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Sample records for human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase

  1. Structure, function, and control of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Rebecchi, M J; Pentyala, S N

    2000-10-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) subtypes beta, gamma, and delta comprise a related group of multidomain phosphodiesterases that cleave the polar head groups from inositol lipids. Activated by all classes of cell surface receptor, these enzymes generate the ubiquitous second messengers inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. The last 5 years have seen remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular and biological facets of PLCs. New insights into their multidomain arrangement and catalytic mechanism have been gained from crystallographic studies of PLC-delta(1), while new modes of controlling PLC activity have been uncovered in cellular studies. Most notable is the realization that PLC-beta, -gamma, and -delta isoforms act in concert, each contributing to a specific aspect of the cellular response. Clues to their true biological roles were also obtained. Long assumed to function broadly in calcium-regulated processes, genetic studies in yeast, slime molds, plants, flies, and mammals point to specific and conditional roles for each PLC isoform in cell signaling and development. In this review we consider each subtype of PLC in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals and discuss their molecular regulation and biological function. PMID:11015615

  2. Molecular and Enzymatic Characterization of Three Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C Isoforms from Potato1

    PubMed Central

    Kopka, Joachim; Pical, Christophe; Gray, Julie E.; Müller-Röber, Bernd

    1998-01-01

    Many cellular responses to stimulation of cell-surface receptors by extracellular signals are transmitted across the plasma membrane by hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which is cleaved into diacylglycerol and inositol-1,4,5-tris-phosphate by phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). We present structural, biochemical, and RNA expression data for three distinct PI-PLC isoforms, StPLC1, StPLC2, and StPLC3, which were cloned from a guard cell-enriched tissue preparation of potato (Solanum tuberosum) leaves. All three enzymes contain the catalytic X and Y domains, as well as C2-like domains also present in all PI-PLCs. Analysis of the reaction products obtained from PIP2 hydrolysis unequivocally identified these enzymes as genuine PI-PLC isoforms. Recombinant StPLCs showed an optimal PIP2-hydrolyzing activity at 10 μm Ca2+ and were inhibited by Al3+ in equimolar amounts. In contrast to PI-PLC activity in plant plasma membranes, however, recombinant enzymes could not be activated by Mg2+. All three stplc genes are expressed in various tissues of potato, including leaves, flowers, tubers, and roots, and are affected by drought stress in a gene-specific manner. PMID:9449844

  3. Regulation of platelet activating factor receptor coupled phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were two-fold. The first was to establish whether binding of platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor was integral to the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in rabbit platelets. The second was to determine regulatory features of this receptor-coupled mechanism. ({sup 3}H)PAF binding demonstrated two binding sites, a high affinity site with a inhibitory constant (Ki) of 2.65 nM and a low affinity site with a Ki of 0.80 {mu}M. PAF receptor coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific PLC was studied in platelets which were made refractory, by short term pretreatments, to either PAF or thrombin. Saponin-permeabilized rabbit platelets continue to regulate the mechanism(s) coupling PAF receptors to PLC stimulation. However, TRP{gamma}S and GDP{beta}S, which affect guanine nucleotide regulatory protein functions, were unable to modulate the PLC activity to any appreciable extent as compared to PAF. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets pretreated with staurosporine followed by pretreatments with PAF or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  4. A plasma-membrane linker for the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kimiyo; Sano, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We previously screened genes that were transcriptionally activated during the early stage of wound response in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum), and isolated a particular clone, which encoded a membrane-located protein, designated as NtC7. Upon overexpression in tobacco plants, NtC7 conferred a marked tolerance to osmotic stress, suggesting it to be involved in maintenance of osmotic adjustments. In this study, we searched for proteins which interact with NtC7 by the yeast two-hybrid screening, and isolated a clone encoding phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, designated as NtPI-PLC. Physical interaction between NtC7 and C2 domain of NtPI-PLC was confirmed by the pull-down assay. Expression of fused protein to green-fluorescence protein in onion epidermal cell layers indicated both proteins to predominantly localize to the plasma membrane. Their interaction in planta was shown by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation, which exhibited a clear fluorescence of reconstituted yellow fluorescence protein. Transcripts of NtC7 and NtPI-PLC were markedly increased 30 to 60 min after wounding. PI-PLC is one of key enzymes in metabolism of inositol phospholipids, which function in signal transduction and also in response to stresses including osmotic changes. It was shown to localize to plasma-membrane and, to a lesser extent, to cytosol. However, molecular mechanism of membrane localization has remained to be determined, because of the apparent lack of domains for membrane association. The present results suggest that one of such mechanisms is tethering NtPI-PLC to the plasma membrane through interaction with NtC7, which possesses a transmembrane domain at the C-terminus. PMID:19704699

  5. A mutation in PLC1, a candidate phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes aberrant mitotic chromosome segregation.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W E; Fitzgerald-Hayes, M

    1993-01-01

    We identified a putative Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene, PLC1, which encodes a protein most similar to the delta class of PI-PLC enzymes. The PLC1 gene was isolated during a study of yeast strains that exhibit defects in chromosome segregation. plc1-1 cells showed a 10-fold increase in aberrant chromosome segregation compared with the wild type. Molecular analysis revealed that PLC1 encodes a predicted protein of 101 kDa with approximately 50 and 26% identity to the highly conserved X and Y domains of PI-PLC isozymes from humans, bovines, rats, and Drosophila melanogaster. The putative yeast protein also contains a consensus EF-hand domain that is predicted to bind calcium. Interestingly, the temperature-sensitive and chromosome missegregation phenotypes exhibited by plc1-1 cells were partially suppressed by exogenous calcium. Images PMID:8391635

  6. Expression of Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C Isoforms in Native Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Béziau, Delphine M.; Toussaint, Fanny; Blanchette, Alexandre; Dayeh, Nour R.; Charbel, Chimène; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Ledoux, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) comprises a superfamily of enzymes that play a key role in a wide array of intracellular signalling pathways, including protein kinase C and intracellular calcium. Thirteen different mammalian PLC isoforms have been identified and classified into 6 families (PLC-β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η) based on their biochemical properties. Although the expression of PLC isoforms is tissue-specific, concomitant expression of different PLC has been reported, suggesting that PLC family is involved in multiple cellular functions. Despite their critical role, the PLC isoforms expressed in native endothelial cells (ECs) remains undetermined. A conventional PCR approach was initially used to elucidate the mRNA expression pattern of PLC isoforms in 3 distinct murine vascular beds: mesenteric (MA), pulmonary (PA) and middle cerebral arteries (MCA). mRNA encoding for most PLC isoforms was detected in MA, MCA and PA with the exception of η2 and β2 (only expressed in PA), δ4 (only expressed in MCA), η1 (expressed in all but MA) and ζ (not detected in any vascular beds tested). The endothelial-specific PLC expression was then sought in freshly isolated ECs. Interestingly, the PLC expression profile appears to differ across the investigated arterial beds. While mRNA for 8 of the 13 PLC isoforms was detected in ECs from MA, two additional PLC isoforms were detected in ECs from PA and MCA. Co-expression of multiple PLC isoforms in ECs suggests an elaborate network of signalling pathways: PLC isoforms may contribute to the complexity or diversity of signalling by their selective localization in cellular microdomains. However in situ immunofluorescence revealed a homogeneous distribution for all PLC isoforms probed (β3, γ2 and δ1) in intact endothelium. Although PLC isoforms play a crucial role in endothelial signal transduction, subcellular localization alone does not appear to be sufficient to determine the role of PLC in the signalling microdomains found in the

  7. Arabidopsis AtPLC2 Is a Primary Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C in Phosphoinositide Metabolism and the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Kazue; Yu, Chao-Yuan; Cho, Yueh; Cheong, Wei-Fun; Torta, Federico; Shui, Guanghou; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-09-01

    Phosphoinositides represent important lipid signals in the plant development and stress response. However, multiple isoforms of the phosphoinositide biosynthetic genes hamper our understanding of the pivotal enzymes in each step of the pathway as well as their roles in plant growth and development. Here, we report that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C2 (AtPLC2) is the primary phospholipase in phosphoinositide metabolism and is involved in seedling growth and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lipidomic profiling of multiple plc mutants showed that the plc2-1 mutant increased levels of its substrates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, suggesting that the major phosphoinositide metabolic pathway is impaired. AtPLC2 displayed a distinct tissue expression pattern and localized at the plasma membrane in different cell types, where phosphoinositide signaling occurs. The seedlings of plc2-1 mutant showed growth defect that was complemented by heterologous expression of AtPLC2, suggesting that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity borne by AtPLC2 is required for seedling growth. Moreover, the plc2-1 mutant showed hypersensitive response to ER stress as evidenced by changes in relevant phenotypes and gene expression profiles. Our results revealed the primary enzyme in phosphoinositide metabolism, its involvement in seedling growth and an emerging link between phosphoinositide and the ER stress response. PMID:26401841

  8. Arabidopsis AtPLC2 Is a Primary Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C in Phosphoinositide Metabolism and the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Kanehara, Kazue; Yu, Chao-Yuan; Cho, Yueh; Cheong, Wei-Fun; Torta, Federico; Shui, Guanghou; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phosphoinositides represent important lipid signals in the plant development and stress response. However, multiple isoforms of the phosphoinositide biosynthetic genes hamper our understanding of the pivotal enzymes in each step of the pathway as well as their roles in plant growth and development. Here, we report that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C2 (AtPLC2) is the primary phospholipase in phosphoinositide metabolism and is involved in seedling growth and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lipidomic profiling of multiple plc mutants showed that the plc2-1 mutant increased levels of its substrates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, suggesting that the major phosphoinositide metabolic pathway is impaired. AtPLC2 displayed a distinct tissue expression pattern and localized at the plasma membrane in different cell types, where phosphoinositide signaling occurs. The seedlings of plc2-1 mutant showed growth defect that was complemented by heterologous expression of AtPLC2, suggesting that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity borne by AtPLC2 is required for seedling growth. Moreover, the plc2-1 mutant showed hypersensitive response to ER stress as evidenced by changes in relevant phenotypes and gene expression profiles. Our results revealed the primary enzyme in phosphoinositide metabolism, its involvement in seedling growth and an emerging link between phosphoinositide and the ER stress response. PMID:26401841

  9. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-delta 1: effect of monolayer surface pressure and electrostatic surface potentials on activity.

    PubMed

    Rebecchi, M; Boguslavsky, V; Boguslavsky, L; McLaughlin, S

    1992-12-29

    We added phospholipase C-delta 1 (PLC-delta) to the aqueous subphase beneath monolayers formed from mixtures of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (2% PIP2), phosphatidylserine (33% PS), and phosphatidylcholine (65% PC) and then measured the initial rate of hydrolysis of PIP2 after addition of 10 microM free calcium. Increasing the surface pressure of the monolayer, pi, from 20 to 40 mN/m decreased the rate of hydrolysis 200-fold. The rate of hydrolysis depends exponentially on the surface pressure: rate alpha exp(-pi Ap/kT) where k is the Boltzmann constant, T is the temperature, and Ap congruent to 1 nm2. Similar results were obtained with different (1 and 100 microM) free [Ca2+] and with different mole fractions of PIP2. The results are consistent with a model in which PLC-delta binds to PIP2 with high affinity (Ka = 10(6) M-1) in the absence of calcium ions [Rebecchi, M.J., Peterson, A., & McLaughlin, S. (1993) Biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)], and a portion of PLC-delta of area Ap inserts into the monolayer doing work = pi Ap prior to hydrolysis of PIP2. Removing the monovalent acidic lipid PS from the monolayer decreases the activity of PLC-delta 4-fold, this effect of PS on activity is similar to the effect of monovalent acidic lipids on the binding of PLC-delta to PIP2 in bilayer vesicles. PMID:1334430

  10. Effect of monolayer surface pressure on the activities of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1, -gamma 1, and -delta 1.

    PubMed

    Boguslavsky, V; Rebecchi, M; Morris, A J; Jhon, D Y; Rhee, S G; McLaughlin, S

    1994-03-15

    Three isoforms of phospholipase C, either PLC-beta 1, PLC-gamma 1, or PLC-delta 1, were added to the aqueous subphase beneath phospholipid monolayers formed at an air-solution interface, and the initial rate of hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was measured after addition of 10 microM free Ca2+. The monolayers were formed from mixtures of phosphatidylcholine (65% PC), phosphatidylserine (33% PS), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (2% PIP2). Increasing the surface pressure of the monolayer, pi, from 15 to 25 mN/m decreases the rate of hydrolysis 16-, 13-, and 5-fold for PLC-beta 1, PLC-gamma 1, and PLC-delta 1, respectively. The simplest interpretation of these results is that a portion of each of the enzymes of area Ap must insert into the monolayer, doing work pi Ap, prior to hydrolysis of PIP2; binding studies with simple model compounds of known cross-sectional area are consistent with this interpretation. Removing the monovalent acidic lipid PS from the monolayer decreases the initial rates of hydrolysis of PIP2 about 3-fold for each PLC isoform, which suggests that negative electrostatic surface potentials increase the PLC activity. PMID:8130216

  11. Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C β 1b (PI-PLCβ1b) Interactome: Affinity Purification-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of PI-PLCβ1b with Nuclear Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Piazzi, Manuela; Blalock, William L.; Bavelloni, Alberto; Faenza, Irene; D'Angelo, Antonietta; Maraldi, Nadir M.; Cocco, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Two isoforms of inositide-dependent phospholipase C β1 (PI-PLCβ1) are generated by alternative splicing (PLCβ1a and PLCβ1b). Both isoforms are present within the nucleus, but in contrast to PLCβ1a, the vast majority of PLCβ1b is nuclear. In mouse erythroid leukemia cells, PI-PLCβ1 is involved in the regulation of cell division and the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nuclear localization is crucial for the enzymatic function of PI-PLCβ1, although the mechanism by which this nuclear import occurs has never been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize both the mechanism of nuclear localization and the molecular function of nuclear PI-PLCβ1 by identifying its interactome in Friend's erythroleukemia isolated nuclei, utilizing a procedure that coupled immuno-affinity purification with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Using this procedure, 160 proteins were demonstrated to be in association with PI-PLCβ1b, some of which have been previously characterized, such as the splicing factor SRp20 (Srsf3) and Lamin B (Lmnb1). Co-immunoprecipitation analysis of selected proteins confirmed the data obtained via mass spectrometry. Of particular interest was the identification of the nuclear import proteins Kpna2, Kpna4, Kpnb1, Ran, and Rangap1, as well as factors involved in hematological malignancies and several anti-apoptotic proteins. These data give new insight into possible mechanisms of nuclear trafficking and functioning of this critical signaling molecule. PMID:23665500

  12. Expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isoenzymes in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Artico, Marco; Cocco, Lucio; Billi, Anna Maria; Fumagalli, Lorenzo; Manzoli, Francesco Antonio

    2007-03-01

    Signal transduction from plasma membrane to cell nucleus is a complex process depending on various components including lipid signaling molecules, in particular phosphoinositides and their related enzymes, which act at cell periphery and/or plasma membrane as well as at nuclear level. As far as the nervous system may concern the inositol lipid cycle has been hypothesized to be involved in numerous neural as well as glial functions. In this context, however, a precise panel of glial PLC isoforms has not been determined yet. In the present experiments we investigated astrocytic PLC isoforms in astrocytes obtained from foetal primary cultures of rat brain and from an established cultured (C6) rat astrocytoma cell line, two well known cell models for experimental studies on glia. Identification of PLC isoforms was achieved by using a combination of RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry experiments. While in both cell models the most represented PI-PLC isoforms were beta4, gamma1, delta4, and epsilon, isoforms PI-PLC beta2 and delta3 were not detected. Moreover, in primary astrocyte cultures PI-PLC delta3 resulted well expressed in C6 cells but was absent in astrocytes. Immunocytochemistry performed with antibodies against specific PLC isoforms substantially confirmed this pattern of expression both in astrocytes and C6 glioma cells. In particular while some isoenzymes (namely isoforms beta3 and beta4) resulted mainly nuclear, others (isoforms delta4 and epsilon) were preferentially localized at cytoplasmic and plasma membrane level. PMID:17063484

  13. Roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase Cγ1 in brain development.

    PubMed

    Kang, Du-Seock; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Lee, Cheol; Kim, SaetByeol; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, converging evidence suggests that PLCγ1 signaling has key roles in controlling neural development steps. PLCγ1 functions as a signal transducer that converts an extracellular stimulus into intracellular signals by generating second messengers such as DAG and IP3. DAG functions as an activator of either PKC or transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs), while IP3 induces the calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. These second messengers regulate the morphological change of neuron, such as neurite outgrowth, migration, axon pathfinding, and synapse formation. These morphological changes depend on finely tuned calcium signaling following receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PLCγ1 signaling. Thus, deregulation of PLCγ1 signaling causes various abnormalities of neuronal development and it may be associated with diverse neurological disorders. Herein, we discuss the current understanding of the PLCγ1 signaling pathway in neural development and provide recent advances of how PLCγ1 signaling is involved in the formation of neuronal processes for functionally faithful brain development. PMID:26588873

  14. Modulation of phospholipase A2 activity in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Solito, E.; Parente, L.

    1989-01-01

    1. Human embryonic skin fibroblasts (HSF) incubated overnight with either human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) or interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) released large amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 2. rIL-1 beta, bradykinin (Bk) and arachidonic acid (AA) significantly stimulated PGE2 release from HSF incubated overnight in the presence of either interleukin. 3. Hydrocortisone inhibited the PGE2 release induced by rIL-1 beta and Bk, but not by AA. 4. The steroid inhibitory effect was reversed by actinomycin D as well as by an anti-lipocortin monoclonal antibody. 5. The results suggest that in HSF, rIL-1 beta is able to stimulate both cyclo-oxygenase and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. 6. The stimulation of PLA2 activity by rIL-1 beta is inhibited by hydrocortisone, probably via induction of lipocortin-like proteins. PMID:2785834

  15. Activation of human inflammatory cells by secreted phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Massimo; Granata, Francescopaolo; Frattini, Annunziata; Marone, Gianni

    2006-11-01

    Secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) are enzymes detected in serum and biological fluids of patients with various inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic disorders. Different isoforms of sPLA(2)s are expressed and released by human inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, T cells, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells. sPLA(2)s generate arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids thus contributing to the production of bioactive lipid mediators in inflammatory cells. However, sPLA(2)s also activate human inflammatory cells by mechanisms unrelated to their enzymatic activity. Several human and non-human sPLA(2)s induce degranulation of mast cells, neutrophils and eosinophils and activate exocytosis in macrophages. In addition some, but not all, sPLA(2) isoforms promote cytokine and chemokine production from macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and endothelial cells. These effects are primarily mediated by binding of sPLA(2)s to specific membrane targets (heparan sulfate proteoglycans, M-type, N-type or mannose receptors) expressed on effector cells. Thus, sPLA(2)s may play an important role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory reactions by at least two mechanisms: production of lipid mediators and direct activation of inflammatory cells. Selective inhibitors of sPLA(2)-enzymatic activity and specific antagonists of sPLA(2) receptors are current being tested for pharmacological treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:16952481

  16. Muscarine enhances soluble amyloid precursor protein secretion in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y by a pathway dependent on protein kinase C(alpha), src-tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase but not phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Canet-Aviles, Rosa-Maria; Anderton, Mark; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J; Vaughan, Peter F T

    2002-06-15

    The signalling pathways by which muscarine and epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulate the secretion of the alpha-secretase cleavage product (sAPPalpha) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) were examined in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. Using specific inhibitors it was found that over 80% of sAPPalpha secretion, enhanced by muscarine, occurred via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and was dependent on protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and a member of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src-TK). In contrast the stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion by EGF was not affected by inhibitors of PKC nor Src-TK but was dependent on ERK1/2. In addition muscarine-enhanced sAPPalpha secretion and ERK1/2 activation were inhibited 60 and 80%, respectively, by micromolar concentrations of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor wortmannin. In comparison wortmannin decreased EGF stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion and ERK 1/2 activation by approximately 40%. Unexpectedly, U73122, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, did not inhibit muscarine enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion. These data are discussed in relation to a pathway for the enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion by muscarine which involves the activation of a Src-TK by G-protein beta/gamma-subunits leading to activation of PKCalpha, and ERK1/2 by a mechanism not involving phospholipase C. PMID:12191495

  17. Human group II 14 kDa phospholipase A2 activates human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Polgár, J; Kramer, R M; Um, S L; Jakubowski, J A; Clemetson, K J

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant human group II phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) added to human platelets in the low microg/ml range induced platelet activation, as demonstrated by measurement of platelet aggregation, thromboxane A2 generation and influx of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration and by detection of time-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins. The presence of Ca2+ at low millimolar concentrations is a prerequisite for the activation of platelets by sPLA2. Mg2+ cannot replace Ca2+. Mg2+, given in addition to the necessary Ca2+, inhibits sPLA2-induced platelet activation. Pre-exposure to sPLA2 completely blocked the aggregating effect of a second dose of sPLA2. Albumin or indomethacin inhibited sPLA2-induced aggregation, similarly to the inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced aggregation. Platelets pre-treated with heparitinase or phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C lost their ability to aggregate in response to sPLA2, although they still responded to other agonists. This suggests that a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored platelet-membrane heparan sulphate proteoglycan is the binding site for sPLA2 on platelets. Previous reports have stated that sPLA2 is unable to activate platelets. The inhibitory effect of albumin and Mg2+, frequently used in aggregation studies, and the fact that isolated platelets lose their responsiveness to sPLA2 relatively quickly, may explain why the platelet-activating effects of sPLA2 have not been reported earlier. PMID:9355761

  18. Phospholipase Cε Modulates Rap1 Activity and the Endothelial Barrier.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Peter V; Smrcka, Alan V; Glading, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, PLCε, is a unique signaling protein with known roles in regulating cardiac myocyte growth, astrocyte inflammatory signaling, and tumor formation. PLCε is also expressed in endothelial cells, however its role in endothelial regulation is not fully established. We show that endothelial cells of multiple origins, including human pulmonary artery (HPAEC), human umbilical vein (HUVEC), and immortalized brain microvascular (hCMEC/D3) endothelial cells, express PLCε. Knockdown of PLCε in arterial endothelial monolayers decreased the effectiveness of the endothelial barrier. Concomitantly, RhoA activity and stress fiber formation were increased. PLCε-deficient arterial endothelial cells also exhibited decreased Rap1-GTP levels, which could be restored by activation of the Rap1 GEF, Epac, to rescue the increase in monolayer leak. Reintroduction of PLCε rescued monolayer leak with both the CDC25 GEF domain and the lipase domain of PLCε required to fully activate Rap1 and to rescue endothelial barrier function. Finally, we demonstrate that the barrier promoting effects PLCε are dependent on Rap1 signaling through the Rap1 effector, KRIT1, which we have previously shown is vital for maintaining endothelial barrier stability. Thus we have described a novel role for PLCε PIP2 hydrolytic and Rap GEF activities in arterial endothelial cells, where PLCε-dependent activation of Rap1/KRIT1 signaling promotes endothelial barrier stability. PMID:27612188

  19. A fluorescence-based assay for human type II phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, S G; Harris, C O; Parks, D J

    1994-11-01

    A fluorescence assay for quantitation of human Type II Phospholipase A2 activity is described. Hydrolysis of 1-Acyl-2-(N-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxo-1,3-diazole)aminododecanoyl Phosphatidylethanolamine is accompanied by an increase in fluorescence intensity that is linearly proportional to enzyme activity. Substrate is prepared in the absence of detergents as a sonicated dispersion in aqueous buffer. Hydrolysis of the corresponding phosphatidylcholine derivative is more than an order of magnitude slower under identical assay conditions. A plot of initial rate versus substrate concentration could be fit to a simple Michaelis-Menten relationship with Km = 13 microM. In contrast to commonly used radiochemical assays for this enzyme, the method described here is continuous and allows estimation of enzyme activity without separation of substrate from product. Thus, the method is suitable for both kinetic analysis and large-scale screening using automated readers for 96-well tissue culture plates. The fluorescence-based assay displays advantages over other continuous assays for human Type II Phospholipase A2 based on (a) high sensitivity and (b) the use of a commercially available substrate. PMID:7864369

  20. Long-wave ultraviolet light induces phospholipase activation in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.; DeLeo, V. )

    1990-08-01

    Long wave ultraviolet radiation (UVA) has been shown to play an important role in the overall response of skin to solar radiation, including sunburn, tanning, premature aging, and non-melanoma skin cancer. UVA induction of inflammation in human skin is thought to be mediated by membrane lipid derived products. In order to investigate the mechanism of this response we examined the effect of UVA on phospholipid metabolism of human epidermal keratinocytes in culture. Keratinocytes were grown in serum free low calcium medium. The cells were prelabeled with (3H) arachidonic acid or (3H) choline and irradiated with UVA (Honle 2002-Hg vapor lamp). Identification and quantitation of specific membrane phospholipid-derived components was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography, paper chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. UVA resulted in a linear dose dependent release of (3H) arachidonic acid into medium between 1 and 20 joule/cm2. This response was inhibited in an oxygen-reduced environment. The radiolabel released was predominantly free arachidonate and cyclooxygenase metabolites. Cyclooxygenase metabolites prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin derivative, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1a, were stimulated following UVA irradiation, but the lipoxygenase metabolite, leukotriene B was not detected. Maximal release was measured immediately after irradiation and changed little over 24 h post-irradiation. UVA stimulated an increase of (3H) choline metabolites glycerophosphorylcholine and phosphorylcholine in media extracts suggesting UVA activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2 or diacylglyceride lipase.

  1. Human cardiac phospholipase D activity is tightly controlled by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Thomas; Kemken, Dorit; Mier, Kenneth; Weber, Isabel; Richardt, Gert

    2004-02-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) plays a central role in receptor-mediated breakdown of choline phospholipids and formation of phosphatidic acid (PA), an important regulator of cardiac function. However, specific mechanisms that regulate myocardial PLD activity remain largely unknown, particularly in the human heart. We hypothesized that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), best known as substrate for phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes, plays a critical role in regulating myocardial PLD activity. We examined the effect of PIP2 on human myocardial PLD activity in vitro by utilizing a fluorescence HPLC assay. PIP2 increased 10-fold the maximal activity of a partially solubilized PLD from human atrial myocardium. PIP2-stimulated PLD activity was accompanied by a consecutive increase in diacylglycerol, indicating dephosphorylation of PA by PA phosphohydrolase. Likewise, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, which is produced from PIP2 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, increased PLD activity with about the same potency but with somewhat lower efficacy. In contrast, other phospholipids were ineffective, indicating that the action of PIP2 on PLD is highly specific. Neomycin, a high-affinity ligand of PIP2, inhibited PLD activity in human atrial myocardium, but had no effect on the activity of partially solubilized enzyme. The addition of PIP2 restored the sensitivity of solubilized PLD to neomycin inhibition, indicating that neomycin inhibits PLD activity by binding to endogenous PIP2. Our results demonstrate a critical role for PIP2 in human cardiac PLD activity and suggest that PIP2 synthesis (by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase) and hydrolysis (by PIP2-specific PLC) could be important determinants in regulating PLD signal transduction in the human heart. PMID:14871550

  2. Induction of cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity by phosphatidic acid and diglycerides in permeabilized human neutrophils: interrelationship between phospholipases D and A2.

    PubMed Central

    Bauldry, S A; Wooten, R E

    1997-01-01

    Relationships between phospholipases are poorly understood, but phosphatidic acid (PA) and diglycerides (DGs), produced by phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase actions, might function as second messengers coupling cell stimulation to cellular responses. This study investigates the role of PLD-mediated PA and DG formation in inducing phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in intact human neutrophils (PMNs) and in PMNs permeabilized with Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin. PMNs were labelled with [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) to assess AA release and metabolism and diacylglycerol formation, or with [3H]1-O-hexadecyl-2-lyso-glycerophosphatidylcholine for the determination of platelet-activating factor (PAF), PA and alkylacylglycerol production. In intact PMNs primed with tumour necrosis factor alpha before stimulation with N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, AA release and metabolism and PAF formation increased in parallel with enhanced PA and DG formation, and inhibition of PA and DG production led to a decrease in both AA release and PAF accumulation. In alpha-toxin-permeabilized PMNs, AA release and PAF production result from the specific activation of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2). In this system, PA and DG formation were always present when cPLA2 activation occurred; blocking PA and DG production inhibited AA release and PAF accumulation. Adding either PA or DG back to permeabilized cells (with endogenous PA and DG formation blocked) led to a partial restoration of AA release and PAF formation; a combination of PA and DGs reconstituted full cPLA2 activity. These results strongly suggest that products of PLD participate in activating cPLA2 in PMNs. PMID:9065750

  3. Expression of group XIIA phospholipase A2 in human digestive organs.

    PubMed

    Peuravuori, Heikki; Kollanus, Sinikka; Nevalainen, Timo J

    2014-12-01

    Cellular distribution of group XIIA phospholipase A2 (GXIIA PLA2) was studied in human digestive organs by immunohistochemistry. GXIIA PLA2 protein was detected in epithelial cells of normal gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder and pancreatic acinar cells. The GXIIA PLA2 protein was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in contrast to secretory granular distribution of GIB PLA2 and GIIA PLA2 in pancreatic acinar cells and small intestinal Paneth cells respectively. Epithelial cells of intestinal glands in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis expressed abundant GXIIA PLA2 , whereas inflammatory cells were devoid of the enzyme protein. Tumour cells in colonic adenomas and carcinomas and pancreatic ductogenic carcinomas expressed GXIIA PLA2 protein at varying intensity levels. The putative functions of GXIIA PLA2 remain to be investigated and its role in healthy and diseased digestive organs can only be speculated on at present. PMID:24862647

  4. Phospholipase Cepsilon regulates ovulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Ken-Ichi; Bui, Yen Kim; Gao, Xianlong; Sternberg, Paul W; Kataoka, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    Phospholipase Cepsilon (PLCepsilon) is a novel class of phosphoinositide-specific PLC with unknown physiological functions. Here, we present the first genetic analysis of PLCepsilon in an intact organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Ovulation in C. elegans is dependent on an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) signaling pathway activated by the receptor tyrosine kinase LET-23. We generated deletion mutants of the gene, plc-1, encoding C. elegans PLCepsilon. We observed a novel ovulation phenotype whereby oocytes are trapped in the spermatheca due to delayed dilation of the spermatheca-uterine valve. The expression of plc-1 in the adult spermatheca is consistent with its involvement in regulation of ovulation. On the other hand, we failed to observe genetic interaction of plc-1 with let-23-mediated IP(3) signaling pathway genes, suggesting a complex mechanism for control of ovulation. PMID:15355798

  5. Relationship between phospholipase C zeta immunoreactivity and DNA fragmentation and oxidation in human sperm

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju Hee; Kim, Seul Ki; Kim, Jayeon; Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Jae Hoon; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of measuring phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) using immunostaining in human sperm and to investigate the relationship between PLCζ immunoreactivity and DNA fragmentation and oxidation in human sperm. Methods Semen samples were obtained from participants (n=44) and processed by the conventional swim-up method. Sperm concentration, motility, normal form by strict morphology, DNA fragmentation index assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling method and immunofluorescent expression for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and PLCζ were assessed. Results When duplicate PLCζ tests were performed on two sperm samples from each of the 44 participants, similar results were obtained (74.1±9.4% vs. 75.4±9.7%). Two measurements of PLCζ were found to be highly correlated with each other (r=0.759, P<0.001). Immunoreactivity of PLCζ was not associated with donor's age, sperm concentration, motility, and the percentage of normal form as well as DNA fragmentation index. However, immunoreactivity of PLCζ showed a significant negative relationship with 8-OHdG immunoreactivity (r=-0.404, P=0.009). Conclusion Measurement of PLCζ by immunostaining is feasible and reproducible. Lower expression of PLCζ in human sperm may be associated with higher sperm DNA oxidation status. PMID:26023673

  6. Cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} gene in human and rat: Chromosomal localization and polymorphic markers

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, A.; Simon, J.S.; Jacob, H.J.

    1995-03-01

    The authors report the chromosomal localization and a simple sequence repeat (SSR) in the cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) gene in both human and rat. A (CA){sub 18} repeat in the promoter of the rat gene was determined to exhibit length polymorphism when analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 19 different inbred rat strains. Genotyping for this marker in 234 F{sub 2} progeny of a SHRXBN intercross mapped the gene to rat chromosome 13. Using a PCR strategy, a fragment of the promoter for the human gene was isolated, and a (CA){sub 18} repeat was identified. Since this marker displayed a low heterozygosity index, they also identified a mononucleotide repeat in the promoter for cPLA{sub 2} that displayed a polymorphism information content value of 0.76. The human gene was mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosome 1q25. Of interest, the gene encoding the enzyme prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (cyclooxygenase-2), which acts on the arachidonic acid product of cPLA{sub 2}, was previously localized to this same chromosomal region, raising the possibility of coordinate regulation. Identification of intragenic markers may facilitate studies of polymorphic variants of these genes as candidates for disorders in which perturbations of the eicosanoid cascade may play a role. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Sequence specific inhibition of human type II phospholipase A2 enzyme activity by phosphorothioate oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, C F; Chiang, M Y; Wilson-Lingardo, L; Wyatt, J R

    1994-01-01

    Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides were identified which directly inhibited human type II phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme activity in a sequence specific manner. The minimum pharmacophore common to all oligonucleotides which inhibited PLA2 enzyme activity consisted of two sets of three or more consecutive guanosine residues in a row. These oligonucleotides appear to form G quartets resulting in the formation of oligonucleotide aggregates. Additionally, a phosphorothioate backbone was required to be effective inhibitors of type II PLA2. The activity of one oligodeoxynucleotide, IP 3196 (5'-GGGTGGGTATAGAAGGGCTCC-3') has been characterized in more detail. IP 3196 inhibited PLA2 enzyme activity when the substrate was presented in the form of a phospholipid bilayer but not when presented in the form of a mixed micelle with anionic detergents. Human type II PLA2 was 50-fold more sensitive to inhibition by IP 3196 than venom and pancreatic type I enzymes. These data demonstrate that phosphorothioate oligonucleotides can specifically inhibit human type II PLA2 enzyme activity in a sequence specific manner. PMID:8065936

  8. The effects of phorbol ester, diacylglycerol, phospholipase C and Ca2+ ionophore on protein phosphorylation in human and sheep erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Raval, P J; Allan, D

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of human or sheep erythrocytes with PMA (phorbol myristate acetate) enhanced [32P]phosphate labelling of membrane polypeptides of approx. 100, 80 and 46 kDa. The 80 kDa and 46 kDa polypeptides coincided with bands 4.1 and 4.9 respectively on Coomassie-Blue-stained gels. Similar but smaller effects were obtained by treating human cells with 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol (OAG), exogenous bacterial phospholipase C or ionophore A23187 + Ca2+, each of which treatments would be expected to raise the concentration of membrane diacylglycerol. In contrast, sheep cells, which do not increase their content of diacylglycerol when treated with phospholipase C or A23187 + Ca2+, only showed enhanced phosphorylation with OAG. Neither human nor sheep cells showed any enhanced [32P]phosphate labelling of phosphoproteins when treated with 1-mono-oleoyl-rac-glycerol. It is concluded that diacylglycerol from a variety of sources can activate erythrocyte protein kinase C, but that the most effective diacylglycerol is that derived from endogenous polyphosphoinositides. In contrast with bacterial phospholipase C and A23187, which stimulate synthesis of phosphatidate by increasing the cell-membrane content of diacylglycerol in human erythrocytes, PMA, OAG or 1-mono-oleoyl-rac-glycerol caused no change in phospholipid metabolism. Images PMID:4084238

  9. Inhibition of phospholipase A/sub 2/ from human plasma by sodium bisulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, C.W.; Franson, R.C.

    1987-05-01

    The anti-oxidant sodium bisulfite has been shown to inhibit acid active(lysosomal), non-Ca/sup + +/-dependent phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/), and to interact reversibly with unsaturated fatty acids, altering their chromatographic mobility. The authors examined the effect of bisulfite on neutral active, Ca/sup + +/-dependent PLA/sub 2/ from human plasma. Using (1-/sup 14/C)oleate-labelled autoclaved E. coli as substrate, PLA/sub 2/ activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by bisulfite. Maximal inhibition occurred at 100..mu..M bisulfite. Preincubation of plasma for 0-30 minutes with bisulfite resulted in a time-dependent increase in PLA/sub 2/ inhibition. Preincubation of substrate with bisulfite had no such effect. When the plasma PLA/sub 2/ was purified 25-fold by SP-Sephadex chromatography it was no longer inhibited by bisulfite. The SP-Sephadex wash through fraction, which contained greater than 95% of the applied protein but not PLA/sub 2/ activity, did not inhibit the purified enzyme. When incubated with bisulfite however, the SP-wash through fraction produced dose-dependent inhibition of the purified enzyme. These results indicate that sodium bisulfite inhibits human plasma PLA/sub 2/, in vitro, indirectly by interaction with a factor(s) present in plasma and suggests that anti-oxidants may similarly influence expression of extracellular PLA/sub 2/ in vivo.

  10. Myxococcus CsgA, Drosophila Sniffer, and human HSD10 are cardiolipin phospholipases

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Tye O'Hara; Shimkets, Lawrence Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus development requires CsgA, a member of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase (SCAD) family of proteins. We show that CsgA and SocA, a protein that can replace CsgA function in vivo, oxidize the 2′-OH glycerol moiety on cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), dihydroxyacetone, and orthophosphate. A lipid extract enriched in DAGs from wild-type cells initiates development and lipid body production in a csgA mutant to bypass the mutational block. This novel phospholipase C-like reaction is widespread. SCADs that prevent neurodegenerative disorders, such as Drosophila Sniffer and human HSD10, oxidize cardiolipin with similar kinetic parameters. HSD10 exhibits a strong preference for cardiolipin with oxidized fatty acids. This activity is inhibited in the presence of the amyloid β peptide. Three HSD10 variants associated with neurodegenerative disorders are inactive with cardiolipin. We suggest that HSD10 protects humans from reactive oxygen species by removing damaged cardiolipin before it induces apoptosis. PMID:26338420

  11. Mechanosensitivity of human osteosarcoma cells and phospholipase C {beta}2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hoberg, M. . E-mail: Maik.Hoberg@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Gratz, H.-H.; Noll, M.; Jones, D.B.

