Science.gov

Sample records for human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase

  1. N114S mutation causes loss of ATP-induced aggregation of human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Honglin; Peng, Xiaohui; Zhao Fang; Zhang Guobin; Tao Ye; Luo Zhaofeng; Li Yang; Teng Maikun; Li Xu Wei Shiqiang

    2009-02-20

    This study examined recombinant wild-type human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (wt-PRS1, EC 2.7.6.1) and the point mutant Asn114Ser PRS1 (N114S-Mutant) in cells of a patient with primary gout. Dynamic light-scattering and sedimentation velocity experiments indicated that the monomeric wt-PRS1 in solution was assembled into hexamers after adding the substrate ATP. However, this ATP-induced aggregation effect was not observed with N114S-Mutant, which has a 50% higher enzymatic activity than that of wt-PRS1. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the point mutation causes an increase of {alpha}-helix content and a decrease of turn content. Examination of the crystal structure of wt-PRS1 indicated that 12 hydrogen bonds formed by 6 pairs of N114 and D139 have an important role in stabilizing the hexamer. We suggest that the substitution of S114 for N114 in N114S-Mutant leads to the rupture of 12 hydrogen bonds and breakage of the PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} allosteric site where PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} functions as a fixer of the ATP-binding loop. Therefore, we consider that formation of the hexamer as the structural basis of the ADP allosteric inhibition is greatly weakened by the N114S mutation, and that alteration of the ATP-binding loop conformation is the key factor in the increased activity of N114S-Mutant. These two factors could be responsible for the high level of activity of N114S-Mutant in this patient.

  2. Radioimmune assay of human platelet prostaglandin synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, G.J.; Machuga, E.T.

    1982-02-01

    Normal platelet function depends, in part, on platelet PG synthesis. PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) catalyzes the first step in PG synthesis, the formation of PGH/sub 2/ from arachidonic acid. Inhibition of the enzyme by ASA results in an abnormality in the platelet release reaction. Patients with pparent congenital abnormalities in the enzyme have been described, and the effects have been referred to as ''aspirin-like'' defects of the platelet function. These patients lack platelet PG synthetase activity, but the actual content of PG synthetase protein in these individuals' platelets is unknown. Therefore an RIA for human platelet PG synthetase would provide new information, useful in assessing the aspirin-like defects of platelet function. An RIA for human platelet PG synthetase is described. The assay utilizes a rabbit antibody directed against the enzyme and (/sup 125/I)-labelled sheep PG synthetase as antigen. The human platelet enzyme is assayed by its ability to inhibit precipitation of the (/sup 125/I)antigen. The assay is sensitive to 1 ng of enzyme. By the immune assay, human platelets contain approximately 1200 ng of PG synethetase protein per 1.5 mg of platelet protein (approximately 10/sup 9/ platelets). This content corresponds to 10,000 enzyme molecules per platelet. The assay provides a rapid and convenient assay for the human platelet enzyme, and it can be applied to the assessment of patients with apparent platelet PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) deficiency.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sources for This Page Ahmed M, Taylor W, Smith PR, Becker MA. Accelerated transcription of PRPS1 in ... 11):7482-8. Citation on PubMed Becker MA, Smith PR, Taylor W, Mustafi R, Switzer RL. The ...

  4. Radiometric measurement of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate and ribose 5-phosphate by enzymatic procedures

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.T.; Passonneau, J.V.; Veech, R.L. )

    1990-05-15

    Methods for the measurement of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) and ribose 5-phosphate (R-5-P) in tissues have been developed. The lability of these compounds during tissue extraction and the recovery of standards from tissue preparations have been examined. Enzymatic conversion of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate to (14C)AMP in the presence of labeled adenine or formation of (14C)GMP ((14C)IMP) in the presence of labeled guanine or hypoxanthine was accomplished in the first step. In the second step, the labeled product was separated from the substrate. For the measurement of R-5-P, the first step included phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, as well as the appropriate substrate and effector (ATP and Pi), in combination with adenine phosphoribosyl transferase. The product (14C)AMP was measured in three ways: (1) HPLC separation with an on-line radioisotope detector; (2) butanol extraction of the labeled base, and measurement of an aliquot of the aqueous phase in a scintillation counter; (3) filtration of the incubation mixture with chromatographic filter paper disks, which were then counted in a scintillation counter. When (14C)guanine was the substrate, HPLC separation was used because the butanol or paper separation was not adequate. Measurement of 5-125 pmol of PRPP or R-5-P gave a linear response.

  5. Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: the first crystallization of a human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnefond, Luc; Frugier, Magali; Touzé, Elodie; Lorber, Bernard; Florentz, Catherine; Giegé, Richard Rudinger-Thirion, Joëlle; Sauter, Claude

    2007-04-01

    Crystals of human mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase lacking the C-terminal S4-like domain diffract to 2.7 Å resolution and are suitable for structure determination. Human mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and a truncated version with its C-terminal S4-like domain deleted were purified and crystallized. Only the truncated version, which is active in tyrosine activation and Escherichia coli tRNA{sup Tyr} charging, yielded crystals suitable for structure determination. These tetragonal crystals, belonging to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, were obtained in the presence of PEG 4000 as a crystallizing agent and diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution. Complete data sets could be collected and led to structure solution by molecular replacement.

  6. Induction of angiogenesis by a fragment of human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Keisuke; Slike, Bonnie M; Hood, John; Ewalt, Karla L; Cheresh, David A; Schimmel, Paul

    2002-06-01

    The first step of protein synthesis is catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. In addition, certain mammalian tRNA synthetases link protein synthesis to cytokine signaling pathways. In particular, human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) can be split by proteolysis into two fragments having distinct cytokine activities. One of the TyrRS fragments (mini TyrRS) contains features identical to those in CXC chemokines (like interleukin-8) that also act as angiogenic factors. Here mini TyrRS (but not full-length TyrRS) is shown to stimulate chemotaxis of endothelial cells in vitro and stimulate angiogenesis in each of two in vivo animal models. The angiogenic activity of mini TyrRS can be opposed by anti-angiogenic chemokines like IP-10. Thus, a biological fragment of human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase links protein synthesis to regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:11956181

  7. Mutational Separation of Aminoacylation and Cytokine Activities of Human Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Mili; Otero, Francella J.; Slike, Bonnie M.; Ewalt, Karla L.; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are known for catalysis of aminoacylation. Significantly, some mammalian synthetases developed cytokine functions possibly linked to disease-causing mutations in tRNA synthetases. Not understood is how epitopes for cytokine signaling were introduced into catalytic scaffolds without disturbing aminoacylation. Here we investigate human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, where a catalytic-domain surface helix—next to the active site—was recruited for IL-8-like cytokine signaling. Taking advantage of our high-resolution structure, the reciprocal impact of rational mutations designed to disrupt aminoacylation or cytokine signaling was investigated with multiple assays. The collective analysis demonstrated a protective fine–structure separation of aminoacylation from cytokine activities within the conserved catalytic domain. As a consequence, disease-causing mutations affecting cell signaling can arise without disturbing aminoacylation. These results with TyrRS also predict the previously unknown binding conformation of IL-8-like CXC cytokines. PMID:19477417

  8. Mutational separation of aminoacylation and cytokine activities of human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Mili; Otero, Francella J; Slike, Bonnie M; Ewalt, Karla L; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2009-05-29

    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are known for catalysis of aminoacylation. Significantly, some mammalian synthetases developed cytokine functions possibly linked to disease-causing mutations in tRNA synthetases. Not understood is how epitopes for cytokine signaling were introduced into catalytic scaffolds without disturbing aminoacylation. Here we investigate human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, where a catalytic-domain surface helix, next to the active site, was recruited for interleukin-8-like cytokine signaling. Taking advantage of our high resolution structure, the reciprocal impact of rational mutations designed to disrupt aminoacylation or cytokine signaling was investigated with multiple assays. The collective analysis demonstrated a protective fine-structure separation of aminoacylation from cytokine activities within the conserved catalytic domain. As a consequence, disease-causing mutations affecting cell signaling can arise without disturbing aminoacylation. These results with TyrRS also predict the previously unknown binding conformation of interleukin-8-like CXC cytokines. PMID:19477417

  9. Pathogenic implications of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Schwenzer, Hagen; Zoll, Joffrey; Florentz, Catherine; Sissler, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are considered as the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells. They host several central metabolic processes fueling the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS) that produces ATP from its precursors ADP and inorganic phosphate Pi (PPi). The respiratory chain complexes responsible for the OXPHOS pathway are formed from complementary sets of protein subunits encoded by the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome, respectively. The expression of the mitochondrial genome requires a specific and fully active translation machinery from which aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are key actors. Whilst the macromolecules involved in mammalian mitochondrial translation have been under investigation for many years, there has been an explosion of interest in human mitochondrial aaRSs (mt-aaRSs) since the discovery of a large (and growing) number of mutations in these genes that are linked to a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Herein we will review the present knowledge on mt-aaRSs in terms of their biogenesis, their connection to mitochondrial respiration, i.e., the respiratory chain (RC) complexes, and to the mitochondrial translation machinery. The pathology-related mutations detected so far are described, with special attention given to their impact on mt-aaRSs biogenesis, functioning, and/or subsequent activities. The collected data to date shed light on the diverse routes that are linking primary molecular possible impact of a mutation to its phenotypic expression. It is envisioned that a variety of mechanisms, inside and outside the translation machinery, would play a role on the heterogeneous manifestations of mitochondrial disorders. PMID:23824528

  10. The gene encoding human glutathione synthetase (GSS) maps to the long arm of chromosome 20 at band 11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.C.; Vaska, V.L.; Ford, J.H.

    1995-12-10

    Two forms of glutathione synthetase deficiency have been described. While one form is mild, causing hemolytic anemia, the other more severe form causes 5-oxoprolinuria with secondary neurological involvement. Despite the existence of two deficiency phenotypes, Southern blots hybridized with a glutathione synthetase cDNA suggest that there is a single glutathione synthetase gene in the human genome. Analysis of somatic cell hybrids showed the human glutathione synthetase gene (GSS) to be located on chromosome 20, and this assignment has been refined to subband 20q11.2 using in situ hybridization. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  11. A human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase as a regulator of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Keisuke; Slike, Bonnie M; Hood, John; Otani, Atsushi; Ewalt, Karla L; Friedlander, Martin; Cheresh, David A; Schimmel, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the first step of protein synthesis. It was shown recently that human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) can be split into two fragments having distinct cytokine activities, thereby linking protein synthesis to cytokine signaling pathways. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is a close homologue of TyrRS. A natural fragment, herein designated as mini TrpRS, was shown by others to be produced by alternative splicing. Production of this fragment is reported to be stimulated by IFN-gamma, a cytokine that also stimulates production of angiostatic factors. Mini TrpRS is shown here to be angiostatic in a mammalian cell culture system, the chicken embryo, and two independent angiogenesis assays in the mouse. The full-length enzyme is inactive in the same assays. Thus, protein synthesis may be linked to the regulation of angiogenesis by a natural fragment of TrpRS. PMID:11773626

  12. A human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase as a regulator of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wakasugi, Keisuke; Slike, Bonnie M.; Hood, John; Otani, Atsushi; Ewalt, Karla L.; Friedlander, Martin; Cheresh, David A.; Schimmel, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the first step of protein synthesis. It was shown recently that human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) can be split into two fragments having distinct cytokine activities, thereby linking protein synthesis to cytokine signaling pathways. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is a close homologue of TyrRS. A natural fragment, herein designated as mini TrpRS, was shown by others to be produced by alternative splicing. Production of this fragment is reported to be stimulated by IFN-γ, a cytokine that also stimulates production of angiostatic factors. Mini TrpRS is shown here to be angiostatic in a mammalian cell culture system, the chicken embryo, and two independent angiogenesis assays in the mouse. The full-length enzyme is inactive in the same assays. Thus, protein synthesis may be linked to the regulation of angiogenesis by a natural fragment of TrpRS. PMID:11773626

  13. Molecular cloning of the human CTP synthetase gene by functional complementation with purified human metaphase chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, M; Yamauchi, N; Meuth, M

    1990-07-01

    Successive rounds of chromosome-mediated gene transfer were used to complement a hamster cytidine auxotroph deficient in CTP synthetase activity and eventually to clone human genomic and cDNA fragments coding for the structural gene. Our approach was to isolate human Alu+ fragments from a tertiary transfectant and to utilize these fragments to screen a panel of primary transfectants. In this manner two DNA fragments, both mapping within the structural gene, were identified and used to clone a partial length cDNA. The remaining portion of the open reading frame was obtained through the RACE polymerase chain reaction technique. The open reading frame encodes 591 amino acids having a striking degree of similarity to the Escherichia coli structural gene (48% identical amino acids with 76% overall similarity including conservative substitutions) with the glutamine amide transfer domain being particularly conserved. As regulatory mutations of CTP synthetase confer both multi-drug resistance to agents widely used in cancer chemotherapy and a mutator phenotype, the cloning of the structural gene will be important in assessing the relevance of such phenotypes to the development of cellular drug resistance. PMID:2113467

  14. Alternative splicing creates two new architectures for human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhiyi; Xu, Zhiwen; Liu, Xiaotian; Lo, Wing-Sze; Ye, Fei; Lau, Ching-Fun; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Jie J.; Nangle, Leslie A.; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Zhang, Mingjie; Schimmel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Many human tRNA synthetases evolved alternative functions outside of protein synthesis. These functions are associated with over 200 splice variants (SVs), most of which are catalytic nulls that engender new biology. While known to regulate non-translational activities, little is known about structures resulting from natural internal ablations of any protein. Here, we report analysis of two closely related, internally deleted, SVs of homodimeric human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS). In spite of both variants ablating a portion of the catalytic core and dimer-interface contacts of native TyrRS, each folded into a distinct stable structure. Biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis showed that the internal deletion of TyrRSΔE2–4 SV gave an alternative, neomorphic dimer interface ‘orthogonal’ to that of native TyrRS. In contrast, the internal C-terminal splice site of TyrRSΔE2–3 prevented either dimerization interface from forming, and yielded a predominantly monomeric protein. Unlike ubiquitous TyrRS, the neomorphs showed clear tissue preferences, which were distinct from each other. The results demonstrate a sophisticated structural plasticity of a human tRNA synthetase for architectural reorganizations that are preferentially elicited in specific tissues. PMID:26773056

  15. Alternative splicing creates two new architectures for human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhiyi; Xu, Zhiwen; Liu, Xiaotian; Lo, Wing-Sze; Ye, Fei; Lau, Ching-Fun; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Jie J; Nangle, Leslie A; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Zhang, Mingjie; Schimmel, Paul

    2016-02-18

    Many human tRNA synthetases evolved alternative functions outside of protein synthesis. These functions are associated with over 200 splice variants (SVs), most of which are catalytic nulls that engender new biology. While known to regulate non-translational activities, little is known about structures resulting from natural internal ablations of any protein. Here, we report analysis of two closely related, internally deleted, SVs of homodimeric human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS). In spite of both variants ablating a portion of the catalytic core and dimer-interface contacts of native TyrRS, each folded into a distinct stable structure. Biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis showed that the internal deletion of TyrRSΔE2-4 SV gave an alternative, neomorphic dimer interface 'orthogonal' to that of native TyrRS. In contrast, the internal C-terminal splice site of TyrRSΔE2-3 prevented either dimerization interface from forming, and yielded a predominantly monomeric protein. Unlike ubiquitous TyrRS, the neomorphs showed clear tissue preferences, which were distinct from each other. The results demonstrate a sophisticated structural plasticity of a human tRNA synthetase for architectural reorganizations that are preferentially elicited in specific tissues. PMID:26773056

  16. Phosphorylation of Human CTP Synthetase 1 by Protein Kinase A: IDENTIFICATION OF Thr455 AS A MAJOR SITE OF PHOSPHORYLATION*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Carman, George M.

    2007-01-01

    CTP synthetase is an essential enzyme that generates the CTP required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and membrane phospholipids. In this work, we examined the phosphorylation of the human CTPS1-encoded CTP synthetase 1 by protein kinase A. CTP synthetase 1 was expressed and purified from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ double mutant that lacks CTP synthetase activity. Using purified CTP synthetase 1 as a substrate, protein kinase A activity was time- and dose-dependent. The phosphorylation, which primarily occurred on a threonine residue, was accompanied by a 50% decrease in CTP synthetase 1 activity. The synthetic peptide LGKRRTLFQT that contains the protein kinase A motif for Thr455 was a substrate for protein kinase A. A Thr455 to Ala (T455A) mutation in CTP synthetase 1 was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and was expressed and purified from the S. cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant. The T455A mutation caused a 78% decrease in protein kinase A phosphorylation, and the loss of the phosphothreonine residue and a major phosphopeptide that were present in the purified wild type enzyme phosphorylated by protein kinase A. The CTP synthetase 1 activity of the T455A mutant enzyme was 2-fold higher than the wild type enzyme. In addition, the T455A mutation caused a 44% decrease in the amount of human CTP synthetase 1 that was phosphorylated in S. cerevisiae cells, and this was accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in the cellular concentration of CTP and a 1.5-fold increase in the choline-dependent synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. PMID:17189248

  17. Structure of Human Phosphopantothenoylcysteine Synthetase at 2.3 Å Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, N.; Strauss, E.; Begley, T.P.; Ealick, S.E.

    2010-12-01

    The structure of human phosphopantothenoylcysteine (PPC) synthetase was determined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. PPC synthetase is a dimer with identical monomers. Some features of the monomer fold resemble a group of NAD-dependent enzymes, while other features resemble the ribokinase fold. The ATP, phosphopantothenate, and cysteine binding sites were deduced from modeling studies. Highly conserved ATP binding residues include Gly43, Ser61, Gly63, Gly66, Phe230, and Asn258. Highly conserved phosphopantothenate binding residues include Asn59, Ala179, Ala180, and Asp183 from one monomer and Arg55 from the adjacent monomer. The structure predicts a ping pong mechanism with initial formation of an acyladenylate intermediate, followed by release of pyrophosphate and attack by cysteine to form the final products PPC and AMP.

  18. Understanding species-specific differences in substrate recognition by Escherichia coli and human prolyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Musier-Forsyth, K; Stehlin, C; Burke, B; Liu, H

    1997-01-01

    Class II human prolyl-tRNA synthetase (ProRS) aminoacylates in vitro transcribed human tRNA(Pro) with kinetic parameters that are similar to those previously determined for aminoacylation of Escherichia coli tRNA(Pro) by its cognate synthetase. As in the bacterial system, large decreases in aminoacylation by human ProRS occur upon mutating anticodon positions G35 and G36 of human tRNA(Pro). The N73 'discriminator' base and the first and third base pairs of the acceptor stem vary between the E.coli and human isoacceptor groups. In contrast to the E. coli synthetase, the human enzyme does not appear to recognize these elements, since mutations at these positions do not significantly affect cognate synthetase charging. E. coli ProRS does not cross-aminoacylate human tRNA(Pro), and the bacterial tRNA(Pro) is a poor substrate for the human enzyme. Mutations in both the tRNAs and the synthetases have been made in an effort to identify elements in each system responsible for blocking cross-species aminoacylation. Alignment of all known ProRS primary sequences from different species reveals particularly low overall sequence homology, as well as two distinct groups of enzymes. The sequence divergence between E. coli and human ProRSs helps to explain the species-specific differences in the RNA code for aminoacylation of tRNA(Pro). PMID:9478190

  19. Expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 reflects the state of villus architecture in human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Gassler, Nikolaus; Kopitz, Jürgen; Tehrani, Arman; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Schnölzer, Martina; Kartenbeck, Jürgen; Lyer, Stefan; Autschbach, Frank; Poustka, Annemarie; Otto, Herwart F; Mollenhauer, Jan

    2004-02-01

    Several disorders of the small intestine are associated with disturbances in villus architecture. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the differentiation of villi represents an important step in the improvement of the understanding of small intestinal pathology. Screening of antibodies from a hybridoma library led to the identification of an acyl-CoA synthetase 5-specific monoclonal antibody. Protein synthesis, mRNA expression, and the enzyme activity of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 were studied by several methods in human small intestinal tissues with Crohn's disease or coeliac disease, respectively. Acyl-CoA synthetase 5 mRNA and protein levels were substantially reduced in injured small intestinal mucosa. Moreover, impaired synthesis of the acyl-CoA synthetase 5 protein was reflected by a decrease in intramucosal enzyme activity. Subtle changes of the acyl-CoA synthetase 5 pattern correlate with conversion of intestinal epithelial cells to a gastric phenotype. These results suggest that deranged acyl-CoA synthetase 5 expression, synthesis, and activity are closely related to the state of villus architecture and epithelial homeostasis in human small intestine. PMID:14743501

  20. Inhibition of human glutamine synthetase by L-methionine-S,R-sulfoximine-relevance to the treatment of neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeitner, Thomas M; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2014-12-01

    At high concentrations, the glutamine synthetase inhibitor L-methionine-S,R-sulfoximine (MSO) is a convulsant, especially in dogs. Nevertheless, sub-convulsive doses of MSO are neuroprotective in rodent models of hyperammonemia, acute liver disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and suggest MSO may be clinically useful. Previous work has also shown that much lower doses of MSO are required to produce convulsions in dogs than in primates. Evidence from the mid-20th century suggests that humans are also less sensitive. In the present work, the inhibition of recombinant human glutamine synthetase by MSO is shown to be biphasic-an initial reversible competitive inhibition (K i 1.19 mM) is followed by rapid irreversible inactivation. This K i value for the human enzyme accounts, in part, for relative insensitivity of primates to MSO and suggests that this inhibitor could be used to safely inhibit glutamine synthetase activity in humans. PMID:24136581

  1. Inhibition of human glutamine synthetase by L-methionine-S,R-sulfoximine – relevance to the treatment of neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jeitner, Thomas M.; Cooper, Arthur J. L.

    2013-01-01

    At high concentrations, the glutamine synthetase inhibitor L-methionine-S,R-sulfoximine is a convulsant, especially in dogs. Nevertheless, sub-convulsive doses of MSO are neuroprotective in rodent models of hyperammonemia, acute liver disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and suggest MSO may be clinically useful. Previous work has also shown that much lower doses of MSO are required to produce convulsions in dogs than in primates. Evidence from the mid-20th century suggests that humans are also less sensitive. In the present work, the inhibition of recombinant human glutamine synthetase with MSO is shown to be biphasic – an initial reversible competitive inhibition (Ki 1.19 mM) is followed by rapid irreversible inactivation. This Ki value for the human enzyme accounts, in part, for relative insensitivity of primates to MSO and suggests that this inhibitor could be used to safely inhibit glutamine synthetase activity in humans. PMID:24136581

  2. Structure of human carbamoyl phosphate synthetase: deciphering the on/off switch of human ureagenesis.

    PubMed

    de Cima, Sergio; Polo, Luis M; Díez-Fernández, Carmen; Martínez, Ana I; Cervera, Javier; Fita, Ignacio; Rubio, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Human carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS1), a 1500-residue multidomain enzyme, catalyzes the first step of ammonia detoxification to urea requiring N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) as essential activator to prevent ammonia/amino acids depletion. Here we present the crystal structures of CPS1 in the absence and in the presence of NAG, clarifying the on/off-switching of the urea cycle by NAG. By binding at the C-terminal domain of CPS1, NAG triggers long-range conformational changes affecting the two distant phosphorylation domains. These changes, concerted with the binding of nucleotides, result in a dramatic remodeling that stabilizes the catalytically competent conformation and the building of the ~35 Å-long tunnel that allows migration of the carbamate intermediate from its site of formation to the second phosphorylation site, where carbamoyl phosphate is produced. These structures allow rationalizing the effects of mutations found in patients with CPS1 deficiency (presenting hyperammonemia, mental retardation and even death), as exemplified here for some mutations. PMID:26592762

  3. Structure of human carbamoyl phosphate synthetase: deciphering the on/off switch of human ureagenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Cima, Sergio; Polo, Luis M.; Díez-Fernández, Carmen; Martínez, Ana I.; Cervera, Javier; Fita, Ignacio; Rubio, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Human carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS1), a 1500-residue multidomain enzyme, catalyzes the first step of ammonia detoxification to urea requiring N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) as essential activator to prevent ammonia/amino acids depletion. Here we present the crystal structures of CPS1 in the absence and in the presence of NAG, clarifying the on/off-switching of the urea cycle by NAG. By binding at the C-terminal domain of CPS1, NAG triggers long-range conformational changes affecting the two distant phosphorylation domains. These changes, concerted with the binding of nucleotides, result in a dramatic remodeling that stabilizes the catalytically competent conformation and the building of the ~35 Å-long tunnel that allows migration of the carbamate intermediate from its site of formation to the second phosphorylation site, where carbamoyl phosphate is produced. These structures allow rationalizing the effects of mutations found in patients with CPS1 deficiency (presenting hyperammonemia, mental retardation and even death), as exemplified here for some mutations. PMID:26592762

  4. Argininosuccinate synthetase as a plasma biomarker of liver injury after acetaminophen overdose in rodents and humans

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Archie; Sharpe, Matthew R.; Williams, C. David; Curry, Steven C.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Svetlov, Stanislav I.

    2014-01-01

    Context New biomarkers are needed in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Plasma argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is a promising candidate. Objective Characterize ASS in APAP hepatotoxicity. Methods ASS was measured in plasma from rodents and humans with APAP hepatotoxicity. Results In mice, ASS increased before injury, peaked before ALT, and decreased rapidly. Fischer rats had a greater increase in ASS relative to ALT. Patients with abnormal liver test results had very high ASS compared to controls. ASS appeared to increase early in some patients, and declined rapidly in all. Conclusions : ASS may be a useful biomarker of acute cell death in APAP hepatotoxicity. PMID:24597531

  5. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, H. B.; Sculaccio, S. A.; Thiemann, O. H.; Oliva, G.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthases (PRS; EC 2.7.6.1) are enzymes that are of central importance in several metabolic pathways in all cells. The sugar cane PRS enzyme contains 328 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.6 kDa and represents the first plant PRS to be crystallized, as well as the first phosphate-independent PRS to be studied in molecular detail. Sugar cane PRS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Using X-ray diffraction experiments it was determined that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and unit-cell parameters a = 213.2, b = 152.6, c = 149.3 Å. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.3 Å and a complete data set to 3.5 Å resolution was collected and analysed.

  6. A human tRNA synthetase is a potent PARP1-activating effector target for resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Sajish, Mathew; Schimmel, Paul

    2015-03-19

    Resveratrol is reported to extend lifespan and provide cardio-neuro-protective, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer effects by initiating a stress response that induces survival genes. Because human tyrosyl transfer-RNA (tRNA) synthetase (TyrRS) translocates to the nucleus under stress conditions, we considered the possibility that the tyrosine-like phenolic ring of resveratrol might fit into the active site pocket to effect a nuclear role. Here we present a 2.1 Å co-crystal structure of resveratrol bound to the active site of TyrRS. Resveratrol nullifies the catalytic activity and redirects TyrRS to a nuclear function, stimulating NAD(+)-dependent auto-poly-ADP-ribosylation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Downstream activation of key stress signalling pathways are causally connected to TyrRS-PARP1-NAD(+) collaboration. This collaboration is also demonstrated in the mouse, and is specifically blocked in vivo by a resveratrol-displacing tyrosyl adenylate analogue. In contrast to functionally diverse tRNA synthetase catalytic nulls created by alternative splicing events that ablate active sites, here a non-spliced TyrRS catalytic null reveals a new PARP1- and NAD(+)-dependent dimension to the physiological mechanism of resveratrol. PMID:25533949

  7. A human leucyl-tRNA synthetase as an anticancer target

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guangwei; Yao, Ying; Li, Kun; Mashausi, Dhahiri Saidi; Li, Dongsheng; Negi, Hema; Kamle, Suchitra; Chen, Hao; Wu, Zhenghua; Zhou, Huchen; Li, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have been reported to be overexpressed for charging essential aminoacyl-tRNAs in many cancer types. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential role of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LARS) as an anticancer target. MTT assay was performed to screen inhibitors to human LARS (hsLARS) from compounds AN2690 and its derivatives, compounds 1–6, in U2OS and SKOV3 cells. The compound with the strongest inhibitory ability was further investigated for its inhibitory effect in cancer cell lines and in an animal tumor model. Additionally, a LARS-rescue experiment was performed to explore the potential target in U2OS using Western blot and flow cytometry. Luciferase reporter assay was designed to analyze the effect of of hsLARS inhibitor on p21 activation. We identified an hsLARS inhibitor (compound 2) that suppressed the proliferation of U2OS and SKOV3 cells in vitro. A LARS-rescue experiment demonstrated that the proliferation inhibition was induced by targeting intracellular LARS. In addition, the hsLARS inhibition was shown to activate the p21 early transcription and promote cell apoptosis, as well as reduce implanted EMT6 tumor progression in mice. Our results suggest that LARS might serve as a potential anticancer target through the p21 signaling pathway and that the nutritional signaling pathway may provide a valuable anticancer strategy for further investigation. PMID:26508878

  8. Bimodular Peptide Synthetase SidE Produces Fumarylalanine in the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Steinchen, Wieland; Lackner, Gerald; Yasmin, Sabiha; Schrettl, Markus; Dahse, Hans-Martin

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous mold Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a potentially life-threatening infectious disease, in humans. The sidE gene encodes a bimodular peptide synthetase and was shown previously to be strongly upregulated during initiation of murine lung infection. In this study, we characterized the two adenylation domains of SidE with the ATP-[32P]pyrophosphate exchange assay in vitro, which identified fumarate and l-alanine, respectively, as the preferred substrates. Using full-length holo-SidE, fumarylalanine (FA) formation was observed in vitro. Furthermore, FA was identified in A. fumigatus culture supernatants under inducing conditions, unless sidE was genetically inactivated. As FA is structurally related to established pharmaceutical products exerting immunomodulatory activity, this work may contribute to our understanding of the virulence of A. fumigatus. PMID:23974138

  9. Expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Gaisa, N T; Köster, J; Reinartz, A; Ertmer, K; Ehling, J; Raupach, K; Perez-Bouza, A; Knüchel, R; Gassler, N

    2008-04-01

    The human epidermis is characterized by a constant renewal of keratinocytes embedded in a matrix enriched with lipids. Numerous proteins involved in lipid metabolism are found in human epidermis, especially in keratinocytes. Long-chain acyl-CoA derivatives, which are catalyzed by human ACSL5, are important metabolites in several biochemical pathways, including ceramide de novo synthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate expression of acyl-CoA synthetase isoform 5 (ACSL5) in human epidermis by an in situ, as well as a molecular approach. We show that ACSL5 mRNA and protein are found in human epidermis, as well as in non-differentiated and differentiated HaCaT cells. Keratinocytes of stratum spinosum are the main source for ACSL5 expression in both meshed facial or abdominal skin and ridged skin of upper or lower extremities including TUNEL-positive cells in upper cellular layers. Single keratinocytes of chronic solar-exposed meshed facial epidermis occasionally display a stronger ACSL5 immunostaining. In conclusion, our study indicates that epidermal ACSL5 expression might be involved in differentiation and the stress response of keratinocytes. PMID:18228202

  10. A critical electrostatic interaction mediates inhibitor recognition by human asparagine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Hideyuki; Meyer, Megan E; Ding, Yun; Hiratake, Jun; Richards, Nigel G J

    2009-09-15

    The first sulfoximine-based inhibitor of human asparagine synthetase (ASNS) with nanomolar potency has been shown to suppress proliferation of asparaginase-resistant MOLT-4 cells in the presence of L-asparaginase. This validates literature hypotheses concerning the viability of human ASNS as a target for new drugs against acute lymphoblastic leukemia and ovarian cancer. Developing structure-function relationships for this class of human ASNS inhibitors has proven difficult, however, primarily because of the absence of rapid synthetic procedures for constructing highly functionalized sulfoximines. We now report conditions for the efficient preparation of these compounds by coupling sulfoxides and sulfamides in the presence of a rhodium catalyst. Access to this methodology has permitted the construction of two new adenylated sulfoximines, which were expected to exhibit similar binding affinity and better bioavailability than the original human ASNS inhibitor. Steady-state kinetic characterization of these compounds, however, has revealed the importance of a localized negative charge on the inhibitor that mimics that of the phosphate group in a key acyl-adenylate reaction intermediate. These experiments place an important constraint on the design of sulfoximine libraries for screening experiments to obtain ASNS inhibitors with increased potency and bioavailability. PMID:19683931

  11. Over-expression in Escherichia coli and characterization of two recombinant isoforms of human FAD synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Brizio, Carmen; Galluccio, Michele; Wait, Robin; Torchetti, Enza Maria; Bafunno, Valeria; Accardi, Rosita; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Indiveri, Cesare; Barile, Maria . E-mail: m.barile@biologia.uniba.it

    2006-06-09

    FAD synthetase (FADS) (EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor FAD. Two hypothetical human FADSs, which are the products of FLAD1 gene, were over-expressed in Escherichia coli and identified by ESI-MS/MS. Isoform 1 was over-expressed as a T7-tagged protein which had a molecular mass of 63 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Isoform 2 was over-expressed as a 6-His-tagged fusion protein, carrying an extra 84 amino acids at the N-terminal with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa on SDS-PAGE. It was purified near to homogeneity from the soluble cell fraction by one-step affinity chromatography. Both isoforms possessed FADS activity and had a strict requirement for MgCl{sub 2}, as demonstrated using both spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The purified recombinant isoform 2 showed a specific activity of 6.8 {+-} 1.3 nmol of FAD synthesized/min/mg protein and exhibited a K {sub M} value for FMN of 1.5 {+-} 0.3 {mu}M. This is First report on characterization of human FADS, and First cloning and over-expression of FADS from an organism higher than yeast.

  12. Cyclic Peptide Inhibitors of HIV-1 Capsid-Human Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein (CA) plays a critical role in the viral life cycle. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA binds to human lysyl-tRNA synthetase (hLysRS), and this interaction facilitates packaging of host cell tRNALys,3, which serves as the primer for reverse transcription. Here, we report the library synthesis, high-throughput screening, and identification of cyclic peptides (CPs) that bind HIV-1 CA. Scrambling or single-residue changes of the selected peptide sequences eliminated binding, suggesting a sequence-specific mode of interaction. Two peptides (CP2 and CP4) subjected to detailed analysis also inhibited hLysRS/CA interaction in vitro. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mutagenesis studies revealed that both CPs bind to a site proximal to helix 4 of the CA-CTD, which is the known site of hLysRS interaction. These results extend the current repertoire of CA-binding molecules to a new class of peptides targeting a novel site with potential for development into novel antiviral agents. PMID:22276994

  13. Gain-Of-Function Mutational Activation of Human TRNA Synthetase Procytokine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.L.; Kapoor, M.; Otero, F.J.; Slike, B.M.; Tsuruta, H.; Frausto, R.; Bates, A.; Ewalt, K.L.; Cheresh, D.A.; Schimmel, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Disease-causing mutations occur in genes for aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. That some mutations are dominant suggests a gain of function. Native tRNA synthetases, such as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, catalyze aminoacylation and are also procytokines that are activated by natural fragmentation. In principle, however, gain-of-function phenotypes could arise from mutational activation of synthetase procytokines. From crystal structure analysis, we hypothesized that a steric block of a critical Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif in full-length TyrRS suppresses the cytokine activity of a natural fragment. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to uncover ELR in the procytokine by mutating a conserved tyrosine (Y341) that tethers ELR. Site-specific proteolytic cleavage and small-angle X-ray scattering established subtle opening of the structure by the mutation. Strikingly, four different assays demonstrated mutational activation of cytokine functions. The results prove the possibilities for constitutive gain-of-function mutations in tRNA synthetases.

  14. Gain-of-function mutational activation of human tRNA synthetase procytokine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Lei; Kapoor, Mili; Otero, Francella J; Slike, Bonnie M; Tsuruta, Hiro; Frausto, Ricardo; Bates, Alison; Ewalt, Karla L; Cheresh, David A; Schimmel, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Disease-causing mutations occur in genes for aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. That some mutations are dominant suggests a gain of function. Native tRNA synthetases, such as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, catalyze aminoacylation and are also procytokines that are activated by natural fragmentation. In principle, however, gain-of-function phenotypes could arise from mutational activation of synthetase procytokines. From crystal structure analysis, we hypothesized that a steric block of a critical Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif in full-length TyrRS suppresses the cytokine activity of a natural fragment. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to uncover ELR in the procytokine by mutating a conserved tyrosine (Y341) that tethers ELR. Site-specific proteolytic cleavage and small-angle X-ray scattering established subtle opening of the structure by the mutation. Strikingly, four different assays demonstrated mutational activation of cytokine functions. The results prove the possibilities for constitutive gain-of-function mutations in tRNA synthetases. PMID:18096501

  15. Human selenophosphate synthetase 1 has five splice variants with unique interactions, subcellular localizations and expression patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Kwang Hee; Shim, Myoung Sup; Shin, Hyein; Xu, Xue-Ming; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae

    2010-06-18

    Selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SPS1) is an essential cellular gene in higher eukaryotes. Five alternative splice variants of human SPS1 (major type, {Delta}E2, {Delta}E8, +E9, +E9a) were identified wherein +E9 and +E9a make the same protein. The major type was localized in both the nuclear and plasma membranes, and the others in the cytoplasm. All variants form homodimers, and in addition, the major type forms a heterodimer with {Delta}E2, and {Delta}E8 with +E9. The level of expression of each splice variant was different in various cell lines. The expression of each alternative splice variant was regulated during the cell cycle. The levels of the major type and {Delta}E8 were gradually increased until G2/M phase and then gradually decreased. {Delta}E2 expression peaked at mid-S phase and then gradually decreased. However, +E9/+E9a expression decreased gradually after cell cycle arrest. The possible involvement of SPS1 splice variants in cell cycle regulation is discussed.

  16. Degenerate connective polypeptide 1 (CP1) domain from human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Wang, Meng; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Ji, Quan-Quan; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-10-01

    The connective polypeptide 1 (CP1) editing domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) from various species either harbors a conserved active site to exclude tRNA mis-charging with noncognate amino acids or is evolutionarily truncated or lost because there is no requirement for high translational fidelity. However, human mitochondrial LeuRS (hmtLeuRS) contains a full-length but degenerate CP1 domain that has mutations in some residues important for post-transfer editing. The significance of such an inactive CP1 domain and a translational accuracy mechanism with different noncognate amino acids are not completely understood. Here, we identified the essential role of the evolutionarily divergent CP1 domain in facilitating hmtLeuRS's catalytic efficiency and endowing enzyme with resistance to AN2690, a broad-spectrum drug acting on LeuRSs. In addition, the canonical core of hmtLeuRS is not stringent for noncognate norvaline (Nva) and valine (Val). hmtLeuRS has a very weak tRNA-independent pre-transfer editing activity for Nva, which is insufficient to remove mis-activated Nva. Moreover, hmtLeuRS chimeras fused with a functional CP1 domain from LeuRSs of other species, regardless of origin, showed restored post-transfer editing activity and acquired fidelity during aminoacylation. This work offers a novel perspective on the role of the CP1 domain in optimizing aminoacylation efficiency. PMID:26272616

  17. Neurodegenerative disease-associated mutants of a human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase present individual molecular signatures

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Claude; Lorber, Bernard; Gaudry, Agnès; Karim, Loukmane; Schwenzer, Hagen; Wien, Frank; Roblin, Pierre; Florentz, Catherine; Sissler, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are associated with a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The effects of these mutations on the structure and function of the enzymes remain to be established. Here, we investigate six mutants of the aspartyl-tRNA synthetase correlated with leukoencephalopathies. Our integrated strategy, combining an ensemble of biochemical and biophysical approaches, reveals that mutants are diversely affected with respect to their solubility in cellular extracts and stability in solution, but not in architecture. Mutations with mild effects on solubility occur in patients as allelic combinations whereas those with strong effects on solubility or on aminoacylation are necessarily associated with a partially functional allele. The fact that all mutations show individual molecular and cellular signatures and affect amino acids only conserved in mammals, points towards an alternative function besides aminoacylation. PMID:26620921

  18. N- and C-terminal domains in human holocarboxylase synthetase participate in substrate recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Yousef I.; Moriyama, Hideaki; Olsen, Lars J.; Bi, Xin; Zempleni, Janos

    2009-01-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes the binding of the vitamin biotin to carboxylases and histones. Carboxylases mediate essential steps in macronutrient metabolism. For example, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) catalyzes the carboxylation of propionyl-CoA in the metabolism of odd-chain fatty acids. HCS comprises four putative domains, i.e., the N-terminus, the biotin transfer/ATP binding domain, a putative linker domain, and the C-terminus. Both N- and C-termini are essential for biotinylation of carboxylases by HCS, but the exact functions of these two domains in enzyme catalysis are unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that N- and C-termini play roles in substrate recognition by HCS. Yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assays were used to study interactions between the four domains of human HCS with p67, a PCC-based polypeptide and HCS substrate. Both N- and C-termini interacted with p67 in Y2H assays, whereas the biotin transfer/ATP-binding and the linker domains did not interact with p67. The essentiality of N- and C-termini for interactions with carboxylases was confirmed in rescue experiments with mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using constructs of truncated human HCS. Finally, a computational biology approach was used to model the 3D structure of human HCS and identify amino acid residues that interact with p67. In silico predictions were consistent with observations from Y2H assays and yeast rescue experiments, and suggested docking of p67 near Arg508 and Ser515 within the central domain of HCS. PMID:19157941

  19. Methionine synthetase activity of human lymphocytes both replete in and depleted of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Hall, C A; Begley, J A; Chu, R C

    1986-10-01

    The activity of the enzyme methionine synthetase (MS) (methyltetrahydrofolate:homocysteine methyltransferase) (EC 2.1.1.13) was measured in human lymphocytes of various types and cobalamin (vitamin B12) status. Total and holo MS activity was low in unstimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes from persons with tissue deficiency of cobalamin, but not in cells from those with low serum cobalamin levels for other reasons. The MS activity of the lymphocyte was increased by treatment of the patients with vitamin B12. The number of lymphocytes was often low or low normal in the circulation of those deficient in cobalamin. Holo MS activity was low in an established line of human B cells, RPMI 6410 cells, depleted of cobalamin. The total and holo MS activity of both RPMI 6410 cells, replete or depleted, and lymphocytes stimulated in culture was increased by cobalamin in vitro; 222 nmol/L free cobalamin was roughly the equivalent of 0.22 nmol/L cobalamin bound to transcobalamin II. Both lymphocytes and RPMI 6410 cells required folate for growth and could meet these needs via methylfolate, homocysteine, and the cobalamin-dependent MS reaction. Depleted RPMI 6410 cells, however, used cobalamin in some way in addition to the provision of available folate from methylfolate. The consequences of the reduced MS activity in deficient cells could include a reduction in available folate with diminished capacity for clonal expansion of lymphocytes in reaction to infection and impairment of essential methylations including those of protein synthesis. The prompt induction of MS activity by cobalamin, especially in the in vitro model, suggests an effect of therapeutic vitamin B12 well in advance of the numerical increase in cells of the blood. PMID:3760673

  20. Crystal structure of tetrameric form of human lysyl-tRNA synthetase: Implications for multisynthetase complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Min; Ignatov, Michael; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2008-09-17

    In mammals, many aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are bound together in a multisynthetase complex (MSC) as a reservoir of procytokines and regulation molecules for functions beyond aminoacylation. The {alpha}{sub 2} homodimeric lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is tightly bound in the MSC and, under specific conditions, is secreted to trigger a proinflammatory response. Results by others suggest that {alpha}{sub 2} LysRS is tightly bound into the core of the MSC with homodimeric {beta}{sub 2} p38, a scaffolding protein that itself is multifunctional. Not understood is how the two dimeric proteins combine to make a presumptive {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer and, in particular, the location of the surfaces on LysRS that would accommodate the p38 interactions. Here we present a 2.3-{angstrom} crystal structure of a tetrameric form of human LysRS. The relatively loose (as seen in solution) tetramer interface is assembled from two eukaryote-specific sequences, one in the catalytic- and another in the anticodon-binding domain. This same interface is predicted to provide unique determinants for interaction with p38. The analyses suggest how the core of the MSC is assembled and, more generally, that interactions and functions of synthetases can be built and regulated through dynamic protein-protein interfaces. These interfaces are created from small adaptations to what is otherwise a highly conserved (through evolution) polypeptide sequence.

  1. Gain-of-Function Mutational Activation of Human tRNA Synthetase Procytokine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiang-Lei; Kapoor, Mili; Otero, Francella J.; Slike, Bonnie M.; Tsuruta, Hiro; Frausto, Ricardo; Bates, Alison; Ewalt, Karla L.; Cheresh, David A.; Schimmel, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Summary Disease-causing mutations occur in genes for aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. That some mutations are dominant suggests a gain-of-function. Native tRNA synthetases, like TyrRS and TrpRS, catalyze aminoacylation and are also procytokines that are activated by natural fragmentation. In principle, however, gain-of-function phenotypes could arise from mutational activation of synthetase procytokines. From crystal structure analysis we hypothesized that a steric block of a critical ELR motif in full-length TyrRS suppresses the cytokine activity of a natural fragment. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to uncover ELR in the procytokine by mutating a conserved tyrosine (Y341) that tethers ELR. Site-specific proteolytic cleavage and small angle X-ray scattering established subtle opening of the structure by the mutation. Strikingly, four different assays demonstrated mutational activation of cytokine functions. The results prove the possibilities for constitutive gain-of-function mutations in tRNA synthetases. PMID:18096501

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Inna; Kessler, Naama; Moor, Nina; Klipcan, Liron; Koc, Emine; Templeton, Paul; Spremulli, Linda; Safro, Mark

    2007-09-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) are reported. Diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the mitPheRS structure was solved using the molecular-replacement method. Human monomeric mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mitPheRS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the charging of tRNA with the cognate amino acid phenylalanine. Human mitPheRS is a chimera of the bacterial α-subunit of PheRS and the B8 domain of its β-subunit. Together, the α-subunit and the ‘RNP-domain’ (B8 domain) at the C-terminus form the minimal structural set to construct an enzyme with phenylalanylation activity. The recombinant human mitPheRS was purified to homogeneity and crystallized in complex with phenylalanine and ATP. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55, b = 90, c = 96 Å.

  3. Conservation of structure in the human gene encoding argininosuccinate synthetase and the argG genes of the archaebacteria Methanosarcina barkeri MS and Methanococcus vannielii

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.J.; Reeve, J.N.

    1988-07-01

    The DNA sequences of the argG genes of Methanosarcina barkeri MS and Methanococcus vannielii were determined. The polypeptide products of these methanogen genes have amino acid sequences which are 50% identical to each other and 38% identical to the amino acid sequence encoded by the exons of the human argininosuccinate synthetase gene. Introns in the human chromosomal gene separate regions which encode amino acids conserved in both the archaebacterial and human gene products. An open reading frame immediately upstream of argG in Methanosarcina barkeri MS codes for an amino acid sequence which is 45 and 31% identical to the sequences of the large subunits of carbamyl phosphate synthetase in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. If this gene encodes carbamyl phosphate synthetase in Methanosarcina barkeri, this is the first example, in an archaebacterium, of physical linkage of genes that encode enzymes which catalyze reactions in the same amino acid biosynthetic pathway.

