingly used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may be able to identify Aeromonas specie rapidly and accurately. A. dhakensis has shown its potent virulence in different animal models and clinical infections. Although several virulence factors had been reported, no single mechanism is conclusive. Characteristically A. dhakensis is the principal species causing soft tissue infection and bacteremia, especially among patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Of note, A. dhakensis bacteremia is more lethal than bacteremia due to other Aeromonas species. The role of this species in gastroenteritis remains controversial. Third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used cautiously in the treatment of severe A. dhakensis infection due to the presence of AmpC ββ-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, and optimal regimens may be cefepime or fluoroquinolones. Studies of bacterial virulence factors and associated host responses may provide the chance to understand the heterogeneous virulence between species. The hypothesis A. dhakensis with varied geographic prevalence and enhanced virulence that compared to other Aeromonas species warrants more investigations. PMID:27303382

  17. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats and dogs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-seok; Seo, Kyoung-won; Lee, Jong-hwa; Choi, Eun-wha; Lee, Hee-woo; Hwang, Cheol-yong; Shin, Nam-shik; Youn, Hee-jeong; Youn, Hwa Young

    2009-03-01

    Blood, saliva, and nail samples were collected from 54 dogs and 151 cats and analyzed for the presence of Bartonella henselae with a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Bartonella (B.) henselae was detected in feral cat blood (41.8%), saliva (44.1%), and nail (42.7%) samples. B. henselae was also detected in pet cat blood (33.3%), saliva (43.5%), and nail (29.5%) samples and in pet dog blood (16.6%), saliva (18.5%), and nail (29.6%) samples. Nine samples were infected with B. clarridgeiae and 2 were co-infected with B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae of blood samples of dogs. This report is the first to investigate the prevalence of B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in dogs and cats in Korea, and suggests that dogs and cats may serve as potential Bartonella reservoirs. PMID:19255530

  18. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  19. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  20. Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2–3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations. PMID:25416679

  1. Human pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and viruses in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Panayidou, Stavria; Ioannidou, Eleni; Apidianakis, Yiorgos

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila has been the invertebrate model organism of choice for the study of innate immune responses during the past few decades. Many Drosophila–microbe interaction studies have helped to define innate immunity pathways, and significant effort has been made lately to decipher mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis. Here we catalog 68 bacterial, fungal, and viral species studied in flies, 43 of which are relevant to human health. We discuss studies of human pathogens in flies revealing not only the elicitation and avoidance of immune response but also mechanisms of tolerance, host tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and predisposition to cancer. Prominent among those is the emerging pattern of intestinal regeneration as a defense response induced by pathogenic and innocuous bacteria. Immunopathology mechanisms and many microbial virulence factors have been elucidated, but their relevance to human health conventionally necessitates validation in mammalian models of infection. PMID:24398387

  2. Human commensals producing a novel antibiotic impair pathogen colonization.

    PubMed

    Zipperer, Alexander; Konnerth, Martin C; Laux, Claudia; Berscheid, Anne; Janek, Daniela; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Burian, Marc; Schilling, Nadine A; Slavetinsky, Christoph; Marschal, Matthias; Willmann, Matthias; Kalbacher, Hubert; Schittek, Birgit; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike; Grond, Stephanie; Peschel, Andreas; Krismer, Bernhard

    2016-07-28

    The vast majority of systemic bacterial infections are caused by facultative, often antibiotic-resistant, pathogens colonizing human body surfaces. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to invasive infection, but the mechanisms that permit or interfere with pathogen colonization are largely unknown. Whereas soil microbes are known to compete by production of antibiotics, such processes have rarely been reported for human microbiota. We show that nasal Staphylococcus lugdunensis strains produce lugdunin, a novel thiazolidine-containing cyclic peptide antibiotic that prohibits colonization by S. aureus, and a rare example of a non-ribosomally synthesized bioactive compound from human-associated bacteria. Lugdunin is bactericidal against major pathogens, effective in animal models, and not prone to causing development of resistance in S. aureus. Notably, human nasal colonization by S. lugdunensis was associated with a significantly reduced S. aureus carriage rate, suggesting that lugdunin or lugdunin-producing commensal bacteria could be valuable for preventing staphylococcal infections. Moreover, human microbiota should be considered as a source for new antibiotics. PMID:27466123

  3. Bartonella endocarditis mimicking adult Still's disease.

    PubMed

    De Clerck, K F; Van Offel, J F; Vlieghe, E; Van Marck, E; Stevens, W J

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted to the University Hospital of Antwerp with a clinical picture suggestive of adult Still's disease. Even though a transoesophageal echocardiography showed endocarditis of the aortic valve, blood cultures remained negative. Additional serological testing revealed a positive result for Bartonella henselae. Histology of the supraclavicular lymph node showed a reactive lymph node with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Bartonella henselae. Prednisolone treatment was started in a dosage of 10 mg per day and rifampicin 600 mg/d in combination with doxycyclin 200 mg/d was given for 6 months. During therapy the patient gradually improved and signs of endocarditis disappeared on echocardiography. PMID:18714850

  4. Bartonella henselae endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Holmes, A H; Greenough, T C; Balady, G J; Regnery, R L; Anderson, B E; O'Keane, J C; Fonger, J D; McCrone, E L

    1995-10-01

    We describe a case of aggressive Bartonella henselae endocarditis in an immunocompetent man who owned a cat. Aortic valve replacement was required, and his infection was diagnosed by histology, serology, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. The manifestations of his disease included mediastinal lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis, and a petechial rash; the unusual finding of a positive titer of c-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies was noted. Serological titers were markedly elevated for > 1 year despite clinical improvement. PMID:8645787

  5. Bartonella chomelii Is the Most Frequent Species Infecting Cattle Grazing in Communal Mountain Pastures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Antequera-Gómez, M. L.; Lozano-Almendral, L.; Barandika, J. F.; González-Martín-Niño, R. M.; Rodríguez-Moreno, I.; García-Pérez, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates. PMID:25381240

  6. Bartonella henselae AS A PUTATIVE CAUSE OF CONGENITAL CHOLESTASIS

    PubMed Central

    VELHO, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; BELLOMO-BRANDÃO, Maria Ângela; DRUMMOND, Marina Rovani; MAGALHÃES, Renata Ferreira; HESSEL, Gabriel; BARJAS-CASTRO, Maria de Lourdes; ESCANHOELA, Cecília Amélia Fazzio; NEGRO, Gilda Maria Barbaro DEL; OKAY, Thelma Suely

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Severe anemia and cholestatic hepatitis are associated with bartonella infections. A putative vertical Bartonella henselae infection was defined on the basis of ultrastructural and molecular analyses in a three-year-old child with anemia, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly since birth. Physicians should consider bartonellosis in patients with anemia and hepatitis of unknown origin. PMID:27410916

  7. Whole Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Bartonella bacilliformis Strain INS, the Causative Agent of Carrion's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, D; Padilla, C; Cáceres, O; Montenegro, J D; Bailón, H; Ventura, G; Mendoza, G; Anaya, E; Guio, H

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of human bartonellosis, which is highly endemic to Peru. Here, we report the first genome that was sequenced and analyzed from an isolate of B. bacilliformis strain INS, which originally was isolated from the blood of an infected patient with an acute phase of Carrion's disease from Jaén-Cajamarca, Peru. PMID:23409255

  8. Essential metals at the host–pathogen interface: nutritional immunity and micronutrient assimilation by human fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Aaron; Wilson, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of pathogenic microorganisms to assimilate sufficient nutrients for growth within their hosts is a fundamental requirement for pathogenicity. However, certain trace nutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese, are actively withheld from invading pathogens in a process called nutritional immunity. Therefore, successful pathogenic species must have evolved specialized mechanisms in order to adapt to the nutritionally restrictive environment of the host and cause disease. In this review, we discuss recent advances which have been made in our understanding of fungal iron and zinc acquisition strategies and nutritional immunity against fungal infections, and explore the mechanisms of micronutrient uptake by human pathogenic fungi. PMID:26242402

  9. Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Bartonella quintana, the Agent of Trench Fever