    2005-07-22

    Bone adapts to mechanical load by osteosynthesis, suggesting that osteoblasts might respond to mechanical stimuli. We therefore investigated cell proliferation and phospholipase C (PLC) expression in osteoblasts. One Hertz uniaxial stretching at 4000 {mu}strains significantly increased the proliferation rates of human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and primary human osteoblasts. However, U-2/OS, SaOS-2, OST, and MNNG/HOS cells showed no significant changes in proliferation rate. We investigated the expression pattern of different isoforms of PLC in these cell lines. We were able to detect PLC {beta}1, {beta}3, {gamma}1, {gamma}2, and {delta}1 in all cells, but PLC {beta}2 was only detectable in the mechanosensitive cells. We therefore investigated the possible role of PLC {beta}2 in mechanotransduction. Inducible antisense expression for 24 h inhibited the translation of PLC {beta}1 in U-2/OS cells by 35% and PLC {beta}2 in MG-63 by 29%. Fluid shear flow experiments with MG-63 lacking PLC {beta}2 revealed a significantly higher level of cells losing attachment to coverslips and a significantly lower number of cells increasing intracellular free calcium.

  12. Splicing of a human endogenous retrovirus to a novel phospholipase A2 related gene.

    PubMed Central

    Feuchter-Murthy, A E; Freeman, J D; Mager, D L

    1993-01-01

    As part of an investigation into the effects of endogenous retroviruses on adjacent genes, we have isolated a cDNA clone derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2D1 representing a chimeric transcript in which an endogenous retrovirus-like element, RTVL-H, has been spliced to downstream cellular sequences. The 5' terminus of this clone, termed AF-5, occurs one bp downstream of the predicted transcriptional start site in the RTVL-H long terminal repeat (LTR). AF-5 contains an open reading frame of 689 amino acids beginning within RTVL-H sequences that has two domains of homology with phospholipase A2 (PLA2). These domains, of approximately 120 amino acids each, are 30-38% identical to secreted PLA2s and contain sequence features of both group I and II enzymes. The corresponding AF-5 transcript is 2.5 kb and is derived from a single copy novel gene termed PLA2L. Southern analysis indicates that the RTVL-H element is normally present in human DNA upstream of the PLA2L gene. RTVL-H/PLA2L chimeric transcripts were detected in two independent teratocarcinoma cell lines but not in several other cell lines or primary human tissues. Characterization of additional cDNA clones and PCR analysis indicates that multiple RTVL-H/PLA2L alternatively spliced transcripts are expressed. No evidence has been found for transcription from a non-LTR promoter. These findings strongly suggest that the endogenous LTR promotes expression of the human PLA2L gene in teratocarcinoma cells. Images PMID:8382789

  13. Inhibition of human platelet phospholipase A/sub 2/ by mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Labow, R.S.; Meek, E.; Adams, G.A.; Rock, G.

    1988-06-01

    There is evidence that the carcinogenic and teratogenic effects attributed to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) are due to its major metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP). MEHP is also formed ex vivo by a plasma enzyme in blood products stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) DEHP plastic containers. People who receive large amounts of blood products, such as hemophiliacs or patients undergoing hemodialysis, cardiopulmonary bypass, or massive transfusion, are exposed to significant levels of plasticizer. In this study, the platelet was used to show that MEHP inhibits phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/), one of the enzymes important in the release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. PLA/sub 2/ was measured by the liberation of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid from 1-stearoyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonyl-L-3-phosphatidylcholine. MEHP inhibits PLA/sub 2/ activity noncompetitively in intact human platelets and lysates with a K/sub i/ of 3.7 x 10/sup -4/ M. DEHP does not inhibit PLA/sub 2/ in whole platelets. Inhibition of PLA/sub 2/ by MEHP occurs at only three times the circulating level of MEHP measured in neonates undergoing exchange transfusion and 20-fold the levels experienced by patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. Therefore, infants and adult patients with multisystem failure who accumulate MEHP in their blood may be at risk for decreased platelet function.

  14. Structure of Human GIVD Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Reveals Insights into Substrate Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Klein, Michael G; Snell, Gyorgy; Lane, Weston; Zou, Hua; Levin, Irena; Li, Ke; Sang, Bi-Ching

    2016-07-01

    Cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2s) consist of a family of calcium-sensitive enzymes that function to generate lipid second messengers through hydrolysis of membrane-associated glycerophospholipids. The GIVD cPLA2 (cPLA2δ) is a potential drug target for developing a selective therapeutic agent for the treatment of psoriasis. Here, we present two X-ray structures of human cPLA2δ, capturing an apo state, and in complex with a substrate-like inhibitor. Comparison of the apo and inhibitor-bound structures reveals conformational changes in a flexible cap that allows the substrate to access the relatively buried active site, providing new insight into the mechanism for substrate recognition. The cPLA2δ structure reveals an unexpected second C2 domain that was previously unrecognized from sequence alignments, placing cPLA2δ into the class of membrane-associated proteins that contain a tandem pair of C2 domains. Furthermore, our structures elucidate novel inter-domain interactions and define three potential calcium-binding sites that are likely important for regulation and activation of enzymatic activity. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing cPLA2's function in signal transduction. PMID:27220631

  15. Cloning and identification of amino acid residues of human phospholipase C delta 1 essential for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H F; Jiang, M J; Chen, C L; Liu, S M; Wong, L P; Lomasney, J W; King, K

    1995-03-10

    In vitro single point mutagenesis, inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, and substrate protection experiments were used to identify catalytic residues of human phosphatidylinositide-specific phospholipase C delta 1 (PLC delta 1) isolated from a human aorta cDNA library. Invariant amino acid residues containing a functional side chain in the highly conserved X region were changed by in vitro mutagenesis. Most of the mutant enzymes were still able to hydrolyze inositol phospholipid with activity ranging from 10 to 100% of levels in the wild type enzyme. Exceptions were mutants with the conversion of Arg338 to Leu (R338L), Glu341 to Gly (E341G), or His356 to Leu (H356L), which made the enzyme severely defective in hydrolyzing inositol phospholipid. Phospholipid vesicle binding experiments showed that these three cleavage-defective mutant forms of PLC delta 1 could specifically bind to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) with an affinity similar to that of wild type enzyme. Western blotting analysis of trypsin-treated enzyme-PIP2 complexes revealed that a 67-kDa major protein fragment survived trypsin digestion if the wild type enzyme, E341G, or H356L mutant PLC delta 1 was preincubated with 7.5 microM PIP2, whereas if it was preincubated with 80 microM PIP2, the size of major protein surviving was comparable to that of intact enzyme. However, mutant enzyme R338L was not protected from trypsin degradation by PIP2 binding. These observations suggest that PLC delta 1 can recognize PIP2 through a high affinity and a low affinity binding site and that residues Glu341 and His356 are not involved in either high affinity or low affinity PIP2 binding but rather are essential for the Ca(2+)-dependent cleavage activity of PLC. PMID:7890667

  16. Epigenetic Regulation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Charlene Siew-Hon; Ng, Yee-Kong; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2016-08-01

    Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 or PLA2G4A) is a key enzyme that contributes to inflammation via the generation of arachidonic acid and eicosanoids. While much is known about regulation of cPLA2 by posttranslational modification such as phosphorylation, little is known about its epigenetic regulation. In this study, treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA), valproic acid, tubacin and the class I HDAC inhibitor, MS-275, were found to increase cPLA2α messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Co-treatment of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor, anacardic acid, modulated upregulation of cPLA2α induced by TSA. Specific involvement of class I HDACs and HAT in cPLA2α regulation was further shown, and a Tip60-specific HAT inhibitor, NU9056, modulated the upregulation of cPLA2α induced by MS-275. In addition, co-treatment of with histone methyltransferase (HMT) inhibitor, 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) suppressed TSA-induced cPLA2α upregulation. The above changes in cPLA2 mRNA expression were reflected at the protein level by Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed TSA increased binding of trimethylated H3K4 to the proximal promoter region of the cPLA2α gene. Cell injury after TSA treatment as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was modulated by anacardic acid, and a role of cPLA2 in mediating TSA-induced injury shown, after co-incubation with the cPLA2 selective inhibitor, arachidonoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3). Together, results indicate epigenetic regulation of cPLA2 and the potential of such regulation for treatment of chronic inflammation. PMID:26162318

  17. Phospholipase cgamma1 is required for activation of store-operated channels in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chia-Ling; Chang, Wenhan; Bikle, Daniel D

    2005-01-01

    Store-operated calcium entry depicts the movement of extracellular Ca2+ into cells through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels activated by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. The members of the canonical subfamily of transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) have been implicated as the molecular bases for store-operated channels (SOC). Here we investigate the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in regulation of native SOC and the expression of endogenous TRPC in human epidermal keratinocytes. Calcium entry in response to store depletion with thapsigargin was reversibly blocked by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane, an effective SOC inhibitor, and suppressed by the diacylglycerol analoge, 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol. Inhibition of PLC with U73122 or transfection of a PLCgamma1 antisense cDNA construct completely blocked SOC activity, indicating a requirement for PLC, especially PLCgamma1, in the activation of SOC. RT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses showed that TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPC6 are expressed in keratinocytes. Knockdown of the level of endogenous TRPC1 or TRPC4 inhibited store-operated calcium entry, indicating they are part of the native SOC. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that TRPC1, but not TRPC4, interacts with PLCgamma1 and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R). The association of TRPC1 with PLCgamma1 and IP3R decreased in keratinocytes with higher intracellular Ca2+, coinciding with a downregulation in SOC activity. Our results indicate that the activation of SOC in keratinocytes depends, at least partly, on the interaction of TRPC with PLCgamma1 and IP3R. PMID:15654973

  18. Evidence for two forms of phospholipase A2 in human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, P.; Langlais, J.; Ross, P.; Guerette, P.; Roberts, K.D.

    1988-03-01

    The molecular weight of the active unit of phospholipase A2 (PA2) in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa was determined using the radiation inactivation technique. Fresh spermatozoa possess more than one form of PA2 activity as judged by the biphasic nature of the curve obtained during enzyme inactivation. However, when stored frozen for several months followed by a period of heating for 60 min at 60 degrees C prior to irradiation, the sperm exhibited PA2 activity, which corresponded to a single low molecular mass form of 12,000 d when radioactive phosphatidylcholine (PC) was used as substrate and 8,000 d when radioactive phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was used as substrate. In fresh seminal fluid, only one active form of PA2 was detected as judged by the linear nature of the curve obtained during enzyme inactivation by irradiation. Using PC as substrate, the active unit was again estimated to be 12,000 d, whereas it corresponded to 18,000 d when PE was used. The PA2 activity associated with normal spermatozoa exhibited a 60% decrease in activity after storage at -20 degrees C for 48 hr followed by a heating period of 10 min at 60 degrees C. Long-term storage of spermatozoa at -20 degrees C also resulted in a similar decrease in the deacylation of PC. No further loss of activity was observed during subsequent heat treatment at 60 degrees C. Seminal plasma, however, showed no loss of activity following short (48 hr at 4 degrees C or -20 degrees C) or long-term storage and subsequent heat treatment. Thus, the behavior of PA2 when the effect of temperature was studied and in radiation inactivation experiments indicates that the low molecular weight component in the seminal plasma as well as in spermatozoa is temperature resistant. However, in fresh spermatozoa, a second form of PA2 was found and was sensitive to changes in temperature.

  19. Modulation of human type II secretory phospholipase A2 by sphingomyelin and annexin VI.

    PubMed

    Koumanov, K; Wolf, C; Béreziat, G

    1997-08-15

    Conjectural results have been reported on the capacity of inflammatory secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) to hydrolyse mammalian membrane phospholipids. Development of an assay based on the release of non-esterified fatty acids by the enzyme acting on the organized phospholipid mixture constituting the membrane matrix has led to the identification of two prominent effectors, sphingomyelin (SPH) and annexin. Recombinant human type II sPLA2 hydrolyses red-cell membrane phospholipids with a marked preference for the inner leaflet. This preference is apparently related to the high content of SPH in the outer leaflet, which inhibits sPLA2. This inhibition by SPH is specific for sPLA2. Cholesterol counteracts the inhibition of sPLA2 by SPH, suggesting that the SPH-to-cholesterol ratio accounts in vivo for the variable susceptibility of cell membranes to sPLA2. Different effects were observed of the presence of the non-hydrolysable D-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (D-DPPC), which renders the membranes rigid but does not inhibit sPLA2. Annexin VI was shown, along with other annexins, to inhibit sPLA2 activity by sequestering the phospholipid substrate. The present study has provided the first evidence that annexin VI, in concentrations that inhibit hydrolysis of purified phospholipid substrates, stimulated the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by sPLA2. The activation requires the presence of membrane proteins. The effect is specific for type II sPLA2 and is not reproducible with type I PLA2. The activation by annexin VI of sPLA2 acting on red cell membranes results in the preferential release of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It suggests that type II sPLA2, in conjunction with annexin VI, might be involved in the final step of endocytosis and/or exocytosis providing the free polyunsaturated fatty acids acting synergistically to cause membrane fusion. PMID:9337873

  20. Phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase in human gallbladder and hepatic bile.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, N R; Willis, K E

    1990-12-01

    A phospholipase C in bile, free of bacterial infection, has recently been identified from cholesterol gallstone patients. Because of the importance of phosphatidylcholine in solubilizing cholesterol in bile, this study further investigates the metabolism of phosphatidylcholine in delipidated gallbladder and common bile duct biles. Phospholipase C activity, as measured by the release of phosphoryl[3H]choline from the substrate 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho [N-methyl-3H]choline, was identified in both hepatic and gallbladder biles. Similar levels of activity (nmol.h-1.mg-1 of delipidated protein) were found in common bile duct (11.25 +/- 14.23) and gallbladder bile (19.07 +/- 22.24), although per milliliter of bile, the mean gallbaldder levels were 6.4 times greater than those found in common duct bile. With the tow substrates, 1-palmitoyl-2[9,10-3H] palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2(1-14C) dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, the majority of organically extracted label, after thin-layer chromatography, was recovered as radiolabeled diglyceride, confirming the presence of phospholipase C. Diglyceride levels were found to be closely correlated with [3H]choline (slope, 0.9820; r = 0.9844). In addition to diglyceride, both radiolabeled free fatty acid and monoglyceride were identified in common bile duct and gallbladder biles, although their levels were an order of magnitude less than measurable phospholipase C activity. To determine whether the free fatty acid release was due to either a diacylglycerol-lipase or a phospholipase A2, the effect of adding unlabeled diglyceride on free fatty acid formation from the substrate [14C]DPPC was examined. As the concentration of unlabeled diglyceride was increased, the amount of free fatty acid and monoglyceride released were both reduced in parallel. Direct measurement of diacylglycerol-lipase activity by incubating the diglyceride, sn-2[3H]dipalmitoyl, resulted in release of both products in a ratio

  1. Epigenetic control of group V phospholipase A2 expression in human malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Nacke, Brit; Jandeck, Carsten; Mareninova, Olga A; Asatryan, Liana; Siegert, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) are suggested to play an important role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. Different mechanisms of epigenetic regulation are involved in the control of group IIA, III and X sPLA2s expression in cancer cells, but group V sPLA2 (GV-PLA2) in this respect has not been studied. Here, we demonstrate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulation of GV-PLA2 expression in different cell lines originating from leukaemia and solid cancers. In blood leukocytes from leukaemic patients, levels of GV-PLA2 transcripts were significantly lower in comparison to those from healthy individuals. Similarly, in DU-145 and PC-3 prostate and CAL-51 and MCF-7 mammary cancer cell lines, levels of GV-PLA2 transcripts were significantly lower in relation to those found in normal epithelial cells of prostate or mammary. By sequencing and methylation-specific high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) analyses of bisulphite-modified DNA, distinct CpG sites in the GV-PLA2 promoter region were identified that were differentially methylated in cancer cells in comparison to normal epithelial and endothelial cells. Spearman rank order analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the methylation degree and the cellular expression of GV-PLA2 (r = -0.697; p = 0.01). The effects of demethylating agent (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and histone deacetylase inhibitor (trichostatin A) on GV-PLA2 transcription in the analysed cells confirmed the importance of DNA methylation and histone modification in the regulation of the GV-PLA2 gene expression in leukaemic, prostate and mammary cancer cell lines. The exposure of tumour cells to human recombinant GV-PLA2 resulted in a reduced colony forming activity of MCF-7, HepG2 and PC-3 cells, but not of DU-145 cells suggesting a cell-type-dependent effect of GV-PLA2 on cell growth. In conclusion, our results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification play an important role in

  2. DNA sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and processes producing human phospholipase inhibitor polypeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, B.P.; Pepinsky, R.B.; Garwin, J.L.

    1989-11-07

    This patent describes a recombinant DNA molecule. In comprises a DNA sequence coding for a phospholopase inhibitor polypeptide and being selected from the group consisting of: the cDNA insert of ALC, DNA sequences which code on expression for a phospholopase inhibitor, and DNA sequences which are degenerate as a result of the genetic code to either of the foregoing DNA sequences and which code on expression for a phospholipase inhibitor.

  3. sPLA2 IB induces human podocyte apoptosis via the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yangbin; Wan, Jianxin; Liu, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Liang, Wei; Singhal, Pravin C.; Saleem, Moin A.; Ding, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is expressed in podocytes in human glomeruli. Group IB secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 IB), which is one of the ligands of the PLA2R, is more highly expressed in chronic renal failure patients than in controls. However, the roles of the PLA2R and sPLA2 IB in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases are unknown. In the present study, we found that more podocyte apoptosis occurs in the kidneys of patients with higher PLA2R and serum sPLA2 IB levels. In vitro, we demonstrated that human podocyte cells expressed the PLA2R in the cell membrane. After binding with the PLA2R, sPLA2 IB induced podocyte apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. sPLA2 IB-induced podocyte PLA2R upregulation was not only associated with increased ERK1/2 and cPLA2α phosphorylation but also displayed enhanced apoptosis. In contrast, PLA2R-silenced human podocytes displayed attenuated apoptosis. sPLA2 IB enhanced podocyte arachidonic acid (AA) content in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that sPLA2 IB has the potential to induce human podocyte apoptosis via binding to the PLA2R. The sPLA2 IB-PLA2R interaction stimulated podocyte apoptosis through activating ERK1/2 and cPLA2α and through increasing the podocyte AA content. PMID:25335547

  4. Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-05-01

    Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes.

  5. Human Phospholipase D Activity Transiently Regulates Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Thomas P.; Hill, Salisha; Rose, Kristie L.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells reorganize their metabolic pathways to fuel demanding rates of proliferation. Oftentimes, these metabolic phenotypes lie downstream of prominent oncogenes. The lipid signaling molecule phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which is produced by the hydrolytic enzyme phospholipase D (PLD), has been identified as a critical regulatory molecule for oncogenic signaling in many cancers. In an effort to identify novel regulatory mechanisms for PtdOH, we screened various cancer cell lines, assessing whether treatment of cancer models with PLD inhibitors altered production of intracellular metabolites. Preliminary findings lead us to focus on how deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are altered upon PLD inhibitor treatment in gliomas. Using a combination of proteomics and small molecule intracellular metabolomics, we show herein that PtdOH acutely regulates the production of these pyrimidine metabolites through activation of CAD via mTOR signaling pathways independently of Akt. These changes are responsible for decreases in dNTP production after PLD inhibitor treatment. Our data identify a novel regulatory role for PLD activity in specific cancer types. PMID:25646564

  6. Thromboxane-insensitive dog platelets have impaired activation of phospholipase C due to receptor-linked G protein dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G J; Leis, L A; Dunlop, P C

    1993-01-01

    Human platelet thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptors are linked to phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) via a G protein tentatively identified as a member of the Gq class. In contrast, platelet thrombin receptors appear to activate PI-PLC via other unidentified G proteins. Platelets from most dogs are TXA2 insensitive (TXA2-); i.e., they do not aggregate irreversibly or secrete although they bind TXA2, but they respond normally to thrombin. In contrast, a minority of dogs have TXA2-sensitive (TXA2+) platelets that are responsive to TXA2. To determine the mechanism responsible for TXA2- platelets, we evaluated receptor activation of PI-PLC. Equilibrium binding of TXA2/PGH2 receptor agonists, [125I]BOP and [3H]U46619, and antagonist, [3H]SQ29,548, revealed comparable high-affinity binding to TXA2-, TXA2+, and human platelets. U46619-induced PI-PLC activation was impaired in TXA2- platelets as evidenced by reduced (a) phosphorylation of the 47-kD substrate of protein kinase C, (b) phosphatidic acid (PA) formation, (c) rise in cytosolic calcium concentration, and (d) inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) formation, while thrombin-induced PI-PLC activation was not impaired. GTPase activity stimulated by U46619, but not by thrombin, was markedly reduced in TXA2- platelets. Antisera to Gq class alpha subunits abolished U46619-induced GTPase activity in TXA2-, TXA2+, and human platelets. Direct G protein stimulation by GTP gamma S yielded significantly less PA and IP3 in TXA2- platelets. Immunotransfer blotting revealed comparable quantities of Gq class alpha-subunits in all three platelet types. Thus, TXA2- dog platelets have impaired PI-PLC activation in response to TXA2/PGH2 receptor agonists secondary to G protein dysfunction, presumably involving a member of the Gq class. Images PMID:8227362

  7. Mapping the Human Platelet Lipidome Reveals Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 as a Regulator of Mitochondrial Bioenergetics during Activation.

    PubMed

    Slatter, David A; Aldrovandi, Maceler; O'Connor, Anne; Allen, Stuart M; Brasher, Christopher J; Murphy, Robert C; Mecklemann, Sven; Ravi, Saranya; Darley-Usmar, Victor; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2016-05-10

    Human platelets acutely increase mitochondrial energy generation following stimulation. Herein, a lipidomic circuit was uncovered whereby the substrates for this are exclusively provided by cPLA2, including multiple fatty acids and oxidized species that support energy generation via β-oxidation. This indicates that acute lipid membrane remodeling is required to support energetic demands during platelet activation. Phospholipase activity is linked to energy metabolism, revealing cPLA2 as a central regulator of both lipidomics and energy flux. Using a lipidomic approach (LipidArrays), we also estimated the total number of lipids in resting, thrombin-activated, and aspirinized platelets. Significant diversity between genetically unrelated individuals and a wealth of species was revealed. Resting platelets demonstrated ∼5,600 unique species, with only ∼50% being putatively identified. Thrombin elevated ∼900 lipids >2-fold with 86% newly appearing and 45% inhibited by aspirin supplementation, indicating COX-1 is required for major activation-dependent lipidomic fluxes. Many lipids were structurally identified. With ∼50% of the lipids being absent from databases, a major opportunity for mining lipids relevant to human health and disease is presented. PMID:27133131

  8. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) leads to male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Chang Lee, Hoi; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M.; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A.; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Male factor and idiopathic infertility contribute significantly to global infertility, with abnormal testicular gene expression considered to be a major cause. Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ). Previously, we identified a point mutation in an infertile male resulting in the substitution of histidine for proline at position 398 of the protein sequence (PLCζH398P), leading to abnormal PLCζ function and infertility. METHODS AND RESULTS Here, using a combination of direct-sequencing and mini-sequencing of the PLCζ gene from the patient and his family, we report the identification of a second PLCζ mutation in the same patient resulting in a histidine to leucine substitution at position 233 (PLCζH233L), which is predicted to disrupt local protein interactions in a manner similar to PLCζH398P and was shown to exhibit abnormal calcium oscillatory ability following predictive 3D modelling and cRNA injection in mouse oocytes respectively. We show that PLCζH233L and PLCζH398P exist on distinct parental chromosomes, the former inherited from the patient's mother and the latter from his father. Neither mutation was detected utilizing custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism assays in 100 fertile males and females, or 8 infertile males with characterized oocyte activation deficiency. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, our findings provide further evidence regarding the importance of PLCζ at oocyte activation and forms of male infertility where this is deficient. Additionally, we show that the inheritance patterns underlying male infertility are more complex than previously thought and may involve maternal mechanisms. PMID:22095789

  9. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors vildagliptin and K-579 inhibit a phospholipase C: a case of promiscuous scaffolds in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Mouparna; Ghosh, Anindya S.; Oda, Masataka; Venkatramani, Ravindra; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Goñi, Félix M.

    2015-01-01

    The long term side effects of any newly introduced drug is a subject of intense research, and often raging controversies. One such example is the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4) inhibitor used for treating type 2 diabetes, which is inconclusively implicated in increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. Previously, based on a computational analysis of the spatial and electrostatic properties of active site residues, we have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus cereus is a prolyl peptidase using in vivo experiments. In the current work, we first report the inhibition of the native activity of PI-PLC by two DPP4 inhibitors - vildagliptin (LAF-237) and K-579. While vildagliptin inhibited PI-PLC at micromolar concentrations, K-579 was a potent inhibitor even at nanomolar concentrations. Subsequently, we queried a comprehensive, non-redundant set of 5000 human proteins (50% similarity cutoff) with known structures using serine protease (SPASE) motifs derived from trypsin and DPP4. A pancreatic lipase and a gastric lipase are among the proteins that are identified as proteins having promiscuous SPASE scaffolds that could interact with DPP4 inhibitors. The presence of such scaffolds in human lipases is expected since they share the same catalytic mechanism with PI-PLC. However our methodology also detects other proteins, often with a completely different enzymatic mechanism, that have significantly congruent domains with the SPASE motifs. The reported elevated levels of serum lipase, although contested, could be rationalized by inhibition of lipases reported here. In an effort to further our understanding of the spatial and electrostatic basis of DPP4 inhibitors, we have also done a comprehensive analysis of all 76 known DPP4 structures liganded to inhibitors till date. Also, the methodology presented here can be easily adopted for other drugs, and provide the first line of filtering in the identification of pathways that

  10. Multivalent nanoparticle networks enable point-of-care detection of human phospholipase-A2 in serum.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Burnapp, Mark; Bentham, Andrew; Hillier, David; Zabron, Abigail; Khan, Shahid; Tyreman, Matthew; Stevens, Molly M

    2015-03-24

    A rapid and highly sensitive point-of-care (PoC) lateral flow assay for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is demonstrated in serum through the enzyme-triggered release of a new class of biotinylated multiarmed polymers from a liposome substrate. Signal from the enzyme activity is generated by the adhesion of polystreptavidin-coated gold nanoparticle networks to the lateral flow device, which leads to the appearance of a red test line due to the localized surface plasmon resonance effect of the gold. The use of a liposome as the enzyme substrate and multivalent linkers to link the nanoparticles leads to amplification of the signal, as the cleavage of a small amount of lipids is able to release a large amount of polymer linker and adhesion of an even larger amount of gold nanoparticles. By optimizing the molecular weight and multivalency of these biotinylated polymer linkers, the sensitivity of the device can be tuned to enable naked-eye detection of 1 nM human PLA2 in serum within 10 min. This high sensitivity enabled the correct diagnosis of pancreatitis in diseased clinical samples against a set of healthy controls using PLA2 activity in a point-of-care device for the first time. PMID:25756526

  11. Active site mutants of human secreted Group IIA Phospholipase A2 lacking hydrolytic activity retain their bactericidal effect.

    PubMed

    Chioato, Lucimara; Aragão, Elisangela Aparecida; Ferreira, Tatiana Lopes; Ward, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The Human Secreted Group IIA Phospholipase A(2) (hsPLA2GIIA) presents potent bactericidal activity, and is considered to contribute to the acute-phase immune response. Hydrolysis of inner membrane phospholipids is suggested to underlie the bactericidal activity, and we have evaluated this proposal by comparing catalytic activity with bactericidal and liposome membrane damaging effects of the G30S, H48Q and D49K hsPLA2GIIA mutants. All mutants showed severely impaired hydrolytic activities against mixed DOPC:DOPG liposome membranes, however the bactericidal effect against Micrococcus luteus was less affected, with 50% killing at concentrations of 1, 3, 7 and 9 μg/mL for the wild-type, D49K, H48Q and G30S mutants respectively. Furthermore, all proteins showed Ca(2+)-independent damaging activity against liposome membranes demonstrating that in addition to the hydrolysis-dependent membrane damage, the hsPLA2GIIA presents a mechanism for permeabilization of phospholipid bilayers that is independent of catalytic activity, which may play a role in the bactericidal function of the protein. PMID:21986368

  12. Phospholipase A2 Mediates Apolipoprotein-Independent Uptake of Chylomicron Remnant-Like Particles by Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Kruth, Howard S.; Bravo, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E-receptor-mediated pathways are the main routes by which macrophages take up chylomicron remnants, but uptake may also be mediated by receptor-independent routes. To investigate these mechanisms, triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation induced by apolipoprotein-free chylomicron remnant-like particles (CRLPw/o) in human monocyte-derived macrophages was evaluated. Macrophage TG content increased about 5-fold after incubation with CRLPw/o, and this effect was not reduced by the inhibition of phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, apolipoprotein E function, or proteoglycan bridging. The role of lipases, including lipoprotein lipase, cholesteryl ester hydrolase, and secretory (sPLA2) and cytosolic phospholipase A2, was studied using [3H]TG-labelled CRLPw/o. Total cell radioactivity after incubation with [3H]TG CRLPw/o was reduced by 15–30% by inhibitors of lipoprotein lipase and cholesteryl ester hydrolase and by about 45% by inhibitors of sPLA2 and cytosolic PLA2 . These results suggest that macrophage lipolytic enzymes mediate the internalization of postprandial TG-rich lipoproteins and that sPLA2 and cytosolic PLA2, play a more important role than extracellular lipoprotein lipase-mediated TG hydrolysis. PMID:21876814

  13. Purified group X secretory phospholipase A(2) induced prominent release of arachidonic acid from human myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hanasaki, K; Ono, T; Saiga, A; Morioka, Y; Ikeda, M; Kawamoto, K; Higashino, K; Nakano, K; Yamada, K; Ishizaki, J; Arita, H

    1999-11-26

    Group X secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-X) possesses several structural features characteristic of both group IB and IIA sPLA(2)s (sPLA(2)-IB and -IIA) and is postulated to be involved in inflammatory responses owing to its restricted expression in the spleen and thymus. Here, we report the purification of human recombinant COOH-terminal His-tagged sPLA(2)-X, the preparation of its antibody, and the purification of native sPLA(2)-X. The affinity-purified sPLA(2)-X protein migrated as various molecular species of 13-18 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, and N-glycosidase F treatment caused shifts to the 13- and 14-kDa bands. NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis revealed that the 13-kDa form is a putative mature sPLA(2)-X and the 14-kDa protein possesses a propeptide of 11 amino acid residues attached at the NH(2) termini of the mature protein. Separation with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography revealed that N-linked carbohydrates are not required for the enzymatic activity and pro-sPLA(2)-X has a relatively weak potency compared with the mature protein. The mature sPLA(2)-X induced the release of arachidonic acid from phosphatidylcholine more efficiently than other human sPLA(2) groups (IB, IIA, IID, and V) and elicited a prompt and marked release of arachidonic acid from human monocytic THP-1 cells compared with sPLA(2)-IB and -IIA with concomitant production of prostaglandin E(2). A prominent release of arachidonic acid was also observed in sPLA(2)-X-treated human U937 and HL60 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of human lung preparations revealed its expression in alveolar epithelial cells. These results indicate that human sPLA(2)-X is a unique N-glycosylated sPLA(2) that releases arachidonic acid from human myeloid leukemia cells more efficiently than sPLA(2)-IB and -IIA. PMID:10567392

  14. Cool-temperature-mediated activation of phospholipase C-γ2 in the human hereditary disease PLAID.

    PubMed

    Schade, Anja; Walliser, Claudia; Wist, Martin; Haas, Jennifer; Vatter, Petra; Kraus, Johann M; Filingeri, Davide; Havenith, George; Kestler, Hans A; Milner, Joshua D; Gierschik, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Deletions in the gene encoding signal-transducing inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2) are associated with the novel human hereditary disease PLAID (PLCγ2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation). PLAID is characterized by a rather puzzling concurrence of augmented and diminished functions of the immune system, such as cold urticaria triggered by only minimal decreases in temperature, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. Understanding of the functional effects of the genomic alterations at the level of the affected enzyme, PLCγ2, is currently lacking. PLCγ2 is critically involved in coupling various cell surface receptors to regulation of important functions of immune cells such as mast cells, B cells, monocytes/macrophages, and neutrophils. PLCγ2 is unique by carrying three Src (SH) and one split pleckstrin homology domain (spPH) between the two catalytic subdomains (spPHn-SH2n-SH2c-SH3-spPHc). Prevailing evidence suggests that activation of PLCγ2 is primarily due to loss of SH-region-mediated autoinhibition and/or enhanced plasma membrane translocation. Here, we show that the two PLAID PLCγ2 mutants lacking portions of the SH region are strongly (>100-fold), rapidly, and reversibly activated by cooling by only a few degrees. We found that the mechanism(s) underlying PLCγ2 PLAID mutant activation by cool temperatures is distinct from a mere loss of SH-region-mediated autoinhibition and dependent on both the integrity and the pliability of the spPH domain. The results suggest a new mechanism of PLCγ activation with unique thermodynamic features and assign a novel regulatory role to its spPH domain. Involvement of this mechanism in other human disease states associated with cooling such as exertional asthma and certain acute coronary events appears an intriguing possibility. PMID:27196803

  15. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D.; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2009-09-02

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P{sub R} and P{sub S} stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P{sub R} stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.

  16. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Bahnson, Brian J

    2009-08-15

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P(R) and P(S) stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P(R) stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents. PMID:19394314

  17. In Vitro Anti-Plasmodium falciparum Properties of the Full Set of Human Secreted Phospholipases A2

    PubMed Central

    Guillaume, Carole; Payré, Christine; Jemel, Ikram; Jeammet, Louise; Bezzine, Sofiane; Naika, Gajendra S.; Bollinger, James; Grellier, Philippe; Gelb, Michael H.; Schrével, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) from animal venoms inhibit the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria. In addition, the inflammatory-type human group IIA (hGIIA) sPLA2 circulates at high levels in the serum of malaria patients. However, the role of the different human sPLA2s in host defense against P. falciparum has not been investigated. We show here that 4 out of 10 human sPLA2s, namely, hGX, hGIIF, hGIII, and hGV, exhibit potent in vitro anti-Plasmodium properties with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 2.9 ± 2.4, 10.7 ± 2.1, 16.5 ± 9.7, and 94.2 ± 41.9 nM, respectively. Other human sPLA2s, including hGIIA, are inactive. The inhibition is dependent on sPLA2 catalytic activity and primarily due to hydrolysis of plasma lipoproteins from the parasite culture. Accordingly, purified lipoproteins that have been prehydrolyzed by hGX, hGIIF, hGIII, and hGV are more toxic to P. falciparum than native lipoproteins. However, the total enzymatic activities of human sPLA2s on purified lipoproteins or plasma did not reflect their inhibitory activities on P. falciparum. For instance, hGIIF is 9-fold more toxic than hGV but releases a lower quantity of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Lipidomic analyses of released NEFAs from lipoproteins demonstrate that sPLA2s with anti-Plasmodium properties are those that release polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), with hGIIF being the most selective enzyme. NEFAs purified from lipoproteins hydrolyzed by hGIIF were more potent at inhibiting P. falciparum than those from hGV, and PUFA-enriched liposomes hydrolyzed by sPLA2s were highly toxic, demonstrating the critical role of PUFAs. The selectivity of sPLA2s toward low- and high-density (LDL and HDL, respectively) lipoproteins and their ability to directly attack parasitized erythrocytes further explain their anti-Plasmodium activity. Together, our findings indicate that 4 human sPLA2s are active against P

  18. Inhibition of PAF synthesis by stimulated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes with cloricromene, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2 activation.

    PubMed Central

    Ribaldi, E.; Mezzasoma, A. M.; Francescangeli, E.; Prosdocimi, M.; Nenci, G. G.; Goracci, G.; Gresele, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) represents the key enzyme in the remodelling pathway of platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis in human polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes. 2. PLA2 activation is also the rate-limiting step for the release of the arachidonic acid utilized for the synthesis of leukotrienes in stimulated leucocytes; however, it is unknown whether the PLA2s involved in the two biosynthetic pathways are identical. 3. Cloricromene (8-monochloro-3-beta-diethylaminoethyl-4-methyl-7-ethoxy- carbonylmethoxy coumarin) is an antithrombotic coumarin derivative which inhibits platelet and leucocyte function and suppresses arachidonic acid liberation by interfering with PLA2 activation. 4. The aim of the present study was to assess whether chloricromene inhibits PAF synthesis by stimulated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). 5. Cloricromene (50-500 microM) inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the release of PAF, as measured by h.p.l.c. bioassay, from A23187-stimulated PMNs. Significant inhibition (45%) of PAF-release was obtained with 50 microM cloricromene and the IC50 was 85 microM. Mepacrine (500 microM), a non-specific PLA2 inhibitor, strikingly reduced PAF release. 6. The incorporation of [3H]-acetate into [3H]-PAF induced by serum-treated zymosan in human PMNs was also inhibited concentration-dependently by cloricromene, with an IC50 of 105 microM. Mepacrine also suppressed [3H]-acetate incorporation into [3H]-PAF. 7. Cloricromene did not affect the activities of the enzymes involved in PAF-synthesis acetyltransferase or phosphocholine transferase. 8. Our data demonstrate that cloricromene, an inhibitor of PLA2-activation in human leucocytes, reduces the synthesis of PAF by stimulated PMNs. This finding has a twofold implication: the PLA2s (or the mechanisms that regulate their activation) involved in PAF synthesis and arachidonate release in human leucocytes are either identical or else indistinguishable by their sensitivity to cloricromene

  19. The effect of CD137-CD137 ligand interaction on phospholipase C signaling pathway in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinchuan; Wang, Cuiping; Wang, Zhongqun; Yuan, Wei

    2013-11-25

    We previously reported the emerging role of CD137-CD137L interaction in inflammation and atherosclerosis. The mechanism of CD137-CD137L interaction may be related to a variety of signaling pathways. The most important signaling pathway involves the activation of phospholipase C(PLC) which induces the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C(DAG-PKC) and the inositol trisphosphate-intracellular free calcium (IP3-[Ca(2+)]i) pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether CD137-CD137L interaction can stimulate the PLC signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) levels in HUVEC were measured by radioenzymatic assay. The activity of protein kinase (PKC) was detected by its ability to transfer phosphate from [γ-(32)P]ATP to lysine-rich histone. The [Ca(2+)]i concentrations were measured by flow cytometric analysis. The DAG level and PKC activity were increased in a concentration-dependent, biphasic manner in HUVEC induced by anti-CD137. PKC activity was mainly in the cytosol at rest, and then translocated to the membrane when stimulated by anti-CD137. Similarly, rapid IP3 formation induced by anti-CD137 coincided with the peak of the DAG level. Moreover, anti-CD137 induced peak [Ca(2+)]i responses including the rapid transient phase and the sustained phase. However, anti-CD137L suppressed the activation of the DAG-PKC and IP3-[Ca(2+)]i signaling pathway, which was stimulated by anti-CD137 in HUVEC. In conclusion, the data suggested that CD137-CD137L interaction induces robust activation of the PLC signaling pathway in HUVEC. PMID:24070733

  20. Group V secreted phospholipase A2 is upregulated by IL-4 in human macrophages and mediates phagocytosis via hydrolysis of ethanolamine phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio M; Rodríguez, Juan P; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Guijas, Carlos; Balboa, María A; Balsinde, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophage populations led to the identification of two major polarization states: classically activated macrophages or M1, induced by IFN-γ plus LPS, and alternatively activated macrophages, induced by IL-4. We studied the expression of multiple phospholipase A2 enzymes in human macrophages and the effect that polarization of the cells has on their levels. At least 11 phospholipase A2 genes were found at significant levels in human macrophages, as detected by quantitative PCR. None of these exhibited marked changes after treating the cells with IFN-γ plus LPS. However, macrophage treatment with IL-4 led to strong upregulation of the secreted group V phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-V), both at the mRNA and protein levels. In parallel with increasing sPLA2-V expression levels, IL-4-treated macrophages exhibited increased phagocytosis of yeast-derived zymosan and bacteria, and we show that both events are causally related, because cells deficient in sPLA2-V exhibited decreased phagocytosis, and cells overexpressing the enzyme manifested higher rates of phagocytosis. Mass spectrometry analyses of lipid changes in the IL-4-treated macrophages suggest that ethanolamine lysophospholipid (LPE) is an sPLA2-V-derived product that may be involved in regulating phagocytosis. Cellular levels of LPE are selectively maintained by sPLA2-V. By supplementing sPLA2-V-deficient cells with LPE, phagocytosis of zymosan or bacteria was fully restored in IL-4-treated cells. Collectively, our results show that sPLA2-V is required for efficient phagocytosis by IL-4-treated human macrophages and provide evidence that sPLA2-V-derived LPE is involved in the process. PMID:25725101

  1. Exploitation of a Novel Binding Pocket in Human Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Discovered through X-ray Fragment Screening.