  4. S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase and phospholipid methyltransferase are inhibited in human cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Duce, A M; Ortíz, P; Cabrero, C; Mato, J M

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the activity S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase in liver biopsies from a group of controls (n = 17) and in 26 cirrhotics (12 alcoholic and 14 posthepatic). The activity of this enzyme was markedly reduced in the group of cirrhotics (285 +/- 32 pmoles per min per mg protein) when compared with that observed in controls (505 +/- 37 pmoles per min per mg protein). No differences in S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase was observed between both groups of cirrhotics. Similarly, a marked reduction in the activity phospholipid methyltransferase was also observed in liver biopsies from the same group of cirrhotics (105 +/- 12 pmoles per min per mg protein) when compared with the control subjects (241 +/- 13 pmoles per min per mg protein). Again, no difference in the activity of this enzyme was observed between both groups of cirrhotics. These results indicated a marked deficiency in the metabolism of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in cirrhosis. PMID:3338721

  5. A Loss-of-Function Variant in the Human Histidyl-tRNA Synthetase (HARS) Gene is Neurotoxic In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vester, Aimee; Velez-Ruiz, Gisselle; McLaughlin, Heather M.; Lupski, James R.; Talbot, Kevin; Vance, Jeffery M.; Züchner, Stephan; Roda, Ricardo H.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Nicholson, Garth; Beg, Asim; Antonellis, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes responsible for ligating amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules. Mutations in four genes encoding an ARS have been implicated in inherited peripheral neuropathy with an axonal pathology, suggesting that all ARS genes are relevant candidates for disease in patients with related phenotypes. Here, we present results from a mutation screen of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene in a large cohort of patients with peripheral neuropathy. These efforts revealed a rare missense variant (p.Arg137Gln) that resides at a highly conserved amino acid, represents a loss-of-function allele when evaluated in yeast complementation assays, and is toxic to neurons when expressed in a worm model. In addition to the patient with peripheral neuropathy, p.Arg137Gln HARS was detected in three individuals by genome-wide exome sequencing. These findings suggest that HARS is the fifth ARS locus associated with axonal peripheral neuropathy. Implications for identifying ARS alleles in human populations and assessing them for a role in neurodegenerative phenotypes are discussed. PMID:22930593

  6. Identification of Lethal Mutations in Yeast Threonyl-tRNA Synthetase Revealing Critical Residues in Its Human Homolog*

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Ye, Qing; Lei, Hui-Yan; Eriani, Gilbert; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are a group of ancient enzymes catalyzing aminoacylation and editing reactions for protein biosynthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that these critical enzymes are often associated with mammalian disorders. Therefore, complete determination of the enzymes functions is essential for informed diagnosis and treatment. Here, we show that a yeast knock-out strain for the threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) gene is an excellent platform for such an investigation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ThrRS has a unique modular structure containing four structural domains and a eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension. Using randomly mutated libraries of the ThrRS gene (thrS) and a genetic screen, a set of loss-of-function mutants were identified. The mutations affected the synthetic and editing activities and influenced the dimer interface. The results also highlighted the role of the N-terminal extension for enzymatic activity and protein stability. To gain insights into the pathological mechanisms induced by mutated aaRSs, we systematically introduced the loss-of-function mutations into the human cytoplasmic ThrRS gene. All mutations induced similar detrimental effects, showing that the yeast model could be used to study pathology-associated point mutations in mammalian aaRSs. PMID:25416776

  7. Identification of lethal mutations in yeast threonyl-tRNA synthetase revealing critical residues in its human homolog.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Ye, Qing; Lei, Hui-Yan; Eriani, Gilbert; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-01-16

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are a group of ancient enzymes catalyzing aminoacylation and editing reactions for protein biosynthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that these critical enzymes are often associated with mammalian disorders. Therefore, complete determination of the enzymes functions is essential for informed diagnosis and treatment. Here, we show that a yeast knock-out strain for the threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) gene is an excellent platform for such an investigation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ThrRS has a unique modular structure containing four structural domains and a eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension. Using randomly mutated libraries of the ThrRS gene (thrS) and a genetic screen, a set of loss-of-function mutants were identified. The mutations affected the synthetic and editing activities and influenced the dimer interface. The results also highlighted the role of the N-terminal extension for enzymatic activity and protein stability. To gain insights into the pathological mechanisms induced by mutated aaRSs, we systematically introduced the loss-of-function mutations into the human cytoplasmic ThrRS gene. All mutations induced similar detrimental effects, showing that the yeast model could be used to study pathology-associated point mutations in mammalian aaRSs. PMID:25416776

  8. Elaborate uORF/IRES features control expression and localization of human glycyl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, Jana; Paulus, Caroline; Rudinger-Thirion, Joëlle; Jossinet, Fabrice; Frugier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    The canonical activity of glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) is to charge glycine onto its cognate tRNAs. However, outside translation, GARS also participates in many other functions. A single gene encodes both the cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of GARS but 2 mRNA isoforms were identified. Using immunolocalization assays, in vitro translation assays and bicistronic constructs we provide experimental evidence that one of these mRNAs tightly controls expression and localization of human GARS. An intricate regulatory domain was found in its 5′-UTR which displays a functional Internal Ribosome Entry Site and an upstream Open Reading Frame. Together, these elements hinder the synthesis of the mitochondrial GARS and target the translation of the cytosolic enzyme to ER-bound ribosomes. This finding reveals a complex picture of GARS translation and localization in mammals. In this context, we discuss how human GARS expression could influence its moonlighting activities and its involvement in diseases. PMID:26327585

  9. Induced tRNA Import into Human Mitochondria: Implication of a Host Aminoacyl-tRNA-Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Gowher, Ali; Smirnov, Alexandre; Tarassov, Ivan; Entelis, Nina

    2013-01-01

    In human cell, a subset of small non-coding RNAs is imported into mitochondria from the cytosol. Analysis of the tRNA import pathway allowing targeting of the yeast tRNALysCUU into human mitochondria demonstrates a similarity between the RNA import mechanisms in yeast and human cells. We show that the cytosolic precursor of human mitochondrial lysyl-tRNA synthetase (preKARS2) interacts with the yeast tRNALysCUU and small artificial RNAs which contain the structural elements determining the tRNA mitochondrial import, and facilitates their internalization by isolated human mitochondria. The tRNA import efficiency increased upon addition of the glycolytic enzyme enolase, previously found to be an actor of the yeast RNA import machinery. Finally, the role of preKARS2 in the RNA mitochondrial import has been directly demonstrated in vivo, in cultured human cells transfected with the yeast tRNA and artificial importable RNA molecules, in combination with preKARS2 overexpression or downregulation by RNA interference. These findings suggest that the requirement of protein factors for the RNA mitochondrial targeting might be a conserved feature of the RNA import pathway in different organisms. PMID:23799079

  10. A Human Disease-causing Point Mutation in Mitochondrial Threonyl-tRNA Synthetase Induces Both Structural and Functional Defects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Liu, Ru-Juan; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2016-03-18

    Mitochondria require all translational components, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), to complete organelle protein synthesis. Some aaRS mutations cause mitochondrial disorders, including human mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase (hmtThrRS) (encoded by TARS2), the P282L mutation of which causes mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. However, its catalytic and structural consequences remain unclear. Herein, we cloned TARS2 and purified the wild-type and P282L mutant hmtThrRS. hmtThrRS misactivates non-cognate Ser and uses post-transfer editing to clear erroneously synthesized products. In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed that the mutation induces a decrease in Thr activation, aminoacylation, and proofreading activities and a change in the protein structure and/or stability, which might cause reduced catalytic efficiency. We also identified a splicing variant of TARS2 mRNA lacking exons 8 and 9, the protein product of which is targeted into mitochondria. In HEK293T cells, the variant does not dimerize and cannot complement the ThrRS knock-out strain in yeast, suggesting that the truncated protein is inactive and might have a non-canonical function, as observed for other aaRS fragments. The present study describes the aminoacylation and editing properties of hmtThrRS, clarifies the molecular consequences of the P282L mutation, and shows that the yeast ThrRS-deletion model is suitable to test pathology-associated point mutations or alternative splicing variants of mammalian aaRS mRNAs. PMID:26811336

  11. A new γ-interferon-inducible promoter and splice variants of an anti-angiogenic human tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianming; Shue, Eveline; Ewalt, Karla L.; Schimmel, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Two forms of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) are produced in vivo through alternative mRNA splicing. The two forms, full-length TrpRS and mini TrpRS, are catalytically active, but are distinguished by the striking anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activity specific to mini TrpRS. Here we describe two new splice variants of human TrpRS mRNA. Their production was strongly regulated by γ-interferon (IFN-γ), an anti-proliferative cytokine known to stimulate the expression of other anti-angiogenic factors. A new IFN-γ-sensitive promoter was demonstrated to drive production of these splice variants. In human endothelial cells, both the newly discovered and a previously reported promoter were shown to respond specifically to IFN-γ and not to other cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, interleukin-4 or erythropoietin. In addition, both promoters were stimulated by the ‘downstream’ interferon regulatory factor 1 that, in turn, is known to be regulated by the ‘upstream’ signal transducer and activator of transcription 1α subunit. Thus, the tandem promoters provide a dual system to regulate expression and alternative splicing of human TrpRS in vivo. PMID:14757836

  12. Entamoeba lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Contains a Cytokine-Like Domain with Chemokine Activity towards Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jung Min; Kim, Sunghoon; Celada, Antonio; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    Immunological pressure encountered by protozoan parasites drives the selection of strategies to modulate or avoid the immune responses of their hosts. Here we show that the parasite Entamoeba histolytica has evolved a chemokine that mimics the sequence, structure, and function of the human cytokine HsEMAPII (Homo sapiens endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide II). This Entamoeba EMAPII-like polypeptide (EELP) is translated as a domain attached to two different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) that are overexpressed when parasites are exposed to inflammatory signals. EELP is dispensable for the tRNA aminoacylation activity of the enzymes that harbor it, and it is cleaved from them by Entamoeba proteases to generate a standalone cytokine. Isolated EELP acts as a chemoattractant for human cells, but its cell specificity is different from that of HsEMAPII. We show that cell specificity differences between HsEMAPII and EELP can be swapped by site directed mutagenesis of only two residues in the cytokines' signal sequence. Thus, Entamoeba has evolved a functional mimic of an aaRS-associated human cytokine with modified cell specificity. PMID:22140588

  13. Assignment of two human autoantigen genes-isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 9q21 and lysyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 16q23-q24

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.C.; Blinder, J.; Pai, S.I.

    1996-08-15

    Protein synthesis is initiated by the attachment of amino acids to cognate tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). Five of twenty human aaRS (histidyl-RS, threonyl-RS, alanyl-RS, glycyl-RS, and isoleucyl-RS) have been identified as targets of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Autoantibodies to human lysyl-RS, a sixth autoantigenic aminoacyl-RS, were recently identified. The genes for histidyl-RS and threonyl-RS have been localized to chromosome 5, and we recently reported that the genes for alanyl-RS and glycyl-RS localize to chromosomes 16 and 7, respectively. To understand the genesis of autoimmune responses to aaRS better, we have used PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrid panels and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to assign the genes for isoleucyl-RS and lysyl-RS. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 modulates prostaglandin E2 release from human arterial smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Golej, Deidre L.; Askari, Bardia; Kramer, Farah; Barnhart, Shelley; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2011-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) catalyze the thioesterification of long-chain FAs into their acyl-CoA derivatives. Purified ACSL4 is an arachidonic acid (20:4)-preferring ACSL isoform, and ACSL4 is therefore a probable regulator of lipid mediator production in intact cells. Eicosanoids play important roles in vascular homeostasis and disease, yet the role of ACSL4 in vascular cells is largely unknown. In the present study, the ACSL4 splice variant expressed in human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was identified as variant 1. To investigate the function of ACSL4 in SMCs, ACSL4 variant 1 was overexpressed, knocked-down by small interfering RNA, or its enzymatic activity acutely inhibited in these cells. Overexpression of ACSL4 resulted in a markedly increased synthesis of arachidonoyl-CoA, increased 20:4 incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and triacylglycerol, and reduced cellular levels of unesterified 20:4. Accordingly, secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was blunted in ACSL4-overexpressing SMCs compared with controls. Conversely, acute pharmacological inhibition of ACSL4 activity resulted in increased release of PGE2. However, long-term downregulation of ACSL4 resulted in markedly reduced PGE2 secretion. Thus, ACSL4 modulates PGE2 release from human SMCs. ACSL4 may regulate a number of processes dependent on the release of arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators in the arterial wall. PMID:21242590

  15. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25858017

  16. Lipid-induced up-regulation of human acyl-CoA synthetase 5 promotes hepatocellular apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Andrea; Ehling, Josef; Leue, Andrea; Liedtke, Christian; Schneider, Ursula; Kopitz, Jürgen; Weiss, Thomas; Hellerbrand, Claus; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Knüchel, Ruth; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2010-09-01

    In the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and hepatocyte apoptosis are strongly implicated in disease progression from the potentially reversible condition of steatosis to severe acute and chronic liver injury. Acyl-CoA synthetase 5, a member of the ACSL gene family that catalyzes the activation of long-chain fatty acids for lipid biosynthesis, is the only ACSL isoform that is both, located on mitochondria and functionally involved in enterocyte apoptosis. In this study, the regulation of human ACSL5 in hepatocellular fatty acid degeneration and its involvement in hepatocyte apoptosis was investigated using models of in vitro and in vivo steatosis as well as plasmid-mediated stable gene transfer and RNAi-mediated gene silencing. ACSL5 mRNA and protein were strongly increased by uptake of dietary derived fatty acids in primary human hepatocytes, HepG2 cells and human steatotic liver. Over-expression of ACSL5 decreased HepG2 cell viability and increased susceptibility to TRAIL- and TNFalpha-, but not FAS- induced apoptosis, whereas knock down of ACSL5 reduced apoptosis susceptibility. High ACSL5 activity resulted in enhanced caspase-3/7 activity, but was not accompanied by up-regulation of death receptors, DR4, DR5 or TNF-R1. This study gives evidence that hepatocyte steatosis is associated with ACSL5 up-regulation resulting in increased susceptibility to hepatic cell death. We propose that ACSL5 could play a role in promoting fatty acid-induced lipoapoptosis in hepatocytes as important mechanism in fatty liver-related disorders. PMID:20470896

  17. Long-Range Structural Effects of a Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease-Causing Mutation in Human Glycyl-TRNA Synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, W.; Nangle, L.A.; Zhang, W.; Schimmel, P.; Yang, X.-L.

    2009-06-04

    Functional expansion of specific tRNA synthetases in higher organisms is well documented. These additional functions may explain why dominant mutations in glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, the most common heritable disease of the peripheral nervous system. At least 10 disease-causing mutant alleles of GlyRS have been annotated. These mutations scatter broadly across the primary sequence and have no apparent unifying connection. Here we report the structure of wild type and a CMT-causing mutant (G526R) of homodimeric human GlyRS. The mutation is at the site for synthesis of glycyl-adenylate, but the rest of the two structures are closely similar. Significantly, the mutant form diffracts to a higher resolution and has a greater dimer interface. The extra dimer interactions are located {approx}30 {angstrom} away from the G526R mutation. Direct experiments confirm the tighter dimer interaction of the G526R protein. The results suggest the possible importance of subtle, long-range structural effects of CMT-causing mutations at the dimer interface. From analysis of a third crystal, an appended motif, found in higher eukaryote GlyRSs, seems not to have a role in these long-range effects.

  18. Mutations of Human NARS2, Encoding the Mitochondrial Asparaginyl-tRNA Synthetase, Cause Nonsyndromic Deafness and Leigh Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Mohsin; Huang, Vincent H.; Qaiser, Tanveer A.; Potluri, Prasanth; Mahl, Sarah E.; Davila, Antonio; Nazli, Sabiha; Hancock, Saege; Yu, Margret; Gargus, Jay; Chang, Richard; Al-sheqaih, Nada; Newman, William G.; Abdenur, Jose; Starr, Arnold; Hegde, Rashmi; Dorn, Thomas; Busch, Anke; Park, Eddie; Wu, Jie; Schwenzer, Hagen; Flierl, Adrian; Florentz, Catherine; Sissler, Marie; Khan, Shaheen N.; Li, Ronghua; Guan, Min-Xin; Friedman, Thomas B.; Wu, Doris K.; Procaccio, Vincent; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Wallace, Douglas C.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Huang, Taosheng; Riazuddin, Saima

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate association of variants in the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase NARS2 with human hearing loss and Leigh syndrome. A homozygous missense mutation ([c.637G>T; p.Val213Phe]) is the underlying cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB94) and compound heterozygous mutations ([c.969T>A; p.Tyr323*] + [c.1142A>G; p.Asn381Ser]) result in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency and Leigh syndrome, which is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by symmetric, bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. The severity of the genetic lesions and their effects on NARS2 protein structure cosegregate with the phenotype. A hypothetical truncated NARS2 protein, secondary to the Leigh syndrome mutation p.Tyr323* is not detectable and p.Asn381Ser further decreases NARS2 protein levels in patient fibroblasts. p.Asn381Ser also disrupts dimerization of NARS2, while the hearing loss p.Val213Phe variant has no effect on NARS2 oligomerization. Additionally we demonstrate decreased steady-state levels of mt-tRNAAsn in fibroblasts from the Leigh syndrome patients. In these cells we show that a decrease in oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and electron transport chain (ETC) activity can be rescued by overexpression of wild type NARS2. However, overexpression of the hearing loss associated p.Val213Phe mutant protein in these fibroblasts cannot complement the OCR and ETC defects. Our findings establish lesions in NARS2 as a new cause for nonsyndromic hearing loss and Leigh syndrome. PMID:25807530

  19. Mutations of human NARS2, encoding the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase, cause nonsyndromic deafness and Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Mariella; Richard, Elodie M; Wang, Xinjian; Shahzad, Mohsin; Huang, Vincent H; Qaiser, Tanveer A; Potluri, Prasanth; Mahl, Sarah E; Davila, Antonio; Nazli, Sabiha; Hancock, Saege; Yu, Margret; Gargus, Jay; Chang, Richard; Al-Sheqaih, Nada; Newman, William G; Abdenur, Jose; Starr, Arnold; Hegde, Rashmi; Dorn, Thomas; Busch, Anke; Park, Eddie; Wu, Jie; Schwenzer, Hagen; Flierl, Adrian; Florentz, Catherine; Sissler, Marie; Khan, Shaheen N; Li, Ronghua; Guan, Min-Xin; Friedman, Thomas B; Wu, Doris K; Procaccio, Vincent; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Wallace, Douglas C; Ahmed, Zubair M; Huang, Taosheng; Riazuddin, Saima

    2015-03-01

    Here we demonstrate association of variants in the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase NARS2 with human hearing loss and Leigh syndrome. A homozygous missense mutation ([c.637G>T; p.Val213Phe]) is the underlying cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB94) and compound heterozygous mutations ([c.969T>A; p.Tyr323*] + [c.1142A>G; p.Asn381Ser]) result in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency and Leigh syndrome, which is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by symmetric, bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. The severity of the genetic lesions and their effects on NARS2 protein structure cosegregate with the phenotype. A hypothetical truncated NARS2 protein, secondary to the Leigh syndrome mutation p.Tyr323* is not detectable and p.Asn381Ser further decreases NARS2 protein levels in patient fibroblasts. p.Asn381Ser also disrupts dimerization of NARS2, while the hearing loss p.Val213Phe variant has no effect on NARS2 oligomerization. Additionally we demonstrate decreased steady-state levels of mt-tRNAAsn in fibroblasts from the Leigh syndrome patients. In these cells we show that a decrease in oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and electron transport chain (ETC) activity can be rescued by overexpression of wild type NARS2. However, overexpression of the hearing loss associated p.Val213Phe mutant protein in these fibroblasts cannot complement the OCR and ETC defects. Our findings establish lesions in NARS2 as a new cause for nonsyndromic hearing loss and Leigh syndrome. PMID:25807530

  20. Human endomembrane H sup + pump strongly resembles the ATP-synthetase of Archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Suedhof, T.C.; Stone, D.K.; Johnston, P.A.; Xie, Xiaosong ); Fried, V.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Preparations of mammalian H{sup +} pumps that acidify intracellular vesicles contain eight or nine polypeptides, ranging in size from 116 to 17 kDa. Biochemical analysis indicates that the 70- and 58-kDa polypeptides are subunits critical for ATP hydrolysis. The amino acid sequences of the major catalytic subunits (58 and 70 kDa) of the endomembrane H{sup +} pump are unknown from animal cells. The authors report here the complete sequence of the 58-kDa subunit derived from a human kidney cDNA clone and partial sequences of the 70- and 58-kDa subunits purified from clathrin-coated vesicles of bovine brain. The amino acid sequences of both proteins strongly resemble the sequences of the corresponding subunits of the vacuolar H{sup +} pumps of Archaebacteria, plants, and fungi. The archaebacterial enzyme is believed to use a H{sup +} gradient to synthesize ATP. Thus, a common ancestral protein has given rise to a H{sup +} pump that synthesizes ATP in one organism and hydrolyzes it in another and is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans. The same pump appears to mediate the acidification of intracellular organelles, including coated vesicles, lysosomes, and secretory granules, as well as extracellular fluids such as urine.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wei; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2006-12-01

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a native human tRNA synthetase whose allelic variants are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease. Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of a group of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of aminoacyl-tRNAs for translation. Mutations of human and mouse GlyRSs are causally associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, the most common genetic disorder of the peripheral nervous system. As the first step towards a structure–function analysis of this disease, native human GlyRS was expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystal belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 or its enantiomorphic space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.74, c = 247.18 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained one GlyRS molecule and had a solvent content of 69%.

  2. Human cytoplasmic isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase: selective divergence of the anticodon-binding domain and acquisition of a new structural unit.

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, K; Suzuki, N; Shigesada, K; Namba, Y; Schimmel, P; Noda, T

    1994-01-01

    We show here that the class I human cytoplasmic isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase is an exceptionally large polypeptide (1266 aa) which, unlike its homologues in lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, has a third domain of two repeats of an approximately 90-aa sequence appended to its C-terminal end. While extracts of Escherichia coli do not aminoacrylate mammalian tRNA with isoleucine, expression of the cloned human gene in E. coli results in charging of the mammalian tRNA substrate. The appended third domain is dispensable for detection of this aminoacylation activity and may be needed for assembly of a multisynthetase complex in mammalian cells. Alignment of the sequences of the remaining two domains shared by isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases from E. coli to human reveals a much greater selective pressure on the domain needed for tRNA acceptor helix interactions and catalysis than on the domain needed for interactions with the anticodon. This result may have implications for the historical development of an operational RNA code for amino acids. Images PMID:8052601

  3. Identification of a residue crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase by focusing on its molecular evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Terumasa; Miyanokoshi, Miki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Wakasugi, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) exists in two forms: a full-length TrpRS and a mini TrpRS. We previously found that human mini, but not full-length, TrpRS is an angiostatic factor. Moreover, it was shown that the interaction between mini TrpRS and the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is crucial for its angiostatic activity. However, the molecular mechanism of the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS is only partly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of truncated (mini) form of TrpRS proteins from human, bovine, or zebrafish on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that both human and bovine mini TrpRSs inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial migration, whereas zebrafish mini TrpRS did not. Next, to identify residues crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS, we prepared several site-directed mutants based on amino acid sequence alignments among TrpRSs from various species and demonstrated that a human mini K153Q TrpRS mutant cannot inhibit VEGF-stimulated HUVEC migration and cannot bind to the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin. Taken together, we conclude that the Lys153 residue of human mini TrpRS is a VE-cadherin binding site and is therefore crucial for its angiostatic activity. PMID:27094087

  4. Localization of two human autoantigen genes by PCR screening and in situ hybridization-glycyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 7p15 and Alanyl-tRNA synthetase locates to 16q22

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.C.; Pai, S.I.; Liu, P.; Ge, Q.; Targoff, I.N.

    1995-11-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aminoacyl-RS) catalyze the attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA. Five of 20 human aminoacyl-RS (histidyl-RS, threonyl-RS, isoleucyl-RS, glycyl-RS, and alanyl-RS) have been identified as targets of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM; 9). A sixth autoantigenic amino-acyl-RS, lysyl-RS, was recently reported. The genes for histidyl-RS and threonyl-RS have been assigned to chromosome 5, as have the genes for leucyl-RS and arginyl-RS. Six other aminoacyl-RS (glutamyl-prolyl-RS, valyl-RS, cysteinyl-RS, methionyl-RS, tryptophanyl-RS, and asparaginyl-RS) were assigned to chromosomes 1, 6, 11, 12, 14, and 18, respectively. The reason for a preponderance of aminoacyl-RS genes on chromosome 5 is unknown, but it has been suggested that regulatory relatedness might be a factor. Recently the entire or partial cDNA sequences for two autoantigenic aminoacyl-RS genes, glycyl-RS (gene symbol GARS; 4) and alanyl-RS (gene symbol AARS; 1), were reported. To understand further the genesis of autoimmune responses to aminoacyl-RS and to determine whether genes for autoantigenic aminoacyl-RS colocalize to chromosome 5, we have determined the chromosomal site of the GARS and AARS genes by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrid panels and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase-independent phosphoribosyl amine synthesis from ribose 5-phosphate and glutamine or asparagine.

    PubMed

    Koenigsknecht, Mark J; Ramos, Itzel; Downs, Diana M

    2007-09-28

    Phosphoribosylamine (PRA) is the first intermediate in the common pathway to purines and thiamine and is generated in bacteria by glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) amidotransferase (EC 2.4.2.14) from PRPP and glutamine. Genetic data have indicated that multiple, non-PRPP amidotransferase mechanisms exist to generate PRA sufficient for thiamine but not purine synthesis. Here we describe the purification and identification of an activity (present in both Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) that synthesizes PRA from ribose 5-phosphate and glutamine/asparagine. A purification resulting in greater than a 625-fold increase in specific activity identified 8 candidate proteins. Of the candidates, overexpression of AphA (EC 3.1.3.2), a periplasmic class B nonspecific acid phosphatase, significantly increased activity in partially purified extracts. Native purification of AphA to >95% homogeneity determined that the periplasmic l-asparaginase II, AnsB (EC 3.5.1.1), co-purified with AphA and was also necessary for PRA formation. The potential physiological relevance of AphA and AnsB in contributing to thiamine biosynthesis in vivo is discussed. PMID:17686772

  6. Antiviral activity of human oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) is mediated by enhancing retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yugen; Ghosh, Arundhati; Cuevas, Rolando A.; Forero, Adriana; Dhar, Jayeeta; Ibsen, Mikkel Søes; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan Leo; Schmidt, Tobias; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K.; Fujita, Takashi; Hartmann, Rune; Barik, Sailen; Hornung, Veit; Coyne, Carolyn B.; Sarkar, Saumendra N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Virus infection is sensed in the cytoplasm by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, also known as DDX58), which requires RNA and polyubiquitin binding to induce type I interferon (IFN), and activate cellular innate immunity. We show that the human IFN-inducible oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) protein had antiviral activity and mediated RIG-I activation by mimicking polyubiquitin. Loss of OASL expression reduced RIG-I signaling and enhanced virus replication in human cells. Conversely, OASL expression suppressed replication of a number of viruses in a RIG-I-dependent manner and enhanced RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. OASL interacted and colocalized with RIG-I, and through its C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain specifically enhanced RIG-I signaling. Bone marrow derived macrophages from mice deficient for Oasl2 showed that among the two mouse orthologs of human OASL; Oasl2 is functionally similar to human OASL. Our findings show a mechanism by which human OASL contributes to host antiviral responses by enhancing RIG-I activation. PMID:24931123

  7. Human holocarboxylase synthetase with a start site at methionine-58 is the predominant nuclear variant of this protein and has catalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Baolong; Wijeratne, Subhashinee S.K.; Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Zempleni, Janos

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Unambiguous evidence is provided that methionine-58 serves as an in-frame alternative translation site for holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS58). {yields} Full-length HLCS and HLCS58 enter the nucleus, but HLCS58 is the predominant variant. {yields} HLCS58 has biological activity as biotin protein ligase. -- Abstract: Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the covalent binding of biotin to both carboxylases in extranuclear structures and histones in cell nuclei, thereby mediating important roles in intermediary metabolism, gene regulation, and genome stability. HLCS has three putative translational start sites (methionine-1, -7, and -58), but lacks a strong nuclear localization sequence that would explain its participation in epigenetic events in the cell nucleus. Recent evidence suggests that small quantities of HLCS with a start site in methionine-58 (HLCS58) might be able to enter the nuclear compartment. We generated the following novel insights into HLCS biology. First, we generated a novel HLCS fusion protein vector to demonstrate that methionine-58 is a functional translation start site in human cells. Second, we used confocal microscopy and western blots to demonstrate that HLCS58 enters the cell nucleus in meaningful quantities, and that full-length HLCS localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but may also enter the nucleus. Third, we produced recombinant HLCS58 to demonstrate its biological activity toward catalyzing the biotinylation of both carboxylases and histones. Collectively, these observations are consistent with roles of HLCS58 and full-length HLCS in nuclear events. We conclude this report by proposing a novel role for HLCS in epigenetic events, mediated by physical interactions between HLCS and other chromatin proteins as part of a larger multiprotein complex that mediates gene repression.

  8. The polypeptide Syn67 interacts physically with human holocarboxylase synthetase, but is not a target for biotinylation

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Yousef I.; Moriyama, Hideaki; Zempleni, Janos

    2010-01-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes the binding of biotin to lysines in carboxylases and histones in two steps. First, HCS catalyzes the synthesis of biotinyl-5′-AMP; second, the biotinyl moiety is ligated to lysine residues. It has been proposed that step two is fairly promiscuous, and that protein biotinylation may occur in the absence of HCS as long as sufficient exogenous biotinyl-5′-AMP is provided. Here, we identified a novel polypeptide (Syn67) with a basic patch of lysines and arginines. Yeast-two-hybrid assays and limited proteolysis assays revealed that both N- and C-termini of HCS interact with Syn67. A potential target lysine in Syn67 was biotinylated by HCS only after arginine-to-glycine substitutions in Syn67 produced a histone-like peptide. We identified a Syn67 docking site near the active pocket of HCS by in silico modeling and site directed mutagenesis. Biotinylation of proteins by HCS is more specific than previously assumed. PMID:20026029

  9. Wild-type phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a bacterial class II PRS?

    PubMed

    Breda, Ardala; Martinelli, Leonardo K B; Bizarro, Cristiano V; Rosado, Leonardo A; Borges, Caroline B; Santos, Diógenes S; Basso, Luiz A

    2012-01-01

    The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP) metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS). Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of P(i). ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of P(i) would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure determination of

  10. Mutations in the Mitochondrial Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Cause a Neurodegenerative Phenotype in Flies and a Recessive Ataxia (ARSAL) in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Manish; Tétreault, Martine; Donti, Taraka; Sasarman, Florin; Bernard, Geneviève; Demers-Lamarche, Julie; Dicaire, Marie-Josée; Mathieu, Jean; Vanasse, Michel; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Rioux, Marie-France; Lourenco, Charles M.; Li, Zhihong; Haueter, Claire; Shoubridge, Eric A.; Graham, Brett H.; Brais, Bernard; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, or function have been found to be mutated in metabolic disorders and neurological diseases such as Leigh Syndrome. In a forward genetic screen to identify genes required for neuronal function and survival in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons, we have identified mutations in the mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA synthetase, Aats-met, the homologue of human MARS2. The fly mutants exhibit age-dependent degeneration of photoreceptors, shortened lifespan, and reduced cell proliferation in epithelial tissues. We further observed that these mutants display defects in oxidative phosphorylation, increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), and an upregulated mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response. With the aid of this knowledge, we identified MARS2 to be mutated in Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia with Leukoencephalopathy (ARSAL) patients. We uncovered complex rearrangements in the MARS2 gene in all ARSAL patients. Analysis of patient cells revealed decreased levels of MARS2 protein and a reduced rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Patient cells also exhibited reduced Complex I activity, increased ROS, and a slower cell proliferation rate, similar to Drosophila Aats-met mutants. PMID:22448145

  11. Human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase (isoform 1, brain): kinetic properties of the adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase domains.

    PubMed

    Lansdon, Eric B; Fisher, Andrew J; Segel, Irwin H

    2004-04-13

    Recombinant human 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthetase, isoform 1 (brain), was purified to near-homogeneity from an Escherichia coli expression system and kinetically characterized. The native enzyme, a dimer with each 71 kDa subunit containing an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase and an adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase domain, catalyzes the overall formation of PAPS from ATP and inorganic sulfate. The protein is active as isolated, but activity is enhanced by treatment with dithiothreitol. APS kinase activity displayed the characteristic substrate inhibition by APS (K(I) of 47.9 microM at saturating MgATP). The maximum attainable activity of 0.12 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1) was observed at an APS concentration ([APS](opt)) of 15 microM. The theoretical K(m) for APS (at saturating MgATP) and the K(m) for MgATP (at [APS](opt)) were 4.2 microM and 0.14 mM, respectively. At likely cellular levels of MgATP (2.5 mM) and sulfate (0.4 mM), the overall endogenous rate of PAPS formation under optimum assay conditions was 0.09 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1). Upon addition of pure Penicillium chrysogenum APS kinase in excess, the overall rate increased to 0.47 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1). The kinetic constants of the ATP sulfurylase domain were as follows: V(max,f) = 0.77 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1), K(mA(MgATP)) = 0.15 mM, K(ia(MgATP)) = 1 mM, K(mB(sulfate)) = 0.16 mM, V(max,r) = 18.7 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1), K(mQ(APS)) = 4.8 microM, K(iq(APS)) = 18 nM, and K(mP(PPi)) = 34.6 microM. The (a) imbalance between ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activities, (b) accumulation of APS in solution during the overall reaction, (c) rate acceleration provided by exogenous APS kinase, and (d) availability of both active sites to exogenous APS all argue against APS channeling. Molybdate, selenate, chromate ("chromium VI"), arsenate, tungstate, chlorate, and perchlorate bind to the ATP sulfurylase domain, with the

  12. Essentiality Assessment of Cysteinyl and Lysyl-tRNA Synthetases of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Swetha, Rayapadi G.; Anbarasu, Anand; Ramaiah, Sudha; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K.

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of mupirocin, an antibiotic that targets isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, established aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase as an attractive target for the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Despite a high degree of similarity between the bacterial and human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the selectivity observed with mupirocin triggered the possibility of targeting other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases as potential drug targets. These enzymes catalyse the condensation of a specific amino acid to its cognate tRNA in an energy-dependent reaction. Therefore, each organism is expected to encode at least twenty aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid. However, a bioinformatics search for genes encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from Mycobacterium smegmatis returned multiple genes for glutamyl (GluRS), cysteinyl (CysRS), prolyl (ProRS) and lysyl (LysRS) tRNA synthetases. The pathogenic mycobacteria, namely, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, were also found to possess two genes each for CysRS and LysRS. A similar search indicated the presence of additional genes for LysRS in gram negative bacteria as well. Herein, we describe sequence and structural analysis of the additional aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes found in M. smegmatis. Characterization of conditional expression strains of Cysteinyl and Lysyl-tRNA synthetases generated in M. smegmatis revealed that the canonical aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase are essential, while the additional ones are not essential for the growth of M. smegmatis. PMID:26794499

  13. Expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), but not human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), genes correlates with exposure of human lung cancers to platinum drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Oguri, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Isobe, T.; Katoh, O.; Watanabe, H.; Yamakido, M.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the steady-state levels of mRNA for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) in human lung cancer specimens to elucidate their roles in relation to platinum drug resistance in vivo. Seventy-six autopsy samples (38 primary tumours and their corresponding normal lung tissues) obtained from 38 patients were analysed using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Both subunits (heavy and light subunits) of gamma-GCS expression levels of normal lung and tumour tissues exposed to platinum drugs during life were significantly higher than those of non-exposed tissues, whereas only the MRP expression levels of tumours were elevated in association with ante-mortem platinum drug exposure. The gamma-GCS and MRP expression levels correlated significantly. The cMOAT expression levels did not correlate with ante-mortem platinum drug exposure. Next, we monitored gamma-GCS heavy subunit expression levels in peripheral mononuclear cells of eight previously untreated lung cancer patients after platinum drug administration, which revealed that these drugs induced gamma-GCS expression in vivo. These results suggest that gamma-GCS expression is induced by platinum drugs in vivo and/or the physiological stress response to xenobiotics. PMID:9569044

  14. Assignment of the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase gene (CARS) to 11p15. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Cruzen, M.E.; Bengtsson, U.; McMahon, J.; Wasmuth, J.J.; Arfin, S.M. )

    1993-03-01

    The attachment of each of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids to their cognate tRNA isoaccepting families is catalyzed by a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. The structural genes encoding 10 of these enzymes have been assigned to specific human chromosomes. The HARS, LARS, RARS, and TARS genes, encoding histidyl-, leucyl-, arginyl-, and threonyl-tRNA synthetases, respectively, are all located on chromosome 5( 1, 5, 7, 9, 14). The MARS (methionyl-tRNA synthetase), NARS (asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase), VARS (valyl-tRNA synthetase), and WARS (tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase) genes have been assigned to chromosomes 12, 18, 6, and 14, respectively (3, 4, 6, 8). A gene originally identified as encoding glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase was mapped to chromosome 1q32-q42 (10). However, a recent study suggests that the product of this gene is, in fact, a multifunctional enzyme with both glutamyl- and prolyl-tRNA synthetase activities (2). The fact that 4 of the 10 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes already mapped are located on chromosome 5 may be fortuitous but might also indicate an evolutionary or regulatory relatedness. It is therefore, of interest to map genes encoding other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to determine if additional examples of synteny exist. The recent isolation of cDNA and genomic DNA clones for human cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase has now enabled us to map the CARS gene to segment p15.5 on chromosome 11 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  15. tRNA synthetase: tRNA Aminoacylation and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yan Ling Joy; Poruri, Kiranmai; Martinis, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are prominently known for their classic function in the first step of protein synthesis, where they bear the responsibility of setting the genetic code. Each enzyme is exquisitely adapted to covalently link a single standard amino acid to its cognate set of tRNA isoacceptors. These ancient enzymes have evolved idiosyncratically to host alternate activities that go far beyond their aminoacylation role and impact a wide range of other metabolic pathways and cell signaling processes. The family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have also been suggested as a remarkable scaffold to incorporate new domains that would drive evolution and the emergence of new organisms with more complex function. Because they are essential, the tRNA synthetases have served as pharmaceutical targets for drug and antibiotic development. The recent unfolding of novel important functions for this family of proteins offers new and promising pathways for therapeutic development to treat diverse human diseases. PMID:24706556

  16. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases as drug targets in eukaryotic parasites☆

    PubMed Central

    Pham, James S.; Dawson, Karen L.; Jackson, Katherine E.; Lim, Erin E.; Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A.; Turner, Kelsey E.C.; Ralph, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are central enzymes in protein translation, providing the charged tRNAs needed for appropriate construction of peptide chains. These enzymes have long been pursued as drug targets in bacteria and fungi, but the past decade has seen considerable research on aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in eukaryotic parasites. Existing inhibitors of bacterial tRNA synthetases have been adapted for parasite use, novel inhibitors have been developed against parasite enzymes, and tRNA synthetases have been identified as the targets for compounds in use or development as antiparasitic drugs. Crystal structures have now been solved for many parasite tRNA synthetases, and opportunities for selective inhibition are becoming apparent. For different biological reasons, tRNA synthetases appear to be promising drug targets against parasites as diverse as Plasmodium (causative agent of malaria), Brugia (causative agent of lymphatic filariasis), and Trypanosoma (causative agents of Chagas disease and human African trypanosomiasis). Here we review recent developments in drug discovery and target characterisation for parasite aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. PMID:24596663

  17. Limitations to the development of recombinant human embryonic kidney 293E cells using glutamine synthetase-mediated gene amplification: Methionine sulfoximine resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Da Young; Noh, Soo Min; Lee, Gyun Min

    2016-08-10

    To investigate the feasibility of glutamine synthetase (GS)-mediated gene amplification in HEK293 cells for the high-level stable production of therapeutic proteins, HEK293E cells were transfected by the GS expression vector containing antibody genes and were selected at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations in 96-well plates. For a comparison, CHOK1 cells were transfected by the same GS expression vector and selected at various MSX concentrations. Unlike CHOK1 cells, HEK293E cells producing high levels of antibodies were not selected at all. For HEK293E cells, the number of wells with the cell pool did not decrease with an increase in the concentration of MSX up to 500μM MSX. A q-RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the antibody genes in the HEK293E cells, unlike the CHOK1 cells, were not amplified after increasing the MSX concentration. It was found that the GS activity in HEK293E cells was much higher than that in CHOK1 cells (P<0.05). In a glutamine-free medium, the GS activity of HEK293E cells was approximately 4.8 times higher than that in CHOK1 cells. Accordingly, it is inferred that high GS activity of HEK293E cells results in elevated resistance to MSX and therefore hampers GS-mediated gene amplification by MSX. Thus, in order to apply the GS-mediated gene amplification system to HEK293 cells, the endogenous GS expression level in HEK293 cells needs to be minimized by knock-out or down-regulation methods. PMID:27288593

  18. Molecular definition of bovine argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, J A; Healy, P J; Beaudet, A L; O'Brien, W E

    1989-01-01

    Citrullinemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase [L-citrulline:L-aspartate ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.3.4.5]. The disease was first described in humans but was recently reported in dairy cattle in Australia. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the normal bovine cDNA for argininosuccinate synthetase and the mutation present in animals with citrullinemia. Analysis of DNA from affected animals by Southern blotting did not readily identify the mutation in the bovine gene. RNA (Northern) blotting revealed a major reduction in the steady-state amount of mRNA in the liver of affected animals to less than 5% of controls. The bovine cDNA was cloned and sequenced and revealed 96% identity with the deduced human sequence at the amino acid level. Starting with mutant bovine liver, the mRNA was reverse-transcribed; the cDNA product was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. The sequence revealed a C----T transition converting arginine-86 (CGA) to a nonsense codon (TGA). A second C----T transition represented a polymorphism in proline-175 (CCC----CCT). The mutation and the polymorphism were confirmed by amplification of genomic DNA and demonstration with restriction endonuclease enzymes of both the loss of an Ava II site in DNA from mutant animals at codon 86 and the presence or absence of a Dde I site at codon 175. The loss of the Ava II site can be used for rapid, economical, nonradioactive detection of heterozygotes for bovine citrullinemia. Images PMID:2813370

  19. Regulation of active site coupling in glutamine-dependent NAD[superscript +] synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    LaRonde-LeBlanc, Nicole; Resto, Melissa; Gerratana, Barbara

    2009-05-21

    NAD{sup +} is an essential metabolite both as a cofactor in energy metabolism and redox homeostasis and as a regulator of cellular processes. In contrast to humans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD{sup +} biosynthesis is absolutely dependent on the activity of a multifunctional glutamine-dependent NAD{sup +} synthetase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of NAD{sup +} at the synthetase domain using ammonia derived from L-glutamine in the glutaminase domain. Here we report the kinetics and structural characterization of M. tuberculosis NAD{sup +} synthetase. The kinetics data strongly suggest tightly coupled regulation of the catalytic activities. The structure, the first of a glutamine-dependent NAD{sup +} synthetase, reveals a homooctameric subunit organization suggesting a tight dependence of catalysis on the quaternary structure, a 40-{angstrom} intersubunit ammonia tunnel and structural elements that may be involved in the transfer of information between catalytic sites.

  20. Genetic validation of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases as drug targets in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Kalidas, Savitha; Cestari, Igor; Monnerat, Severine; Li, Qiong; Regmi, Sandesh; Hasle, Nicholas; Labaied, Mehdi; Parsons, Marilyn; Stuart, Kenneth; Phillips, Margaret A

    2014-04-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is an important public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa. Current drugs are unsatisfactory, and new drugs are being sought. Few validated enzyme targets are available to support drug discovery efforts, so our goal was to obtain essentiality data on genes with proven utility as drug targets. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are known drug targets for bacterial and fungal pathogens and are required for protein synthesis. Here we survey the essentiality of eight Trypanosoma brucei aaRSs by RNA interference (RNAi) gene expression knockdown, covering an enzyme from each major aaRS class: valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) (class Ia), tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS-1) (class Ib), arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) (class Ic), glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS) (class 1c), threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) (class IIa), asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) (class IIb), and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (α and β) (PheRS) (class IIc). Knockdown of mRNA encoding these enzymes in T. brucei mammalian stage parasites showed that all were essential for parasite growth and survival in vitro. The reduced expression resulted in growth, morphological, cell cycle, and DNA content abnormalities. ThrRS was characterized in greater detail, showing that the purified recombinant enzyme displayed ThrRS activity and that the protein localized to both the cytosol and mitochondrion. Borrelidin, a known inhibitor of ThrRS, was an inhibitor of T. brucei ThrRS and showed antitrypanosomal activity. The data show that aaRSs are essential for T. brucei survival and are likely to be excellent targets for drug discovery efforts. PMID:24562907

  1. Neurospora crassa mutants deficient in asparagine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, K G; Nelson, R E; Schuster, S M

    1983-01-01

    Neurospora crassa mutants deficient in asparagine synthetase were selected by using the procedure of inositol-less death. Complementation tests among the 100 mutants isolated suggested that their alterations were genetically allelic. Recombination analysis with strain S1007t, an asparagine auxotroph, indicated that the mutations were located near or within the asn gene on linkage group V. In vitro assays with a heterokaryon indicated that the mutation was dominant. Thermal instability of cell extracts from temperature-sensitive strains in an in vitro asparagine synthetase assay determined that the mutations were in the structural gene(s) for asparagine synthetase. PMID:6137480

  2. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Tsai, Fong-Ying

    1993-10-26

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  3. Inactivation and dissociation of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase by modification of sulfhydryl groups and its possible occurrence in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Corrales, F; Cabrero, C; Pajares, M A; Ortiz, P; Martin-Duce, A; Mato, J M

    1990-02-01

    Catalytically active human and rat liver S-adenosylmethionine synthetase exists mainly in tetramer and dimer form. In liver biopsy samples from cirrhotic patients a marked reduction in total S-adenosylmethionine synthetase activity and a specific loss of the tetrameric form of the enzyme exist. We have investigated the possible role of sulfhydryl groups in maintaining the structure and activity of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Both forms of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase are rapidly inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide, and the loss of enzyme activity correlates with the incorporation of approximately 2 moles N-ethylmaleimide per mole of subunit. In addition, reaction with N-ethylmaleimide resulted in displacement of the tetramer-dimer equilibrium of the enzyme toward the dimer, but no monomer was detected under these conditions. A catalytically active monomeric S-adenosylmethionine synthetase was detected in the cytosolic extract from a liver biopsy sample from a cirrhotic patient, supporting our model for the structure of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Because treatment of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase with N-ethylmaleimide resembles the situation of this enzyme in cirrhotic patients, it is proposed that impaired protection of the enzyme from oxidizing agents caused by a decreased synthesis of glutathione can explain the diminished synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine in liver cirrhosis. PMID:2307400

  4. Molecular characterization of N-acetylaspartylglutamate synthetase.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ivonne; Lodder, Julia; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Eckhardt, Matthias

    2010-09-17

    The dipeptide N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) is an abundant neuropeptide in the mammalian brain. Despite this fact, its physiological role is poorly understood. NAAG is synthesized by a NAAG synthetase catalyzing the ATP-dependent condensation of N-acetylaspartate and glutamate. In vitro NAAG synthetase activity has not been described, and the enzyme has not been purified. Using a bioinformatics approach we identified a putative dipeptide synthetase specifically expressed in the nervous system. Expression of the gene, which we named NAAGS (for NAAG synthetase) was sufficient to induce NAAG synthesis in primary astrocytes or CHO-K1 and HEK-293T cells when they coexpressed the NAA transporter NaDC3. Furthermore, coexpression of NAAGS and the recently identified N-acetylaspartate (NAA) synthase, Nat8l, in CHO-K1 or HEK-293T cells was sufficient to enable these cells to synthesize NAAG. Identity of the reaction product of NAAGS was confirmed by HPLC and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). High expression levels of NAAGS were restricted to the brain, spinal cord, and testis. Taken together our results strongly suggest that the identified gene encodes a NAAG synthetase. Its identification will enable further studies to examine the role of this abundant neuropeptide in the vertebrate nervous system. PMID:20643647

  5. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Novel Bacterial Type Asparagine Synthetase A

    PubMed Central

    Manhas, Reetika; Tripathi, Pankaj; Khan, Sameena; Sethu Lakshmi, Bhavana; Lal, Shambhu Krishan; Gowri, Venkatraman Subramanian; Sharma, Amit; Madhubala, Rentala

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine is formed by two structurally distinct asparagine synthetases in prokaryotes. One is the ammonia-utilizing asparagine synthetase A (AsnA), and the other is asparagine synthetase B (AsnB) that uses glutamine or ammonia as a nitrogen source. In a previous investigation using sequence-based analysis, we had shown that Leishmania spp. possess asparagine-tRNA synthetase paralog asparagine synthetase A (LdASNA) that is ammonia-dependent. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and kinetic analysis of ASNA from Leishmania donovani. Interestingly, LdASNA was both ammonia- and glutamine-dependent. To study the physiological role of ASNA in Leishmania, gene deletion mutations were attempted via targeted gene replacement. Gene deletion of LdASNA showed a growth delay in mutants. However, chromosomal null mutants of LdASNA could not be obtained as the double transfectant mutants showed aneuploidy. These data suggest that LdASNA is essential for survival of the Leishmania parasite. LdASNA enzyme was recalcitrant toward crystallization so we instead crystallized and solved the atomic structure of its close homolog from Trypanosoma brucei (TbASNA) at 2.2 Å. A very significant conservation in active site residues is observed between TbASNA and Escherichia coli AsnA. It is evident that the absence of an LdASNA homolog from humans and its essentiality for the parasites make LdASNA a novel drug target. PMID:24610810

  6. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2012-09-01

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine.