    PubMed Central

    Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Berenger, Jean Michel; Lepidi, Hubert; Rolain, Jean Marc; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Bed bugs at the adult and instar developmental stages were fed three successive human blood meals inoculated with B. quintana bacterium from day one (D1) to D5; subsequently they were fed with pathogen-free human blood until the end of the experiment. Bed bugs and feces were collected in time series, to evaluate their capacities to acquire, multiply and expel viable B. quintana using molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and cultures assays. B. quintana was detected molecularly in 100% of randomly selected experimentally infected bed bug specimens (D3). The monitoring of B. quintana in bed bug feces showed that the bacterium was detectable starting on the 3rd day post-infection (pi) and persisted until day 18±1 pi. Although immunohistochemistry assays localized the bacteria to the gastrointestinal bed bug gut, the detection of B. quintana in the first and second instar larva stages suggested a vertical non-transovarial transmission of the bacterium. Conclusion The present work demonstrated for the first time that bed bugs can acquire, maintain for more than 2 weeks and release viable B. quintana organisms following a stercorarial shedding. We also observed the vertical transmission of the bacterium to their progeny. Although the biological role of bed bugs in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions has yet to be confirmed, the present work highlights the need to reconsider monitoring of these arthropods for the transmission of human pathogens. PMID

  10. Assessment of Persistence of Bartonella henselae in Ctenocephalides felis

    PubMed Central

    Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Jacquiet, Philippe; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Liénard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella henselae (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) is a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium of veterinary and zoonotic importance. The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is the main recognized vector of B. henselae, and transmission among cats and humans occurs mainly through infected flea feces. The present study documents the use of a quantitative molecular approach to follow the daily kinetics of B. henselae within the cat flea and its excreted feces after exposure to infected blood for 48 h in an artificial membrane system. B. henselae DNA was detected in both fleas and feces for the entire life span of the fleas (i.e., 12 days) starting from 24 h after initiation of the blood meal. PMID:24056468

  11. Investigation of Bartonella henselae in cats in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celebi, B; Kilic, S; Aydin, N; Tarhan, G; Carhan, A; Babur, C

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Bartonella henselae prevalance in cats in Ankara. Whole bloods and sera collected from 256 cats were investigated for the presence feline Bartonella species by culture and sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against B. henselae IgG using immunofluorescence assay. Bartonella species were isolated by blood culture from 24 (9.4%) cats. Bartonella isolates were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) by using TaqI and HhaI endonucleases to identify species. Twenty-one isolates were determined as B. henselae and three of 24 isolates were determined as Bartonella clarridgeiae with RFLP. The bacteraemia prevalence and seroprevalence of B. henselae IgG antibodies in cats was detected as 8.2% and 18.6% respectively. This is the first report on B. henselea and B. clarridgeiae in cats in Turkey. PMID:18990198

  12. Bartonella Infection in Rodents and Their Flea Ectoparasites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Krasnov, Boris; Morick, Danny; Gottlieb, Yuval; Khokhlova, Irina S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies worldwide have reported a high prevalence and a great diversity of Bartonella species, both in rodents and their flea parasites. The interaction among Bartonella, wild rodents, and fleas reflects a high degree of adaptation among these organisms. Vertical and horizontal efficient Bartonella transmission pathways within flea communities and from fleas to rodents have been documented in competence studies, suggesting that fleas are key players in the transmission of Bartonella to rodents. Exploration of the ecological traits of rodents and their fleas may shed light on the mechanisms used by bartonellae to become established in these organisms. The present review explores the interrelations within the Bartonella–rodent–flea system. The role of the latter two components is emphasized. PMID:25629778

  13. Highly Pathogenic New World and Old World Human Arenaviruses Induce Distinct Interferon Responses in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga A.; Yun, Nadezhda E.; Seregin, Alexey V.; Ronca, Shannon; Koma, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arenavirus family includes several important pathogens that cause severe and sometimes fatal diseases in humans. The highly pathogenic Old World (OW) arenavirus Lassa fever virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF) disease in humans. LASV infections in severe cases are generally immunosuppressive without stimulating interferon (IFN) induction, a proinflammatory response, or T cell activation. However, the host innate immune responses to highly pathogenic New World (NW) arenaviruses are not well understood. We have previously shown that the highly pathogenic NW arenavirus, Junin virus (JUNV), induced an IFN response in human A549 cells. Here, we report that Machupo virus (MACV), another highly pathogenic NW arenavirus, also induces an IFN response. Importantly, both pathogenic NW arenaviruses, in contrast to the OW highly pathogenic arenavirus LASV, readily elicited an IFN response in human primary dendritic cells and A549 cells. Coinfection experiments revealed that LASV could potently inhibit MACV-activated IFN responses even at 6 h after MACV infection, while the replication levels of MACV and LASV were not affected by virus coinfection. Our results clearly demonstrated that although all viruses studied herein are highly pathogenic to humans, the host IFN responses toward infections with the NW arenaviruses JUNV and MACV are quite different from responses to infections with the OW arenavirus LASV, a discovery that needs to be further investigated in relevant animal models. This finding might help us better understand various interplays between the host immune system and highly pathogenic arenaviruses as well as distinct mechanisms underlying viral pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Infections of humans with the highly pathogenic OW LASV are accompanied by potent suppression of interferon or proinflammatory cytokine production. In contrast, infections with the highly pathogenic NW arenavirus JUNV are associated with high levels of IFNs and

  14. Giant viruses of amoebae as potential human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Colson, Philippe; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Giant viruses infecting phagocytic protists are composed of mimiviruses, the record holders of particle and genome size amongst viruses, and marseilleviruses. Since the discovery in 2003 at our laboratory of the first of these giant viruses, the Mimivirus, a growing body of data has revealed that they are common inhabitants of our biosphere. Moreover, from the outset, the story of Mimivirus has been linked to that of patients exhibiting pneumonia and it was shown that patients developed antibodies to this amoebal pathogen. Since then, there have been several proven cases of human infection or colonization with giant viruses of amoebae, which are known to host several bacteria that are human pathogens. Mimiviruses and marseilleviruses represent a major challenge in human pathology, as virological procedures implemented to date have not used appropriate media to allow their culture, and molecular techniques have used filtration steps that likely prevented their detection. Nevertheless, there is an increasing body of evidence that mimiviruses might cause pneumonia and that humans carry marseilleviruses, and re-analyses of metagenomic databases have provided evidence that these giant viruses can be common in human samples. The proportion of human infections related to these giant mimiviruses and marseilleviruses and the precise short- and long-term consequences of these infections have been scarcely investigated so far and should be the subject of future works. PMID:24157884

  15. Looking in apes as a source of human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Keita, Mamadou B; Hamad, Ibrahim; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-12-01

    Because of the close genetic relatedness between apes and humans, apes are susceptible to many human infectious agents and can serve as carriers of these pathogens. Consequently, they present a serious health hazard to humans. Moreover, many emerging infectious diseases originate in wildlife and continue to threaten human populations, especially vector-borne diseases described in great apes, such as malaria and rickettsiosis. These wild primates may be permanent reservoirs and important sources of human pathogens. In this special issue, we report that apes, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii), gibbons (Hylobates spp., Hoolock spp. and Nomascus spp) and siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus syndactylus and Symphalangus continentis), have many bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic species that are capable of infecting humans. Serious measures should be adopted in tropical forests and sub-tropical areas where habitat overlaps are frequent to survey and prevent infectious diseases from spreading from apes to people. PMID:25220240

  16. Pathogen-specific recombinant human polyclonal antibodies: biodefence applications.

    PubMed

    Bregenholt, Søren; Haurum, John

    2004-03-01

    The potential use of biological agents such as viruses, bacteria or bacterial toxins as weapons of mass destruction has fuelled significant national and international research and development in novel prophylactic or therapeutic countermeasures. Such measures need to be fast-acting and broadly specific, a hallmark of target-specific polyclonal antibodies (pAbs). As reviewed here, pathogen-specific antibodies in the form of human or animal serum have long been recognised as effective therapies in a number of infectious diseases. This review focuses in particular on the potential biowarfare agents prioritised by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), referred to as the category A organisms. Furthermore, it is propose that the last decade of development in recombinant antibody technologies offers the possibility for developing highly specific human monoclonal or polyclonal pathogen-specific antibodies. In particular, pathogen-specific polyclonal human antibodies offer certain advantages over existing hyperimmune serum products, monoclonal antibodies, small molecule drugs and vaccines. Here, the rationale for designing pAb-based therapeutics against the CDC category A microbial agents causing anthrax, botulism, plague, smallpox, tularaemia and viral haemorrhagic fevers, as well as the overall design of such therapeutics, are discussed. PMID:15006732