    PubMed

    Woolford, Alison J-A; Pero, Joseph E; Aravapalli, Sridhar; Berdini, Valerio; Coyle, Joseph E; Day, Philip J; Dodson, Andrew M; Grondin, Pascal; Holding, Finn P; Lee, Lydia Y W; Li, Peng; Manas, Eric S; Marino, Joseph; Martin, Agnes C L; McCleland, Brent W; McMenamin, Rachel L; Murray, Christopher W; Neipp, Christopher E; Page, Lee W; Patel, Vipulkumar K; Potvain, Florent; Rich, Sharna; Rivero, Ralph A; Smith, Kirsten; Somers, Donald O; Trottet, Lionel; Velagaleti, Ranganadh; Williams, Glyn; Xie, Ren

    2016-06-01

    Elevated levels of human lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) are associated with cardiovascular disease and dementia. A fragment screen was conducted against Lp-PLA2 in order to identify novel inhibitors. Multiple fragment hits were observed in different regions of the active site, including some hits that bound in a pocket created by movement of a protein side chain (approximately 13 Å from the catalytic residue Ser273). Using structure guided design, we optimized a fragment that bound in this pocket to generate a novel low nanomolar chemotype, which did not interact with the catalytic residues. PMID:27167608

  2. Bacterial phospholipases C.

    PubMed Central

    Titball, R W

    1993-01-01

    A variety of pathogenic bacteria produce phospholipases C, and since the discovery in 1944 that a bacterial toxin (Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin) possessed an enzymatic activity, there has been considerable interest in this class of proteins. Initial speculation that all phospholipases C would have lethal properties has not been substantiated. Most of the characterized enzymes fall into one of four groups of structurally related proteins: the zinc-metallophospholipases C, the sphingomyelinases, the phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing enzymes, and the pseudomonad phospholipases C. The zinc-metallophospholipases C have been most intensively studied, and lethal toxins within this group possess an additional domain. The toxic phospholipases C can interact with eukaryotic cell membranes and hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, leading to cell lysis. However, measurement of the cytolytic potential or lethality of phospholipases C may not accurately indicate their roles in the pathogenesis of disease. Subcytolytic concentrations of phospholipase C can perturb host cells by activating the arachidonic acid cascade or protein kinase C. Nonlethal phospholipases C, such as the Listeria monocytogenes PLC-A, appear to enhance the release of the organism from the host cell phagosome. Since some phospholipases C play important roles in the pathogenesis of disease, they could form components of vaccines. A greater understanding of the modes of action and structure-function relationships of phospholipases C will facilitate the interpretation of studies in which these enzymes are used as membrane probes and will enhance the use of these proteins as models for eukaryotic phospholipases C. PMID:8336671

  3. Expression of secretory phospholipase A2 enzymes in lungs of humans with pneumonia and their potential prostaglandin-synthetic function in human lung-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Seiko; Murakami, Makoto; Mitsuishi, Michiko; Komiyama, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kudo, Ichiro

    2005-04-01

    Although a number of sPLA2 (secretory phospholipase A2) enzymes have been identified in mammals, the localization and functions of individual enzymes in human pathologic tissues still remain obscure. In the present study, we have examined the expression and function of sPLA2s in human lung-derived cells and in human lungs with pneumonia. Group IID, V and X sPLA2s were expressed in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and normal human pulmonary fibroblasts with distinct requirement for cytokines (interleukin-1b, tumour necrosis factor a and interferon-g). Lentivirus- or adenovirus-mediated transfection of various sPLA2s into BEAS-2B or normal human pulmonary fibroblast cells revealed that group V and X sPLA2s increased arachidonate release and prostaglandin production in both cell types, whereas group IIA and IID sPLA2s failed to do so. Immunohistochemistry of human lungs with pneumonia demonstrated that group V and X sPLA2s were widely expressed in the airway epithelium, interstitium and alveolar macrophages, in which group IID sPLA2 was also positive, whereas group IIA sPLA2 was restricted to the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle layers and bronchial chondrocytes, and group IIE and IIF sPLA2s were minimally detected. These results suggest that group V and X sPLA2s affect lung pathogenesis by facilitating arachidonate metabolism or possibly through other functions. PMID:15509193

  4. PID15, a novel 6 kDa secreted peptide, mediates Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 induced apoptosis in isolated human peripheral lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake venoms are a complex mixture of active principles mainly peptides and proteins also including amino acids, nucleotides, free lipids, carbohydrates and metallic elements bound to proteins that interfere in several biological systems. In this study, we aimed to understand the mode of action of the apoptosis inducing ability of Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) using isolated human peripheral lymphocytes. Results Human peripheral lymphocytes when incubated with Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) induced up to 68% DNA fragmentation. The dialysed conditioned media obtained by incubating lymphocytes with NV-PLA2 at 15th min induced 44% DNA fragmentation, referred to as cmlp-active. Cmlp-active showed 20.5% increased protein concentration than the corresponding control condition media cmlp-c-15. Test for creatine kinase activity in cmlp-active proved negative and negligible amount of lactate dehydrogenase did not show significant DNA fragmentation. Fractionation of cmlp-active on Sephadex G-25 showed two peaks, major peak induced 38% DNA fragmentation, which was further rechromatographed on Sephadex G-25. The single peak obtained was named PID15 (Phospholipase A 2 Induced DNA fragmentation factor secreted at 15 th min). Q-Tof MS/MS analysis of PID-15 showed it is a 6 kDa peptide. PID15 sequence analysis gave 40 amino acids in the following order, msilpcknvs iwvikdtaas dkevvlgsdr aikflylatg. The homology search for the sequence revealed it to be an Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF). Conclusion Results indicate that the secretion of PID15 is dependent on concentration of NV-PLA2 treatment, incubation time and also on temperature and the probable membrane origin of PID15 and not of cytosolic origin with apoptosis inducing ability. PMID:25030355

  5. A 32-kDa protein associated with phospholipase A2-inhibitory activity from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Owada, M K; Sonobe, S; Kakunaga, T; Kawakatsu, H; Yano, J

    1987-11-01

    Two monomeric 32-kDa proteins, termed 32K-I (pI 5.8) and 32K-II (pI 5.1), were isolated from human placenta, which was solubilized by a Ca2+-chelator. Only 32K-I was associated with PLA2-inhibitory activity. CNBr peptide mapping indicated that 32K-I was distinct from 32K-II and two 36-kDa proteins, called calpactin I and II or lipocortin II and I, which have been shown to possess PLA2-inhibitory activity. 32K-I bound to PS in a Ca2+-dependent manner. 32K-I was detected in many tissues except brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle. PMID:3666152

  6. Leptin signalling and leptin-mediated activation of human platelets: importance of JAK2 and the phospholipases Cgamma2 and A2.

    PubMed

    Dellas, Claudia; Schäfer, Katrin; Rohm, Ilonka K; Lankeit, Mareike; Leifheit, Maren; Loskutoff, David J; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Konstantinides, Stavros V

    2007-11-01

    Leptin enhances agonist-induced platelet aggregation, and human platelets have been reported to express the leptin receptor. However, the pathways and mediators lying downstream of leptin binding to platelets remain, with few exceptions, unknown. In the present study, we sought to gain further insight into the possible role of leptin as a platelet agonist. Stimulation of platelets with leptin promoted thromboxane generation and activation of alpha(IIb)beta(3), as demonstrated by PAC-1 binding. Furthermore, it increased the adhesion to immobilised fibrinogen (p<0.001) and induced cytoskeletal rearrangement of both platelets and Meg01 cells. Leptin time- and dose-dependently phosphorylated the intracellular signalling molecules JAK2 and STAT3, although the importance of STAT3 for leptin-induced platelet activation remains to be determined. Important intracellular mediators and pathways activated by leptin downstream of JAK2 were found to include phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, phospholipase Cgamma2 and protein kinase C, as well as the p38 MAP kinase-phospholipase A(2) axis. Accordingly, incubation with the specific inhibitors AG490, Ly294002, U73122, and SB203580 prevented leptin-mediated platelet activation. These results help delineate biologically relevant leptin signalling pathways in platelets and may improve our understanding of the mechanisms linking hyperleptinaemia to the increased thrombosis risk in human obesity. PMID:18000612

  7. Organochlorine insecticides induce NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species in human monocytic cells via phospholipase A2/arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Mangum, Lee C; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Stokes, John V; Matthews, Anberitha T; Lee, Jung Hwa; Chambers, Janice E; Ross, Matthew K

    2015-04-20

    Bioaccumulative organohalogen chemicals, such as organochlorine (OC) insecticides, have been increasingly associated with disease etiology; however, the mechanistic link between chemical exposure and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes, is complex and poorly defined. Systemic oxidative stress stemming from OC exposure might play a vital role in the development of these pathologies. Monocytes are important surveillance cells of the innate immune system that respond to extracellular signals possessing danger-associated molecular patterns by synthesizing oxyradicals, such as superoxide, for the purpose of combating infectious pathogens. We hypothesized that OC chemicals can be toxic to monocytes because of an inappropriate elevation in superoxide-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing cellular oxidative damage. Reactive oxyradicals are generated in monocytes in large part by NADPH oxidase (Nox). The present study was conducted to examine the ability of two chlorinated cyclodiene compounds, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin, as well as p,p'-DDE, a chlorinated alicyclic metabolite of DDT, to stimulate Nox activity in a human monocytic cell line and to elucidate the mechanisms for this activation. Human THP-1 monocytes treated with either trans-nonachlor or dieldrin (0.1-10 μM in the culture medium) exhibited elevated levels of intracellular ROS, as evidenced by complementary methods, including flow cytometry analysis using the probe DCFH-DA and hydroethidine-based fluorometric and UPLC-MS assays. In addition, the induced reactive oxygen flux caused by trans-nonachlor was also observed in two other cell lines, murine J774 macrophages and human HL-60 cells. The central role of Nox in OC-mediated oxidative stress was demonstrated by the attenuated superoxide production in OC-exposed monocytes treated with the Nox inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium and VAS-2870. Moreover, monocytes challenged with OCs exhibited increased phospho-p47(phox

  8. Phospholipase C treatment of certain human target cells reduces their susceptibility to NK lysis without affecting binding or sensitivity to lytic granules.

    PubMed

    Une, C; Grönberg, A; Axberg, I; Jondal, M; Orn, A

    1991-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) is an enzyme that has the capacity to release glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (G-PI)-anchored proteins from the cells surface. Pretreatment of the human T-cell leukemia cell line Molt-4 with PI-PLC resulted in a decrease in the susceptibility to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Treatment of the erythroleukemia cell line K562 with PI-PLC had no effect on its NK susceptibility. PI-PLC-treated and untreated Molt-4 bound equally well to lymphocytes in target-binding studies with effector cell preparations enriched for NK cells. Susceptibility to cytolytic granules isolated from rat LGL tumor cells remained the same after treatment of Molt-4 or K562 with PI-PLC. Combined treatment of Molt-4 with PI-PLC and rlFN-alpha or rlFN-gamma resulted in additive reductions of the NK susceptibility, suggesting that PI-PLC and interferons act on different mechanisms to protect cells from NK lysis. When expression of a number of antigens on Molt-4 and K562 was analyzed in flow cytometry, only the expression of CD58 was reduced after PI-PLC treatment. The susceptibility of Con A blasts to MLR derived cytotoxic T-cells was not altered by treatment with phospholipase. These data suggest that PI-PLC treatment reduces the capacity of some target cells to activate NK cells upon contract. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is presently unclear. PMID:1703925

  9. Mu-opioids activate phospholipase C in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells via calcium-channel opening.

    PubMed

    Smart, D; Smith, G; Lambert, D G

    1995-01-15

    We have recently reported that, in SH-SY5Y cells, mu-opioid receptor occupancy activates phospholipase C via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. In the present study we have further characterized the mechanisms involved in this process. Fentanyl (0.1 microM) caused a monophasic increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate mass formation, with a peak (20.5 +/- 3.6 pmol/mg of protein) at 15 s. Incubation in Ca(2+)-free buffer abolished this response, while Ca2+ replacement 1 min later restored the stimulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation (20.1 +/- 0.6 pmol/mg of protein). In addition, nifedipine (1 nM-0.1 mM), an L-type Ca(2+)-channel antagonist, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, with an IC50 of 60.3 +/- 1.1 nM. Elevation of endogenous beta/gamma subunits by selective activation of delta-opioid and alpha 2 adrenoceptors failed to stimulate phospholipase C. Fentanyl also caused a dose-dependent (EC50 of 16.2 +/- 1.0 nM), additive enhancement of carbachol-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation. In summary, we have demonstrated that in SH-SY5Y cells activation of the mu-opioid receptor allows Ca2+ influx to activate phospholipase C. However, the possible role of this mechanism in the process of analgesia remains to be elucidated. PMID:7832776

  10. Lentivirus-mediated PLCγ1 gene short-hairpin RNA suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Fen; Dai, Lianzhi; Cai, Heguo; Zhan, Yanyan; Gang, Song; Hu, Tianhui; Xia, Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2016-02-16

    Targeted molecular therapy has gradually been a potential solution in cancer therapy. Other authors' and our previous studies have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase γ (PLCγ) is involved in regulating tumor growth and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PLCγ-dependent tumor growth and metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma and whether PLCγ may be a potential target for tumor therapy in human gastric adenocarcinoma are not yet well determined. Here, we investigated the role of PLCγ inhibition in tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma using BGC-823 cell line and a nude mouse tumor xenograft model. The results manifested that the depletion of PLCγ1 by the transduction with lentivirus-mediated PLCγ1 gene short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) vector led to the decrease of tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the Akt/Bad, Akt/S6, and ERK/Bad signal axes were involved in PLCγ1-mediated tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the abrogation of PLCγ1 signaling by shRNA could efficaciously suppress human gastric adenocarcinoma tumor growth and metastasis, with important implication for validating PLCγ1 as a potential target for human gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:26811493

  11. Lentivirus-mediated PLCγ1 gene short-hairpin RNA suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Fen; Dai, Lianzhi; Cai, Heguo; Zhan, Yanyan; Gang, Song; Hu, Tianhui; Xia, Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Targeted molecular therapy has gradually been a potential solution in cancer therapy. Other authors' and our previous studies have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase γ (PLCγ) is involved in regulating tumor growth and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PLCγ-dependent tumor growth and metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma and whether PLCγ may be a potential target for tumor therapy in human gastric adenocarcinoma are not yet well determined. Here, we investigated the role of PLCγ inhibition in tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma using BGC-823 cell line and a nude mouse tumor xenograft model. The results manifested that the depletion of PLCγ1 by the transduction with lentivirus-mediated PLCγ1 gene short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) vector led to the decrease of tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the Akt/Bad, Akt/S6, and ERK/Bad signal axes were involved in PLCγ1-mediated tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the abrogation of PLCγ1 signaling by shRNA could efficaciously suppress human gastric adenocarcinoma tumor growth and metastasis, with important implication for validating PLCγ1 as a potential target for human gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:26811493

  12. Humanized-Single Domain Antibodies (VH/VHH) that Bound Specifically to Naja kaouthia Phospholipase A2 and Neutralized the Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chavanayarn, Charnwit; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2012-01-01

    Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra) venom contains many isoforms of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2). The PLA2 exerts several pharmacologic and toxic effects in the snake bitten subject, dependent or independent on the enzymatic activity. N. kaouthia venom appeared in two protein profiles, P3 and P5, after fractionating the venom by ion exchange column chromatography. In this study, phage clones displaying humanized-camel single domain antibodies (VH/VHH) that bound specifically to the P3 and P5 were selected from a humanized-camel VH/VHH phage display library. Two phagemid transfected E. coli clones (P3-1 and P3-3) produced humanized-VHH, while another clone (P3-7) produced humanized-VH. At the optimal venom:antibody ratio, the VH/VHH purified from the E. coli homogenates neutralized PLA2 enzyme activity comparable to the horse immune serum against the N. kaouthia holo-venom. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that the VH/VHH covered the areas around the PLA2 catalytic groove and inserted their Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs) into the enzymatic cleft. It is envisaged that the VH/VHH would ameliorate/abrogate the principal toxicity of the venom PLA2 (membrane phospholipid catabolism leading to cellular and subcellular membrane damage which consequently causes hemolysis, hemorrhage, and dermo-/myo-necrosis), if they were used for passive immunotherapy of the cobra bitten victim. The speculation needs further investigations. PMID:22852068

  13. Phospholipases in arterial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, S.; Stein, Y.; Stein, O.

    1969-01-01

    The role of phospholipases in the regulation of the changing phospholipid composition of normal human aortae with age was studied. Portions of grossly and histologically lesion-free ascending aortae from 16 females and 29 males obtained at autopsy, were analyzed for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), phospholipid, and cholesterol content and phospholipid composition. Enzymic activity toward four substrates, lecithin (LE), phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysolecithin, and sphingomyelin (SP), was determined on portions of the same homogenate. By regression analysis for correlation between all determinations and age the following results were obtained: (a) total phospholipids and choleserol increased linearly with age; (b) the increase in sphingomyelin accounted for about 70% of the phospholipid increment; (c) hydrolysis of lecithin and phosphatidyl ethanolamine increased markedly with age, that of lysolecithin only moderately; (d) hydrolysis of sphingomyelin decreased with age; and (e) an inverse relation between the SP/LE ratio and age and sphingomyelinase/lecithinase activity and age was obtained. These results were interpreted to indicate that a causal relation exists between the fall in sphingomyelinase activity, both absolute and relative to lecithinase activity, and the accumulation of sphingomyelin with age. PMID:5355343

  14. Bacterial Sphingomyelinases and Phospholipases as Virulence Factors.

    PubMed

    Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Naylor, Claire; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flieger, Antje

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are a heterogeneous group of esterases which are usually surface associated or secreted by a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These enzymes hydrolyze sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids, respectively, generating products identical to the ones produced by eukaryotic enzymes which play crucial roles in distinct physiological processes, including membrane dynamics, cellular signaling, migration, growth, and death. Several bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are essential for virulence of extracellular, facultative, or obligate intracellular pathogens, as these enzymes contribute to phagosomal escape or phagosomal maturation avoidance, favoring tissue colonization, infection establishment and progression, or immune response evasion. This work presents a classification proposal for bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases that considers not only their enzymatic activities but also their structural aspects. An overview of the main physiopathological activities is provided for each enzyme type, as are examples in which inactivation of a sphingomyelinase- or a phospholipase-encoding gene impairs the virulence of a pathogen. The identification of sphingomyelinases and phospholipases important for bacterial pathogenesis and the development of inhibitors for these enzymes could generate candidate vaccines and therapeutic agents, which will diminish the impacts of the associated human and animal diseases. PMID:27307578

  15. Loss of function variants in human PNPLA8 encoding calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ recapitulate the mitochondriopathy of the homologous null mouse

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Carol J.; Moon, Sung Ho; Liu, Xinping; Thiffault, Isabelle; Coffman, Keith; LePichon, Jean-Baptiste; Taboada, Eugenio; Smith, Laurie D.; Farrow, Emily G.; Miller, Neil; Gibson, Margaret; Patterson, Melanie; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Gross, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondriopathies are a group of clinically heterogeneous genetic diseases caused by defects in mitochondrial metabolism, bioenergetic efficiency, and/or signaling functions. The large majority of proteins involved in mitochondrial function are encoded by nuclear genes, with many yet to be associated with human disease. We performed exome sequencing on a young girl with a suspected mitochondrial myopathy that manifested as progressive muscle weakness, hypotonia, seizures, poor weight gain, and lactic acidosis. She was compound heterozygous for two frameshift mutations, p. Asn112HisfsX29 and p. Leu659AlafsX4, in the PNPLA8 gene, which encodes mitochondrial calcium independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ). Western blot analysis of affected muscle displayed the absence of PNPLA8 protein. iPLA2s are critical mediators of a variety of cellular processes including growth, metabolism, and lipid second messenger generation, exerting their functions through catalyzing the cleavage of the acyl groups in glycerophospholipids. The clinical presentation, muscle histology and the mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities of this proband are highly reminiscent of Pnpla8 null mice. Although other iPLA2–related diseases have been identified, namely infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, this is the first report of PNPLA8-related disease in a human. We suggest PNPLA8 join the increasing list of human genes involved in lipid metabolism associated with neuromuscular diseases due to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25512002

  16. GDP beta S enhances the activation of phospholipase C caused by thrombin in human platelets: evidence for involvement of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdisse, E.; Lapetina, E.G.

    1987-05-14

    Guanosine 5'-O-thiotriphosphate (GTP gamma S) and thrombin stimulate the activity of phospholipase C in platelets that have been permeabilized with saponin and whose inositol phospholipids have been prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol. Ca/sup 2 +/ has opposite effects on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates induced by thrombin or GTP gamma S. While the action of GTP gamma S on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates is inhibited by Ca/sup 2 +/, action of thrombin is stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/. Guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S), which inhibits the function of GTP-binding proteins, also inhibits the effect of GTP gamma S on phospholipase C stimulation but, surprisingly, increases the effect of thrombin. Ca/sup 2 +/ increases the inhibitory effect of GDP beta S on GTP gamma S activation of phospholipase C, but Ca/sup 2 +/ further enhances the stimulatory effect of GDP beta S on the thrombin activation of phospholipase C. This indicates that two mechanisms are responsible for the activation of phospholipase C in platelets. A GTP-binding protein is responsible for regulation of phospholipase C induced by GTP gamma S, while the effect of thrombin on the stimulation of phospholipase C is independent of GTP-binding proteins. However, the effect of thrombin may be modulated by the action of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein.

  17. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22-54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ-related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm's fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  18. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  19. Measurement of Ether Phospholipids in Human Plasma with HPLC-ELSD and LC/ESI-MS After Hydrolysis of Plasma with Phospholipase A1.

    PubMed

    Mawatari, Shiro; Hazeyama, Seira; Fujino, Takehiko

    2016-08-01

    Ethanolamine ether phospholipid (eEtnGpl) and choline ether phospholipid (eChoGpl) are present in human plasma or serum, but the relative concentration of the ether phospholipids in plasma is very low as compared to those in other tissues. Nowadays, measurement of ether phospholipids in plasma depends on tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), but a system for LC/MS/MS is generally too expensive for usual clinical laboratories. Treatment of plasma with phospholipase A1 (PLA1) causes complete hydrolysis of diacylphospholipids, but ether phospholipids remain intact. After the treatment of plasma with PLA1, both eEtnGpl and eChoGpl are detected as independent peaks by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). The same sample used for HPLC-ELSD can be applied to detect eEtnGpl and eChoGpl with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Presence of alkylacylphospholipids in both eChoGpl and eEtnGpl in human plasma was indicated by sequential hydrolysis of plasma with PLA1 and hydrochloric acid. PMID:27386871

  20. Effect of Retinoic Acid on Gene Expression in Human Conjunctival Epithelium: Secretory phospholipase A2 mediates retinoic acid induction of MUC16.

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Yuichi; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Russo, Cindy Leigh; Argüeso, Pablo; Gipson, Ilene K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. How vitamin A contributes to the maintenance of the wet-surfaced phenotype at the ocular surface is not well understood. We sought to identify vitamin A responsive genes in ocular surface epithelia using gene microarray analysis of cultures of a human conjunctival epithelial cell line (HCjE) grown with all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). The analysis showed that secretory phospholipase A2 Group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was the gene most upregulated by RA, followed by the membrane-associated mucin MUC16 at a later time point. Since eicosanoids, the product of arachidonic acid generated by the phospholipase A2 family, have been shown to increase mucin production, we sought to determine if sPLA2 mediates the RA induction of MUC16. Methods. HCjE cells were cultured with or without RA for 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours. Complementary RNA prepared from RNA of the HCjE cells was hybridized to human gene chips (HG-U133A; Affymetrix) and analyzed using Rosetta Resolver software. Microarray data on mucin expression were validated by real-time PCR. To investigate whether sPLA2 is associated with RA-induced MUC16 upregulation, HCjE cells were incubated with RA and the broad spectrum PLA2 inhibitor, aristolochic acid (ArA) or the specific sPLA2-IIA inhibitor LY315920, followed by analysis of MUC16 mRNA and protein by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Results. After RA addition, 28 transcripts were upregulated and 6 downregulated by over 2.0-fold (p < 0.01) at both 3 and 6 hours (early phase). Eighty gene transcripts were upregulated and 45 downregulated at both 24 and 48 hours (late phase). Group IIA sPLA2, significantly upregulated by 24 hours, and MUC16 were the most upregulated RNAs by RA at 48 hours. sPLA2 upregulation by RA was confirmed by Western blot analysis. When HCjE cells were incubated with RA plus ArA or specific inhibitor of sPLA2-IIA, LY315920, the RA-induced MUC16 mRNA was significantly reduced (p < 0.01). Conclusion. The retinoic acid-associated upregulation of

  1. Humanized-single domain antibodies (VH/VHH) that bound specifically to Naja kaouthia phospholipase A2 and neutralized the enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Chavanayarn, Charnwit; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Thueng-In, Kanyarat; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2012-07-01

    Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra) venom contains many isoforms of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA(2)). The PLA(2) exerts several pharmacologic and toxic effects in the snake bitten subject, dependent or independent on the enzymatic activity. N. kaouthia venom appeared in two protein profiles, P3 and P5, after fractionating the venom by ion exchange column chromatography. In this study, phage clones displaying humanized-camel single domain antibodies (VH/V(H)H) that bound specifically to the P3 and P5 were selected from a humanized-camel VH/V(H)H phage display library. Two phagemid transfected E. coli clones (P3-1 and P3-3) produced humanized-V(H)H, while another clone (P3-7) produced humanized-VH. At the optimal venom:antibody ratio, the VH/V(H)H purified from the E. coli homogenates neutralized PLA(2) enzyme activity comparable to the horse immune serum against the N. kaouthia holo-venom. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that the VH/V(H)H covered the areas around the PLA(2) catalytic groove and inserted their Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs) into the enzymatic cleft. It is envisaged that the VH/V(H)H would ameliorate/abrogate the principal toxicity of the venom PLA(2) (membrane phospholipid catabolism leading to cellular and subcellular membrane damage which consequently causes hemolysis, hemorrhage, and dermo-/myo-necrosis), if they were used for passive immunotherapy of the cobra bitten victim. The speculation needs further investigations. PMID:22852068

  2. Plasma membrane associated phospholipase C from human platelets: Synergistic stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis by thrombin and guanosine 5 prime -O-(3-thiotriphosphate)

    SciTech Connect

    Baldassare, J.J.; Henderson, P.A.; Fisher, G.J. )

    1989-01-10

    The effects of thrombin and GTP{gamma}S on the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides by membrane-associated phospholipase C (PLC) from human platelets were examined with endogenous ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled membranes or with lipid vesicles containing either ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol or ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. GTP{gamma}S (1 {mu}M) or thrombin (1 unit/mL) did not stimulate release of inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}), or inositol phosphate (IP) from ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled membranes. IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, but not IP, from ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled membranes were, however, stimulated 3-fold by GTP{gamma}S (1 {mu}M) plus thrombin (1 unit/mL). A higher concentration of GTP{gamma}S (100 {mu}M) alone also stimulated IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, but not IP, release. In the presence of 1 mM calcium, release of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} was increased 6-fold over basal levels; however, formation of IP was not observed. At submicromolar calcium concentration, hydrolysis of exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}) by platelet membrane associated PLC was also markedly enhanced by GTP{gamma}S (100 {mu}M) or GTP{gamma}S (1 {mu}M) plus thrombin (1 unit/mL). Under identical conditions, exogenous phosphatidylinositol (PI) was not hydrolyzed. The same substrate specificity was observed when the membrane-associated PLC was activated with 1 mM calcium. Thrombin-induced hydrolysis of PIP{sub 2} was inhibited by treatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin or pretreatment of intact platelets with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA) prior to preparation of membranes. Pertussis toxin did not inhibit GTP{gamma}S (100 {mu}M) or calcium (1 mM) dependent PIP{sub 2} breakdown, while TPA inhibited GTP{gamma}S-dependent but not calcium-dependent phospholipase C activity.

  3. Human Neutrophil Elastase Induce Interleukin-10 Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells through Protein Kinase C Theta/Delta and Phospholipase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Jin; Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Sakamoto, Arisa; Aoki, Manabu; Kitano, Masafumi; Umehashi, Misako; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neutrophils have an important role in the rapid innate immune response, and the release or active secretion of elastase from neutrophils is linked to various inflammatory responses. Purpose of this study was to determine how the human neutrophil elastase affects the interleukin-10 (IL-10) response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Materials and Methods In this prospective study, changes in IL-10 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels in monocytes derived from human PBMCs were investigated after stimulation with human neutrophil elastase (HNE). A set of inhibitors was used for examining the pathways for IL-10 production induced by HNE. Results Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that stimulation with HNE upregulated IL-10 mRNA expression by monocytes, while the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed an increase of IL-10 protein level in the culture medium. A phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) partially blunt- ed the induction of IL-10 mRNA expression by HNE, while IL-10 mRNA expression was significantly reduced by a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (Rottlerin). A calcium chelator (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)octyl ester: TMB-8) inhibited the response of IL-10 mRNA to stimulation by HNE. In addition, pretreatment with a broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor (Ro-318425) partly blocked the response to HNE. Finally, an inhibitor of PKC theta/delta abolished the increased level of IL-10 mRNA expression. Conclusion These results indicate that HNE mainly upregulates IL-10 mRNA ex- pression and protein production in moncytes via a novel PKC theta/delta, although partially via the conventional PKC pathway. PMID:26862528

  4. Acidity and lipolysis by group V secreted phospholipase A(2) strongly increase the binding of apoB-100-containing lipoproteins to human aortic proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Lähdesmäki, Katariina; Öörni, Katariina; Alanne-Kinnunen, Mervi; Jauhiainen, Matti; Hurt-Camejo, Eva; Kovanen, Petri T

    2012-02-01

    Local acidic areas characterize diffuse intimal thickening (DIT) and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The role of acidity in the modification and extra- and intracellular accumulation of triglyceride-rich VLDL and IDL particles has not been studied before. Here, we examined the effects of acidic pH on the activity of recombinant human group V secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-V) toward small VLDL (sVLDL), IDL, and LDL, on the binding of these apoB-100-containing lipoproteins to human aortic proteoglycans, and on their uptake by human monocyte-derived macrophages. At acidic pH, the ability of sPLA(2)-V to lipolyze the apoB-100-containing lipoproteins was moderately, but significantly, increased while binding of the lipoproteins to proteoglycans increased >60-fold and sPLA(2)-V-modification further doubled the binding. Moreover, acidic pH more than doubled macrophage uptake of soluble complexes of sPLA(2)-V-LDL with aortic proteoglycans. Proteoglycan-affinity chromatography at pH 7.5 and 5.5 revealed that sVLDL, IDL, and LDL consisted of populations with different proteoglycan-binding affinities, and, surprisingly, the sVLDL fractions with the highest proteoglycan-affinity contained only low amounts of apolipoproteins E and C-III. Our results suggest that in atherosclerotic lesions with acidic extracellular pH, sPLA(2)-V is able to lipolyze sVLDL, IDL, and LDL, and increase their binding to proteoglycans. This is likely to provoke extracellular accumulation of lipids derived from these atherogenic lipoprotein particles and to increase the progression of the atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22041135

  5. Mitochondrial localization of cyclooxygenase-2 and calcium-independent phospholipase A{sub 2} in human cancer cells: Implication in apoptosis resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, J.-Y.; Aleksic, Nena; Chen, S.-F.; Han, T.-J.; Shyue, Song-Kun . E-mail: skshyue@ibms.sinica.edu.tw; Wu, Kenneth K. . E-mail: Kenneth.K.Wu@uth.tmc.edu

    2005-05-15

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is inducible by myriad stimuli. The inducible COX-2 in primary cultured human cells has been reported to localize to nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and caveolae. As COX-2 plays an important role in tumor growth, we were interested in its subcellular location in cancer cells. We examined COX-2 localization in several cancer cell lines by confocal microscopy. A majority of COX-2 was colocalized with heat shock protein 60, a mitochondrial protein, in colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-15 and DLD-1), breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular cancer (HepG2) and lung cancer cells (A549) with a similar distribution pattern. By contrast, COX-2 was not localized to mitochondria in human foreskin fibroblasts or endothelial cells. Immunoblot analysis of COX-2 in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions confirmed localization of COX-2 to mitochondria in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells but not in fibroblasts. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 was colocalized with heat shock protein 60 to mitochondria not only in cancer cells (HT-29 and DLD-1) but also in fibroblasts. HT-29 which expressed more abundant mitochondrial COX-2 than DLD-1 was highly resistant to arachidonic acid and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis whereas DLD-1 was less resistant and human fibroblasts were highly susceptible. Treatment of HT-29 cells with sulindac or SC-236, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, resulted in loss of resistance to apoptosis. These results suggest that mitochondrial COX-2 in cancer cells confer resistance to apoptosis by reducing the proapoptotic arachidonic acid.