  7. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the highly purified aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex from rabbit reticulocytes was examined. The synthetase complex contained, in addition to eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, three unidentified proteins and was free of endogenous protein kinase activity. Incubation of the complex with casein kinase I in the presence of ATP resulted in the phosphorylation of four synthetases, the glutamyl-, isoleucyl-, methionyl-, and lysyl-tRNA synthetases. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I altered binding to tRNA-Sepharose such that the phosphorylated complex eluted at 190 mM NaCl instead of the 275 mM salt observed for the nonphosphorylated form. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I resulted in a significant inhibition of aminoacylation with the four synthetases; the activities of the nonphosphorylated synthetases were unchanged. One of the unidentified proteins in the complex (M/sub r/ 37,000) was also an excellent substrate for casein kinase I. A comparison of the properties and two-dimensional phosphopeptide pattern of this protein with that of casein kinase I suggest that the 37,000 dalton protein in the synthetase complex is an inactive form of casein kinase I. Two other protein kinases were shown to phosphorylate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the complex. The phosphorylation of threonyl-tRNA synthetase was also investigated. Five aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the high molecular weight complex were shown to be phosphorylated in rabbit reticulocytes following labeling with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: glutathione synthetase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... PubMed Njålsson R. Glutathione synthetase deficiency. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005 Sep;62(17):1938-45. Review. Citation on PubMed Ristoff E, Larsson A. Inborn errors in the metabolism of glutathione. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Mar 30;2:16. Review. Citation on PubMed or ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... important for the effective use of biotin, a B vitamin found in foods such as liver, egg yolks, and milk. Holocarboxylase synthetase attaches biotin to certain enzymes that are essential for the normal production and breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in ...

  10. Neural control of glutamine synthetase activity in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Feng, B; Konagaya, M; Konagaya, Y; Thomas, J W; Banner, C; Mill, J; Max, S R

    1990-05-01

    The mechanism of glutamine synthetase induction in rat skeletal muscle after denervation or limb immobilization was investigated. Adult male rats were subjected to midthigh section of the sciatic nerve. At 1, 2, and 5 h and 1, 2, and 7 days after denervation, rats were killed and denervated, and contralateral control soleus and plantaris muscles were excised, weighted, homogenized, and assayed for glutamine synthetase. Glutamine synthetase activity increased approximately twofold 1 h after denervation in both muscles. By 7 days postdenervation enzyme activity had increased to three times the control level in plantaris muscle and to four times the control level in soleus muscle. Increased enzyme activity after nerve section was associated with increased maximum velocity with no change in apparent Michaelis constant. Immunotitration with an antiglutamine synthetase antibody suggested that denervation caused an increase in the number of glutamine synthetase molecules in muscle. However, Northern-blot analysis revealed no increase in the steady-state level of glutamine synthetase mRNA after denervation. A mixing experiment failed to yield evidence for the presence of a soluble factor involved in regulating the activity of glutamine synthetase in denervated muscle. A combination of denervation and dexamethasone injections resulted in additive increases in glutamine synthetase. Thus the mechanism underlying increased glutamine synthetase after denervation appears to be posttranscriptional and is distinct from that of the glucocorticoid-mediated glutamine synthetase induction previously described by us. PMID:1970709

  11. Aromatase inhibitors and anti-synthetase syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mascella, Fabio; Gianni, Lorenzo; Affatato, Alessandra; Fantini, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer (BC) is actually centered on the use of anti-aromatase inhibitors (AI). Several reports, however, are emerging in literature associating the use of this drugs to rheumatic disorders. This case report describes the first case of anti-synthetase syndrome diagnosis after treatment with anti-estrogen agents in a patient with pre-existing rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27225465

  12. Peptide Synthetase Gene in Trichoderma virens

    PubMed Central

    Wilhite, S. E.; Lumsden, R. D.; Straney, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    Trichoderma virens (synonym, Gliocladium virens), a deuteromycete fungus, suppresses soilborne plant diseases caused by a number of fungi and is used as a biocontrol agent. Several traits that may contribute to the antagonistic interactions of T. virens with disease-causing fungi involve the production of peptide metabolites (e.g., the antibiotic gliotoxin and siderophores used for iron acquisition). We cloned a 5,056-bp partial cDNA encoding a putative peptide synthetase (Psy1) from T. virens using conserved motifs found within the adenylate domain of peptide synthetases. Sequence similarities with conserved motifs of the adenylation domain, acyl transfer, and two condensation domains support identification of the Psy1 gene as a gene that encodes a peptide synthetase. Disruption of the native Psy1 gene through gene replacement was used to identify the function of this gene. Psy1 disruptants produced normal amounts of gliotoxin but grew poorly under low-iron conditions, suggesting that Psy1 plays a role in siderophore production. Psy1 disruptants cannot produce the major T. virens siderophore dimerum acid, a dipetide of acylated Nδ-hydroxyornithine. Biocontrol activity against damping-off diseases caused by Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani was not reduced by the Psy1 disruption, suggesting that iron competition through dimerum acid production does not contribute significantly to disease suppression activity under the conditions used. PMID:11679326

  13. Dexamethasone regulates glutamine synthetase expression in rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, Stephen R.; Konagaya, Masaaki; Konagaya, Yoko; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids in rat skeletal muscles was studied. Administration of dexamethasone strikingly enhanced glutamine synthetase activity in plantaris and soleus muscles. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked to a significant extent by orally administered RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves dramatically increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. The induction of glutamine synthetase was selective in that glutaminase activity of soleus and plantaris muscles was not increased by dexamethasone. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment resulted in only a small increase in glutamine synthetase activity in the heart. Accordingly, there was only a slight change in glutamine synthetase mRNA level in this tissue. Thus, glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase gene expression in rat muscles at the transcriptional level via interaction with intracellular glutamine production by muscle and to mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

  14. Characterization of Cereulide Synthetase, a Toxin-Producing Macromolecular Machine

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Diego A.; Magarvey, Nathan A.; Schmeing, T. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cereulide synthetase is a two-protein nonribosomal peptide synthetase system that produces a potent emetic toxin in virulent strains of Bacillus cereus. The toxin cereulide is a depsipeptide, as it consists of alternating aminoacyl and hydroxyacyl residues. The hydroxyacyl residues are derived from keto acid substrates, which cereulide synthetase selects and stereospecifically reduces with imbedded ketoreductase domains before incorporating them into the growing depsipeptide chain. We present an in vitro biochemical characterization of cereulide synthetase. We investigate the kinetics and side chain specificity of α-keto acid selection, evaluate the requirement of an MbtH-like protein for adenylation domain activity, assay the effectiveness of vinylsulfonamide inhibitors on ester-adding modules, perform NADPH turnover experiments and evaluate in vitro depsipeptide biosynthesis. This work also provides biochemical insight into depsipeptide-synthesizing nonribosomal peptide synthetases responsible for other bioactive molecules such as valinomycin, antimycin and kutzneride. PMID:26042597

  15. Biosynthetic engineering of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Kries, Hajo

    2016-09-01

    From the evolutionary melting pot of natural product synthetase genes, microorganisms elicit antibiotics, communication tools, and iron scavengers. Chemical biologists manipulate these genes to recreate similarly diverse and potent biological activities not on evolutionary time scales but within months. Enzyme engineering has progressed considerably in recent years and offers new screening, modelling, and design tools for natural product designers. Here, recent advances in enzyme engineering and their application to nonribosomal peptide synthetases are reviewed. Among the nonribosomal peptides that have been subjected to biosynthetic engineering are the antibiotics daptomycin, calcium-dependent antibiotic, and gramicidin S. With these peptides, incorporation of unnatural building blocks and modulation of bioactivities via various structural modifications have been successfully demonstrated. Natural product engineering on the biosynthetic level is not a reliable method yet. However, progress in the understanding and manipulation of biosynthetic pathways may enable the routine production of optimized peptide drugs in the near future. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27465074

  16. The microsomal dicarboxylyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, J; de Hoffmann, E; Van Hoof, F

    1985-01-01

    Dicarboxylic acids are products of the omega-oxidation of monocarboxylic acids. We demonstrate that in rat liver dicarboxylic acids (C5-C16) can be converted into their CoA esters by a dicarboxylyl-CoA synthetase. During this activation ATP, which cannot be replaced by GTP, is converted into AMP and PPi, both acting as feedback inhibitors of the reaction. Thermolabile at 37 degrees C, and optimally active at pH 6.5, dicarboxylyl-CoA synthetase displays the highest activity on dodecanedioic acid (2 micromol/min per g of liver). Cell-fractionation studies indicate that this enzyme belongs to the hepatic microsomal fraction. Investigations about the fate of dicarboxylyl-CoA esters disclosed the existence of an oxidase, which could be measured by monitoring the production of H2O2. In our assay conditions this H2O2 production is dependent on and closely follows the CoA consumption. It appears that the chain-length specificity of the handling of dicarboxylic acids by this catabolic pathway (activation to acyl-CoA and oxidation with H2O2 production) parallels the pattern of the degradation of exogenous dicarboxylic acids in vivo. PMID:4062873

  17. The structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from Giardia lamblia reveals divergence from eukaryotic homologs

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Tracy L; Carter, Megan; Napuli, Alberto J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A

    2010-01-01

    The 2.1 Å crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) from the diplomonad Giardia lamblia reveals that the N-terminus of this class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase forms a 16-residue α-helix. This helix replaces a β-hairpin that is required by human TrpRS for normal activity and has been inferred to play a similar role in all eukaryotic TrpRS. The primary sequences of TrpRS homologs from several basal eukaryotes including Giardia lack a set of three residues observed to stabilize interactions with this β-hairpin in the human TrpRS. Thus the present structure suggests that the activation reaction mechanism of TrpRS from the basal eukaryote G. lamblia differs from that of higher eukaryotes. Furthermore, the protein as observed in the crystal forms an (α2)2 homotetramer. The canonical dimer interface observed in all previous structures of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases is maintained, but in addition each N-terminal α-helix reciprocally interlocks with the equivalent helix from a second dimer to form a dimer of dimers. Although we have no evidence for tetramer formation in vivo, modeling indicates that the crystallographically observed tetrameric structure would be compatible with the tRNA binding mode used by dimeric TrpRS and TyrRS. PMID:20438846

  18. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  19. Loss of (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetase activity by production of antisense RNA results in lack of protection by interferon from viral infections

    SciTech Connect

    De Benedetti, A.; Pytel, B.A.; Baglioni, C.

    1987-02-01

    An expression vector was constructed that carries part of the human BK papovavirus with 0.5 kilobases of (2'-5')oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase cDNA inserted in inverted orientation downstream from the virion proteins (VP) promoter and the neomycin-resistance gene neo under the control of a simian virus 40 promoter. Cells transfected with this vector and selected for resistance to the neomycin derivative G418 synthesized RNA complementary to 2-5A synthetase mRNA. These cells lacked 2-5A synthetase activity, and the enzyme was not inducible by interferon. In contrast, 2-5A synthetase was induced in cells transfected with a control vector without the cDNA insert. Such cells were protected by interferon from RNA viruses, whereas cells lacking 2-5A synthetase were not protected from encephalomyocarditis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and Sindbis virus but were fully protected from influenza virus. These findings show that a high level of 2-5A synthetase is required for interferon-induced protection from the cytoplasmic RNA viruses tested.

  20. Antitumor/Antifungal Celecoxib Derivative AR-12 is a Non-Nucleoside Inhibitor of the ANL-Family Adenylating Enzyme Acetyl CoA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    AR-12/OSU-03012 is an antitumor celecoxib-derivative that has progressed to Phase I clinical trial as an anticancer agent and has activity against a number of infectious agents including fungi, bacteria and viruses. However, the mechanism of these activities has remained unclear. Based on a chemical-genetic profiling approach in yeast, we have found that AR-12 is an ATP-competitive, time-dependent inhibitor of yeast acetyl coenzyme A synthetase. AR-12-treated fungal cells show phenotypes consistent with the genetic reduction of acetyl CoA synthetase activity, including induction of autophagy, decreased histone acetylation, and loss of cellular integrity. In addition, AR-12 is a weak inhibitor of human acetyl CoA synthetase ACCS2. Acetyl CoA synthetase activity is essential in many fungi and parasites. In contrast, acetyl CoA is primarily synthesized by an alternate enzyme, ATP-citrate lyase, in mammalian cells. Taken together, our results indicate that AR-12 is a non-nucleoside acetyl CoA synthetase inhibitor and that acetyl CoA synthetase may be a feasible antifungal drug target. PMID:27088128

  1. Comparative Biochemical and Immunological Studies of Bacterial Glutamine Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Tronick, Steven R.; Ciardi, Joseph E.; Stadtman, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Antisera prepared against adenylylated and unadenylylated Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase cross-reacted with the glutamine synthetases from a number of gram-negative bacteria and one gram-variable species as demonstrated by immunodiffusion and inhibition of enzyme activity. In contrast, the antisera did not cross-react with the glutamine synthetases from gram-positive bacteria (with one exception) nor with the synthetases of higher organisms. Modification of the various glutamine synthetases by covalent attachment of adenosine 5′-monophosphate (or other nucleotides) was tested for by determining whether or not snake venom phosphodiesterase altered catalytic activity in a manner similar to its effect on adenylylated E. coli glutamine synthetase. Only the activity of the glutamine synthetases from gram-negative bacteria grown with specific levels of nitrogen sources could be altered by snake venom phosphodiesterase. In addition, a relative order of antigenic homology between cross-reacting enzymes was suggested based on the patterns of spur formation in the immunodiffusion assay. Images PMID:4125585

  2. Energetics of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase catalysis.

    PubMed

    McQueney, M S; Anderson, K S; Markham, G D

    2000-04-18

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (ATP:L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase) catalyzes the only known route of biosynthesis of the primary biological alkylating agent. The internal thermodynamics of the Escherichia coli S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase catalyzed formation of AdoMet, pyrophosphate (PP(i)), and phosphate (P(i)) from ATP, methionine, and water have been determined by a combination of pre-steady-state kinetics, solvent isotope incorporation, and equilibrium binding measurements in conjunction with computer modeling. These studies provided the rate constants for substrate binding, the two chemical interconversion steps [AdoMet formation and subsequent tripolyphosphate (PPP(i)) hydrolysis], and product release. The data demonstrate the presence of a kinetically significant isomerization of the E.AdoMet.PP(i).P(i) complex before product release. The free energy profile for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction under physiological conditions has been constructed using these experimental values and in vivo concentrations of substrates and products. The free energy profile reveals that the AdoMet formation reaction, which has an equilibrium constant of 10(4), does not have well-balanced transition state and ground state energies. In contrast, the subsequent PPP(i) hydrolytic reaction is energetically better balanced. The thermodynamic profile indicates the use of binding energies for catalysis of AdoMet formation and the necessity for subsequent PPP(i) hydrolysis to allow enzyme turnover. Crystallographic studies have shown that a mobile protein loop gates access to the active site. The present kinetic studies indicate that this loop movement is rapid with respect to k(cat) and with respect to substrate binding at physiological concentrations. The uniformly slow binding rates of 10(4)-10(5) M(-)(1) s(-)(1) for ligands with different structures suggest that loop movement may be an intrinsic property of the protein rather than being ligand induced. PMID:10757994

  3. The enterococcal cytolysin synthetase has an unanticipated lipid kinase fold

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shi-Hui; Tang, Weixin; Lukk, Tiit; Yu, Yi; Nair, Satish K; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2015-01-01

    The enterococcal cytolysin is a virulence factor consisting of two post-translationally modified peptides that synergistically kill human immune cells. Both peptides are made by CylM, a member of the LanM lanthipeptide synthetases. CylM catalyzes seven dehydrations of Ser and Thr residues and three cyclization reactions during the biosynthesis of the cytolysin large subunit. We present here the 2.2 Å resolution structure of CylM, the first structural information on a LanM. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals that the dehydratase domain of CylM resembles the catalytic core of eukaryotic lipid kinases, despite the absence of clear sequence homology. The kinase and phosphate elimination active sites that affect net dehydration are immediately adjacent to each other. Characterization of mutants provided insights into the mechanism of the dehydration process. The structure is also of interest because of the interactions of human homologs of lanthipeptide cyclases with kinases such as mammalian target of rapamycin. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07607.001 PMID:26226635

  4. Localization of the L-glutamine synthetase gene to chromosome 1q23.

    PubMed

    Clancy, K P; Berger, R; Cox, M; Bleskan, J; Walton, K A; Hart, I; Patterson, D

    1996-12-15

    Glutamine synthetase (E.C. 6.3.1.2) is expressed throughout the body and plays an important role in controlling body pH and in removing ammonia from the circulation. The enzyme clears L-glutamate, the major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, from neuronal synapses. The enzyme is a very sensitive marker of many disease and aging processes, especially those involving reactive oxygen species. This report describes the localization of the enzyme to chromosome 1 by PCR analysis of a human/rodent somatic cell hybrid panel. We also describe the localization of a recently described pseudogene to chromosome 9. Further localization of the glutamine synthetase gene locus to 1q23 was accomplished by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The glutamine synthetase gene was mapped to five CEPH megaYACs between the polymorphic PCR markers D1S117 and D1S466 by analysis of the Whitehead Institute's recently described chromosome 1 contig map. PMID:8975719

  5. Genetics Home Reference: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency ...

  6. Continuous spectrophotometric assay for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Chang, G G; Pan, F; Lin, Y H; Wang, H Y

    1984-11-01

    A simple, continuous assay for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases utilizing a commercially available pyrophosphate assay reagent kit was demonstrated. The method coupled aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity with pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate kinase, aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, and glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. PPi formation was correlated with the oxidation of NADH, and was monitored continuously by the decrease of absorbance at 340 nm. PMID:6099060

  7. Activation of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity on induction of HL-60 leukemia cell differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, E L; Nilson, L A

    1989-01-01

    A 27-fold increase in 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity, an enzyme associated with the antiproliferative actions of interferon (IFN), was observed after treatment of HL-60 human leukemia cells with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), an inducer of granulocytic differentiation of the cells. Enzyme activity was elevated after 24 h of exposure to DMSO, was maximal at 48 hours, and declined thereafter. A comparable increase was observed after treatment with 1 U of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) per ml or 8 U of beta interferon (IFN-beta) per ml. Elevated levels of expression of other IFN-inducible genes, including type I histocompatibility antigen (HLA-B) mRNA and 2',5'-oligoadenylate phosphodiesterase activity, were also observed with DMSO treatment. DMSO-treated HL-60 cells had an increased amount of a 1.8-kilobase mRNA for oligoadenylate [oligo(A)] synthetase when compared with that of control cells; both DMSO- and IFN-treated HL-60 cells also expressed 1.6-, 3.4-, and 4.3-kilobase mRNA. The increase in both oligo(A) synthetase activity and mRNA levels was inhibited by polyclonal antiserum to human IFN-alpha; however, no IFN-alpha mRNA could be detected in the cells. Antiserum to IFN-beta or gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) had no effect on oligo(A) synthetase expression or activity nor was there any detectable IFN-beta 1 or IFN-beta 2 mRNA in the cells. The anti-IFN-alpha serum did not block the elevation of HLA-B mRNA in DMSO-treated cells. These observations suggest that the increased expression of oligo(A) synthetase in DMSO-treated cells may be mediated by the release of an IFN-alpha-like factor; however, the levels of any IFN-alpha mRNA produced in the cells were extremely low. Images PMID:2476665

  8. Organisation and sequence determination of glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2003-01-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II encodes the first enzymic step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II is essential for Toxoplasma gondii replication and virulence. In this study, we characterised the primary structure of a 28kb gene encoding Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II. The carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II gene was interrupted by 36 introns. The predicted protein encoded by the 37 carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II exons was a 1,687 amino acid polypeptide with an N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase domain fused with C-terminal carbamoyl phosphate synthetase domains. This bifunctional organisation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II is unique, so far, to protozoan parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Babesia, Toxoplasma) or zoomastigina (Trypanosoma, Leishmania). Apicomplexan parasites possessed the largest carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II enzymes due to insertions in the glutamine amidotransferase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase domains that were not present in the corresponding gene segments from bacteria, plants, fungi and mammals. The C-terminal allosteric regulatory domain, the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase linker domain and the oligomerisation domain were also distinct from the corresponding domains in other species. The novel C-terminal regulatory domain may explain the lack of activation of Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II by the allosteric effector 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate. Toxoplasma gondii growth in vitro was markedly inhibited by the glutamine antagonist acivicin, an inhibitor of glutamine amidotransferase activity typically associated with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II, guanosine monophosphate synthetase, or CTP synthetase. PMID:12547350

  9. Nucleotide triphosphate promiscuity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis dethiobiotin synthetase.

    PubMed

    Salaemae, Wanisa; Yap, Min Y; Wegener, Kate L; Booker, Grant W; Wilce, Matthew C J; Polyak, Steven W

    2015-05-01

    Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) plays a crucial role in biotin biosynthesis in microorganisms, fungi, and plants. Due to its importance in bacterial pathogenesis, and the absence of a human homologue, DTBS is a promising target for the development of new antibacterials desperately needed to combat antibiotic resistance. Here we report the first X-ray structure of DTBS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtDTBS) bound to a nucleotide triphosphate (CTP). The nucleoside base is stabilized in its pocket through hydrogen-bonding interactions with the protein backbone, rather than amino acid side chains. This resulted in the unexpected finding that MtDTBS could utilise ATP, CTP, GTP, ITP, TTP, or UTP with similar Km and kcat values, although the enzyme had the highest affinity for CTP in competitive binding and surface plasmon resonance assays. This is in contrast to other DTBS homologues that preferentially bind ATP primarily through hydrogen-bonds between the purine base and the carboxamide side chain of a key asparagine. Mutational analysis performed alongside in silico experiments revealed a gate-keeper role for Asn175 in Escherichia coli DTBS that excludes binding of other nucleotide triphosphates. Here we provide evidence to show that MtDTBS has a broad nucleotide specificity due to the absence of the gate-keeper residue. PMID:25801336

  10. The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiongming; Marygold, Steven J; Gharib, Walid H; Suter, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) ligate amino acids to their cognate tRNAs, allowing them to decode the triplet code during translation. Through different mechanisms aaRSs also perform several non-canonical functions in transcription, translation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and inflammation. Drosophila has become a preferred system to model human diseases caused by mutations in aaRS genes, to dissect effects of reduced translation or non-canonical activities, and to study aminoacylation and translational fidelity. However, the lack of a systematic annotation of this gene family has hampered such studies. Here, we report the identification of the entire set of aaRS genes in the fly genome and we predict their roles based on experimental evidence and/or orthology. Further, we propose a new, systematic and logical nomenclature for aaRSs. We also review the research conducted on Drosophila aaRSs to date. Together, our work provides the foundation for further research in the fly aaRS field. PMID:26761199

  11. The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiongming; Marygold, Steven J; Gharib, Walid H; Suter, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) ligate amino acids to their cognate tRNAs, allowing them to decode the triplet code during translation. Through different mechanisms aaRSs also perform several non-canonical functions in transcription, translation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and inflammation. Drosophila has become a preferred system to model human diseases caused by mutations in aaRS genes, to dissect effects of reduced translation or non-canonical activities, and to study aminoacylation and translational fidelity. However, the lack of a systematic annotation of this gene family has hampered such studies. Here, we report the identification of the entire set of aaRS genes in the fly genome and we predict their roles based on experimental evidence and/or orthology. Further, we propose a new, systematic and logical nomenclature for aaRSs. We also review the research conducted on Drosophila aaRSs to date. Together, our work provides the foundation for further research in the fly aaRS field. PMID:26761199

  12. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

    1987-05-01

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

  13. Cloning of the glutamine synthetase gene from group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Suvorov, A N; Flores, A E; Ferrieri, P

    1997-01-01

    The glnA gene from the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae was cloned from a genomic library prepared with the lambda phage vector lambdaDASHII. A 4.6-kb DNA fragment of one of the recombinant phages was subcloned in pUC18. This Escherichia coli clone expressed a 52-kDa protein encoded by a 1,341-bp open reading frame. The nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame and the deduced amino acid sequence shared a significant degree of homology with the sequences of other glutamine synthetases (GS). The highest homology was between our deduced protein and GS of gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Plasmids with the cloned streptococcal glnA were able to complement E. coli glnA mutants grown on minimal media. Rabbit antisera to streptococcal GS recombinant protein recognized not only the recombinant protein but also a similar-sized band in mutanolysin extracts of all group B streptococcal strains tested, regardless of polysaccharide type or surface protein profile. The amino acid sequence of the deduced protein had similarities to other streptococcal cell-surface-bound proteins. The possible functional role of the immunological features of streptococcal GS is discussed. PMID:8975911

  14. Secondary NAD+ deficiency in the inherited defect of glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liyan; Ibrahim, Khalid; Stucki, Martin; Frapolli, Michele; Shahbeck, Noora; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Görg, Boris; Häussinger, Dieter; Penberthy, W Todd; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Häberle, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) deficiency is an ultra-rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism that has been described in only three patients so far. The disease is characterized by neonatal onset of severe encephalopathy, low levels of glutamine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, chronic moderate hyperammonemia, and an overall poor prognosis in the absence of an effective treatment. Recently, enteral glutamine supplementation was shown to be a safe and effective therapy for this disease but there are no data available on the long-term effects of this intervention. The amino acid glutamine, severely lacking in this disorder, is central to many metabolic pathways in the human organism and is involved in the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) starting from tryptophan or niacin as nicotinate, but not nicotinamide. Using fibroblasts, leukocytes, and immortalized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from a patient carrying a GLUL gene point mutation associated with impaired GS activity, we tested whether glutamine deficiency in this patient results in NAD(+) depletion and whether it can be rescued by supplementation with glutamine, nicotinamide or nicotinate. The present study shows that congenital GS deficiency is associated with NAD(+) depletion in fibroblasts, leukocytes and PBSC, which may contribute to the severe clinical phenotype of the disease. Furthermore, it shows that NAD(+) depletion can be rescued by nicotinamide supplementation in fibroblasts and leukocytes, which may open up potential therapeutic options for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:25896882

  15. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase in skeletal muscle cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, Stephen R.; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa; Konagaya, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    The regulation by glucocorticoids of glutamine synthetase in L6 muscle cells in culture is studied. Glutamine synthetase activity was strikingly enhanced by dexamethasone. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked by RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction process. RU38486 alone was without effect. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. Glucocorticoids regulate the expression of glutamine synthetase mRNA in cultured muscle cells via interaction with intracellular receptors. Such regulation may be relevant to control of glutamine production by muscle.

  16. Kinetics profiling of gramicidin S synthetase A, a member of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xun; Li, Hao; Alfermann, Jonas; Mootz, Henning D; Yang, Haw

    2014-12-23

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) incorporate assorted amino acid substrates into complex natural products. The substrate is activated via the formation of a reactive aminoacyl adenylate and is subsequently attached to the protein template via a thioester bond. The reactive nature of such intermediates, however, leads to side reactions that also break down the high-energy anhydride bond. The off-pathway kinetics or their relative weights compared to that of the on-pathway counterpart remains generally elusive. Here, we introduce multiplatform kinetics profiling to quantify the relative weights of on- and off-pathway reactions. Using the well-defined stoichiometry of thioester formation, we integrate a mass spectrometry (MS) kinetics assay, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay, and an ATP-pyrophosphate (PPi) exchange assay to map out a highly efficient on-pathway kinetics profile of the substrate activation and intermediate uploading (>98% relative weight) for wide-type gramicidin S synthetase A (GrsA) and a 87% rate profile for a cysteine-free GrsA mutant. Our kinetics profiling approach complements the existing enzyme-coupled byproduct-release assays, unraveling new mechanistic insights of substrate activation/channeling in NRPS enzymes. PMID:25437123

  17. Dihydrofolate synthetase and folylpolyglutamate synthetase: direct evidence for intervention of acyl phosphate intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, R.V.; Shane, B.; McGuire, J.J.; Coward, J.K.

    1988-12-13

    The transfer of /sup 17/O and/or /sup 18/O from (COOH-/sup 17/O or -/sup 18/O) enriched substrates to inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) has been demonstrated for two enzyme-catalyzed reactions involved in folate biosynthesis and glutamylation. COOH-/sup 18/O-labeled folate, methotrexate, and dihydropteroate, in addition to (/sup 17/O)-glutamate, were synthesized and used as substrates for folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) isolated from Escherichia coli, hog liver, and rat liver and for dihydrofolate synthetase (DHFS) isolated from E. coli. P/sub i/ was purified from the reaction mixtures and converted to trimethyl phosphate (TMP), which was then analyzed for /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O enrichment by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and/or mass spectroscopy. In the reactions catalyzed by the E. coli enzymes, both NMR and quantitative mass spectral analyses established that transfer of the oxygen isotope from the substrate /sup 18/O-enriched carboxyl group to P/sub i/ occurred, thereby providing strong evidence for an acyl phosphate intermediate in both the FPGS- and DHFS-catalyzed reactions. Similar oxygen-transfer experiments were carried out by use of two mammalian enzymes. The small amounts of P/sub i/ obtained from reactions catalyzed by these less abundant FPGS proteins precluded the use of NMR techniques. However, mass spectral analysis of the TMP derived from the mammalian FPGS-catalyzed reactions showed clearly that /sup 18/O transfer had occurred.

  18. Regulation of Glutamine Synthetase V. Partial Purification and Properties of Glutamine Synthetase from Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Jerry S.; Stadtman, E. R.

    1967-01-01

    The glutamine synthetase of Bacillus licheniformis has been obtained at about 15% purity. Sucrose gradient centrifugation gave a molecular weight value of approximately 612,000. Both l- and d-glutamate can be utilized as substrates in the biosynthetic reaction, although the l isomer was five times more active. The requirement for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can be partially replaced by guanosine or inosine triphosphates, but not by cytidine or uridine triphosphates. The Mn++ was required for activity, and the requirement cannot be satisfied with Mg++. Maximal activity of the biosynthetic reaction was observed when ATP and Mn++ were present in equimolar amounts. An excess of either reactant gave less activity. However, other purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, when added in combination with ATP, can partially substitute for ATP in attaining the equimolar ratio of nucleotide to Mn++. A complex of ATP and Mn++ is the preferred form of substrate. The B. licheniformis enzyme catalyzes the glutamyl transfer reaction but at a much slower rate than the Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase. Either adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or ATP can activate the glutamotransferase, although ADP is more active. PMID:6051339

  19. Changes in the activity levels of glutamine synthetase, glutaminase and glycogen synthetase in rats subjected to hypoxic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, P.; Mukherjee, A. K.; Kumria, M. M. L.; Singh, S. N.; Patil, S. K. B.; Rangnathan, S.; Sridharan, K.

    Exposure to high altitude causes loss of body mass and alterations in metabolic processes, especially carbohydrate and protein metabolism. The present study was conducted to elucidate the role of glutamine synthetase, glutaminase and glycogen synthetase under conditions of chronic intermittent hypoxia. Four groups, each consisting of 12 male albino rats (Wistar strain), were exposed to a simulated altitude of 7620 m in a hypobaric chamber for 6 h per day for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Blood haemoglobin, blood glucose, protein levels in the liver, muscle and plasma, glycogen content, and glutaminase, glutamine synthetase and glycogen synthetase activities in liver and muscle were determined in all groups of exposed and in a group of unexposed animals. Food intake and changes in body mass were also monitored. There was a significant reduction in body mass (28-30%) in hypoxia-exposed groups as compared to controls, with a corresponding decrease in food intake. There was rise in blood haemoglobin and plasma protein in response to acclimatisation. Over a three-fold increase in liver glycogen content was observed following 1 day of hypoxic exposure (4.76+/-0.78 mg.g-1 wet tissue in normal unexposed rats; 15.82+/-2.30 mg.g-1 wet tissue in rats exposed to hypoxia for 1 day). This returned to normal in later stages of exposure. However, there was no change in glycogen synthetase activity except for a decrease in the 21-days hypoxia-exposed group. There was a slight increase in muscle glycogen content in the 1-day exposed group which declined significantly by 56.5, 50.6 and 42% following 7, 14, and 21 days of exposure, respectively. Muscle glycogen synthetase activity was also decreased following 21 days of exposure. There was an increase in glutaminase activity in the liver and muscle in the 7-, 14- and 21-day exposed groups. Glutamine synthetase activity was higher in the liver in 7- and 14-day exposed groups; this returned to normal following 21 days of exposure

  20. Analogs of natural aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors clear malaria in vivo.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Eva Maria; Camacho, Noelia; Tor, Anna; Wilkinson, Barrie; Moss, Steven; Marín-García, Patricia; Azcárate, Isabel G; Bautista, José M; Mirando, Adam C; Francklyn, Christopher S; Varon, Sònia; Royo, Miriam; Cortés, Alfred; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2014-12-23

    Malaria remains a major global health problem. Emerging resistance to existing antimalarial drugs drives the search for new antimalarials, and protein translation is a promising pathway to target. Here we explore the potential of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) family as a source of antimalarial drug targets. First, a battery of known and novel ARS inhibitors was tested against Plasmodium falciparum cultures, and their activities were compared. Borrelidin, a natural inhibitor of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS), stands out for its potent antimalarial effect. However, it also inhibits human ThrRS and is highly toxic to human cells. To circumvent this problem, we tested a library of bioengineered and semisynthetic borrelidin analogs for their antimalarial activity and toxicity. We found that some analogs effectively lose their toxicity against human cells while retaining a potent antiparasitic activity both in vitro and in vivo and cleared malaria from Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice, resulting in 100% mice survival rates. Our work identifies borrelidin analogs as potent, selective, and unexplored scaffolds that efficiently clear malaria both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25489076

  1. [Thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor in asthma therapy].

    PubMed

    Machida, K; Takagi, K; Horiba, M

    1996-11-01

    Thromboxane A2(TXA2), a platelet aggregator and vasoconstricter, has been implicated as a potential mediator of bronchial asthma. TXA2 induces potent contraction of airway smooth muscles and airway hyperresponsiveness. OKY-046 (ozagrel hydrochloride) is a specific inhibitor of TXA2 synthetase and a new antiasthmatic agent. In a phase III study ozagrel has shown significantly higher effect in ameliorating the asthma symptoms and reduced the dose of concomitant steroid therapy compared to azelastine hydrochloride. Both basical and clinical studies showed that TXA2 synthetase inhibitor is effective on airway hyperresponsiveness. In this review the role of TXA2 synthetase inhibitor in current asthma therapy, which is based on the Japanese guideline of allergic disorders, was discussed. PMID:8950950

  2. Recurrent Isolated Neonatal Hemolytic Anemia: Think About Glutathione Synthetase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Signolet, Isabelle; Chenouard, Rachel; Oca, Florine; Barth, Magalie; Reynier, Pascal; Denis, Marie-Christine; Simard, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Hemolytic anemia (HA) of the newborn should be considered in cases of rapidly developing, severe, or persistent hyperbilirubinemia. Several causes of corpuscular hemolysis have been described, among which red blood cell enzyme defects are of particular concern. We report a rare case of red blood cell enzyme defect in a male infant, who presented during his first months of life with recurrent and isolated neonatal hemolysis. All main causes were ruled out. At 6.5 months of age, the patient presented with gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization; fortuitously, urine organic acid chromatography revealed a large peak of 5-oxoproline. Before the association between HA and 5-oxoprolinuria was noted, glutathione synthetase deficiency was suspected and confirmed by a low glutathione synthetase concentration and a collapse of glutathione synthetase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, molecular diagnosis revealed 2 mutations in the glutathione synthetase gene: a previously reported missense mutation (c.[656A>G]; p.[Asp219Gly]) and a mutation not yet described in the binding site of the enzyme (c.[902T>C]; p.[Leu301Pro]). However, 15 days later, a control sample revealed no signs of 5-oxoprolinuria and the clinical history discovered administration of acetaminophen in the 48 hours before hospitalization. Thus, in this patient, acetaminophen exposure allowed the diagnosis of a mild form of glutathione synthetase deficiency, characterized by isolated HA. Early diagnosis is important because treatment with bicarbonate, vitamins C and E, and elimination of trigger factors are recommended to improve long-term outcomes. Glutathione synthetase deficiency should be screened for in cases of unexplained newborn HA. PMID:27581854

  3. Kyotorphin (tyrosine-arginine) synthetase in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, H; Yoshihara, Y; Fukushima, N; Shiomi, H; Nakamura, A; Takagi, H

    1987-06-15

    Kyotorphin (Tyr-Arg) is a unique neuropeptide which produces analgesia by releasing Met-enkephalin from slices of the brain and spinal cord. Recent studies revealed that kyotorphin possesses the properties of neurotransmitter/neuroregulator. In the present study, we identified a kyotorphin synthetase in the soluble fraction of rat brain synaptosomes (synaptosol) and characterized it. The enzyme partially purified with Sephacryl S-300 showed an absolute requirement for ATP, MgCl2, tyrosine, and arginine. The optimal pH was 7.5-9.0 and the pI was determined to be 6.1-6.2 by isoelectric focusing. The Km was 25.6 microM for tyrosine, 926 microM for arginine, 294 microM for ATP, and 442 microM for MgCl2. The Vmax was 34.0 pmol/mg of protein/h. The apparent molecular size of this "kyotorphin synthetase" further purified by the DE52 column was 240,000-245,000 daltons, estimated using TSKgel G4000SW column chromatography. The enzyme reaction is represented by the following equation: Tyr + Arg + ATP + MgCl2 + kyotorphin synthetase----Tyr-Arg (kyotorphin) + AMP + PPi + MgCl2 + kyotorphin synthetase. The regional distribution and subcellular localization of the synthetase showed a close correlation to that of kyotorphin levels in the rat brain. The amounts of kyotorphin formed from amino acids by the synthetase in the dialyzed synaptosol was 3.0-4.0 times higher than that from precursor proteins by processing enzymes within the 30 min incubation. PMID:3597366

  4. Role of thymidylate synthetase activity in development of methotrexate cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, R G; Mulkins, M; Heidelberger, C

    1979-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) inhibition of the growth of mouse or human leukemia cells in culture was partially prevented by either thymidine (dThd) or hypoxanthine. 5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) also decreased the growth-inhibitory potency of MTX in the presence of small concentrations of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (citrovorum factor) and sufficient exogenous dThd to support the synthesis of thymidylate nucleotides by salvage mechanisms. In addition, citrovorum factor-induced reversal of MTX was several orders of magnitude more efficient in the presence of both FdUrd and dThd than in the presence of dThd alone or in the absence of both nucleosides. Likewise, the presence of FdUrd (3 microM) and dThd (5.6 microM) completely prevented the lethality of 0.3 mM MTX to L1210 cells in culture medium supplemented with micromolar concentrations of citrovorum factor. We propose that this protection against the cytotoxic effects of MTX by dThd, hypoxanthine, and FdUrd have a common biochemical mechanism--namely, inhibition of the de novo synthesis of thymidylate by either a direct [FdUrd; inhibition of thymidylate synthetase (thymidylate synthase; 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate:dUMP C-methyl-transferase, EC 2.1.1.45)] or indirect (dThd and hypoxanthine; feedback inhibition by anabolites on ribonucleotide reductase and deoxycytidylate deaminase) effect. The resultant decreased rate of loss of reduced folates due to de novo thymidylate synthesis would allow a higher degree of inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase to be endured without damage to the cell. PMID:160558

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and its isolated cytokine-like domain.

    PubMed

    Kondratiuk, Iuliia; Khoruzenko, Antonina; Cherednyk, Olga; Filonenko, Valeriy; Kornelyuk, Aleksander

    2013-06-01

    Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is one of the key enzymes of protein biosynthesis. In addition to its basic role, this enzyme reveals some important non-canonical functions. Under apoptotic conditions, the full-length enzyme splits into two fragments having distinct cytokine activities, thereby linking protein synthesis to cytokine signaling pathways. The NH2-terminal catalytic fragment, known as miniTyrRS, binds strongly to the CXC-chemokine receptor CXCR1 and, like interleukin 8, functions as a chemoattractant for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. On the other hand, an extra COOH-terminal domain of human TyrRS has cytokine activities like those of a mature human endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II). Moreover, the etiology of specific diseases (cancer, neuronal pathologies, autoimmune disorders, and disrupted metabolic conditions) is connected to specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Here we report the generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to N- and C-terminal domains of TyrRS. Recombinant TyrRS and its N- and C-terminal domains were expressed as His-tag fusion proteins in bacteria. Affinity purified proteins have been used as antigens for immunization and hybridoma cell screening. Monoclonal antibodies specific to catalytic N-terminal module and C-terminal EMAP II-like domain of TyrRS may be useful as tools in various aspects of TyrRS function and cellular localization. PMID:23750478

  6. Rare recessive loss-of-function methionyl-tRNA synthetase mutations presenting as a multi-organ phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS) catalyzes the ligation of methionine to its cognate transfer RNA and therefore plays an essential role in protein biosynthesis. Methods We used exome sequencing, aminoacylation assays, homology modeling, and immuno-isolation of transfected MARS to identify and characterize mutations in the methionyl-tRNA synthetase gene (MARS) in an infant with an unexplained multi-organ phenotype. Results We identified compound heterozygous mutations (F370L and I523T) in highly conserved regions of MARS. The parents were each heterozygous for one of the mutations. Aminoacylation assays documented that the F370L and I523T MARS mutants had 18 ± 6% and 16 ± 6%, respectively, of wild-type activity. Homology modeling of the human MARS sequence with the structure of E. coli MARS showed that the F370L and I523T mutations are in close proximity to each other, with residue I523 located in the methionine binding pocket. We found that the F370L and I523T mutations did not affect the association of MARS with the multisynthetase complex. Conclusion This infant expands the catalogue of inherited human diseases caused by mutations in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes. PMID:24103465

  7. Phosphorylation of five aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in reticulocytes and identification of the protein kinases phosphorylating threonyl-tRNA synthetase from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, A.M.; Traugh, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Five aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the high molecular weight complex were phosphorylated in rabbit reticulocytes following labeling with /sup 32/P. The five synthetases phosphorylated were the glutamyl-, glutaminyl-, lysyl-, aspartyl- and methionyl-tRNA synthetases. In addition, a 37,000 dalton protein, associated with the synthetase complex and tentatively identified as casein kinase I, was also phosphorylated in intact cells. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the proteins indicated all of the phosphate was on seryl residues. Incubation of reticulocytes with /sup 32/P in the presence of 8-bromo-cAMP and o, the 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine resulted in a six-fold increase in phosphorylation of the glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, a two-fold increase in phosphorylation of the aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, and a 50 to 60% decrease in phosphorylation of the glutamyl-, methionyl- and lysyl-tRNA synthetases and the M/sub r/ 37,000 protein. When the site(s) on the glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase phosphorylated in response to 8-bromo-cAMP was analyzed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping, a single phosphopeptide was observed which was identical to that obtained in vitro upon phosphorylation with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Also, the authors identify here, the protein kinases phosphorylating threonyl-tRNA synthetase from rat liver. They are protease activated kinase I, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C.

  8. Polyspecific pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetases from directed evolution

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li-Tao; Wang, Yane-Shih; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Eiler, Daniel; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Wong, Margaret; Kiessling, Laura L.; Steitz, Thomas A.; O’Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and its cognate tRNAPyl have emerged as ideal translation components for genetic code innovation. Variants of the enzyme facilitate the incorporation >100 noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. PylRS variants were previously selected to acylate Nε-acetyl-Lys (AcK) onto tRNAPyl. Here, we examine an Nε-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS), which is polyspecific (i.e., active with a broad range of ncAAs) and 30-fold more efficient with Phe derivatives than it is with AcK. Structural and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis of polyspecificity in AcKRS and in a PylRS variant [iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)] that displays both enhanced activity and substrate promiscuity over a chemical library of 313 ncAAs. IFRS, a product of directed evolution, has distinct binding modes for different ncAAs. These data indicate that in vivo selections do not produce optimally specific tRNA synthetases and suggest that translation fidelity will become an increasingly dominant factor in expanding the genetic code far beyond 20 amino acids. PMID:25385624

  9. Polyspecific pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetases from directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Tao; Wang, Yane-Shih; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Eiler, Daniel; Kavran, Jennifer M; Wong, Margaret; Kiessling, Laura L; Steitz, Thomas A; O'Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter

    2014-11-25

    Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and its cognate tRNA(Pyl) have emerged as ideal translation components for genetic code innovation. Variants of the enzyme facilitate the incorporation >100 noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. PylRS variants were previously selected to acylate N(ε)-acetyl-Lys (AcK) onto tRNA(Pyl). Here, we examine an N(ε)-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS), which is polyspecific (i.e., active with a broad range of ncAAs) and 30-fold more efficient with Phe derivatives than it is with AcK. Structural and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis of polyspecificity in AcKRS and in a PylRS variant [iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)] that displays both enhanced activity and substrate promiscuity over a chemical library of 313 ncAAs. IFRS, a product of directed evolution, has distinct binding modes for different ncAAs. These data indicate that in vivo selections do not produce optimally specific tRNA synthetases and suggest that translation fidelity will become an increasingly dominant factor in expanding the genetic code far beyond 20 amino acids. PMID:25385624

  10. Genetic and Immunological Studies of Bacteriophage T4 Thymidylate Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, S. W.; Stollar, B. D.; Friedkin, M.