  17. Mechanisms of Defense against Intracellular Pathogens Mediated by Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Barry R; Modlin, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    The key question our work has sought to address has been, "What are the necessary and sufficient conditions that engender protection from intracellular pathogens in the human host?" The origins of this work derive from a long-standing interest in the mechanisms of protection against two such paradigmatic intracellular pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, that have brilliantly adapted to the human host. It was obvious that these pathogens, which cause chronic diseases and persist in macrophages, must have acquired subtle strategies to resist host microbicidal mechanisms, yet since the vast majority of individuals infected with M. tuberculosis do not develop disease, there must be some potent human antimicrobial mechanisms. What follows is not a comprehensive review of the vast literature on the role of human macrophages in protection against infectious disease, but a summary of the research in our two laboratories with collaborators that we hope has contributed to some understanding of mechanisms of resistance and pathogenesis. While mouse models revealed some necessary conditions for protection, e.g., innate immunity, Th1 cells and their cytokines, and major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cells, here we emphasize multiple antimicrobial mechanisms that exist in human macrophages that differ from those of most experimental animals. Prominent here is the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway common to human macrophages activated by innate and acquired immune responses, mediated by antimicrobial peptides, e.g., cathelicidin, through an interleukin-15- and interleukin-32-dependent common pathway that is necessary for macrophage killing of M. tuberculosis in vitro. PMID:27337485

  18. Serological cross-reactions between Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, and Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed Central

    La Scola, B; Raoult, D

    1996-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of Q fever and bartonelloses can be confused, especially in cases of infectious endocarditis. Differential diagnosis of the diseases is important because the treatments required for Q fever and bartonelloses are different. Laboratory confirmation of a suspected case of either Q fever or bartonelloses is most commonly made by antibody estimation with an indirect immunofluorescence assay. With an indirect immunofluorescence assay, 258 serum samples from patients with Q fever were tested against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antigens, and 77 serum samples from patients with infection by Bartonella sp. were tested against Coxiella burnetii antigen. Cross-reactivity was observed: more than 50% of the chronic Q fever patients tested had antibodies which reacted against B. henselae antigen to a significant level. This cross-reaction was confirmed by a cross-adsorption study and protein immunoblotting. However, because the levels of specific antibody titers in cases of Bartonella endocarditis are typically extremely high, low-level cross-reaction between C. burnetii antibodies and B. henselae antigen in cases of Q fever endocarditis should not lead to misdiagnosis, provided serology testing for both agents is performed. PMID:8862597

  19. First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael

    2014-09-17

    Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531

  20. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in Africa: a neglected but important pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew; Brantsaeter, Arne Broch

    2016-01-01

    In Africa, human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in a diverse range of patient groups. Congenital CMV infection is common, and most children undergo primary infection during the first year of life. Preliminary studies suggest that these early primary CMV infections could have population-wide effects on growth and development. In most studies of adults, CMV seroprevalence is close to 100%, but some studies have found that significant minorities of adults are seronegative. CMV is a common cause of pneumonia and meningitis in hospitalised immunosuppressed patient groups, and CMV DNAemia may be an important marker of rapid progression and poor outcomes of HIV infection, despite roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Diagnosis and treatment of CMV-related disease is broadly neglected in Africa, and no randomised clinical trials of anti-CMV drugs have been conducted to date. Autopsy is rarely performed in Africa, but identifies CMV as a frequent pathogen when it is carried out. Here we review the available literature on CMV in Africa, primarily in adult patients, and discuss this in the context of contemporary understanding of CMV as a human pathogen. PMID:27482452

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Human Fungal Pathogens Causing Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Christopher A.; Champion, Mia D.; Holder, Jason W.; Muszewska, Anna; Goldberg, Jonathan; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo; Ferreira, Márcia Eliana da Silva; Garcia, Ana Maria; Grynberg, Marcin; Gujja, Sharvari; Heiman, David I.; Henn, Matthew R.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; León-Narváez, Henry; Longo, Larissa V. G.; Ma, Li-Jun; Malavazi, Iran; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Morais, Flavia V.; Pereira, Maristela; Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Salem-Izacc, Silvia M.; Sykes, Sean M.; Teixeira, Marcus Melo; Vallejo, Milene C.; Walter, Maria Emília Machado Telles; Yandava, Chandri; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zucker, Jeremy; Felipe, Maria Sueli; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Haas, Brian J.; McEwen, Juan G.; Nino-Vega, Gustavo; Puccia, Rosana; San-Blas, Gioconda; Soares, Celia Maria de Almeida; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18) and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01). These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. In addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic species of

  2. The rhizosphere microbiome: significance of plant beneficial, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo; Garbeva, Paolina; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2013-09-01

    Microbial communities play a pivotal role in the functioning of plants by influencing their physiology and development. While many members of the rhizosphere microbiome are beneficial to plant growth, also plant pathogenic microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere striving to break through the protective microbial shield and to overcome the innate plant defense mechanisms in order to cause disease. A third group of microorganisms that can be found in the rhizosphere are the true and opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria, which can be carried on or in plant tissue and may cause disease when introduced into debilitated humans. Although the importance of the rhizosphere microbiome for plant growth has been widely recognized, for the vast majority of rhizosphere microorganisms no knowledge exists. To enhance plant growth and health, it is essential to know which microorganism is present in the rhizosphere microbiome and what they are doing. Here, we review the main functions of rhizosphere microorganisms and how they impact on health and disease. We discuss the mechanisms involved in the multitrophic interactions and chemical dialogues that occur in the rhizosphere. Finally, we highlight several strategies to redirect or reshape the rhizosphere microbiome in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health. PMID:23790204

  3. Bartonellae in animals and vectors in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, Bernard; Cabre, Olivier; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-12-01

    Bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family Bartonellaceae. The natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. In order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of Bartonella infection in animals and vectors in New Caledonia, we collected the blood samples of 64 dogs, 8 cats, 30 bovines, 25 horses and 29 wild deer Cervus timorensis russa and 308 associated blood-sucking parasites (14 keds Hippobosca equina, 258 ticks (22 Rhipicephalus microplus, 235 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Haemaphysalis longicornis), 12 fleas Ctenocephalides felis and 24 dog lice Trichodectes canis). We isolated ten strains of Bartonella: four Bartonella henselae from cats and six Bartonella chomelii from cattle. The strains were characterized by sequencing of five genes (16S, ITS, rpoB, gltA and ftsZ). The six strains isolated from cattle were close to the reference strain of B. chomelii and were, probably, imported from France with cattle of Limousin race. PCR showed that 35% of keds collected from deer and 31% of deer were infected by B. aff. schoenbuchensis; all other samples were negative. Our data confirmed that in New Caledonia, as in other regions of the world, cats are the major reservoirs of B. henselae. We also confirmed that Hippoboscidae flies may serve as the vectors of ruminant-associated bartonellae. PMID:22018646

  4. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat. PMID:24344685

  5. Can we understand modern humans without considering pathogens?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Frédéric; Daoust, Simon P; Raymond, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Throughout our evolutionary history, humankind has always lived in contact with large numbers of pathogens. Some cultural traits, such as sedentarization and animal domestication, have considerably increased new parasitic contacts and epidemic transitions. Here, we review the various phenotypic traits that have been proposed to be affected by the highly parasitic human environment, including fertility, birth weight, fluctuating asymmetry, body odours, food recipes, sexual behaviour, pregnancy sickness, language, religion and intellectual quotient. We also discuss how such knowledge is important to understanding several aspects of the current problems faced by humanity in our changing world and to predicting the long-term consequences of parasite eradication policies on our health and well-being. The study of the evolutionary interactions between humans and parasites is a burgeoning and most promising field, as demonstrated by the recent increasing popularity of Darwinian medicine. PMID:25568057

  6. Molecular Basis of Latency in Pathogenic Human Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    1991-11-01

    Several human viruses are able to latently infect specific target cell populations in vivo. Analysis of the replication cycles of herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human immunodeficiency virus suggests that the latent infections established by these human pathogens primarily result from a lack of host factors critical for the expression of viral early gene products. The subsequent activation of specific cellular transcription factors in response to extracellular stimuli can induce the expression of these viral regulatory proteins and lead to a burst of lytic viral replication. Latency in these eukaryotic viruses therefore contrasts with latency in bacteriophage, which is maintained primarily by the expression of virally encoded repressors of lytic replication.