  6. Subcellular localization of phospholipase Cζ in human sperm and its absence in DPY19L2-deficient sperm are consistent with its role in oocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Escoffier, Jessica; Yassine, Sandra; Lee, Hoi Chang; Martinez, Guillaume; Delaroche, Julie; Coutton, Charles; Karaouzène, Thomas; Zouari, Raoudha; Metzler-Guillemain, Catherine; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Ray, Pierre F.; Fissore, Rafael; Arnoult, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified the DPY19L2 gene as the main genetic cause of human globozoospermia (70%) and described that Dpy19l2 knockout (KO) mice faithfully reproduce the human phenotype of globozoospermia making it an excellent model to characterize the molecular physiopathology of globozoospermia. Recent case studies on non-genetically characterized men with globozoospermia showed that phospholipase C, zeta (PLCζ), the sperm factor thought to induce the Ca2+ oscillations at fertilization, was absent from their sperm, explaining the poor fertilization potential of these spermatozoa. Since 30% of globozoospermic men remain genetically uncharacterized, the absence of PLCζ in DPY19L2 globozoospermic men remains to be formally established. Moreover, the precise localization of PLCζ and the reasons underlying its loss during spermatogenesis in globozoospermic patients are still not understood. Herein, we show that PLCζ is absent, or its presence highly reduced, in human and mouse sperm with DPY19L2-associated globozoospermia. As a consequence, fertilization with sperm from Dpy19l2 KO mice failed to initiate Ca2+ oscillations and injected oocytes remained arrested at the metaphase II stage, although a few human oocytes injected with DPY19L2-defective sperm showed formation of 2-pronuclei embryos. We report for the first time the subcellular localization of PLCζ in control human sperm, which is along the inner acrosomal membrane and in the perinuclear theca, in the area corresponding to the equatorial region. Because these cellular components are absent in globozoospermic sperm, the loss of PLCζ in globozoospermic sperm is thus consistent and reinforces the role of PLCζ as an oocyte activation factor necessary for oocyte activation. In our companion article, we showed that chromatin compaction during spermiogenesis in Dpy19l2 KO mouse is defective and leads to sperm DNA damage. Together, these defects explain the poor fertilization potential of DPY19L2

  7. Subcellular localization of phospholipase Cζ in human sperm and its absence in DPY19L2-deficient sperm are consistent with its role in oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Escoffier, Jessica; Yassine, Sandra; Lee, Hoi Chang; Martinez, Guillaume; Delaroche, Julie; Coutton, Charles; Karaouzène, Thomas; Zouari, Raoudha; Metzler-Guillemain, Catherine; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Ray, Pierre F; Fissore, Rafael; Arnoult, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    We recently identified the DPY19L2 gene as the main genetic cause of human globozoospermia (70%) and described that Dpy19l2 knockout (KO) mice faithfully reproduce the human phenotype of globozoospermia making it an excellent model to characterize the molecular physiopathology of globozoospermia. Recent case studies on non-genetically characterized men with globozoospermia showed that phospholipase C, zeta (PLCζ), the sperm factor thought to induce the Ca(2+) oscillations at fertilization, was absent from their sperm, explaining the poor fertilization potential of these spermatozoa. Since 30% of globozoospermic men remain genetically uncharacterized, the absence of PLCζ in DPY19L2 globozoospermic men remains to be formally established. Moreover, the precise localization of PLCζ and the reasons underlying its loss during spermatogenesis in globozoospermic patients are still not understood. Herein, we show that PLCζ is absent, or its presence highly reduced, in human and mouse sperm with DPY19L2-associated globozoospermia. As a consequence, fertilization with sperm from Dpy19l2 KO mice failed to initiate Ca(2+) oscillations and injected oocytes remained arrested at the metaphase II stage, although a few human oocytes injected with DPY19L2-defective sperm showed formation of 2-pronuclei embryos. We report for the first time the subcellular localization of PLCζ in control human sperm, which is along the inner acrosomal membrane and in the perinuclear theca, in the area corresponding to the equatorial region. Because these cellular components are absent in globozoospermic sperm, the loss of PLCζ in globozoospermic sperm is thus consistent and reinforces the role of PLCζ as an oocyte activation factor necessary for oocyte activation. In our companion article, we showed that chromatin compaction during spermiogenesis in Dpy19l2 KO mouse is defective and leads to sperm DNA damage. Together, these defects explain the poor fertilization potential of DPY19L2

  8. Progesterone-Dependent Induction of Phospholipase C-Related Catalytically Inactive Protein 1 (PRIP-1) in Decidualizing Human Endometrial Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Muter, Joanne; Brighton, Paul J; Lucas, Emma S; Lacey, Lauren; Shmygol, Anatoly; Quenby, Siobhan; Blanks, Andrew M; Brosens, Jan J

    2016-07-01

    Decidualization denotes the transformation of endometrial stromal cells into specialized decidual cells. In pregnancy, decidual cells form a protective matrix around the implanting embryo, enabling coordinated trophoblast invasion and formation of a functional placenta. Continuous progesterone (P4) signaling renders decidual cells resistant to various environmental stressors, whereas withdrawal inevitably triggers tissue breakdown and menstruation or miscarriage. Here, we show that PLCL1, coding phospholipase C (PLC)-related catalytically inactive protein 1 (PRIP-1), is highly induced in response to P4 signaling in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Knockdown experiments in undifferentiated HESCs revealed that PRIP-1 maintains basal phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein kinase B activity, which in turn prevents illicit nuclear translocation of the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 and induction of the apoptotic activator BIM. By contrast, loss of this scaffold protein did not compromise survival of decidual cells. PRIP-1 knockdown did also not interfere with the responsiveness of HESCs to deciduogenic cues, although the overall expression of differentiation markers, such as PRL, IGFBP1, and WNT4, was blunted. Finally, we show that PRIP-1 in decidual cells uncouples PLC activation from intracellular Ca(2+) release by attenuating inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling. In summary, PRIP-1 is a multifaceted P4-inducible scaffold protein that gates the activity of major signal transduction pathways in the endometrium. It prevents apoptosis of proliferating stromal cells and contributes to the relative autonomy of decidual cells by silencing PLC signaling downstream of Gq protein-coupled receptors. PMID:27167772

  9. Overexpression of myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate enhances activation of phospholipase D by protein kinase C in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morash, S C; Rosé, S D; Byers, D M; Ridgway, N D; Cook, H W

    1998-01-01

    Signal transduction can involve the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the subsequent phosphorylation of protein substrates, including myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS). Previously we showed that stimulation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) synthesis by PMA in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells required overexpression of MARCKS, whereas PKCalpha alone was insufficient. We have now investigated the role of MARCKS in PMA-stimulated PtdCho hydrolysis by phospholipase D (PLD). Overexpression of MARCKS enhanced PLD activity 1.3-2.5-fold compared with vector controls in unstimulated cells, and 3-4-fold in cells stimulated with 100 nM PMA. PMA-stimulated PLD activity was blocked by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide. Activation of PLD by PMA was linear with time to 60 min, whereas stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by PMA in clones overexpressing MARCKS was observed after a 15 min time lag, suggesting that the hydrolysis of PtdCho by PLD preceded synthesis. The formation of phosphatidylbutanol by PLD was greatest when PtdCho was the predominantly labelled phospholipid, indicating that PtdCho was the preferred, but not the only, phospholipid substrate for PLD. Cells overexpressing MARCKS had 2-fold higher levels of PKCalpha than in vector control cells analysed by Western blot analysis; levels of PKCbeta and PLD were similar in all clones. The loss of both MARCKS and PKCalpha expression at higher subcultures of the clones was paralleled by the loss of stimulation of PLD activity and PtdCho synthesis by PMA. Our results show that MARCKS is an essential link in the PKC-mediated activation of PtdCho-specific PLD in these cells and that the stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by PMA is a secondary response. PMID:9601059

  10. Loss of Ypk1, the yeast homolog to the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase, accelerates phospholipase B1-mediated phosphatidylcholine deacylation.

    PubMed

    Surlow, Beth A; Cooley, Benjamin M; Needham, Patrick G; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Patton-Vogt, Jana

    2014-11-01

    Ypk1, the yeast homolog of the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (Sgk1), affects diverse cellular activities, including sphingolipid homeostasis. We now report that Ypk1 also impacts the turnover of the major phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Pulse-chase radiolabeling reveals that a ypk1Δ mutant exhibits increased PC deacylation and glycerophosphocholine production compared with wild type yeast. Deletion of PLB1, a gene encoding a B-type phospholipase that hydrolyzes PC, in a ypk1Δ mutant curtails the increased PC deacylation. In contrast to previous data, we find that Plb1 resides in the ER and in the medium. Consistent with a link between Ypk1 and Plb1, the levels of both Plb1 protein and PLB1 message are elevated in a ypk1Δ strain compared with wild type yeast. Furthermore, deletion of PLB1 in a ypk1Δ mutant exacerbates phenotypes associated with loss of YPK1, including slowed growth and sensitivity to cell wall perturbation, suggesting that increased Plb1 activity buffers against the loss of Ypk1. Because Plb1 lacks a consensus phosphorylation site for Ypk1, we probed other processes under the control of Ypk1 that might be linked to PC turnover. Inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the drug myriocin or through utilization of a lcb1-100 mutant results in increased PLB1 expression. Furthermore, we discovered that the increase in PLB1 expression observed upon inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis or loss of Ypk1 is under the control of the Crz1 transcription factor. Taken together, these results suggest a functional interaction between Ypk1 and Plb1 in which altered sphingolipid metabolism up-regulates PLB1 expression via Crz1. PMID:25258318

  11. Progesterone-Dependent Induction of Phospholipase C-Related Catalytically Inactive Protein 1 (PRIP-1) in Decidualizing Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muter, Joanne; Brighton, Paul J.; Lucas, Emma S.; Lacey, Lauren; Shmygol, Anatoly; Quenby, Siobhan; Blanks, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Decidualization denotes the transformation of endometrial stromal cells into specialized decidual cells. In pregnancy, decidual cells form a protective matrix around the implanting embryo, enabling coordinated trophoblast invasion and formation of a functional placenta. Continuous progesterone (P4) signaling renders decidual cells resistant to various environmental stressors, whereas withdrawal inevitably triggers tissue breakdown and menstruation or miscarriage. Here, we show that PLCL1, coding phospholipase C (PLC)-related catalytically inactive protein 1 (PRIP-1), is highly induced in response to P4 signaling in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Knockdown experiments in undifferentiated HESCs revealed that PRIP-1 maintains basal phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein kinase B activity, which in turn prevents illicit nuclear translocation of the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 and induction of the apoptotic activator BIM. By contrast, loss of this scaffold protein did not compromise survival of decidual cells. PRIP-1 knockdown did also not interfere with the responsiveness of HESCs to deciduogenic cues, although the overall expression of differentiation markers, such as PRL, IGFBP1, and WNT4, was blunted. Finally, we show that PRIP-1 in decidual cells uncouples PLC activation from intracellular Ca2+ release by attenuating inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling. In summary, PRIP-1 is a multifaceted P4-inducible scaffold protein that gates the activity of major signal transduction pathways in the endometrium. It prevents apoptosis of proliferating stromal cells and contributes to the relative autonomy of decidual cells by silencing PLC signaling downstream of Gq protein-coupled receptors. PMID:27167772

  12. Diagnosis of snake envenomation using a simple phospholipase A2 assay

    PubMed Central

    Maduwage, Kalana; O'Leary, Margaret A.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of snake envenomation is challenging but critical for deciding on antivenom use. Phospholipase A2 enzymes occur commonly in snake venoms and we hypothesized that phospholipase activity detected in human blood post-bite may be indicative of envenomation. Using a simple assay, potentially a bedside test, we detected high phospholipase activity in sera of patients with viper and elapid envenomation compared to minimal activity in non-envenomed patients. PMID:24777205

  13. Plant phospholipases D and C and their diverse functions in stress responses.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yueyun; Zhao, Jian; Guo, Liang; Kim, Sang-Chul; Deng, Xianjun; Wang, Geliang; Zhang, Gaoyang; Li, Maoyin; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-04-01

    Phospholipases D (PLD) and C (PLC) hydrolyze the phosphodiesteric linkages of the head group of membrane phospholipids. PLDs and PLCs in plants occur in different forms: the calcium-dependent phospholipid binding domain-containing PLDs (C2-PLDs), the plekstrin homology and phox homology domain-containing PLDs (PX/PH-PLDs), phosphoinositide-specific PLC (PI-PLC), and non-specific PLC (NPC). They differ in structures, substrate selectivities, cofactor requirements, and/or reaction conditions. These enzymes and their reaction products, such as phosphatidic acid (PA), diacylglycerol (DAG), and inositol polyphosphates, play important, multifaceted roles in plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we review biochemical properties, cellular effects, and physiological functions of PLDs and PLCs, particularly in the context of their roles in stress response along with advances made on the role of PA and DAG in cell signaling in plants. The mechanism of actions, including those common and distinguishable among different PLDs and PLCs, will also be discussed. PMID:26783886

  14. Activation of group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 in human eosinophils by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Myou, Shigeharu; Leff, Alan R; Myo, Saori; Boetticher, Evan; Meliton, Angelo Y; Lambertino, Anissa T; Liu, Jie; Xu, Chang; Munoz, Nilda M; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2003-10-15

    Activation of group IV cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (gIV-PLA(2)) is the essential first step in the synthesis of inflammatory eicosanoids and in integrin-mediated adhesion of leukocytes. Prior investigations have demonstrated that phosphorylation of gIV-PLA(2) results from activation of at least two isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We investigated the potential role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in the activation of gIV-PLA(2) and the hydrolysis of membrane phosphatidylcholine in fMLP-stimulated human blood eosinophils. Transduction into eosinophils of Deltap85, a dominant negative form of class IA PI3K adaptor subunit, fused to an HIV-TAT protein transduction domain (TAT-Deltap85) concentration dependently inhibited fMLP-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B, a downstream target of PI3K. FMLP caused increased arachidonic acid (AA) release and secretion of leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)). TAT-Deltap85 and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, blocked the phosphorylation of gIV-PLA(2) at Ser(505) caused by fMLP, thus inhibiting gIV-PLA(2) hydrolysis and production of AA and LTC(4) in eosinophils. FMLP also caused extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in eosinophils; however, neither phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 nor p38 was inhibited by TAT-Deltap85 or LY294002. Inhibition of 1) p70 S6 kinase by rapamycin, 2) protein kinase B by Akt inhibitor, or 3) protein kinase C by Ro-31-8220, the potential downstream targets of PI3K for activation of gIV-PLA(2), had no effect on AA release or LTC(4) secretion caused by fMLP. We find that PI3K is required for gIV-PLA(2) activation and hydrolytic production of AA in activated eosinophils. Our data suggest that this essential PI3K independently activates gIV-PLA(2) through a pathway that does not involve MAPK. PMID:14530366

  15. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide primes human neutrophils for enhanced release of arachidonic acid and causes phosphorylation of an 85-kD cytosolic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed Central

    Doerfler, M E; Weiss, J; Clark, J D; Elsbach, P

    1994-01-01

    Production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) by human neutrophils (PMN) in response to different stimuli is increased after pretreatment with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We have analyzed the steps in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism affected by LPS by examining release of AA and its metabolites from [3H]AA prelabeled PMN. Pretreatment of PMN for 60 min with up to 1 microgram/ml of LPS alone had no effect, but release of [3H]AA was stimulated up to fivefold during subsequent stimulation with a second agent. In the absence of LPS-binding protein (LBP), priming was maximal after pretreatment of PMN with 10 ng of LPS/ml for 60 min; in the presence of LBP maximal priming occurred within 45 min at 0.1 ng of LPS/ml and within 15 min at 100 ng of LPS/ml. Treatment of PMN with 10 ng of LPS/ml also increased uptake of opsonized zymosan by up to 60%. Phospholipids are the source of released [3H]AA. No release was observed from [14C]oleic acid (OA)-labeled PMN suggesting that phospholipolysis may be specific for [3H]AA-labeled phospholipid pools. Cytosol from PMN primed with LPS contains two to three times the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of control PMN, against 1-palmitoyl-[2-14C]arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine. This activity is Ca2+ dependent and dithiothreitol resistant. LPS priming is accompanied by reduced migration during SDS-PAGE of an 85-kD protein, identified as a cytosolic PLA2. The extent and kinetics of this effect of LPS on cPLA2 parallel the priming of [3H]AA release, both depending on LPS concentration either with or without LBP. These findings suggest that priming by LPS of AA metabolism by PMN includes phosphorylation of an AA-phospholipid-selective cytosolic PLA2 that is dissociated from activation until a second stimulus is applied. Images PMID:7512985

  16. Mammalian phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Kadamur, Ganesh; Ross, Elliott M

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and diacylglycerol (DAG). DAG and IP(3) each control diverse cellular processes and are also substrates for synthesis of other important signaling molecules. PLC is thus central to many important interlocking regulatory networks. Mammals express six families of PLCs, each with both unique and overlapping controls over expression and subcellular distribution. Each PLC also responds acutely to its own spectrum of activators that includes heterotrimeric G protein subunits, protein tyrosine kinases, small G proteins, Ca(2+), and phospholipids. Mammalian PLCs are autoinhibited by a region in the catalytic TIM barrel domain that is the target of much of their acute regulation. In combination, the PLCs act as a signaling nexus that integrates numerous signaling inputs, critically governs PIP(2) levels, and regulates production of important second messengers to determine cell behavior over the millisecond to hour timescale. PMID:23140367

  17. Role of phospholipases in adrenal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bollag, Wendy B

    2016-04-01

    Phospholipases are lipid-metabolizing enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids. In some cases, their activity results in remodeling of lipids and/or allows the synthesis of other lipids. In other cases, however, and of interest to the topic of adrenal steroidogenesis, phospholipases produce second messengers that modify the function of a cell. In this review, the enzymatic reactions, products, and effectors of three phospholipases, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, and phospholipase A2, are discussed. Although much data have been obtained concerning the role of phospholipases C and D in regulating adrenal steroid hormone production, there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Furthermore, little is known about the involvement of phospholipase A2, perhaps, in part, because this enzyme comprises a large family of related enzymes that are differentially regulated and with different functions. This review presents the evidence supporting the role of each of these phospholipases in steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex. PMID:26878860

  18. Involvement of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the light-dependent up-regulation of sorghum leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Monreal, José Antonio; López-Baena, Francisco Javier; Vidal, Jean; Echevarría, Cristina; García-Mauriño, Sofía

    2010-01-01

    The photosynthetic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (C4-PEPC) is regulated by phosphorylation by a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PEPC-k). In Digitaria sanguinalis mesophyll protoplasts, this light-mediated transduction cascade principally requires a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and a Ca2+-dependent step. The present study investigates the cascade components at the higher integrated level of Sorghum bicolor leaf discs and leaves. PEPC-k up-regulation required light and photosynthetic electron transport. However, the PI-PLC inhibitor U-73122 and inhibitors of calcium release from intracellular stores only partially blocked this process. Analysis of [32P]phosphate-labelled phospholipids showed a light-dependent increase in phospholipase D (PLD) activity. Treatment of leaf discs with n-butanol, which decreases the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) by PLD, led to the partial inhibition of the C4-PEPC phosphorylation, suggesting the participation of PLD/PA in the signalling cascade. PPCK1 gene expression was strictly light-dependent. Addition of neomycin or n-butanol decreased, and a combination of both inhibitors markedly reduced PPCK1 expression and the concomitant rise in PEPC-k activity. The calcium/calmodulin antagonist W7 blocked the light-dependent up-regulation of PEPC-k, pointing to a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) integrating both second messengers, calcium and PA, which were shown to increase the activity of sorghum CDPK. PMID:20410319

  19. Role of lipid packing in the activity of phospholipase C-delta1 as determined by hydrostatic pressure measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Rebecchi, M; Bonhomme, M; Scarlata, S

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies with phospholipid monolayers revealed a large decrease in the activity of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-delta(1) (PLC-delta(1)) which catalyses the hydrolysis of PtdIns(4, 5)P(2) as lateral pressure is applied to the membrane. If stress on the membrane is the sole inhibitor of PLC-delta(1) activity, the enzyme must penetrate the membrane surface to engage its substrate. To test the effect on PLC-delta(1) activity of lipid packing in the absence of a directional stress, we examined the effects of increasing hydrostatic pressure on enzymic activity. We find that, in contrast with monolayer studies, increasing lipid packing by hydrostatic pressure does not affect membrane binding and increases enzymic activity by 90% in going from atmospheric pressure to 10(8) Pa (approx. 1000 atm). The increase in activity could be accounted for mainly by electrostriction of water around the multiply-charged product. Our results show that when there is no net stress on the monolayer, lipid packing does not alter PLC-delta(1) activity, possibly because penetration of the enzyme into the membrane surface is shallow. We suggest that, in biological membranes, the activity of this and possibly other interfacial proteins is independent of headgroup packing. PMID:10417319

  20. Identifying New Drug Targets for Potent Phospholipase D Inhibitors: Combining Sequence Alignment, Molecular Docking, and Enzyme Activity/Binding Assays.

    PubMed

    Djakpa, Helene; Kulkarni, Aditya; Barrows-Murphy, Scheneque; Miller, Greg; Zhou, Weihong; Cho, Hyejin; Török, Béla; Stieglitz, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    Phospholipase D enzymes cleave phospholipid substrates generating choline and phosphatidic acid. Phospholipase D from Streptomyces chromofuscus is a non-HKD (histidine, lysine, and aspartic acid) phospholipase D as the enzyme is more similar to members of the diverse family of metallo-phosphodiesterase/phosphatase enzymes than phospholipase D enzymes with active site HKD repeats. A highly efficient library of phospholipase D inhibitors based on 1,3-disubstituted-4-amino-pyrazolopyrimidine core structure was utilized to evaluate the inhibition of purified S. chromofuscus phospholipase D. The molecules exhibited inhibition of phospholipase D activity (IC50 ) in the nanomolar range with monomeric substrate diC4 PC and micromolar range with phospholipid micelles and vesicles. Binding studies with vesicle substrate and phospholipase D strongly indicate that these inhibitors directly block enzyme vesicle binding. Following these compelling results as a starting point, sequence searches and alignments with S. chromofuscus phospholipase D have identified potential new drug targets. Using AutoDock, inhibitors were docked into the enzymes selected from sequence searches and alignments (when 3D co-ordinates were available) and results analyzed to develop next-generation inhibitors for new targets. In vitro enzyme activity assays with several human phosphatases demonstrated that the predictive protocol was accurate. The strategy of combining sequence comparison, docking, and high-throughput screening assays has helped to identify new drug targets and provided some insight into how to make potential inhibitors more specific to desired targets. PMID:26691755

  1. Effects of phospholipase A2 and its products on structural stability of human LDL: relevance to formation of LDL-derived lipid droplets[S

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Shobini; Gantz, Donald L.; Gursky, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Hydrolysis and oxidation of LDL stimulate LDL entrapment in the arterial wall and promote inflammation and atherosclerosis via various mechanisms including lipoprotein fusion and lipid droplet formation. To determine the effects of FFA on these transitions, we hydrolyzed LDL by phospholipase A2 (PLA2), removed FFA by albumin, and analyzed structural stability of the modified lipoproteins. Earlier, we showed that heating induces LDL remodeling, rupture, and coalescence into lipid droplets resembling those found in atherosclerotic lesions. Here, we report how FFA affect these transitions. Circular dichroism showed that mild LDL lipolysis induces partial β-sheet unfolding in apolipoprotein B. Electron microscopy, turbidity, and differential scanning calorimetry showed that mild lipolysis promotes LDL coalescence into lipid droplets. FFA removal by albumin restores LDL stability but not the protein conformation. Consequently, FFA enhance LDL coalescence into lipid droplets. Similar effects of FFA were observed in minimally oxidized LDL, in LDL enriched with exogenous FFA, and in HDL and VLDL. Our results imply that FFA promote lipoprotein coalescence into lipid droplets and explain why LDL oxidation enhances such coalescence in vivo but hampers it in vitro. Such lipid droplet formation potentially contributes to the pro-atherogenic effects of FFA. PMID:21220788

  2. Thrombin produces phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-independent mechanism in the human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M; Bayón, Y; Sánchez Crespo, M; Nieto, M L

    1997-01-01

    The release of [3H]arachidonic acid was studied in the 1321N1 astrocytoma cell line upon stimulation with thrombin. The effect of thrombin was antagonized by hirudin only when both compounds were added simultaneously, which suggests activation of thrombin receptor. Evidence that the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) takes part in thrombin-induced arachidonate release was provided by the finding that thrombin induced retardation of the mobility of cPLA2 in SDS/polyacrylamide gels, which is a feature of the activation of cPLA2 by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Thrombin induced activation of two members of the MAP kinase family whose consensus primary sequence appears in cPLA2, namely p42-MAP kinase and c-Jun kinase. However, the activation of c-Jun kinase preceded the phosphorylation of cPLA2 more clearly than the activation of p42-MAK kinase did. Both cPLA2 and c-Jun kinase activation were not affected by PD-98059, a specific inhibitor of MAP kinase kinases, which indeed completely blocked p42-MAP kinase shift. Heat shock, a well-known activator of c-Jun kinase, also phosphorylated cPLA2 but not p42-MAP kinase. These data indicate the existence in astrocytoma cells of a signalling pathway triggered by thrombin receptor stimulation that activates a kinase cascade acting on the Pro-Leu-Ser-Pro consensus primary sequence, activates cPLA2, and associates the release of arachidonate with nuclear signalling pathways. PMID:9359863

  3. Amygdala-Hippocampal Phospholipase D (PLD) Signaling As Novel Mechanism of Cocaine-Environment Maladaptive Conditioned Responses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Drug-environment associative memory mechanisms and the resulting conditioned behaviors are key contributors in relapse to cocaine dependence. Recently, we reported rat amygdala phospholipase D as a key convergent downstream signaling partner in the expression of cocaine-conditioned behaviors mediated by glutamatergic and dopaminergic pathways. In the present study, 1 of the 2 known upstream serotonergic targets of phospholipase D, the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 2C receptor, was investigated for its role in recruiting phospholipase D signaling in cocaine-conditioned behaviors altered in the rat amygdala and dorsal hippocampus. Methods: Using Western-blot analysis, amygdala phospholipase D phosphorylation and total expression of phospholipase D/5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor were observed in early (Day-1) and late (Day-14) withdrawal (cocaine-free) states among male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to 7-day cocaine-conditioned hyperactivity training. Functional studies were conducted using Chinese Hamster Ovary cells with stably transfected human unedited isoform of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor. Results: Phosphorylation of phospholipase D isoforms was altered in the Day-1 group of cocaine-conditioned animals, while increased amygdala and decreased dorsal hippocampus phospholipase D/5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor protein expression were observed in the Day-14 cocaine-conditioned rats. Functional cellular studies established that increased p phospholipase D is a mechanistic response to 5-HT2CR activation and provided the first evidence of a biased agonism by specific 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor agonist, WAY163909 in phospholipase D phosphorylation 2, but not phospholipase D phosphorylation 1 activation. Conclusions: Phospholipase D signaling, activated by dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic signaling, can be a common downstream element recruited in associative memory mechanisms altered by cocaine, where increased expression in amygdala

  4. Factors affecting dense and alpha-granule secretion from electropermeabilized human platelets: Ca(2+)-independent actions of phorbol ester and GTP gamma S.

    PubMed Central

    Coorssen, J R; Davidson, M M; Haslam, R J

    1990-01-01

    both dense and alpha-granules that were not mediated by PKC. Measurement of [3H]inositol phosphate formation in permeabilized platelets containing [3H]phosphoinositides showed that GTP gamma S did not stimulate phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in the absence of Ca2+. It follows that in permeabilized platelets, GTP gamma S can both stimulate PKC and enhance secretion via G-protein-linked effectors other than this phospholipase. PMID:1966891

  5. DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK IIβ Operate in Parallel to Each Other in PLCγ1-Driven Cell Proliferation and Migration of Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells, through Akt/mTOR/S6 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lianzhi; Zhuang, Luhua; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Fen; Chen, Xiaolei; Xia, Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositide specific phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) activates diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) axes to regulate import events in some cancer cells, including gastric adenocarcinoma cells. However, whether DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK IIβ axes are simultaneously involved in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and the underlying mechanism are not elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of DAG/PKCδ or CaMK IIβ in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, using the BGC-823 cell line. The results indicated that the inhibition of PKCδ and CaMK IIβ could block cell proliferation and migration of BGC-823 cells as well as the effect of inhibiting PLCγ1, including the decrease of cell viability, the increase of apoptotic index, the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression level, and the decrease of cell migration rate. Both DAG/PKCδ and CaMK IIβ triggered protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 pathway to regulate protein synthesis. The data indicate that DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca2+/CaMK IIβ operate in parallel to each other in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells through Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway, with important implication for validating PLCγ1 as a molecular biomarker in early gastric cancer diagnosis and disease surveillance. PMID:26633375

  6. Phospholipase D1 is threonine-phosphorylated in human-airway epithelial cells stimulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate by a mechanism involving Src tyrosine kinase and protein kinase Cdelta.

    PubMed Central

    Ghelli, Anna; Porcelli, Anna M; Facchini, Annalisa; Hrelia, Silvana; Flamigni, Flavio; Rugolo, Michela

    2002-01-01

    The regulatory role of protein kinase C (PKC) delta isoform in the stimulation of phospholipase D (PLD) by sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP) in a human-airway epithelial cell line (CFNPE9o(-)) was revealed by using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to PKCdelta, in combination with the specific inhibitor rottlerin. Cell treatment with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, but not with sense oligodeoxynucleotide, completely eliminated PKCdelta expression and resulted in the strong inhibition of SPP-stimulated phosphatidic acid formation. Indeed, among the PKCalpha, beta, delta, epsilon and zeta isoforms expressed in these cells, only PKCdelta was activated on cell stimulation with SPP, as indicated by translocation into the membrane fraction. Furthermore, pertussis toxin and genistein eliminated both PKCdelta translocation and PLD activation. In particular, a significant reduction in phosphatidylbutanol formation by SPP was observed in the presence of 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl) pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine (PP1), an inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase. Furthermore, the activity of Src kinase was slightly increased by SPP and inhibited by PP1. However, the level of PKCdelta tyrosine phosphorylation was not increased in SPP-stimulated cells, suggesting that Src did not directly phosphorylate PKCdelta. Finally, the level of serine phosphorylation of PLD1 and PLD2 isoforms was not changed, whereas the PLD1 isoform alone was threonine-phosphorylated in SPP-treated cells. PLD1 threonine phosphorylation was strongly inhibited by rottlerin, by anti-PKCdelta oligodeoxynucleotide and by PP1. In conclusion, in CFNPE9o(-) cells, SPP interacts with a membrane receptor linked to a G(i) type of G-protein, leading to activation of PLD, probably the PLD1 isoform, by a signalling pathway involving Src and PKCdelta. PMID:12014986

  7. A specific phospholipase C activity regulates phosphatidylinositol levels in lung surfactant of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spyridakis, Spyros; Leondaritis, George; Nakos, George; Lekka, Marilena E; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2010-03-01

    Lung surfactant (LS) is a lipid-rich material lining the inside of the lungs. It reduces surface tension at the liquid/air interface and thus, it confers protection of the alveoli from collapsing. The surface-active component of LS is dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, while anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and primarily phosphatidylglycerol are involved in the stabilization of the LS monolayer. The exact role of PtdIns in this system is not well-understood; however, PtdIns levels change dramatically during the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) evolution. In this report we present evidence of a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, which may regulate PtdIns levels. Characterization of this extracellular activity showed specificity for PtdIns and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, sharing the typical substrate concentration-, pH-, and calcium-dependencies with mammalian PI-PLCs. Fractionation of BAL fluid showed that PI-PLC did not co-fractionate with large surfactant aggregates, but it was found mainly in the soluble fraction. Importantly, analysis of BAL samples from control subjects and from patients with ARDS showed that the PI-PLC specific activity was decreased by 4-fold in ARDS samples concurrently with the increase in BAL PtdIns levels. Thus, we have identified for the first time an extracellular PI-PLC enzyme activity that may be acutely involved in the regulation of PtdIns levels in LS. PMID:19491339

  8. Proliferating or Differentiating Stimuli Act on Different Lipid-dependent Signaling Pathways in Nuclei of Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Luca M.; Bortul, Roberta; Borgatti, Paola; Tabellini, Giovanna; Baldini, Giovanna; Capitani, Silvano; Martelli, Alberto M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous results have shown that the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell line responds to either proliferating or differentiating stimuli. When these cells are induced to proliferate, protein kinase C (PKC)-βII migrates toward the nucleus, whereas when they are exposed to differentiating agents, there is a nuclear translocation of the α isoform of PKC. As a step toward the elucidation of the early intranuclear events that regulate the proliferation or the differentiation process, we show that in the HL-60 cells, a proliferating stimulus (i.e., insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]) increased nuclear diacylglycerol (DAG) production derived from phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate, as indicated by the inhibition exerted by 1-O-octadeyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and U-73122 (1-[6((17β-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione), which are pharmacological inhibitors of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C. In contrast, when HL-60 cells were induced to differentiate along the granulocytic lineage by dimethyl sulfoxide, we observed a rise in the nuclear DAG mass, which was sensitive to either neomycin or propranolol, two compounds with inhibitory effect on phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated DAG generation. In nuclei of dimethyl sulfoxide-treated HL-60 cells, we observed a rise in the amount of a 90-kDa PLD, distinct from PLD1 or PLD2. When a phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate-derived DAG pool was generated in the nucleus, a selective translocation of PKC-βII occurred. On the other hand, nuclear DAG derived through PLD, recruited PKC-α to the nucleus. Both of these PKC isoforms were phosphorylated on serine residues. These results provide support for the proposal that in the HL-60 cell nucleus there are two independently regulated sources of DAG, both of which are capable of acting as the driving force that attracts to this organelle distinct, DAG-dependent PKC isozymes. Our results assume a particular

  9. Protein kinase C activity is not involved in N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced phospholipase D activation in human neutrophils, but is essential for concomitant NADPH oxidase activation: studies with a staurosporine analogue with improved selectivity for protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Kessels, G C; Krause, K H; Verhoeven, A J

    1993-06-15

    Stimulation of human neutrophils by the receptor agonist N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) results in a respiratory burst, catalysed by an NADPH oxidase. Concomitantly, phospholipase D (PLD) is activated. To investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in these neutrophil responses, we have compared the effects of staurosporine and a structural analogue of staurosporine (cgp41251), that reflects a higher selectivity towards PKC [Meyer, Regenass, Fabbro, Alteri, Rösel, Müller, Caravatti and Matter (1989) Int. J. Cancer 43, 851-856]. Both staurosporine and cgp41251 dose-dependently inhibited the production of superoxide induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Both compounds also caused inhibition of the fMLP-induced respiratory burst, but with a lower efficacy during the initiation phase of this response. This latter observation cannot be taken as evidence against PKC involvement in the activation of the respiratory burst, because pretreatment of neutrophils with ionomycin before PMA stimulation also results in a lower efficacy of inhibition. Activation of PLD by fMLP was enhanced in the presence of staurosporine, but not in the presence of cgp41251. Enhancement of PLD activation was also observed in the presence of H-89, an inhibitor of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Both staurosporine and H-89 reversed the dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP-induced inhibition of PLD activation, whereas cgp41251 was without effect. These results indicate that the potentiating effect of staurosporine on PLD activation induced by fMLP does not reflect a feedback inhibition by PKC activation, but instead a feedback inhibition by PKC activation. Taken together, our results indicate that in human neutrophils: (i) PKC activity is not essential for fMLP-induced activation of PLD; (ii) PKC activity does play an essential role in the activation of the respiratory burst by fMLP, other than mediating or modulating PLD activation; (iii) there exists a negative

  10. Phospholipase A2 and Phospholipase B Activities in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Gerwald A.; Brenot, Audrey; Haas-Stapleton, Eric; Agabian, Nina; Deva, Rupal; Nigam, Santosh

    2007-01-01

    As saprophytes or disease causing microorganisms, fungi acquire nutrients from dead organic material or living host organisms. Lipids as structural components of cell membranes and storage compartments play an important role as energy-rich food source. In recent years, it also has become clear that lipids have a wide range of bioactive properties including signal transduction and cell to cell communication. Thus, it is not surprising that fungi possess a broad range of hydrolytic enzymes that attack neutral lipids and phospholipids. Especially during infection of a mammalian host, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes released by fungi could play important roles not only for nutrient acquisition and tissue invasion, but for intricate modulation of the host’s immune response. Sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed a wide range of genes encoding PLA2 activities in fungi. We are just beginning to become aware of the significance these enzymes could have for the fungal cells and their interaction with the host. PMID:17081801

  11. Molecular modeling of Gly80 and Ser80 variants of human group IID phospholipase A2 and their receptor complexes: potential basis for weight loss in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Imran; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Domada Ratna; Kumar, Manoj; Ethayathulla, Abdul Samarth; Hariprasad, Gururao

    2016-09-01

    Weight loss is a well known systemic manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A Gly80Ser mutation on human group IID secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enhances expression of the cytokines that are responsible for weight loss. In this study, we seek to establish a structural correlation of wild type sPLA2 and the Gly80Ser mutation with function. sPLA2 with glycine and serine at the 80th positions and the M-type receptor were modelled. The enzymes were docked to the receptor and molecular dynamics was carried out to 70 ns. Structural analysis revealed the enzymes to comprise three helices (H1-H3), two short helices (SH1 and SH2), and five loops including a calcium binding loop (L1-L5), and to be stabilized by seven disulfide bonds. The overall backbone folds of the two models are very similar, with main chain RMSD of less than 1 Å. The active site within the substrate binding channel shows a catalytic triad of water-His67-Asp112, showing a hydrogen bonded network. Major structural differences between wild type and mutant enzymes were observed locally at the site of the mutation and in their global conformations. These differences include: (1) loop-L3 between H2 and H3, which bears residue Gly80 in the wild type, is in a closed conformation with respect to the channel opening, while in the mutant enzyme it adopts a relatively open conformation; (2) the mutant enzyme is less compact and has higher solvent accessible surface area; and (3) interfacial binding contact surface area is greater, and the quality of interactions with the receptor is better in the mutant enzyme as compared to the wild type. Therefore, the structural differences delineated in this study are potential biophysical factors that could determine the increased potency of the mutant enzyme with macrophage receptor for cytokine secreting function, resulting in exacerbation of cachexia in COPD. PMID:27585677

  12. Assaying nonspecific phospholipase C activity.

    PubMed

    Pejchar, Přemysl; Scherer, Günther F E; Martinec, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Plant nonspecific phospholipase C (NPC) is a recently described enzyme which plays a role in membrane rearrangement during phosphate starvation. It is also involved in responses of plants to brassinolide, abscisic acid (ABA), elicitors, and salt. The NPC activity is decreased in cells treated with aluminum. In the case of salt stress, the molecular mechanism of NPC action is based on accumulation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by hydrolysis of phospholipids and conversion of DAG, the product of NPC activity, to phosphatidic acid (PA) that participates in ABA signaling pathways. Here we describe a step-by-step protocol, which can be used to determine in situ or in vitro NPC activity. Determination is based on quantification of fluorescently labeled DAG as a product of cleavage of the fluorescently labeled substrate lipid, phosphatidylcholine. High-performance thin-layer chromatography is used for separation of fluorescent DAG. The spot is visualized with a laser scanner and the relative amounts of fluorescent DAG are quantified using imaging software. PMID:23681535

  13. 40 CFR 721.4585 - Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed... Substances § 721.4585 Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed. (a) Chemical substances and significant new..., phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed (PMN P-93-333) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4585 - Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed... Substances § 721.4585 Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed. (a) Chemical substances and significant new..., phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed (PMN P-93-333) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4585 - Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed... Substances § 721.4585 Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed. (a) Chemical substances and significant new..., phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed (PMN P-93-333) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4585 - Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed... Substances § 721.4585 Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed. (a) Chemical substances and significant new..., phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed (PMN P-93-333) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4585 - Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed... Substances § 721.4585 Lecithins, phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed. (a) Chemical substances and significant new..., phospholipase A2-hydrolyzed (PMN P-93-333) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  18. Phospholipases in food industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Casado, Víctor; Martín, Diana; Torres, Carlos; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Mammal, plant, and mainly microbial phospholipases are continuously being studied, experimented, and some of them are even commercially available at industrial scale for food industry. This is because the use of phospholipases in the production of specific foods leads to attractive advantages, such as yield improvement, energy saving, higher efficiency, improved properties, or better quality of the final product. Furthermore, biocatalysis approaches in the food industry are of current interest as non-pollutant and cleaner technologies. The present chapter reviews the most representative examples of the use of phospholipases in food industry, namely edible oils, dairy, and baking products, emulsifying agents, as well as the current trend to the development of novel molecular species of phospholipids with added-value characteristics. PMID:22426737

  19. Phospholipase A2 activity in platelets. Immuno-purification and localization of the enzyme in rat platelets.

    PubMed

    Aarsman, A J; Leunissen-Bijvelt, J; Van den Koedijk, C D; Neys, F W; Verkleij, A J; Van den Bosch, H

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study on phospholipase A2 activity in platelet lysates from various species was carried out using identical assay conditions with phosphatidylethanolamine as substrate. Platelet phospholipase A2, both when expressed as activity per ml blood and as specific activity in KCl extracts, was low in human, cow, pig and goat. Moderate activities, in increasing order, were found in sheep, horse and rabbit, while rats showed by far the highest activity. In the latter four species total lysate activity was recovered in 1 M KCl extracts, suggesting that the enzyme occurs either in soluble form or as a peripheral membrane-associated protein. Immune cross-reactivity with monoclonal antibodies against rat liver mitochondrial phospholipase A2 was studied in dot-blot and monoclonal antibody-Sepharose binding experiments. Only sheep and rat platelet extracts contained cross-reactive phospholipase(s) A2. Immuno-affinity chromatography of rat platelet extracts indicated virtually complete binding of total phospholipase A2 activity and yielded pure enzyme in a single purification step. Enzyme visualization by immunogold electron microscopy showed a predominant localization in the matrix of alpha-granules. PMID:2519886

  20. Studies on the phospholipases of rat intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, P. V.; Ganguly, J.

    1970-01-01

    1. Subcellular distribution and characteristics of different phospholipases of rat intestinal mucosa were studied. 2. The presence of free fatty acid was necessary for the maximal hydrolysis of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), but there was no accumulation of lysolecithin (1 or 2-acylglycerophosphorylcholine);lysolecithin accumulated when the reaction was carried out in the presence of sodium deoxycholate and at or above pH8.0. 3. The fatty acid-activated phospholipase B as well as lysolecithinase showed optimum activity at pH6.5, whereas for the phospholipase A it was about pH8.6. 4. The bulk of the phospholipase A was present in the microsomal fraction, whereas the phospholipase B and lysolecithinase activities were distributed between the microsomal and soluble fractions of the mucosal homogenate. 5. Phospholipase A was equally distributed between the brush border and brush-border-free particulate fraction, with the brush border having highest specific activity, whereas the other two activities were distributed between the brush-border-free particulate and soluble fractions. 6. Various treatments showed marked differences between the phospholipase A and phospholipase B activities, but not between phospholipase B and lysolecithinase activities. 7. By using (β[1-14C]-oleoyl) lecithin it was shown that the mucosal phospholipase A was specific for the β-ester linkage of the lecithin molecule. PMID:5484667

  1. Involvement of a phospholipase C in the hemolytic activity of a clinical strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Gaelle; Merieau, Annabelle; Guerillon, Josette; Veron, Wilfried; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc GJ; Orange, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium frequently encountered in hospitals as a contaminant of injectable material and surfaces. This psychrotrophic bacterium, commonly described as unable to grow at temperatures above 32°C, is now considered non pathogenic. We studied a recently identified clinical strain of P. fluorescens biovar I, MFN1032, which is considered to cause human lung infection and can grow at 37°C in laboratory conditions. Results We found that MFN1032 secreted extracellular factors with a lytic potential at least as high as that of MF37, a psychrotrophic strain of P. fluorescens or the mesophilic opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We demonstrated the direct, and indirect – through increases in biosurfactant release – involvement of a phospholipase C in the hemolytic activity of this bacterium. Sequence analysis assigned this phospholipase C to a new group of phospholipases C different from those produced by P. aeruginosa. We show that changes in PlcC production have pleiotropic effects and that plcC overexpression and plcC extinction increase MFN1032 toxicity and colonization, respectively. Conclusion This study provides the first demonstration that a PLC is involved in the secreted hemolytic activity of a clinical strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Moreover, this phospholipase C seems to belong to a complex biological network associated with the biosurfactant production. PMID:18973676

  2. Changing serine-485 to alanine in the opossum parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor enhances PTH stimulation of phospholipase C in a stably transfected human kidney cell line: a useful model for PTH-analog screening?