    1973-01-01

    Thymidylate synthetase, which appears after infection of Escherichia coli with bacteriophage T4, has been partially purified. The phage enzyme is immunologically distinct from the host enzyme and has a molecular weight of 50,000 in comparison to 68,000 for the host enzyme. A system has been developed to characterize T4 td mutants previously known to have impaired expression of phage thymidylate synthetase. For this system, an E. coli host lacking thymidylate synthetase was isolated. Known genetic suppressors were transduced into this host. The resulting isogenic hosts were infected with phage T4 td mutants. The specific activities and amounts of cross-reacting material induced by several different types of phage mutants under conditions of suppression or non-suppression have been examined. The results show that the phage carries the structural gene specifying the thymidylate synthetase which appears after phage infection, and that the combination of plaque morphology, enzyme activity assays, and an assay for immunologically cross-reacting material provides a means for identifying true amber mutants of the phage gene. Images PMID:4575286

  11. N-acetylaspartylglutamate synthetase II synthesizes N-acetylaspartylglutamylglutamate.

    PubMed

    Lodder-Gadaczek, Julia; Becker, Ivonne; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Wang-Eckhardt, Lihua; Eckhardt, Matthias

    2011-05-13

    N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is found at high concentrations in the vertebrate nervous system. NAAG is an agonist at group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. In addition to its role as a neuropeptide, a number of functions have been proposed for NAAG, including a role as a non-excitotoxic transport form of glutamate and a molecular water pump. We recently identified a NAAG synthetase (now renamed NAAG synthetase I, NAAGS-I), encoded by the ribosomal modification protein rimK-like family member B (Rimklb) gene, as a member of the ATP-grasp protein family. We show here that a structurally related protein, encoded by the ribosomal modification protein rimK-like family member A (Rimkla) gene, is another NAAG synthetase (NAAGS-II), which in addition, synthesizes the N-acetylated tripeptide N-acetylaspartylglutamylglutamate (NAAG(2)). In contrast, NAAG(2) synthetase activity was undetectable in cells expressing NAAGS-I. Furthermore, we demonstrate by mass spectrometry the presence of NAAG(2) in murine brain tissue and sciatic nerves. The highest concentrations of both, NAAG(2) and NAAG, were found in sciatic nerves, spinal cord, and the brain stem, in accordance with the expression level of NAAGS-II. To our knowledge the presence of NAAG(2) in the vertebrate nervous system has not been described before. The physiological role of NAAG(2), e.g. whether it acts as a neurotransmitter, remains to be determined. PMID:21454531

  12. The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, S.M.; Habash, D.Z.

    2009-07-02

    Glutamine synthetase assimilates ammonium into amino acids, thus it is a key enzyme for nitrogen metabolism. The cytosolic isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase assimilate ammonium derived from primary nitrogen uptake and from various internal nitrogen recycling pathways. In this way, cytosolic glutamine synthetase is crucial for the remobilization of protein-derived nitrogen. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase is encoded by a small family of genes that are well conserved across plant species. Members of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene family are regulated in response to plant nitrogen status, as well as to environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability and biotic/abiotic stresses. The complex regulation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase at the transcriptional to post-translational levels is key to the establishment of a specific physiological role for each isoenzyme. The diverse physiological roles of cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoenzymes are important in relation to current agricultural and ecological issues.

  13. Lincosamide synthetase--a unique condensation system combining elements of nonribosomal peptide synthetase and mycothiol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Janata, Jiri; Kadlcik, Stanislav; Koberska, Marketa; Ulanova, Dana; Kamenik, Zdenek; Novak, Petr; Kopecky, Jan; Novotna, Jitka; Radojevic, Bojana; Plhackova, Kamila; Gazak, Radek; Najmanova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    In the biosynthesis of lincosamide antibiotics lincomycin and celesticetin, the amino acid and amino sugar units are linked by an amide bond. The respective condensing enzyme lincosamide synthetase (LS) is expected to be an unusual system combining nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) components with so far unknown amino sugar related activities. The biosynthetic gene cluster of celesticetin was sequenced and compared to the lincomycin one revealing putative LS coding ORFs shared in both clusters. Based on a bioassay and production profiles of S. lincolnensis strains with individually deleted putative LS coding genes, the proteins LmbC, D, E, F and V were assigned to LS function. Moreover, the newly recognized N-terminal domain of LmbN (LmbN-CP) was also assigned to LS as a NRPS carrier protein (CP). Surprisingly, the homologous CP coding sequence in celesticetin cluster is part of ccbZ gene adjacent to ccbN, the counterpart of lmbN, suggesting the gene rearrangement, evident also from still active internal translation start in lmbN, and indicating the direction of lincosamide biosynthesis evolution. The in vitro test with LmbN-CP, LmbC and the newly identified S. lincolnensis phosphopantetheinyl transferase Slp, confirmed the cooperation of the previously characterized NRPS A-domain LmbC with a holo-LmbN-CP in activation of a 4-propyl-L-proline precursor of lincomycin. This result completed the functional characterization of LS subunits resembling NRPS initiation module. Two of the four remaining putative LS subunits, LmbE/CcbE and LmbV/CcbV, exhibit low but significant homology to enzymes from the metabolism of mycothiol, the NRPS-independent system processing the amino sugar and amino acid units. The functions of particular LS subunits as well as cooperation of both NRPS-based and NRPS-independent LS blocks are discussed. The described condensing enzyme represents a unique hybrid system with overall composition quite dissimilar to any other known enzyme system

  14. Mammalian ACSF3 Protein Is a Malonyl-CoA Synthetase That Supplies the Chain Extender Units for Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Thweatt, Jennifer; Smith, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a source of intramitochondrial malonyl-CoA that could be used for de novo fatty acid synthesis in mammalian mitochondria. Because mammalian mitochondria lack an acetyl-CoA carboxylase capable of generating malonyl-CoA inside mitochondria, the possibility that malonate could act as a precursor was investigated. Although malonyl-CoA synthetases have not been identified previously in animals, interrogation of animal protein sequence databases identified candidates that exhibited sequence similarity to known prokaryotic forms. The human candidate protein ACSF3, which has a predicted N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, was cloned, expressed, and characterized as a 65-kDa acyl-CoA synthetase with extremely high specificity for malonate and methylmalonate. An arginine residue implicated in malonate binding by prokaryotic malonyl-CoA synthetases was found to be positionally conserved in animal ACSF3 enzymes and essential for activity. Subcellular fractionation experiments with HEK293T cells confirmed that human ACSF3 is located exclusively in mitochondria, and RNA interference experiments verified that this enzyme is responsible for most, if not all, of the malonyl-CoA synthetase activity in the mitochondria of these cells. In conclusion, unlike fungi, which have an intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA carboxylase, animals require an alternative source of mitochondrial malonyl-CoA; the mitochondrial ACSF3 enzyme is capable of filling this role by utilizing free malonic acid as substrate. PMID:21846720

  15. Neddylation requires glycyl-tRNA synthetase to protect activated E2.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhongying; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ze; Lauer, Janelle; Shi, Yi; Sun, Litao; Griffin, Patrick R; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2016-08-01

    Neddylation is a post-translational modification that controls the cell cycle and proliferation by conjugating the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to specific targets. Here we report that glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS), an essential enzyme in protein synthesis, also plays a critical role in neddylation. In human cells, knockdown of GlyRS, but not knockdown of a different tRNA synthetase, decreased the global level of neddylation and caused cell-cycle abnormality. This function of GlyRS is achieved through direct interactions with multiple components of the neddylation pathway, including NEDD8, E1, and E2 (Ubc12). Using various structural and functional approaches, we show that GlyRS binds the APPBP1 subunit of E1 and captures and protects activated E2 (NEDD8-conjugated Ubc12) before the activated E2 reaches a downstream target. Therefore, GlyRS functions as a chaperone that critically supports neddylation. This function is probably conserved in all eukaryotic GlyRS enzymes and may contribute to the strong association of GlyRS with cancer progression. PMID:27348078

  16. Impaired expression of acyl-CoA-synthetase 5 in epithelial tumors of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Gassler, Nikolaus; Schneider, Armin; Kopitz, Jürgen; Schnölzer, Martina; Obermüller, Nicholas; Kartenbeck, Jürgen; Otto, Herwart F; Autschbach, Frank

    2003-10-01

    Fatty acids are implicated in tumorigenesis, but data are limited concerning endogenous fatty acid metabolism of tumor cells in adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the small intestine. The recently cloned human acyl-CoA-synthetase 5 (ACS5) is predominantly found in the small intestine and represents a key enzyme in providing cytosolic acyl-CoA thioesters. Protein synthesis and mRNA expression of ACS5 were studied in human intestinal tissues using different methods, including a newly established monoclonal antibody. In the healthy small intestine, expression of ACS5 was restricted to the villus surface epithelium but was not detectable in enterocytes lining crypts. ACS5 protein and mRNA were progressively diminished in epithelial cells of adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the small intestine. In conclusion, altered expression of ACS5 is probably related to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of small intestinal epithelial tumors due to an impaired acyl-CoA thioester synthesis. PMID:14608540

  17. Glutathione production by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing bifunctional glutathione synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important bioactive substance applied widely in pharmaceutical and food industries. Due to the strong product inhibition in the GSH biosynthetic pathway, high levels of intracellular content, yield and productivity of GSH are difficult to achieve. Recently, a novel bifunctional GSH synthetase was identified to be less sensitive to GSH. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing gshF encoding the bifunctional glutathione synthetase of Streptococcus thermophilus was constructed for GSH production. In this study, efficient GSH production using this engineered strain was investigated. The cultivation process was optimized by controlling dissolved oxygen (DO), amino acid addition and glucose feeding. 36.8 mM (11.3 g/L) GSH were formed at a productivity of 2.06 mM/h when the amino acid precursors (75 mM each) were added and glucose was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. PMID:26586402

  18. Glutamine synthetase gene evolution: a good molecular clock.

    PubMed Central

    Pesole, G; Bozzetti, M P; Lanave, C; Preparata, G; Saccone, C

    1991-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) gene evolution in various animals, plants, and bacteria was evaluated by a general stationary Markov model. The evolutionary process proved to be unexpectedly regular even for a time span as long as that between the divergence of prokaryotes from eukaryotes. This enabled us to draw phylogenetic trees for species whose phylogeny cannot be easily reconstructed from the fossil record. Our calculation of the times of divergence of the various organelle-specific enzymes led us to hypothesize that the pea and bean chloroplast genes for these enzymes originated from the duplication of nuclear genes as a result of the different metabolic needs of the various species. Our data indicate that the duplication of plastid glutamine synthetase genes occurred long after the endosymbiotic events that produced the organelles themselves. PMID:1671172

  19. Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complexes in Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Mirande, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are essential enzymes for interpreting the genetic code. They are responsible for the proper pairing of codons on mRNA with amino acids. In addition to this canonical, translational function, they are also involved in the control of many cellular pathways essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Association of several of these enzymes within supramolecular assemblies is a key feature of organization of the translation apparatus in eukaryotes. It could be a means to control their oscillation between translational functions, when associated within a multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MARS), and nontranslational functions, after dissociation from the MARS and association with other partners. In this review, we summarize the composition of the different MARS described from archaea to mammals, the mode of assembly of these complexes, and their roles in maintenance of cellular homeostasis. PMID:25807264

  20. Divergent adaptation of tRNA recognition by Methanococcus jannaschii prolyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Burke, B; Lipman, R S; Shiba, K; Musier-Forsyth, K; Hou, Y M

    2001-06-01

    Analysis of prolyl-tRNA synthetase (ProRS) across all three taxonomic domains (Eubacteria, Eucarya, and Archaea) reveals that the sequences are divided into two distinct groups. Recent studies show that Escherichia coli ProRS, a member of the "prokaryotic-like" group, recognizes specific tRNA bases at both the acceptor and anticodon ends, whereas human ProRS, a member of the "eukaryotic-like" group, recognizes nucleotide bases primarily in the anticodon. The archaeal Methanococcus jannaschii ProRS is a member of the eukaryotic-like group, although its tRNA(Pro) possesses prokaryotic features in the acceptor stem. We show here that, in some respects, recognition of tRNA(Pro) by M. jannaschii ProRS parallels that of human, with a strong emphasis on the anticodon and only weak recognition of the acceptor stem. However, our data also indicate differences in the details of the anticodon recognition between these two eukaryotic-like synthetases. Although the human enzyme places a stronger emphasis on G35, the M. jannaschii enzyme places a stronger emphasis on G36, a feature that is shared by E. coli ProRS. These results, interpreted in the context of an extensive sequence alignment, provide evidence of divergent adaptation by M. jannaschii ProRS; recognition of the tRNA acceptor end is eukaryotic-like, whereas the details of the anticodon recognition are prokaryotic-like. This divergence may be a reflection of the unusual dual function of this enzyme, which catalyzes specific aminoacylation with proline as well as with cysteine. PMID:11342535

  1. Glutamine synthetase of Klebsiella aerogenes: properties of glnD mutants lacking uridylyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Foor, F; Cedergren, R J; Streicher, S L; Rhee, S G; Magasanik, B

    1978-01-01

    The glnD mutation of Klebsiella aerogenes is cotransducible by phage P1 with pan (requirement for pantothenate) and leads to a loss of uridylytransferase and uridylyl-removing enzyme, components of the glutamine synthetase adenylylation system. This defect results in an inability to deadenylylate glutamine synthetase rapidly and in a requirement for glutamine for normal growth. Suppression of the glnD mutation are located at the glutamine synthetase structural gene glnA. PMID:26659

  2. Detection of carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency using duodenal biopsy samples.

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenraad, N J; Mitchell, J D; Don, N A; Sutherland, T M; Mc Leay, A C

    1980-01-01

    The activity of urea cycle enzymes was assayed in duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from a female infant who presented with neonatal hyperammonaemia. All enzyme levels were normal except N-acetyl glutamate-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) which was half the mean activity in normal control specimens. A similar deficiency of CPS1 was also shown in duodenal specimens from the patient's mother who became slightly symptomatic after relatively high protein meals and during pregnancy, and had spontaneously modified her diet to one with protein restriction. The patient is growing normally on a dietary regimen similar to that spontaneously adopted by her mother. Urea cycle enzyme activity in the duodenal biopsy material from the controls was similar to that found in the normal human liver and appears to have distinct advantages as a means of assaying for urea cycle defects in patients with hyperammonaemia and their relatives. PMID:7416778

  3. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Trypanosoma brucei Trypanothione Synthetase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, Daniel; Torrie, Leah S; Thompson, Stephen; Harrison, Justin R; Frearson, Julie A; Read, Kevin D; Fairlamb, Alan H; Wyatt, Paul G; Gilbert, Ian H

    2012-01-01

    Trypanothione synthetase (TryS) is essential for the survival of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes human African trypanosomiasis. It is one of only a handful of chemically validated targets for T. brucei in vivo. To identify novel inhibitors of TbTryS we screened our in-house diverse compound library that contains 62 000 compounds. This resulted in the identification of six novel hit series of TbTryS inhibitors. Herein we describe the SAR exploration of these hit series, which gave rise to one common series with potency against the enzyme target. Cellular studies on these inhibitors confirmed on-target activity, and the compounds have proven to be very useful tools for further study of the trypanothione pathway in kinetoplastids. PMID:22162199

  4. A Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase-derived Iron(III) Complex from the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wen-Bing; Baccile, Joshua A.; Bok, Jin Woo; Chen, Yiming; Keller, Nancy P.; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Small molecules (SMs) play central roles as virulence factors of pathogenic fungi and bacteria; however, genomic analyses suggest that the majority of microbial SMs have remained uncharacterized. Based on microarray analysis followed by comparative metabolomics of overexpression/knockout mutants we identified a tryptophan-derived iron(III)-complex, hexadehydroastechrome (HAS), as the major product of the cryptic has non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Activation of the has cluster created a highly virulent A. fumigatus strain that increased mortality of infected mice. Comparative metabolomics of different mutant strains allowed to propose a pathway for HAS biosynthesis and further revealed cross-talk with another NRPS pathway producing the anti-cancer fumitremorgins. PMID:23360537

  5. Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase: determination of the last E. coli aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase primary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Eriani, G; Dirheimer, G; Gangloff, J

    1991-01-01

    The gene coding for E. coli cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (cysS) was isolated by complementation of a strain deficient in cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase activity at high temperature (43 degrees C). Sequencing of a 2.1 kbp DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 1383 bp coding for a protein of 461 amino acid residues with a Mr of 52,280, a value in close agreement with that observed for the purified protein, which behaves as a monomer. The sequence of CysRS bears the canonical His-Ile- Gly -His (HIGH) and Lys-Met-Ser-Lys-Ser (KMSKS) motifs characteristic of the group of enzymes containing a Rossmann fold; furthermore, it shows striking homologies with MetRS (an homodimer of 677 residues) and to a lesser extent with Ile-, Leu-, and ValRS (monomers of 939, 860, and 951 residues respectively). With its monomeric state and smaller size, CysRS is probably more closely related to the primordial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase from which all have diverged. Images PMID:2014166

  6. Archaeal-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Ibba, Michael; Bono, James L.; Rosa, Patricia A.; Söll, Dieter

    1997-01-01

    Lysyl-tRNAs are essential for protein biosynthesis by ribosomal mRNA translation in all organisms. They are synthesized by lysyl-tRNA synthetases (EC 6.1.1.6), a group of enzymes composed of two unrelated families. In bacteria and eukarya, all known lysyl-tRNA synthetases are subclass IIc-type aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, whereas some archaea have been shown to contain an unrelated class I-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase. Examination of the preliminary genomic sequence of the bacterial pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, indicated the presence of an open reading frame with over 55% similarity at the amino acid level to archaeal class I-type lysyl-tRNA synthetases. In contrast, no coding region with significant similarity to any class II-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase could be detected. Heterologous expression of this open reading frame in Escherichia coli led to the production of a protein with canonical lysyl-tRNA synthetase activity in vitro. Analysis of B. burgdorferi mRNA showed that the lysyl-tRNA synthetase-encoding gene is highly expressed, confirming that B. burgdorferi contains a functional class I-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase. The detection of an archaeal-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase in B. burgdorferi and other pathogenic spirochetes, but not to date elsewhere in bacteria or eukarya, indicates that the gene that encodes this enzyme has a common origin with its orthologue from the archaeal kingdom. This difference between the lysyl-tRNA synthetases of spirochetes and their hosts may be readily exploitable for the development of anti-spirochete therapeutics. PMID:9405621

  7. Purine oversecretion in cultured murine lymphoma cells deficient in adenylosuccinate synthetase: genetic model for inherited hyperuricemia and gout.

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, B; Wormsted, M A; Cohen, M B; Martin, D W

    1982-01-01

    Alterations in several specific enzymes have been associated with increased rates of purine synthesis de novo in human and other mammalian cells. However, these recognized abnormalities in humans account for only a few percent of the clinical cases of hyperuricemia and gout. We have examined in detail the rates of purine production de novo and purine excretion by normal and by mutant (AU-100) murine lymphoma T cells (S49) 80% deficient in adenylosuccinate synthetase [IMP:L-aspartate ligase (GDP-forming), EC 6.3.4.4]. The intracellular ATP concentration of the mutant cells is slightly diminished, but their GTP is increased 50% and their IMP, four-fold. Compared to wild-type cells, the AU-100 cells excrete into the culture medium 30- to 50-fold greater amounts of purine metabolites consisting mainly of inosine. Moreover, the AU-100 cell line overproduces total purines. In an AU-100-derived cell line, AU-TG50B, deficient in adenylosuccinate synthetase and hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (IMP:pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.8), purine nucleoside excretion is increased 50- to 100-fold, and de novo synthesis is even greater than that for AU-100 cells. The overexcretion of purine metabolites by the AU-100 cells seems to be due to the primary genetic deficiency of adenylosuccinate synthetase, a deficiency that requires the cell to increase intracellular IMP in an attempt to maintain ATP levels. As a consequence of elevated IMP pools, large amounts of inosine are secreted into the culture medium. We propose that a similar primary genetic defect may account for the excessive purine excretion in some patients with dominantly inherited hyperuricemia and gout. Images PMID:6957854

  8. Identification of protein interfaces within the multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex: the case of lysyl-tRNA synthetase and the scaffold protein p38.

    PubMed

    Rémion, Azaria; Khoder-Agha, Fawzi; Cornu, David; Argentini, Manuela; Redeker, Virginie; Mirande, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Human cytoplasmic lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is associated within a multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC). Within this complex, the p38 component is the scaffold protein that binds the catalytic domain of LysRS via its N-terminal region. In addition to its translational function when associated to the MSC, LysRS is also recruited in nontranslational roles after dissociation from the MSC. The balance between its MSC-associated and MSC-dissociated states is essential to regulate the functions of LysRS in cellular homeostasis. With the aim of understanding the rules that govern association of LysRS in the MSC, we analyzed the protein interfaces between LysRS and the full-length version of p38, the scaffold protein of the MSC. In a previous study, the cocrystal structure of LysRS with a N-terminal peptide of p38 was reported [Ofir-Birin Y et al. (2013) Mol Cell 49, 30-42]. In order to identify amino acid residues involved in interaction of the two proteins, the non-natural, photo-cross-linkable amino acid p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine (Bpa) was incorporated at 27 discrete positions within the catalytic domain of LysRS. Among the 27 distinct LysRS mutants, only those with Bpa inserted in place of Lys356 or His364 were cross-linked with p38. Using mass spectrometry, we unambiguously identified the protein interface of the cross-linked complex and showed that Lys356 and His364 of LysRS interact with the peptide from Pro8 to Arg26 in native p38, in agreement with the published cocrystal structure. This interface, which in LysRS is located on the opposite side of the dimer to the site of interaction with its tRNA substrate, defines the core region of the MSC. The residues identified herein in human LysRS are not conserved in yeast LysRS, an enzyme that does not associate within the MSC, and contrast with the residues proposed to be essential for LysRS:p38 association in the earlier work. PMID:27398309

  9. Response of transgenic poplar overexpressing cytosolic glutamine synthetase to phosphinothricin.

    PubMed

    Pascual, María Belén; Jing, Zhong Ping; Kirby, Edward G; Cánovas, Francisco M; Gallardo, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the main enzyme involved in ammonia assimilation in plants and is the target of phosphinothricin (PPT), an herbicide commonly used for weed control in agriculture. As a result of the inhibition of GS, PPT also blocks photorespiration, resulting in the depletion of leaf amino acid pools leading to the plant death. Hybrid transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba INRA clone 7171-B4) overexpressing cytosolic GS is characterized by enhanced vegetative growth [Gallardo, F., Fu, J., Cantón, F.R., García-Gutiérrez, A., Cánovas, F.M., Kirby, E.G., 1999. Expression of a conifer glutamine synthetase gene in transgenic poplar. Planta 210, 19-26; Fu, J., Sampalo, R., Gallardo, F., Cánovas, F.M., Kirby, E.G., 2003. Assembly of a cytosolic pine glutamine synthetase holoenzyme in leaves of transgenic poplar leads to enhanced vegetative growth in young plants. Plant Cell Environ. 26, 411-418; Jing, Z.P., Gallardo, F., Pascual, M.B., Sampalo, R., Romero, J., Torres de Navarra, A., Cánovas, F.M., 2004. Improved growth in a field trial of transgenic hybrid poplar overexpressing glutamine synthetase. New Phytol. 164, 137-145], increased photosynthetic and photorespiratory capacities [El-Khatib, R.T., Hamerlynck, E.P., Gallardo, F., Kirby, E.G., 2004. Transgenic poplar characterized by ectopic expression of a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene exhibits enhanced tolerance to water stress. Tree Physiol. 24, 729-736], enhanced tolerance to water stress (El-Khatib et al., 2004), and enhanced nitrogen use efficiency [Man, H.-M., Boriel, R., El-Khatib, R.T., Kirby, E.G., 2005. Characterization of transgenic poplar with ectopic expression of pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase under conditions of varying nitrogen availability. New Phytol. 167, 31-39]. In vitro plantlets of GS transgenic poplar exhibited enhanced resistance to PPT when compared with non-transgenic controls. After 30 days exposure to PPT at an equivalent dose of 275 g ha(-1), growth

  10. Short peptides from leucyl-tRNA synthetase rescue disease-causing mitochondrial tRNA point mutations

    PubMed Central

    Perli, Elena; Fiorillo, Annarita; Giordano, Carla; Pisano, Annalinda; Montanari, Arianna; Grazioli, Paola; Campese, Antonio F.; Di Micco, Patrizio; Tuppen, Helen A.; Genovese, Ilaria; Poser, Elena; Preziuso, Carmela; Taylor, Robert W.; Morea, Veronica; Colotti, Gianni; d'Amati, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial (mt) genes coding for mt-tRNAs are responsible for a range of syndromes, for which no effective treatment is available. We recently showed that the carboxy-terminal domain (Cterm) of human mt-leucyl tRNA synthetase rescues the pathologic phenotype associated either with the m.3243A>G mutation in mt-tRNALeu(UUR) or with mutations in the mt-tRNAIle, both of which are aminoacylated by Class I mt-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs). Here we show, by using the human transmitochondrial cybrid model, that the Cterm is also able to improve the phenotype caused by the m.8344A>G mutation in mt-tRNALys, aminoacylated by a Class II aaRS. Importantly, we demonstrate that the same rescuing ability is retained by two Cterm-derived short peptides, β30_31 and β32_33, which are effective towards both the m.8344A>G and the m.3243A>G mutations. Furthermore, we provide in vitro evidence that these peptides bind with high affinity wild-type and mutant human mt-tRNALeu(UUR) and mt-tRNALys, and stabilize mutant mt-tRNALeu(UUR). In conclusion, we demonstrate that small Cterm-derived peptides can be effective tools to rescue cellular defects caused by mutations in a wide range of mt-tRNAs. PMID:26721932

  11. Structural analysis of malaria-parasite lysyl-tRNA synthetase provides a platform for drug development.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sameena; Garg, Ankur; Camacho, Noelia; Van Rooyen, Jason; Kumar Pole, Anil; Belrhali, Hassan; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluis; Sharma, Vinay; Sharma, Amit

    2013-05-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are essential enzymes that transmit information from the genetic code to proteins in cells and are targets for antipathogen drug development. Elucidation of the crystal structure of cytoplasmic lysyl-tRNA synthetase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfLysRS) has allowed direct comparison with human LysRS. The authors' data suggest that PfLysRS is dimeric in solution, whereas the human counterpart can also adopt tetrameric forms. It is shown for the first time that PfLysRS is capable of synthesizing the signalling molecule Ap4a (diadenosine tetraphosphate) using ATP as a substrate. The PfLysRS crystal structure is in the apo form, such that binding to ATP will require rotameric changes in four conserved residues. Differences in the active-site regions of parasite and human LysRSs suggest the possibility of exploiting PfLysRS for selective inhibition. These investigations on PfLysRS further validate malarial LysRSs as attractive antimalarial targets and provide new structural space for the development of inhibitors that target pathogen LysRSs selectively. PMID:23633587

  12. DOES IRON OR HEME CONTROL RAT HEPATIC DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID SYNTHETASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and/or allylisopropylacetamide administration to rat pups did not evoke a premature induction of hepatic d-aminolevulinic acid synthetase. Administration of iron to adult rats did not alter d-aminolevulinic acid synthetase activity and ha...

  13. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2011-09-06

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  14. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyltRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Steven William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2012-05-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  15. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyltRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Steven William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  16. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyltRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2010-05-11

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  17. Bacteriophage T4 Virion Baseplate Thymidylate Synthetase and Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Kozloff, L. M.; Lute, M.; Crosby, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    Additional evidence is presented that both the phage T4D-induced thymidylate synthetase (gp td) and the T4D-induced dihydrofolate reductase (gp frd) are baseplate structural components. With regard to phage td it has been found that: (i) low levels of thymidylate synthetase activity were present in highly purified preparations of T4D ghost particles produced after infection with td+, whereas particles produced after infection with td− had no measurable enzymatic activity; (ii) a mutation of the T4D td gene from tdts to td+ simultaneously produced a heat-stable thymidylate synthetase enzyme and heat-stable phage particles (it should be noted that the phage baseplate structure determines heat lability); (iii) a recombinant of two T4D mutants constructed containing both tdts and frdts genes produced particles whose physical properties indicate that these two molecules physically interact in the baseplate. With regard to phage frd it has been found that two spontaneous revertants each of two different T4D frdts mutants to frd+ not only produced altered dihydrofolate reductases but also formed phage particles with heat sensitivities different from their parents. Properties of T4D particles produced after infection with parental T4D mutants presumed to have a deletion of the td gene and/or the frd gene indicate that these particles still retain some characteristics associated with the presence of both the td and the frd molecules. Furthermore, the particles produced by the deletion mutants have been found to be physically different from the parent particles. PMID:894793

  18. Inactivation and covalent modification of CTP synthetase by thiourea dioxide.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J G; Sparvero, L J; Villafranca, J J

    1992-10-01

    Thiourea dioxide was used in chemical modification studies to identify functionally important amino acids in Escherichia coli CTP synthetase. Incubation at pH 8.0 in the absence of substrates led to rapid, time dependent, and irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. The second-order rate constant for inactivation was 0.18 M-1 s-1. Inactivation also occurred in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of catalase, thereby ruling out mixed-function oxidation/reduction as the mode of amino acid modification. Saturating concentrations of the substrates ATP and UTP, and the allosteric activator GTP prevented inactivation by thiourea dioxide, whereas saturating concentrations of glutamine (a substrate) did not. The concentration dependence of nucleotide protection revealed cooperative behavior with respect to individual nucleotides and with respect to various combinations of nucleotides. Mixtures of nucleotides afforded greater protection against inactivation than single nucleotides alone, and a combination of the substrates ATP and UTP provided the most protection. The Hill coefficient for nucleotide protection was approximately 2 for ATP, UTP, and GTP. In the presence of 1:1 ratios of ATP:UTP, ATP:GTP, and UTP:GTP, the Hill coefficient was approximately 4 in each case. Fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that modification by thiourea dioxide causes detectable changes in the structure of the protein. Modification with [14C]thiourea dioxide demonstrated that complete inactivation correlates with incorporation of 3 mol of [14C]thiourea dioxide per mole of CTP synthetase monomer. The specificity of thiourea dioxide for lysine residues indicates that one or more lysines are most likely involved in CTP synthetase activity. The data further indicate that nucleotide binding prevents access to these functionally important residues. PMID:1303749

  19. Inactivation and covalent modification of CTP synthetase by thiourea dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J. G.; Sparvero, L. J.; Villafranca, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Thiourea dioxide was used in chemical modification studies to identify functionally important amino acids in Escherichia coli CTP synthetase. Incubation at pH 8.0 in the absence of substrates led to rapid, time dependent, and irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. The second-order rate constant for inactivation was 0.18 M-1 s-1. Inactivation also occurred in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of catalase, thereby ruling out mixed-function oxidation/reduction as the mode of amino acid modification. Saturating concentrations of the substrates ATP and UTP, and the allosteric activator GTP prevented inactivation by thiourea dioxide, whereas saturating concentrations of glutamine (a substrate) did not. The concentration dependence of nucleotide protection revealed cooperative behavior with respect to individual nucleotides and with respect to various combinations of nucleotides. Mixtures of nucleotides afforded greater protection against inactivation than single nucleotides alone, and a combination of the substrates ATP and UTP provided the most protection. The Hill coefficient for nucleotide protection was approximately 2 for ATP, UTP, and GTP. In the presence of 1:1 ratios of ATP:UTP, ATP:GTP, and UTP:GTP, the Hill coefficient was approximately 4 in each case. Fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that modification by thiourea dioxide causes detectable changes in the structure of the protein. Modification with [14C]thiourea dioxide demonstrated that complete inactivation correlates with incorporation of 3 mol of [14C]thiourea dioxide per mole of CTP synthetase monomer. The specificity of thiourea dioxide for lysine residues indicates that one or more lysines are most likely involved in CTP synthetase activity. The data further indicate that nucleotide binding prevents access to these functionally important residues. PMID:1303749

  20. Inhibition of Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthetase by sulfa drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Merali, S; Zhang, Y; Sloan, D; Meshnick, S

    1990-01-01

    A new reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography assay procedure for dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) that involves the elution of the enzyme incubation solution with a series of three solvents of decreasing polarity (ammonium phosphate buffer, 10% methanol, and 50% methanol) was designed. By this procedure DHPS was detected in Escherichia coli and Pneumocystis carinii with specific activities of 450 and 14 U/mg, respectively. A comparison of the effects of five sulfa drugs on P. carinii DHPS activity revealed that dapsone is the most potent of these drugs. PMID:2203302

  1. Structural basis of improved second-generation 3-nitro-tyrosine tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Richard B; Feldman, Jessica L; Driggers, Camden M; Bundy, Taylor A; Stokes, Audrey L; Karplus, P Andrew; Mehl, Ryan A

    2014-04-01

    Genetic code expansion has provided the ability to site-specifically incorporate a multitude of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins for a wide variety of applications, but low ncAA incorporation efficiency can hamper the utility of this powerful technology. When investigating proteins containing the post-translational modification 3-nitro-tyrosine (nitroTyr), we developed second-generation amino-acyl tRNA synthetases (RS) that incorporate nitroTyr at efficiencies roughly an order of magnitude greater than those previously reported and that advanced our ability to elucidate the role of elevated cellular nitroTyr levels in human disease (e.g., Franco, M. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 2013 , 110 , E1102 ). Here, we explore the origins of the improvement achieved in these second-generation RSs. Crystal structures of the most efficient of these synthetases reveal the molecular basis for the enhanced efficiencies observed in the second-generation nitroTyr-RSs. Although Tyr is not detectably incorporated into proteins when expression media is supplemented with 1 mM nitroTyr, a major difference between the first- and second-generation RSs is that the second-generation RSs have an active site more compatible with Tyr binding. This feature of the second-generation nitroTyr-RSs appears to be the result of using less stringent criteria when selecting from a library of mutants. The observation that a different selection strategy performed on the same library of mutants produced nitroTyr-RSs with dramatically improved efficiencies suggests the optimization of established selection protocols could lead to notable improvements in ncAA-RS efficiencies and thus the overall utility of this technology. PMID:24611875

  2. The evolution of Class II Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and the first code.

    PubMed

    Smith, Temple F; Hartman, Hyman

    2015-11-30

    Class II Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a set of very ancient multi domain proteins. The evolution of the catalytic domain of Class II synthetases can be reconstructed from three peptidyl-hairpins. Further evolution from this primordial catalytic core leads to a split of the Class II synthetases into two divisions potentially associated with the operational code. The earliest form of this code likely coded predominantly Glycine (Gly), Proline (Pro), Alanine (Ala) and "Lysine"/Aspartic acid (Lys/Asp). There is a paradox in these synthetases beginning with a hairpin structure before the Genetic Code existed. A resolution is found in the suggestion that the primordial Aminoacyl synthetases formed in a transition from a Thioester world to a Phosphate ester world. PMID:26472323

  3. Purification and comparison of two forms of S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, C; Puerta, J; Alemany, S

    1987-12-30

    Only two S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase forms exist in rat liver: high-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase and low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase, which have been purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. High-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase had an apparent molecular mass, determined by gel filtration, of 210 kDa and was a tetramer constituted by 48.5-kDa subunits, estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent molecular mass of low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase, as estimated by gel filtration, was 110 kDa and was constituted by two subunits of 47 kDa. An antiserum against low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase cross-reacted with the two forms. Reverse-phase HPLC runs of tryptic digestions of high-Mr and low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase showed that the peptide maps of the two forms were very similar, if not identical. High-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase activity was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyrophosphate. Depending on the dose used, S-adenosyl-L-methionine activated or inhibited low-Mr S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase and pyrophosphate had no effect on this form. The two synthetases showed a different specific activity at the physiological concentration of methionine. This report shows that even though the two forms are constructed of the same polypeptide chains, they are regulated in a different manner by methionine and by the products of the reaction. PMID:3121322

  4. Isolation, structure and expression of mammalian genes for histidyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, F W; Siminovitch, L

    1987-01-01

    A full length cDNA clone that codes for human histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HRS) and cDNA clones that span the full length transcript of hamster HRS have been isolated. The full length human HRS cDNA was expressed after transfection into Cos 1 cells and a CHO ts mutant defective in the gene for HRS. The complete nucleotide sequence of the hamster and human gene were obtained and extensive homologies were observed in three regions on comparing these sequences between themselves and with the sequence of HRS derived from yeast. These results provide unequivocal evidence that we have indeed cloned the hamster and human gene for HRS. Three overlapping phage recombinants containing the complete hamster chromosomal gene for HRS have also been isolated. The genomic HRS is divided into 13 exons. The precise locations of each of the 5' and 3' exon-intron boundaries were defined by sequencing the appropriate regions of the cloned genomic DNA and aligning them with the sequence of HRS cDNAs. These studies provide the basis for future structural and functional analysis of the gene for HRS. In particular, it will be of interest to examine if different exons of HRS correlate to different domains of the HRS polypeptide. Images PMID:3554142

  5. Inhibition of recombinant Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthetase by sulfa drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y L; Hossler, P A; Calhoun, D H; Meshnick, S R

    1995-01-01

    Forty-four sulfa drugs were screened against crude preparations of recombinant Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthetase. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) for p-aminobenzoic acid and 7,8-dihydro-6-hydroxymethylpterin pyrophosphate were 0.34 +/- 0.02 and 2.50 +/- 0.71 microM, respectively. Several sulfa drugs, including sulfathiazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, and sulfathiourea, inhibited dihydropteroate synthetase approximately as well as sulfamethoxazole, as determined by the concentrations which cause 50% inhibition and/or by Ki. For all sulfones and sulfonamides tested, unsubstituted p-amino groups were necessary for activity, and sulfonamides containing an N1-heterocyclic substituent were found to be the most effective inhibitors. Folate biosynthesis in isolated intact P. carinii was approximately equally sensitive to inhibition by sulfamethoxazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfisoxazole, and sulfathiazole. Two of these drugs, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfisoxazole, are known to be less toxic than sulfamethoxazole and should be further evaluated for the treatment of P. carinii pneumonia. PMID:7486915

  6. Management of a patient with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, Johan L K; Josefsberg, Sagi; Freehauf, Cynthia; Thomas, Janet A; Thuy, Le Phuc; Barshop, Bruce A; Woontner, Michael; Mock, Donald M; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Spector, Elaine; Meneses-Morales, Iván; Cervantes-Roldán, Rafael; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2008-12-01

    We investigated in a patient with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency, the relation between the biochemical and genetic factors of the mutant protein with the pharmacokinetic factors of successful biotin treatment. A girl exhibited abnormal skin at birth, and developed in the first days of life neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and metabolic abnormalities diagnostic of multiple carboxylase deficiency. Enzyme assays showed low carboxylase activities. Fibroblast analysis showed poor incorporation of biotin into the carboxylases, and low transfer of biotin by the holocarboxylase synthetase enzyme. Kinetic studies identified an increased Km but a preserved Vmax. Mutation analysis showed the child to be a compound heterozygote for a new nonsense mutation Q379X and for a novel missense mutation Y663H. This mutation affects a conserved amino acid, which is located the most 3' of all recorded missense mutations thus far described, and extends the region of functional biotin interaction. Treatment with biotin 100mg/day gradually improved the biochemical abnormalities in blood and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), corrected the carboxylase enzyme activities, and provided clinical stability and a normal neurodevelopmental outcome. Plasma concentrations of biotin were increased to more than 500 nM, thus exceeding the increased Km of the mutant enzyme. At these pharmacological concentrations, the CSF biotin concentration was half the concentration in blood. Measuring these pharmacokinetic variables can aid in optimizing treatment, as individual tailoring of dosing to the needs of the mutation may be required. PMID:18974016

  7. MANAGEMENT OF A PATIENT WITH HOLOCARBOXYLASE SYNTHETASE DEFICIENCY

    PubMed Central

    Van Hove, Johan LK; Josefsberg, Sagi; Freehauf, Cynthia; Thomas, Janet A.; Thuy, Le Phuc; Barshop, Bruce A.; Woontner, Michael; Mock, Donald M; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Spector, Elaine; Meneses-Morales, Iván; Cervantes-Roldán, Rafael; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    We investigated in a patient with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency, the relation between the biochemical and genetic factors of the mutant protein with the pharmacokinetic factors of successful biotin treatment. A girl exhibited abnormal skin at birth, and developed in the first days of life neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and metabolic abnormalities diagnostic of multiple carboxylase deficiency. Enzyme assays showed low carboxylase activities. Fibroblast analysis showed poor incorporation of biotin into the carboxylases, and low transfer of biotin by the holocarboxylase synthetase enzyme. Kinetic studies identified an increased Km but a preserved Vmax. Mutation analysis showed the child to be a compound heterozygote for a new nonsense mutation Q379X and for a novel missense mutation Y663H. This mutation affects a conserved amino acid, which is located the most 3′ of all recorded missense mutations thus far described, and extends the region of functional biotin interaction. Treatment with biotin 100 mg/day gradually improved the biochemical abnormalities in blood and in cerebrospinal fluid, corrected the carboxylase enzyme activities, and provided clinical stability and a normal neurodevelopmental outcome. Plasma concentrations of biotin were increased to more than 500 nM, thus exceeding the increased Km of the mutant enzyme. At these pharmacological concentrations, the CSF biotin concentration was half the concentration in blood. Measuring these pharmacokinetic variables can aid in optimizing treatment, as individual tailoring of dosing to the needs of the mutation may be required. PMID:18974016

  8. Novel Insights into Regulation of Asparagine Synthetase in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Javier; Rueda-López, Marina; Craven-Bartle, Blanca; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2012-01-01

    Asparagine, a key amino acid for nitrogen storage and transport in plants, is synthesized via the ATP-dependent reaction catalyzed by the enzyme asparagine synthetase (AS; EC 6.3.5.4). In this work, we present the molecular analysis of two full-length cDNAs that encode asparagine synthetase in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), PpAS1, and PpAS2. Phylogenetic analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that both genes are class II AS, suggesting an ancient origin of these genes in plants. A comparative study of PpAS1 and PpAS2 gene expression profiles showed that PpAS1 gene is highly regulated by developmental and environmental factors, while PpAS2 is expressed constitutively. To determine the molecular mechanisms underpinning the differential expression of PpAS1, the promoter region of the gene was isolated and putative binding sites for MYB transcription factors were identified. Gel mobility shift assays showed that a MYB protein from Pinus taeda (PtMYB1) was able to interact with the promoter region of PpAS1. Furthermore, transient expression analyses in pine cells revealed a negative effect of PtMYB1 on PpAS1 expression. The potential role of MYB factors in the transcriptional regulation of PpAS1 in vascular cells is discussed. PMID:22654888

  9. Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency pre and post newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Taraka R.; Blackburn, Patrick R.; Atwal, Paldeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism resulting in multiple carboxylase deficiency. The typical presentation described in the medical literature is of neonatal onset within hours to weeks of birth with emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, seizures, metabolic ketolactic acidosis, hyperammonemia, developmental delay, skin rash and alopecia. The condition is screened for by newborn screening (NBS) tandem mass spectroscopy by elevated hydroxypentanoylcarnitine on dried blood spots. Urine organic acid profile may demonstrate elevated lactic, 3-OH isovaleric, 3-OH propionic, 3-MCC, methylcitric acids, and tiglylglycine consistent with loss of function of the above carboxylases. Here we describe a cohort of patients, 2 diagnosed pre-NBS and 3 post-NBS with broad differences in initial presentation and phenotype. In addition, prior to the advent of NBS, there are isolated reports of late-onset holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the medical literature, which describe patients diagnosed between 1 and 8 years of life, however to our knowledge there are no reports of late-onset HCLS being missed by NBS. Also we report two cases, each with novel pathogenic variants HCLS, diagnosed at age 3 years and 21 months respectively. The first patient had a normal newborn screen whilst the second had an abnormal newborn screen but was misdiagnosed as 3-methylcrotonylcarboxylase (3-MCC) deficiency and subsequently lost to follow-up until they presented again with severe metabolic acidosis. PMID:27114915

  10. Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency pre and post newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Donti, Taraka R; Blackburn, Patrick R; Atwal, Paldeep S

    2016-06-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism resulting in multiple carboxylase deficiency. The typical presentation described in the medical literature is of neonatal onset within hours to weeks of birth with emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, seizures, metabolic ketolactic acidosis, hyperammonemia, developmental delay, skin rash and alopecia. The condition is screened for by newborn screening (NBS) tandem mass spectroscopy by elevated hydroxypentanoylcarnitine on dried blood spots. Urine organic acid profile may demonstrate elevated lactic, 3-OH isovaleric, 3-OH propionic, 3-MCC, methylcitric acids, and tiglylglycine consistent with loss of function of the above carboxylases. Here we describe a cohort of patients, 2 diagnosed pre-NBS and 3 post-NBS with broad differences in initial presentation and phenotype. In addition, prior to the advent of NBS, there are isolated reports of late-onset holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the medical literature, which describe patients diagnosed between 1 and 8 years of life, however to our knowledge there are no reports of late-onset HCLS being missed by NBS. Also we report two cases, each with novel pathogenic variants HCLS, diagnosed at age 3 years and 21 months respectively. The first patient had a normal newborn screen whilst the second had an abnormal newborn screen but was misdiagnosed as 3-methylcrotonylcarboxylase (3-MCC) deficiency and subsequently lost to follow-up until they presented again with severe metabolic acidosis. PMID:27114915

  11. Evolution of the Glx-tRNA synthetase family: the glutaminyl enzyme as a case of horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Lamour, V; Quevillon, S; Diriong, S; N'Guyen, V C; Lipinski, M; Mirande, M

    1994-01-01

    An important step ensuring the fidelity in protein biosynthesis is the aminoacylation of tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The accuracy of this process rests on a family of 20 enzymes, one for each amino acid. One exception is the formation of Gln-tRNA(Gln) that can be accomplished by two different pathways: aminoacylation of tRNA(Gln) with Gln by glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS; EC 6.1.1.18) or transamidation of Glu from Glu-tRNA(Gln) mischarged by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS; EC 6.1.1.17). The latter pathway is widespread among bacteria and organelles that, accordingly, lack GlnRS. However, some bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, do possess a GlnRS activity, which is responsible for Gln-tRNA(Gln) formation. In the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, both GluRS and GlnRS activities can be detected. To gain more insight into the evolutionary relationship between GluRS and GlnRS enzyme species, we have now isolated and characterized a human cDNA encoding GlnRS. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a strong similarity with other known GlnRSs and with eukaryotic GluRSs. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted on the 14 GlxRS (GluRS or GlnRS) sequences available to date. Our data suggest that bacterial GlnRS has a eukaryotic origin and was acquired by a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. Images PMID:8078941

  12. Direct evidence for an acyl phosphate intermediate in the folylpoly-. gamma. -glutamate synthetase and dihydrofolate synthetase-catalyzed reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, R.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of the reactions catalyzed by two enzymes, namely dihydrofolate synthetase (DHFS) and folylpoly-..gamma..-glutamate synthetase (FPGS), has been investigated. The nature of the intermediate in each of the two reactions was monitored simultaneously in the multifunctional enzyme, FPGS/DHFS from E. coli. The latter was isolated from a transformant containing the cloned FPGS/DHFS gene. Incubation of (/sup 18/O)-H/sub 2/Pte and (/sup 17/O)-glutamate with ATP and the enzyme, resulted in the formation of (/sup 18/O)- and (/sup 17/O)-P/sub i/, thus providing strong evidence for the formation of an acyl phosphate species during catalysis of each reaction. The inorganic phosphate formed in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction was purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, then converted to the trimethyl ester and analyzed by mass spectroscopy /sup 17/O NMR and /sup 31/P NMR. Stoichiometric formation of (/sup 17/O)- and (/sup 18/O)-Pi was observed. /sup 31/P NMR analysis showed the expected /sup 18/O-induced isotopic perturbations. The presence of (/sup 17/O)-trimethyl phosphate was revealed by /sup 17/O NMR. The mechanism of the FPGS-catalyzed reaction was also investigated with the antifolate (/sup 18/O)-methotrexate.