  7. Detection of serum antibodies against Bartonella species in cats with sporotrichosis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Amanda A B; Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Oliveira, Raquel V C; Pessoa, Adonai A; Gomes, Raphael; Honse, Carla O; Gremião, Isabella D F; Lemos, Elba R S; Pereira, Sandro A

    2014-04-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused by the fungal complex Sporothrix, is transmitted by traumatic inoculation of the fungus. Cats are important in zoonotic transmission. Serum samples from 112 domestic cats with sporotrichosis and 77 samples from healthy cats were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using the commercial kit Bartonella henselae IFA IgG (Bion). The presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) core antigens was detected using the commercial kit Snap Combo FIV-FeLV (Idexx). The group of animals with sporotrichosis contained 93 males with a median age of 22 months, eight (7.1%) of which were positive for FIV and 15 (13.4%) for FeLV. The group of animals without sporotrichosis contained 36 males with a median age 48 months, 10 (13.0%) of which were positive for FIV and eight (10.4%) for FeLV. Of the 112 cats with sporotrichosis and 77 cats without mycosis, 72 (64.3%) and 35 (45.5%), respectively, were IFA reactive. No association was found between age, sex, FIV/FeLV and the presence of antibodies to Bartonella species. The results suggest that the study population can be considered a potential source of zoonotic infection for both diseases. PMID:24127458

  8. Targeting UDP-Galactopyranose Mutases from Eukaryotic Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kizjakina, Karina; Tanner, John J; Sobrado, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    UDP-Galactopyranose mutase (UGM) is a unique flavin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp) to UDP-galactofuranose (UDP-Galf). The product of this reaction is the precursor to Galf, a major component of the cell wall and of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids in many eukaryotic and prokaryotic human pathogens. The function of UGM is important in the virulence of fungi, parasites, and bacteria. Its role in virulence and its absence in humans suggest that UGM is an ideal drug target. Significant structural and mechanistic information has been accumulated on the prokaryotic UGMs; however, in the past few years the research interest has shifted to UGMs from eukaryotic human pathogens such as fungi and protozoan parasites. It has become clear that UGMs from prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms have different structural and mechanistic features. The amino acid sequence identity between these two classes of enzymes is low, resulting in differences in oligomeric states, substrate binding, active site flexibility, and interaction with redox partners. However, the unique role of the flavin cofactor in catalysis is conserved among this enzyme family. In this review, recent findings on eukaryotic UGMs are discussed and presented in comparison with prokaryotic UGMs. PMID:23116395

  9. Human microbiome versus food-borne pathogens: friend or foe.

    PubMed

    Josephs-Spaulding, Jonathan; Beeler, Erik; Singh, Om V

    2016-06-01

    As food safety advances, there is a great need to maintain, distribute, and provide high-quality food to a much broader consumer base. There is also an ever-growing "arms race" between pathogens and humans as food manufacturers. The human microbiome is a collective organ of microbes that have found community niches while associating with their host and other microorganisms. Humans play an important role in modifying the environment of these organisms through their life choices, especially through individual diet. The composition of an individual's diet influences the digestive system-an ecosystem with the greatest number and largest diversity of organisms currently known. Organisms living on and within food have the potential to be either friends or foes to the consumer. Maintenance of this system can have multiple benefits, but lack of maintenance can lead to a host of chronic and preventable diseases. Overall, this dynamic system is influenced by intense competition from food-borne pathogens, lifestyle, overall diet, and presiding host-associated microbiota. PMID:27102132

  10. Human mesenchymal stem cells: New sojourn of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Sakshi; Singh, Yadvir; Sowpati, Divya Tej; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hacker, Jörg; Hasnain, Seyed E

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is the leading infectious disease which claims one human life every 15-20s globally. The persistence of this deadly disease in human population can be attributed to the ability of the bacterium to stay in latent form. M. tuberculosis possesses a plethora of mechanisms not only to survive latently under harsh conditions inside the host but also modulate the host immune cells in its favour. Various M. tuberculosis gene families have also been described to play a role in this process. Recently, human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported as a niche for dormant M. tuberculosis. MSCs possess abilities to alter the host immune response. The bacterium finds this self-renewal and immune privileged nature of MSCs very favourable not only to modulate the host immune system, with some help from its own genes, but also to avoid the external drug pressure. We suggest that the MSCs not only provide a resting place for M. tuberculosis but could also, by virtue of their intrinsic ability to disseminate in the body, explain the genesis of extra-pulmonary TB. A similar exploitation of stem cells by other bacterial pathogens is a distinct possibility. It may be likely that other intracellular bacterial pathogens adopt this strategy to 'piggy-back' on to ovarian stem cells to ensure vertical transmission and successful propagation to the next generation. PMID:25648374

  11. Immunity to Pathogens Taught by Specialized Human Dendritic Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Geginat, Jens; Nizzoli, Giulia; Paroni, Moira; Maglie, Stefano; Larghi, Paola; Pascolo, Steve; Abrignani, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that have a key role in immune responses because they bridge the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. They mature upon recognition of pathogens and upregulate MHC molecules and costimulatory receptors to activate antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. It is now well established that DCs are not a homogeneous population but are composed of different subsets with specialized functions in immune responses to specific pathogens. Upon viral infections, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) rapidly produce large amounts of IFN-α, which has potent antiviral functions and activates several other immune cells. However, pDCs are not particularly potent APCs and induce the tolerogenic cytokine IL-10 in CD4+ T cells. In contrast, myeloid DCs (mDCs) are very potent APCs and possess the unique capacity to prime naive T cells and consequently to initiate a primary adaptive immune response. Different subsets of mDCs with specialized functions have been identified. In mice, CD8α+ mDCs capture antigenic material from necrotic cells, secrete high levels of IL-12, and prime Th1 and cytotoxic T-cell responses to control intracellular pathogens. Conversely, CD8α− mDCs preferentially prime CD4+ T cells and promote Th2 or Th17 differentiation. BDCA-3+ mDC2 are the human homologue of CD8α+ mDCs, since they share the expression of several key molecules, the capacity to cross-present antigens to CD8+ T-cells and to produce IFN-λ. However, although several features of the DC network are conserved between humans and mice, the expression of several toll-like receptors as well as the production of cytokines that regulate T-cell differentiation are different. Intriguingly, recent data suggest specific roles for human DC subsets in immune responses against individual pathogens. The biology of human DC subsets holds the promise to be exploitable in translational medicine, in particular for the development of vaccines against

  12. Immunity to Pathogens Taught by Specialized Human Dendritic Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Geginat, Jens; Nizzoli, Giulia; Paroni, Moira; Maglie, Stefano; Larghi, Paola; Pascolo, Steve; Abrignani, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that have a key role in immune responses because they bridge the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. They mature upon recognition of pathogens and upregulate MHC molecules and costimulatory receptors to activate antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. It is now well established that DCs are not a homogeneous population but are composed of different subsets with specialized functions in immune responses to specific pathogens. Upon viral infections, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) rapidly produce large amounts of IFN-α, which has potent antiviral functions and activates several other immune cells. However, pDCs are not particularly potent APCs and induce the tolerogenic cytokine IL-10 in CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, myeloid DCs (mDCs) are very potent APCs and possess the unique capacity to prime naive T cells and consequently to initiate a primary adaptive immune response. Different subsets of mDCs with specialized functions have been identified. In mice, CD8α(+) mDCs capture antigenic material from necrotic cells, secrete high levels of IL-12, and prime Th1 and cytotoxic T-cell responses to control intracellular pathogens. Conversely, CD8α(-) mDCs preferentially prime CD4(+) T cells and promote Th2 or Th17 differentiation. BDCA-3(+) mDC2 are the human homologue of CD8α(+) mDCs, since they share the expression of several key molecules, the capacity to cross-present antigens to CD8(+) T-cells and to produce IFN-λ. However, although several features of the DC network are conserved between humans and mice, the expression of several toll-like receptors as well as the production of cytokines that regulate T-cell differentiation are different. Intriguingly, recent data suggest specific roles for human DC subsets in immune responses against individual pathogens. The biology of human DC subsets holds the promise to be exploitable in translational medicine, in particular for the development of