    PubMed

    John, M R; Bösel, J; Breit, S; Wickert, H; Ziegler, R; Blind, E

    2001-02-01

    Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have introduced a serine-485-to-alanine mutation in the opossum parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor. This amino acid is considered to be phosphorylated by protein kinase A upon ligand binding. Both wild-type (WT) and mutant receptor were stably expressed in 293-EBNA HEK cells. The mutant receptor showed comparable binding characteristics and only a slight increase in cAMP production compared with WT. However, the PTH dose-dependent increase in inositol phosphate production was 24-fold for the mutant receptor vs. 6-fold for the WT receptor. This mutant might prove useful in the sensitive detection of phospholipase C activation through various ligands, as the PTH receptor becomes a target of therapeutic intervention in osteoporosis. PMID:11182376

  3. Association of solubilized angiotensin II receptors with phospholipase C-alpha in murine neuroblastoma NIE-115 cells.

    PubMed

    Mah, S J; Ades, A M; Mir, R; Siemens, I R; Williamson, J R; Fluharty, S J

    1992-08-01

    The peptide angiotensin II (AngII) has been reported to stimulate phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) activity in the murine neuroblastoma cell line N1E-115. In the present study, polyclonal antibodies raised against a PLC isoenzyme, PLC-alpha, reacted with a 60-kDa protein present in both membrane and cytosolic fractions of differentiated N1E-115 cells. In order to examine the possible association of PLC-alpha with cell surface AngII receptors (AngII-Rs), membranes from differentiated N1E-115 cells were solubilized, using the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). CHAPS (1%) solubilized AngII-Rs, from N1E-115 cells, that maintained their high affinity for agonists. Gel filtration analysis of the solubilized membranes revealed that the majority of the specific binding of 125I-AngII eluted as a large protein complex with a molecular mass of 380 kDa and that agonist binding was partially reduced by guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S), within this complex. CHAPS also effectively solubilized immunoreactive PLC-alpha, from N1E-115 cell membranes, that was similarly present within the 380-kDa AngII-binding complex. Anti-PLC-alpha antisera immunoprecipitated approximately 16% of the total phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-specific PLC activity in the 1% CHAPS extract and 40% of cytosolic PLC activity. Moreover, a 60-kDa 35S-Trans S-labeled protein, comigrating with immunoreactive PLC-alpha, was immunoprecipitated from the 1% CHAPS extract by the antisera. In addition, anti-PLC-alpha antisera immunoprecipitated approximately 20% of solubilized AngII-Rs prebound with 125I-AngII but failed to precipitate receptors prebound with the antagonist 125I-Sarc1,Ile8-AngII. The anti-PLC-alpha antisera also immunoprecipitated AngII-Rs when intact membranes were labeled with 125I-AngII before solubilization in 1% CHAPS, suggesting that the AngII-R interaction with PLC-alpha was not the result of detergent

  4. Loss of phospholipase D2 impairs VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Sup; Ghim, Jaewang; Song, Parkyong; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of angiogenesis and critical for normal embryonic development and repair of pathophysiological conditions in adults. Although phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been implicated in angiogenic processes, its role in VEGF signaling during angiogenesis in mammals is unclear. Here, we found that silencing of PLD2 by siRNA blocked VEGF-mediated signaling in immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (iHUVECs). Also, VEGF-induced endothelial cell survival, proliferation, migration, and tube formation were inhibited by PLD2 silencing. Furthermore, while Pld2-knockout mice exhibited normal development, loss of PLD2 inhibited VEGF-mediated ex vivo angiogenesis. These findings suggest that PLD2 functions as a key mediator in the VEGF-mediated angiogenic functions of endothelial cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 191-196] PMID:26818087

  5. Effects of dexamethasone on palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bulleit, R.F.; Zimmerman, E.F.

    1984-09-15

    Corticosteroids will induce cleft palate in mice. One suggested mechanism for this effect is through inhibition of phospholipase activity. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the effects of dexamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, on phospholipase activity in cultures of palate mesenchymal cells. Palate mesenchymal cells were prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid. The cells were subsequently treated with various concentrations of dexamethasone. Concurrently, cultures of M-MSV-transformed 3T3 cells were prepared identically. After treatment, phospholipase activity was stimulated by the addition of serum or epidermal growth factor (EGF), and radioactivity released into the medium was taken as a measure of phospholipase activity. Dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) or 1 X 10(-4) M) could inhibit serum-stimulated phospholipase activity in transformed 3T3 cells after 1 to 24 hr of treatment. However, no inhibition of activity was measured in palate mesenchymal cells following this period of treatment. Not until 120 hr of treatment with dexamethasone (1 X 10(-4) M) was any significant inhibition of serum-stimulated phospholipase activity observed in palate mesenchymal cells. When EGF was used to stimulate phospholipase activity, dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) M) caused an increase in phospholipase activity in palate mesenchymal cells. These observations suggested that phospholipase in transformed 3T3 cells was sensitive to inhibition by dexamethasone. However, palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase is only minimally sensitive to dexamethasone, and in certain instances can be enhanced. These results cannot support the hypothesis that corticosteroids mediate their teratogenic effect via inhibition of phospholipase activity.

  6. Purification and characterization of phospholipase C of Salmonella gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Singh, B R; Sharma, V D

    1998-12-01

    Phospholipase C was isolated from an outbreak strain of Salmonella gallinarum with ciprofloxacin extraction, dialysis, gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography and chromatofocussing. Purified phospholipase C (mol wt. 65 KDa; isoelectric point, pI 3.5) was resistant to pasteurization, stomach enzyme (pepsin), bacterial protease and lipase but lost its activity on trypsin and chymotrypsin treatment. It was sensitive to pH > or = 8.0. It was haemolytic, embryotoxic, enterohaemorrhagic, lethal to birds, cytotoxic to Vero and MDBK cells, dermonecrotoxic in rabbit and antigenically active protein. Antisera raised against purified phospholipase C neutralized its all biological activities and agglutinated the producer Salmonella strains. Serologically it was proved similar to phospholipase C of Klebsiella pneumoniae and S. weltevreden. Fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) was standardized to detect phospholipase producer strains. PMID:10093508

  7. The Role of Phospholipase D in Regulated Exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rogasevskaia, Tatiana P; Coorssen, Jens R

    2015-11-27

    There are a diversity of interpretations concerning the possible roles of phospholipase D and its biologically active product phosphatidic acid in the late, Ca(2+)-triggered steps of regulated exocytosis. To quantitatively address functional and molecular aspects of the involvement of phospholipase D-derived phosphatidic acid in regulated exocytosis, we used an array of phospholipase D inhibitors for ex vivo and in vitro treatments of sea urchin eggs and isolated cortices and cortical vesicles, respectively, to study late steps of exocytosis, including docking/priming and fusion. The experiments with fluorescent phosphatidylcholine reveal a low level of phospholipase D activity associated with cortical vesicles but a significantly higher activity on the plasma membrane. The effects of phospholipase D activity and its product phosphatidic acid on the Ca(2+) sensitivity and rate of fusion correlate with modulatory upstream roles in docking and priming rather than to direct effects on fusion per se. PMID:26433011

  8. Measurement of the phospholipase activity of endothelial lipase in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debapriya; Lei, Xia; Josekutty, Joby; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jin, Weijun

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major negative regulator of plasma HDL levels in mice, rabbits, and most probably, humans. Although this regulatory function is critically dependent on EL's hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids, as yet there is no phospholipase assay specific for EL in plasma. We developed such an assay for the mouse enzyme using a commercially available phospholipid-like fluorescent substrate in combination with an EL neutralizing antibody. The specificity of the assay was established using EL knockout mice and its utility demonstrated by detection of an increase in plasma EL phospholipase activity following exposure of wild-type mice to lipopolysaccharide. The assay revealed that murine pre-heparin plasma does not contain measurable EL activity, indicating that the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids by EL in vivo likely occurs on the cell surface. PMID:23103358

  9. Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe(3+), and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed. PMID:25391318

  10. Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe3+, and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed. PMID:25391318

  11. The role of phospholipase D in Glut-4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Frohman, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated Glut-4 translocation is regulated through a complex pathway. Increasing attention is being paid to the role undertaken in this process by Phospholipase D, a signal transduction-activated enzyme that generates the lipid second-messenger phosphatidic acid. Phospholipase D facilitates Glut-4 translocation at potentially multiple steps in its outward movement. Current investigation is centered on Phospholipase D promotion of Glut-4-containing membrane vesicle trafficking and vesicle fusion into the plasma membrane, in part through activation of atypical protein kinase C isoforms. PMID:14648804

  12. Interleukin 1 amplifies receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase A2 in 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Burch, R M; Connor, J R; Axelrod, J

    1988-01-01

    Human recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta stimulated prostaglandin E2 synthesis in 3T3 fibroblasts in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced prostaglandin E2 synthesis after IL-1 treatment was apparent by 1 hr and continued to increase for at least 2 days. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 0.5 pM IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta, and both interleukins were equally effective, with maximal stimulation occurring in response to 5-10 pM IL-1. In contrast to IL-1, bradykinin stimulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis is rapid; its effect is maximal by 5 min. In cells that had been pretreated with IL-1 for 24 hr, prostaglandin E2 synthesis in response to bradykinin was amplified more than 10-fold. IL-1 also amplified the receptor-mediated formation of prostaglandin E2 by bombesin and thrombin. The lymphokine did not affect bradykinin receptor number or affinity. IL-1 treatment induced phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase but not phospholipase C or prostaglandin E isomerase. It also enhanced bradykinin-stimulated GTPase activity, suggesting possible induction of the GTP-binding regulatory protein coupled to the bradykinin receptor. Thus, IL-1 enhanced receptor-mediated release of prostaglandin E2 in response to bradykinin, bombesin, and thrombin by increasing the cellular levels of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and GTP-binding regulatory protein(s). PMID:2901097

  13. Purification and biochemical characterization of a secreted group IIA chicken intestinal phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (IIA PLA2) is a protein shown to be highly expressed in the intestine of mammals. However, no study was reported in birds. Results Chicken intestinal group IIA phospholipase A2 (ChPLA2-IIA) was obtained after an acidic treatment (pH.3.0), precipitation by ammonium sulphate, followed by sequential column chromatographies on Sephadex G-50 and mono-S ion exchanger. The enzyme was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of around 14 kDa. The purified enzyme showed a substrate preference for phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, and didn't hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine. Under optimal assay conditions, in the presence of 10 mM NaTDC and 10 mM CaCl2, a specific activity of 160 U.mg-1 for purified ChPLA2-IIA was measured using egg yolk as substrate. The fifteen NH2-terminal amino acid residues of ChPLA2-IIA were sequenced and showed a close homology with known intestinal secreted phospholipases A2. The gene encoding the mature ChPLA2-IIA was cloned and sequenced. To further investigate structure-activity relationship, a 3D model of ChPLA2-IIA was built using the human intestinal phospholipase A2 structure as template. Conclusion ChPLA2-IIA was purified to homogeneity using only two chromatographic colomns. Sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA indicates that the enzyme is highly basic with a pI of 9.0 and has a high degree of homology with mammalian intestinal PLA2-IIA. PMID:21284884

  14. Analysis of genetic polymorphism in the phospholipase region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, L; Howard, S T; Laszlo, A; Johnson, W M

    1997-01-01

    mtp40 was originally identified as a short genomic region that was found in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not in Mycobacterium bovis. Subsequent studies have revealed that the sequence is part of the mpcA gene, which encodes a phospholipase C. To investigate further the distribution of the mtp40 sequence, we analyzed strains of the M. tuberculosis complex by PCR and were able to amplify the mtp40 sequence in 90 of 94 strains of M. tuberculosis and in 2 strains of Mycobacterium microti but not in M. bovis or M. bovis BCG. Based on this, we developed a dot blot assay using genomic DNA which allows M. bovis to be distinguished from the majority of M. tuberculosis strains. We also probed Southern blots of 140 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis to determine the frequency of strains lacking mtp40. This revealed an unexpected polymorphism in the phospholipase region. Two fragments were detected in 57% of samples. The expected fragment of 0.75 kbp corresponds to the region of mpcA containing mtp40. A 2.1-kbp fragment was observed to belong to a recently discovered second phospholipase gene, mpcB. In addition, some strains appeared to lack both genes, while others showed only the presence of mpcA. A few strains had additional bands, suggesting the existence of other homologs to the two phospholipase genes. We also detected the insertion of IS6110 in the mpcA coding region of one strain. The absence of these genes in some clinical isolates raises questions about their function during infection and in the development of tuberculosis disease in humans. PMID:9114405

  15. Cytosolic phospholipase A2: physiological function and role in disease

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    The group IV phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family is comprised of six intracellular enzymes (GIVA, -B, -C, -D, -E, and -F) commonly referred to as cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2)α, -β, -γ, -δ, -ε, and -ζ. They contain a Ser-Asp catalytic dyad and all except cPLA2γ have a C2 domain, but differences in their catalytic activities and subcellular localization suggest unique regulation and function. With the exception of cPLA2α, the focus of this review, little is known about the in vivo function of group IV enzymes. cPLA2α catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids that are precursors of numerous bioactive lipids. The regulation of cPLA2α is complex, involving transcriptional and posttranslational processes, particularly increases in calcium and phosphorylation. cPLA2α is a highly conserved widely expressed enzyme that promotes lipid mediator production in human and rodent cells from a variety of tissues. The diverse bioactive lipids produced as a result of cPLA2α activation regulate normal physiological processes and disease pathogenesis in many organ systems, as shown using cPLA2α KO mice. However, humans recently identified with cPLA2α deficiency exhibit more pronounced effects on health than observed in mice lacking cPLA2α, indicating that much remains to be learned about this interesting enzyme. PMID:25838312

  16. Quercetin-induced downregulation of phospholipase D1 inhibits proliferation and invasion in U87 glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mi Hee; Min, Do Sik

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Quercetin, a bioactive flavonoid, suppresses expression and enzymatic activity of phospholipase D1. {yields} Quercetin abolishes NFkB-induced phospholipase D1 expression via inhibition of NFkB transactivation. {yields} Quercetin-induced suppression of phospholipase D1 inhibits invasion and proliferation of human glioma cells. -- Abstract: Phospholipase D (PLD) has been recognized as a regulator of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, but little is known about the molecules regulating PLD expression. Thus, the identification of small molecules inhibiting PLD expression would be an important advance in PLD-mediated physiology. Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive flavonoid, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of quercetin on the expression of PLD in U87 glioma cells. Quercetin significantly suppressed the expression of PLD1 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, quercetin abolished the protein expression of PLD1 in a time and dose-dependent manner, as well as inhibited PLD activity. Quercetin suppressed NF{kappa}B-induced PLD1 expression via inhibition of NFkB transactivation. Furthermore, quercetin inhibited activation and invasion of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a key modulator of glioma cell invasion, induced by phosphatidic acid (PA), a product of PLD activity. Taken together these data demonstrate that quercetin abolishes PLD1 expression and subsequently inhibits invasion and proliferation of glioma cells.

  17. Primary phospholipase C and brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong Ryoul; Kang, Du-Seock; Lee, Cheol; Seok, Heon; Follo, Matilde Y; Cocco, Lucio; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, the primary phospholipase C (PLC) proteins, PLCβ, and PLCγ, are activated primarily by neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, and hormones through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Among the primary PLC isozymes, PLCβ1, PLCβ4, and PLCγ1 are highly expressed and differentially distributed, suggesting a specific role for each PLC subtype in different regions of the brain. Primary PLCs control neuronal activity, which is important for synapse function and development. In addition, dysregulation of primary PLC signaling is linked to several brain disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Huntington's disease, depression and Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we included current knowledge regarding the roles of primary PLC isozymes in brain disorders. PMID:26639088

  18. Biochemical and Genetic Evidence for the Presence of Multiple Phosphatidylinositol- and Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate-Specific Phospholipases C in Tetrahymena▿‡

    PubMed Central

    Leondaritis, George; Sarri, Theoni; Dafnis, Ioannis; Efstathiou, Antonia; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C (PI-PLC) specifically hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2], produce the Ca2+-mobilizing agent inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and regulate signaling in multicellular organisms. Bacterial PtdIns-specific PLCs, also present in trypanosomes, hydrolyze PtdIns and glycosyl-PtdIns, and they are considered important virulence factors. All unicellular eukaryotes studied so far contain a single PI-PLC-like gene. In this report, we show that ciliates are an exception, since we provide evidence that Tetrahymena species contain two sets of functional genes coding for both bacterial and eukaryotic PLCs. Biochemical characterization revealed two PLC activities that differ in their phosphoinositide substrate utilization, subcellular localization, secretion to extracellular space, and sensitivity to Ca2+. One of these activities was identified as a typical membrane-associated PI-PLC activated by low-micromolar Ca2+, modestly activated by GTPγS in vitro, and inhibited by the compound U73122 [1-(6-{[17β-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino}hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione]. Importantly, inhibition of PI-PLC in vivo resulted in rapid upregulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, suggesting its functional importance in regulating phosphoinositide turnover in Tetrahymena. By in silico and molecular analysis, we identified two PLC genes that exhibit significant similarity to bacterial but not trypanosomal PLC genes and three eukaryotic PI-PLC genes, one of which is a novel inactive PLC similar to proteins identified only in metazoa. Comparative studies of expression patterns and PI-PLC activities in three T. thermophila strains showed a correlation between expression levels and activity, suggesting that the three eukaryotic PI-PLC genes are functionally nonredundant. Our findings imply the presence of a conserved and elaborate PI-PLC-Ins(1,4,5)P3-Ca2+ regulatory axis in ciliates. PMID:21169416

  19. Cloning and expression analysis of murine phospholipase D1.

    PubMed Central

    Colley, W C; Altshuller, Y M; Sue-Ling, C K; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N A; Branch, K D; Tsirka, S E; Bollag, R J; Bollag, W B; Frohman, M A

    1997-01-01

    Activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D(PLD) occurs as part of the complex signal-transduction cascade initiated by agonist stimulation of tyrosine kinase and G-protein-coupled receptors. A variety of mammalian PLD activities have been described, and cDNAs for two PLDs recently reported (human PLD1 and murine PLD2). We describe here the cloning and chromosomal localization of murine PLD1. Northern-blot hybridization and RNase protection analyses were used to examine the expression of murine PLD1 and PLD2 ina variety of cell lines and tissues. PLD1 and PLD2 were expressed in all RNA samples examined, although the absolute expression of each isoform varied, as well as the ratio of PLD1 to PLD2. Moreover, in situ hybridization of adult brain and murine embryo sections revealed high levels of expression of individual PLDs in some cell types and no detectable expression in others. Thus the two PLDs probably carry out distinct roles in restricted subsets of cells rather than ubiquitous roles in all cells. PMID:9307024

  20. Variable Substrate Preference among Phospholipase D Toxins from Sicariid Spiders*

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Roberts, Sue A.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; Delahaye, Jared L.; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J.; Cordes, Matthew H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Venoms of the sicariid spiders contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These enzymes convert sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates to cyclic phosphates by activating a hydroxyl nucleophile present in both classes of lipid. The most medically relevant substrates are thought to be sphingomyelin and/or lysophosphatidylcholine. To better understand the substrate preference of these toxins, we used 31P NMR to compare the activity of three related but phylogenetically diverse sicariid toxins against a diverse panel of sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates. Two of the three showed significantly faster turnover of sphingolipids over lysolipids, and all three showed a strong preference for positively charged (choline and/or ethanolamine) over neutral (glycerol and serine) headgroups. Strikingly, however, the enzymes vary widely in their preference for choline, the headgroup of both sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, versus ethanolamine. An enzyme from Sicarius terrosus showed a strong preference for ethanolamine over choline, whereas two paralogous enzymes from Loxosceles arizonica either preferred choline or showed no significant preference. Intrigued by the novel substrate preference of the Sicarius enzyme, we solved its crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution. The evolution of variable substrate specificity may help explain the reduced dermonecrotic potential of some natural toxin variants, because mammalian sphingolipids use primarily choline as a positively charged headgroup; it may also be relevant for sicariid predatory behavior, because ethanolamine-containing sphingolipids are common in insect prey. PMID:25752604

  1. Therapeutic inhibition of phospholipase D1 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junjie; Sun, Qi; Bei, Yihua; Zhang, Ling; Dimitrova-Shumkovska, Jasmina; Lv, Dongchao; Yang, Yuefeng; Cao, Yan; Zhao, Yingying; Song, Meiyi; Song, Yang; Wang, Fei; Yang, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a leading cause of deaths worldwide. Novel therapeutic targets for HCC are needed. Phospholipase D (PD) is involved in cell proliferation and migration, but its role in HCC remains unclear. In the present study, we show that PLD1, but not PLD2, was overexpressed in HCC cell lines (HepG2, Bel-7402 and Bel-7404) compared with the normal human L-02 hepatocytes. PLD1 was required for the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells without affecting apoptosis and necrosis, and PLD1 overexpression was sufficient to promote those effects. By using HCC xenograft models, we demonstrated that therapeutic inhibition of PLD1 attenuated tumour growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC mice. Moreover, PLD1 was found to be highly expressed in tumour tissues of HCC patients. Finally, mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and Akt (protein kinase B) were identified as critical pathways responsible for the role of PLD1 in HCC cells. Taken together, the present study indicates that PLD1 activation contributes to HCC development via regulation of the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells, as well as promoting the EMT process. These observations suggest that inhibition of PLD1 represents an attractive and novel therapeutic modality for HCC. PMID:27129182

  2. Molecular characteristics of horse phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ).

    PubMed

    Sato, Kana; Wakai, Takuya; Seita, Yasunari; Takizawa, Akiko; Fissore, Rafael A; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2013-04-01

    A sperm-specific phospholipase C (PLC), PLCzeta (PLCζ), is thought to underlie the initiation of calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) oscillations that induce egg activation in mammals. In large domestic species, only bovine, porcine and recently equine PLCζ have been cloned, and the physiological functions of these molecules have not been fully characterized. Here, we evaluated the physiological functions of equine PLCζ (ePLCζ) in mouse oocytes. ePLCζ was cloned from testis using RT-PCR. The expression of ePLCζ messenger RNA was confirmed in testis but not in other tissues. Microinjection of ePLCζ complementary RNA (cRNA) into mouse oocytes induced long-lasting [Ca(2+) ]i oscillations, and most of the injected oocytes formed pronuclei (PN). The injection of cRNAs encoding horse, mouse, human and cow PLCζ into mouse oocytes showed that ePLCζ had the highest [Ca(2+) ]i oscillation-inducing activity among the species tested. Mutation of D202R, which renders the protein inactive, abrogated the activity of ePLCζ. The nuclear translocation ability of ePLCζ was defective when expressed in mouse oocytes. Taken together, our findings show for the first time that ePLCζ has highest activity of the mammalian species studied to date. Our findings will be useful for the improvement of reproductive technologies in the horse. PMID:23590511

  3. Are events after endotoxemia related to circulating phospholipase A2?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A A; Browning, J L; Scheltinga, M R; Lynch, E A; Brown, E F; Lawton, P; Chambers, E; Dougas, I; Benjamin, C D; Dinarello, C A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine whether the signs and symptoms of endotoxemia were related to the endotoxin-stimulated increase in circulating phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. BACKGROUND: Because hypotension and pulmonary injury have been associated with elevated PLA2 activity in septic shock and PLA2 levels are reduced with the administration of glucocorticoids, the PLA2 response to endotoxin was investigated in volunteers pretreated with and without hydrocortisone. METHODS: Carefully screened human subjects were studied under four conditions: (1) saline, (2) hydrocortisone, (3) endotoxin, and (4) hydrocortisone administration before endotoxin exposure. Pulse rate, blood pressure, temperature, and symptoms of endotoxemia were serially measured. Plasma for tumor necrosis factor concentrations and PLA2 activity was obtained. RESULTS: After lipopolysaccharide, pulse rate and tumor necrosis factor concentrations rose at 1 to 2 hours; temperature increased maximally at 4 hours. PLA2 activity reached peak levels at 24 hours. With hydrocortisone pretreatment, a 50% reduction in the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor and PLA2 occurred. Significant correlations between other variables and PLA2 activity were not observed. The enzyme identified by monoclonal antibody was the secreted nonpancreatic PLA2 (SNP-PLA2). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that elevations in circulating SNP-PLA2 activity and systemic events associated with intravenous endotoxin administration are unrelated. PMID:8129489

  4. A thermoactive secreted phospholipase A₂ purified from the venom glands of Scorpio maurus: relation between the kinetic properties and the hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Louati, Hanen; Krayem, Najeh; Fendri, Ahmed; Aissa, Imen; Sellami, Mohamed; Bezzine, Sofiane; Gargouri, Youssef

    2013-09-01

    A lipolytic activity was located in the scorpion venom glands (telsons), from which a phospholipase A₂ (Sm-PLVG) was purified. Like known phospholipases A₂ from scorpion venom, which are 14-18 kDa proteins, the purified Scorpio maurus-Phospholipase from Venom Glands (Sm-PLVG) has a molecular mass of 17 kDa containing long and short chains linked by disulfide bridge. It has a specific activity of 5500 U/mg measured at 47 °C and pH 8.5 using phosphatidylcholine as a substrate in presence of 8 mM NaTDC and 12 mM CaCl₂. The NH₂-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified Sm-PLVG showed similarities with those of long and short chains of some previously purified phospholipases from venom scorpions. Moreover, the Sm-PLVG exhibits hemolytic activity toward human, rabbit or rat erythrocytes. This hemolytic activity was related to its ability to interact with phospholipids' monolayer at high surface pressure. These properties are similar to those of phospholipases isolated from snake venoms. PMID:23831286

  5. Acinetobacter baumannii Virulence Is Mediated by the Concerted Action of Three Phospholipases D

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Julia; Bergmann, Holger; Göttig, Stephan; Ebersberger, Ingo; Averhoff, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii causes a broad range of opportunistic infections in humans. Its success as an emerging pathogen is due to a combination of increasing antibiotic resistance, environmental persistence and adaptation to the human host. To date very little is known about the molecular basis of the latter. Here we demonstrate that A. baumannii can use phosphatidylcholine, an integral part of human cell membranes, as sole carbon and energy source. We report on the identification of three phospholipases belonging to the PLD superfamily. PLD1 and PLD2 appear restricted to the bacteria and display the general features of bacterial phospholipases D. They possess two PLDc_2 PFAM domains each encompassing the HxKx4Dx6GS/GGxN (HKD) motif necessary for forming the catalytic core. The third candidate, PLD3, is found in bacteria as well as in eukaryotes and harbours only one PLDc_2 PFAM domain and one conserved HKD motif, which however do not overlap. Employing a markerless mutagenesis system for A. baumannii ATCC 19606T, we generated a full set of PLD knock-out mutants. Galleria mellonella infection studies as well as invasion experiments using A549 human lung epithelial cells revealed that the three PLDs act in a concerted manner as virulence factors and are playing an important role in host cell invasion. PMID:26379240

  6. Ubiquitin Activates Patatin-Like Phospholipases from Multiple Bacterial Species

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David M.; Sato, Hiromi; Dirck, Aaron T.; Feix, Jimmy B.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 enzymes are ubiquitously distributed throughout the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms and are utilized in a wide array of cellular processes and physiological and immunological responses. Several patatin-like phospholipase homologs of ExoU from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected on the premise that ubiquitin activation of this class of bacterial enzymes was a conserved process. We found that ubiquitin activated all phospholipases tested in both in vitro and in vivo assays via a conserved serine-aspartate catalytic dyad. Ubiquitin chains versus monomeric ubiquitin were superior in inducing catalysis, and ubiquitin-like proteins failed to activate phospholipase activity. Toxicity studies in a prokaryotic dual-expression system grouped the enzymes into high- and low-toxicity classes. Toxicity measured in eukaryotic cells also suggested a two-tiered classification but was not predictive of the severity of cellular damage, suggesting that each enzyme may correspond to unique properties perhaps based on its specific biological function. Additional studies on lipid binding preference suggest that some enzymes in this family may be differentially sensitive to phosphatidyl-4,5-bisphosphate in terms of catalytic activation enhancement and binding affinity. Further analysis of the function and amino acid sequences of this enzyme family may lead to a useful approach to formulating a unifying model of how these phospholipases behave after delivery into the cytoplasmic compartment. PMID:25404699

  7. Enzymatic action of phospholipase A₂ on liposomal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders H; Mouritsen, Ole G; Arouri, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    The overexpression of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in tumors has opened new avenues for enzyme-triggered active unloading of liposomal antitumor drug carriers selectively at the target tumor. However, the effects of the liposome composition, drug encapsulation, and tumor microenvironment on the activity of sPLA2 are still not well understood. We carried out a physico-chemical study to characterize the sPLA2-assisted breakdown of liposomes using dye-release assays in the context of drug delivery and under physiologically relevant conditions. The influence of temperature, lipid concentration, enzyme concentration, and drug loading on the hydrolysis of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, Tm=42°C) liposomes with snake venom sPLA2 was investigated. The sensitivity of human sPLA2 to the liposome composition was checked using binary lipid mixtures of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) phospholipids with C14 and C16 acyl chains. Increasing temperature (36-41°C) was found to mainly shorten the enzyme lag-time, whereas the effect on lipid hydrolysis rate was modest. The enzyme lag-time was also found to be inversely dependent on the lipid-to-enzyme ratio. Drug encapsulation can alter the hydrolysis profile of the carrier liposomes. The activity of human sPLA2 was highly sensitive to the phospholipid acyl-chain length and negative surface charge density of the liposomes. We believe our work will prove useful for the optimization of sPLA2-susceptible liposomal formulations as well as will provide a solid ground for predicting the hydrolysis profile of the liposomes in vivo at the target site. PMID:26056930

  8. Bee venom phospholipase A2 as a membrane-binding vector for cell surface display or internalization of soluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Babon, Aurélie; Wurceldorf, Thibault; Almunia, Christine; Pichard, Sylvain; Chenal, Alexandre; Buhot, Cécile; Beaumelle, Bruno; Gillet, Daniel

    2016-06-15

    We showed that bee venom phospholipase A2 can be used as a membrane-binding vector to anchor to the surface of cells a soluble protein fused to its C-terminus. ZZ, a two-domain derivative of staphylococcal protein A capable of binding constant regions of antibodies was fused to the C-terminus of the phospholipase or to a mutant devoid of enzymatic activity. The fusion proteins bound to the surface of cells and could themselves bind IgGs. Their fate depended on the cell type to which they bound. On the A431 carcinoma cell line the proteins remained exposed on the cell surface. In contrast, on human dendritic cells the proteins were internalized into early endosomes. PMID:26253725

  9. Phospholipase A2 as a mechanosensor.

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, J Y; Kinnunen, P K

    1995-01-01

    Osmotic swelling of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) causes membrane stretching and thus reduces the lateral packing of lipids. This is demonstrated to modulate strongly the catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) toward a fluorescent phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-[(6-pyren-1-yl)]decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PPDPC) residing in LUVs composed of different unsaturated and saturated phosphatidylcholines. The magnitude of the osmotic pressure gradient delta omega required for maximal PLA2 activity as well as the extent of activation depend on the degree of saturation of the membrane phospholipid acyl chains. More specifically, delta omega needed for maximal hydrolytic activity increases in the sequence DOPC < SOPC < DMPC in accordance with the increment in the intensity of chain-chain van der Waals interactions. Previous studies on the hydrolysis of substrate monolayers by C. adamanteus and N. naja PLA2 revealed maximal hydrolytic rates for these two enzymes to be achieved at lipid packing densities corresponding to surface pressures of 12 and 18 mN m-1, respectively. In keeping with the above the magnitudes of delta omega producing maximal activity of Crotalus adamanteus and Naja naja toward PPDPC/DMPC LUVs were 40 and 20 mOsm/kg, respectively. Our findings suggest a novel possibility of regulating the activity of PLA2 and perhaps also other lipid packing density-dependent enzymes in vivo by osmotic forces applied on cellular membranes. Importantly, our results reveal serendipitously that the responsiveness of membranes to osmotic stress is modulated by the acyl chain composition of the lipids. PMID:7612831

  10. Biochemical and molecular analysis of phospholipase C and phospholipase D activity in mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, K A; Gill, R E; Vasil, M L

    1996-01-01

    Resurgence of mycobacterial infections in the United States has led to an intense effort to identify potential virulence determinants in the genus Mycobacterium, particularly ones that would be associated with the more virulent species (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) using radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin as substrates indicated that cell extracts of M. tuberculosis contain both phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD) activities. In contrast, only PLD activity was detected in cell extracts of M. smegmatis. Neither activity was detected in cell-free culture supernatants from these organisms. We and others recently identified two open reading frames in M. tuberculosis with the potential to encode proteins which are highly homologous to the nonhemolytic (PlcN) and hemolytic (PlcH) phospholipase C enzymes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In contrast to the plc genes in P. aeruginosa, which are considerably distal to each other (min 34 and 64 on the chromosome), the mycobacterial genes, designated mpcA and mpcB, are tandemly arranged in the same relative orientation and separated by only 191 bp. Both the mpcA and the mpcB genes were individually cloned in M. smegmatis, and PLC activity was expressed from each gene in this organism. Hybridization experiments using the mpcA and the mpcB genes as probes under conditions of moderate stringency identified sequences homologous to these genes in M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, and M. marinum but not in several other Mycobacterium species, including M. smegmatis, M. avium, and M. intracellulare. TLC analysis using radiolabeled substrates indicated that M. bovis and M. marinum cell extracts contain PLC and PLD activities, but only PLD activity was detected in M. bovis BCG cell extracts. Sphingomyelinase activity was also detected in whole-cell extracts of M. tuberculosis, M. marinum, M. bovis, and M. bovis BCG, but this activity was not detected in extracts of M. smegmatis

  11. The PNPLA-family phospholipases involved in glycerophospholipid homeostasis of HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Martin; Hänninen, Satu; Hokynar, Kati; Somerharju, Pentti

    2016-09-01

    Mammalian cells maintain the glycerophospholipid (GPL) compositions of their membranes nearly constant. To achieve this, GPL synthesis and degradation must be coordinated. There is strong evidence that A-type phospholipases (PLAs) are key players in homeostatic degradation of GPLs, but the identities of the PLAs involved have not been established. However, some members of the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing proteins (PNPLAs) have been implicated. Accordingly, we knocked down all the PNPLAs significantly expressed in human HeLa cells using RNA interference and then determined whether the turnover of the major glycerophospholipids is affected by using mass spectrometry and metabolic labeling with stable isotope-labeled precursors. Knockdown of PNPLA9, PNPLA6 or PNPLA4 significantly (30-50%) reduced the turnover of phosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine and -serine. In a notable contrast, turnover of phosphatidylinositol was not significantly affected by the knockdown of any PNPLA. Depletion of PNPLA9 and PNPLA4 also inhibited G0/G1 to S cell cycle progression, which could thus be regulated by GPL turnover. These results strongly suggest that PNPLA9, -6 and -4 play a key role in GPL turnover and homeostasis in human cells. A hypothetical model suggesting how these enzymes could recognize the relative concentration of the different GPLs is proposed. PMID:27317427

  12. Milleporin-1, a new phospholipase A2 active protein from the fire coral Millepora platyphylla nematocysts.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Faisal F Y; Aboul-Dahab, Hosney M