  13. Encapsulation of glutamine synthetase in mouse erythrocytes: a new procedure for ammonia detoxification.

    PubMed

    Kosenko, Elena A; Venediktova, Natalia I; Kudryavtsev, Andrey A; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Kaminsky, Yury G; Felipo, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2008-12-01

    There are a number of pathological situations in which ammonia levels increase leading to hyperammonemia, which may cause neurological alterations and can lead to coma and death. Currently, there are no efficient treatments allowing rapid and sustained decrease of ammonia levels in these situations. A way to increase ammonia detoxification would be to increase its incorporation in glutamine by glutamine synthetase. The aim of this work was to develop a procedure to encapsulate glutamine synthetase in mouse erythrocytes and to assess whether administration of these erythrocytes containing glutamine synthetase (GS) reduce ammonia levels in hyperammonemic mice. The procedure developed allowed the encapsulation of 3 +/- 0.25 IU of GS / mL of erythrocytes with a 70% cell recovery. Most metabolites, including ATP, remained unaltered in glutamine synthetase-loaded erythrocytes (named ammocytes by us) compared with native erythrocytes. The glutamine synthetase-loaded ammocytes injected in mice survived and retained essentially all of their glutamine synthetase activity for at least 48 h in vivo. Injection of these ammocytes into hyperammonemic mice reduced ammonia levels in the blood by about 50%. The results reported indicate that ammocytes are able to keep their integrity, normal energy metabolism, the inserted glutamine synthetase activity, and can be useful to reduce ammonia levels in hyperammonemic situations. PMID:19088795

  14. Sequence, structural and evolutionary relationships between class 2 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, S; Härtlein, M; Leberman, R

    1991-01-01

    Class 2 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which include the enzymes for alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glycine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, serine and threonine, are characterised by three distinct sequence motifs 1,2 and 3 (reference 1). The structural and evolutionary relatedness of these ten enzymes are examined using alignments of primary sequences from prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources and the known three dimensional structure of seryl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli. It is shown that motif 1 forms part of the dimer interface of seryl-tRNA synthetase and motifs 2 and 3 part of the putative active site. It is further shown that the seven alpha 2 dimeric synthetases can be subdivided into class 2a (proline, threonine, histidine and serine) and class 2b (aspartic acid, asparagine and lysine), each subclass sharing several important characteristic sequence motifs in addition to those characteristic of class 2 enzymes in general. The alpha 2 beta 2 tetrameric enzymes (for glycine and phenylalanine) show certain special features in common as well as some of the class 2b motifs. In the alanyl-tRNA synthetase only motif 3 and possibly motif 2 can be identified. The sequence alignments suggest that the catalytic domain of other class 2 synthetases should resemble the antiparallel domain found in seryl-tRNA synthetase. Predictions are made about the sequence location of certain important helices and beta-strands in this domain as well as suggestions concerning which residues are important in ATP and amino acid binding. Strong homologies are found in the N-terminal extensions of class 2b synthetases and in the C-terminal extensions of class 2a synthetases suggesting that these putative tRNA binding domains have been added at a later stage in evolution to the catalytic domain. Images PMID:1852601

  15. Regulation of β-Glucan Synthetase Activity by Auxin in Pea Stem Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Peter M.

    1973-01-01

    Treatment of pea stem segments with indoleacetic acid (IAA) causes within 1 hour a 2- to 4-fold increase in activity of particulate uridine diphosphoglucose-dependent β-glucan synthetase obtainable from the tissue. The IAA effect is observable in tissue from all parts of the elongation zone of the pea stem, and also in older tissue that is not capable of a cell enlargement response to IAA. A large increase in activity is caused by IAA only if synthetase activity in the isolated tissue has first been allowed to fall substantially below the intact plant level, and only if sucrose is supplied along with IAA. Treatment of tissue with sucrose alone after a period of sugar starvation causes a transient rise of synthetase activity. The decline in synthetase activity in absence of IAA, the rise caused by IAA, and the transient rise caused by sucrose are all strongly temperature-dependent. IAA and sucrose do not affect the activity of isolated synthetase particles. Synthetase activity in vivo is sensitive to as low as 0.1 μm IAA and is increased by IAA analogues that are active as auxins on elongation but not by nonauxin analogues. Activity begins to rise 10 to 15 minutes after exposure to IAA, which places this among the most rapid enzyme effects of a plant growth regulator heretofore demonstrated, and among the most rapid known metabolic effects of auxins. The effect is seen also with polysaccharide synthetase activity using uridine diphosphate-galactose or uridine diphosphate-xylose as substrates, and to a lesser extent with guanosine diphosphoglucose-dependent glucan synthetase activity. Glucan synthetase from IAA-treated tissue appears to have a higher affinity for uridine diphosphate-glucose than the control. PMID:16658379

  16. Properties of Kaurene Synthetase from Marah macrocarpus1

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Russell G.; West, Charles A.

    1977-01-01

    The kaurene synthetase from immature seeds of Marah macrocarpus (Greene) Greene was partially purified from cell-free homogenates of endosperm by a combination of QAE-Sephadex A-25 chromatography and hydroxyapatite chromatography and freed of contaminating phosphatase activity. The two catalytic activities associated with kaurene synthetase, the cyclization of geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate to copalyl-pyrophosphate (activity A) and the cyclization of copalyl-pyrophosphate to ent-kaurene (activity B), were not even partially resolved from one another during these procedures. Both activities had identical elution profiles from a calibrated Sepharose 4B column corresponding to a molecular weight less than that of ovalbumin (45,000). The A and B activities had pH optima of 7.3 and 6.9, respectively. Both activities required millimolar concentrations of the following divalent cations in the order: Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Co2+. Activities A and B were both sensitive to inhibition by Hg2+, Cu2+, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and N-ethylmaleimide, but activity B was much more sensitive than activity A. The average value of Km′ (apparent Km in the absence of substrate inhibition) for geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate was 1.6 μm. Values of 0.5 and 0.6 μm were obtained for Km′ and Km, respectively, for copalyl-pyrophosphate. The Vm′ values for the two activities were similar: 12 and 9 pmol/minute·μg protein for activities A and B, respectively. N,N-Dimethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylpentanoate (SKF-525A) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylphentyl ether (SKF-3301A), tributyl-2,4-dichlorobenzylphosphonium chloride (Phosfon D), tributyl-2,4-dichlorobenzylammonium chloride (Phosfon S), 2′-isopropyl-4′-(trimethylammonium chloride)-5′-methylphenyl piperidine-1-carboxylate (Amo-1618), 2-(N,N-dimethyl-N-heptylammonium bromide)-p-methan-1-ol (Q-58), and 2-(N,N-dimethyl-N-octylammonium bromide)-p-methan-1-ol (Q-64), at concentrations from 1 to 5 μm, were effective inhibitors of kaurene

  17. The MTCY428.08 Gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Codes for NAD+ Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Rita; Branzoni, Manuela; Labò, Monica; Rizzi, Menico; Riccardi, Giovanna

    1998-01-01

    The product of the MTCY428.08 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows sequence homology with several NAD+ synthetases. The MTCY428.08 gene was cloned into the expression vectors pGEX-4T-1 and pET-15b. Expression in Escherichia coli led to overproduction of glutathione S-transferase fused and His6-tagged gene products, which were enzymatically assayed for NAD synthetase activity. Our results demonstrate that the MTCY428.08 gene of M. tuberculosis is the structural gene for NAD+ synthetase. PMID:9620974

  18. Altering the Enantioselectivity of Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase by Insertion of a Stereospecific Editing Domain.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Charles J; First, Eric A

    2016-03-15

    Translation of mRNAs by the ribosome is stereospecific, with only l-amino acids being incorporated into the nascent polypeptide chain. This stereospecificity results from the exclusion of d-amino acids at three steps during protein synthesis: (1) the aminoacylation of tRNA by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, (2) binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to EF-Tu, and (3) recognition of aminoacyl-tRNAs by the ribosome. As a first step toward incorporating d-amino acids during protein synthesis, we have altered the enantioselectivity of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. This enzyme is unusual among aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as it can aminoacylate tRNA with d-tyrosine (albeit at a reduced rate compared to l-tyrosine). To change the enantioselectivity of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, we introduced the post-transfer editing domain from Pyrococcus horikoshii phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase into the connective polypeptide 1 (CP1) domain of Geobacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (henceforth designated TyrRS-FRSed). We show that the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain is stereospecific, hydrolyzing l-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr), but not d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr). We further show that inserting the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain into the CP1 domain of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase decreases the activity of the synthetic site in tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. This decrease in activity is critical, as it prevents the rate of synthesis from overwhelming the ability of the editing domain to hydrolyze the l-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) product. Overall, inserting the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain results in a 2-fold shift in the enantioselectivity of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase toward the d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) product. When a 4-fold excess of d-tyrosine is used, approximately 40% of the tRNA(Tyr) is aminoacylated with d-tyrosine. PMID:26890980

  19. Treatment of renal colic by prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors and avafortan (analgesic antispasmodic).

    PubMed

    el-Sherif, A E; Foda, R; Norlen, L J; Yahia, H

    1990-12-01

    In a study of the pain-relieving effect of 3 drugs commonly used to treat acute renal colic in this hospital, intravenous indomethacin and intramuscular diclofenac (prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors) were compared with intravenous Avafortan (analgesic antispasmodic). As first-line analgesics, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, if given intravenously, offer an effective alternative to Avafortan. Of 145 patients studied, 32 required a second injection for complete relief of pain. Administering a second dose of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors resulted in equally significant pain relief rate even though the route was intramuscular. PMID:2265331

  20. Multiple molecular forms of glutamine synthetase in pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Antonyuk, L P; Pushkin, A V; Vorobyeva, L M; Solovjeva, N A; Evstigneeva, Z G; Kretovich, W L

    1982-08-20

    Multiple molecular forms of glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) have been studied in pea seeds of different varieties. The number of GS molecular forms in the seeds proved to be related to their colour. Two GS forms in the green seeds have been found and only one of them in the yellow seeds. Green seeds had chlorophyll content amounted to 0.4% of the total pigment content in the leaves. Chloroplasts, somewhat smaller than those in pea leaves of the same variety, have been isolated from green seeds. The presence of the second GS form in the pea green seeds we relate to the chloroplasts. By electrophoretic mobility both forms of GS from the green seeds are not identical to the chloroplast GS and the cytosol GS of leaves. Thus, we believe pea plant to contain, at least, four GS forms. PMID:6127624

  1. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes: molecular multitasking revealed

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Corinne D.; Ibba, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The accurate synthesis of proteins, dictated by the corresponding nucleotide sequence encoded in mRNA, is essential for cell growth and survival. Central to this process are the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), which provide amino acid substrates for the growing polypeptide chain in the form of aminoacyl-tRNAs. The aaRSs are essential for coupling the correct amino acid and tRNA molecules, but are also known to associate in higher order complexes with proteins involved in processes beyond translation. Multiprotein complexes containing aaRSs are found in all three domains of life playing roles in splicing, apoptosis, viral assembly, and regulation of transcription and translation. An overview of the complexes aaRSs form in all domains of life is presented, demonstrating the extensive network of connections between the translational machinery and cellular components involved in a myriad of essential processes beyond protein synthesis. PMID:18522650

  2. Evaluation of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Size Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Seok; Lee, Cheolju

    2015-01-01

    Eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (M, K, Q, D, R, I, EP and LARS) and three auxiliary proteins (AIMP1, 2 and 3) are known to form a multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in mammalian cells. We combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with reversed-phase liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (RPLC-MRM-MS) to characterize MSC components and free ARS proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T) cells. Crude cell extract and affinity-purified proteins were fractionated by SEC in non-denaturing state and ARSs were monitored in each fraction by MRM-MS. The eleven MSC components appeared mostly in earlier SEC fractions demonstrating their participation in complex formation. TARSL2 and AIMP2-DX2, despite their low abundance, were co-purified with KARS and detected in the SEC fractions, where MSC appeared. Moreover, other large complex-forming ARS proteins, such as VARS and FARS, were detected in earlier fractions. The MRM-MS results were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Our study demonstrates usefulness of combined SEC-MRM analysis for the characterization of protein complexes and in understanding the behavior of minor isoforms or variant proteins. PMID:26544075

  3. S-adenosylmethionine synthetase in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Yarlett, N; Garofalo, J; Goldberg, B; Ciminelli, M A; Ruggiero, V; Sufrin, J R; Bacchi, C J

    1993-03-24

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase was studied from bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the agent of African sleeping sickness. Two isoforms of the enzyme were evident from Eadie Hofstee and Hanes-Woolf plots of varying ATP or methionine concentrations. In the range 10-250 microM the Km for methionine was 20 microM, and this changed to 200 microM for the range 0.5-5.0 mM. In the range 10-250 microM the Km for ATP was 53 microM, and this changed to 1.75 mM for the range 0.5-5.0 mM. The trypanosome enzyme had a molecular weight of 145 kDa determined by agarose gel filtration. Methionine analogs including selenomethionine, L-2-amino-4-methoxy-cis but-3-enoic acid and ethionine acted as competitive inhibitors of methionine and as weak substrates when tested in the absence of methionine with [14C]ATP. The enzyme was not inducible in procyclic trypomastigotes in vitro, and the enzyme half-life was > 6 h. T. b. brucei AdoMet synthetase was inhibited by AdoMet (Ki 240 microM). The relative insensitivity of the trypanosome enzyme to control by product inhibition indicates it is markedly different from mammalian isoforms of the enzyme which are highly sensitive to AdoMet. Since trypanosomes treated with the ornithine decarboxylase antagonist DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine accumulate AdoMet and dcAdoMet (final concentration approximately 5 mM), this enzyme may be the critical drug target linking inhibition of polyamine synthesis to disruption of AdoMet metabolism. PMID:8457607

  4. Transformation of Bacillus Subtilis with cloned thymidylate synthetases

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis carries two genes, thyA and thyB, each encoding different protein products, with thymidylate synthetase (TSase) activity. Either of these genes alone is sufficient for thymidine independence in B. subtilis. In addition there exist two B. subtilis temperate bacteriophages which upon infection of thymine requiring auxotrophs results in conversion of the organism to thymine independence. Chimeric plasmids selected for Thy/sup +/ transforming activity in E. coli were constructed and then used as a source of defined highly enriched DNA with which to transform competent B. subtilis. These plasmids were studied for their: (1) abiility to transform B. subtilis to thymine independence; (2) site of integration within the B. subtilis chromosome upon transformation; (3) phenotype of Thy/sup +/ plasmid generated transformants; and (4) nucleotide sequence homology among the cloned DNA fragments conferring thymine independence. Plasmids containing the two bacteriophage thy genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyA, whereas the plasmids containing the cloned B. subtilis chromosomal genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyB. Utilizing similar technology, the ability of an entirely foreign hybred bacterial plasmiid to transform B. subtilis was examined. In this case the gene from E. coli encoding thymidylate synthetase was cloned in the plasmid pBR322. The resulting chimeric plasmid was effective in transforming both E. coli and B. subtilis to thymine prototrophy. Uncloned linear E. coli chromosomal DNA was unable to transform thymine requiring strains of B. subtilis to thymine independence. Although the Thy/sup +/ transformants of E. coli contained plasmid DNA, the Thy/sup +/ transformants derived from the transformation of B. subtilis did not contain detectable extrachromosomal DNA. Instead the DNA from the chimeric plasmid was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis. (ERB)

  5. Cavitation as a mechanism of substrate discrimination by adenylosuccinate synthetases.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Cristina V; Zhou, Yang; Borza, Tudor; Fromm, Herbert J; Honzatko, Richard B

    2006-09-26

    Adenylosuccinate synthetase catalyzes the first committed step in the de novo biosynthesis of AMP, coupling L-aspartate and IMP to form adenylosuccinate. Km values of IMP and 2'-deoxy-IMP are nearly identical with each substrate supporting comparable maximal velocities. Nonetheless, the Km value for L-aspartate and the Ki value for hadacidin (a competitive inhibitor with respect to L-aspartate) are 29-57-fold lower in the presence of IMP than in the presence of 2'-deoxy-IMP. Crystal structures of the synthetase ligated with hadacidin, GDP, and either 6-phosphoryl-IMP or 2'-deoxy-6-phosphoryl-IMP are identical except for the presence of a cavity normally occupied by the 2'-hydroxyl group of IMP. In the presence of 6-phosphoryl-IMP and GDP (hadacidin absent), the L-aspartate pocket can retain its fully ligated conformation, forming hydrogen bonds between the 2'-hydroxyl group of IMP and sequence-invariant residues. In the presence of 2'-deoxy-6-phosphoryl-IMP and GDP, however, the L-aspartate pocket is poorly ordered. The absence of the 2'-hydroxyl group of the deoxyribonucleotide may destabilize binding of the ligand to the L-aspartate pocket by disrupting hydrogen bonds that maintain a favorable protein conformation and by the introduction of a cavity into the fully ligated active site. At an approximate energy cost of 2.2 kcal/mol, the unfavorable thermodynamics of cavity formation may be the major factor in destabilizing ligands at the L-aspartate pocket. PMID:16981730

  6. Evidence for two immunologically distinct acetyl-coenzyme A synthetases in yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Mandel, A. D.; Klein, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented that clearly establishes the presence of two acetyl-CoA synthetases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one elaborated under 'aerobic' conditions, the other under 'nonaerobic' conditions. The antibody produced by each enzyme is immunologically specific.

  7. Cloning and characterization of the gene for Escherichia coli seryl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Härtlein, M; Madern, D; Leberman, R

    1987-01-01

    Seryl-tRNA synthetase is the gene product of the serS locus in Escherichia coli. Its gene has been cloned by complementation of a serS temperature sensitive mutant K28 with an E. coli gene bank DNA. The resulting clones overexpress seryl-tRNA synthetase by a factor greater than 50 and more than 6% of the total cellular protein corresponds to the enzyme. The DNA sequence of the complete coding region and the 5'- and 3' untranslated regions was determined. Protein sequence comparison of SerRS with all available aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase sequences revealed some regions of significant homology particularly with the isoleucyl- and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases from E. coli. Images PMID:3029694

  8. Nodule-specific modulation of glutamine synthetase in transgenic Medicago truncatula leads to inverse alterations in asparagine synthetase expression.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Helena G; Lopes-Cardoso, Inês A; Lima, Ligia M; Melo, Paula M; Cullimore, Julie V

    2003-09-01

    Transgenic Medicago truncatula plants were produced harboring chimeric gene constructs of the glutamine synthetase (GS) cDNA clones (MtGS1a or MtGS1b) fused in sense or antisense orientation to the nodule-specific leghemoglobin promoter Mtlb1. A series of transgenic plants were obtained showing a 2- to 4-fold alteration in nodule GS activity when compared with control plants. Western and northern analyses revealed that the increased or decreased levels of GS activity correlate with the amount of cytosolic GS polypeptides and transcripts present in the nodule extracts. An analysis of the isoenzyme composition showed that the increased or decreased levels of GS activity were attributable to major changes in the homo-octameric isoenzyme GS1a. Nodules of plants transformed with antisense GS constructs showed an increase in the levels of both asparagine synthetase (AS) polypeptides and transcripts when compared with untransformed control plants, whereas the sense GS transformants showed decreased AS transcript levels but polypeptide levels similar to control plants. The polypeptide abundance of other nitrogen metabolic enzymes NADH-glutamic acid synthase and aspartic acid amino-transferase as well as those of major carbon metabolic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, carbonic anhydrase, and sucrose synthase were not affected by the GS-gene manipulations. Increased levels of AS polypeptides and transcripts were also transiently observed in nodules by inhibiting GS activity with phosphinothricin. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that GS activity negatively regulates the level of AS in root nodules of M. truncatula. The potential role of AS in assimilating ammonium when GS becomes limiting is discussed. PMID:12970490

  9. Nodule-Specific Modulation of Glutamine Synthetase in Transgenic Medicago truncatula Leads to Inverse Alterations in Asparagine Synthetase Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Helena G.; Lopes-Cardoso, Inês A.; Lima, Ligia M.; Melo, Paula M.; Cullimore, Julie V.

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic Medicago truncatula plants were produced harboring chimeric gene constructs of the glutamine synthetase (GS) cDNA clones (MtGS1a or MtGS1b) fused in sense or antisense orientation to the nodule-specific leghemoglobin promoter Mtlb1. A series of transgenic plants were obtained showing a 2- to 4-fold alteration in nodule GS activity when compared with control plants. Western and northern analyses revealed that the increased or decreased levels of GS activity correlate with the amount of cytosolic GS polypeptides and transcripts present in the nodule extracts. An analysis of the isoenzyme composition showed that the increased or decreased levels of GS activity were attributable to major changes in the homo-octameric isoenzyme GS1a. Nodules of plants transformed with antisense GS constructs showed an increase in the levels of both asparagine synthetase (AS) polypeptides and transcripts when compared with untransformed control plants, whereas the sense GS transformants showed decreased AS transcript levels but polypeptide levels similar to control plants. The polypeptide abundance of other nitrogen metabolic enzymes NADH-glutamic acid synthase and aspartic acid amino-transferase as well as those of major carbon metabolic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, carbonic anhydrase, and sucrose synthase were not affected by the GS-gene manipulations. Increased levels of AS polypeptides and transcripts were also transiently observed in nodules by inhibiting GS activity with phosphinothricin. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that GS activity negatively regulates the level of AS in root nodules of M. truncatula. The potential role of AS in assimilating ammonium when GS becomes limiting is discussed. PMID:12970490

  10. Lack of protective effect of thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on single dose radiated canine intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, J.F.; Marlow, D.; Kamath, R.K.; Harbert, J.; Torrisi, J.R.; Barnes, W.A.; Potkul, R.K.; Newsome, J.T.; Delgado, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The effect of a thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on canine intestine was studied using a single dose of radiation, and radioactive microspheres were used to determine resultant blood flow. Thromboxane A2 causes vasospasm and platelet aggregation and may play a dominant role in radiation injury. However, there was no effect on the intestinal blood flow diminution occurring after radiation in this laboratory model using this thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor.

  11. The identification of new cytosolic glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and their expression during leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Ospina, Liliana; Marmagne, Anne; Talbotec, Joël; Krupinska, Karin; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase are two master enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation in plants. Their roles in nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen use efficiency have been proposed. In this report, the genes coding for the cytosolic glutamine synthetases (HvGS1) and asparagine synthetases (HvASN) in barley were identified. In addition to the three HvGS1 and two HvASN sequences previously reported, two prokaryotic-like HvGS1 and three HvASN cDNA sequences were identified. Gene structures were then characterized, obtaining full genomic sequences. The response of the five HvGS1 and five HvASN genes to leaf senescence was then studied. Developmental senescence was studied using primary and flag leaves. Dark-exposure or low-nitrate conditions were also used to trigger stress-induced senescence. Well-known senescence markers such as the chlorophyll and Rubisco contents were monitored in order to characterize senescence levels in the different leaves. The three eukaryotic-like HvGS1_1, HvGS1_2, and HvGS1_3 sequences showed the typical senescence-induced reduction in gene expression described in many plant species. By contrast, the two prokaryotic-like HvGS1_4 and HvGS1_5 sequences were repressed by leaf senescence, similar to the HvGS2 gene, which encodes the chloroplast glutamine synthetase isoenzyme. There was a greater contrast in the responses of the five HvASN and this suggested that these genes are needed for N remobilization in senescing leaves only when plants are well fertilized with nitrate. Responses of the HvASN sequences to dark-induced senescence showed that there are two categories of asparagine synthetases, one induced in the dark and the other repressed by the same conditions. PMID:25697791

  12. Effect of heat shock on poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase and DNA repair in Drosophila cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, N.L.; Kidwell, W.R.

    1982-04-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, a chromatin-bound enzyme which attaches polyanionic chains of ADP-ribose to nuclear proteins, was found to be temperature sensitive in intact Drosophila melanogaster cells. The synthetase was completely inactivated by heat-shocking the cells at 37/sup 0/C for 5 min, a condition which had no appreciable effect on the subsequent growth of Drosophila cells at their physiological temperature. The heat-shock effect on synthetase was reversible; enzyme activity began to reappear about 2 hr post heat shock. During the 2-hr interval when poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase was absent, the cells were competent in repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA strand breaks as shown by DNA sedimentation studies on alkaline sucrose gradients. It is thus concluded that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is unnecessary for repair of DNA strand breaks introduced by irradiation. The same conclusion was reached from the fact that two inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase 3-aminobenzamide and 5-methylnicotinamide, failed to block repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA chain breaks even though both inhibitors reduced the amount of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized in cells by 50-75%. Although it was found that the repair of DNA strand breaks is independent of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis, irradiation does activate the synthetase in control cells, as shown by radioimmunoassay of poly(ADP-ribose) levels.

  13. Leishmania infantum Asparagine Synthetase A Is Dispensable for Parasites Survival and Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Faria, Joana; Loureiro, Inês; Santarém, Nuno; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Tavares, Joana; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    A growing interest in asparagine (Asn) metabolism has currently been observed in cancer and infection fields. Asparagine synthetase (AS) is responsible for the conversion of aspartate into Asn in an ATP-dependent manner, using ammonia or glutamine as a nitrogen source. There are two structurally distinct AS: the strictly ammonia dependent, type A, and the type B, which preferably uses glutamine. Absent in humans and present in trypanosomatids, AS-A was worthy of exploring as a potential drug target candidate. Appealingly, it was reported that AS-A was essential in Leishmania donovani, making it a promising drug target. In the work herein we demonstrate that Leishmania infantum AS-A, similarly to Trypanosoma spp. and L. donovani, is able to use both ammonia and glutamine as nitrogen donors. Moreover, we have successfully generated LiASA null mutants by targeted gene replacement in L. infantum, and these parasites do not display any significant growth or infectivity defect. Indeed, a severe impairment of in vitro growth was only observed when null mutants were cultured in asparagine limiting conditions. Altogether our results demonstrate that despite being important under asparagine limitation, LiAS-A is not essential for parasite survival, growth or infectivity in normal in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore we exclude AS-A as a suitable drug target against L. infantum parasites. PMID:26771178

  14. Porcine 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetases inhibit Japanese encephalitis virus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sheng; Zhu, Dan; Lian, Xue; Liu, Weiting; Cao, Ruibing; Chen, Puyan

    2016-05-01

    The 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are antiviral proteins and several isoforms have been identified as flavivirus-resistance biomarkers in human and mouse. The expression kinetics and antiviral functions of porcine OAS family (OAS1, OAS2, and OASL) in PK-15 cells following infection by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) were evaluated in the present study. The endogenous expression of the three OAS genes was efficiently induced by IFN-α treatment in PK-15 cells. However, expression of pOAS1 and pOAS2 responded more quickly than pOASL. Infection by JEV also induced the expression of the pOAS isoforms, but at a significantly lower level than that observed following IFN-α stimulation. Transient overexpression of pOASL and pOAS1 inhibited JEV replication more efficiently than OAS2 overexpression. Interestingly, knockdown of pOAS2 expression by siRNA treatment led to the highest increase in JEV multiplication. Co-silencing of RNase L and each pOAS revealed that the anti-JEV function of pOAS1 and pOAS2 were RNase L dependent, while the antiviral activity of pOASL was not. In conclusion, all pOAS isoforms play a significant role in the response to JEV infection, and are differentially induced by different stimuli. The alternative pathways of antiviral activity stimulated by OASL require further study. PMID:26437676

  15. Brugia malayi Asparaginyl - tRNA Synthetase Stimulates Endothelial Cell Proliferation, Vasodilation and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    D, Jeeva Jothi; Dhanraj, Muthu; Solaiappan, Shanmugam; Sivanesan, Sanjana; Kron, Michael; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of chronic infection with lymphatic filarial parasites is the development of lymphatic disease which often results in permanent vasodilation and lymphedema, but all of the mechanisms by which filarial parasites induce pathology are not known. Prior work showed that the asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (BmAsnRS) of Brugia malayi, an etiological agent of lymphatic filariasis, acts as a physiocrine that binds specifically to interleukin-8 (IL-8) chemokine receptors. Endothelial cells are one of the many cell types that express IL-8 receptors. IL-8 also has been reported previously to induce angiogenesis and vasodilation, however, the effect of BmAsnRS on endothelial cells has not been reported. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that BmAsnRS might produce physiological changes in endothelial by studying the in vitro effects of BmAsnRS using a human umbilical vein cell line EA.hy926 and six different endothelial cell assays. Our results demonstrated that BmAsnRS produces consistent and statistically significant effects on endothelial cells that are identical to the effects of VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. This study supports the idea that new drugs or immunotherapies that counteract the adverse effects of parasite-derived physiocrines may prevent or ameliorate the vascular pathology observed in patients with lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26751209

  16. Leishmania infantum Asparagine Synthetase A Is Dispensable for Parasites Survival and Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Joana; Loureiro, Inês; Santarém, Nuno; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Tavares, Joana; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    A growing interest in asparagine (Asn) metabolism has currently been observed in cancer and infection fields. Asparagine synthetase (AS) is responsible for the conversion of aspartate into Asn in an ATP-dependent manner, using ammonia or glutamine as a nitrogen source. There are two structurally distinct AS: the strictly ammonia dependent, type A, and the type B, which preferably uses glutamine. Absent in humans and present in trypanosomatids, AS-A was worthy of exploring as a potential drug target candidate. Appealingly, it was reported that AS-A was essential in Leishmania donovani, making it a promising drug target. In the work herein we demonstrate that Leishmania infantum AS-A, similarly to Trypanosoma spp. and L. donovani, is able to use both ammonia and glutamine as nitrogen donors. Moreover, we have successfully generated LiASA null mutants by targeted gene replacement in L. infantum, and these parasites do not display any significant growth or infectivity defect. Indeed, a severe impairment of in vitro growth was only observed when null mutants were cultured in asparagine limiting conditions. Altogether our results demonstrate that despite being important under asparagine limitation, LiAS-A is not essential for parasite survival, growth or infectivity in normal in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore we exclude AS-A as a suitable drug target against L. infantum parasites. PMID:26771178

  17. Genetic identification of essential indels and domains in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Barbara A.; Ristuccia, Jessica G.; Bzik, David J.

    2013-01-01

    New treatments need to be developed for the significant human diseases of toxoplasmosis and malaria to circumvent problems with current treatments and drug resistance. Apicomplexan parasites causing these lethal diseases are deficient in pyrimidine salvage suggesting that selective inhibition of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis can lead to a severe loss of UMP and dTMP pools thereby inhibiting parasite RNA and DNA synthesis. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) induces a severe uracil auxotrophy with no detectable parasite replication in vitro and complete attenuation of virulence in mice. Here we show that a CPSII cDNA minigene efficiently complements the uracil auxotrophy of CPSII deficient mutants restoring parasite growth and virulence. Our complementation assays reveal that engineered mutations within or proximal to the catalytic triad of the N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase (GATase) domain inactivate the complementation activity of T. gondii CPSII and demonstrate a critical dependence on the apicomplexan CPSII GATase domain in vivo. Surprisingly, indels present within the T. gondii CPSII GATase domain as well as the C-terminal allosteric regulatory domain are found to be essential. In addition several mutations directed at residues implicated in allosteric regulation in Escherichia coli CPS either abolish or markedly suppress complementation and further define the functional importance of the allosteric regulatory region. Collectively, these findings identify novel features of T. gondii CPSII as potential parasite-selective targets for drug development. PMID:18992249

  18. Genetic identification of essential indels and domains in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Fox, Barbara A; Ristuccia, Jessica G; Bzik, David J

    2009-04-01

    New treatments need to be developed for the significant human diseases of toxoplasmosis and malaria to circumvent problems with current treatments and drug resistance. Apicomplexan parasites causing these lethal diseases are deficient in pyrimidine salvage, suggesting that selective inhibition of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis can lead to a severe loss of uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) and thymidine 5'-monophosphate (dTMP) pools, thereby inhibiting parasite RNA and DNA synthesis. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) induces a severe uracil auxotrophy with no detectable parasite replication in vitro and complete attenuation of virulence in mice. Here we show that a CPSII cDNA minigene efficiently complements the uracil auxotrophy of CPSII-deficient mutants, restoring parasite growth and virulence. Our complementation assays reveal that engineered mutations within, or proximal to, the catalytic triad of the N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase (GATase) domain inactivate the complementation activity of T. gondii CPSII and demonstrate a critical dependence on the apicomplexan CPSII GATase domain in vivo. Surprisingly, indels present within the T. gondii CPSII GATase domain as well as the C-terminal allosteric regulatory domain are found to be essential. In addition, several mutations directed at residues implicated in allosteric regulation in Escherichia coli CPS either abolish or markedly suppress complementation and further define the functional importance of the allosteric regulatory region. Collectively, these findings identify novel features of T. gondii CPSII as potential parasite-selective targets for drug development. PMID:18992249

  19. An update to polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal synthetase genes and nomenclature in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Frederik T; Gardiner, Donald M; Lysøe, Erik; Fuertes, Patricia Romans; Tudzynski, Bettina; Wiemann, Philipp; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Giese, Henriette; Brodersen, Ditlev E; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-02-01

    Members of the genus Fusarium produce a plethora of bioactive secondary metabolites, which can be harmful to humans and animals or have potential in drug development. In this study we have performed comparative analyses of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) from ten different Fusarium species including F. graminearum (two strains), F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, F. fujikuroi, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. equiseti, and F. oxysporum (12 strains). This led to identification of 52 NRPS and 52 PKSs orthology groups, respectively, and although not all PKSs and NRPSs are assumed to be intact or functional, the analyses illustrate the huge secondary metabolite potential in Fusarium. In our analyses we identified a core collection of eight NRPSs (NRPS2-4, 6, 10-13) and two PKSs (PKS3 and PKS7) that are conserved in all strains analyzed in this study. The identified PKSs and NRPSs were named based on a previously developed classification system (www.FusariumNRPSPKS.dk). We suggest this system be used when PKSs and NRPSs have to be classified in future sequenced Fusarium strains. This system will facilitate identification of orthologous and non-orthologous NRPSs and PKSs from newly sequenced Fusarium genomes and will aid the scientific community by providing a common nomenclature for these two groups of genes/enzymes. PMID:25543026

  20. Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members

    SciTech Connect

    Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek

    2012-07-11

    Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

  1. Promotion of glioma cell survival by acyl-CoA synthetase 5 under extracellular acidosis conditions.

    PubMed

    Mashima, T; Sato, S; Sugimoto, Y; Tsuruo, T; Seimiya, H

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular acidosis (low pH) is a tumor microenvironmental stressor that has a critical function in the malignant progression and metastatic dissemination of tumors. To survive under stress conditions, tumor cells must evolve resistance to stress-induced toxicity. Acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) is a member of the ACS family, which converts fatty acid to acyl-CoA. ACSL5 is frequently overexpressed in malignant glioma, whereas its functional significance is still unknown. Using retrovirus-mediated stable gene transfer (gain of function) and small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing (loss of function), we show here that ACSL5 selectively promotes human glioma cell survival under extracellular acidosis. ACSL5 enhanced cell survival through its ACS catalytic activity. To clarify the genome-wide changes in cell signaling pathways by ACSL5, we performed cDNA microarray analysis and identified an ACSL5-dependent gene expression signature. The analysis revealed that ACSL5 was critical to the expression of tumor-related factors including midkine (MDK), a heparin-binding growth factor frequently overexpressed in cancer. Knockdown of MDK expression significantly attenuated ACSL5-mediated survival under acidic state. These results indicate that ACSL5 is a critical factor for survival of glioma cells under acidic tumor microenvironment, thus providing novel molecular basis for cancer therapy. PMID:18806831

  2. Mouse very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Heinzer, Ann K; Kemp, Stephan; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Watkins, Paul A; Smith, Kirby D

    2002-08-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). This accumulation has been attributed to decreased VLCFA beta-oxidation and peroxisomal very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCS) activity. The X-ALD gene, ABCD1, encodes a peroxisomal membrane ATP binding cassette transporter, ALDP, that is hypothesized to affect VLCS activity in peroxisomes by direct interaction with the VLCS enzyme. Recently, a VLCS gene that encodes a protein with significant sequence identity to known rat and human peroxisomal VLCS protein has been identified in mice. We find that the mouse VLCS gene (Vlcs) encodes an enzyme (Vlcs) with VLCS activity that localizes to peroxisomes and is expressed in X-ALD target tissues. We show that the expression of Vlcs in the peroxisomes of X-ALD mouse fibroblasts improves VLCFA beta-oxidation in these cells, implying a role for this enzyme in the biochemical abnormality of X-ALD. X-ALD mice, which accumulate VLCFA in tissues, show no change in the expression of Vlcs, the subcellular localization of Vlcs, or general peroxisomal VLCS activity. These observations imply that ALDP is not necessary for the proper expression or localization of Vlcs protein, and the control of VLCFA levels does not depend on the direct interaction of Vlcs and ALDP. PMID:12048192

  3. Actinobacterial Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetases Involved in Steroid Side-Chain Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casabon, Israël; Swain, Kendra; Crowe, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial steroid catabolism is an important component of the global carbon cycle and has applications in drug synthesis. Pathways for this catabolism involve multiple acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases, which activate alkanoate substituents for β-oxidation. The functions of these synthetases are poorly understood. We enzymatically characterized four distinct acyl-CoA synthetases from the cholate catabolic pathway of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and the cholesterol catabolic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phylogenetic analysis of 70 acyl-CoA synthetases predicted to be involved in steroid metabolism revealed that the characterized synthetases each represent an orthologous class with a distinct function in steroid side-chain degradation. The synthetases were specific for the length of alkanoate substituent. FadD19 from M. tuberculosis H37Rv (FadD19Mtb) transformed 3-oxo-4-cholesten-26-oate (kcat/Km = 0.33 × 105 ± 0.03 × 105 M−1 s−1) and represents orthologs that activate the C8 side chain of cholesterol. Both CasGRHA1 and FadD17Mtb are steroid-24-oyl-CoA synthetases. CasG and its orthologs activate the C5 side chain of cholate, while FadD17 and its orthologs appear to activate the C5 side chain of one or more cholesterol metabolites. CasIRHA1 is a steroid-22-oyl-CoA synthetase, representing orthologs that activate metabolites with a C3 side chain, which accumulate during cholate catabolism. CasI had similar apparent specificities for substrates with intact or extensively degraded steroid nuclei, exemplified by 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oate and 1β(2′-propanoate)-3aα-H-4α(3″-propanoate)-7aβ-methylhexahydro-5-indanone (kcat/Km = 2.4 × 105 ± 0.1 × 105 M−1 s−1 and 3.2 × 105 ± 0.3 × 105 M−1 s−1, respectively). Acyl-CoA synthetase classes involved in cholate catabolism were found in both Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Overall, this study provides insight into the physiological roles of acyl-CoA synthetases in steroid catabolism and

  4. Organization and expression of the cell cycle gene, ts11, that encodes asparagine synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, A.; Gong, S.S.; Ittmann, M.; Basilico, C. . School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    The human ts11 gene was isolated on the basis of its ability to complement the mutation of the BHK cell cycle ts11 mutant, which is blocked in G1 at the nonpermissive temperature. This gene has now been identified as the structural gene for asparagine synthetase (AS) on the bases of sequence homology and the ability of exogenous asparagine to bypass the ts11 block. The ts11 (AS) mRNA has a size of about 2 kilobases and is induced in mid-G1 phase in human, mouse, and hamster cell lines. The authors have studied the organization and regulation of expression of the ts11 gene. The human ts11 gene consists of 13 exons (the first two noncoding) interspersed in a region of about 21 kilobases of DNA. Transient expression assays using the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene identified two separate promoters: one (ts11 P1) contained in a 280-base-pair region upstream of the first exon and the other (ts11 P2) contained in the first intron. ts11 P1 produced about sixfold more chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity than did ts11 P2 and had features of the promoters of housekeeping genes: high G+C content, multiple transcription start sites, absence of a TATA box, and presence of putative Sp1 binding sites. ts11 P2 contained a TATA sequence and other elements characteristic of a promoter, but so far they have no evidence of its physiological utilization. The ts11 gene was overexpressed in ts11 cells exposed to the nonpermissive temperature. Addition of asparagine to the culture medium led to a drastic decrease in mRNA levels and prevented G1 induction in serum-stimulated cells, which indicated that expression of the AS gene is regulated by a mechanism of end product inhibition.

  5. Investigating Arsenic Susceptibility from a Genetic Perspective in Drosophila Reveals a Key Role for Glutathione Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz Ortiz, Jorge G.; Opoka, Robert; Kane, Daniel; Cartwright, Iain L.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water can lead to a variety of serious pathological outcomes. However, differential responsiveness within human populations suggests that interindividual genetic variation plays an important role. We are using Drosophila to study toxic metal response pathways because of unrivalled access to varied genetic approaches and significant demonstrable overlap with many aspects of mammalian physiology and disease phenotypes. Genetic analysis (via chromosomal segregation and microsatellite marker-based recombination) of various wild-type strains exhibiting relative susceptibility or tolerance to the lethal toxic effects of arsenite identified a limited X-chromosomal region (16D-F) able to confer a differential response phenotype. Using an FRT-based recombination approach, we created lines harboring small, overlapping deficiencies within this region and found that relative arsenite sensitivity arose when the dose of the glutathione synthetase (GS) gene (located at 16F1) was reduced by half. Knockdown of GS expression by RNA interference (RNAi) in cultured S2 cells led to enhanced arsenite sensitivity, while GS RNAi applied to intact organisms dramatically reduced the concentration of food-borne arsenite compatible with successful growth and development. Our analyses, initially guided by observations on naturally occurring variants, provide genetic proof that an optimally functioning two-step glutathione (GSH) biosynthetic pathway is required in vivo for a robust defense against arsenite; the enzymatic implications of this are discussed in the context of GSH supply and demand under arsenite-induced stress. Given an identical pathway for human GSH biosynthesis, we suggest that polymorphisms in GSH biosynthetic genes may be an important contributor to differential arsenic sensitivity and exposure risk in human populations. PMID:18779381

  6. Acetyl-CoA Synthetase 2 Promotes Acetate Utilization and Maintains Cancer Cell Growth under Metabolic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schug, Zachary T.; Peck, Barrie; Jones, Dylan T.; Zhang, Qifeng; Grosskurth, Shaun; Alam, Israt S.; Goodwin, Louise M.; Smethurst, Elizabeth; Mason, Susan; Blyth, Karen; McGarry, Lynn; James, Daniel; Shanks, Emma; Kalna, Gabriela; Saunders, Rebecca E.; Jiang, Ming; Howell, Michael; Lassailly, Francois; Thin, May Zaw; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Stamp, Gordon; van den Broek, Niels J.F.; Mackay, Gillian; Bulusu, Vinay; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Tardito, Saverio; Strachan, David; Harris, Adrian L.; Aboagye, Eric O.; Critchlow, Susan E.; Wakelam, Michael J.O.; Schulze, Almut; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Summary A functional genomics study revealed that the activity of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) contributes to cancer cell growth under low-oxygen and lipid-depleted conditions. Comparative metabolomics and lipidomics demonstrated that acetate is used as a nutritional source by cancer cells in an ACSS2-dependent manner, and supplied a significant fraction of the carbon within the fatty acid and phospholipid pools. ACSS2 expression is upregulated under metabolically stressed conditions and ACSS2 silencing reduced the growth of tumor xenografts. ACSS2 exhibits copy-number gain in human breast tumors, and ACSS2 expression correlates with disease progression. These results signify a critical role for acetate consumption in the production of lipid biomass within the harsh tumor microenvironment. PMID:25584894

  7. Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 promotes acetate utilization and maintains cancer cell growth under metabolic stress.

    PubMed

    Schug, Zachary T; Peck, Barrie; Jones, Dylan T; Zhang, Qifeng; Grosskurth, Shaun; Alam, Israt S; Goodwin, Louise M; Smethurst, Elizabeth; Mason, Susan; Blyth, Karen; McGarry, Lynn; James, Daniel; Shanks, Emma; Kalna, Gabriela; Saunders, Rebecca E; Jiang, Ming; Howell, Michael; Lassailly, Francois; Thin, May Zaw; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Stamp, Gordon; van den Broek, Niels J F; Mackay, Gillian; Bulusu, Vinay; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Tardito, Saverio; Strachan, David; Harris, Adrian L; Aboagye, Eric O; Critchlow, Susan E; Wakelam, Michael J O; Schulze, Almut; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-01-12

    A functional genomics study revealed that the activity of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) contributes to cancer cell growth under low-oxygen and lipid-depleted conditions. Comparative metabolomics and lipidomics demonstrated that acetate is used as a nutritional source by cancer cells in an ACSS2-dependent manner, and supplied a significant fraction of the carbon within the fatty acid and phospholipid pools. ACSS2 expression is upregulated under metabolically stressed conditions and ACSS2 silencing reduced the growth of tumor xenografts. ACSS2 exhibits copy-number gain in human breast tumors, and ACSS2 expression correlates with disease progression. These results signify a critical role for acetate consumption in the production of lipid biomass within the harsh tumor microenvironment. PMID:25584894

  8. Differential expression of argininosuccinate synthetase in serous and non‐serous ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Dong‐Joo; Walts, Ann E; Beach, Jessica A; Lester, Jenny; Bomalaski, John S; Walsh, Christine S; Ruprecht Wiedemeyer, W; Karlan, Beth Y

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The current standard of care for epithelial ovarian cancer does not discriminate between different histologic subtypes (serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous) despite the knowledge that ovarian carcinoma subtypes do not respond uniformly to conventional platinum/taxane‐based chemotherapy. Exploiting addictions and vulnerabilities in cancers with distinguishable molecular features presents an opportunity to develop individualized therapies that may be more effective than the current ‘one size fits all' approach. One such opportunity is arginine depletion therapy with pegylated arginine deiminase, which has shown promise in several cancer types that exhibit low levels of argininosuccinate synthetase including hepatocellular and prostate carcinoma and melanoma. Based on the high levels of argininosuccinate synthetase previously observed in ovarian cancers, these tumours have been considered unlikely candidates for arginine depletion therapy. However, argininosuccinate synthetase levels have not been evaluated in the individual histologic subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. The current study is the first to examine the expression of argininosuccinate synthetase at the mRNA and protein levels in large cohorts of primary and recurrent ovarian carcinomas and ovarian cancer cell lines. We show that the normal fallopian tube fimbria and the majority of primary high‐grade and low‐grade serous ovarian carcinomas express high levels of argininosuccinate synthetase, which tend to further increase in recurrent tumours. In contrast to the serous subtype, non‐serous ovarian carcinoma subtypes (clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous) frequently lack detectable argininosuccinate synthetase expression. The in vitro sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to arginine depletion with pegylated arginine deiminase was inversely correlated with argininosuccinate synthetase expression. Our data suggest that the majority of serous ovarian carcinomas are not susceptible

  9. Glutamine synthetase predicts adjuvant TACE response in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Liwei; Jin, Zhichao; Zhang, Xinji; Xue, Feng; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is associated with better outcome and reduced tumor recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between glutamine synthetase (GS) expression and survival of HCC patients after postoperative adjuvant TACE. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 554 HCC patients in two independent cohorts who underwent curative resection. Immunohistochemistry assay was used to investigate the expression of GS protein and evaluate the association with survival and the response to adjuvant TACE. Results: In training cohort, patients with low GS expression who received postoperative adjuvant TACE showed a better overall survival (OS) (P<0.001) and less early phase recurrence (P=0.016). Adjuvant TACE was an independent prognostic factor for 5-year OS (HR=0.408, 95% CI 0.261-0.639, P<0.001) and early phase recurrence (HR=0.592, 95% CI 0.376-0.931, P=0.023). The same result was confirmed in validation cohort. Patients with high GS expression in both cohorts did not have a significant response to adjuvant TACE in OS and early phase recurrence. Conclusions: GS status in tumor might be a useful tool in the selection of HCC patients who would be likely to benefit from postoperative adjuvant TACE. PMID:26884995

  10. Isolation and characterization of glutamine synthetase genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Silflow, C D

    1996-11-01

    To elucidate the role of glutamine synthetase (GS) in nitrogen assimilation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii we used maize GS1 (the cytosolic form) and GS2 (the chloroplastic form) cDNAs as hybridization probes to isolate C. reinhardtii cDNA clones. The amino acid sequences derived from the C. reinhardtii clones have extensive homology with GS enzymes from higher plants. A putative amino-terminal transit peptide encoded by the GS2 cDNA suggests that the protein localizes to the chloroplast. Genomic DNA blot analysis indicated that GS1 is encoded by a single gene, whereas two genomic fragments hybridized to the GS2 cDNA probe. All GS2 cDNA clones corresponded to only one of the two GS2 genomic sequences. We provide evidence that ammonium, nitrate, and light regulate GS transcript accumulation in green algae. Our results indicate that the level of GS1 transcripts is repressed by ammonium but induced by nitrate. The level of GS2 transcripts is not affected by ammonium or nitrate. Expression of both GS1 and GS2 genes is regulated by light, but perhaps through different mechanisms. Unlike in higher plants, no decreased level of GS2 transcripts was detected when cells were grown under conditions that repress photorespiration. Analysis of GS transcript levels in mutants with defects in the nitrate assimilation pathway show that nitrate assimilation and ammonium assimilation are regulated independently. PMID:8938407

  11. Evidence for allosteric regulation of succinyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Um, H D; Klein, C

    1993-01-01

    We have previously reported that distinctly different concentrations of GDP stimulate the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of p36, the alpha-subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) in Dictyostelium discoideum. In this present study, we have investigated the mechanism underlying these dual effects of GDP. Dephosphorylation of p36 is induced by relatively high levels of GDP and is coincident with the formation of GTP. This indicates that, at high concentrations, GDP serves as a substrate of SCS. However, 100-fold lower concentrations of GDP, which do not bind to the catalytic site to induce SCS dephosphorylation, stimulate p36 phosphorylation. This stimulation is not diminished by dilution of the sample, and is retained during purification of the protein. Gel-filtration analyses indicate that SCS in our system behaves as a non-interacting alpha beta dimer, the hydrodynamic behaviour of which is not altered by the presence of added GDP. The data indicate that altered protein-protein interactions do not account for the stimulation of p36 phosphorylation by low GDP concentrations. We propose that GDP functions as an allosteric regulator of SCS, and experiments using guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) are shown to distinguish further the allosteric and catalytic binding sites. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:8240297

  12. Evidence for allosteric regulation of succinyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Um, H D; Klein, C

    1993-11-01

    We have previously reported that distinctly different concentrations of GDP stimulate the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of p36, the alpha-subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) in Dictyostelium discoideum. In this present study, we have investigated the mechanism underlying these dual effects of GDP. Dephosphorylation of p36 is induced by relatively high levels of GDP and is coincident with the formation of GTP. This indicates that, at high concentrations, GDP serves as a substrate of SCS. However, 100-fold lower concentrations of GDP, which do not bind to the catalytic site to induce SCS dephosphorylation, stimulate p36 phosphorylation. This stimulation is not diminished by dilution of the sample, and is retained during purification of the protein. Gel-filtration analyses indicate that SCS in our system behaves as a non-interacting alpha beta dimer, the hydrodynamic behaviour of which is not altered by the presence of added GDP. The data indicate that altered protein-protein interactions do not account for the stimulation of p36 phosphorylation by low GDP concentrations. We propose that GDP functions as an allosteric regulator of SCS, and experiments using guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) are shown to distinguish further the allosteric and catalytic binding sites. PMID:8240297

  13. Adenine nucleotides as allosteric effectors of PEA seed glutamine synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, P.J.; Knight, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    The energy charge in the plant cell has been proposed as a regulator of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. The authors have shown that 2.1 moles of ..gamma..(/sup 32/P)-ATP were bound/mole subunits of purified pea seed GS during complete inactivation with methionine sulfoximine. Since GS has one active site per subunit, the second binding site provides the potential for allosteric regulation of GS by adenine nucleotides. The authors have investigated the inhibition of the ATP-dependent synthetic activity by ADP and AMP. ADP and AMP cannot completely inhibit GS; but ATP does overcome the inhibition by ADP and AMP as shown by plots of % inhibition vs inhibitor concentration. This indicates that inhibition of GS by ADP or AMP is not completely due to competitive inhibition. In the absence of ADP or AMP, double reciprocal plots for ATP are linear below 10 mM; however, in the presence of either ADP or AMP these pots are curvilinear downwards. The ratio of Vm/asymptote is less than 1. The Hill number for ATP in the absence of ADP or AMP is 0.93 but decreases with increasing ADP or AMP to a value of 0.28 with 10 mM ADP. These data are consistent with negative cooperativity by ADP and AMP. Thus, as the ADP/ATP or AMP/ATP ratios are increased GS activity decreases. This is consistent with regulation of GS activity by energy charge in planta.