  13. Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-01-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

  14. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-03-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

  15. Standardized Metadata for Human Pathogen/Vector Genomic Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Vivien G.; Emrich, Scott J.; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I.; Harb, Omar S.; Newman, Ruchi M.; Pickett, Brett E.; Schriml, Lynn M.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Sullivan, Dan E.; Singh, Indresh; Ward, Doyle V.; Yao, Alison; Zheng, Jie; Barrett, Tanya; Birren, Bruce; Brinkac, Lauren; Bruno, Vincent M.; Caler, Elizabet; Chapman, Sinéad; Collins, Frank H.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Di Francesco, Valentina; Durkin, Scott; Eppinger, Mark; Feldgarden, Michael; Fraser, Claire; Fricke, W. Florian; Giovanni, Maria; Henn, Matthew R.; Hine, Erin; Hotopp, Julie Dunning; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Lee, Eun Mi; Mathur, Punam; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Murphy, Cheryl I.; Myers, Garry; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Nelson, Karen E.; Nierman, William C.; Puzak, Julia; Rasko, David; Roos, David S.; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Silva, Joana C.; Sobral, Bruno; Squires, R. Burke; Stevens, Rick L.; Tallon, Luke; Tettelin, Herve; Wentworth, David; White, Owen; Will, Rebecca; Wortman, Jennifer; Zhang, Yun; Scheuermann, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing has accelerated the determination of genome sequences for thousands of human infectious disease pathogens and dozens of their vectors. The scale and scope of these data are enabling genotype-phenotype association studies to identify genetic determinants of pathogen virulence and drug/insecticide resistance, and phylogenetic studies to track the origin and spread of disease outbreaks. To maximize the utility of genomic sequences for these purposes, it is essential that metadata about the pathogen/vector isolate characteristics be collected and made available in organized, clear, and consistent formats. Here we report the development of the GSCID/BRC Project and Sample Application Standard, developed by representatives of the Genome Sequencing Centers for Infectious Diseases (GSCIDs), the Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRCs) for Infectious Diseases, and the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), informed by interactions with numerous collaborating scientists. It includes mapping to terms from other data standards initiatives, including the Genomic Standards Consortium’s minimal information (MIxS) and NCBI’s BioSample/BioProjects checklists and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The standard includes data fields about characteristics of the organism or environmental source of the specimen, spatial-temporal information about the specimen isolation event, phenotypic characteristics of the pathogen/vector isolated, and project leadership and support. By modeling metadata fields into an ontology-based semantic framework and reusing existing ontologies and minimum information checklists, the application standard can be extended to support additional project-specific data fields and integrated with other data represented with comparable standards. The use of this metadata standard by all ongoing and future GSCID sequencing projects will provide a

  16. Standardized metadata for human pathogen/vector genomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Vivien G; Emrich, Scott J; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; Harb, Omar S; Newman, Ruchi M; Pickett, Brett E; Schriml, Lynn M; Stockwell, Timothy B; Stoeckert, Christian J; Sullivan, Dan E; Singh, Indresh; Ward, Doyle V; Yao, Alison; Zheng, Jie; Barrett, Tanya; Birren, Bruce; Brinkac, Lauren; Bruno, Vincent M; Caler, Elizabet; Chapman, Sinéad; Collins, Frank H; Cuomo, Christina A; Di Francesco, Valentina; Durkin, Scott; Eppinger, Mark; Feldgarden, Michael; Fraser, Claire; Fricke, W Florian; Giovanni, Maria; Henn, Matthew R; Hine, Erin; Hotopp, Julie Dunning; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Kissinger, Jessica C; Lee, Eun Mi; Mathur, Punam; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Murphy, Cheryl I; Myers, Garry; Neafsey, Daniel E; Nelson, Karen E; Nierman, William C; Puzak, Julia; Rasko, David; Roos, David S; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Silva, Joana C; Sobral, Bruno; Squires, R Burke; Stevens, Rick L; Tallon, Luke; Tettelin, Herve; Wentworth, David; White, Owen; Will, Rebecca; Wortman, Jennifer; Zhang, Yun; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing has accelerated the determination of genome sequences for thousands of human infectious disease pathogens and dozens of their vectors. The scale and scope of these data are enabling genotype-phenotype association studies to identify genetic determinants of pathogen virulence and drug/insecticide resistance, and phylogenetic studies to track the origin and spread of disease outbreaks. To maximize the utility of genomic sequences for these purposes, it is essential that metadata about the pathogen/vector isolate characteristics be collected and made available in organized, clear, and consistent formats. Here we report the development of the GSCID/BRC Project and Sample Application Standard, developed by representatives of the Genome Sequencing Centers for Infectious Diseases (GSCIDs), the Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRCs) for Infectious Diseases, and the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), informed by interactions with numerous collaborating scientists. It includes mapping to terms from other data standards initiatives, including the Genomic Standards Consortium's minimal information (MIxS) and NCBI's BioSample/BioProjects checklists and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The standard includes data fields about characteristics of the organism or environmental source of the specimen, spatial-temporal information about the specimen isolation event, phenotypic characteristics of the pathogen/vector isolated, and project leadership and support. By modeling metadata fields into an ontology-based semantic framework and reusing existing ontologies and minimum information checklists, the application standard can be extended to support additional project-specific data fields and integrated with other data represented with comparable standards. The use of this metadata standard by all ongoing and future GSCID sequencing projects will provide a

  17. A mouse model for the human pathogen Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeongmin; Willinger, Tim; Rongvaux, Anthony; Eynon, Elizabeth E.; Stevens, Sean; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.; Galán, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever, a life-threatening disease of humans. The lack of an animal model due to S. typhi's strict human host specificity has been a significant obstacle in the understanding of its pathogenesis and the development of a safe and effective vaccine against typhoid fever. We report here the development of a mouse model for S. Typhi infection. We showed that immunodeficient Rag2 -/- γc -/- mice engrafted with human fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were able to support S. Typhi replication and persistent infection. A S. Typhi strain carrying a mutation in a gene required for its virulence in humans was not able to replicate in these humanized mice. In contrast, another mutant strain unable to produce the recently identified typhoid toxin, exhibited increased replication suggesting a potential role for this toxin in the establishment of persistent infection. Furthermore, infected animals mounted a human innate and adaptive immune response to S. Typhi resulting in the production of cytokines and pathogen-specific antibodies. These results therefore indicate that this animal model can be used to study S. Typhi pathogenesis and to evaluate potential vaccine candidates against typhoid fever. PMID:20951970

  18. Bartonella henselae inhibits apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Volkhard A J; Schairer, Annette; Neumann, Diana; Grassl, Guntram A; Lauber, Kirsten; Lebiedziejewski, Maria; Schaller, Martin; Kyme, Pierre; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2005-01-01

    Bartonella henselae causes the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis probably resulting from the release of vasculoendothelial growth factor (VEGF) from infected epithelial or monocytic host cells. Here we demonstrate that B. henselae in addition to VEGF induction was also capable of inhibiting the endogenous sucide programme of monocytic host cells. Our results show that B. henselae inhibits pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-induced apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells. B. henselae was observed to be present in a vacuolic compartment of Mono Mac 6 cells. Direct contact of B. henselae with Mono Mac 6 cells was crucial for inhibition of apoptosis as shown by the use of a two-chamber model. Inhibition of apoptosis was paralleled by diminished caspase-3 activity which was significantly reduced in PDTC-stimulated and B. henselae-infected cells. The anti-apoptotic effect of B. henselae was accompanied by (i) the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and (ii) the induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins-1 and -2 (cIAP-1, -2). Our results suggest a new synergistic mechanism in B. henselae pathogenicity by (i) inhibition of host cell apoptosis via activation of NF-kappaB and (ii) induction of host cell VEGF secretion. PMID:15617526