    2004-12-01

    Stings of fire corals, potent hydroids common in the Red Sea, are known to cause severe pain and they develop burns and itching that lasts few hours after contact. Nematocyst venom of Millepora platyphylla (Mp-TX) was isolated according to a recent method developed in our laboratory to conduct a previous investigation on the nematocyst toxicity of Millepora dichotoma and M. platyphylla. In this study, Mp-TX was fractionated by using both gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Simultaneous biological and biochemical assays were performed to monitor the hemolytic (using washed human red blood cells, RBCs) and phospholipase A2 (using radiolabeled sn-2 C14-arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine as a substrate) active venom fractions. The magnitude of both hemolysis and phospholipase A2 activity was found in a fraction rich of proteins of molecular masses approximately 30,000-34,000 Daltons. The former fraction was purified by ion exchange chromatography, and a major bioactive protein factor (approx. 32,500 Daltons , here named milleporin-1) was recovered. Milleporin-1 enzymatic activity showed a significant contribution to the overall hemolysis of human RBCs. This activity, however, could not be completely inhibited using phospholipid substrates. Melliporin-1 fraction retained about 30% hemolysis, until totally rendered inactive when boiled for 3 min. The overall mechanism of action of milleporin-1 to impact the cellular membrane was discussed; however, it is pending more biochemical and pharmacological future studies. PMID:15683837

  13. Lysophospholipid generation and phosphatidylglycerol depletion in phospholipase A(2)-mediated surfactant dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hite, R Duncan; Seeds, Michael C; Safta, Anca M; Jacinto, Randolph B; Gyves, Julianna I; Bass, David A; Waite, B Moseley

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary surfactant's complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins reduces the work of breathing by lowering alveolar surface tension during respiration. One mechanism of surfactant damage appears to be the hydrolysis of phospholipid by phospholipases activated in the inflamed lung. Humans have several candidate secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) enzymes in lung cells and infiltrating leukocytes that could damage extracellular surfactant. We considered two mechanisms of surfactant disruption by five human sPLA(2)s, including generation of lysophospholipids and the depletion of specific phospholipids. All five sPLA(2)s studied ultimately caused surfactant dysfunction. Each enzyme exhibited a different pattern of hydrolysis of surfactant phospholipids. Phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in surfactant and the greatest potential source for generation of lysophospholipids, was susceptible to hydrolysis by group IB, group V, and group X sPLA(2)s, but not group IIA or IID. Group IIA hydrolyzed both phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, whereas group IID was active against only phosphatidylglycerol. Thus, with groups IB and X, the generation of lysophospholipids corresponded with surfactant dysfunction. However, hydrolysis of and depletion of phosphatidylglycerol had a greater correlation with surfactant dysfunction for groups IIA and IID. Surfactant dysfunction caused by group V sPLA(2) is less clear and may be the combined result of both mechanisms. PMID:15516491

  14. The first report on coagulation and phospholipase A2 activities of Persian Gulf lionfish, Pterois russelli, an Iranian venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2016-04-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belonging to scorpionidae family. Regarding to high significance value for tracing potential therapeutic molecules and special agents from venomous marine creatures, the present study was aimed to characterization of the Persian Gulf lionfish venom. Proteolytic, phospholipase, hemolytic, coagulation, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were determined for extracted venom. The LD50 of P. russelli venom was determined by intravenous injection in white Balb/c mice. Phospholipase A2 activity was recorded at 20 μg of total venom. Coagulation activity on human plasma was shown by Prothrombin Time (PT) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays and coagulation visualized after 7 and 14 s respectively for 60 μg of crude venom. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of major and minor protein bands between 6 and 205 kDa. Different amounts of crude venom ranged from 1.87 to 30 μg showed proteolytic activity on casein. The highest edematic activity was detected at 20 μg. Our findings showed that the edematic activity was dose dependent and persisted for 48 h after injection. The crude venom did not induce dermonecrotic activity on rabbit skin and showed no hemolytic activity on human, mouse and rabbit erythrocytes. This is the first report for phospholipase A2 and coagulation activity in venomous fish and venomous marine animals respectively. Proteolytic activity of P. russelli venom is in accordance with the other genara of scorpionidae family. According to venom activity on intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, lionfish venom would be contained an interesting pharmaceutical agent. This study is pending to further characterization of phospholipase A2, coagulation, and protease activities and also in vivo activity on animal model of surface and internal bleeding. PMID:26853495

  15. Phospholipase A2 regulates eicosanoid class switching during inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Norris, Paul C; Gosselin, David; Reichart, Donna; Glass, Christopher K; Dennis, Edward A

    2014-09-01

    Initiation and resolution of inflammation are considered to be tightly connected processes. Lipoxins (LX) are proresolution lipid mediators that inhibit phlogistic neutrophil recruitment and promote wound-healing macrophage recruitment in humans via potent and specific signaling through the LXA4 receptor (ALX). One model of lipoxin biosynthesis involves sequential metabolism of arachidonic acid by two cell types expressing a combined transcellular metabolon. It is currently unclear how lipoxins are efficiently formed from precursors or if they are directly generated after receptor-mediated inflammatory commitment. Here, we provide evidence for a pathway by which lipoxins are generated in macrophages as a consequence of sequential activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a receptor for endotoxin, and P2X7, a purinergic receptor for extracellular ATP. Initial activation of TLR4 results in accumulation of the cyclooxygenase-2-derived lipoxin precursor 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in esterified form within membrane phospholipids, which can be enhanced by aspirin (ASA) treatment. Subsequent activation of P2X7 results in efficient hydrolysis of 15-HETE from membrane phospholipids by group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2, and its conversion to bioactive lipoxins by 5-lipoxygenase. Our results demonstrate how a single immune cell can store a proresolving lipid precursor and then release it for bioactive maturation and secretion, conceptually similar to the production and inflammasome-dependent maturation of the proinflammatory IL-1 family cytokines. These findings provide evidence for receptor-specific and combinatorial control of pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis, and potential avenues to modulate inflammatory indices without inhibiting downstream eicosanoid pathways. PMID:25139986

  16. Extracellular Paracoccidioides brasiliensis phospholipase B involvement in alveolar macrophage interaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phospholipase B (PLB) has been reported to be one of the virulence factors for human pathogenic fungi and has also been described as necessary for the early events in infection. Based on these data, we investigated the role of PLB in virulence and modulation of the alveolar pulmonary immune response during infection using an in-vitro model of host-pathogen interaction, i.e. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells infecting alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells. Results The effect of PLB was analyzed using the specific inhibitor alexidine dihydrochloride (0.25 μM), and pulmonary surfactant (100 μg mL-1), during 6 hours of co-cultivation of P. brasiliensis and MH-S cells. Alexidine dihydrochloride inhibited PLB activity by 66% and significantly decreased the adhesion and internalization of yeast cells by MH-S cells. Genes involved in phagocytosis (trl2, cd14) and the inflammatory response (nfkb, tnf-α, il-1β) were down-regulated in the presence of this PLB inhibitor. In contrast, PLB activity and internalization of yeast cells significantly increased in the presence of pulmonary surfactant; under this condition, genes such as clec2 and the pro-inflammatory inhibitor (nkrf) were up-regulated. Also, the pulmonary surfactant did not alter cytokine production, while alexidine dihydrochloride decreased the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and increased the levels of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In addition, gene expression analysis of plb1, sod3 and icl1 suggests that P. brasiliensis gene re-programming is effective in facilitating adaptation to this inhospitable environment, which mimics the lung-environment interaction. Conclusion P. brasiliensis PLB activity is involved in the process of adhesion and internalization of yeast cells at the MH-S cell surface and may enhance virulence and subsequent down-regulation of macrophage activation. PMID:20843362

  17. Alopecia in a Viable Phospholipase C Delta 1 and Phospholipase C Delta 3 Double Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Runkel, Fabian; Hintze, Maik; Griesing, Sebastian; Michels, Marion; Blanck, Birgit; Fukami, Kiyoko; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Franz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Inositol 1,4,5trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are important intracellular signalling molecules in various tissues. They are generated by the phospholipase C family of enzymes, of which phospholipase C delta (PLCD) forms one class. Studies with functional inactivation of Plcd isozyme encoding genes in mice have revealed that loss of both Plcd1 and Plcd3 causes early embryonic death. Inactivation of Plcd1 alone causes loss of hair (alopecia), whereas inactivation of Plcd3 alone has no apparent phenotypic effect. To investigate a possible synergy of Plcd1 and Plcd3 in postnatal mice, novel mutations of these genes compatible with life after birth need to be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterise a novel mouse mutant with a spontaneously arisen mutation in Plcd3 (Plcd3mNab) that resulted from the insertion of an intracisternal A particle (IAP) into intron 2 of the Plcd3 gene. This mutation leads to the predominant expression of a truncated PLCD3 protein lacking the N-terminal PH domain. C3H mice that carry one or two mutant Plcd3mNab alleles are phenotypically normal. However, the presence of one Plcd3mNab allele exacerbates the alopecia caused by the loss of functional Plcd1 in Del(9)olt1Pas mutant mice with respect to the number of hair follicles affected and the body region involved. Mice double homozygous for both the Del(9)olt1Pas and the Plcd3mNab mutations survive for several weeks and exhibit total alopecia associated with fragile hair shafts showing altered expression of some structural genes and shortened phases of proliferation in hair follicle matrix cells. Conclusions/Significance The Plcd3mNab mutation is a novel hypomorphic mutation of Plcd3. Our investigations suggest that Plcd1 and Plcd3 have synergistic effects on the murine hair follicle in specific regions of the body surface. PMID:22723964

  18. Structural deterioration in produce: Phospholipase D, membrane deterioration and senescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following cloning of the first phospholipase D (PLD) gene from castor bean, there has been good progress in determining physiological roles of members of the plant PLD gene family, now known to comprise six classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta. Most notably, phosphatidic acid derived...

  19. Phospholipase A2 activity during cold acclimation of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4; PLA2) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown tissue from plants undergoing cold acclimation and/or chilling stress was investigated in a moderately cold tolerant winter wheat, a spring wheat, and a poorly cold tolerant winter wheat. Activity levels were inv...

  20. Pla2g16 phospholipase mediates gain-of-function activities of mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shunbin; Tu, Huolin; Kollareddy, Madhusudhan; Pant, Vinod; Li, Qin; Zhang, Yun; Jackson, James G; Suh, Young-Ah; Elizondo-Fraire, Ana C; Yang, Peirong; Chau, Gilda; Tashakori, Mehrnoosh; Wasylishen, Amanda R; Ju, Zhenlin; Solomon, Hilla; Rotter, Varda; Liu, Bin; El-Naggar, Adel K; Donehower, Lawrence A; Martinez, Luis Alfonso; Lozano, Guillermina

    2014-07-29

    p53(R172H/+) mice inherit a p53 mutation found in Li-Fraumeni syndrome and develop metastatic tumors at much higher frequency than p53(+/-) mice. To explore the mutant p53 metastatic phenotype, we used expression arrays to compare primary osteosarcomas from p53(R172H/+) mice with metastasis to osteosarcomas from p53(+/-) mice lacking metastasis. For this study, 213 genes were differentially expressed with a P value <0.05. Of particular interest, Pla2g16, which encodes a phospholipase that catalyzes phosphatidic acid into lysophosphatidic acid and free fatty acid (both implicated in metastasis), was increased in p53(R172H/+) osteosarcomas. Functional analyses showed that Pla2g16 knockdown decreased migration and invasion in mutant p53-expressing cells, and vice versa: overexpression of Pla2g16 increased the invasion of p53-null cells. Furthermore, Pla2g16 levels were increased upon expression of mutant p53 in both mouse and human osteosarcoma cell lines, indicating that Pla2g16 is a downstream target of the mutant p53 protein. ChIP analysis revealed that several mutant p53 proteins bind the Pla2g16 promoter at E26 transformation-specific (ETS) binding motifs and knockdown of ETS2 suppressed mutant p53 induction of Pla2g16. Thus, our study identifies a phospholipase as a transcriptional target of mutant p53 that is required for metastasis. PMID:25024203

  1. Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C affect adherence to epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk-Balska, Agata; Bielecki, Jacek

    2005-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborn intracellular animal and human pathogen, produces several exotoxins contributing to virulence. Among these are listeriolysin O (LLO), a pore-forming cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, and a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). LLO is known to play an important role in the escape of bacteria from the primary phagocytic vacuole of macrophages, and PI-PLC supports this process. Evidence is accumulating that LLO and PI-PLC are multifunctional virulence factors with many important roles in the host-parasite interaction other than phagosomal membrane disruption. LLO and PI-PLC may induce a number of host cell responses by modulating signal transduction of infected cells via intracellular Ca2+ levels and the metabolism of phospholipids. This would result in the activation of host phospholipase C and protein kinase C. In the present study, using Bacillus sub tilis strains expressing LLO, PI-PLC, and simultaneously LLO and PI-PLC, we show that LLO and PI-PLC enhance bacterial binding to epithelial cells Int407, with LLO being necessary and PI-PLC playing an accessory role. The results of this work suggest that these two listerial proteins act on epithelial cells prior to internalization. PMID:16391652

  2. Fluorometric High-Throughput Screening Assay for Secreted Phospholipases A2 Using Phospholipid Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Heather; Fernández-Vega, Virneliz; Spicer, Timothy P; Chase, Peter; Brown, Steven; Scampavia, Louis; Roush, William R; Riley, Sean; Rosen, Hugh; Hodder, Peter; Lambeau, Gerard; Gelb, Michael H

    2016-08-01

    There is interest in developing inhibitors of human group III secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIII-sPLA2) because this enzyme plays a role in mast cell maturation. There are no potent inhibitors for hGIII-sPLA2 reported to date, so we adapted a fluorescence-based enzyme activity monitoring method to a high-throughput screening format. We opted to use an assay based on phospholipid substrate present in phospholipid vesicles since this matrix more closely resembles the natural substrate of hGIII-sPLA2, as opposed to phospholipid/detergent mixed micelles. The substrate is a phospholipid analogue containing BODIPY fluorophores dispersed as a minor component in vesicles of nonfluorescent phospholipids. Action of hGIII-sPLA2 liberates a free fatty acid from the phospholipid, leading to a reduction in quenching of the fluorophore and hence an increase in fluorescence. The assay uses optical detection in a 1536-well plate format with an excitation wavelength far away from the UV range so as to minimize false-positive library hits that result from quenching of the fluorescence. The high-throughput screen was successfully carried out on a library of 370,276 small molecules. Several hits were discovered, and data have been uploaded to PubChem. This study describes the first high-throughput optical screening assay for secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitors based on a phospholipid vesicle substrate. PMID:27146384

  3. Expression of phospholipase A2 receptor in primary cultured podocytes derived from dog kidneys.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Go; Kamiie, Junichi; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Mineshige, Takayuki; Shirota, Kinji

    2016-06-01

    Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) expressed in human podocytes has been highlighted as a causative autoantigen of human idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, its expression was found to be minimal or absent in murine and rat podocytes. In this study, immunofluorescence revealed the expression of PLA2R in the glomerular podocytes in the kidney tissue sections of dogs. We then attempted to culture canine podocytes and investigate the expression of PLA2R in these cells. Glomeruli were isolated from dog kidneys and cultured to obtain podocytes using nylon mesh-based isolation method as followed for isolating rat podocytes. The cultured cells expressed PLA2R mRNA and protein in addition to other podocyte markers (synaptopodin, podocin and nephrin). These results indicate that the canine podocytes express PLA2R. PMID:26854253

  4. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A; Tesmer, John J G

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25727495

  5. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome.

  6. Phospholipase Cgamma1 inhibitory principles from the sarcotestas of Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Cho, Y S; Park, E J; Kim, J; Oh, W K; Lee, H S; Ahn, J S

    1998-07-01

    Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the CHCl3 extract of Ginkgo biloba sarcotestas (Ginkgoaceae) as a new class of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase Cgamma1 (PI-PLCgamma1) inhibitors. The substances without the long chain were ineffective. On the other hand, the activities of these compounds were dramatically decreased by acetylation of aromatic hydroxyl groups of cardanol, phenolic acid, and bilobol and by methylation of the aromatic carboxyl group of phenolic acid. The unsaturated long chain as well as the aromatic hydroxyl and carboxyl groups might play a key role for the PI-PLCgamma1 inhibitory activity. These compounds also inhibited the growth of a number of human cancer cell lines, but were less cytotoxic against a human normal colon cell line. PMID:9677265

  7. Expression of phospholipase A2 receptor in primary cultured podocytes derived from dog kidneys

    PubMed Central

    SUGAHARA, Go; KAMIIE, Junichi; KOBAYASHI, Ryosuke; MINESHIGE, Takayuki; SHIROTA, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) expressed in human podocytes has been highlighted as a causative autoantigen of human idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, its expression was found to be minimal or absent in murine and rat podocytes. In this study, immunofluorescence revealed the expression of PLA2R in the glomerular podocytes in the kidney tissue sections of dogs. We then attempted to culture canine podocytes and investigate the expression of PLA2R in these cells. Glomeruli were isolated from dog kidneys and cultured to obtain podocytes using nylon mesh-based isolation method as followed for isolating rat podocytes. The cultured cells expressed PLA2R mRNA and protein in addition to other podocyte markers (synaptopodin, podocin and nephrin). These results indicate that the canine podocytes express PLA2R. PMID:26854253

  8. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A; Tesmer, John JG

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25727495

  9. Phospholipase A2 Isolated from the Venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus Inactivates Dengue virus and Other Enveloped Viruses by Disrupting the Viral Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Vanessa Danielle; Soares, Ricardo Oliveira; dos Santos-Junior, Nilton Nascimento; Trabuco, Amanda Cristina; Cintra, Adelia Cristina; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu; Caliri, Antonio; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Aquino, Victor Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. PMID:25383618

  10. Phospholipase A2 activating protein and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, J W; Dickey, W D; Saini, S S; Gourley, W; Klimpel, G R; Chopra, A K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involving synthesis of eicosanoids from arachidonic acid (AA), which is released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2 (PLA2). A potentially important regulator of the production of these mediators is a protein activator of PLA2, referred to as PLA2 activating protein (PLAP). AIMS: The purpose of this investigation was to discover if PLAP values might be increased in the inflamed intestinal tissue of patients with IBD and in intestinal tissue of mice with colitis. PATIENTS: Biopsy specimens were taken from patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy, and normal colonic mucosa was obtained from patients without IBD after surgical resection. METHODS: Immunocytochemistry with affinity purified antibodies to PLAP synthetic peptides was used to locate PLAP antigen in sections of intestinal biopsy specimens from IBD patients compared with that of normal intestinal tissue. Northern blot analysis with a murine [32P] labelled plap cDNA probe was performed on RNA extracted from the colons of mice fed dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and cultured HT-29 cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RESULTS: PLAP antigen was localised predominantly within monocytes and granulocytes in intestinal tissue sections from IBD patients, and additional deposition of extracellular PLAP antigen was associated with blood vessels and oedema fluid in the inflamed tissues. In contrast, tissue sections from normal human intestine were devoid of PLAP reactive antigen, except for some weak cytoplasmic reaction of luminal intestinal epithelial cells. Similarly, colonic tissue from DSS treated mice contained an increased amount of PLAP antigen compared with controls. The stroma of the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa from the DSS treated mice reacted intensely with antibodies to PLAP synthetic peptides, while no reaction was observed with control

  11. Purification of phospholipase D from citrus callus tissue.

    PubMed

    Witt, W; Yelenosky, G; Mayer, R T

    1987-11-15

    Phospholipase D in extracts of soluble proteins from callus cultures derived from cotyledons of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck is activated by Ca2+ and anionic detergents and has a pH optimum of 6.5. The enzyme was purified 703-fold over the crude protein extract with a yield of 15% by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and preparative acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Preparative electrophoresis was carried out using conventional slab gel equipment and electroelution of the sliced gel. Analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified phospholipase revealed two bands of the same staining intensity running at 94.2K and 90.5K. PMID:3688883

  12. Odorant-sensitive phospholipase C in insect antennae.

    PubMed

    Boekhoff, I; Strotmann, J; Raming, K; Tareilus, E; Breer, H

    1990-01-01

    Exogenous tritiated phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate added to antennal preparations from locust and cockroach was hydrolysed releasing inositol trisphosphate. High activity of phospholipase C was detected in the soluble as well as in the membrane fraction. At low free calcium concentrations hydrolysis of the labelled lipid was stimulated by odorants and pheromones in a GTP-dependent manner. Consequently the level of inositol trisphosphate in antennal preparations increased upon odorant stimulation. PMID:2176800

  13. Purification and characterization of a phospholipase by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida from cobia Rachycentron canadum.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Yuan; Lee, Kuo-Kau; Hu, Chih-Chuang; Liu, Ping-Chung

    2014-09-01

    Toxicity of the extracellular products (ECPs) and the lethal attributes of phospholipase secreted by pathogenic Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida from cobia Rachycentron canadum was studied. An extracellular lethal toxin in the ECPs was partially purified by using Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography system. A protein band (27 kDa) exhibited phospholipase activity on Native-PAGE (by 0.3% egg yolk agar-overlay), was excised and eluted. The pI value of the purified phospholipase was determined as 3.65 and was determined as a phospholipase C by using the Amplex™ Red phosphatidylcholine -Specific phospholipase C Assay kit. The phospholipase showed maximum activity at temperature around 4-40 °C and maximal activity at pH between 8 and 9. The enzyme was inhibited by ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); but was activated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and inactivated by Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) . Both the ECPs and phospholipase were hemolytic against erythrocytes of cobia and lethal to the fish with LD50 values of 3.25 and 0.91 µg protein g(-1) fish, respectively. In toxicity neutralization test, the rabbit antisera against the phospholipase could neutralize the toxicity of ECPs, indicating that the phospholipase is a major extracellular toxin produced by the bacterium. PMID:23787821

  14. Phospholipase C in Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mirsamadi, ES; Farnia, P; Jahani Sherafat, S; Esfahani, M; Faramarzi, N

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Phospholipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays an important role in pathogenesis through breaking up phospholipids and production of diacylglycerol. In this study, we examined the Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from Iranian patients for the genes encoding this enzyme. Materials and Methods DNA extraction was performed using CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) from positive culture specimens in tuberculosis patients. PCR was then used to amplify the plcA, plcB, plcC genes of Beijing strain, and non-Beijing strains were identified by spoligotyping. Results Of 200 specimens, 19 (9.5%) were Beijing strain and 181 (90.5%) were non-Beijing strains. The results of PCR for Beijing strains were as follows: 16 strains (84.2%) were positive for plcA, 17 (89.4%) were positive for plcB and 17 (89.4%) were positive for plcC genes. The standard strain (H37RV) was used as control. Conclusion The majority of Beijing strains have phospholipase C genes which can contribute to their pathogenesis but we need complementary studies to confirm the role of phospholipase C in pathogenecity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:22347572

  15. [Do phospholipases, key enzymes in sperm physiology, represent therapeutic challenges?].

    PubMed

    Arnoult, Christophe; Escoffier, Jessica; Munch, Léa; Pierre, Virginie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Lambeau, Gérard; Ray, Pierre

    2012-05-01

    The spermatozoon is one of the most differentiated cells in mammals and its production requires an extremely complex machinery. Subtle but critical molecular changes take place during capacitation, which comprises the last series of maturation steps that naturally occur between the cauda epididymidis where spermatozoa are stored and their ultimate destination inside the oocyte. Phospholipases, by hydrolyzing various phospholipids, have been found to be critical in sperm processes such as 1) the control of flagellum beats, 2) capacitation - the molecular transformations preparing the sperm for fertilization, 3) acrosome reaction and 4) oocyte activation by eliciting calcium oscillations. The emerging important role of phospholipases is also emphasized by the fact that alterations of sperm lipids can lead to infertility. Phospholipases may represent valuable targets to develop anti- and pro-fertility drugs. Results obtained in mice are encouraging, since treatment of sperm with recombinant sPLA(2) of group X, known to be involved in capacitation, improves fertilization in vitro, while co-injection of PLCζ RNA with infertile sperm restores oocyte activation. PMID:22643005

  16. Phospholipase D toxins of brown spider venom convert lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin to cyclic phosphates.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, Daniel M; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A; Kumirov, Vlad K; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2013-01-01

    Venoms of brown spiders in the genus Loxosceles contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These toxins cleave the substrates sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in mammalian tissues, releasing the choline head group. The other products of substrate cleavage have previously been reported to be monoester phospholipids, which would result from substrate hydrolysis. Using (31)P NMR and mass spectrometry we demonstrate that recombinant toxins, as well as whole venoms from diverse Loxosceles species, exclusively catalyze transphosphatidylation rather than hydrolysis, forming cyclic phosphate products from both major substrates. Cyclic phosphates have vastly different biological properties from their monoester counterparts, and they may be relevant to the pathology of brown spider envenomation. PMID:24009677

  17. Regulation of retinal angiogenesis by phospholipase C-β3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jung Min; Baek, Seung Hoon; Kim, Young Hwan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Sun Ja; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Lee, Dong Hyung; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis has an essential role in many pathophysiologies. Here, we show that phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) isoform regulates endothelial cell function and retinal angiogenesis. Silencing of PLC-β3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) significantly delayed proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation. In addition, mice lacking PLC-β3 showed impaired retinal angiogenesis with delayed endothelial proliferation, reduced endothelial cell activation, abnormal vessel formation and hemorrhage. Finally, tumor formation was significantly reduced in mice lacking PLC-β3 and showed irregular size and shape of blood vessels. These results suggest that regulation of endothelial function by PLC-β3 may contribute to angiogenesis. PMID:27311705

  18. Regulation of retinal angiogenesis by phospholipase C-β3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung Min; Baek, Seung Hoon; Kim, Young Hwan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Sun Ja; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Lee, Dong Hyung; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis has an essential role in many pathophysiologies. Here, we show that phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) isoform regulates endothelial cell function and retinal angiogenesis. Silencing of PLC-β3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) significantly delayed proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation. In addition, mice lacking PLC-β3 showed impaired retinal angiogenesis with delayed endothelial proliferation, reduced endothelial cell activation, abnormal vessel formation and hemorrhage. Finally, tumor formation was significantly reduced in mice lacking PLC-β3 and showed irregular size and shape of blood vessels. These results suggest that regulation of endothelial function by PLC-β3 may contribute to angiogenesis. PMID:27311705

  19. Phospholipase D Toxins of Brown Spider Venom Convert Lysophosphatidylcholine and Sphingomyelin to Cyclic Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; Kumirov, Vlad K.; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J.; Cordes, Matthew H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Venoms of brown spiders in the genus Loxosceles contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These toxins cleave the substrates sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in mammalian tissues, releasing the choline head group. The other products of substrate cleavage have previously been reported to be monoester phospholipids, which would result from substrate hydrolysis. Using 31P NMR and mass spectrometry we demonstrate that recombinant toxins, as well as whole venoms from diverse Loxosceles species, exclusively catalyze transphosphatidylation rather than hydrolysis, forming cyclic phosphate products from both major substrates. Cyclic phosphates have vastly different biological properties from their monoester counterparts, and they may be relevant to the pathology of brown spider envenomation. PMID:24009677

  20. Restoration of Responsiveness of Phospholipase Cγ2-Deficient Platelets by Enforced Expression of Phospholipase Cγ1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yongwei; Adams, Tamara; Zhi, Huiying; Yu, Mei; Wen, Renren; Newman, Peter J.; Wang, Demin; Newman, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor-mediated platelet activation requires phospholipase C (PLC) activity to elevate intracellular calcium and induce actin cytoskeleton reorganization. PLCs are classified into structurally distinct β, γ, δ, ε, ζ, and η isoforms. There are two PLCγ isoforms (PLCγ1, PLCγ2), which are critical for activation by tyrosine kinase-dependent receptors. Platelets express both PLCγ1 and PLCγ2. Although PLCγ2 has been shown to play a dominant role in platelet activation, the extent to which PLCγ1 contributes has not been evaluated. To ascertain the relative contributions of PLCγ1 and PLCγ2 to platelet activation, we generated conditionally PLCγ1-deficient, wild-type (WT), PLCγ2-deficient, and PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double-deficient mice and measured the ability of platelets to respond to different agonists. We found that PLCγ2 deficiency abrogated αIIbβ3-dependent platelet spreading, GPVI-dependent platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under shear conditions, which is dependent on both GPVI and αIIbβ3. Addition of exogenous ADP overcame defective spreading of PLCγ2-deficient platelets on immobilized fibrinogen, suggesting that PLCγ2 is required for granule secretion in response to αIIbβ3 ligation. Consistently, αIIbβ3-mediated release of granule contents was impaired in the absence of PLCγ2. In contrast, PLCγ1-deficient platelets spread and released granule contents normally on fibrinogen, exhibited normal levels of GPVI-dependent aggregation, and formed thrombi normally on collagen-coated surfaces. Interestingly, enforced expression of PLCγ1 fully restored GPVI-dependent aggregation and αIIbβ3-dependent spreading of PLCγ2-deficient platelets. We conclude that platelet activation through GPVI and αIIbβ3 utilizes PLCγ2 because PLCγ1 levels are insufficient to support responsiveness, but that PLCγ1 can restore responsiveness if expressed at levels normally achieved by PLCγ2. PMID:25793864

  1. Characterization of N-Acyl Phosphatidylethanolamine-Specific Phospholipase-D Isoforms in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Neale; Lone, Museer A.; Kaul, Tiffany K.; Reis Rodrigues, Pedro; Ogungbe, Ifedayo Victor; Gill, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines are an important class of lipid signaling molecules found in many species, including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) where they are involved in development and adult lifespan. In mammals, the relative activity of the biosynthetic enzyme N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase-D and the hydrolytic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase determine N-acylethanolamine levels. C. elegans has two N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase-D orthologs, nape-1 and nape-2, that are likely to have arisen from a gene duplication event. Here, we find that recombinant C. elegans NAPE-1 and NAPE-2 are capable of generating N-acylethanolamines in vitro, confirming their functional conservation. In vivo, they exhibit overlapping expression in the pharynx and the nervous system, but are also expressed discretely in these and other tissues, suggesting divergent roles. Indeed, nape-1 over-expression results in delayed growth and shortened lifespan only at 25°C, while nape-2 over-expression results in significant larval arrest and increased adult lifespan at 15°C. Interestingly, deletion of the N-acylethanolamine degradation enzyme faah-1 exacerbates nape-1 over-expression phenotypes, but suppresses the larval arrest phenotype of nape-2 over-expression, suggesting that faah-1 is coupled to nape-2, but not nape-1, in a negative feedback loop. We also find that over-expression of either nape-1 or nape-2 significantly enhances recovery from the dauer larval stage in the insulin signaling mutant daf-2(e1368), but only nape-1 over-expression reduces daf-2 adult lifespan, consistent with increased levels of the N-acylethanolamine eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamine. These results provide evidence that N-acylethanolamine biosynthetic enzymes in C. elegans have conserved function and suggest a temperature-dependent, functional divergence between the two isoforms. PMID:25423491

  2. Phospholipase activity of Mycobacterium leprae harvested from experimentally infected armadillo tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, P R; Ratledge, C

    1991-01-01

    Three types of phospholipase activity--phospholipase A1, A2, and lysophospholipase--were detected in Mycobacterium leprae harvested from armadillo tissue at about 25% of the specific activity found in a slowly growing mycobacterium, Mycobacterium microti, which was grown in medium to optimize its phospholipase activity. The highest activity found was lysophospholipase, which released fatty acid from 2-lyso-phosphatidylcholine. Phospholipase activity was detected by using phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Differences in relative activities with these three types of substrate distinguished phospholipase activity in M. leprae extracts from armadillo liver extracts. Furthermore, retention of activity in M. leprae after NaOH treatment showed that the activity associated with M. leprae was not host derived. The specific activity of phospholipase was 20 times higher in extracts of M. leprae than in intact M. leprae organisms. Diazotization, a treatment which abolishes activities of surface enzymes exposed to the environment by the formation of covalent azide bonds with exposed amino groups, did not affect M. leprae's phospholipase activity, with one exception: release of arachidonic acid from phosphatidylcholine, which was partially inhibited. Phenolic glycolipid I, the major excreted amphipathic lipid of M. leprae, inhibited phospholipase activity, including release of arachidonic acid, for both M. leprae- and armadillo-derived activity. PMID:1855994

  3. Phylogenetic and structural analysis of the phospholipase A2 gene family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QI; WU, YUAN; QIN, CHAO; HE, WENWU; WEI, XING

    2015-01-01

    The phospholipase A (PLA)2 family is the most complex gene family of phospholipases and plays a crucial role in a number of physiological activities. However, the phylogenetic background of the PLA2 gene family and the amino acid residues of the PLA2G7 gene following positive selection gene remain undetermined. In this study, we downloaded 49 genomic data sets of PLA from different species, including the human, house mouse, Norway rat, pig, dog, chicken, cattle, African clawed frog, Sumatran orangutan and the zebrafish species. Phylogenetic relationships were determined using the neighbor-joining (NJ), minimum evolution (ME) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, as well as the Bayesian information criterion. The results were then presented as phylogenetic trees. Positive selection sites were detected using site, branch and branch-site models. These methods led us to the following assumptions: i) closer lineages were observed between PLA2G16 and PLA2G6, PLA2G7 and PLA2G4, PLA2G3 and PLA2G12, as well as among PLA2G10, PLA2G5 and PLA2G15; ii) PLA2G5 appeared to be the origin of the PLA2 family, and PLA2G7 was one of the most evolutionarily distant PLA2 proteins; iii) 16 positive-selection sites were detected and were marked in the PLA2G7 protein sequence as 327D, 257Q, 276G, 34s, 66G, 67C, 319S, 28N, 50S, 54T, 58R, 75T, 88Q, 92R, 179H and 191K. PMID:25543670

  4. Purification and analysis of a phospholipase A2-like lytic factor of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Lubick, Kirk J; Burgess, Donald E

    2004-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis produces soluble factors that have been reported to have the ability to damage target cells in vitro, and it has been hypothesized that these factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of human trichomoniasis. A lytic factor (LF) was purified from T. vaginalis, and the molecular characteristics of LF were determined. T. vaginalis extract was subjected to hydrophobic chromatography with a 10 to 60% N-propanol gradient in 0.1 M ammonium acetate, resulting in the elution of LF from the column at 30% N-propanol. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that LF was cytotoxic to WEHI 164 cells and bovine red blood cells, and inactivation of LF by treatment with trypsin suggested that the active component of LF was a protein. Size exclusion chromatography of LF produced two fractions at 144 and 168 kDa, and analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of LF under reducing conditions revealed two subunits of 57 and 60 kDa. Results of a fluorescence assay of LF on carboxyfluorescein-labeled liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol showed that liposomes were hydrolyzed, suggesting that LF had phospholipase activity. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-3a,4adiaza-s-indacene)-labeled phosphatidylcholine treated with LF demonstrated products that migrated identically to the products produced by treatment with phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). These results suggest that LF is a PLA(2) and may be an important virulence factor of T. vaginalis mediating the destruction of host cells and contributing to tissue damage and inflammation in trichomoniasis. PMID:14977929

  5. The distribution of phospholipase D in developing and mature plants

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, R. H.; Dawson, R. M. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. The distribution of phospholipase D (phosphatidylcholine phosphatido-hydrolase, EC 3.1.4.4) was examined in the tissues of a number of plants and seeds. 2. The highest activities were found in various swollen storage tissues of certain plants: cabbage, central stalk; cauliflower, flower; celery, swollen leaf stalk; Kohl rabi, swollen stem; carrot, root; pea and marrow, seed. 3. Appreciable activity was retained in pea seeds for at least 1 year after drying. After germination and growth in the dark the total activity present in the cotyledons and also in the whole seedling decreased. 4. In the growing pea seedling (7 days old), about 3% of the total activity was in the plumule, 9% in the root and the remainder in the cotyledons. However, the activity in the root on a dry-weight basis was higher than that in the cotyledons. In both the root and the plumule the activity on a wet- or a dry-weight basis was highest in the growing tip. 5. The activity per dry weight in the roots and aerial parts of pea plants declined to low values as growth continued, but roots struck from cuttings of mature plants showed the same high activity as found in roots from young seedlings with cotyledons attached. 6. The total phospholipids present in the cotyledons of pea seeds were depleted on germination and growth. Of the individual phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine showed the same loss in 11 days as the whole phospholipid fraction, whereas phosphatidylinositol was decreased to a greater extent and cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were not decreased. There was no increase of phosphatidic acid, as might have been expected if the phospholipids had disappeared through phospholipase D hydrolysis. 7. It is concluded that phospholipase D in plant storage tissues and seeds may be related to the rapid growth involved in their formation rather than being necessary for the utilization of their food reserve substances. PMID:4309675

  6. Phospholipases as GTPase activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) in plants.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sona

    2016-05-01

    GTPase activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) are key regulators of the G-protein signaling cycle. By facilitating effective hydrolysis of the GTP bound on Gα proteins, GAPs control the timing and amplitude of the signaling cycle and ascertain the availability of the inactive heterotrimer for the next round of activation. Until very recently, the studies of GAPs in plants were focused exclusively on the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein. We now show that phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1) is also a bona fide GAP in plants and together with the RGS protein controls the level of active Gα protein. PMID:27124090

  7. A role for Phospholipase D in Drosophila embryonic cellularization

    PubMed Central

    LaLonde, Mary; Janssens, Hilde; Yun, Suyong; Crosby, Juan; Redina, Olga; Olive, Virginie; Altshuller, Yelena M; Choi, Seok-Yong; Du, Guangwei; Gergen, J Peter; Frohman, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Background Cellularization of the Drosophila embryo is an unusually synchronous form of cytokinesis in which polarized membrane extension proceeds in part through incorporation of new membrane via fusion of apically-translocated Golgi-derived vesicles. Results We describe here involvement of the signaling enzyme Phospholipase D (Pld) in regulation of this developmental step. Functional analysis using gene targeting revealed that cellularization is hindered by the loss of Pld, resulting frequently in early embryonic developmental arrest. Mechanistically, chronic Pld deficiency causes abnormal Golgi structure and secretory vesicle trafficking. Conclusion Our results suggest that Pld functions to promote trafficking of Golgi-derived fusion-competent vesicles during cellularization. PMID:17156430

  8. Modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Rosenson, Robert S.; Stafforini, Diana M.

    2012-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), is a unique member of the phospholipase A2 superfamily. This enzyme is characterized by its ability to specifically hydrolyze PAF as well as glycerophospholipids containing short, truncated, and/or oxidized fatty acyl groups at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In humans, Lp-PLA2 circulates in active form as a complex with low- and high-density lipoproteins. Clinical studies have reported that plasma Lp-PLA2 activity and mass are strongly associated with atherogenic lipids and vascular risk. These observations led to the hypothesis that Lp-PLA2 activity and/or mass levels could be used as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and that inhibition of the activity could offer an attractive therapeutic strategy. Darapladib, a compound that inhibits Lp-PLA2 activity, is anti-atherogenic in mice and other animals, and it decreases atherosclerotic plaque expansion in humans. However, disagreement continues to exist regarding the validity of Lp-PLA2 as an independent marker of atherosclerosis and a scientifically justified target for intervention. Circulating Lp-PLA2 mass and activity are associated with vascular risk, but the strength of the association is reduced after adjustment for basal concentrations of the lipoprotein carriers with which the enzyme associates. Genetic studies in humans harboring an inactivating mutation at this locus indicate that loss of Lp-PLA2 function is a risk factor for inflammatory and vascular conditions in Japanese cohorts. Consistently, overexpression of Lp-PLA2 has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties in animal models. This thematic review critically discusses results from laboratory and animal studies, analyzes genetic evidence, reviews clinical work demonstrating associations between Lp-PLA2 and vascular disease, and summarizes results from animal and human clinical trials in which administration of

  9. Biochemical and monolayer characterization of Tunisian snake venom phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Baîram, Douja; Aissa, Imen; Louati, Hanen; Othman, Houcemeddine; Abdelkafi-Koubaa, Zaineb; Krayem, Najeh; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Marrakchi, Naziha; Gargouri, Youssef

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the kinetic and interfacial properties of two secreted phospholipases isolated from Tunisian vipers'venoms: Cerastes cerastes (CC-PLA2) and Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea (MVL-PLA2). Results show that these enzymes have great different abilities to bind and hydrolyse phospholipids. Using egg-yolk emulsions as substrate at pH 8, we found that MVL-PLA2 has a specific activity of 1473U/mg at 37°C in presence of 1mM CaCl2. Furthermore the interfacial kinetic and binding data indicate that MVL-PLA2 has a preference to the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine monolayers (PC). Conversely, CC-PLA2 was found to be able to hydrolyse preferentially negatively charged head group phospholipids (PG and PS) and exhibits a specific activity 9 times more important (13333U/mg at 60°C in presence of 3mM CaCl2). Molecular models of both CC-PLA2 and MVL-PLA2 3D structures have been built and their electrostatic potentials surfaces have been calculated. A marked anisotropy of the overall electrostatic charge distribution leads to a significantly difference in the dipole moment intensity between the two enzymes explaining the great differences in catalytic and binding properties, which seems to be governed by the electrostatic and hydrophobic forces operative at the surface of the two phospholipases. PMID:27164498

  10. Interactions of phospholipase D and cytochrome P450 protein stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2004-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested a relationship between cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A (CYP3A) conformation and the phospholipid composition of the associated membrane. In this study, we utilized a novel microsomal incubation system that mimics many of the characteristics of CYP3A degradation pathway that have been observed in vivo and in cultured cells to study the effects of phospholipid composition on protein stability. We found that addition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D (PLD) stabilized CYP3A in this system, but that phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) was without effect. Addition of phosphatidic acid also stabilized CYP3A protein in the microsomes. The use of 1,10-phenanthroline (phenanthroline), an inhibitor of PLD activity, decreased CYP3A stability in incubated microsomes. Similarly, 6-h treatment of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes with phenanthroline resulted in nearly complete loss of CYP3A protein. Treatment of rats with nicardipine or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which have been shown to affect CYP3A stability, altered the phospholipid composition of hepatic microsomes. It did not appear, though, that the changes in phospholipid composition that resulted from these in vivo treatments accounted for the change in CYP3A stability observed in hepatic microsomes from these animals.