  14. Proteomic identification of glutamine synthetase as a differential marker for oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhengping; Qi, Meng; Li, Jie; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Xu, David S.; Iyer, Rajiv R.; Lu, Jie; Yang, Chunzhang; Weil, Robert J.; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Lonser, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Object Astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas are primary CNS tumors that remain a challenge to differentiate histologically because of their morphological variability and because there is a lack of reliable differential diagnostic markers. To identify proteins that are differentially expressed between astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, the authors analyzed the proteomic expression patterns and identified uniquely expressed proteins in these neoplasms. Methods Proteomes of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas were analyzed using 2D gel electrophoresis and subsequent computerized gel analysis to detect differentially expressed proteins. The proteins were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography accompanied by tandem mass spectrometry. To determine the role of the differentially expressed proteins in astrocytes, undifferentiated glial cell cultures were treated with dibutyryl–cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Results Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that glutamine synthetase was differentially expressed in astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the increased expression of glutamine synthetase in astrocytomas compared with oligodendrogliomas. Whereas glutamine synthetase expression was demonstrated across all grades of astrocytomas (Grade II–IV [15 tumors]) and oligoastrocytomas (4 tumors), it was expressed in only 1 oligodendroglioma (6% [16 tumors]). Treatment of undifferentiated glial cell cultures with dibutyryl-cAMP resulted in astrocyte differentiation that was associated with increased levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase. Conclusions These data indicate that glutamine synthetase expression can be used to distinguish astrocytic from oligodendroglial tumors and may play a role in the pathogenesis of astrocytomas. PMID:21682567

  15. Interdomain and Intermodule Organization in Epimerization Domain Containing Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hung; Li, Kunhua; Guntaka, Naga Sandhya; Bruner, Steven D

    2016-08-19

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are large, complex multidomain enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of a wide range of peptidic natural products. Inherent to synthetase chemistry is the thioester templated mechanism that relies on protein/protein interactions and interdomain dynamics. Several questions related to structure and mechanism remain to be addressed, including the incorporation of accessory domains and intermodule interactions. The inclusion of nonproteinogenic d-amino acids into peptide frameworks is a common and important modification for bioactive nonribosomal peptides. Epimerization domains, embedded in nonribosomal peptide synthetases assembly lines, catalyze the l- to d-amino acid conversion. Here we report the structure of the epimerization domain/peptidyl carrier protein didomain construct from the first module of the cyclic peptide antibiotic gramicidin synthetase. Both holo (phosphopantethiene post-translationally modified) and apo structures were determined, each representing catalytically relevant conformations of the two domains. The structures provide insight into domain-domain recognition, substrate delivery during the assembly line process, in addition to the structural organization of homologous condensation domains, canonical players in all synthetase modules. PMID:27294598

  16. Isolation of the thymidylate synthetase gene (TMP1) by complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.R.; Barclay, B.J.; Storms, R.K.; Friesen, J.D.; Haynes, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The structural gene (TMP1) for yeast thymidylate synthetase (thymidylate synthase; EC 2.1.1.45) was isolated from a chimeric plasmid bank by genetic complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Retransformation of the dTMP auxotroph GY712 and a temperature-sensitive mutant (cdc21) with purified plasmid (pTL1) yielded Tmp/sup +/ transformants at high frequency. In addition, the plasmid was tested for the ability to complement a bacterial thyA mutant that lacks functional thymidylate synthetase. Although it was not possible to select Thy/sup +/ transformants directly, it was found that all pTL1 transformants were phenotypically Thy/sup +/ after several generations of growth in nonselective conditions. Thus, yeast thymidylate synthetase is biologically active in Escherichia coli. Thymidylate synthetase was assayed in yeast cell lysates by high-pressure liquid chromatography to monitor the conversion of (6-/sup 3/H)dUMP to (6-/sup 3/H)dTMP. In protein extracts from the thymidylate auxotroph (tmpl-6) enzymatic conversion of dUMP to dTMP was barely detectable. Lysates of pTL1 transformants of this strain, however, had thymidylate synthetase activity that was comparable to that of the wild-type strain.

  17. A component of the multisynthetase complex is a multifunctional aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Cerini, C; Kerjan, P; Astier, M; Gratecos, D; Mirande, M; Sémériva, M

    1991-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are associated within a multienzyme complex which is composed of 11 polypeptides with molecular masses ranging from 18 to 150 kDa. We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA from Drosophila encoding the largest polypeptide of this complex. We demonstrate here that the corresponding protein is a multifunctional aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. It is composed of three major domains, two of them specifying distinct synthetase activities. The amino and carboxy-terminal domains were expressed separately in Escherichia coli, and were found to catalyse the aminoacylation of glutamic acid and proline tRNA species, respectively. The central domain is made of six 46 amino acid repeats. In prokaryotes, these two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are encoded by distinct genes. The emergence of a multifunctional synthetase by a gene fusion event seems to be a specific, but general attribute of all higher eukaryotic cells. This type of structural organization, in relation to the occurrence of multisynthetase complexes, could be a mechanism to integrate several catalytic domains within the same particle. The involvement of the internal repeats in mediating complex assembly is discussed. Images PMID:1756734

  18. Glutamine Synthetase Sensitivity to Oxidative Modification during Nutrient Starvation in Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Donaldson, Robert P.; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Diez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase plays a key role in nitrogen metabolism, thus the fine regulation of this enzyme in Prochlorococcus, which is especially important in the oligotrophic oceans where this marine cyanobacterium thrives. In this work, we studied the metal-catalyzed oxidation of glutamine synthetase in cultures of Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511 subjected to nutrient limitation. Nitrogen deprivation caused glutamine synthetase to be more sensitive to metal-catalyzed oxidation (a 36% increase compared to control, non starved samples). Nutrient starvation induced also a clear increase (three-fold in the case of nitrogen) in the concentration of carbonyl derivatives in cell extracts, which was also higher (22%) upon addition of the inhibitor of electron transport, DCMU, to cultures. Our results indicate that nutrient limitations, representative of the natural conditions in the Prochlorococcus habitat, affect the response of glutamine synthetase to oxidative inactivating systems. Implications of these results on the regulation of glutamine synthetase by oxidative alteration prior to degradation of the enzyme in Prochlorococcus are discussed. PMID:26270653

  19. Membrane Anchoring of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases by Convergent Acquisition of a Novel Protein Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A. G.; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluis; Luque, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Four distinct aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) found in some cyanobacterial species contain a novel protein domain that bears two putative transmembrane helices. This CAAD domain is present in glutamyl-, isoleucyl-, leucyl-, and valyl-tRNA synthetases, the latter of which has probably recruited the domain more than once during evolution. Deleting the CAAD domain from the valyl-tRNA synthetase of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 did not significantly modify the catalytic properties of this enzyme, suggesting that it does not participate in its canonical tRNA-charging function. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the function of the CAAD domain is structural, mediating the membrane anchorage of the enzyme, although membrane localization of aaRSs has not previously been described in any living organism. Synthetases containing the CAAD domain were localized in the intracytoplasmic thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria and were largely absent from the plasma membrane. The CAAD domain was necessary and apparently sufficient for protein targeting to membranes. Moreover, localization of aaRSs in thylakoids was important under nitrogen limiting conditions. In Anabaena, a multicellular filamentous cyanobacterium often used as a model for prokaryotic cell differentiation, valyl-tRNA synthetase underwent subcellular relocation at the cell poles during heterocyst differentiation, a process also dependent on the CAAD domain. PMID:21965654

  20. Structural plasticity of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase active site

    PubMed Central

    Turner, James M.; Graziano, James; Spraggon, Glen; Schultz, Peter G.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, tRNA aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs have been evolved that allow one to genetically encode a large array of unnatural amino acids in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. We have determined the crystal structures of two substrate-bound Methanococcus jannaschii tyrosyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that charge the unnatural amino acids p-bromophenylalanine and 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine (NpAla). A comparison of these structures with the substrate-bound WT synthetase, as well as a mutant synthetase that charges p-acetylphenylalanine, shows that altered specificity is due to both side-chain and backbone rearrangements within the active site that modify hydrogen bonds and packing interactions with substrate, as well as disrupt the α8-helix, which spans the WT active site. The high degree of structural plasticity that is observed in these aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is rarely found in other mutant enzymes with altered specificities and provides an explanation for the surprising adaptability of the genetic code to novel amino acids. PMID:16618920

  1. Further characterization of Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Sood, S M; Slattery, C W; Filley, S J; Wu, M X; Hill, K A

    1996-04-15

    Selected physical and thermodynamic parameters for Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) have been determined primarily to assess the quaternary structure of this enzyme. The extinction coefficient (epsilon) at 280 nm was determined experimentally to be 0.71 ml mg-1 cm-1, and the partial specific volume (nu) was calculated from the amino acid composition to be 0.73 ml g-1. From viscosity experiments the intrinsic viscosity (eta) of AlaRS was extrapolated to be 3.4 ml g-1 and the degree of hydration (delta 1) estimated to be 0.67 gH2O g(-1)(AlaRS). Laser light-scattering studies indicated some heterogeneity; a radius of 6.3 nm was calculated for the major fraction with a diffusion coefficient (D20,W) of 3.89 x 10(-7) cm2 s-1. In 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, 20 mM KCl, 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and at a protein concentration of 4.2 mg ml-1 the sedimentation coefficient (S20,W) was 6.36 S; this value increased slightly when the protein concentration was decreased. The combination of S20,W and D20,W under these conditions yielded a molecular weight of approximately 186,000 Da, corresponding to a dimer. The S20,W was virtually independent of temperature in the range of 10-37 degrees C, while an Arrhenius plot of aminoacylation activity was biphasic. The isoelectric point was determined experimentally to be 4.9. Sedimentation equilibrium data were best fit to a decamer association complex in which dimeric AlaRS is the predominant species at 25 degrees C. PMID:8645007

  2. Antimalarial Benzoxaboroles Target Plasmodium falciparum Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase.

    PubMed

    Sonoiki, Ebere; Palencia, Andres; Guo, Denghui; Ahyong, Vida; Dong, Chen; Li, Xianfeng; Hernandez, Vincent S; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Choi, Wai; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jennifer; Cooper, Roland; Alley, M R K; Freund, Yvonne R; DeRisi, Joseph; Cusack, Stephen; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    There is a need for new antimalarials, ideally with novel mechanisms of action. Benzoxaboroles have been shown to be active against bacteria, fungi, and trypanosomes. Therefore, we investigated the antimalarial activity and mechanism of action of 3-aminomethyl benzoxaboroles against Plasmodium falciparum Two 3-aminomethyl compounds, AN6426 and AN8432, demonstrated good potency against cultured multidrug-resistant (W2 strain) P. falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 310 nM and 490 nM, respectively) and efficacy against murine Plasmodium berghei infection when administered orally once daily for 4 days (90% effective dose [ED90], 7.4 and 16.2 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). To characterize mechanisms of action, we selected parasites with decreased drug sensitivity by culturing with stepwise increases in concentration of AN6426. Resistant clones were characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Three generations of resistant parasites had polymorphisms in the predicted editing domain of the gene encoding a P. falciparum leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS; PF3D7_0622800) and in another gene (PF3D7_1218100), which encodes a protein of unknown function. Solution of the structure of the P. falciparum LeuRS editing domain suggested key roles for mutated residues in LeuRS editing. Short incubations with AN6426 and AN8432, unlike artemisinin, caused dose-dependent inhibition of [(14)C]leucine incorporation by cultured wild-type, but not resistant, parasites. The growth of resistant, but not wild-type, parasites was impaired in the presence of the unnatural amino acid norvaline, consistent with a loss of LeuRS editing activity in resistant parasites. In summary, the benzoxaboroles AN6426 and AN8432 offer effective antimalarial activity and act, at least in part, against a novel target, the editing domain of P. falciparum LeuRS. PMID:27270277

  3. Proteasomal degradation of glutamine synthetase regulates schwann cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Fuminori; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-27

    Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is composed of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells drastically change their phenotype following peripheral nerve injury. These phenotypic changes are required for efficient degeneration/regeneration. We previously identified ZNRF1 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing a RING finger motif, whose expression is upregulated in the Schwann cells following nerve injury. This suggested that posttranscriptional regulation of protein expression in Schwann cells may be involved in their phenotypic changes during nerve degeneration/regeneration. Here we report the identification of glutamine synthetase (GS), an enzyme that synthesizes glutamine using glutamate and ammonia, as a substrate for E3 activity of ZNRF1 in Schwann cells. GS is known to be highly expressed in differentiated Schwann cells, but its functional significance has remained unclear. We found that during nerve degeneration/regeneration, GS expression is controlled mostly by ZNRF1-dependent proteasomal degradation. We also found that Schwann cells increase oxidative stress upon initiation of nerve degeneration, which promotes carbonylation and subsequent degradation of GS. Surprisingly, we discovered that GS expression regulates Schwann cell differentiation; i.e., increased GS expression promotes myelination via its enzymatic activity. Among the substrates and products of GS, increased glutamate concentration inhibited myelination and yet promoted Schwann cell proliferation by activating metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling. This would suggest that GS may exert its effect on Schwann cell differentiation by regulating glutamate concentration. These results indicate that the ZNRF1-GS system may play an important role in correlating Schwann cell metabolism with its differentiation. PMID:20107048

  4. The phenotypic expression of mitochondrial tRNA-mutations can be modulated by either mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase or the C-terminal domain thereof

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Carla; Morea, Veronica; Perli, Elena; d’Amati, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial (mt) DNA determine important human diseases. The majority of the known pathogenic mutations are located in transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and are responsible for a wide range of currently untreatable disorders. Experimental evidence both in yeast and in human cells has shown that the detrimental effects of mt-tRNA point mutations can be attenuated by increasing the expression of the cognate mt-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). In addition, constitutive high levels of isoleucyl-tRNA syntethase have been shown to reduce the penetrance of a homoplasmic mutation in mt-tRNAIle in a small kindred. More recently, we showed that the isolated carboxy-terminal domain of human mt-leucyl tRNA synthetase (LeuRS-Cterm) localizes to mitochondria and ameliorates the energetic defect in transmitochondrial cybrids carrying mutations either in the cognate mt-tRNALeu(UUR) or in the non-cognate mt-tRNAIle gene. Since the mt-LeuRS-Cterm does not possess catalytic activity, its rescuing ability is most likely mediated by a chaperon-like effect, consisting in the stabilization of the tRNA structure altered by the mutation. All together, these observations open potential therapeutic options for mt-tRNA mutations-associated diseases. PMID:25852750

  5. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2015-10-20

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  6. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2012-05-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  7. Compositions of orthogonal glutamyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J Christopher [San Francisco, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Santoro, Stephen [Cambridge, MA

    2009-05-05

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include glutamyl orthogonal tRNAs, glutamyl orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of glutamyl tRNAs/synthetases are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins using these orthogonal pairs.

  8. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2006-08-01

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  9. Nineteen-year follow-up of a patient with severe glutathione synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Medina, Casey R; Burrage, Lindsay C; Sutton, V Reid

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione synthetase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting in low levels of glutathione and an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. Patients with glutathione synthetase deficiency typically present in the neonatal period with hemolytic anemia, metabolic acidosis and neurological impairment. Lifelong treatment with antioxidants has been recommended in an attempt to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with the disorder. Here, we present a 19-year-old female who was diagnosed with glutathione synthetase deficiency shortly after birth and who has been closely followed in our metabolic clinic. Despite an initial severe presentation, she has had normal intellectual development and few complications of her disorder with a treatment regimen that includes polycitra (citric acid, potassium citrate and sodium citrate), vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium. PMID:26984560

  10. Constitutive Expression of Enniatin Synthetase during Fermentative Growth of Fusarium scirpi

    PubMed Central

    Billich, Andreas; Zocher, Rainer

    1988-01-01

    The production of enniatins by Fusarium scirpi during fermentative growth in submerged cultures was measured. The fungus produced the antibiotic during mycelial growth, but not during the stationary phase of cultivation. By contrast, enniatin synthetase, the enzyme responsible for enniatin synthesis, was present during growth, during the stationary phase, and even in spores. Similarly, the enniatin synthetase mRNA was present at every stage of the cultivation of the fungus. Therefore, this multifunctional peptide synthetase is a constitutive enzyme, the expression of which is not regulated by any specific mechanism. The findings stand in contrast to the common assumption that production of secondary metabolites underlies regulatory control, leading to separation of the trophophase and the idiophase. Images PMID:16347758

  11. A Bacterial Ortholog of Class II Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Activates Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogelly, Alexandre; O’Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter; Moses, Sharath

    2010-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases produce aminoacyl-tRNAs, essential substrates for accurate protein synthesis. Beyond their central role in translation some of these enzymes or their orthologs are recruited for alternative functions, not always related to their primary cellular role. We investigate here the enzymatic properties of GenX (also called PoxA and YjeA), an ortholog of bacterial class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase. GenX is present in most Gram-negative bacteria and is homologous to the catalytic core of lysyl-tRNA synthetase, but it lacks the amino terminal anticodon binding domain of the latter enzyme. We show that, in agreement with its well-conserved lysine binding site, GenX can activate in vitro L-lysine and lysine analogs, but does not acylate tRNALys or other cellular RNAs. PMID:20580719

  12. Variations in the Localization of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase in Aerobic Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Harold P.; Jahnke, Linda

    1971-01-01

    In cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing aerobically for 24 hr, acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase [acetate: CoA ligase (AMP), EC 6.2.1.1] was localized principally in the microsomal fraction. On density gradients, the enzyme in such cells behaved as a low-density particle, readily separable from the soluble proteins. After 48 hr of incubation, the cells showed a bimodal distribution of enzyme, with most of the activity now sedimenting with the mitochondrial fraction and only a smaller amount with the microsomal fraction. By using density gradients, two forms of synthetase were obtained from these cells: one band denser and the other band less dense than the intact mitochondria. In all preparations containing synthetase activity, appreciable levels of phospholipids were also detected. Images PMID:4102333

  13. Alteration of the Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase results in overproduction of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, D R; Hoch, J A; Aronson, A I

    1977-01-01

    A mutational leading to glutamine auxotrophy was located near a 5-fluorouracil resistance marker in the citB-thyA region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. This mutation resulted in a glutamine synthetase with altered kinetic and feedback properties. The specific activity of manganese-stimulated glutamine synthetase activity in crude extracts was 18-fold higher, and the magnesium-stimulated activity was about 30% that of the wild type. Quantitation of the enzyme by precipitation with antibody prepared against pure enzyme confirmed the presence of high enzyme levels in the mutant. This mutation is very closely linked (recombination index of 0.03) to another glutamine auxotroph containing enzyme with altered electrophoretic and heat sensitivity properties. Mutations in the structural gene for glutamine synthetase may result not only in altered catalytic and regulatory properties but also in altered production of the enzyme. Images PMID:19424

  14. Isolation and characterisation of a ferrirhodin synthetase gene from the sugarcane pathogen Fusarium sacchari.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Asifa; Marshall, James W; Cox, Russell J; Bailey, Andy M; Lazarus, Colin M

    2013-02-11

    FSN1, a gene isolated from the sugar-cane pathogen Fusarium sacchari, encodes a 4707-residue nonribosomal peptide synthetase consisting of three complete adenylation, thiolation and condensation modules followed by two additional thiolation and condensation domain repeats. This structure is similar to that of ferricrocin synthetase, which makes a siderophore that is involved in intracellular iron storage in other filamentous fungi. Heterologous expression of FSN1 in Aspergillus oryzae resulted in the accumulation of a secreted metabolite that was identified as ferrirhodin. This siderophore was found to be present in both mycelium and culture filtrates of F. sacchari, whereas ferricrocin is found only in the mycelium, thus suggesting that ferricrocin is an intracellular storage siderophore in F. sacchari, whereas ferrirhodin is used for iron acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the first report to characterise a ferrirhodin synthetase gene functionally. PMID:23307607

  15. Calpain Cleaves Most Components in the Multiple Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex and Affects Their Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Wei-Cheng; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-01-01

    Nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and three scaffold proteins form a super multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in the human cytoplasm. Domains that have been added progressively to MSC components during evolution are linked by unstructured flexible peptides, producing an elongated and multiarmed MSC structure that is easily attacked by proteases in vivo. A yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with LeuRS, a representative MSC member, identified calpain 2, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease. Calpain 2 and calpain 1 could partially hydrolyze most MSC components to generate specific fragments that resembled those reported previously. The cleavage sites of calpain in ArgRS, GlnRS, and p43 were precisely mapped. After cleavage, their N-terminal regions were removed. Sixty-three amino acid residues were removed from the N terminus of ArgRS to form ArgRSΔN63; GlnRS formed GlnRSΔN198, and p43 formed p43ΔN106. GlnRSΔN198 had a much weaker affinity for its substrates, tRNAGln and glutamine. p43ΔN106 was the same as the previously reported p43-derived apoptosis-released factor. The formation of p43ΔN106 by calpain depended on Ca2+ and could be specifically inhibited by calpeptin and by RNAi of the regulatory subunit of calpain in vivo. These results showed, for the first time, that calpain plays an essential role in dissociating the MSC and might regulate the canonical and non-canonical functions of certain components of the MSC. PMID:26324710

  16. Calpain Cleaves Most Components in the Multiple Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex and Affects Their Functions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Wei-Cheng; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-10-23

    Nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and three scaffold proteins form a super multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in the human cytoplasm. Domains that have been added progressively to MSC components during evolution are linked by unstructured flexible peptides, producing an elongated and multiarmed MSC structure that is easily attacked by proteases in vivo. A yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with LeuRS, a representative MSC member, identified calpain 2, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease. Calpain 2 and calpain 1 could partially hydrolyze most MSC components to generate specific fragments that resembled those reported previously. The cleavage sites of calpain in ArgRS, GlnRS, and p43 were precisely mapped. After cleavage, their N-terminal regions were removed. Sixty-three amino acid residues were removed from the N terminus of ArgRS to form ArgRSΔN63; GlnRS formed GlnRSΔN198, and p43 formed p43ΔN106. GlnRSΔN198 had a much weaker affinity for its substrates, tRNA(Gln) and glutamine. p43ΔN106 was the same as the previously reported p43-derived apoptosis-released factor. The formation of p43ΔN106 by calpain depended on Ca(2+) and could be specifically inhibited by calpeptin and by RNAi of the regulatory subunit of calpain in vivo. These results showed, for the first time, that calpain plays an essential role in dissociating the MSC and might regulate the canonical and non-canonical functions of certain components of the MSC. PMID:26324710

  17. Structure of Leishmania major Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase in Complex with Intermediate Products Methionyladenylate and Pyrophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Zucker, Frank H.; Kelley, Angela; Mueller, Natascha; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L.M.J.; Fan, Erkang; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Hol, Wim G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania parasites cause two million new cases of leishmaniasis each year with several hundreds of millions people at risk. Due to the paucity and shortcomings of available drugs, we have undertaken the crystal structure determination of a key enzyme from Leishmania major in hopes of creating a platform for the rational design of new therapeutics. Crystals of the catalytic core of methionyl-tRNA synthetase from L. major (LmMetRS) were obtained with the substrates MgATP and methionine present in the crystallization medium. These crystals yielded the 2.0 Å resolution structure of LmMetRS in complex with two products, methionyladenylate and pyrophosphate, along with a Mg2+ ion that bridges them. This is the first class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) structure with pyrophosphate bound. The residues of the class I aaRS signature sequence motifs, KISKS and HIGH, make numerous contacts with the pyrophosphate. Substantial differences between the LmMetRS structure and previously reported complexes of E. coli MetRS (EcMetRS) with analogs of the methionyladenylate intermediate product are observed, even though one of these analogs only differs by one atom from the intermediate. The source of these structural differences is attributed to the presence of the product pyrophosphate in LmMetRS. Analysis of the LmMetRS structure in light of the Aquifex aeolicus MetRS-tRNAMet complex shows that major rearrangements of multiple structural elements of enzyme and/or tRNA are required to allow the CCA acceptor triplet to reach the methionyladenylate intermediate in the active site. Comparison with sequences of human cytosolic and mitochondrial MetRS reveals interesting differences near the ATP- and methionine-binding regions of LmMetRS, suggesting that it should be possible to obtain compounds that selectively inhibit the parasite enzyme. PMID:21144880

  18. Neurospora crassa glutamine synthetase. Translation of specific messenger ribonucleic acid in a cell-free system derived from rabbit reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Palacios, R; Campomanes, M; Quinto, C

    1977-05-10

    The total reticulocyte lysate cell-free protein-synthesizing system was incubated in the presence of Neurospora crassa RNA. With the aid of an antibody directed against purified N. crassa glutamine synthetase, the synthesis of a specific protein was detected. This protein precipitates with antiglutamine synthetase using both direct and indirect procedures, migrates with the same molecular weight as the monomer of N. crassa glutamine synthetase when subjected to acrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and chromatographs as N. crassa glutamine synthetase on anthranilate-bound Sepharose. These data indicate the translation of the mRNA that codes for N. crassa glutamine synthetase. This RNA behaves as poly(A)-containing material when fractionated on oly(U)-Sepha-rose. PMID:16013

  19. Properties and substrate specificity of the leucyl-, the threonyl- and the valyl-transfer-ribonucleic acid synthetases from Aesculus species

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. W.; Fowden, L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Leucyl- and threonyl-tRNA synthetases were partially purified up to 100-fold and 30-fold respectively from cotyledons of Aesculus hippocastanum and were largely separated from the other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Valyl-tRNA synthetase was purified 25-fold from cotyledons of Aesculus californica. 2. Some properties are reported for the three enzymes when assayed by the [32P]pyrophosphate-ATP exchange technique. 3. β-(Methylenecyclopropyl)alanine, isoleucine, azaleucine, norleucine and γ-hydroxynorvaline acted as alternative substrates for the leucyl-tRNA synthetase; the enzyme's affinity for β-(methylenecyclopropyl)-alanine and for isoleucine was about 80-fold less than that exhibited for leucine. 4. α-Cyclopropylglycine and α-cyclobutylglycine acted as alternative substrates for the valyl-tRNA synthetase. PMID:5493505

  20. Acyl-CoA synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of diadenosine hexaphosphate (Ap6A).

    PubMed

    Fontes, R; Günther Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1999-03-01

    The synthesis of diadenosine hexaphosphate (Ap6A), a potent vasoconstrictor, is catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetase from Pseudomonas fragi. In a first step AMP is transferred from ATP to tetrapolyphosphate (P4) originating adenosine pentaphosphate (p5A) which, subsequently, is the acceptor of another AMP moiety from ATP generating diadenosine hexaphosphate (Ap6A). Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) were also synthesized in the course of the reaction. In view of the variety of biological effects described for these compounds the potential capacity of synthesis of diadenosine polyphosphates by the mammalian acyl-CoA synthetases may be relevant. PMID:10385004

  1. Acute Onset Anti-Synthetase Syndrome With Pericardial Effusion and Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aditya; Patel, Samir R.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-synthetase syndrome (AS) is a clinical entity which is described classically by the triad of interstitial lung disease (ILD), inflammatory myositis and presence of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibodies (ASA). We describe a rare presentation of this condition with regard to the uncharacteristically acute nature of presentation, acute decompensation in clinical condition, development of acute interstitial pneumonitis requiring rescue extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and accompaniment of significant pericardial effusion on presentation, followed by rapid improvement with initiation of steroids. PMID:27540445

  2. Mutants of Phycomyces blakesleeanus Defective in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase

    PubMed

    Garre; Torres-Martinez

    1996-03-01

    Nine mutants of the filamentous fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus have been isolated on the basis of their resistance to fluoroacetate. None of the isolates uses acetate as the sole carbon source. Genetic complementation experiments revealed that all the mutants belong to the same complementation group. Biochemical analysis indicated that the acetate-induced acetyl-CoA synthetase activity is abolished in all nine mutants, thus suggesting that they are affected in the gene coding for acetyl-CoA synthetase (facA). PMID:8812287

  3. Isolation of the facA (acetyl-CoA synthetase) gene of Phycomyces blakesleeanus.

    PubMed

    Garre, V; Murillo, F J; Torres-Martínez, S

    1994-08-01

    A 5.6 kb DNA fragment from the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus has been cloned and sequenced. The fragment contains a gene that probably codes for the enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (facA). The amino acid sequence deduced for the P. blakesleeanus protein is highly homologous to those of acetyl-coA-synthetases from other organisms. When placed under the control of a constitutive promoter from Aspergillus nidulans, the cloned gene complemented a facA- mutation of this organism. In P. blakesleeanus, the expression of facA is induced by acetate. PMID:7914670

  4. Acute Onset Anti-Synthetase Syndrome With Pericardial Effusion and Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aditya; Patel, Samir R

    2016-09-01

    Anti-synthetase syndrome (AS) is a clinical entity which is described classically by the triad of interstitial lung disease (ILD), inflammatory myositis and presence of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibodies (ASA). We describe a rare presentation of this condition with regard to the uncharacteristically acute nature of presentation, acute decompensation in clinical condition, development of acute interstitial pneumonitis requiring rescue extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and accompaniment of significant pericardial effusion on presentation, followed by rapid improvement with initiation of steroids. PMID:27540445

  5. Control of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase activity in Rhodopseudomonas spheroides. Binding of pyridoxal phosphate to 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R C; Neuberger, A

    1979-01-01

    1. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a cofactor essential for the enzymic activity of aminolaevulinate synthetase from Rhodopseudomonas spheroides. It also aids activation of the low-activity enzyme by trisulphides such as cystine trisulphide, whereas inactivation of enzyme is facilitated by its absence. 2. The fluorescence spectrum of purified high-activity enzyme is that expected for a pyridoxal phosphate--Schiff base, but the firmly bound cofactor does not appear to be at the active centre. In dilute solutions of enzyme this grouping is inaccessible to nucleophiles such as glycine, hydroxylamine, borohydride and cyanide, at pH 7.4. 3. An active-centre Schiff base is formed between enzyne and added pyridoxal phosphate, which is accessible to nucleophiles. Concentrated solutions of this enzyme--Schiff base on treatment with glycine yield apo- and semi-apoenzyme, which can re-bind pyridoxal phosphate. 4. Two types of binding of pyridoxal phosphate are distinguishable in dilute solution of enzyme, but these become indistinguishable when concentrated solutions are treated with cofactor. A change occurs in the susceptibility towards borohydride of the fluorescence of the "structural" pyridoxal phosphate. 5. One or two molecules of cofactor are bound per subunit of mol. wt. 50 000 in semiapo- or holo-enzyme. The fluorescence of pyridoxamine phosphate covalently bound to enzyme also indicates one to two nmol of reducible Schiff base per 7000 units of activity in purified and partially purified samples of enzyme. 6. Cyanide does not convert high-activity into low-activity enzyme, but with the enzyme-pyridoxal phosphate complex it forms a yellow fluorescent derivative that is enzymically active. PMID:312102

  6. Post-transcriptional regulation of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase from its stored mRNA in germinated wheat embryos.

    PubMed

    Mathur, M; Saluja, D; Sachar, R C

    1991-06-24

    About 2-3-fold stimulation of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase was witnessed in germinated wheat embryos (48 h). The enhancement of enzyme activity was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide and amino acid analogues. Simultaneous addition of corresponding amino acids alleviated the inhibitory effect of amino acid analogues. Conclusive proof for the de novo synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase was obtained by labelling this enzyme with [35SO4]2- in vivo. Thus de novo enzyme synthesis seemed necessary for the rise in activity of AdoMet synthetase in wheat embryos. Curiously, blocking of transcription with cordycepin failed to repress the de novo synthesis of AdoMet synthetase in germinated wheat embryos. We envisage the presence of stored mRNA for AdoMet synthetase in wheat embryos. Thus the regulation of this enzyme occurs at the post-transcriptional level. L-Methionine, which is one of the substrates of AdoMet synthetase, stimulated the enzyme activity (2-2.4-fold) over that observed in control germinated embryos. L-Methionine promotes increased de novo synthesis of AdoMet synthetase. Preincubation of enzyme fraction with L-Methionine failed to activate or stabilize the activity of AdoMet synthetase. Three isozymes of AdoMet synthetase were physically separated by DE-52 ion-exchange chromatography. One of the isozymes of AdoMet synthetase has been purified (1529-fold) to electrophoretic homogeneity by resorting to phenyl Sepharose and ATP Sepharose affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme catalyzed the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine and also exhibited tripolyphosphatase activity. The reaction product of the purified enzyme was chemically and enzymatically characterized as S-adenosylmethionine. The molecular weight of the native enzyme is 174,000 and that of its subunit is 84,000 as determined on SDS-PAGE. Thus the native enzyme seems to be dimeric in nature. PMID:1648405

  7. Expression of glutamine synthetase in Tegillarca granosa (Bivalvia, Arcidae) hemocytes stimulated by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y B; Li, L; Ye, M X; Dong, Y H; Jin, W X; Lin, Z H

    2013-01-01

    The blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, is a widely consumed clam in the Indo-Pacific region. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine. We identified the GS of T. granosa (Tg-GS) from hemocytes by 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA consisted of 1762 bp, with a 1104-bp open reading frame encoding 367 amino acids. Sequence comparison showed that Tg-GS has homology to GS of other organisms, with 79.78% identity with GS from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, 71.98% identity with GS from the zebrafish Danio rerio, and 68.96% identity with human Homo sapiens GS. A C-beta-Grasp domain and an N-catalytic domain were identified in Tg-GS, indicating that Tg-GS should be classified as a new member of the GS family. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was used to detect mRNA expression of Tg-GS in five different tissues. Higher levels of mRNA expression of GS were detected in the tissues of hemocytes and the mantle. Up-regulation of GS by challenge with the bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus and with bacterial wall lipopolysaccharides showed that GS plays a role in anti-bacterial immunity. We conclude that pathogen infection significantly induces expression level of Tg- GS, and that activation of GS influences the immune response of T. granosa by increasing glutamine concentration. PMID:23661439

  8. Structural Insights into the Catalytic Mechanism of Escherichia coli Selenophosphate Synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Wattanasak, Rut; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Wally, Jeremy L.; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Chock, P. Boon; Stadtman, Thressa C.; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2012-03-26

    Selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) catalyzes the synthesis of selenophosphate, the selenium donor for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine and 2-selenouridine residues in seleno-tRNA. Selenocysteine, known as the 21st amino acid, is then incorporated into proteins during translation to form selenoproteins which serve a variety of cellular processes. SPS activity is dependent on both Mg{sup 2+} and K{sup +} and uses ATP, selenide, and water to catalyze the formation of AMP, orthophosphate, and selenophosphate. In this reaction, the gamma phosphate of ATP is transferred to the selenide to form selenophosphate, while ADP is hydrolyzed to form orthophosphate and AMP. Most of what is known about the function of SPS has derived from studies investigating Escherichia coli SPS (EcSPS) as a model system. Here we report the crystal structure of the C17S mutant of SPS from E. coli (EcSPS{sup C17S}) in apo form (without ATP bound). EcSPS{sup C17S} crystallizes as a homodimer, which was further characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation experiments. The glycine-rich N-terminal region (residues 1 through 47) was found in the open conformation and was mostly ordered in both structures, with a magnesium cofactor bound at the active site of each monomer involving conserved aspartate residues. Mutating these conserved residues (D51, D68, D91, and D227) along with N87, also found at the active site, to alanine completely abolished AMP production in our activity assays, highlighting their essential role for catalysis in EcSPS. Based on the structural and biochemical analysis of EcSPS reported here and using information obtained from similar studies done with SPS orthologs from Aquifex aeolicus and humans, we propose a catalytic mechanism for EcSPS-mediated selenophosphate synthesis.

  9. Folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase: A key determinant of folate homeostasis and antifolate resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Raz, Shachar; Stark, Michal; Assaraf, Yehuda G

    2016-09-01

    Mammalians are devoid of autonomous biosynthesis of folates and hence must obtain them from the diet. Reduced folate cofactors are B9-vitamins which play a key role as donors of one-carbon units in the biosynthesis of purine nucleotides, thymidylate and amino acids as well as in a multitude of methylation reactions including DNA, RNA, histone and non-histone proteins, phospholipids, as well as intermediate metabolites. The products of these S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methylations are involved in the regulation of key biological processes including transcription, translation and intracellular signaling. Folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism occurs in several subcellular compartments including the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus. Since folates are essential for DNA replication, intracellular folate cofactors play a central role in cancer biology and inflammatory autoimmune disorders. In this respect, various folate-dependent enzymes catalyzing nucleotide biosynthesis have been targeted by specific folate antagonists known as antifolates. Currently, antifolates are used in drug treatment of multiple human cancers, non-malignant chronic inflammatory disorders as well as bacterial and parasitic infections. An obligatory key component of intracellular folate retention and intracellular homeostasis is (anti)folate polyglutamylation, mediated by the unique enzyme folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase (FPGS), which resides in both the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Consistently, knockout of the FPGS gene in mice results in embryonic lethality. FPGS catalyzes the addition of a long polyglutamate chain to folates and antifolates, hence rendering them polyanions which are efficiently retained in the cell and are now bound with enhanced affinity by various folate-dependent enzymes. The current review highlights the crucial role that FPGS plays in maintenance of folate homeostasis under physiological conditions and delineates the plethora of the molecular mechanisms

  10. Pancreatic cancer cell lines deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase are sensitive to arginine deprivation by arginine deiminase

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Tawnya L.; Kim, Randie; Galante, Joseph; Parsons, Colin M.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Bold, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells can synthesize the non-essential amino acid arginine from aspartate and citrulline using the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). It has been observed that ASS is under-expressed in various types of cancers ASS, for which arginine become auxotrophic. Arginine deiminase (ADI) is a prokaryotic enzyme that metabolizes arginine to citrulline and has been found to inhibit melanoma and hepatoma cancer cells deficient of ASS. We tested the hypothesis that pancreatic cancers have low ASS expression and therefore arginine deprivation by ADI will inhibit cell growth. ASS expression was examined in 47 malignant and 20 non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues as well as a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Arginine deprivation was achieved by treatment with a recombinant form of ADI formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG-ADI). Effects on caspase activation, cell growth and cell death were examined. Furthermore, the effect of PEG-ADI on the in vivo growth of pancreatic xenografts was examined. Eighty-seven percent of the tumors lacked ASS expression; 5 of 7 cell lines similarly lacked ASS expression. PEG-ADI specifically inhibited growth of those cell lines lacking ASS. PEG-ADI treatment induced caspase activation and induction of apoptosis. PEG-ADI was well tolerated in mice despite complete elimination of plasma arginine; tumor growth was inhibited by ∼50%. Reduced expression of ASS occurs in pancreatic cancer and predicts sensitivity to arginine deprivation achieved by PEG-ADI treatment. Therefore, these findings suggest that arginine deprivation by ADI could provide a beneficial strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, a malignancy in which new therapy is desperately needed. PMID:18661517

  11. Selenophosphate synthetase 1 is an essential protein with roles in regulation of redox homoeostasis in mammals.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Ryuta; Carlson, Bradley A; Huh, Jang Hoe; Castro, Nadia P; Xu, Xue-Ming; Tsuji, Petra A; Lee, Sang-Goo; Bang, Jeyoung; Na, Ji-Woon; Kong, Young-Yun; Beaglehole, Daniel; Southon, Eileen; Seifried, Harold; Tessarollo, Lino; Salomon, David S; Schweizer, Ulrich; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hatfield, Dolph L; Lee, Byeong Jae

    2016-07-15

    Selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) was initially detected in bacteria and was shown to synthesize selenophosphate, the active selenium donor. However, mammals have two SPS paralogues, which are designated SPS1 and SPS2. Although it is known that SPS2 catalyses the synthesis of selenophosphate, the function of SPS1 remains largely unclear. To examine the role of SPS1 in mammals, we generated a Sps1-knockout mouse and found that systemic SPS1 deficiency led to embryos that were clearly underdeveloped by embryonic day (E)8.5 and virtually resorbed by E14.5. The knockout of Sps1 in the liver preserved viability, but significantly affected the expression of a large number of mRNAs involved in cancer, embryonic development and the glutathione system. Particularly notable was the extreme deficiency of glutaredoxin 1 (GLRX1) and glutathione transferase Omega 1 (GSTO1). To assess these phenotypes at the cellular level, we targeted the removal of SPS1 in F9 cells, a mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, which affected the glutathione system proteins and accordingly led to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the cell. Furthermore, we found that several malignant characteristics of SPS1-deficient F9 cells were reversed, suggesting that SPS1 played a role in supporting and/or sustaining cancer. In addition, the overexpression of mouse or human GLRX1 led to a reversal of observed increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the F9 SPS1/GLRX1-deficient cells and resulted in levels that were similar to those in F9 SPS1-sufficient cells. The results suggested that SPS1 is an essential mammalian enzyme with roles in regulating redox homoeostasis and controlling cell growth. PMID:27208177

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Glutamine Synthetase Mutations that Lead to Clinically Relevant Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Frieg, Benedikt; Görg, Boris; Homeyer, Nadine; Keitel, Verena; Häussinger, Dieter; Gohlke, Holger

    2016-02-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes ATP-dependent ligation of ammonia and glutamate to glutamine. Two mutations of human GS (R324C and R341C) were connected to congenital glutamine deficiency with severe brain malformations resulting in neonatal death. Another GS mutation (R324S) was identified in a neurologically compromised patient. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the impairment of GS activity by these mutations have remained elusive. Molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and rigidity analyses suggest that all three mutations influence the first step of GS catalytic cycle. The R324S and R324C mutations deteriorate GS catalytic activity due to loss of direct interactions with ATP. As to R324S, indirect, water-mediated interactions reduce this effect, which may explain the suggested higher GS residual activity. The R341C mutation weakens ATP binding by destabilizing the interacting residue R340 in the apo state of GS. Additionally, the mutation is predicted to result in a significant destabilization of helix H8, which should negatively affect glutamate binding. This prediction was tested in HEK293 cells overexpressing GS by dot-blot analysis: Structural stability of H8 was impaired through mutation of amino acids interacting with R341, as indicated by a loss of masking of an epitope in the glutamate binding pocket for a monoclonal anti-GS antibody by L-methionine-S-sulfoximine; in contrast, cells transfected with wild type GS showed the masking. Our analyses reveal complex molecular effects underlying impaired GS catalytic activity in three clinically relevant mutants. Our findings could stimulate the development of ATP binding-enhancing molecules by which the R324S mutant can be repaired extrinsically. PMID:26836257

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Glutamine Synthetase Mutations that Lead to Clinically Relevant Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Frieg, Benedikt; Görg, Boris; Homeyer, Nadine; Keitel, Verena; Häussinger, Dieter; Gohlke, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes ATP-dependent ligation of ammonia and glutamate to glutamine. Two mutations of human GS (R324C and R341C) were connected to congenital glutamine deficiency with severe brain malformations resulting in neonatal death. Another GS mutation (R324S) was identified in a neurologically compromised patient. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the impairment of GS activity by these mutations have remained elusive. Molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and rigidity analyses suggest that all three mutations influence the first step of GS catalytic cycle. The R324S and R324C mutations deteriorate GS catalytic activity due to loss of direct interactions with ATP. As to R324S, indirect, water-mediated interactions reduce this effect, which may explain the suggested higher GS residual activity. The R341C mutation weakens ATP binding by destabilizing the interacting residue R340 in the apo state of GS. Additionally, the mutation is predicted to result in a significant destabilization of helix H8, which should negatively affect glutamate binding. This prediction was tested in HEK293 cells overexpressing GS by dot-blot analysis: Structural stability of H8 was impaired through mutation of amino acids interacting with R341, as indicated by a loss of masking of an epitope in the glutamate binding pocket for a monoclonal anti-GS antibody by L-methionine-S-sulfoximine; in contrast, cells transfected with wild type GS showed the masking. Our analyses reveal complex molecular effects underlying impaired GS catalytic activity in three clinically relevant mutants. Our findings could stimulate the development of ATP binding-enhancing molecules by which the R324S mutant can be repaired extrinsically. PMID:26836257