  19. Oxidative stress responses in the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Alessandra da Silva; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  20. Inhibition of human pathogenic fungi by ethnobotanically selected plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ficker, Christine E; Arnason, J T; Vindas, P S; Alvarez, L P; Akpagana, K; Gbéassor, M; De Souza, C; Smith, M L

    2003-02-01

    In this study, 36 extracts derived from 29 plant species selected using an ethnobotanical approach were tested for antifungal activity against a taxonomically diverse group of 13 human pathogenic fungi. We compared the inhibitory characteristics of these plant extracts with those of the commonly used antifungals, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, and the plant-derived antifungal, berberine. Several plant extracts, notably those from Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Juglans cinerea (butternut), had pronounced antifungal activity against a wide variety of fungi, including strains that were highly resistant to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Further exploration of Z. officinale as an antifungal is warranted as this species is generally regarded as safe for human consumption. PMID:12588480

  1. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  2. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  3. Splenorenal Manifestations of Bartonella henselae Infection in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Taylor; Fulton, Nicholas; Vasavada, Pauravi

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a bacterium which can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations, ranging from fever of unknown origin to a potentially fatal endocarditis. We report a case of Bartonella henselae infection in a pediatric-aged patient following a scratch from a kitten. The patient initially presented with a prolonged fever of unknown origin which was unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. The patient was hospitalized with worsening fevers and night sweat. Subsequent ultrasound imaging demonstrated multiple hypoechoic foci within the spleen. A contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis was also obtained which showed hypoattenuating lesions in the spleen and bilateral kidneys. Bartonella henselae IgG and IgM titers were positive, consistent with an acute Bartonella henselae infection. The patient was discharged with a course of oral rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and all symptoms had resolved following two weeks of therapy. PMID:27127672

  4. A Quantitative Prioritisation of Human and Domestic Animal Pathogens in Europe

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, K. Marie; Setzkorn, Christian; Hepworth, Philip J.; Morand, Serge; Morse, Andrew P.; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. Previous work has shown the H-(Hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. We present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic animal pathogens) using an objective, evidence-based, repeatable approach; the H-index. This study established the highest H-index European pathogens. Commonalities amongst pathogens not included in previous surveillance or risk analyses were examined. Differences between host types (humans/animals/zoonotic) in pathogen H-indices were explored as a One Health impact indicator. Finally, the acceptability of the H-index proxy for animal pathogen impact was examined by comparison with other measures. 57 pathogens appeared solely in the top 100 highest H-indices (1) human or (2) animal pathogens list, and 43 occurred in both. Of human pathogens, 66 were zoonotic and 67 were emerging, compared to 67 and 57 for animals. There were statistically significant differences between H-indices for host types (humans, animal, zoonotic), and there was limited evidence that H-indices are a reasonable proxy for animal pathogen impact. This work addresses measures outlined by the European Commission to strengthen climate change resilience and biosecurity for infectious diseases. The results include a quantitative evaluation of infectious pathogen impact, and suggest greater impacts of human-only compared to zoonotic pathogens or scientific under-representation of zoonoses. The outputs separate high and low impact pathogens, and should be combined with other risk assessment methods relying on expert opinion or qualitative data for priority setting, or could be used to prioritise diseases for which formal risk assessments are not possible because of data gaps. PMID:25136810

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Mangrove Leaf Extracts against Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, G.; Mulla, N. S. S.; Ansari, Z. A.; Mohandass, C.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of mangroves, namely, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Exoecaria agallocha from Chorao island, Goa was investigated against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the other two resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. were inhibited by the ethanol extract of leaves of all the species. The aqueous extract of S. alba and E. agallocha showed their activity against P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, phenol and volatile oils in the leaves of mangroves. Further studies using different solvents for extraction are necessary to confirm that mangroves are a better source for the development of novel antibiotics. PMID:23626390

  6. Visual proteomics of the human pathogen Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Martin; Malmström, Johan A.; Lange, Vinzenz; Schmidt, Alexander; Deutsch, Eric W.; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2010-01-01

    Systems biology conceptualizes biological systems as dynamic networks of interacting elements, whereby functionally important properties are thought to emerge from the structure of such networks. Due to the ubiquitous role of complexes of interacting proteins in biological systems, their subunit composition and temporal and spatial arrangement within the cell are of particular interest. ‘Visual proteomics’ attempts to localize individual macromolecular complexes inside of intact cells by template matching reference structures into cryo electron tomograms. Here we have combined quantitative mass spectrometry and cryo electron tomography to detect, count and localize specific protein complexes within the cytoplasm of the human pathogen Leptospira interrogans. We describe a novel scoring function for visual proteomics and assess its performance and accuracy under realistic conditions. We discuss current and general limitations of the approach, as well as expected improvements in the future. PMID:19838170

  7. Cell wall integrity signalling in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Dichtl, Karl; Samantaray, Sweta; Wagener, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Fungi are surrounded by a rigid structure, the fungal cell wall. Its plasticity and composition depend on active regulation of the underlying biosynthesis and restructuring processes. This involves specialised signalling pathways that control gene expression and activities of biosynthetic enzymes. The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is the central signalling cascade required for the adaptation to a wide spectrum of cell wall perturbing conditions, including heat, oxidative stress and antifungals. In the recent years, great efforts were made to analyse the CWI pathway of diverse fungi. It turned out that the CWI signalling cascade is mostly conserved in the fungal kingdom. In this review, we summarise as well as compare the current knowledge on the canonical CWI pathway in the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Understanding the differences and similarities in the stress responses of these organisms could become a key to improving existing or developing new antifungal therapies. PMID:27155139

  8. Phytomonas serpens: immunological similarities with the human trypanosomatid pathogens.

    PubMed

    Santos, André L S; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Elias, Camila G R; Vermelho, Alane B; Branquinha, Marta H

    2007-07-01

    The present review provides an overview of recent discoveries concerning the immunological similarities between Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, and human trypanosomatid pathogens, with special emphasis on peptidases. Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi express peptidases that are well-known virulence factors, named leishmanolysin and cruzipain. P. serpens synthesizes two distinct classes of proteolytic enzymes, metallo- and cysteine-type peptidases, that share common epitopes with leishmanolysin and cruzipain, respectively. The leishmanolysin-like and cruzipain-like molecules from P. serpens participate in several biological processes including cellular growth and adhesion to the salivary glands of Oncopeltus fasciatus, a phytophagous insect experimental model. Since previous reports demonstrated that immunization of mice with P. serpens induced a partial protective immune response against T. cruzi, this plant trypanosomatid may be a suitable candidate for vaccine studies. Moreover, comparative approaches in the Trypanosomatidae family may be useful to understand kinetoplastid biology, biochemistry and evolution. PMID:17556002

  9. Subtyping Cryptosporidium ubiquitum,a Zoonotic Pathogen Emerging in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Xiao, Lihua; Alderisio, Keri; Elwin, Kristin; Cebelinski, Elizabeth; Chalmers, Rachel; Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald; Kvac, Martin; Ryan, Una; Sak, Bohumil; Stanko, Michal; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Longxian; Cai, Jinzhong; Roellig, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium ubiquitum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. In the past, it was not possible to identify an association between cases of human and animal infection. We conducted a genomic survey of the species, developed a subtyping tool targeting the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, and identified 6 subtype families (XIIa–XIIf) of C. ubiquitum. Host adaptation was apparent at the gp60 locus; subtype XIIa was found in ruminants worldwide, subtype families XIIb–XIId were found in rodents in the United States, and XIIe and XIIf were found in rodents in the Slovak Republic. Humans in the United States were infected with isolates of subtypes XIIb–XIId, whereas those in other areas were infected primarily with subtype XIIa isolates. In addition, subtype families XIIb and XIId were detected in drinking source water in the United States. Contact with C. ubiquitum–infected sheep and drinking water contaminated by infected wildlife could be sources of human infections. PMID:24447504

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO WATERBORNE PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated drinking water is major source of waterborne diseases. EPA has published a drinking water contaminant candidate list (CCL) that contains a number of pathogens that potentially could be regulated in drinking water. Studies indicate that certain viral pathogens (adenov...