  11. Effects of Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors on Bilayer Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Dubinin, Mikhail V; Astashev, Maxim E; Penkov, Nikita V; Gudkov, Sergey V; Dyachenko, Igor A; Samartsev, Victor N; Belosludtsev, Konstantin N

    2016-06-01

    The work examines the effect of inhibitors of cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipases A2 on bilayer lipid membranes. It was established that trifluoroperazine (TFP) and, to a lesser extent, arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3) and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF3) were able to permeabilize artificial lipid membranes (BLM and liposomes). It was shown that AACOCF3 lowered the temperature of phase transition of DMPC liposomes, inducing disordering of the hydrophobic region of lipid bilayer. TFP disordered membranes both in the hydrophobic region and in the region of hydrophilic heads, this being accompanied by changes in the membrane permeability: appearance of a channel-like BLM activity and leakage of sulforhodamine B from liposomes. In contrast to AACOCF3 and TFP, PACOCF3 increased membrane orderliness in the hydrophobic region (heightened the temperature of phase transition of DMPC liposomes) and in the region of lipid heads. The effectiveness of AACOCF3 and PACOCF3 as inductors of BLM and liposome permeabilization was considerably lower comparatively to TFP. As revealed by dynamic light scattering, incorporation of TFP, AACOCF3 and PACOCF3 into the membrane of liposomes resulted in the increase of the average size of particles in the suspension, presumably due to their aggregation or fusion. The paper discusses possible mechanisms of the influence of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on bilayer lipid membranes. PMID:26762382

  12. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa-/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa-/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD. PMID:26637123

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phospholipase C and phosphomonoesterase in Dunaliella salina membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, K.J.; Peeler, T.C.; Thompson, G.A. Jr. )

    1989-07-01

    In comparison with other cell organelles, the Dunaliella salina plasma membrane was found to be highly enriched in phospholipase C activity toward exogenous ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}). Based on release of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates, the plasma membrane exhibited a PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C activity nearly tenfold higher than the nonplasmalemmal, nonchloroplast bottom phase (BP) membrane fraction and 47 times higher than the chloroplast membrane fraction. The majority of phospholipase activity was clearly of a phospholipase C nature since over 80% of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates released were recovered as ({sup 3}H)inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}). These results suggest a plausible mechanism for the rapid breakdown of PIP{sub 2} and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) following hypoosmotic shock. The authors have also examined some of the in vitro characteristics of the plasma membrane phospholipase C activity and have found it to be calcium sensitive, reaching maximal activity at 10 micromolar free (Ca{sup 2+}). They also report here that 100 micromolar GTP{gamma}S stimulates phospholipase C activity over a range of free (Ca{sup 2+}). Together, these results provide evidence that the plasma membrane PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C of D. salina may be subject to Ca{sup 2+} and G-protein regulation.

  14. Phospholipase A2 activity in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cells from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E R; Yedgar, S; Lerer, B; Ebstein, R P

    1991-06-01

    We examined the activity of phospholipase A2 in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cell lines established from ten schizophrenic patients and ten controls. A novel method for determination of enzyme activity in whole cells was employed, by measuring the hydrolysis of a fluorescent analogue of phosphatidylcholine. No significant difference in phospholipase A2 activity was found between the groups. These results suggest that the previously reported changes in phospholipase A2 activity in plasma and in fresh peripheral cells are indicative of environmental influences and not of "trait" characteristics intrinsic to schizophrenia. PMID:1651772

  15. Down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 following chronic muscarinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, S D; Linseman, D A; Fisher, S K

    1998-04-01

    To determine whether prolonged activation of a phospholipase C-coupled receptor can lead to a down-regulation of its effector enzyme, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were incubated for 24 h with the muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine-M. Under these conditions, significant reductions (46-53%) in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density, G(alphaq/11) and phospholipase C-beta1 (but not the beta3-or gamma1 isoforms) were observed. These results suggest that a selective down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 may play a role in adaptation to chronic muscarinic receptor activation. PMID:9617763

  16. Lemnitoxin, the major component of Micrurus lemniscatus coral snake venom, is a myotoxic and pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Casais-E-Silva, Luciana L; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Lebrun, Ivo; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-08-22

    The venom of Micrurus lemniscatus, a coral snake of wide geographical distribution in South America, was fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC and the fractions screened for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The major component of the venom, a PLA2, here referred to as 'Lemnitoxin', was isolated and characterized biochemically and toxicologically. It induces myotoxicity upon intramuscular or intravenous injection into mice. The amino acid residues Arg15, Ala100, Asn108, and a hydrophobic residue at position 109, which are characteristic of myotoxic class I phospholipases A2, are present in Lemnitoxin. This PLA2 is antigenically related to M. nigrocinctus nigroxin, Notechis scutatus notexin, Pseudechis australis mulgotoxin, and Pseudonaja textilis textilotoxin, as demonstrated with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Lemnitoxin is highly selective in its targeting of cells, being cytotoxic for differentiated myotubes in vitro and muscle fibers in vivo, but not for undifferentiated myoblasts or endothelial cells. Lemnitoxin is not lethal after intravenous injection at doses up to 2μg/g in mice, evidencing its lack of significant neurotoxicity. Lemnitoxin displays anticoagulant effect on human plasma and proinflammatory activity also, as it induces paw edema and mast cell degranulation. Thus, the results of this work demonstrate that Lemnitoxin is a potent myotoxic and proinflammatory class I PLA2. PMID:27282409

  17. Translational studies of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in inflammation and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Jane F; Hinkle, Christine C; Mehta, Nehal N; Bagheri, Roshanak; DerOhannessian, Stephanie L; Shah, Rhia; Mucksavage, Megan I; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Xuexia; Master, Stephen R; Rader, Daniel J; Li, Mingyao; Reilly, Muredach P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2/PLA2G7) in human inflammation and coronary atherosclerosis. Background Lp-PLA2 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in coronary heart disease (CHD). Data supporting Lp-PLA2 are indirect and confounded by species differences; whether Lp-PLA2 is causal in CHD remains in question. Methods We examined inflammatory regulation of Lp-PLA2 during experimental endotoxemia in human, probed the source of Lp-PLA2 in human leukocytes under inflammatory conditions, and assessed the relationship of variation in PLA2G7, the gene encoding Lp-PLA2, with coronary artery calcification (CAC). Results In contrast to circulating TNFα and CRP, blood and monocyte Lp-PLA2 mRNA decreased transiently, and plasma Lp-PLA2 mass declined modestly during endotoxemia. In vitro, Lp-PLA2 expression increased dramatically during human monocyte to macrophage differentiation and further in inflammatory macrophages and foam like-cells. Despite only a marginal association of SNPs in PLA2G7 with Lp-PLA2 activity or mass, numerous PLA2G7 SNPs were associated with CAC. In contrast, several SNPs in CRP were significantly associated with plasma CRP levels but had no relation with CAC. Conclusions Circulating Lp-PLA2 did not increase during acute phase response in human, while inflammatory macrophages and foam cells, but not circulating monocytes, are major leukocyte sources of Lp-PLA2. Common genetic variation in PLA2G7 is associated with sub-clinical coronary atherosclerosis. These data link Lp-PLA2 to atherosclerosis in human while highlighting the challenge in using circulating Lp-PLA2 as a biomarker of Lp-PLA2 actions in the vasculature. PMID:22340269

  18. Inactivation of the phospholipase B gene PLB5 in wild-type Candida albicans reduces cell-associated phospholipase A2 activity and attenuates virulence

    PubMed Central

    Theiss, Stephanie; Ishdorj, Ganchimeg; Brenot, Audrey; Kretschmar, Marianne; Lan, Chung-Yu; Nichterlein, Thomas; Hacker, Jörg; Nigam, Santosh; Agabian, Nina; Köhler, Gerwald A.

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipases are critical for modification and redistribution of lipid substrates, membrane remodeling and microbial virulence. Among the many different classes of phospholipases, fungal phospholipase B (Plb) proteins show the broadest range of substrate specificity and hydrolytic activity, hydrolyzing acyl ester bonds in phospholipids and lysophospholipids and further catalyzing lysophospholipase-transacylase reactions. The genome of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans encodes a PLB multigene family with five putative members; we present the first characterization of this group of potential virulence determinants. CaPLB5, the third member of this multigene family characterized herein is a putative secretory protein with a predicted GPI-anchor attachment site. Real-time RT-PCR gene expression analysis of CaPLB5 and the additional CaPLB gene family members revealed that filamentous growth and physiologically relevant environmental conditions are associated with increased phospholipase B gene activity. The phenotypes expressed by null mutant and revertant strains of CaPLB5 indicate that this lipid hydrolase plays an important role for cell-associated phospholipase A2 activity and in vivo organ colonization. PMID:16759910

  19. Modulation of the Activity of Secretory Phospholipase A2 by Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongxia; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2003-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptides magainin 2, indolicidin, and temporins B and L were found to modulate the hydrolytic activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from bee venom and in human lacrimal fluid. More specifically, hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes by bee venom sPLA2 at 10 μM Ca2+ was attenuated by these peptides while augmented product formation was observed in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+. The activity of sPLA2 towards anionic liposomes was significantly enhanced by the antimicrobial peptides at low [Ca2+] and was further enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+. Similarly, with 5 mM Ca2+ the hydrolysis of anionic liposomes was enhanced significantly by human lacrimal fluid sPLA2, while that of PC liposomes was attenuated. These results indicate that concerted action of antimicrobial peptides and sPLA2 could improve the efficiency of the innate response to infections. Interestingly, inclusion of a cationic gemini surfactant in the vesicles showed an essentially similar pattern on sPLA2 activity, suggesting that the modulation of the enzyme activity by the antimicrobial peptides may involve also charge properties of the substrate surface. PMID:12604528

  20. Proteolysis sensitizes LDL particles to phospholipolysis by secretory phospholipase A2 group V and secretory sphingomyelinase

    PubMed Central

    Plihtari, Riia; Hurt-Camejo, Eva; Öörni, Katariina; Kovanen, Petri T.

    2010-01-01

    LDL particles that enter the arterial intima become exposed to proteolytic and lipolytic modifications. The extracellular hydrolases potentially involved in LDL modification include proteolytic enzymes, such as chymase, cathepsin S, and plasmin, and phospholipolytic enzymes, such as secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2-IIa and sPLA2-V) and secretory acid sphingomyelinase (sSMase). Here, LDL was first proteolyzed and then subjected to lipolysis, after which the effects of combined proteolysis and lipolysis on LDL fusion and on binding to human aortic proteoglycans (PG) were studied. Chymase and cathepsin S led to more extensive proteolysis and release of peptide fragments from LDL than did plasmin. sPLA2-IIa was not able to hydrolyze unmodified LDL, and even preproteolysis of LDL particles failed to enhance lipolysis by this enzyme. However, preproteolysis with chymase and cathepsin S accelerated lipolysis by sPLA2-V and sSMase, which resulted in enhanced fusion and proteoglycan binding of the preproteolyzed LDL particles. Taken together, the results revealed that proteolysis sensitizes the LDL particles to hydrolysis by sPLA2-V and sSMase. By promoting fusion and binding of LDL to human aortic proteoglycans, the combination of proteolysis and phospholipolysis of LDL particles potentially enhances extracellular accumulation of LDL-derived lipids during atherogenesis. PMID:20124257

  1. Interferon-gamma induces the synthesis and activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, T; Levine, S J; Lawrence, M G; Logun, C; Angus, C W; Shelhamer, J H

    1994-01-01

    Both IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma have recently been demonstrated to induce a rapid but transient activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts and a human neuroblastoma cell line. We report that IFN-gamma induces the synthesis and prolonged activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 2B). Treatment of the cells with IFN-gamma (300 U/ml) increased the release of [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) from prelabeled cells with a maximal effect at 12 h after stimulation. The increased [3H]AA release was inhibited by the PLA2 inhibitor p-bromophenacyl bromide (10(-5) M). Calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-5) M) further increased the [3H]AA release from the IFN-gamma-treated cells. Subcellular enzyme activity assay revealed that IFN-gamma increased PLA2 activity in both the cytosol and membrane fractions with a translocation of the cPLA2 to cell membranes in a Ca(2+)-free cell lysing buffer. Treatment with IFN-gamma also induced the release of 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite. Immunoblot showed that IFN-gamma induced the synthesis of cPLA2 protein. Nuclear run-on assay demonstrated that IFN-gamma initiated cPLA2 gene transcription within 15 min, and this effect was sustained at 4 h and returned to near control level at 12 h. The cPLA2 mRNA level was assayed by reverse transcription and PCR. IFN-gamma was found to increase the cPLA2 mRNA after 2-24 h treatment. Furthermore, the IFN-gamma induced cPLA2 mRNA increase was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, suggesting the involvement of these protein kinases in IFN-gamma-induced gene expression of cPLA2. This study shows that IFN-gamma induces the synthesis and prolonged activation of cPLA2. Images PMID:8113394

  2. Recent research progress with phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yan; Ye, Lidan; Xu, Jun; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to produce phosphate monoesters and diacylglycerol. It has many applications in the enzymatic degumming of plant oils. PLC Bc , a bacterial PLC from Bacillus cereus, is an optimal choice for this activity in terms of its wide substrate spectrum, high activity, and approved safety. Unfortunately, its large-scale production and reliable high-throughput screening of PLC Bc remain challenging. Herein, we summarize the research progress regarding PLC Bc with emphasis on the screening methods, expression systems, catalytic mechanisms and inhibitor of PLC Bc . This review hopefully will inspire new achievements in related areas, to promote the sustainable development of PLC Bc and its application. PMID:26437973

  3. Purification and kinetics of extracellular phospholipase A of Salmonella newport.

    PubMed

    Neena, S; Asnani, P J; Bhandari, S; Vohra, R

    1992-01-01

    Attempts were made to purify and study the kinetics of extracellular phospholipase A of Salmonella newport (6,8, eb; 1,2). The enzyme was purified by salt precipitation followed by gel filtration, using different grades of Sephadex. The enzymically active purified preparation was found to be a protein, having molar mass ranging between 43 and 67 kDa. The enzyme had a pH optimum at 7.5, giving 18.2 micrograms of lysophosphatidylcholine per mg protein. Its activity was enhanced by all metal ions except potassium, by solvents and surfactants except sodium dodecyl sulfate. It hydrolyzed the membrane phospholipids of red blood cells and was inhibitory to the growth of other microorganisms. PMID:1505883

  4. Defective phosphatidic acid-phospholipase C signaling in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tappia, Paramjit S; Maddaford, Thane G; Hurtado, Cecilia; Dibrov, Elena; Austria, J Alejandro; Sahi, Nidhi; Panagia, Vincenzo; Pierce, Grant N

    2004-03-26

    The effects of exogenous phosphatidic acid (PA) on Ca2+ transients and contractile activity were studied in cardiomyocytes isolated from chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In control cells, 25 microM PA induced a significant increase in active cell shortening and Ca2+ transients. PA increased IP3 generation in the control cardiomyocytes and its inotropic effects were blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor. In cardiomyocytes from diabetic rats, PA induced a 25% decrease in active cell shortening and no significant effect on Ca2+ transients. Basal and PA-induced IP3 generation in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes was 3-fold lower as compared to control cells. Sarcolemmal membrane PLC activity was impaired. Insulin treatment of the diabetic animals resulted in a partial recovery of PA responses. Our results, therefore, identify an important defect in the PA-PLC signaling pathway in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes, which may have significant implications for heart dysfunction during diabetes. PMID:15003542

  5. Autoproteolytic Activation of a Symbiosis-regulated Truffle Phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Cavazzini, Davide; Meschi, Francesca; Corsini, Romina; Bolchi, Angelo; Rossi, Gian Luigi; Einsle, Oliver; Ottonello, Simone

    2013-01-18

    Fungal phospholipases are members of the fungal/bacterial group XIV secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s). TbSP1, the sPLA(2) primarily addressed in this study, is up-regulated by nutrient deprivation and is preferentially expressed in the symbiotic stage of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. A peculiar feature of this phospholipase and of its ortholog from the black truffle Tuber melanosporum is the presence of a 54-amino acid sequence of unknown functional significance, interposed between the signal peptide and the start of the conserved catalytic core of the enzyme. X-ray diffraction analysis of a recombinant TbSP1 form corresponding to the secreted protein previously identified in T. borchii mycelia revealed a structure comprising the five α-helices that form the phospholipase catalytic module but lacking the N-terminal 54 amino acids. This finding led to a series of functional studies that showed that TbSP1, as well as its T. melanosporum ortholog, is a self-processing pro-phospholipase A(2), whose phospholipase activity increases up to 80-fold following autoproteolytic removal of the N-terminal peptide. Proteolytic cleavage occurs within a serine-rich, intrinsically flexible region of TbSP1, does not involve the phospholipase active site, and proceeds via an intermolecular mechanism. Autoproteolytic activation, which also takes place at the surface of nutrient-starved, sPLA(2) overexpressing hyphae, may strengthen and further control the effects of phospholipase up-regulation in response to nutrient deprivation, also in the context of symbiosis establishment and mycorrhiza formation. PMID:23192346

  6. Autoproteolytic Activation of a Symbiosis-regulated Truffle Phospholipase A2*

    PubMed Central

    Cavazzini, Davide; Meschi, Francesca; Corsini, Romina; Bolchi, Angelo; Rossi, Gian Luigi; Einsle, Oliver; Ottonello, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Fungal phospholipases are members of the fungal/bacterial group XIV secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s). TbSP1, the sPLA2 primarily addressed in this study, is up-regulated by nutrient deprivation and is preferentially expressed in the symbiotic stage of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. A peculiar feature of this phospholipase and of its ortholog from the black truffle Tuber melanosporum is the presence of a 54-amino acid sequence of unknown functional significance, interposed between the signal peptide and the start of the conserved catalytic core of the enzyme. X-ray diffraction analysis of a recombinant TbSP1 form corresponding to the secreted protein previously identified in T. borchii mycelia revealed a structure comprising the five α-helices that form the phospholipase catalytic module but lacking the N-terminal 54 amino acids. This finding led to a series of functional studies that showed that TbSP1, as well as its T. melanosporum ortholog, is a self-processing pro-phospholipase A2, whose phospholipase activity increases up to 80-fold following autoproteolytic removal of the N-terminal peptide. Proteolytic cleavage occurs within a serine-rich, intrinsically flexible region of TbSP1, does not involve the phospholipase active site, and proceeds via an intermolecular mechanism. Autoproteolytic activation, which also takes place at the surface of nutrient-starved, sPLA2 overexpressing hyphae, may strengthen and further control the effects of phospholipase up-regulation in response to nutrient deprivation, also in the context of symbiosis establishment and mycorrhiza formation. PMID:23192346

  7. Phospholipases of Mineralization Competent Cells and Matrix Vesicles: Roles in Physiological and Pathological Mineralizations

    PubMed Central

    Mebarek, Saida; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Magne, David; Do, Le Duy; Bandorowicz-Pikula, Joanna; Pikula, Slawomir; Buchet, René

    2013-01-01

    The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis—a bone resorbing disease—and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in bone forming osteoblasts, chondrocytes and in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A1 or A2, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. Numerous experimental evidences suggested that phospholipases exert their action at various stages of mineralization by affecting intracellular signaling and cell differentiation. The lipid metabolites—such as arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate are involved in cell signaling and inflammation reactions. Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV) biogenesis and exocytosis. They may favour mineral formation inside MVs, may catalyse MV membrane breakdown necessary for the release of mineral deposits into extracellular matrix (ECM), or participate in

  8. Phospholipase D Signaling Pathways and Phosphatidic Acid as Therapeutic Targets in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bruntz, Ronald C.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase D is a ubiquitous class of enzymes that generates phosphatidic acid as an intracellular signaling species. The phospholipase D superfamily plays a central role in a variety of functions in prokaryotes, viruses, yeast, fungi, plants, and eukaryotic species. In mammalian cells, the pathways modulating catalytic activity involve a variety of cellular signaling components, including G protein–coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, polyphosphatidylinositol lipids, Ras/Rho/ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases, and conventional isoforms of protein kinase C, among others. Recent findings have shown that phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D plays roles in numerous essential cellular functions, such as vesicular trafficking, exocytosis, autophagy, regulation of cellular metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Many of these cellular events are modulated by the actions of phosphatidic acid, and identification of two targets (mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt kinase) has especially highlighted a role for phospholipase D in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Phospholipase D is a regulator of intercellular signaling and metabolic pathways, particularly in cells that are under stress conditions. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the regulation of phospholipase D activity and its modulation of cellular signaling pathways and functions. PMID:25244928

  9. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Grazia M.; Trono, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile biocatalysts that are widely used in various industrial applications, such as for biodiesels, food, nutraceuticals, oil degumming and detergents; minor applications also include bioremediation, agriculture, cosmetics, leather and paper industries. These enzymes are ubiquitous in most living organisms, across animals, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. For their greater availability and their ease of production, microbial lipases and phospholipases are preferred to those derived from animals and plants. Nevertheless, traditional purification strategies from microbe cultures have a number of disadvantages, which include non-reproducibility and low yields. Moreover, native microbial enzymes are not always suitable for biocatalytic processes. The development of molecular techniques for the production of recombinant heterologous proteins in a host system has overcome these constraints, as this allows high-level protein expression and production of new redesigned enzymes with improved catalytic properties. These can meet the requirements of specific industrial process better than the native enzymes. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the structural and functional features of lipases and phospholipases, to describe the recent advances in optimization of the production of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and to summarize the information available relating to their major applications in industrial processes. PMID:26340621

  10. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Grazia M; Trono, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile biocatalysts that are widely used in various industrial applications, such as for biodiesels, food, nutraceuticals, oil degumming and detergents; minor applications also include bioremediation, agriculture, cosmetics, leather and paper industries. These enzymes are ubiquitous in most living organisms, across animals, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. For their greater availability and their ease of production, microbial lipases and phospholipases are preferred to those derived from animals and plants. Nevertheless, traditional purification strategies from microbe cultures have a number of disadvantages, which include non-reproducibility and low yields. Moreover, native microbial enzymes are not always suitable for biocatalytic processes. The development of molecular techniques for the production of recombinant heterologous proteins in a host system has overcome these constraints, as this allows high-level protein expression and production of new redesigned enzymes with improved catalytic properties. These can meet the requirements of specific industrial process better than the native enzymes. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the structural and functional features of lipases and phospholipases, to describe the recent advances in optimization of the production of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and to summarize the information available relating to their major applications in industrial processes. PMID:26340621

  11. Modulation of membrane phospholipids, the cytosolic calcium influx and cell proliferation following treatment of B16-F10 cells with recombinant phospholipase-D from Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom.

    PubMed

    Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Magnoni, Mariana Gabriel; Boia-Ferreira, Marianna; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Gremski, Waldemiro; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2013-06-01

    The mechanism through which brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) cause dermonecrosis, dysregulated inflammatory responses, hemolysis and platelet aggregation, which are effects reported following spider bites, is currently attributed to the presence of phospholipase-D in the venom. In the present investigation, through two-dimensional immunoblotting, we observed immunological cross-reactivity for at least 25 spots in crude Loxosceles intermedia venom, indicating high expression levels for different isoforms of phospholipase-D. Using a recombinant phospholipase-D from the venom gland of L. intermedia (LiRecDT1) in phospholipid-degrading kinetic experiments, we determined that this phospholipase-D mainly hydrolyzes synthetic sphingomyelin in a time-dependent manner, generating ceramide 1-phosphate plus choline, as well as lysophosphatidylcholine, generating lysophosphatidic acid plus choline, but exhibits little activity against phosphatidylcholine. Through immunofluorescence assays with antibodies against LiRecDT1 and using a recombinant GFP-LiRecDT1 fusion protein, we observed direct binding of LiRecDT1 to the membrane of B16-F10 cells. We determined that LiRecDT1 hydrolyzes phospholipids in detergent extracts and from ghosts of B16-F10 cells, generating choline, indicating that the enzyme can access and modulate and has activity against membrane phospholipids. Additionally, using Fluo-4, a calcium-sensitive fluorophore, it was shown that treatment of cells with phospholipase-D induced an increase in the calcium concentration in the cytoplasm, but without altering viability or causing damage to cells. Finally, based on the known endogenous activity of phospholipase-D as an inducer of cell proliferation and the fact that LiRecDT1 binds to the cell surface, hydrolyzing phospholipids to generate bioactive lipids, we employed LiRecDT1 as an exogenous source of phospholipase-D in B16-F10 cells. Treatment of the cells was effective in increasing their proliferation in a

  12. Conjugated polyelectrolyte supported bead based assays for phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Chemburu, Sireesha; Ji, Eunkyung; Casana, Yosune; Wu, Yang; Buranda, Tione; Schanze, Kirk S; Lopez, Gabriel P; Whitten, David G

    2008-11-20

    A fluorescence based assay for human serum-derived phospholipase activity has been developed in which cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes are supported on silica microspheres. The polymer-coated beads are overcoated with an anionic phospholipid (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho- rac-(1-glycerol)) (DMPG) to provide "lipobeads" that serve as a sensor for PLA2. The lipid serves a dual role as a substrate for PLA2 and an agent to attenuate quenching of the polymer fluorescence by the external electron transfer quencher 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQS). In this case quenching of the polymer fluorescence by AQS increases as the PLA2 digests the lipid. The lipid can also be used itself as a quencher and substrate by employing a small amount of energy transfer quencher substituted lipid in the DMPG. In this case the fluorescence of the polymer is quenched when the lipid layer is intact; as the enzyme digests the lipid, the fluorescence of the polymer is restored. The sensing of PLA2 activity has been studied both by monitoring fluorescence changes in a multiwell plate reader and by flow cytometry. The assay exhibits good sensitivity with EC50 values in the nanomolar range. PMID:18808092

  13. Group III secreted phospholipase A2 transgenic mice spontaneously develop inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Masuda, Seiko; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Yamamoto, Kei; Murakami, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    PLA2 (phospholipase A2) group III is an atypical sPLA2 (secretory PLA2) that is homologous with bee venom PLA2 rather than with other mammalian sPLA2s. In the present paper, we show that endogenous group III sPLA2 (PLA2G3) is expressed in mouse skin and that Tg (transgenic) mice overexpressing human PLA2G3 spontaneously develop skin inflammation. Pla2g3-Tg mice over 9 months of age frequently developed dermatitis with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, parakeratosis, erosion, ulcer and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. The dermatitis was accompanied by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandin E2. In addition, Pla2g3-Tg mice had increased lymph aggregates and mucus in the airway, lymphocytic sialadenitis, hepatic extramedullary haemopoiesis, splenomegaly with increased populations of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, and increased serum IgG1. Collectively, these observations provide the first demonstration of spontaneous development of inflammation in mice with Tg overexpression of mammalian sPLA2. PMID:19371233

  14. Natural phospholipase A(2) myotoxin inhibitor proteins from snakes, mammals and plants.

    PubMed

    Lizano, Sergio; Domont, Gilberto; Perales, Jonas

    2003-12-15

    A renewed interest in the phenomenon of inter- and intra-species resistance towards the toxicity of snake venoms, coupled with the search for new strategies for treatment of snake envenomations, has prompted the discovery of proteins which neutralize the major toxic components of these venoms. Among these emerging groups of proteins are inhibitors of toxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), many of which exhibit a wide range of toxic effects including muscle-tissue damage, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. These proteins have been isolated from both venomous and non-venomous snakes, mammals, and most recently from medicinal plant extracts. The snake blood-derived inhibitors have been grouped into three major classes, alpha, beta, and gamma, based on common structural motifs found in other proteins with diverse physiological properties. In mammals, DM64, an anti-myotoxic protein isolated from opossum serum, belongs to the immunoglobulin super gene family and is homologous to human alpha1B-glycoprotein and DM43, a metalloproteinase inhibitor from the same organism. In plants, a short note is made of WSG, a newly described anti-toxic-PLA2 glycoprotein isolated from Withania somnifera (Ashwaganda), a medicinal plant whose aqueous extracts neutralize the PLA2 activity of the Naja naja venom. The implications of these new groups of PLA2 toxin inhibitors in the context of our current understanding of snake biology as well as in the development of novel therapeutic reagents in the treatment of snake envenomations worldwide are discussed. PMID:15019494

  15. Predominant role of cytosolic phospholipase A2α in dioxin-induced neonatal hydronephrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Fujisawa, Nozomi; Aida-Yasuoka, Keiko; Shimizu, Takao; Matsumura, Fumio; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2014-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common disease characterized by dilation of the renal pelvis and calices, resulting in loss of kidney function in the most severe cases. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces nonobstructive hydronephrosis in mouse neonates through upregulation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis pathway consisting of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) by a yet unknown mechanism. We here studied possible involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in this mechanism. To this end, we used a cPLA2α-null mouse model and found that cPLA2α has a significant role in the upregulation of the PGE2 synthesis pathway through a noncanonical pathway of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This study is the first to demonstrate the predominant role of cPLA2α in hydronephrosis. Elucidation of the pathway leading to the onset of hydronephrosis using the TCDD-exposed mouse model will deepen our understanding of the molecular basis of nonobstructive hydronephrosis in humans. PMID:24509627

  16. Emergence of a metalloproteinase / phospholipase A2 axis of systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Leung, Dickson

    2015-01-01

    We review select aspects of the biology of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with a focus on the modulation of inflammatory responses by MMP-2. MMP-2 is a zinc- and calcium-dependent endoprotease with substrates including extracellular matrix proteins, vasoactive peptides and chemokines. Humans and mice with MMP-2 deficiency exhibit a predominantly inflammatory phenotype. Recent research shows that MMP-2 deficient mice display elevated activity of a secreted phospholipase A2 in the heart. Additionally, MMP-2 deficient mice exhibit abnormally high prostaglandin E2 levels in various organs (i.e., the heart, brain and liver), signs of inflammation and exacerbated lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. We briefly review the biology of sPLA2 enzymes to propose the existence of a heart-centric MMP-2/sPLA2 axis of systemic inflammation. Moreover, we postulate that PLA2 activation is induced by chemokines, whose ability to signal inflammation is regulated in a tissue-specific fashion by MMPs. Thus, genetic and pharmacologically induced MMP-deficiencies can be expected to perturb PLA2-mediated inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:26491703

  17. Sodium and potassium regulate endothelial phospholipase C-γ and Bmx.

    PubMed

    Ying, Wei-Zhong; Aaron, Kristal J; Sanders, Paul W

    2014-07-01

    The amount of Na(+) and K(+) in the diet promotes significant changes in endothelial cell function. In the present study, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments determined the role of Na(+) and K(+) in the regulation of two pleckstrin homology domain-containing intracellular signaling molecules, phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 and epithelial and endothelial tyrosine kinase/bone marrow tyrosine kinase on chromosome X (Bmx), and agonist-generated Ca(2+) signaling in the endothelium. Extracellular K(+) concentration regulated the levels of activated PLC-γ1, Bmx, and carbachol-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in human endothelial cells. Additional experiments confirmed that high-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediated these effects. The content of Na(+) and K(+) in the diet also regulated Bmx levels in endothelial cells and activated PLC-γ1 levels in rats in vivo. The effects of dietary K(+) on Bmx were more pronounced in rats fed a high-salt diet compared with rats fed a low-salt diet. These experiments elucidated an endothelial cell signaling mechanism regulated by electrolytes, further demonstrating an integral relationship between endothelial cell function and dietary Na(+) and K(+) content. PMID:24785188

  18. Phospholipase C-β1 Hypofunction in the Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Wook; Cho, Taesup; Lee, Sukchan

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that is characterized by various abnormal symptoms. Previous studies indicate decreased expression of phospholipase C-β1 (PLC-β1) in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. PLC-β1-null (PLC-β1−/−) mice exhibit multiple endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a study of PLC-β1 knockdown in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice has shown a specific behavioral deficit, impaired working memory. These results support the notion that disruption of PLC-β1-linked signaling in the brain is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we broadly investigate recent studies regarding schizophrenia-related behaviors as well as their various clinical and biological correlates in PLC-β1−/− and knockdown mouse models. This will provide a better understanding of the pathological relevance of the altered expression of PLC-β1 in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. Evidence accumulated will shed light on future in-depth studies, possibly in human subjects. PMID:26635636

  19. Evolutionary conservation of physical and functional interactions between phospholipase D and actin.

    PubMed

    Kusner, David J; Barton, James A; Qin, Chunbo; Wang, Xuemin; Iyer, Shankar S

    2003-04-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes from bacteria to mammals exhibit a highly conserved core structure and catalytic mechanism, but whether protein-protein interactions exhibit similar commonality is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether the physical and functional interactions of mammalian PLDs with actin are evolutionarily conserved among bacterial and plant PLDs. Highly purified bacterial and plant PLDs cosedimented with mammalian skeletal muscle alpha-actin, indicating direct interaction with F-actin. The binding of bacterial PLD to G-actin exhibited two affinity states, with dissociation constants of 1.13 pM and 0.58 microM. The effects of actin on the activities of bacterial and plant PLDs were polymerization dependent; monomeric G-actin inhibited PLD activity, whereas polymerized F-actin augmented PLD activity. Actin modulation of bacterial and plant PLDs demonstrated kinetic characteristics, efficacies, and potencies similar to those of human PLD1. Thus, physical and functional interactions between PLD and actin in PLD family members from bacteria to mammals are highly conserved throughout evolution. PMID:12667487

  20. Phospholipase D1 decreases type I collagen levels in hepatic stellate cells via induction of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-Y; Jang, B-K; Jung, Y-A; Lee, E-J; Kim, H-S; Jeon, J-H; Kim, J-G; Lee, I-K; Kim, M-K; Park, K-G

    2014-06-20

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are major players in liver fibrogenesis. Accumulating evidence shows that suppression of autophagy plays an important role in the development and progression of liver disease. Phospholipase D1 (PLD1), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline, was recently shown to modulate autophagy. However, little is known about the effects of PLD1 on the production of type I collagen that characterizes liver fibrosis. Here, we examined whether PLD1 regulates type I collagen levels in HSCs through induction of autophagy. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PLD-1 (Ad-PLD1) reduced type I collagen levels in the activated human HSC lines, hTERT and LX2. Overexpression of PLD1 in HSCs led to induction of autophagy as demonstrated by increased LC3-II conversion and formation of LC3 puncta, and decreased p62 abundance. Moreover, inhibiting the induction of autophagy by treating cells with bafilomycin or a small interfering (si)RNA for ATG7 rescued Ad-PLD1-induced suppression of type I collagen accumulation in HSCs. The effects of PLD on type I collagen levels were not related to TGF-β/Smad signaling. Furthermore, treatment of cells with PA induced autophagy and inhibited type I collagen accumulation. The present study indicates that PLD1 plays a role in regulating type I collagen accumulation through induction of autophagy. PMID:24802400

  1. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2: a novel marker of cardiovascular risk and potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Macphee, Colin; Benson, G Martin; Shi, Yi; Zalewski, Andrew