  14. Selective Inhibition of Bacterial Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetases by Indolmycin Is Mechanism-based.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tishan L; Yin, Yuhui W; Carter, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    Indolmycin is a natural tryptophan analog that competes with tryptophan for binding to tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) enzymes. Bacterial and eukaryotic cytosolic TrpRSs have comparable affinities for tryptophan (Km ∼ 2 μm), and yet only bacterial TrpRSs are inhibited by indolmycin. Despite the similarity between these ligands, Bacillus stearothermophilus (Bs)TrpRS preferentially binds indolmycin ∼1500-fold more tightly than its tryptophan substrate. Kinetic characterization and crystallographic analysis of BsTrpRS allowed us to probe novel aspects of indolmycin inhibitory action. Previous work had revealed that long range coupling to residues within an allosteric region called the D1 switch of BsTrpRS positions the Mg(2+) ion in a manner that allows it to assist in transition state stabilization. The Mg(2+) ion in the inhibited complex forms significantly closer contacts with non-bridging oxygen atoms from each phosphate group of ATP and three water molecules than occur in the (presumably catalytically competent) pre-transition state (preTS) crystal structures. We propose that this altered coordination stabilizes a ground state Mg(2+)·ATP configuration, accounting for the high affinity inhibition of BsTrpRS by indolmycin. Conversely, both the ATP configuration and Mg(2+) coordination in the human cytosolic (Hc)TrpRS preTS structure differ greatly from the BsTrpRS preTS structure. The effect of these differences is that catalysis occurs via a different transition state stabilization mechanism in HcTrpRS with a yet-to-be determined role for Mg(2+). Modeling indolmycin into the tryptophan binding site points to steric hindrance and an inability to retain the interactions used for tryptophan substrate recognition as causes for the 1000-fold weaker indolmycin affinity to HcTrpRS. PMID:26555258

  15. Divergent anticodon recognition in contrasting glutamyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Hendrickson, Tamara L

    2004-12-10

    The pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori utilizes two essential glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GluRS1 and GluRS2). These two enzymes are closely related in evolution and yet they aminoacylate contrasting tRNAs. GluRS1 is a canonical discriminating GluRS (D-GluRS) that biosynthesizes Glu-tRNA(Glu) and cannot make Glu-tRNA(Gln). In contrast, GluRS2 is non-canonical as it is only essential for the production of misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln). The co-existence and evident divergence of these two enzymes was capitalized upon to directly examine how GluRS2 acquired tRNA(Gln) specificity. One key feature that distinguishes tRNA(Glu) from tRNA(Gln) is the third position in the anticodon of each tRNA (C36 versus G36, respectively). By comparing sequence alignments of different GluRSs, including GluRS1s and GluRS2s, to the crystal structure of the Thermus thermophilus D-GluRS:tRNA(Glu) complex, a divergent pattern of conservation in enzymes that aminoacylate tRNA(Glu)versus those specific for tRNA(Gln) emerged and was experimentally validated. In particular, when an arginine conserved in discriminating GluRSs and GluRS1s was inserted into Hp GluRS2 (Glu334Arg GluRS2), the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzyme (k(cat)/K(Mapp)) was reduced by approximately one order of magnitude towards tRNA(Gln). However, this mutation did not introduce activity towards tRNA(Glu). In contrast, disruption of a glycine that is conserved in all GluRS2s but not in other GluRSs (Gly417Thr GluRS2) generated a mutant GluRS2 with weak activity towards tRNA(Glu1). Synergy between these two mutations was observed in the double mutant (Glu334Arg/Gly417Thr GluRS2), which specifically and more robustly aminoacylates tRNA(Glu1) instead of tRNA(Gln). As GluRS1 and GluRS2 are related by an apparent gene duplication event, these results demonstrate that we can experimentally map critical evolutionary events in the emergence of new tRNA specificities. PMID:15561136

  16. Crystal structure of NH3-dependent NAD+ synthetase from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, M; Nessi, C; Mattevi, A; Coda, A; Bolognesi, M; Galizzi, A

    1996-01-01

    NAD+ synthetase catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The three-dimensional structure of NH3-dependent NAD+ synthetase from Bacillus subtilis, in its free form and in complex with ATP, has been solved by X-ray crystallography (at 2.6 and 2.0 angstroms resolution, respectively) using a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques. The enzyme consists of a tight homodimer with alpha/beta subunit topology. The catalytic site is located at the parallel beta-sheet topological switch point, where one AMP molecule, one pyrophosphate and one Mg2+ ion are observed. Residue Ser46, part of the neighboring 'P-loop', is hydrogen bonded to the pyrophosphate group, and may play a role in promoting the adenylation of deamido-NAD+ during the first step of the catalyzed reaction. The deamido-NAD+ binding site, located at the subunit interface, is occupied by one ATP molecule, pointing towards the catalytic center. A conserved structural fingerprint of the catalytic site, comprising Ser46, is very reminiscent of a related protein region observed in glutamine-dependent GMP synthetase, supporting the hypothesis that NAD+ synthetase belongs to the newly discovered family of 'N-type' ATP pyrophosphatases. Images PMID:8895556

  17. Assembly of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex via Heterotetrameric Glutathione Transferase-homology Domains.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Maeng, Seo Jin; Cho, Hyo Je; Choi, Yoon Seo; Chung, Jeong Min; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Hoi Kyoung; Kim, Jong Hyun; Eom, Chi-Yong; Kim, Yeon-Gil; Guo, Min; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kang, Beom Sik; Kim, Sunghoon

    2015-12-01

    Many multicomponent protein complexes mediating diverse cellular processes are assembled through scaffolds with specialized protein interaction modules. The multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC), consisting of nine different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and three non-enzymatic factors (AIMP1-3), serves as a hub for many signaling pathways in addition to its role in protein synthesis. However, the assembly process and structural arrangement of the MSC components are not well understood. Here we show the heterotetrameric complex structure of the glutathione transferase (GST) domains shared among the four MSC components, methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MRS), glutaminyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS), AIMP2 and AIMP3. The MRS-AIMP3 and EPRS-AIMP2 using interface 1 are bridged via interface 2 of AIMP3 and EPRS to generate a unique linear complex of MRS-AIMP3:EPRS-AIMP2 at the molar ratio of (1:1):(1:1). Interestingly, the affinity at interface 2 of AIMP3:EPRS can be varied depending on the occupancy of interface 1, suggesting the dynamic nature of the linear GST tetramer. The four components are optimally arranged for maximal accommodation of additional domains and proteins. These characteristics suggest the GST tetramer as a unique and dynamic structural platform from which the MSC components are assembled. Considering prevalence of the GST-like domains, this tetramer can also provide a tool for the communication of the MSC with other GST-containing cellular factors. PMID:26472928

  18. The parallel and convergent universes of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Cane, D E; Walsh, C T

    1999-12-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) catalyze chain elongation from simple building blocks to create a diverse array of natural products. PKS and NRPS proteins share striking architectural and organizational similarities that can be exploited to generate entirely new natural products. PMID:10631508

  19. Nucleotide synthetase ribozymes may have emerged first in the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wentao; Yu, Chunwu; Zhang, Wentao; Hu, Jiming

    2007-01-01

    Though the “RNA world” hypothesis has gained a central role in ideas concerning the origin of life, the scenario concerning its emergence remains uncertain. It has been speculated that the first scene may have been the emergence of a template-dependent RNA synthetase ribozyme, which catalyzed its own replication: thus, “RNA replicase.” However, the speculation remains uncertain, primarily because of the large sequence length requirement of such a replicase and the lack of a convincing mechanism to ensure its self-favoring features. Instead, we propose a nucleotide synthetase ribozyme as an alternative candidate, especially considering recent experimental evidence suggesting the possibility of effective nonenzymatic template-directed synthesis of RNA. A computer simulation was conducted to support our proposal. The conditions for the emergence of the nucleotide synthetase ribozyme are discussed, based on dynamic analysis on a computer. We suggest the template-dependent RNA synthetase ribozyme emerged later, perhaps after the emergence of protocells. PMID:17878321

  20. Structure of Pyrrolysyl-tRNA Synthetase, an Archaeal Enzyme for Genetic Code Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Kavran,J.; Gundllapalli, S.; O'Donoghue, P.; Englert, M.; Soll, D.; Steitz, T.

    2007-01-01

    Pyrrolysine (Pyl), the 22nd natural amino acid and genetically encoded by UAG, becomes attached to its cognate tRNA by pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS). We have determined three crystal structures of the Methanosarcina mazei PylRS complexed with either AMP-PNP, Pyl-AMP plus pyrophosphate, or the Pyl analogue N-e-[(cylopentyloxy)carbonyl]-l-lysine plus ATP. The structures reveal that PylRS utilizes a deep hydrophobic pocket for recognition of the Pyl side chain. A comparison of these structures with previously determined class II tRNA synthetase complexes illustrates that different substrate specificities derive from changes in a small number of residues that form the substrate side-chain-binding pocket. The knowledge of these structures allowed the placement of PylRS in the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) tree as the last known synthetase that evolved for genetic code expansion, as well as the finding that Pyl arose before the last universal common ancestral state. The PylRS structure provides an excellent framework for designing new aaRSs with altered amino acid specificity.

  1. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Alberto; Santos, María A; Revuelta, José L

    2008-01-01

    Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the characterization and manipulation of two genes of A. gossypii encoding PRPP synthetase (AGR371C and AGL080C). We show that the AGR371C and AGL080C gene products participate in PRPP synthesis and exhibit inhibition by ADP. We also observed a major contribution of AGL080C to total PRPP synthetase activity, which was confirmed by an evident growth defect of the Δagl080c strain. Moreover, we report the overexpression of wild-type and mutant deregulated isoforms of Agr371cp and Agl080cp that significantly enhanced the production of riboflavin in the engineered A. gossypii strains. Conclusion It is shown that alterations in PRPP synthetase activity have pleiotropic effects on the fungal growth pattern and that an increase in PRPP synthetase enzymatic activity can be used to enhance riboflavin production in A. gossypii. PMID:18782443

  2. Characterization of recombinant glutamine synthetase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. strain KOD1.

    PubMed Central

    Adul Rahman, R N; Jongsareejit, B; Fujiwara, S; Imanaka, T

    1997-01-01

    The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase was cloned from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. strain KOD1, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The glnA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli ME8459 (glnA mutant strain), and the protein was purified to homogeneity and shown to be functional in a dodecameric from (637,000 Da), exhibiting both transferase and synthetase activities. However, kinetic studies indicated that the enzyme possessed low biosynthetic activity, suggesting that the reaction was biased towards glutamate production. The optimum temperature for both activities was 60 degrees C, which was lower than the optimal growth temperature of KOD1. Recombinant KOD1 GlnA exhibited different optimum pHs depending on the reaction employed (pH 7.8 for the synthetase reaction and pH 7.2 for the transferase reaction). Of the various nucleoside triphosphates tested, GTP as well as ATP was involved in the synthetase reaction. PMID:9172372

  3. Pseudomonas syringae Phytotoxins: Mode of Action, Regulation, and Biosynthesis by Peptide and Polyketide Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Carol L.; Alarcón-Chaidez, Francisco; Gross, Dennis C.

    1999-01-01

    Coronatine, syringomycin, syringopeptin, tabtoxin, and phaseolotoxin are the most intensively studied phytotoxins of Pseudomonas syringae, and each contributes significantly to bacterial virulence in plants. Coronatine functions partly as a mimic of methyl jasmonate, a hormone synthesized by plants undergoing biological stress. Syringomycin and syringopeptin form pores in plasma membranes, a process that leads to electrolyte leakage. Tabtoxin and phaseolotoxin are strongly antimicrobial and function by inhibiting glutamine synthetase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase, respectively. Genetic analysis has revealed the mechanisms responsible for toxin biosynthesis. Coronatine biosynthesis requires the cooperation of polyketide and peptide synthetases for the assembly of the coronafacic and coronamic acid moieties, respectively. Tabtoxin is derived from the lysine biosynthetic pathway, whereas syringomycin, syringopeptin, and phaseolotoxin biosynthesis requires peptide synthetases. Activation of phytotoxin synthesis is controlled by diverse environmental factors including plant signal molecules and temperature. Genes involved in the regulation of phytotoxin synthesis have been located within the coronatine and syringomycin gene clusters; however, additional regulatory genes are required for the synthesis of these and other phytotoxins. Global regulatory genes such as gacS modulate phytotoxin production in certain pathovars, indicating the complexity of the regulatory circuits controlling phytotoxin synthesis. The coronatine and syringomycin gene clusters have been intensively characterized and show potential for constructing modified polyketides and peptides. Genetic reprogramming of peptide and polyketide synthetases has been successful, and portions of the coronatine and syringomycin gene clusters could be valuable resources in developing new antimicrobial agents. PMID:10357851

  4. Augmenting ureagenesis in patients with partial carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1deficiency with N-carbamylglutamate

    PubMed Central

    Ah Mew, Nicholas; McCarter, Robert; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Lichter, Uta; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc; Tuchman, and Mendel

    2014-01-01

    Identical studies employing stable isotopes were performed before and after a 3-day trial of oral N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) in 5 subjects with late onset carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency. NCG augmented ureagenesis and decreased plasma ammonia in 4 of 5 subjects. There was marked improvement in nitrogen metabolism with long-term NCG administration in one subject. PMID:24880889

  5. Structures of two distinct conformations of holo-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Drake, Eric J; Miller, Bradley R; Shi, Ce; Tarrasch, Jeffrey T; Sundlov, Jesse A; Allen, C Leigh; Skiniotis, Georgios; Aldrich, Courtney C; Gulick, Andrew M

    2016-01-14

    Many important natural products are produced by multidomain non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). During synthesis, intermediates are covalently bound to integrated carrier domains and transported to neighbouring catalytic domains in an assembly line fashion. Understanding the structural basis for catalysis with non-ribosomal peptide synthetases will facilitate bioengineering to create novel products. Here we describe the structures of two different holo-non-ribosomal peptide synthetase modules, each revealing a distinct step in the catalytic cycle. One structure depicts the carrier domain cofactor bound to the peptide bond-forming condensation domain, whereas a second structure captures the installation of the amino acid onto the cofactor within the adenylation domain. These structures demonstrate that a conformational change within the adenylation domain guides transfer of intermediates between domains. Furthermore, one structure shows that the condensation and adenylation domains simultaneously adopt their catalytic conformations, increasing the overall efficiency in a revised structural cycle. These structures and the single-particle electron microscopy analysis demonstrate a highly dynamic domain architecture and provide the foundation for understanding the structural mechanisms that could enable engineering of novel non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:26762461

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF THE GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE ISOZYME GSP1 IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher plants contain families of glutamine synthetase (GS) isozymes. In maize (Zea mays L.), GSp1, the predominant GS isozyme of the developing kernel, is abundant in the pedicel and pericarp, but absent from the endosperm and embryo. Determination of GSp1 tissue distribution in vegetative tissue...

  7. Synthesis and activities of branched-chain aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in threonine deaminase mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A L; Whitfield, S M; Williams, L S

    1978-01-01

    Valyl-, isoleucyl-, and leucyl-tRNA synthetase activities were examined in an Escherichia coli K-12 strain that possessed a deletion of three genes of the ilv gene cluster, ilvD, A, and C, and in a strain with the same deletion that also carried the lambdadilvCB bacteriophage. It was observed that the branched-chain tRNA synthetase activities of both strains were considerably less than those of the normal strain during growth in unrestricted medium. Furthermore, during an isoleucine limitation, there was a further reduction in isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase activity and an absence of the isoleucine-mediated derepression of valyl-tRNA synthetase formation in both of these mutants, as compared with the normal strain. In addition, it was observed that these branched-chain synthetase activities were reduced in steady-state cultures of several ilvA point mutants. However, upon the introduction of the ilv operon to these ilvA mutants by use of lambda bacteriophage, there was a specific increase in the branched-chain synthetase activities to levels comparable to those of the normal strain. These results support our previous findings that the stability and repression control of synthesis of these synthetases require some product(s) missing in the ilvDAC deletion strain and strongly suggest this component is some form of the ilvA gene product, threonine deaminase. PMID:348689

  8. An example of non-conservation of oligomeric structure in prokaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Biochemical and structural properties of glycyl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Mazauric, M H; Reinbolt, J; Lorber, B; Ebel, C; Keith, G; Giegé, R; Kern, D

    1996-11-01

    Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (Gly-tRNA synthetase) from Thermus thermophilus was purified to homogeneity and with high yield using a five-step purification procedure in amounts sufficient to solve its crystallographic structure [Logan, D.T., Mazauric, M.-H., Kern, D. & Moras, D. (1995) EMBO J. 14, 4156-4167]. Molecular-mass determinations of the native and denatured protein indicate an oligomeric structure of the alpha 2 type consistent with that found for eukaryotic Gly-tRNA synthetases (yeast and Bombyx mori), but different from that of Gly-tRNA synthetases from mesophilic prokaryotes (Escherichia coli and Bacillus brevis) which are alpha 2 beta 2 tetramers. N-terminal sequencing of the polypeptide chain reveals significant identity, reaching 50% with those of the eukaryotic enzymes (B. mori, Homo sapiens, yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans) but no significant identity was found with both alpha and beta chains of the prokaryotic enzymes (E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Coxiella burnetii) albeit the enzyme is deprived of the N-terminal extension characterizing eukaryotic synthetases. Thus, the thermophilic Gly-tRNA synthetase combines strong structural homologies of eukaryotic Gly-tRNA synthetases with a feature of prokaryotic synthetases. Heat-stability measurements show that this synthetase keeps its ATP-PPi exchange and aminoacylation activities up to 70 degrees C. Glycyladenylate strongly protects the enzyme against thermal inactivation at higher temperatures. Unexpectedly, tRNA(Gly) does not induce protection. Cross-aminoacylations reveal that the thermophilic Gly-tRNA synthetase charges heterologous E. coli tRNA(gly(GCC)) and tRNA(Gly(GCC)) and yeast tRNA(Gly(GCC)) as efficiently as T. thermophilus tRNA(Gly). All these aminoacylation reactions are characterized by similar activation energies as deduced from Arrhenius plots. Therefore, contrary to the E. coli and H. sapiens Gly-tRNA synthetases, the prokaryotic thermophilic enzyme does not possess a strict

  9. Helicobacter pylori Glutamine Synthetase Lacks Features Associated with Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Rachel M.; Fulkerson, John; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori urease, produced in abundance, is indispensable for the survival of H. pylori in animal hosts. Urea is hydrolyzed by the enzyme, resulting in the liberation of excess ammonia, some of which neutralizes gastric acid. The remaining ammonia is assimilated into protein by glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2), which catalyzes the reaction: NH3 + glutamate + ATP→glutamine + ADP + Pi. We hypothesized that glutamine synthetase plays an unusually critical role in nitrogen assimilation by H. pylori. We developed a phenotypic screen to isolate genes that contribute to the synthesis of a catalytically active urease. Escherichia coli SE5000 transformed with plasmid pHP808 containing the entire H. pylori urease gene cluster was cotransformed with a pBluescript plasmid library of the H. pylori ATCC 43504 genome. A weakly urease-positive 9.4-kb clone, pUEF728, was subjected to nucleotide sequencing. Among other genes, the gene for glutamine synthetase was identified. The complete 1,443-bp glnA gene predicts a polypeptide of 481 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 54,317; this was supported by maxicell analysis of cloned glnA expressed in E. coli. The top 10 homologs were all bacterial glutamine synthetases, including Salmonella typhimurium glnA. The ATP-binding motif GDNGSG (residues 272 to 277) of H. pylori GlnA exactly matched and aligned with the sequence in 8 of the 10 homologs. The adenylation site found in the top 10 homologs (consensus sequence, NLYDLP) is replaced in H. pylori by NLFKLT (residues 405 to 410). Since the Tyr (Y) residue is the target of adenylation and since the H. pylori glutamine synthetase lacks that residue in four strains examined, we conclude that no adenylation occurs within this motif. Cloned H. pylori glnA complemented a glnA mutation in E. coli, and GlnA enzyme activity could be measured spectrophotometrically. In an attempt to produce a GlnA-deficient mutant of H. pylori, a kanamycin resistance cassette was cloned

  10. Regulation of the intersubunit ammonia tunnel in Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine-dependent NAD[superscript +] synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Chuenchor, Watchalee; Doukov, Tzanko I.; Resto, Melissa; Chang, Andrew; Gerratana, Barbara

    2012-08-31

    Glutamine-dependent NAD{sup +} synthetase is an essential enzyme and a validated drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtuNadE). It catalyses the ATP-dependent formation of NAD{sup +} from NaAD{sup +} (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide) at the synthetase active site and glutamine hydrolysis at the glutaminase active site. An ammonia tunnel 40 {angstrom} (1 {angstrom} = 0.1 nm) long allows transfer of ammonia from one active site to the other. The enzyme displays stringent kinetic synergism; however, its regulatory mechanism is unclear. In the present paper, we report the structures of the inactive glutaminase C176A variant in an apo form and in three synthetase-ligand complexes with substrates (NaAD{sup +}/ATP), substrate analogue {l_brace}NaAD{sup +}/AMP-CPP (adenosine 5'-[{alpha},{beta}-methylene]triphosphate){r_brace} and intermediate analogues (NaAD{sup +}/AMP/PPi), as well as the structure of wild-type mtuNadE in a product complex (NAD{sup +}/AMP/PPi/glutamate). This series of structures provides snapshots of the ammonia tunnel during the catalytic cycle supported also by kinetics and mutagenesis studies. Three major constriction sites are observed in the tunnel: (i) at the entrance near the glutaminase active site; (ii) in the middle of the tunnel; and (iii) at the end near the synthetase active site. Variation in the number and radius of the tunnel constrictions is apparent in the crystal structures and is related to ligand binding at the synthetase domain. These results provide new insight into the regulation of ammonia transport in the intermolecular tunnel of mtuNadE.

  11. Primary structure of histidine-tRNA synthetase and characterization of hisS transcripts.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R; Gibson, B; Donovan, D; Biemann, K; Eisenbeis, S; Parker, J; Schimmel, P

    1985-08-25

    Histidine-tRNA synthetase is one of the smallest bacterial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. It is less than one-half the size of the largest aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The entire nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli hisS locus was determined. The coding region is comprised of 424 codons, and the sequence was determined for 200 nucleotides on the 5'- and 3'-sides of the coding region. The translated nucleotide sequence was confirmed extensively by independent amino acid sequence information obtained by Edman degradations of purified peptides and by measurements of peptide masses by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. A significant sequence alignment of four bacterial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases was reported recently (Webster, T., Tsai, H., Kula, M., Mackie, G., and Schimmel, P. (1984) Science 226, 1315-1317). Although the four enzymes vary considerably in length, this match occurs within the first 100 amino acids of each of the four enzymes and is in the segment believed to be part of the catalytic core. But no strong alignment could be found of the histidine sequence with these four tRNA synthetase sequences. This enzyme may be derived, therefore, from a different progenitor. Previous work suggested that three places in the hisS 5'-noncoding sequence could be promoter sites for RNA polymerase (Eisenbeis, S. J., and Parker, J. (1982) Gene 18, 107-114). We detected a 1400-nucleotide RNA species by RNA blot analysis with a hisS-specific probe. S1 nuclease mapping demonstrated a 5'-end to the RNA species occurs at -67 +/- 1, relative to the first nucleotide of the coding region. This position coincides with the predicted start site for transcription from one of the previously proposed promoter sites. PMID:2991272

  12. Properties and substrate specificities of the phenylalanyl-transfer-ribonucleic acid synthetases of Aesculus species

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. W.; Fowden, L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases have been partially purified from cotyledons of seeds of Aesculus californica, which contains 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, and from four other species of Aesculus that do not contain this amino acid. The A. californica preparation was free from other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and the contaminating synthetase activity in preparations from A. hippocastanum was decreased to acceptable limits by conducting assays of pyrophosphate exchange activity in 0.5m-potassium chloride. 2. The phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from each species activated 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid with Km 30–40 times that for phenylalanine. The maximum velocity for 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid was only 30% of that for phenylalanine with the A. californica enzyme, but the maximum velocities for the two substrates were identical for the other four species. 3. 2-Amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid was not found in the protein of A. californica, so discrimination against this amino acid probably occurs in the step of transfer to tRNA, though subcellular localization, or subsequent steps of protein synthesis could be involved. 4. Crotylglycine, methallylglycine, ethallylglycine, 2-aminohex-4,5-dienoic acid, 2-amino-5-methylhex-4-enoic acid, 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, β-(thien-2-yl)alanine, β-(pyrazol-1-yl)alanine, phenylserine and m-fluorophenylalanine were substrates for pyrophosphate exchange catalysed by the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases of A. californica or A. hippocastanum. Allylglycine, phenylglycine and 2-amino-4-phenylbutyric acid were inactive. PMID:5493504

  13. Fatty Acid Oxidation Mediated by Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain 3 Is Required for Mutant KRAS Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Padanad, Mahesh S; Konstantinidou, Georgia; Venkateswaran, Niranjan; Melegari, Margherita; Rindhe, Smita; Mitsche, Matthew; Yang, Chendong; Batten, Kimberly; Huffman, Kenneth E; Liu, Jingwen; Tang, Ximing; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Kalhor, Neda; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D; McDonald, Jeffrey; Wistuba, Ignacio I; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo

    2016-08-01

    KRAS is one of the most commonly mutated oncogenes in human cancer. Mutant KRAS aberrantly regulates metabolic networks. However, the contribution of cellular metabolism to mutant KRAS tumorigenesis is not completely understood. We report that mutant KRAS regulates intracellular fatty acid metabolism through Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3), which converts fatty acids into fatty Acyl-CoA esters, the substrates for lipid synthesis and β-oxidation. ACSL3 suppression is associated with depletion of cellular ATP and causes the death of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, mutant KRAS promotes the cellular uptake, retention, accumulation, and β-oxidation of fatty acids in lung cancer cells in an ACSL3-dependent manner. Finally, ACSL3 is essential for mutant KRAS lung cancer tumorigenesis in vivo and is highly expressed in human lung cancer. Our data demonstrate that mutant KRAS reprograms lipid homeostasis, establishing a metabolic requirement that could be exploited for therapeutic gain. PMID:27477280

  14. STING-Dependent 2'-5' Oligoadenylate Synthetase-Like Production Is Required for Intracellular Mycobacterium leprae Survival.

    PubMed

    de Toledo-Pinto, Thiago Gomes; Ferreira, Anna Beatriz Robottom; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Batista-Silva, Leonardo Ribeiro; Silva, Bruno Jorge de Andrade; Lemes, Robertha Mariana Rodrigues; Martinez, Alejandra Nóbrega; Sandoval, Felipe Galvan; Alvarado-Arnez, Lucia Elena; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Shannon, Edward Joseph; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Antunes, Sérgio Luís Gomes; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Lara, Flávio Alves; Williams, Diana Lynn; Ozório Moraes, Milton

    2016-07-15

    Cytosolic detection of nucleic acids elicits a type I interferon (IFN) response and plays a critical role in host defense against intracellular pathogens. Herein, a global gene expression profile of Mycobacterium leprae-infected primary human Schwann cells identified the genes differentially expressed in the type I IFN pathway. Among them, the gene encoding 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL) underwent the greatest upregulation and was also shown to be upregulated in M. leprae-infected human macrophage cell lineages, primary monocytes, and skin lesion specimens from patients with a disseminated form of leprosy. OASL knock down was associated with decreased viability of M. leprae that was concomitant with upregulation of either antimicrobial peptide expression or autophagy levels. Downregulation of MCP-1/CCL2 release was also observed during OASL knock down. M. leprae-mediated OASL expression was dependent on cytosolic DNA sensing mediated by stimulator of IFN genes signaling. The addition of M. leprae DNA enhanced nonpathogenic Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin intracellular survival, downregulated antimicrobial peptide expression, and increased MCP-1/CCL2 secretion. Thus, our data uncover a promycobacterial role for OASL during M. leprae infection that directs the host immune response toward a niche that permits survival of the pathogen. PMID:27190175

  15. Histopathological characteristics of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatic tumor lesions in a mouse model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome (TSOD mouse)

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Imura, Johji; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Toyohara, Syunji; Hokao, Ryoji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, a polygenic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, is a valuable model of hepatic carcinogenesis via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One of the characteristics of tumors in these mice is the diffuse expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed detailed histopathological examinations and found that GS expression was diffusely positive in >70% of the hepatic tumors from 15-month-old male TSOD mice. Translocation of β-catenin into nuclei with enhanced membranous expression also occurred in GS-positive tumors. Small lesions (<1 mm) in GS-positive cases exhibited dysplastic nodules, with severe nuclear atypia, whereas large lesions (>3 mm) bore the characteristics of human HCC, exhibiting nuclear and structural atypia with invasive growth. By contrast, the majority of GS-negative tumors were hepatocellular adenomas with advanced fatty change and low nuclear grade. In GS-negative tumors, loss of liver fatty acid-binding protein expression was observed. These results suggest that the histological characteristics of GS-positive hepatic tumors in TSOD mice resemble human HCC; thus, this model may be a useful tool in translational research targeting the NAFLD/NASH-HCC sequence. PMID:27446562

  16. Active site nanospace of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase: difference between the class I and class II synthetases.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Saheb; Choudhury, Kaberi; Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nandi, Nilashis

    2014-03-01

    The present work is aimed at understanding the origin of the difference in the molecular organization of the active site nanospaces of the class I and class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) which are tunnel-like structures. The active site encloses the cognate amino acid (AA) and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to carry out aminoacylation reaction. Comparison of the structures of the active site of the class I and class II (aaRSs) shows that the nanodimensional tunnels are curved in opposite directions in the two classes. We investigated the origin of this difference using quantum mechanical computation of electrostatic potential (ESP) of substrates, surrounding residues and ions, using Atoms in Molecule (AIM) Theory and charge population analysis. We show that the difference is principally due to the variation in the spatial charge distribution of ATP in the two classes which correspond to extended and bent conformations of ATP. The present computation shows that the most feasible pathway for nucleophilic attack to alphaP is oppositely directed for class I and class II aaRSs. The available crystal structures show that the cognate AA is indeed located along the channel favorable for nucleophilic attack as predicted by the ESP analysis. It is also shown that the direction of the channel changes its orientation when the orientation of ATP is changed from extended to a bent like structure. We further used the AIM theory to confirm the direction of the approach of AA in each case and the results corroborate the results from the ESP analysis. The opposite curvatures of the active site nanospaces in class I and class II aaRSs are related with the influence of the charge distributions of the extended and bent conformations of ATP, respectively. The results of the computation of electrostatic potential by successive addition of active site residues show that their roles on the reaction are similar in both classes despite the difference in the organization of the

  17. Derepression of Synthesis of the Aminoacyl-Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Synthetases for the Branched-Chain Amino Acids of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Etheleen; Williams, Ann C.; Williams, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    The kinetics of derepression of valyl-, isoleucyl-, and leucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase formation was examined during valine-, isoleucine-, and leucine-limited growth. When valine was limiting growth, valyl-tRNA synthetase formation was maximally derepressed within 5 min, whereas the rates of synthesis of isoleucyl-, and leucyl-tRNA synthetases were unchanged. Isoleucine-restricted growth caused a maximal derepression of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase formation in 5 min and derepression of valyl-tRNA synthetase formation in 15 min with no effect on leucyl-tRNA synthetase formation. When leucine was limiting growth, leucyl-tRNA synthetase formation was immediately derepressed, whereas valyl- and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase formation was unaffected by manipulation of the leucine supply to the cells. These results support our previous findings that valyl-tRNA synthetase formation is subject to multivalent repression control by both isoleucine and valine. In contrast, repression control of iso-leucyl- and leucyl-tRNA synthetase formation is specifically mediated by the supply of the cognate amino acid. PMID:4604302

  18. Mirror image alternative interaction patterns of the same tRNA with either class I arginyl-tRNA synthetase or class II aspartyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Sissler, M; Eriani, G; Martin, F; Giegé, R; Florentz, C

    1997-01-01

    Gene cloning, overproduction and an efficient purification protocol of yeast arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) as well as the interaction patterns of this protein with cognate tRNAArgand non-cognate tRNAAspare described. This work was motivated by the fact that the in vitro transcript of tRNAAspis of dual aminoacylation specificity and is not only aspartylated but also efficiently arginylated. The crystal structure of the complex between class II aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS) and tRNAAsp, as well as early biochemical data, have shown that tRNAAspis recognized by its variable region side. Here we show by footprinting with enzymatic and chemical probes that transcribed tRNAAspis contacted by class I ArgRS along the opposite D arm side, as is homologous tRNAArg, but with idiosyncratic interaction patterns. Besides protection, footprints also show enhanced accessibility of the tRNAs to the structural probes, indicative of conformational changes in the complexed tRNAs. These different patterns are interpreted in relation to the alternative arginine identity sets found in the anticodon loops of tRNAArgand tRNAAsp. The mirror image alternative interaction patterns of unmodified tRNAAspwith either class I ArgRS or class II AspRS, accounting for the dual identity of this tRNA, are discussed in relation to the class defining features of the synthetases. This study indicates that complex formation between unmodified tRNAAspand either ArgRS and AspRS is solely governed by the proteins. PMID:9396794

  19. Compositions of orthogonal lysyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J. Christopher; Wu, Ning; Santoro, Stephen; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-08-18

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal lysyl-tRNAs, orthogonal lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of lysyl-tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate homoglutamines into proteins are provided in response to a four base codon. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with homoglutamines using these orthogonal pairs.

  20. Compositions of orthogonal lysyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J. Christopher; Wu, Ning; Santoro, Stephen; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-12-29

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal lysyl-tRNAs, orthogonal lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of lysyl-tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate homoglutamines into proteins are provided in response to a four base codon. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with homoglutamines using these orthogonal pairs.

  1. Compositions of orthogonal lysyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J. Christopher; Wu, Ning; Santoro, Stephen; Schultz, Peter G.

    2011-10-04

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal lysyl-tRNAs, orthogonal lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of lysyl-tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate homoglutamines into proteins are provided in response to a four base codon. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with homoglutamines using these orthogonal pairs.

  2. Compositions of orthogonal lysyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J. Christopher; Wu, Ning; Santoro, Stephen; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-03-11

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal lysyl-tRNAs, orthogonal lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of lysyl-tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate homoglutamines into proteins are provided in response to a four base codon. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with homoglutamines using these orthogonal pairs.

  3. Inhibitory effect of quinolone antimicrobial and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on a medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, F; Hiasa, M; Kawai, Y; Igarashi, K; Fukui, M

    2001-08-01

    The inhibitory effects of quinolone antimicrobial agents and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on purified mouse liver mitochondrial medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase catalyzing the first reaction of glycine conjugation were examined, using hexanoic acid as a substrate. Enoxacin, ofloxacin, nalidixic acid, diflunisal, salicylic acid, 2-hydroxynaphthoic acid, and 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid, which do not act as substrates, were potent inhibitors. Diflunisal, nalidixic acid, salicylic acid, 2-hydroxynaphthoic acid, and 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid inhibited competitively this medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase with K(i) values of 0.6, 12.4, 19.6, 13.4, and 15.0 microM, respectively. Enoxacin and ofloxacin inhibited this medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase in a mixed-type manner with K(i) values of 23.7 and 38.2 microM, respectively. Felbinac, which is a substrate, inhibited the activity of this medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase for hexanoic acid (IC50 = 25 microM). The concomitant presence of enoxacin and felbinac strongly inhibited this medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase. These findings indicate that medium chain acyl-CoA synthetases may be influenced by quinolone antimicrobial and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:11434910

  4. Evidence that peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetase is located at the cytoplasmic side of the peroxisomal membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Mannaerts, G P; Van Veldhoven, P; Van Broekhoven, A; Vandebroek, G; Debeer, L J

    1982-01-01

    1. Subfractionation by isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation in self-generating Percoll gradients of peroxisome-rich fractions prepared by differential centrifugation confirmed the presence of acyl-CoA synthetase in peroxisomes. Peroxisomes did not contain nicotinamide or adenine nucleotides other than CoA. 2. The gradient fractions most enriched in peroxisomes were pooled and the peroxisomes sedimented by centrifugation, resulting in a 50-fold-purified peroxisomal preparation as revealed by marker enzyme analysis. 3. Palmitate oxidation by intact purified peroxisomes was CoA-dependent, whereas palmitoyl-CoA oxidation was not, demonstrating that the peroxisomal CoA was available for the thiolase reaction, located in the peroxisomal matrix, but not for acyl-CoA synthetase. This suggests that the latter enzyme is located at the cytoplasmic side of the peroxisomal membrane. 4. Additional evidence for this location of peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetase was as follows. Mechanical disruption of purified peroxisomes resulted in the release of catalase from the broken organelles, but not of acyl-CoA synthetase, indicating that the enzyme was membrane-bound. Acyl-CoA synthetase was not latent, despite the fact that at least one of its substrates appears to have a limited membrane permeability, as evidenced by the presence of CoA in purified peroxisomes. Finally, Pronase, a proteinase that does not penetrate the peroxisomal membrane, almost completely inactivated the acyl-CoA synthetase of intact peroxisomes. PMID:7115321

  5. Nature and frequency of mutations in the argininosuccinate synthetase gene that cause classical citrullinemia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Kakinoki, H; Fukushige, T; Shaheen, N; Terazono, H; Saheki, T

    1995-10-01

    Citrullinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a genetic deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). So far 20 mutations in ASS mRNA have been identified in human classical citrullinemia, including 14 single base changes causing missense mutations in the coding sequence of the enzyme, 4 mutations associated with an absence of exons 5, 6, 7, or 13 in mRNA, 1 mutation with a deletion of the first 7 bases in exon 16 (which is caused by abnormal splicing), and 1 mutation with an insertion of 37 bases between the exon 15 and 16 regions in mRNA. In order to identify the abnormality in the ASS gene causing the exon 7 and 13 deletion mutations and the 37-base insertion mutation between exons 15 and 16 in mRNA, and to establish a DNA diagnostic test, we isolated and sequenced the genomic DNA surrounding each exon. The absence of exon 7 or 13 in ASS mRNA resulted from abnormal splicing caused by a single base change in the intron region: IVS-6(-2) (a transition of A to G at the second nucleotide position within the 3' splice cleavage site of intron 6) and IVS-13(+5) (a transition of G to A at the fifth nucleotide position within the 5' splice cleavage site of intron 13), respectively. The IVS-6(-2) mutation resulted in the creation of an MspI restriction site. DNA diagnostic analysis of 33 Japanese alleles with classical citrullinemia showed that 19 alleles had the IVS-6(-2) mutation (over 50% of the mutated alleles in Japanese patients). It was thus confirmed that one mutation is predominant in Japan. This differs from the situation in the USA where there is far greater heterogeneity. The insertion mutation in mRNA on the other hand resulted from abnormal splicing caused by a 13-bp deletion at the splice-junction between exon 15 and intron 15. The deletion had a short direct repeat (CTCAGG) at the breakpoint junction and presumably resulted from slipped mispairing. PMID:7557970

  6. Giardia fatty acyl-CoA synthetases as potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fengguang; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Argüello-García, Raúl; Zhang, Haili; Zhu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis caused by Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. duodenalis) is one of the leading causes of diarrheal parasitic diseases worldwide. Although limited drugs to treat giardiasis are available, there are concerns regarding toxicity in some patients and the emerging drug resistance. By data-mining genome sequences, we observed that G. intestinalis is incapable of synthesizing fatty acids (FA) de novo. However, this parasite has five long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (GiACS1 to GiACS5) to activate FA scavenged from the host. ACS is an essential enzyme because FA need to be activated to form acyl-CoA thioesters before they can enter subsequent metabolism. In the present study, we performed experiments to explore whether some GiACS enzymes could serve as drug targets in Giardia. Based on the high-throughput datasets and protein modeling analyses, we initially studied the GiACS1 and GiACS2, because genes encoding these two enzymes were found to be more consistently expressed in varied parasite life cycle stages and when interacting with host cells based on previously reported transcriptome data. These two proteins were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins. Biochemical analysis revealed that both had apparent substrate preference toward palmitic acid (C16:0) and myristic acid (C14:0), and allosteric or Michaelis–Menten kinetics on palmitic acid or ATP. The ACS inhibitor triacsin C inhibited the activity of both enzymes (IC50 = 1.56 μM, Ki = 0.18 μM for GiACS1, and IC50 = 2.28 μM, Ki = 0.23 μM for GiACS2, respectively) and the growth of G. intestinalis in vitro (IC50 = 0.8 μM). As expected from giardial evolutionary characteristics, both GiACSs displayed differences in overall folding structure as compared with their human counterparts. These observations support the notion that some of the GiACS enzymes may be explored as drug targets in this parasite. PMID:26257723

  7. Whole exome sequencing reveals mutations in NARS2 and PARS2, encoding the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase and prolyl-tRNA synthetase, in patients with Alpers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sofou, Kalliopi; Kollberg, Gittan; Holmström, Maria; Dávila, Marcela; Darin, Niklas; Gustafsson, Claes M; Holme, Elisabeth; Oldfors, Anders; Tulinius, Már; Asin-Cayuela, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Alpers syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that presents in infancy or early childhood and is characterized by diffuse degeneration of cerebral gray matter. While mutations in POLG1, the gene encoding the gamma subunit of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase, have been associated with Alpers syndrome with liver failure (Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome), the genetic cause of Alpers syndrome in most patients remains unidentified. With whole exome sequencing we have identified mutations in NARS2 and PARS2, the genes encoding the mitochondrial asparaginyl-and prolyl-tRNA synthetases, in two patients with Alpers syndrome. One of the patients was homozygous for a missense mutation (c.641C>T, p.P214L) in NARS2. The affected residue is predicted to be located in the stem of a loop that participates in dimer interaction. The other patient was compound heterozygous for a one base insertion (c.1130dupC, p.K378 fs*1) that creates a premature stop codon and a missense mutation (c.836C>T, p.S279L) located in a conserved motif of unknown function in PARS2. This report links for the first time mutations in these genes to human disease in general and to Alpers syndrome in particular. PMID:25629079

  8. Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum dihydropteroate synthetase and growth in vitro by sulfa drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Meshnick, S R

    1991-01-01

    The Michaelis-Menten inhibitory constants (Kis) and the concentrations required for 50% inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydropteroate synthetase were determined for six sulfa drugs. These drugs inhibited the in vitro growth of P. falciparum (50% lethal concentration) at concentrations of 30 to 500 nM; these concentrations were 100 to 1,000 times lower than the concentrations required for 50% inhibition and Kis (6 to 500 microM). The uptake of p-aminobenzoic acid was not inhibited by the sulfa drugs. However, infected erythrocytes took up more labeled sulfamethoxazole than did uninfected erythrocytes. Thus, the concentration of sulfa drugs by malaria parasites may explain how sulfa drugs inhibit in vitro growth of parasites through the inhibition of dihydropteroate synthetase. PMID:2024960

  9. Primary structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene for methionyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, P; Gangloff, J; Bonnet, J; Boulanger, Y; Ebel, J P; Fasiolo, F

    1983-01-01

    The sequence of a 5-kilobase DNA insert containing the structural gene for yeast cytoplasmic methionyl-tRNA synthetase has been determined and a unique open reading frame of 2,253 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide chain of 751 amino acids (Mr, 85,500) has been characterized. The data obtained on the purified enzyme (subunit size, amino acid composition, and COOH-terminal sequence) are consistent with the gene structure. The protein sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence reveals no obvious internal repeats. This protein sequence shows a high degree of homology with that of Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase within a region that forms the putative methionyl adenylate binding site. This strongly suggests that both proteins derive from a common ancestor. PMID:6341994

  10. Multistep modeling of protein structure: application towards refinement of tyr-tRNA synthetase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Shibata, M.; Roychoudhury, M.; Rein, R.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of multistep modeling (MSM) is expanding by adding a least-squares minimization step in the procedure to fit backbone reconstruction consistent with a set of C-alpha coordinates. The analytical solution of Phi and Psi angles, that fits a C-alpha x-ray coordinate is used for tyr-tRNA synthetase. Phi and Psi angles for the region where the above mentioned method fails, are obtained by minimizing the difference in C-alpha distances between the computed model and the crystal structure in a least-squares sense. We present a stepwise application of this part of MSM to the determination of the complete backbone geometry of the 321 N terminal residues of tyrosine tRNA synthetase to a root mean square deviation of 0.47 angstroms from the crystallographic C-alpha coordinates.

  11. Effects of aeration on formation and localization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Jahnke, L.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that two different forms of the enzyme acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) are present, depending on the conditions under which the cells are grown. The paper evaluates the usefulness of a method designed to assay both synthetases simultaneously in yeast homogenates. The data presented confirm the possibility of simultaneous detection and estimation of the amount of both ACSs of S. cerevisiae in crude homogenates of this strain, making possible the study of physiological factors involved in the formation of these isoenzymes. One important factor for specifying which of the two enzymes is found in these yeast cells is the presence or absence of oxygen in their environment. Aeration not only affects the ratio of the two ACSs but also appears to affect the cellular distribution of these enzymes. Most of the data presented suggest the possibility that the nonaerobic ACS may serve as a precursor to the aerobic form.

  12. Structure of an unusual S-adenosylmethionine synthetase from Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Zano, Stephen P; Pavlovsky, Alexander G; Viola, Ronald E

    2014-02-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) participates in a wide range of methylation and other group-transfer reactions and also serves as the precursor for two groups of quorum-sensing molecules that function as regulators of the production of virulence factors in Gram-negative bacteria. The synthesis of AdoMet is catalyzed by AdoMet synthetases (MATs), a ubiquitous family of enzymes found in species ranging from microorganisms to mammals. The AdoMet synthetase from the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni (cjMAT) is an outlier among this homologous enzyme family, with lower sequence identity, numerous insertions and substitutions, and higher catalytic activity compared with other bacterial MATs. Alterations in the structure of this enzyme provide an explanation for its unusual dimeric quaternary structure relative to the other MATs. Taken together with several active-site substitutions, this new structure provides insights into its improved kinetic properties with alternative substrates. PMID:24531478

  13. Halofuginone and other febrifugine derivatives inhibit prolyl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Tracy L.; Zocco, Davide; Sundrud, Mark S.; Hendrick, Margaret; Edenius, Maja; Yum, Jina; Kim, Yeon-Jin; Lee, Hak-kyo; Cortese, Joseph F.; Wirth, Dyann; Dignam, John David; Rao, Anjana; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Mazitschek, Ralph; Whitman, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Febrifugine, one of the fifty fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine, has been characterized for its therapeutic activity whilst its molecular target has remained unknown. Febrifugine derivatives have been used to treat malaria, cancer, fibrosis, and inflammatory disease. We recently demonstrated that halofuginone (HF), a widely studied derivative of febrifugine, inhibits the development of Th17-driven autoimmunity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis by activating the amino acid response pathway (AAR). Here we show that HF binds glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS) inhibiting prolyl-tRNA synthetase activity; this inhibition is reversed by the addition of exogenous proline or EPRS. We further show that inhibition of EPRS underlies the broad bioactivities of this family of natural products. This work both explains the molecular mechanism of a promising family of therapeutics, and highlights the AAR pathway as an important drug target for promoting inflammatory resolution. PMID:22327401

  14. Escherichia coli proline tRNA: structure and recognition sites for prolyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, T; Yokogawa, T

    2000-01-01

    A major proline tRNA was purified from bulk Escherichia coli A19 tRNA by affinity chromatography with a biotinylated DNA probe. Its nucleotide sequence including modified nucleotides was determined by the post-labelling technique. In order to study the recognition sites of this proline tRNA for prolyl-tRNA synthetase, various mutant transcripts were prepared using an in vitro transcription system with T7 RNA polymerase. Based on the results of in vitro kinetic analyses of mutant transcripts, it was concluded that the second and third letters, G35 and G36, of the anticodon, G37 of the anticodon loop, the discriminator base A73, G72 of the acceptor stem, G49 and U17A that existed in the corner of an L-shaped structure are the recognition sites of proline tRNA for prolyl-tRNA synthetase. PMID:12903242

  15. Recoding Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases for Synthetic Biology by Rational Protein-RNA Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We have taken a rational approach to redesigning the amino acid binding and aminoacyl–tRNA pairing specificities of bacterial glutaminyl–tRNA synthetase. The four-stage engineering incorporates generalizable design principles and improves the pairing efficiency of noncognate glutamate with tRNAGln by over 105-fold compared to the wild-type enzyme. Better optimized designs of the protein–RNA complex include substantial reengineering of the globular core region of the tRNA, demonstrating a role for specific tRNA nucleotides in specifying the identity of the genetically encoded amino acid. Principles emerging from this engineering effort open new prospects for combining rational and genetic selection approaches to design novel aminoacyl–tRNA synthetases that ligate noncanonical amino acids onto tRNAs. This will facilitate reconstruction of the cellular translation apparatus for applications in synthetic biology. PMID:25310879

  16. Dual inhibitory effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase.

    PubMed

    Banasik, M; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a solvent popularly used for dissolving water-insoluble compounds, is a weak inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, that is a nuclear enzyme producing (ADP-ribose)n from NAD+. The inhibitory mode and potency depend on the concentration of substrate, NAD+, as well as the temperature of the reaction; at micromolar concentrations of NAD+, the inhibition by DMSO is biphasic at 37 degrees C, but is monophasic and apparently competitive with NAD+ at 25 degrees C. DMSO, on the other hand, diminishes dose-dependently and markedly the inhibitory potency of benzamide and other inhibitors. Other organic solvents, ethanol and methanol, also show a biphasic effect on the synthetase activity at different concentrations. PMID:10445046

  17. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: versatile players in the changing theater of translation.