  11. Pathogen reduction in human plasma using an ultrashort pulsed laser

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen reduction is an ideal approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent...

  12. Parasite Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases as Drug Discovery Targets to Treat Human Protozoan Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Brumlik, Michael J.; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Ludwig, Sara M.; Murthy, Kruthi; Curiel, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    Protozoan pathogens are a highly diverse group of unicellular organisms, several of which are significant human pathogens. One group of protozoan pathogens includes obligate intracellular parasites such as agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis. The other group includes extracellular pathogens such as agents of giardiasis and amebiasis. An unfortunate unifying theme for most human protozoan pathogens is that highly effective treatments for them are generally lacking. We will review targeting protozoan mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as a novel drug discovery approach towards developing better therapies, focusing on Plasmodia, Leishmania, and Toxoplasma, about which the most is known. PMID:21637385

  13. Identification of the Feline Humoral Immune Response to Bartonella henselae Infection by Protein Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Adam; Ortega, Rocio; Jain, Aarti; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Tan, Xiaolin; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Koehler, Jane E.; Felgner, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bartonella henselae is the zoonotic agent of cat scratch disease and causes potentially fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. Understanding the complex interactions between the host's immune system and bacterial pathogens is central to the field of infectious diseases and to the development of effective diagnostics and vaccines. Methodology We report the development of a microarray comprised of proteins expressed from 96% (1433/1493) of the predicted ORFs encoded by the genome of the zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae. The array was probed with a collection of 62 uninfected, 62 infected, and 8 “specific-pathogen free” naïve cat sera, to profile the antibody repertoire elicited during natural Bartonella henselae infection. Conclusions We found that 7.3% of the B. henselae proteins on the microarray were seroreactive and that seroreactivity was not evenly distributed between predicted protein function or subcellular localization. Membrane proteins were significantly most likely to be seroreactive, although only 23% of the membrane proteins were reactive. Conversely, we found that proteins involved in amino acid transport and metabolism were significantly underrepresented and did not contain any seroreactive antigens. Of all seroreactive antigens, 52 were differentially reactive with sera from infected cats, and 53 were equally reactive with sera from infected and uninfected cats. Thirteen of the seroreactive antigens were found to be differentially seroreactive between B. henselae type I and type II. Based on these results, we developed a classifier algorithm that was capable of accurately discerning 93% of the infected animals using the microarray platform. The seroreactivity and diagnostic potential of these antigens was then validated on an immunostrip platform, which correctly identified 98% of the infected cats. Our protein microarray platform provides a high-throughput, comprehensive analysis of the feline humoral immune response to

  14. Whole Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Bartonella bacilliformis Strain INS, the Causative Agent of Carrion’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona, D.; Padilla, C.; Cáceres, O.; Montenegro, J. D.; Bailón, H.; Ventura, G.; Mendoza, G.; Anaya, E.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of human bartonellosis, which is highly endemic to Peru. Here, we report the first genome that was sequenced and analyzed from an isolate of B. bacilliformis strain INS, which originally was isolated from the blood of an infected patient with an acute phase of Carrion’s disease from Jaén-Cajamarca, Peru. PMID:23409255

  15. Granulomatous disease associated with Bartonella infection in 2 dogs.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, B L; Brown, T; Gookin, J L; Morrill, C L; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2000-01-01

    Shortly after removal of an engorged tick from the left ear, a 4-year-old Greyhound was referred for evaluation of fever and a rapidly enlarging mass in the region of the left submandibular lymph node. Histopathologic evaluation of the lymph node resulted in a diagnosis of severe granulomatous lymphadenitis. An 11-year-old mixed-breed dog was referred for evaluation of a 6-week history of serous nasal discharge. Histologic examination of a surgical biopsy from a nasal mass indicated multifocal granulomatous inflammation with fibrosis. Serum samples obtained from both dogs were reactive by immunofluorescent assay to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antigens (reciprocal titers of 128). Although Bartonella organisms were not isolated by lysis centrifugation blood culture, Bartonella DNA was amplified from tissue samples obtained from each dog (lymph node biopsy from dog 1 and nasal biopsy from dog 2) using primers that amplify a portion of the 16S rRNA gene followed by Southern blot hybridization using a genus-specific probe. Additionally, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of a Bartonella-specific citrate synthase gene product obtained from dog 2 resulted in a restriction pattern identical to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the 1st report of granulomatous disease in dogs associated with Bartonella infection. PMID:10668815

  16. 76 FR 30176 - Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims; Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... published in the Federal Register of March 9, 2001 (66 FR 14155), FDA announced the availability of a guidance for industry 121 entitled ``Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen... Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY: Food...

  17. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  18. Inactivation of human pathogenic dermatophytes by non-thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Vladimír; Soušková, Hana; Hubka, Vit; Švarcová, Michaela; Julák, Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) was tested as an in vitro deactivation method on four human pathogenic dermatophytes belonging to all ecological groups including anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale, zoophilic Arthroderma benhamiae, and geophilic Microsporum gypseum. The identification of all strains was confirmed by sequencing of ITS rDNA region (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA). Dermatophyte spores were suspended in water or inoculated on agar plates and exposed to NTP generated by a positive or negative corona discharge, or cometary discharge. After 15 min of exposure to NTP a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores in water suspensions was observed in all species. Complete spore inactivation and thus decontamination was observed in anthropophilic species after 25 min of exposure. Similarly, a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores was observed after 10-15 min of exposure to NTP on the surface of agar plates with full inhibition after 25 min in all tested species except of M. gypseum. Although the sensitivity of dermatophytes to the action of NTP appears to be lower than that of bacteria and yeast, our results suggest that NTP has the potential to be used as an alternative treatment strategy for dermatophytosis and could be useful for surface decontamination in clinical practice. PMID:26427826

  19. Regulation of filamentation in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyu; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo; Yue, Huizhen; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Dai, Yu; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-02-01

    The yeast-filament transition is essential for the virulence of a variety of fungi that are pathogenic to humans. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a potent inducer of filamentation in Candida albicans and thermally dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. However, GlcNAc suppresses rather than promotes filamentation in Candida tropicalis, a fungal species that is closely related to C. albicans. Despite the intensive study in C. albicans, the regulatory mechanism of filamentation is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the cAMP signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. By screening an overexpression library of 156 transcription factors, we have identified approximately 40 regulators of filamentous growth. Although most of the regulators (e.g., Tec1, Gat2, Nrg1, Sfl1, Sfl2 and Ash1) demonstrate a conserved role in the regulation of filamentation, similar to their homologues in C. albicans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a number of transcription factors (e.g., Wor1, Bcr1, Stp4, Efh1, Csr1 and Zcf17) play a specific role in C. tropicalis. Our findings indicate that multiple interconnected signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. These mechanisms have conserved and divergent features among different Candida species. PMID:26466925

  20. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera) from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Laudisoit, Anne; Houemenou, Gualbert; Davoust, Bernard; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries. Methodology/Principal findings Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin), Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199), and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199). In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania), R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20) of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20) of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7) of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20) of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23) of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38) of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11) of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21) of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11) of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26) of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30) of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa. Conclusion Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high. PMID:25299702

  1. Pathogen survival trajectories: an eco-environmental approach to the modeling of human campylobacteriosis ecology.

    PubMed Central

    Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis, like many human diseases, has its own ecology in which the propagation of human infection and disease depends on pathogen survival and finding new hosts in order to replicate and sustain the pathogen population. The complexity of this process, a process common to other enteric pathogens, has hampered control efforts. Many unknowns remain, resulting in a poorly understood disease ecology. To provide structure to these unknowns and help direct further research and intervention, we propose an eco-environmental modeling approach for campylobacteriosis. This modeling approach follows the pathogen population as it moves through the environments that define the physical structure of its ecology. In this paper, we term the ecologic processes and environments through which these populations move "pathogen survival trajectories." Although such a modeling approach could have veterinary applications, our emphasis is on human campylobacteriosis and focuses on human exposures to Campylobacter through feces, food, and aquatic environments. The pathogen survival trajectories that lead to human exposure include ecologic filters that limit population size, e.g., cooking food to kill Campylobacter. Environmental factors that influence the size of the pathogen reservoirs include temperature, nutrient availability, and moisture availability during the period of time the pathogen population is moving through the environment between infected and susceptible hosts. We anticipate that the modeling approach proposed here will work symbiotically with traditional epidemiologic and microbiologic research to help guide and evaluate the acquisition of new knowledge about the ecology, eventual intervention, and control of campylobacteriosis. PMID:12515674