    2005-06-01

    Although the clinical benefit of statins is well established, these agents reduce the risk of cardiovascular events by only 20 - 40%, and the residual risk for high-risk patients is considerable. The recognition of atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disease has opened the door to numerous complementary therapeutic approaches to further reduce risk and the overall burden of cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is a novel inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk that is being evaluated as a potential therapeutic target. The biological function of this enzyme in atherosclerosis has been controversial but recent evidence supports its pro-atherogenic role. The enzyme is predominantly bound to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particles in humans, and its activity produces bioactive lipid mediators that promote inflammatory processes present at every stage of atherogenesis, from atheroma initiation to plaque destabilisation and rupture. Initial clinical studies suggest that the inhibitors of Lp-PLA(2) can block enzyme activity in plasma and within atherosclerotic plaques. However, more studies are needed to determine the potential clinical benefits of inhibiting Lp-PLA(2). PMID:16004595

  2. Phospholipase D2-dependent inhibition of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARgamma by cyclic phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Yue, Junming; Cheng, Yunhui; Guo, Huazhang; Bolen, Alyssa; Zhang, Chunxiang; Balazs, Louisa; Re, Fabio; Du, Guangwei; Frohman, Michael A; Baker, Daniel L; Parrill, Abby L; Uchiyama, Ayako; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko; Tigyi, Gabor

    2010-08-13

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (1-acyl-2,3-cyclic-glycerophosphate, CPA), one of nature's simplest phospholipids, is found in cells from slime mold to humans and has a largely unknown function. We find here that CPA is generated in mammalian cells in a stimulus-coupled manner by phospholipase D2 (PLD2) and binds to and inhibits the nuclear hormone receptor PPARgamma with nanomolar affinity and high specificity through stabilizing its interaction with the corepressor SMRT. CPA production inhibits the PPARgamma target-gene transcription that normally drives adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, lipid accumulation in RAW264.7 cells and primary mouse macrophages, and arterial wall remodeling in a rat model in vivo. Inhibition of PLD2 by shRNA, a dominant-negative mutant, or a small molecule inhibitor blocks CPA production and relieves PPARgamma inhibition. We conclude that CPA is a second messenger and a physiological inhibitor of PPARgamma, revealing that PPARgamma is regulated by endogenous agonists as well as by antagonists. PMID:20705243

  3. Regulation of macrophage differentiation and polarization by group IVC phospholipase A₂.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Keiichi; Kuroda, Asuka; Sugihara, Kanako; Kanai, Shiho; Nabe, Takeshi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2011-12-16

    Although the cellular function of group IVC phospholipase A(2) (IVC-PLA(2)) remains to be understood, the expression of IVC-PLA(2) in human monocytic THP-1 cells was increased during phorbol ester-induced macrophage differentiation. We therefore examined the role of IVC-PLA(2) in macrophage differentiation using THP-1 cells. Two THP-1 cell lines stably expressing IVC-PLA(2)-specific shRNA were established. Differentiation and maturation into macrophages on treatment with phorbol ester were facilitated by knockdown of IVC-PLA(2) without the compensatory induction of mRNA expression for other group IV and VI PLA(2)s. Furthermore, the enhancement of macrophage differentiation by IVC-PLA(2)-knockdown were abolished by treatment with lysophosphatidylcholine, a metabolite of phospholipids generated by PLA(2)-mediated hydrolysis, indicating that PLA(2) activity is necessary for the inhibition of macrophage differentiation by IVC-PLA(2). Additionally, we found that the differentiation into classically activated M1 macrophage was superior in IVC-PLA(2)-knockdown cells, whereas the differentiation into alternatively activated M2 macrophage was suppressed by IVC-PLA(2)-knockdown. These findings suggest that IVC-PLA(2) is involved in regulations of macrophage differentiation and macrophage polarization. PMID:22108055

  4. Revisiting the role of phospholipases C in virulence and the lifecycle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Chevalier, Fabien; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Frigui, Wafa; Pawlik, Alexandre; Boritsch, Eva C.; Bottai, Daria; Majlessi, Laleh; Herrmann, Jean Louis; Brosch, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis has developed different virulence mechanisms and virulence-associated tools during its evolution to survive and multiply inside the host. Based on previous reports and by analogy with other bacteria, phospholipases C (PLC) of M. tuberculosis were thought to be among these tools. To get deeper insights into the function of PLCs, we investigated their putative involvement in the intracellular lifestyle of M. tuberculosis, with emphasis on phagosomal rupture and virulence, thereby re-visiting a research theme of longstanding interest. Through the construction and use of an M. tuberculosis H37Rv PLC-null mutant (ΔPLC) and control strains, we found that PLCs of M. tuberculosis were not required for induction of phagosomal rupture and only showed marginal, if any, impact on virulence of M. tuberculosis in the cellular and mouse infection models used in this study. In contrast, we found that PLC-encoding genes were strongly upregulated under phosphate starvation and that PLC-proficient M. tuberculosis strains survived better than ΔPLC mutants under conditions where phosphatidylcholine served as sole phosphate source, opening new perspectives for studies on the role of PLCs in the lifecycle of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26603639

  5. Analysis of the promoter region of a cardiac specific phospholipase A{sub 2} gene located at 1p35

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, M.V.; Chen, J.; Tischfield, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Phospholipases may play an important role in the pathology of tissue damage and in membrane remodeling. We have previously shown that the Group II PLA{sub 2} gene and two PLA{sub 2}-like gene fragments map to 1p35. We have since shown that at least one of the fragments is part of a cardiac-specific PLA{sub 2} gene. Thus the identification and characterization of the regulatory regions of this new phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) may be important for understanding the regulation of this gene under normal and pathologic conditions. HPLA2-10, mainly expressed in heart, is a low molecular weight, Ca{sup 2+}-dependent PLA{sub 2} that we have classified as a new group (Group III) based on structural considerations. The 5{prime} regulatory region of HPLA2-10 was isolated from a human genomic DNA bacteriophage library and cloned into pUC19. Computer analysis of the region`s DNA sequence indicates the presence of multiple transcription factor binding sites. A comparison between the human promoter region and the promoter region of the rat homologue, RPLA2-10, indicates that at least two putative transcription factor binding sites are conserved between the two species. These include a CCAAT box and an AGTCCT hexanucleotide, which has been implicated as a binding site for the glucocorticoid receptor. DNA footprint analysis is being performed to determine whether or not these putative regions are sites of protein binding. Also, a proposed view of the evolution of the distinct groups of low molecular weight PLA{sub 2}s will be presented.

  6. Effects of Phospholipase C on Fusarium graminearum Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qili; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Liang, Yuancun

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in regulating various biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about the function of PLC in filamentous fungi, especially the plant pathogenic fungi. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in many cereal crops. BLAST search revealed that Fusarium genome contains six FgPLC genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, different FgPLC gene expressions in mycelia were analyzed. To investigate the role of FgPLC in F. graminearum biology, a pharmacological study using a known inhibitor of PLC (U73122) was conducted. Results showed that inhibition of FgPLC resulted in significant alterations of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, perithecium formation, and expressions of Tri5 and Tri6 genes. As expected, the treatment of F. graminearum with U73343, an inactive analog of U73122, showed no effect on F. graminearum biology. Our results suggested strongly that FgPLC plays important roles in F. graminearum growth and development. PMID:26316232

  7. Going into labor and beyond: phospholipase A2 in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Besenboeck, Carolin; Cvitic, Silvija; Lang, Uwe; Desoye, Gernot; Wadsack, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family is a very diverse group of enzymes, all serving in the cleavage of phospholipids, thereby releasing high amounts of arachidonic acid (AA) and lysophospholipids. AA serves as a substrate for prostaglandin production, which is of special importance in pregnancy for the onset of parturition. Novel research demonstrates that PLA2 action affects the immune response of the mother toward the child and is therefore probably implied in the tolerance of the fetus and prevention of miscarriage. This review presents data on the biochemical and enzymatic properties of PLA2 during gestation with a special emphasis on its role for the placental function and development of the fetus. We also critically discuss the possible pathophysiological significance of PLA2 alterations and its possible functional consequences. These alterations are often associated with pregnancy pathologies such as preeclampsia and villitis or pregnancy complications such as obesity and diabetes in the mother as well as preterm onset of labor. PMID:26908920

  8. Membrane and inhibitor interactions of intracellular phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Mouchlis, Varnavas D; Dennis, Edward A

    2016-05-01

    Studying phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) is a challenging task since they act on membrane-like aggregated substrates and not on monomeric phospholipids. Multidisciplinary approaches that include hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) and computational techniques have been employed with great success in order to address important questions about the mode of interactions of PLA2 enzymes with membranes, phospholipid substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the interactions of PLA2s is crucial since these enzymes are the upstream regulators of the eicosanoid pathway liberating free arachidonic acid (AA) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The liberation of AA by PLA2 enzymes sets off a cascade of molecular events that involves downstream regulators such as cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites leading to inflammation. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work by inhibiting COX, while Zileuton inhibits LOX and both rely on PLA2 enzymes to provide them with AA. That means PLA2 enzymes can potentially also be targeted to diminish inflammation at an earlier point in the process. In this review we describe extensive efforts reported in the past to define the interactions of PLA2 enzymes with membranes, substrate phospholipids and inhibitors using DXMS, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. PMID:26774606

  9. Activation of Phospholipase A by Plant Defense Elicitors.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, S.; Heinstein, P. F.; Low, P. S.

    1996-01-01

    Participation of phospholipase A (PLase A) in plant signal transduction has been documented for auxin stimulation of growth but not for elicitation of any plant defense response. In this paper, we report two independent assays for monitoring PLase A induction in plant cells and have used these assays to evaluate whether transduction of defense-related signals might require PLase A activation. Oligogalacturonic acid, a potent elicitor of the soybean (Glycine max) H2O2 burst, was unable to stimulate endogenous PLase A, suggesting that PLase A activation is not an obligate intermediate in the oligogalacturonic acid-induced burst pathway. In contrast, harpin and an extract from the pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae both stimulated the oxidative burst and promoted a rapid increase in PLase A activity. To evaluate the possible role of this inducible PLase A activity in transducing the oxidative burst, we tested the effect of chlorpromazine-HCl, a PLase A inhibitor on elicitor-stimulated burst activity. Pretreatment with chloropromazine was found to inhibit the H2O2 burst triggered by V. dahliae extract at the same concentration at which it blocked PLase A activation. In contrast, neither the harpin- nor oligogalacturonic acid-induced burst was altered by addition of chlorpromazine. These data suggest that PLase A stimulation may be important in certain elicitor-induced oxidative bursts (e.g. V. dahliae) and that other elicitors such as oligogalacturonic acid and harpin must operate through independent signaling intermediates to activate the same defense response. PMID:12226235

  10. The galactolipase activity of Fusarium solani (phospho)lipase.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Raida; Othman, Houcemeddine; Amara, Sawsan; Parsiegla, Goetz; Carriere, Frédéric; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane

    2015-03-01

    The purified (phospho)lipase of Fusarium solani (FSL), was known to be active on both triglycerides and phospholipids. This study aimed at assessing the potential of this enzyme in hydrolyzing galactolipids. FSL was found to hydrolyze at high rates of synthetic medium chains monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (4658±146U/mg on DiC8-MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (3785±83U/mg on DiC8-DGDG) and natural long chain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol extracted from leek leaves (991±85U/mg). It is the microbial enzyme with the highest activity on galactolipids identified so far with a level of activity comparable to that of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2. FSL maximum activity on galactolipids was measured at pH8. The analysis of the hydrolysis product of natural MGDG from leek showed that FSL hydrolyzes preferentially the ester bond at the sn-1 position of galactolipids. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of FSL, a 3D model of this enzyme was built. In silico docking of medium chains MGDG and DGDG and phospholipid in the active site of FSL reveals structural solutions which are in concordance with in vitro tests. PMID:25529980

  11. Phospholipase Dε and Phosphatidic Acid Enhance Arabidopsis Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yueyun; Devaiah, Shivakumar P.; Bahn, SungChul; Thamasandra, Bharath N.; Li, Maoyin; Welti, Ruth; Wang, Xuemin

    2014-01-01

    Summary The activation of phospholipase D (PLD) produces phosphatidic acid (PA), a new lipid messenger implicated in cell growth and proliferation, but direct evidence for PLD and PA promotion of growth at an organismal level is lacking. Here we characterized a new PLD, PLDε, and show that PLDε plays a role in promoting Arabidopsis growth. PLDε is mainly associated with the plasma membrane and is the most permissive of all PLDs tested in activity requirements. Knockout (KO) of PLDε decreases, whereas overexpression (OE) of PLDε enhances root growth and biomass accumulation. The level of PA was higher in OE, but lower in KO than in wild-type plants, and suppression of PLD-mediated PA formation by alcohol alleviated the growth-promoting effect of PLDε. OE and KO of PLDε had the opposite effect on lateral root elongation in response to nitrogen (N). Increased expression of PLDε also promoted root hair elongation and primary root growth at severe N deprivation. The results suggest that PLDε and PA promote organismal growth and play a role in N response. The lipid signaling process may play a role in translating the membrane sensing of nutrient status to increasing plant growth and biomass production. PMID:19143999

  12. G Protein Activation Stimulates Phospholipase D Signaling in Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Munnik, T.; Arisz, S. A.; De Vrije, T.; Musgrave, A.

    1995-01-01

    We provide direct evidence for phospholipase D (PLD) signaling in plants by showing that this enzyme is stimulated by the G protein activators mastoparan, ethanol, and cholera toxin. An in vivo assay for PLD activity in plant cells was developed based on the use of a "reporter alcohol" rather than water as a transphosphatidylation substrate. The product was a phosphatidyl alcohol, which, in contrast to the normal product phosphatidic acid, is a specific measure of PLD activity. When 32P-labeled cells were treated with 0.1% n-butanol, 32P-phosphatidyl butanol (32P-PtdBut) was formed in a time-dependent manner. In cells treated with any of the three G protein activators, the production of 32P-PtdBut was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The G protein involved was pertussis toxin insensitive. Ethanol could activate PLD but was itself consumed by PLD as transphosphatidylation substrate. In contrast, secondary alcohols (e.g., sec-butyl alcohol) activated PLD but did not function as substrate, whereas tertiary alcohols did neither. Although most of the experiments were performed with the green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos, the relevance for higher plants was demonstrated by showing that PLD in carnation petals could also be activated by mastoparan. The results indicate that PLD activation must be considered as a potential signal transduction mechanism in plants, just as in animals. PMID:12242371

  13. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2: Yesterday's Enemy Becomes Today's Friend.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-02-01

    Bee venom therapy has been used to treat immune-related diseases such as arthritis for a long time. Recently, it has revealed that group III secretory phospholipase A2 from bee venom (bee venom group III sPLA2) has in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2. Notably, new experimental data have shown protective immune responses of bee venom group III sPLA2 against a wide range of diseases including asthma, Parkinson's disease, and drug-induced organ inflammation. It is critical to evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 because this enzyme is known to be the major allergen of bee venom that can cause anaphylactic shock. For many decades, efforts have been made to avoid its adverse effects. At high concentrations, exposure to bee venom group III sPLA2 can result in damage to cellular membranes and necrotic cell death. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 on several immunological diseases and described the detailed mechanisms of bee venom group III sPLA2 in regulating various immune responses and physiopathological changes. PMID:26907347

  14. Stability of soybean oil degumming using immobilized phospholipase A(2).

    PubMed

    Yu, Dianyu; Ma, Ying; Jiang, Lianzhou; Walid, Elfalleh; He, Shenghua; He, Yanming; Xiaoyu, Zhou; Zhang, Jianing; Hu, Lizhi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of stability of immobilized phospholipase A2 (PLA2) for soybean oil degumming. Also, the effect of reaction time on residual phosphorus levels was investigated according to the optimum pH and temperature. The free PLA2 and three immobilized PLA2 demonstrated significant differences in optimum operation conditions. pH, temperature and reaction time increased upon immobilization for three different immobilized PLA2 (PLA2-CA, PLA2-CAC and PLA2-CAG). Immobilized PLA2 showed enhanced thermal stability and retained more than 74% of relative activity after 1 h of incubation at 60°C, while the free PLA2 retained only 33%. The three immobilized PLA2 retained 30% to 60% of initial activities after 7 recycles. In particular, PLA2-CAC has more significant profiles in pH, temperature, reaction time and showed the highest remaining activity, thermal stability, reusability. Therefore, PLA2-CAC is a suitable immobilized enzyme for soybean oil degumming process. PMID:24371193

  15. Probing phospholipase a(2) with fluorescent phospholipid substrates.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Oliver; Gelb, Michael H; Schultz, Carsten

    2007-09-01

    The Foerster resonance energy transfer-based sensor, PENN, measures intracellular phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in living cells and small organisms. In an attempt to modify the probe for the detection of particular isoforms, we altered the sn-2 fatty acid in such a way that either one or three of the Z double bonds in arachidonic acid were present in the sensor molecule. Arachidonic-acid-mimicking fatty acids were prepared by copper-mediated coupling reactions. Probes with a single double bond in the 5-position exhibited favorable substrate properties for secretory PLA(2)s. In vitro experiments with the novel unsaturated doubly labeled phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives showed preferred cleavage of the sensor PENN2 (one double bond) by the physiologically important group V sPLA(2), while the O-methyl-derivative PMNN2 was accepted best by the isoform from hog pancreas. For experiments in living cells, we demonstrated that bioactivation via S-acetylthioethyl (SATE) groups is essential for probe performance. Surprisingly, membrane-permeant versions of the new sensors that contained double bonds, PENN2 and PENN3, were only cleaved to a minor extent in HeLa cells while the saturated form, PENN, was well accepted. PMID:17661302

  16. Cell wounding activates phospholipase D in primary mouse keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Senthil N.; Xie, Ding; Howard, Amber C.; Zhong, Quincy; Zhong, Xiaofeng; McNeil, Paul L.; Bollag, Wendy B.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma membrane disruptions occur in mechanically active tissues such as the epidermis and can lead to cell death if the damage remains unrepaired. Repair occurs through fusion of vesicle patches to the damaged membrane region. The enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in membrane traffickiing; therefore, the role of PLD in membrane repair was investigated. Generation of membrane disruptions by lifting epidermal keratinocytes from the substratum induced PLD activation, whereas removal of cells from the substratum via trypsinization had no effect. Pretreatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, previously shown to increase PLD1 expression and activity, had no effect on, and a PLD2-selective (but not a PLD1-selective) inhibitor decreased, cell lifting-induced PLD activation, suggesting PLD2 as the isoform activated. PLD2 interacts functionally with the glycerol channel aquaporin-3 (AQP3) to produce phosphatidylglycerol (PG); however, wounding resulted in decreased PG production, suggesting a potential PG deficiency in wounded cells. Cell lifting-induced PLD activation was transient, consistent with a possible role in membrane repair, and PLD inhibitors inhibited membrane resealing upon laser injury. In an in vivo full-thickness mouse skin wound model, PG accelerated wound healing. These results suggest that PLD and the PLD2/AQP3 signaling module may be involved in membrane repair and wound healing. PMID:23288946

  17. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Fendri, Imen; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-05-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in signal transduction, vesicle trafficking and membrane metabolism. It catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. The presence of a PLD in the latex of Carica papaya (CpPLD1) was demonstrated by transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in the presence of 2% ethanol. Although the protein could not be purified to homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a protein band was separated by SDS-PAGE after SDS/chloroform-methanol/TCA-acetone extraction of the latex insoluble fraction. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by micro-LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (723 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 2424 bp encoding a protein of 808 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 92.05 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpPLD1 was identified as a PLD belonging to the plant phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase family. PMID:22450361

  18. Differential regulation of renal phospholipase C isoforms by catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Yu, P Y; Asico, L D; Eisner, G M; Jose, P A

    1995-01-01

    Dopamine and D1 agonists and NE all increase phosphatidyl inositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) activity, but whereas dopamine produces a natriuresis, NE has an antinatriuretic effect. To determine if catecholamines differentially regulate the expression of PLC isoforms, we infused fenoldopam, a D1 agonist, or pramipexole, a D1/D2 agonist, intravenously or infused fenoldopam or NE into the renal artery of anesthetized rats. After 3-4 h of infusion, when the expected natriuresis (fenoldopam or pramipexole) or antinatriuresis (NE) occurred, the kidneys were removed for analysis of PLC isoform protein expression activity. Western blot analysis revealed that in renal cortical membranes, fenoldopam and pramipexole increased expression of PLC beta 1 and decreased expression of PLC gamma 1; PLC delta was unchanged. In the cytosol, pramipexole and fenoldopam increased expression of both PLC beta 1 and PLC gamma 1. No effects were noted in the medulla. A preferential D1 antagonist, SKF 83742, which by itself had no effect, blocked the effects of pramipexole, thus confirming the involvement of the D1 receptor. In contrast, NE also increased PLC beta 1 but did not affect PLC gamma 1 protein expression in membranes. The changes in PLC isoform expression were accompanied by similar changes in PLC isoform activity. These studies demonstrate for the first time differential regulation of PLC isoforms by catecholamines. PMID:7814630

  19. Cell wounding activates phospholipase D in primary mouse keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Arun, Senthil N; Xie, Ding; Howard, Amber C; Zhong, Quincy; Zhong, Xiaofeng; McNeil, Paul L; Bollag, Wendy B

    2013-03-01

    Plasma membrane disruptions occur in mechanically active tissues such as the epidermis and can lead to cell death if the damage remains unrepaired. Repair occurs through fusion of vesicle patches to the damaged membrane region. The enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in membrane traffickiing; therefore, the role of PLD in membrane repair was investigated. Generation of membrane disruptions by lifting epidermal keratinocytes from the substratum induced PLD activation, whereas removal of cells from the substratum via trypsinization had no effect. Pretreatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃, previously shown to increase PLD1 expression and activity, had no effect on, and a PLD2-selective (but not a PLD1-selective) inhibitor decreased, cell lifting-induced PLD activation, suggesting PLD2 as the isoform activated. PLD2 interacts functionally with the glycerol channel aquaporin-3 (AQP3) to produce phosphatidylglycerol (PG); however, wounding resulted in decreased PG production, suggesting a potential PG deficiency in wounded cells. Cell lifting-induced PLD activation was transient, consistent with a possible role in membrane repair, and PLD inhibitors inhibited membrane resealing upon laser injury. In an in vivo full-thickness mouse skin wound model, PG accelerated wound healing. These results suggest that PLD and the PLD2/AQP3 signaling module may be involved in membrane repair and wound healing. PMID:23288946

  20. Pyrimidinoceptor-mediated activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, W. W.; Lee, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    1. As well as the presence of P2Z purinoceptors previously found in macrophages, we identified pyrimidinoceptors in RAW 264.7 cells, which activate phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). 2. The relative potency of agonists to stimulate inositol phosphate (IP) formation and arachidonic acid (AA) release was UTP = UDP > > ATP, ATP gamma S, 2MeSATP. For both signalling pathways, the EC50 values for UTP and UDP (3 microM) were significantly lower than that for ATP and all other analogues tested (> 100 microM). 3. UTP and UDP displayed no additivity in terms of IP formation and AA release at maximally effective concentrations. 4. UTP-, but not ATP-, evoked AA release was 60% inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), while stimulation of IP formation by both agonists was unaffected. Short-term treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) led to a dose-dependent inhibition of IP responses to UTP and UDP, but failed to affect the AA responses. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ inhibited the PI response to UTP, but abolished its AA response. 5. ATP-induction of these two transmembrane signal pathways was decreased in high Mg(2+)-containing medium but potentiated by the removal of extracellular Mg2+. 6. Suramin and reactive blue displayed equal potency to inhibit the IP responses of UTP and ATP. 7. Both UTP and UDP (0.1-100 microM) induced a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i which lasted for more than 10 min. 8. Taken together, these results indicate that in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages, pyrimidinoceptors with specificity for UTP and UDP mediate the activation of PLC and cytosolic (c) PLA2. The activation of PLC is via a PTX-insensitive G protein, whereas that of cPLA2 is via a PTX-sensitive G protein-dependent pathway. The sustained Ca2+ influx caused by UTP contributes to the activation of cPLA2. RAW 264.7 cells also possess P2z purinoceptors which mediate ATP(4-)-induced PLC and PLA2 activation. Images Figure 3 PMID:8886407

  1. A nutrient-regulated, dual localization phospholipase A2 in the symbiotic fungus Tuber borchii

    PubMed Central

    Soragni, Elisabetta; Bolchi, Angelo; Balestrini, Raffaella; Gambaretto, Claudio; Percudani, Riccardo; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2001-01-01

    Important morphogenetic transitions in fungi are triggered by starvation-induced changes in the expression of structural surface proteins. Here, we report that nutrient deprivation causes a strong and reversible up-regulation of TbSP1, a surface-associated, Ca2+-dependent phospholipase from the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. TbSP1 is the first phospholipase A2 to be described in fungi and identifies a novel class of phospholipid-hydrolyzing enzymes. The TbSP1 phospholipase, which is synthesized initially as a pre-protein, is processed efficiently and secreted during the mycelial phase. The mature protein, however, also localizes to the inner cell wall layer, close to the plasma membrane, in both free-living and symbiosis-engaged hyphae. It thus appears that a dual localization phospholipase A2 is involved in the adaptation of a symbiotic fungus to conditions of persistent nutritional limitation. Moreover, the fact that TbSP1-related sequences are present in Streptomyces and Neurospora, and not in wholly sequenced non-filamentous microorganisms, points to a general role for TbSP1 phospholipases A2 in the organization of multicellular filamentous structures in bacteria and fungi. PMID:11566873

  2. Active site mapping of Loxosceles phospholipases D: Biochemical and biological features.

    PubMed

    Vuitika, L; Chaves-Moreira, D; Caruso, I; Lima, M A; Matsubara, F H; Murakami, M T; Takahashi, H K; Toledo, M S; Coronado, M A; Nader, H B; Senff-Ribeiro, A; Chaim, O M; Arni, R K; Veiga, S S

    2016-09-01

    Brown spider phospholipases D from Loxosceles venoms are among the most widely studied toxins since they induce dermonecrosis, triggering inflammatory responses, increase vascular permeability, cause hemolysis, and renal failure. The catalytic (H12 and H47) and metal-ion binding (E32 and D34) residues in Loxosceles intermedia phospholipase D (LiRecDT1) were mutated to understand their roles in the observed activities. All mutants were identified using whole venom serum antibodies and a specific antibody to wild-type LiRecDT1, they were also analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The phospholipase D activities of H12A, H47A, H12A-H47A, E32, D34 and E32A-D34A, such as vascular permeability, dermonecrosis, and hemolytic effects were inhibited. The mutant Y228A was equally detrimental to biochemical and biological effects of phospholipase D, suggesting an essential role of this residue in substrate recognition and binding. On the other hand, the mutant C53A-C201A reduced the enzyme's ability to hydrolyze phospholipids and promote dermonecrosis, hemolytic, and vascular effects. These results provide the basis understanding the importance of specific residues in the observed activities and contribute to the design of synthetic and specific inhibitors for Brown spider venom phospholipases D. PMID:27233517

  3. [Immobilization of phospholipase A2 from Central Asian cobra venom on polyamide sorbents].

    PubMed

    Akhmedzhanov, R A; Salikhova, Z T; Aripov, T F; Rakhimov, M M

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the immobilization technique and the ligand nature on catalytic properties of phospholipase A2 from the cobra venom was studied. Preparations of phospholipase A2 adsorbed on and covalently bound to polyamide sorbents were obtained. The enzyme was coupled to polyamide beads modified with glutaraldehyde. In this case only 9% of the enzyme activity was retained. The enzyme adsorbed on polyamide modified with phosphatidylethanolamine retained up to 20% of the initial activity. The binding selectivity of phospholipase A2 was maximum in case of the sorbent with a binary ligand, e. g. phosphatidylethanolamine+cytotoxin, the sorbent capacity for the bound enzyme increased 2-3 times (460-600 units/g sorbent. The specific activity of the adsorbed phospholipase A2 was 17-40 units/g sorbent in contrast to 8.6 units/g sorbent for the covalently bound enzyme. Immobilization of the enzyme on polyamide sorbents resulted in changes of the pH-optimum, sensitivity to Ca2+ ions and the character of the enzyme-substrate interactions. Heart stability of the adsorbed phospholipase A2 was lower than that of the covalently bound enzyme. However, the adsorbed enzyme can be used, for example, in affinity chromatography due to its higher specific activity, selectivity and reversibility of the sorption. PMID:3244675

  4. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle generates lipid-related second messengers by phospholipase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Shansky, J.; Karlisch, P.; Solerssi, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Repetitive mechanical stimulation of cultured avian skeletal muscle increases the synthesis of prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2 alpha which regulate protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. These stretch-induced PG increases are reduced in low extracellular calcium medium and by specific phospholipase inhibitors. Mechanical stimulation increases the breakdown rate of 3H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipids, releasing free 3H-arachidonic acid, the rate-limiting precursor of PG synthesis. Mechanical stimulation also increases 3H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation and intracellular levels of inositol phosphates from myo-[2-3H]inositol labelled phospholipids. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD) are all activated by stretch. The stretch-induced increases in PG production, 3H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipid breakdown, and 3H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation occur independently of cellular electrical activity (tetrodotoxin insensitive) whereas the formation of inositol phosphates from myo-[2-3H]inositol labelled phospholipids is dependent on cellular electrical activity. These results indicate that mechanical stimulation increases the lipid-related second messengers arachidonic acid, diacylglycerol, and PG through activation of specific phospholipases such as PLA2 and PLD, but not by activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC.

  5. Interaction of surfactant protein A with peroxiredoxin 6 regulates phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Zheng; Manevich, Yefim; Baldwin, James L; Dodia, Chandra; Yu, Kevin; Feinstein, Sheldon I; Fisher, Aron B

    2006-03-17

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a "moonlighting" protein with both GSH peroxidase and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activities. This protein is responsible for degradation of internalized dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid component of lung surfactant. The PLA(2) activity is inhibited by surfactant protein A (SP-A). We postulate that SP-A regulates the PLA(2) activity of Prdx6 through direct protein-protein interaction. Recombinant human Prdx6 and SP-A isolated from human alveolar proteinosis fluid were studied. Measurement of kinetic constants at pH 4.0 (maximal PLA(2) activity) showed K(m)0.35 mm and V(max) 138 nmol/min/mg of protein. SP-A inhibited PLA(2) activity non-competitively with K(i) 10 mug/ml and was Ca(2+) -independent. Activity at pH 7.4 was approximately 50% less, and inhibition by SP-A was partially dependent on Ca(2+). Interaction of SP-A and Prdx6 at pH 7.4 was shown by Prdx6-mediated inhibition of SP-A binding to agarose beads, a pull-down assay using His-tagged Prdx6 and Ni(2) -chelating beads, co-immunoprecipitation from lung epithelial cells and from a binary mixture of the two proteins, binding after treatment with a trifunctional cross-linker, and size-exclusion chromatography. Analysis by static light scattering and surface plasmon resonance showed calcium-independent SP-A binding to Prdx6 at pH 4.0 and partial Ca(2+) dependence of binding at pH 7.4. These results indicate a direct interaction between SP-A and Prdx6, which provides a mechanism for regulation of the PLA(2) activity of Prdx6 by SP-A. PMID:16330552

  6. Characterization of a novel inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha, pyrrophenone.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takashi; Yamada, Katsutoshi; Chikazawa, Yukiko; Ueno, Masahiko; Nakamoto, Shozo; Okuno, Takayuki; Seno, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha), one of the three subtypes of cPLA(2) (alpha, beta and gamma), is thought to be a rate-limiting enzyme in eicosanoid biosynthesis. We developed a novel and potent cPLA(2)alpha inhibitor with an optically active pyrrolidine, termed pyrrophenone, and characterized this compound in detail using enzyme and cellular assay systems. Pyrrophenone, which shows strong inhibition of cPLA(2)alpha activity, is one of the most potent cPLA(2)alpha inhibitors reported to date. Similar inhibitory potencies for cPLA(2)alpha were obtained from three different assays. The inhibitory activity of pyrrophenone is two or three orders of magnitude more potent than arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF(3)) under the same assay conditions. Pyrrophenone shows reversible inhibition of cPLA(2)alpha and displays no characteristics of the slow-binding inhibition observed for AACOCF(3). Pyrrophenone also inhibited the esterase and lysophospholipase activities of cPLA(2)alpha. However, the inhibition by pyrrophenone of 14 kDa secretory PLA(2)s, types IB and IIA, was over two orders of magnitude less potent than that for cPLA(2)alpha. Pyrrophenone strongly inhibited arachidonic acid release in calcium ionophore (A23187)-stimulated human monocytic cells (THP-1 cells) in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 0.024 microM, followed by suppression of eicosanoid synthesis, and also showed dose-dependent inhibition for interleukin-1-induced prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in human renal mesangial cells with an IC(50) value of 0.0081 microM. The mechanism of inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis in these cell-based assays was due to inhibition of only one step of arachidonic acid release without any effect on cyclo-oxygenase or lipoxygenase pathways. These results suggest that pyrrophenone could be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases. PMID:11964173

  7. Phospholipase D signaling in serotonin-induced mitogenesis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Fanburg, B L

    2008-09-01

    We have previously reported the participation of mitogen-activated protein, Rho, and phosphoinositide-3 (PI3) kinases in separate pathways in serotonin (5-HT)-induced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In this study, we investigated the possible participation of phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in this growth process. 5-HT stimulated a time-dependent increase in [(3)H]phosphatidylbutanol and PA generation. Exposure of SMCs to 1-butanol or overexpression of an inactive mutant of human PLD1R898R blocked 5-HT-induced proliferation. Furthermore, 1-butanol inhibited 5-HT activation of S6K1 and S6 protein, downstream effectors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), by 80 and 72%, respectively, and partially blocked activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by 30% but had no effect on other associated signaling pathways. Exogenous PA caused cellular proliferation and revitalized cyclin D1 expression by 5-HT of the 1-butanol-treated cells. PA also reproduced activations by 5-HT of mTOR, S6K1, and ERK. Transfection with inactive human PLD1 reduced 5-HT-induced activation of S6K1 by approximately 50%. Inhibition of 5-HT receptor 2A (R 2A) with ketaserin blocked PLD activation by 5-HT. Inhibition with PI3-kinase inhibitor failed to block either activation of PLD by 5-HT or PA-dependent S6K1 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that ligation of the 5-HTR 2A by 5-HT initiates PLD activation in SMCs, and that its product, PA, is an early signaling molecule in 5-HT-induced pulmonary artery SMC proliferation. Signaling by PA produces its downstream effects primarily through the mTOR/S6K1 pathway and to a lesser extent through the ERK pathway. Hydrolysis of cell membrane lipid may be important in vascular effects of 5-HT. PMID:18621911

  8. Effects of endotoxin and dexamethasone on group I and II phospholipase A2 in rat ileum and stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Lilja, I; Dimberg, J; Sjödahl, R; Tagesson, C; Gustafson-Svärd, C

    1994-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4) is a key enzyme in inflammation and is thought to play an important part in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the nature and regulation of phospholipase A2 activity in the gastrointestinal mucosa, the distribution of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for group II phospholipase A2 in various parts of the rat gastrointestinal tract was studied, as well as the influence of endotoxin or dexamethasone, or both, on the group I and II phospholipase A2 mRNA expression and activity in the rat glandular stomach and distal ileum. The results show that (a) group II phospholipase A2 is present along the whole gastrointestinal tract, but in particularly large amounts in the distal ileum, (b) endotoxin increases group II, but not group I, phospholipase A2 mRNA expression in the glandular stomach and distal ileum, and (c) dexamethasone reduces the endotoxin induced increases in group II phospholipase mRNA expression and activity in the gastrointestinal mucosa. These findings suggest that phospholipase A2 of type II is a mediator of endotoxin effects in the gastrointestinal mucosa and that its expression at the mRNA level can be inhibited by corticosteroids. Images Figure 1 PMID:8307447

  9. Methylmercury-induced toxicity is mediated by enhanced intracellular calcium through activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Seo, Ji Heui; Jeon, Hyung Jun; Jung, Kwang Mook; Chin, Mi-Reyoung; Moon, Chang-Kiu; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Jung, Sung Yun; Kim, Dae Kyong . E-mail: proteinlab@hanmail.net

    2006-10-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant to which humans can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated food. MeHg has been suggested to exert its toxicity through its high reactivity to thiols, generation of arachidonic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation of free intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). However, the precise mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we show that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a critical pathway for MeHg-induced toxicity in MDCK cells. D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC, significantly reversed the toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of the diacylglycerol (DAG) generation and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-breakdown. MeHg activated the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) and acidic form of sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downstream of PC-PLC, but these enzymes as well as protein kinase C (PKC) were not linked to the toxicity by MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg produced ROS, which did not affect the toxicity. Addition of EGTA to culture media resulted in partial decrease of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and partially blocked the toxicity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with MeHg in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} in the culture media, D609 completely prevented cell death with parallel decrease in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Our results demonstrated that MeHg-induced toxicity was linked to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} through activation of PC-PLC, but not attributable to the signaling pathways such as cPLA{sub 2}, A-SMase, and PKC, or to the generation of ROS.

  10. Plasma membrane phospholipase A2 controls hepatocellular fatty acid uptake and is responsive to pharmacological modulation: implications for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Stremmel, Wolfgang; Staffer, Simone; Wannhoff, Andreas; Pathil, Anita; Chamulitrat, Walee

    2014-07-01

    Excess hepatic fat accumulation leads to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a serious threat to health for which no effective treatment is available. However, the mechanism responsible for fatty acid uptake by hepatocytes remains unclear. Using the human hepatocyte-derived tumor cell line HepG2, we found that fatty acid influx is mediated by a heterotetrameric plasma membrane protein complex consisting of plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein, caveolin-1, CD36, and calcium-independent membrane phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β). Blocking iPLA2β with the bile acid-phospholipid conjugate ursodeoxycholate-lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE) caused the dissociation of the complex, thereby inhibiting fatty acid influx (IC50 47 μM), and suppressed the synthesis of all subunits through a reduction in lysophosphatidylcholine from 8.0 to 3.5 μmol/mg of protein and corresponding depletion of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These findings were substantiated by an observed 56.5% decrease in fatty acid influx in isolated hepatocytes derived from iPLA2β-knockout mice. Moreover, steatosis and inflammation were abrogated by UDCA-LPE treatment in a cellular model of NASH. Thus, iPLA2β acts as an upstream checkpoint for mechanisms that regulate fatty acid uptake, and its inhibition by UDCA-LPE qualifies this nontoxic compound as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of NASH.-Stremmel, W., Staffer, S., Wannhoff, A., Pathil, A., Chamulitrat, W. Plasma membrane phospholipase A2 controls hepatocellular fatty acid uptake and is responsive to pharmacological modulation: implications for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:24719358