  2. Genomic insights into the emerging human pathogen Mycobacterium massiliense.

    PubMed

    Tettelin, Hervé; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Daugherty, Sean C; Hine, Erin; Riley, David R; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Sengamalay, Naomi; Shefchek, Kent; Su, Qi; Tallon, Luke J; Conville, Patricia; Olivier, Kenneth N; Holland, Steven M; Fraser, Claire M; Zelazny, Adrian M

    2012-10-01

    Mycobacterium massiliense (Mycobacterium abscessus group) is an emerging pathogen causing pulmonary disease and skin and soft tissue infections. We report the genome sequence of the type strain CCUG 48898. PMID:22965080

  3. Reduced Set of Virulence Genes Allows High Accuracy Prediction of Bacterial Pathogenicity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Vazquez, Gustavo; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been great advances in understanding bacterial pathogenesis, there is still a lack of integrative information about what makes a bacterium a human pathogen. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has dramatically increased the amount of completed bacterial genomes, for both known human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains; this information is now available to investigate genetic features that determine pathogenic phenotypes in bacteria. In this work we determined presence/absence patterns of different virulence-related genes among more than finished bacterial genomes from both human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, belonging to different taxonomic groups (i.e: Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, etc.). An accuracy of 95% using a cross-fold validation scheme with in-fold feature selection is obtained when classifying human pathogens and non-pathogens. A reduced subset of highly informative genes () is presented and applied to an external validation set. The statistical model was implemented in the BacFier v1.0 software (freely available at ), that displays not only the prediction (pathogen/non-pathogen) and an associated probability for pathogenicity, but also the presence/absence vector for the analyzed genes, so it is possible to decipher the subset of virulence genes responsible for the classification on the analyzed genome. Furthermore, we discuss the biological relevance for bacterial pathogenesis of the core set of genes, corresponding to eight functional categories, all with evident and documented association with the phenotypes of interest. Also, we analyze which functional categories of virulence genes were more distinctive for pathogenicity in each taxonomic group, which seems to be a completely new kind of information and could lead to important evolutionary conclusions. PMID:22916122

  4. The arable ecosystem as battleground for emergence of new human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Doorn, Joop; Wichers, Jan H.; van Amerongen, Aart; van Roermund, Herman J. W.; Willemsen, Peter T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Disease incidences related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica infections by consumption of (fresh) vegetables, sprouts, and occasionally fruits made clear that these pathogens are not only transmitted to humans via the “classical” routes of meat, eggs, and dairy products, but also can be transmitted to humans via plants or products derived from plants. Nowadays, it is of major concern that these human pathogens, especially the ones belonging to the taxonomical family of Enterobacteriaceae, become adapted to environmental habitats without losing their virulence to humans. Adaptation to the plant environment would lead to longer persistence in plants, increasing their chances on transmission to humans via consumption of plant-derived food. One of the mechanisms of adaptation to the plant environment in human pathogens, proposed in this paper, is horizontal transfer of genes from different microbial communities present in the arable ecosystem, like the ones originating from soil, animal digestive track systems (manure), water and plants themselves. Genes that would confer better adaptation to the phytosphere might be genes involved in plant colonization, stress resistance and nutrient acquisition and utilization. Because human pathogenic enterics often were prone to genetic exchanges via phages and conjugative plasmids, it was postulated that these genetic elements may be hold key responsible for horizontal gene transfers between human pathogens and indigenous microbes in agroproduction systems. In analogy to zoonosis, we coin the term phytonosis for a human pathogen that is transmitted via plants and not exclusively via animals. PMID:24688484

  5. Detection of Bartonella spp. in wild carnivores, hyraxes, hedgehog and rodents from Israel.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Odelya; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; King, Roni; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Bartonella infection was explored in wild animals from Israel. Golden jackals (Canis aureus), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), southern white-breasted hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor), social voles (Microtus socialis), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami), Cairo spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus), house mice (Mus musculus) and Indian crested porcupines (Hystrix indica) were sampled and screened by molecular and isolation methods. Bartonella-DNA was detected in 46 animals: 9/70 (13%) golden jackals, 2/11 (18%) red foxes, 3/35 (9%) rock hyraxes, 1/3 (33%) southern white-breasted hedgehogs, 5/57 (9%) Cairo spiny mice, 25/43 (58%) Tristram's jirds and 1/6 (16%) house mice. Bartonella rochalimae and B. rochalimae-like were widespread among jackals, foxes, hyraxes and jirds. This report represents the first detection of this zoonotic Bartonella sp. in rock hyraxes and golden jackals. Moreover, DNA of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella acomydis, Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii and other uncharacterized genotypes were identified. Three different Bartonella strains were isolated from Tristram's jirds, and several genotypes were molecularly detected from these animals. Furthermore, this study reports the first detection of Bartonella infection in a southern hedgehog. Our study indicates that infection with zoonotic and other Bartonella species is widespread among wild animals and stresses their potential threat to public health. PMID:27210612

  6. High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie; Umhang, Gérald; Aspan, Anna; Juremalm, Mikael; Chirico, Jan; van der Wal, Fimme J.; Sprong, Hein; Boye Pihl, Thomas P.; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Bødker, Rene; Fach, Patrick; Moutailler, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout Europe. Therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. To accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from France, Denmark, and the Netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. This advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detection of 25 bacterial, and 12 parasitic species (including; Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia, and Theileria genus) across 94 samples. We successfully determined the prevalence of expected (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia divergens, Babesia venatorum), unexpected (Borrelia miyamotoi), and rare (Bartonella henselae) pathogens in the three European countries. Moreover we detected Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia divergens, and Babesia venatorum for the first time in Danish ticks. This surveillance method represents a major improvement in epidemiological studies, able to facilitate comprehensive testing of TBPs, and which can also be customized to monitor emerging diseases. PMID:25120960

  7. Serological survey of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens in pet cats and cats from animal shelters and feral colonies.

    PubMed

    Case, Joseph Brad; Chomel, Bruno; Nicholson, William; Foley, Janet E

    2006-04-01

    Although cats and their arthropod parasites can sometimes be important sources of zoonotic diseases in humans, the extent of exposure among various cat populations to many potential zoonotic agents remains incompletely described. In this study, 170 domestic cats living in private homes, feral cat colonies, and animal shelters from California and Wisconsin were evaluated by serology to determine the levels of exposure to a group of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens. Serological positive test results were observed in 17.2% of cats for Rickettsia rickettsii, 14.9% for R akari, 4.9% for R typhi, 11.1% for R felis, and 14.7% for Bartonella henselae. Although vector-borne disease exposure has been documented previously in cats, the evaluation of multiple pathogens and diverse cat populations simultaneously performed here contributes to our understanding of feline exposure to these zoonotic pathogens. PMID:16434226

  8. Pre and post harvest interventions for preventing potential contamination of apples with human pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The possible presence of pathogens on the surface and/or inaccessible sites (calyx, stem, and/or core) of apples has implications for the microbiological safety of supplies to the fresh and fresh-cut industry. Contamination of apples with human pathogen can occur during growth, harvesting, distribut...

  9. Rickettsia and Bartonella Species in Fleas from Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263

  10. Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) as Natural Reservoir of Bartonella quintana.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yoshino, Aika; Sekine, Wataru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Yamazaki, Shouki; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-12-01

    Bartonella quintana bacteremia was detected in 6 (13.3%) of 45 wild-caught Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed that Japanese macaques were infected with a new and specific B. quintana sequence type. Free-ranging Japanese macaques thus represent another natural reservoir of B. quintana. PMID:26584238