    PubMed Central

    Francklyn, Christopher; Perona, John J; Puetz, Joern; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases attach amino acids to the 3' termini of cognate tRNAs to establish the specificity of protein synthesis. A recent Asilomar conference (California, January 13-18, 2002) discussed new research into the structure-function relationship of these crucial enzymes, as well as a multitude of novel functions, including participation in amino acid biosynthesis, cell cycle control, RNA splicing, and export of tRNAs from nucleus to cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. Together with the discovery of their role in the cellular synthesis of proteins to incorporate selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, these diverse functions of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases underscore the flexibility and adaptability of these ancient enzymes and stimulate the development of new concepts and methods for expanding the genetic code. PMID:12458790

  18. Effects of prostaglandins and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors on acutely obstructed kidneys in the dog.

    PubMed

    Zwergel, U; Zwergel, T; Ziegler, M

    1991-01-01

    An intact canine model was developed to study the effects of prostaglandins (PG) and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors on acutely obstructed kidneys. Totally implanted nephrostomy tubes were placed to measure renal pelvic pressure. Complete ureteral obstruction was obtained with a Fogarty balloon catheter inflated in the distal ureter; by this method renal pelvic pressure reached 40-50 mm Hg. Renal pelvic pressure was reduced after intravenous indomethacin and dipyrone administration, whereas blood pressure showed no major changes. Exogenous prostaglandins had both immediate and contrary effects: PGE2 caused a significant decrease, whereas PGF2 alpha caused a significant increase in renal pelvic and blood pressure. The reduced rise in renal pelvic pressure appears to be the main reason for the analgesic effects of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. The efficiency of these drugs in the treatment of renal colic is supported by this study, that of prostaglandins cannot be proved. PMID:1792708

  19. Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase 3: Overexpression and Growth Dependence in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zhengtong; Fraisl, Peter; Shi, Xiaohai; Gabrielson, Edward; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Berger, Johannes; Watkins, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. In the United States, only one in six lung cancer patients survives five years after diagnosis. These statistics may improve if new therapeutic targets are identified. We previously reported that an enzyme of fatty acid metabolism, very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (ACSVL3), is overexpressed in malignant glioma, and that depleting glioblastoma cells of ACSVL3 diminishes their malignant properties. To determine whether ACSVL3 expression was also increased in lung cancer, we studied tumor histologic sections and lung cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human lung showed moderate ACSVL3 expression only in bronchial epithelial cells. In contrast, all of 69 different lung tumors tested, including adeno-, squamous cell, large cell, and small cell carcinomas, had robustly elevated ACSVL3 levels. Western blot analysis of lung cancer cell lines derived from these tumor types also had significantly increased ACSVL3 protein compared to normal bronchial epithelial cells. Decreasing the growth rate of lung cancer cell lines did not change ACSVL3 expression. However, knocking down ACSVL3 expression by RNA interference reduced cell growth rates in culture by 65–76%, and the ability of tumor cells to form colonies in soft agar suspension by 65–80%. We also conducted studies to gain a better understanding of the biochemical properties of human ACSVL3. ACSVL3 mRNA was detected in many human tissues, but the expression pattern differed somewhat from that of the mouse. The enzyme activated long- and very long-chain saturated fatty acid substrates, as well as long-chain mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids to their respective coenzyme A derivatives. Endogenous human ACSVL3 protein was found in a punctate subcellular compartment that partially colocalized with mitochondria as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation. From these studies, we conclude that ACSVL3 is

  20. Inhibition of isoleucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase in Echerichia coli by pseudomonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Julia; Mellows, Graham

    1978-01-01

    The mode of action of the antibiotic pseudomonic acid has been studied in Escherichia coli. Pseudomonic acid strongly inhibits protein and RNA synthesis in vivo. The antibiotic had no effect on highly purified DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and showed only a weak inhibitory effect on a poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine-forming ribosomal preparation. Chloramphenicol reversed inhibition of RNA synthesis in vivo. Pseudomonic acid had little effect on RNA synthesis in a regulatory mutant, E. coli B AS19 RCrel, whereas protein synthesis was strongly inhibited. In pseudomonic acid-treated cells, increased concentrations of ppGpp, pppGpp and ATP were observed, but the GTP pool size decreased, suggesting that inhibition of RNA synthesis is a consequence of the stringent control mechanism imposed by pseudomonic acid-induced deprivation of an amino acid. Of the 20 common amino acids, only isoleucine reversed the inhibitory effect in vivo. The antibiotic was found to be a powerful inhibitor of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase both in vivo and in vitro. Of seven other tRNA synthetases assayed, only a weak inhibitory effect on phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase was observed; this presumably accounted for the weak effect on polyphenylalanine formation in a ribosomal preparation. Pseudomonic acid also significantly de-repressed threonine deaminase and transaminase B activity, but not dihydroxyacid dehydratase (isoleucine-biosynthetic enzymes) by decreasing the supply of aminoacylated tRNAIle. Pseudomonic acid is the second naturally occurring inhibitor of bacterial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase to be discovered, furanomycin being the first. PMID:365175

  1. Glutamine synthetase gene expression during the regeneration of the annelid Enchytraeus japonensis.

    PubMed

    Niva, Cintia Carla; Lee, Jae Min; Myohara, Maroko

    2008-01-01

    Enchytraeus japonensis is a highly regenerative oligochaete annelid that can regenerate a complete individual from a small body fragment in 4-5 days. In our previous study, we performed complementary deoxyribonucleic acid subtraction cloning to isolate genes that are upregulated during E. japonensis regeneration and identified glutamine synthetase (gs) as one of the most abundantly expressed genes during this process. In the present study, we show that the full-length sequence of E. japonensis glutamine synthetase (EjGS), which is the first reported annelid glutamine synthetase, is highly similar to other known class II glutamine synthetases. EjGS shows a 61-71% overall amino acid sequence identity with its counterparts in various other animal species, including Drosophila and mouse. We performed detailed expression analysis by in situ hybridization and reveal that strong gs expression occurs in the blastemal regions of regenerating E. japonensis soon after amputation. gs expression was detectable at the cell layer covering the wound and was found to persist in the epidermal cells during the formation and elongation of the blastema. Furthermore, in the elongated blastema, gs expression was detectable also in the presumptive regions of the brain, ventral nerve cord, and stomodeum. In the fully formed intact head, gs expression was also evident in the prostomium, brain, the anterior end of the ventral nerve cord, the epithelium of buccal and pharyngeal cavities, the pharyngeal pad, and in the esophageal appendages. In intact E. japonensis tails, gs expression was found in the growth zone in actively growing worms but not in full-grown individuals. In the nonblastemal regions of regenerating fragments and in intact worms, gs expression was also detected in the nephridia, chloragocytes, gut epithelium, epidermis, spermatids, and oocytes. These results suggest that EjGS may play roles in regeneration, nerve function, cell proliferation, nitrogenous waste excretion

  2. Glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity is present in oligodendroglia of various regions of the central nervous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Eng, L. F.; Gibbs, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase immunoreactive oligodendrocytes were identified in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. They were mostly confined to the gray matter, particularly close to neurons and processes. The white matter showed few immunoreactive oligodendroglia. It was suggested that some type of oligodendrocytes, specially those in perineuronal location, might fulfill a functional role more akin to astrocytes than to the normally myelinating oligodendroglia.

  3. Glutamine synthetase immunor present in oligodendroglia of regions of the central nervous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.; Gibbs, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase immunoreactive oligodendrocytes were identified in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. They were mostly confined to the gray matter, particularly close to neurons and processes. The white matter showed few immunoreactive oligodendroglia. It was suggested that some type of oligodendrocytes, specially those in perineuronal location, might fulfill a functional role more akin to astrocytes than to the normally myelinating oligodendroglia.

  4. A broadly applicable continuous spectrophotometric assay for measuring aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, A J; Thomann, H U; Ibba, M; Söll, D

    1995-01-01

    We describe a convenient, simple and novel continuous spectrophotometric method for the determination of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity. The assay relies upon the measurement of inorganic pyrophosphate generated in the first step of the aminoacylation of a tRNA. Pyrophosphate release is coupled to inorganic pyrophosphatase, to generate phosphate, which in turn is used as the substrate of purine nucleoside phosphorylase to catalyze the N-glycosidic cleavage of 2-amino 6-mercapto 7-methylpurine ribonucleoside. Of the reaction products, ribose 1-phosphate and 2-amino 6-mercapto 7-methylpurine, the latter has a high absorbance at 360 nm relative to the nucleoside and hence provides a spectrophotometric signal that can be continuously followed. The non-destructive nature of the spectrophotometric assay allowed the re-use of the tRNAs in question in successive experiments. The usefulness of this method was demonstrated for glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Initial velocities measured using this assay correlate closely with those assayed by quantitation of [3H]Gln-tRNA or [14C]Trp-tRNA formation respectively. In both cases amino acid transfer from the aminoacyl adenylate to the tRNA represents the rate determining step. In addition, aminoacyl adenylate formation by aspartyl-tRNA synthetase was followed and provided a more sensitive means of active site titration than existing techniques. Finally, this novel method was used to provide direct evidence for the cooperativity of tRNA and ATP binding to GlnRS. PMID:7659511

  5. Reassimilation of Photorespiratory Ammonium in Lotus japonicus Plants Deficient in Plastidic Glutamine Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M.; García-Calderón, Margarita; Márquez, Antonio J.; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the plastidic isoform of glutamine synthetase (GS2) is the enzyme in charge of photorespiratory ammonium reassimilation in plants. The metabolic events associated to photorespiratory NH4+ accumulation were analyzed in a Lotus japonicus photorespiratory mutant lacking GS2. The mutant plants accumulated high levels of NH4+ when photorespiration was active, followed by a sudden drop in the levels of this compound. In this paper it was examined the possible existence of enzymatic pathways alternative to GS2 that could account for this decline in the photorespiratory ammonium. Induction of genes encoding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and asparagine synthetase (ASN) was observed in the mutant in correspondence with the diminishment of NH4+. Measurements of gene expression, polypeptide levels, enzyme activity and metabolite levels were carried out in leaf samples from WT and mutant plants after different periods of time under active photorespiratory conditions. In the case of asparagine synthetase it was not possible to determine enzyme activity and polypeptide content; however, an increased asparagine content in parallel with the induction of ASN gene expression was detected in the mutant plants. This increase in asparagine levels took place concomitantly with an increase in glutamine due to the induction of cytosolic GS1 in the mutant, thus revealing a major role of cytosolic GS1 in the reassimilation and detoxification of photorespiratory NH4+ when the plastidic GS2 isoform is lacking. Moreover, a diminishment in glutamate levels was observed, that may be explained by the induction of NAD(H)-dependent GDH activity. PMID:26091523

  6. Structure and regulation of expression of the Bacillus subtilis valyl-tRNA synthetase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, D; Leautey, J; Grunberg-Manago, M; Putzer, H

    1997-01-01

    We have sequenced the valyl-tRNA synthetase gene (valS) of Bacillus subtilis and found an open reading frame coding for a protein of 880 amino acids with a molar mass of 101,749. The predicted amino acid sequence shares strong similarity with the valyl-tRNA synthetases from Bacillus stearothermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Escherichia coli. Extracts of B. subtilis strains overexpressing the valS gene on a plasmid have increased valyl-tRNA aminoacylation activity. Northern analysis shows that valS is cotranscribed with the folC gene (encoding folyl-polyglutamate synthetase) lying downstream. The 300-bp 5' noncoding region of the gene contains the characteristic regulatory elements, T box, "specifier codon" (GUC), and rho-independant transcription terminator of a gene family in gram-positive bacteria that encodes many aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and some amino acid biosynthetic enzymes and that is regulated by tRNA-mediated antitermination. We have shown that valS expression is induced by valine limitation and that the specificity of induction can be switched to threonine by changing the GUC (Val) specifier triplet to ACC (Thr). Overexpression of valS from a recombinant plasmid leads to autorepression of a valS-lacZ transcriptional fusion. Like induction by valine starvation, autoregulation of valS depends on the presence of the GUC specifier codon. Disruption of the valS gene was not lethal, suggesting the existence of a second gene, as is the case for both the thrS and the tyrS genes. PMID:9098041

  7. Virtual Screening to Identify Lead Inhibitors for Bacterial NAD Synthetase (NADs)

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Whitney Beysselance; Yang, Zhengrong; Kane, Tasha; Brouillette, Christie G.; Brouillette, Wayne J.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual screening was employed to identify new drug-like inhibitors of NAD synthetase (NADs) as antibacterial agents. Four databases of commercially available compounds were docked against three subsites of the NADs active site using FlexX in conjunction with CScore. Over 200 commercial compounds were purchased and evaluated in enzyme inhibition and antibacterial assays. 18 compounds inhibited NADs at or below 100 μM (7.6% hit rate), and two were selected for future SAR studies. PMID:19249205

  8. Effect of post-silking drought on nitrogen partitioning and gene expression patterns of glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase in two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajun; Wang, Meiling; Zhang, Fengxia; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Xiaohong; Qin, Xiaoliang; Wen, Xiaoxia

    2016-05-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) and asparagine synthetase (AS) are proposed to have important function in plant nitrogen (N) remobilization, but their roles under drought stress are not well defined. In this study, the expression dynamics of GS and AS genes were analyzed in two maize varieties (ZD958 and NH101) in relation to post-silking drought stress induced nitrogen partitioning. ZD958 was a 'stay-green' variety with 5% nitrogen harvest index (NHI) lower than NH101. From silking to maturity, the amount of nitrogen remobilized from ear-leaves in ZD958 was evidently lower than NH101, and post-silking drought stress increased the nitrogen remobilization for both varieties. In ear-leaves, the expression of ZmGln1-3 was enhanced under drought stress. Three AS genes (ZmAS1, ZmAS2 and ZmAS3) were differentially regulated by post-silking drought treatment, of which the expression of ZmAS3 was stimulated at late stage of leaf senescence. In NH101, the expression level of ZmAS3 was markedly higher than that in ZD958. In developing grains, there were no significant differences in expression patterns of GS and AS genes between well water and drought treated plants. Drought stress altered maize N partitioning at the whole-plant level, and the up-regulation of GS and AS genes may contribute to the higher leaf nitrogen remobilization when exposed to drought treatments. PMID:26913793

  9. Dihydroaeruginoic acid synthetase and pyochelin synthetase, products of the pchEF genes, are induced by extracellular pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Reimmann, C; Serino, L; Beyeler, M; Haas, D

    1998-11-01

    The siderophore pyochelin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is derived from one molecule of salicylate and two molecules of cysteine. Two cotranscribed genes, pchEF, encoding peptide synthetases have been identified and characterized. pchE was required for the conversion of salicylate to dihydroaeruginoate (Dha), the condensation product of salicylate and one cysteine residue and pchF was essential for the synthesis of pyochelin from Dha. The deduced PchE (156 kDa) and PchF (197 kDa) proteins had adenylation, thiolation and condensation/cyclization motifs arranged as modules which are typical of those peptide synthetases forming thiazoline rings. The pchEF genes were coregulated with the pchDCBA operon, which provides enzymes for the synthesis (PchBA) and activation (PchD) of salicylate as well as a putative thioesterase (PchC). Expression of a translational pchE'-'lacZ fusion was strictly dependent on the PchR regulator and was induced by extracellular pyochelin, the end product of the pathway. Iron replete conditions led to Fur (ferric uptake regulator)-dependent repression of the pchE'-'lacZ fusion. A translational pchD'-'lacZ fusion was also positively regulated by PchR and pyochelin and repressed by Fur and iron. Thus, autoinduction by pyochelin (or ferric pyochelin) and repression by iron ensure a sensitive control of the pyochelin pathway in P. aeruginosa. PMID:9846750

  10. Structural studies of lysyl-tRNA synthetase: conformational changes induced by substrate binding.

    PubMed

    Onesti, S; Desogus, G; Brevet, A; Chen, J; Plateau, P; Blanquet, S; Brick, P

    2000-10-24

    Lysyl-tRNA synthetase is a member of the class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and catalyses the specific aminoacylation of tRNA(Lys). The crystal structure of the constitutive lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysS) from Escherichia coli has been determined to 2.7 A resolution in the unliganded form and in a complex with the lysine substrate. A comparison between the unliganded and lysine-bound structures reveals major conformational changes upon lysine binding. The lysine substrate is involved in a network of hydrogen bonds. Two of these interactions, one between the alpha-amino group and the carbonyl oxygen of Gly 216 and the other between the carboxylate group and the side chain of Arg 262, trigger a subtle and complicated reorganization of the active site, involving the ordering of two loops (residues 215-217 and 444-455), a change in conformation of residues 393-409, and a rotation of a 4-helix bundle domain (located between motif 2 and 3) by 10 degrees. The result of these changes is a closing up of the active site upon lysine binding. PMID:11041850

  11. Food safety: Structure and expression of the asparagine synthetase gene family of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Runhong; Curtis, Tanya Y.; Powers, Stephen J.; Xu, Hongwei; Huang, Jianhua; Halford, Nigel G.

    2016-01-01

    Asparagine is an important nitrogen storage and transport molecule, but its accumulation as a free amino acid in crops has implications for food safety because free asparagine is a precursor for acrylamide formation during cooking and processing. Asparagine synthesis occurs by the amidation of aspartate, catalysed by asparagine synthetase, and this study concerned the expression of asparagine synthetase (TaASN) genes in wheat. The expression of three genes, TaASN1-3, was studied in different tissues and in response to nitrogen and sulphur supply. The expression of TaASN2 in the embryo and endosperm during mid to late grain development was the highest of any of the genes in any tissue. Both TaASN1 and TaASN2 increased in expression through grain development, and in the grain of field-grown plants during mid-development in response to sulphur deprivation. However, only TaASN1 was affected by nitrogen or sulphur supply in pot-based experiments, showing complex tissue-specific and developmentally-changing responses. A putative N-motif or GCN4-like regulatory motif was found in the promoter of TaASN1 genes from several cereal species. As the study was completed, a fourth gene, TaASN4, was identified from recently available genome data. Phylogenetic analysis showed that other cereal species have similar asparagine synthetase gene families to wheat. PMID:27110058

  12. Resected RNA pseudoknots and their recognition by histidyl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Felden, Brice; Giegé, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Duplexes constituted by closed or open RNA circles paired to single-stranded oligonucleotides terminating with 3′-CCAOH form resected pseudoknots that are substrates of yeast histidyl-tRNA synthetase. Design of this RNA fold is linked to the mimicry of the pseudoknotted amino acid accepting branch of the tRNA-like domain from brome mosaic virus, known to be charged by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases, with RNA minihelices recapitulating accepting branches of canonical tRNAs. Prediction of the histidylation function of the new family of minimalist tRNA-like structures relates to the geometry of resected pseudoknots that allows proper presentation to histidyl-tRNA synthetase of analogues of the histidine identity determinants N-1 and N73 present in tRNAs. This geometry is such that the analogue of the major N-1 histidine determinant in the RNA circles faces the analogue of the discriminator N73 nucleotide in the accepting oligonucleotides. The combination of identity elements found in tRNAHis species from archaea, eubacteria, and organelles (G-1/C73) is the most efficient for determining histidylation of the duplexes. The inverse combination (C-1/G73) leads to the worst histidine acceptors with charging efficiencies reduced by 2–3 orders of magnitude. Altogether, these findings open new perspectives for understanding evolution of tRNA identity and serendipitous RNA functions. PMID:9724720

  13. Resected RNA pseudoknots and their recognition by histidyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Felden, B; Giegé, R

    1998-09-01

    Duplexes constituted by closed or open RNA circles paired to single-stranded oligonucleotides terminating with 3'-CCAOH form resected pseudoknots that are substrates of yeast histidyl-tRNA synthetase. Design of this RNA fold is linked to the mimicry of the pseudoknotted amino acid accepting branch of the tRNA-like domain from brome mosaic virus, known to be charged by tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases, with RNA minihelices recapitulating accepting branches of canonical tRNAs. Prediction of the histidylation function of the new family of minimalist tRNA-like structures relates to the geometry of resected pseudoknots that allows proper presentation to histidyl-tRNA synthetase of analogues of the histidine identity determinants N-1 and N73 present in tRNAs. This geometry is such that the analogue of the major N-1 histidine determinant in the RNA circles faces the analogue of the discriminator N73 nucleotide in the accepting oligonucleotides. The combination of identity elements found in tRNAHis species from archaea, eubacteria, and organelles (G-1/C73) is the most efficient for determining histidylation of the duplexes. The inverse combination (C-1/G73) leads to the worst histidine acceptors with charging efficiencies reduced by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Altogether, these findings open new perspectives for understanding evolution of tRNA identity and serendipitous RNA functions. PMID:9724720

  14. Isolation and characterization of the gene coding for Escherichia coli arginyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Eriani, G; Dirheimer, G; Gangloff, J

    1989-01-01

    The gene coding for Escherichia coli arginyl-tRNA synthetase (argS) was isolated as a fragment of 2.4 kb after analysis and subcloning of recombinant plasmids from the Clarke and Carbon library. The clone bearing the gene overproduces arginyl-tRNA synthetase by a factor 100. This means that the enzyme represents more than 20% of the cellular total protein content. Sequencing revealed that the fragment contains a unique open reading frame of 1734 bp flanked at its 5' and 3' ends respectively by 247 bp and 397 bp. The length of the corresponding protein (577 aa) is well consistent with earlier Mr determination (about 70 kd). Primer extension analysis of the ArgRS mRNA by reverse transcriptase, located its 5' end respectively at 8 and 30 nucleotides downstream of a TATA and a TTGAC like element (CTGAC) and 60 nucleotides upstream of the unusual translation initiation codon GUG; nuclease S1 analysis located the 3'-end at 48 bp downstream of the translation termination codon. argS has a codon usage pattern typical for highly expressed E. coli genes. With the exception of the presence of a HVGH sequence similar to the HIGH consensus element, ArgRS has no relevant sequence homologies with other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Images PMID:2668891

  15. Crystal structure of histidyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli complexed with histidyl-adenylate.

    PubMed Central

    Arnez, J G; Harris, D C; Mitschler, A; Rees, B; Francklyn, C S; Moras, D

    1995-01-01

    The crystal structure at 2.6 A of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli complexed with histidyl-adenylate has been determined. The enzyme is a homodimer with a molecular weight of 94 kDa and belongs to the class II of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). The asymmetric unit is composed of two homodimers. Each monomer consists of two domains. The N-terminal catalytic core domain contains a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet sitting on two alpha-helices, which can be superposed with the catalytic domains of yeast AspRS, and GlyRS and SerRS from Thermus thermophilus with a root-mean-square difference on the C alpha atoms of 1.7-1.9 A. The active sites of all four monomers are occupied by histidyl-adenylate, which apparently forms during crystallization. The 100 residue C-terminal alpha/beta domain resembles half of a beta-barrel, and provides an independent domain oriented to contact the anticodon stem and part of the anticodon loop of tRNA(His). The modular domain organization of histidyl-tRNA synthetase reiterates a repeated theme in aaRS, and its structure should provide insight into the ability of certain aaRS to aminoacylate minihelices and other non-tRNA molecules. Images PMID:7556055

  16. Purification and characterization of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase from Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed Central

    Fice, D; Shen, Z; Byers, D M

    1993-01-01

    A Vibrio harveyi enzyme which catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of fatty acids to acyl carrier protein (ACP) has been purified 6,000-fold to apparent homogeneity by anion-exchange, gel filtration, and ACP-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Purified acyl-ACP synthetase migrated as a single 62-kDa band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and as an 80-kDa protein by gel filtration under reducing conditions. Activity of the purified enzyme was lost within hours in the absence of glycerol and low concentrations of Triton X-100. Acyl-ACP synthetase exhibited Kms for myristic acid, ACP, and ATP of 7 microM, 18 microM, and 0.3 mM, respectively. The enzyme was specific for adenine-containing nucleotides, and AMP was the product of the reaction. No covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate was observed. Enzyme activity was stimulated up to 50% by iodoacetamide but inhibited > 80% by N-ethylmaleimide: inhibition by the latter was prevented by ATP and ACP but not myristic acid. Dithiothreitol and sulfhydryl-directed reagents also influenced enzyme size, activity, and elution pattern on anion-exchange resins. The function of acyl-ACP synthetase has not been established, but it may be related to the capacity of V. harveyi to elongate exogenous fatty acids by an ACP-dependent mechanism. Images PMID:8384617

  17. Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium with an Altered Leucyl-Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Renee R.; Calvo, J. M.; Freundlich, M.

    1971-01-01

    Two trifluoroleucine-resistant mutants of Salmonella typhimurium, strains CV69 and CV117, had an altered leucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase. The mutant enzymes had higher apparent Km values for leucine (ca. 10-fold) and lower specific activities (ca. twofold) than the parent enzyme when tested in crude extracts. Preparations of synthetase purified ca. 60-fold from the parent and strain CV117 differed sixfold in their leucine Km values. In addition, the mutant enzyme was inactivated faster than the parent enzyme at 50 C. The growth rates of strains CV69 and CV117 at 37 C were not significantly different from that of the parent, whereas at 42 C strain CV69 grew more slowly than the parent. Leucine-, valine-, and isoleucine-forming enzymes were partially derepressed when the mutants were grown in minimal medium; the addition of leucine repressed these enzymes to wild-type levels. During growth in minimal medium, the proportion of leucine tRNA that was charged in the mutants was about 75% of that in the parent. The properties of strain CV117 were shown to result from a single mutation located near gal at minute 18 on the genetic map. These studies suggest that leucyl-tRNA synthetase is involved in repression of the enzymes required for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids. PMID:4928008

  18. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the leucyl-tRNA synthetase gene of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Vander Horn, P B; Zahler, S A

    1992-01-01

    The leucyl-tRNA synthetase gene (leuS) of Bacillus subtilis was cloned and sequenced. A mutation in the gene, leuS1, increases the transcription and expression of the ilv-leu operion, permitting monitoring of leuS alleles. The leuS1 mutation was mapped to 270 degrees on the chromosome. Sequence analysis showed that the mutation is a single-base substitution, possibly in a monocistronic operon. The leader mRNA predicted by the sequence would contain a number of possible secondary structures and a T box, a sequence observed upstream of leader mRNA terminators of Bacillus tRNA synthetases and the B. subtilis ilv-leu operon. The DNA of the B. subtilis leuS open reading frame is 48% identical to the leuS gene of Escherichia coli and is predicted to encode a polypeptide with 46% identity to the leucyl-tRNA synthetase of E. coli. PMID:1317842

  19. (p)ppGpp synthetases regulate the pathogenesis of zoonotic Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiawen; Zhang, Tengfei; Su, Zhipeng; Li, Lu; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Ran; Teng, Muye; Tan, Meifang; Zhou, Rui

    2016-10-01

    (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is one of the main adaption mechanism in bacteria, and the ability to adapt to environment is linked to the pathogenesis of bacterial pathogens. In the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis, there are two (p)ppGpp synthetases, RelA and RelQ. To investigate the regulatory functions of (p)ppGpp/(p)ppGpp synthetases on the pathogenesis of S. suis, the phenotypes of the [(p)ppGpp(0)] mutant ΔrelAΔrelQ and its parental strain were compared. Light and electron microscopy observation showed that the mutant strain had a longer chain-length than its parental strain. Disruption of relA and relQ led to decreased adhesive and invasive ability to HEp-2 cells, and increased sensitivity to the blood killing and phagocytosis. Mouse infection experiments showed that the mutant strain was attenuated and easier to be cleaned up in vivo. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expressions of virulence related genes involving in morphology and virulence were down-regulated in the mutant strain. Our study demonstrated that the (p)ppGpp synthetases or (p)ppGpp can regulate the pathogenesis of this important zoonotic pathogen. PMID:27524648

  20. Brucella melitensis Methionyl-tRNA-Synthetase (MetRS), a Potential Drug Target for Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Ranae M.; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Dranow, David M.; Myers, Janette B.; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa Hewitt, Steve; Edwards, Thomas E.; Davies, Douglas R.; Lorimer, Donald; Boyle, Stephen M.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Brucella melitensis methionyl-tRNA-synthetase (BmMetRS) with molecular, structural and phenotypic methods to learn if BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. Recombinant BmMetRS was expressed, purified from wild type Brucella melitensis biovar Abortus 2308 strain ATCC/CRP #DD-156 and screened by a thermal melt assay against a focused library of one hundred previously classified methionyl-tRNA-synthetase inhibitors of the blood stage form of Trypanosoma brucei. Three compounds showed appreciable shift of denaturation temperature and were selected for further studies on inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity and cell viability against wild type B. melitensis strain 16M. BmMetRS protein complexed with these three inhibitors resolved into three-dimensional crystal structures and was analyzed. All three selected methionyl-tRNA-synthetase compounds inhibit recombinant BmMetRS enzymatic functions in an aminoacylation assay at varying concentrations. Furthermore, growth inhibition of B. melitensis strain 16M by the compounds was shown. Inhibitor-BmMetRS crystal structure models were used to illustrate the molecular basis of the enzyme inhibition. Our current data suggests that BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. However, further studies are needed to optimize lead compound potency, efficacy and safety as well as determine the pharmacokinetics, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment. PMID:27500735

  1. CphA2 is a novel type of cyanophycin synthetase in N2-fixing cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Klemke, Friederike; Nürnberg, Dennis J; Ziegler, Karl; Beyer, Gabriele; Kahmann, Uwe; Lockau, Wolfgang; Volkmer, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Most cyanobacteria use a single type of cyanophycin synthetase, CphA1, to synthesize the nitrogen-rich polymer cyanophycin. The genomes of many N2-fixing cyanobacteria contain an additional gene that encodes a second type of cyanophycin synthetase, CphA2. The potential function of this enzyme has been debated due to its reduced size and the lack of one of the two ATP-binding sites that are present in CphA1. Here, we analysed CphA2 from Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 and Cyanothece sp. PCC 7425. We found that CphA2 polymerized the dipeptide β-aspartyl-arginine to form cyanophycin. Thus, CphA2 represents a novel type of cyanophycin synthetase. A cphA2 disruption mutant of A. variabilis was generated. Growth of this mutant was impaired under high-light conditions and nitrogen deprivation, suggesting that CphA2 plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism under N2-fixing conditions. Electron micrographs revealed that the mutant had fewer cyanophycin granules, but no alteration in the distribution of granules in its cells was observed. Localization of CphA2 by immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that the enzyme is attached to cyanophycin granules. Expression of CphA1 and CphA2 was examined in Anabaena WT and cphA mutant cells. Whilst the CphA1 level increased upon nitrogen deprivation, the CphA2 level remained nearly constant. PMID:26781249

  2. Differential inactivation of alfalfa nodule glutamine synthetases by tabtoxinine-. beta. -lactam. [Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, T.J.; Unkefer, P.J.

    1987-04-01

    The presence of the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci within the rhizosphere of nodulated alfalfa plants results in an increase in N/sub 2/-fixation potential and growth, but a 40-50% decrease in nodule glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, as compared to nodulated control plants. Tabtoxinine-..beta..-Lactam an exocellular toxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci irreversibly inhibits glutamine synthetase. Partial purification of nodule GS by DEAE-cellulose chromatography reveals two enzyme forms are present (GS/sub n1/ and GS/sub n2/). In vitro inactivation of the two glutamine synthetases associated with the nodule indicates a differential sensitivity to T-..beta..-L. The nodule specific GS/sub n1/ is much less sensitive to T-..beta..-L than the GS/sub n2/ enzyme, which was found to coelute with the root enzyme (GS/sub r/). However, both GS/sub n1/ and GS/sub n2/ are rapidly inactivated by methionine sulfoximine, another irreversible inhibitor of GS.

  3. Examination of the mechanism of sucrose synthetase by positional isotope exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.N.; Hester, L.S.; Raushel, F.M.

    1987-02-25

    The mechanism of the sucrose synthetase reaction has been probed by the technique of positional isotope exchange. (beta-/sup 18/O/sub 2/, alpha beta-/sup 18/O)UDP-Glc has been synthesized starting from oxygen-18-labeled phosphate and the combined activities of carbamate kinase, hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase, and uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase. The oxygen-18 at the alpha beta-bridge position of the labeled UDP-Glc has been shown to cause a 0.014 ppm upfield chemical shift in the 31P NMR spectrum of both the alpha- and beta-phosphorus atoms in UDP-Glc relative to the unlabeled compound. The chemical shift induced by each of the beta-nonbridge oxygen-18 atoms was 0.030 ppm. Incubation of (beta-/sup 18/O/sub 2/, alpha beta-/sup 18/O)UDP-Glc with sucrose synthetase in the presence and absence of 2,5-anhydromannitol did not result in any significant exchange of an oxygen-18 from the beta-nonbridge position to the anomeric oxygen of the glucose moiety. It can thus be concluded that either sucrose synthetase does not catalyze the cleavage of the scissile carbon-oxygen bond of UDP-Glc in the absence of fructose or, alternatively, the beta-phosphoryl group of the newly formed UDP is rotationally immobilized.

  4. Dual targeting is the rule for organellar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Duchêne, Anne-Marie; Giritch, Anatoli; Hoffmann, Beate; Cognat, Valérie; Lancelin, Dominique; Peeters, Nemo M.; Zaepfel, Marlyse; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Small, Ian D.

    2005-01-01

    In plants, protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, mitochondria, and plastids. Each compartment requires a full set of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. We have undertaken a systematic analysis of the targeting of organellar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Dual targeting appeared to be a general rule. Among the 24 identified organellar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), 15 (and probably 17) are shared between mitochondria and plastids, and 5 are shared between cytosol and mitochondria (one of these aaRSs being present also in chloroplasts). Only two were shown to be uniquely chloroplastic and none to be uniquely mitochondrial. Moreover, there are no examples where the three aaRS genes originating from the three ancestral genomes still coexist. These results indicate that extensive exchange of aaRSs has occurred during evolution and that many are now shared between two or even three compartments. The findings have important implications for studies of the translation machinery in plants and on protein targeting and gene transfer in general. PMID:16251277

  5. Directed evolution of adenylosuccinate synthetase from Bacillus subtilis and its application in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Guanglu; Li, Xinli; Fu, Jing; Chen, Tao; Wang, Zhiwen; Zhao, Xueming

    2016-08-10

    Adenylosuccinate synthetase (EC. 6.3.4.4) encoded by purA in Bacillus subtilis, catalyzing the first step of the conversion of IMP to AMP, plays an important role in flux distribution in the purine biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we described the use of site saturation mutagenesis to obtain a desired enzyme activity of adenylosuccinate synthetase and its application in flux regulation. Based on sequence alignment and structural modeling, a library of enzyme variants was created by a semi-rational evolution strategy in position Thr238 and Pro242. Other than purA deletion, the leaky mutation purA(P242N) partially reduced the flux towards AMP derived from IMP and increased the riboflavin synthesis precursor GTP, while also kept the requirement of ATP synthesis for cell growth. PurA(P242N) was introduced into an inosine-producing strain and resulted in an approximately 4.66-fold increase in inosine production, from 0.088±0.009g/L to 0.41±0.051g/L, in minimal medium without hypoxanthine accumulation. These results underline that the directed evolution of adenylosuccinate synthetase could tailor its activities and adjust metabolic flux. This mutation may provide a promising application in purine-based product accumulation, like inosine, guanosine and folate which are directly stemming from purine pathway in B. subtilis. PMID:27234879

  6. Structural basis for the binding of succinate to succinyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ji; Fraser, Marie E

    2016-08-01

    Succinyl-CoA synthetase catalyzes the only step in the citric acid cycle that provides substrate-level phosphorylation. Although the binding sites for the substrates CoA, phosphate, and the nucleotides ADP and ATP or GDP and GTP have been identified, the binding site for succinate has not. To determine this binding site, pig GTP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetase was crystallized in the presence of succinate, magnesium ions and CoA, and the structure of the complex was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.2 Å resolution. Succinate binds in the carboxy-terminal domain of the β-subunit. The succinate-binding site is near both the active-site histidine residue that is phosphorylated in the reaction and the free thiol of CoA. The carboxy-terminal domain rearranges when succinate binds, burying this active site. However, succinate is not in position for transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphohistidine. Here, it is proposed that when the active-site histidine residue has been phosphorylated by GTP, the phosphohistidine displaces phosphate and triggers the movement of the carboxylate of succinate into position to be phosphorylated. The structure shows why succinyl-CoA synthetase is specific for succinate and does not react appreciably with citrate nor with the other C4-dicarboxylic acids of the citric acid cycle, fumarate and oxaloacetate, but shows some activity with L-malate. PMID:27487822

  7. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes. PMID:26079224

  8. Structural characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis biotin biosynthesis enzymes 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase and dethiobiotin synthetase .

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanghamitra; Lane, James M; Lee, Richard E; Rubin, Eric J; Sacchettini, James C

    2010-08-10

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on biotin synthesis for survival during infection. In the absence of biotin, disruption of the biotin biosynthesis pathway results in cell death rather than growth arrest, an unusual phenotype for an Mtb auxotroph. Humans lack the enzymes for biotin production, making the proteins of this essential Mtb pathway promising drug targets. To this end, we have determined the crystal structures of the second and third enzymes of the Mtb biotin biosynthetic pathway, 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase (DAPAS) and dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS), at respective resolutions of 2.2 and 1.85 A. Superimposition of the DAPAS structures bound either to the SAM analogue sinefungin or to 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid (KAPA) allowed us to map the putative binding site for the substrates and to propose a mechanism by which the enzyme accommodates their disparate structures. Comparison of the DTBS structures bound to the substrate 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (DAPA) or to ADP and the product dethiobiotin (DTB) permitted derivation of an enzyme mechanism. There are significant differences between the Mtb enzymes and those of other organisms; the Bacillus subtilis DAPAS, presented here at a high resolution of 2.2 A, has active site variations and the Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori DTBS have alterations in their overall folds. We have begun to exploit the unique characteristics of the Mtb structures to design specific inhibitors against the biotin biosynthesis pathway in Mtb. PMID:20565114

  9. Proteomics Guided Discovery of Flavopeptins: Anti-Proliferative Aldehydes Synthesized by a Reductase Domain-Containing Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunqiu; McClure, Ryan A.; Zheng, Yupeng; Thomson, Regan J.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the importance of proteases in regulating cellular processes, the development of protease inhibitors has garnered great attention. Peptide-based aldehydes are a class of compounds that exhibit inhibitory activities against various proteases and proteasomes in the context of anti-proliferative treatments for cancer and other diseases. More than a dozen peptide-based natural products containing aldehydes have been discovered such as chymostatin, leupeptin, and fellutamide; however, the biosynthetic origin of the aldehyde functionality has yet to be elucidated. Herein we describe the discovery of a new group of lipopeptide aldehydes, the flavopeptins, and the corresponding biosynthetic pathway arising from an orphan gene cluster in Streptomyces sp. NRRL-F6652, a close relative of Streptomyces flavogriseus ATCC 33331. This research was initiated using a proteomics approach that screens for expressed enzymes involved in secondary metabolism in microorganisms. Flavopeptins are synthesized through a nonribosomal peptide synthetase containing a terminal NAD(P)H dependent reductase domain likely for the reductive release of the peptide with a C-terminal aldehyde. Solid phase peptide synthesis of several flavopeptin species and derivatives enabled structural verification and subsequent screening of biological activity. Flavopeptins exhibited submicromolar inhibition activities against cysteine proteases such as papain and calpain as well as the human 20S proteasome. They also showed anti-proliferative activities against multiple myeloma and lymphoma cell lines. PMID:23763305

  10. Inhibition of Astrocytic Glutamine Synthetase by Lead is Associated with a Slowed Clearance of Hydrogen Peroxide by the Glutathione System

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen R.; Lee, Alan; Bishop, Glenda M.; Czerwinska, Hania; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Lead intoxication in humans is characterized by cognitive impairments, particularly in the domain of memory, where evidence indicates that glutamatergic neurotransmission may be impacted. Animal and cell culture studies have shown that lead decreases the expression and activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in astrocytes, yet the basis of this effect is uncertain. To investigate the mechanism responsible, the present study exposed primary astrocyte cultures to a range of concentrations of lead acetate (0–330 μM) for up to 24 h. GS activity was significantly reduced in cells following 24 h incubation with 100 or 330 μM lead acetate. However, no reduction in GS activity was detected when astrocytic lysates were co-incubated with lead acetate, suggesting that the mechanism is not due to a direct interaction and involves intact cells. Since GS is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, the capacity of lead to inhibit the clearance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. It was found that exposure to lead significantly diminished the capacity of astrocytes to degrade H2O2, and that this was due to a reduction in the effectiveness of the glutathione system, rather than to catalase. These results suggest that the inhibition of GS activity in lead poisoning is a consequence of slowed H2O2 clearance, and supports the glutathione pathway as a primary therapeutic target. PMID:26696846

  11. Evolutionary Limitation and Opportunities for Developing tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors with 5-Binding-Mode Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Pengfei; Guo, Min

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs as building blocks for translation. Each of the aaRS families plays a pivotal role in protein biosynthesis and is indispensable for cell growth and survival. In addition, aaRSs in higher species have evolved important non-translational functions. These translational and non-translational functions of aaRS are attractive for developing antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents and for treating other human diseases. The interplay between amino acids, tRNA, ATP, EF-Tu and non-canonical binding partners, had shaped each family with distinct pattern of key sites for regulation, with characters varying among species across the path of evolution. These sporadic variations in the aaRSs offer great opportunity to target these essential enzymes for therapy. Up to this day, growing numbers of aaRS inhibitors have been discovered and developed. Here, we summarize the latest developments and structural studies of aaRS inhibitors, and classify them with distinct binding modes into five categories. PMID:26670257

  12. Modulating effects of acyl-CoA synthetase 5-derived mitochondrial Wnt2B palmitoylation on intestinal Wnt activity

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Christina; Schneider, Ursula; Hedberg, Christian; Schütz, Anke K; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Waldmann, Herbert; Gassler, Nikolaus; Kaemmerer, Elke

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) activity in Wnt signaling in intestinal surface epithelia. METHODS: Several cell lines were used to investigate the ACSL5-dependent expression and synthesis of Wnt2B, a mitochondrially expressed protein of the Wnt signaling family. Wnt activity was functionally assessed with a luciferase reporter assay. ACSL5-related biochemical Wnt2B modifications were investigated with a modified acyl-exchange assay. The findings from the cell culture models were verified using an Apcmin/+ mouse model as well as normal and neoplastic diseased human intestinal tissues. RESULTS: In the presence of ACSL5, Wnt2B was unable to translocate into the nucleus and was enriched in mitochondria, which was paralleled by a significant decrease in Wnt activity. ACSL5-dependent S-palmitoylation of Wnt2B was identified as a molecular reason for mitochondrial Wnt2B accumulation. In cell culture systems, a strong relation of ACSL5 expression, Wnt2B palmitoylation, and degree of malignancy were found. Using normal mucosa, the association of ACSL5 and Wnt2B was seen, but in intestinal neoplasias the mechanism was only rudimentarily observed. CONCLUSION: ACSL5 mediates antiproliferative activities via Wnt2B palmitoylation with diminished Wnt activity. The molecular pathway is probably relevant for intestinal homeostasis, overwhelmed by other pathways in carcinogenesis. PMID:25356045

  13. Detection of nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes in Xylaria sp. BCC1067 and cloning of XyNRPSA.

    PubMed

    Paungmoung, Porntip; Punya, Jantira; Pongpattanakitshote, Somchai; Jeamton, Wattana; Vichisoonthonkul, Taweerat; Bhumiratana, Sakarindr; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon

    2007-09-01

    Nonribosomal peptides, synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), are an important group of diverse bioactive fungal metabolites. Xylaria sp. BCC1067, which is known to produce a variety of biologically active metabolites, was studied for gene encoding NRPS by two different PCR-based methods and seven different NRPS fragments were obtained. In addition, screening a genomic library with an amplified NRPS fragment as a probe identified a putative NRPS gene named XyNRPSA. The functionality of XyNRPSA for the production of a corresponding metabolite was probed by gene insertion inactivation. Comparing the disrupting metabolite profile with that of the wild type led to the identification of a speculated metabolite. The crude extract of Xylaria sp. BCC1067 also exhibits antifungal activity against the human pathogens Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. However, the evaluation of biological activity of the XyNRPSA product suggests that it is neither a compound with antifungal activity nor a siderophore. In the vicinity of XyNRPSA, a second gene (named XyPtB) was identified. Its localization and homology to orfB of the ergot alkaloid biosynthetic gene cluster suggests that XyPtB may be involved in XyNRPSA product biosynthesis. PMID:17623029

  14. Control of the Synthesis of Fatty-Acid Synthetase in Rat Liver by Insulin, Glucagon, and Adenosine 3′:5′ Cyclic Monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, M. R.; Nepokroeff, Carl M.; Porter, John W.

    1972-01-01

    The usual increase in the activity of liver fatty-acid synthetase that occurs on refeeding of a fat-free diet to previously fasted rats is abolished in diabetic animals. Insulin specifically restores this increase by enhancement of the rate of synthesis of fatty-acid synthetase. However, glucagon and cyclic AMP inhibit the increase in the activity of fatty-acid synthetase. Therefore, the concentration of fatty-acid synthetase in rat liver is under the control of the relative concentrations of insulin and glucagon. PMID:4345502

  15. Isolation and Partial Characterization of Temperature-Sensitive Escherichia coli Mutants with Altered Leucyl- and Seryl-Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Low, B.; Gates, F.; Goldstein, T.; Söll, D.

    1971-01-01

    Two temperature-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli have been found in which the conditional growth is a result of a thermosensitive leucyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase and seryl-tRNA synthetase, respectively. The corresponding genetic loci, leuS and serS, cotransduce with lip and serC, respectively. As a result of the mutationally altered leucyl-tRNA synthetase, some leucine-, valine-, and isoleucine-forming enzymes were derepressed. Thus, leucyl-tRNA synthetase is involved in the repression of the enzymes needed for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids. PMID:4942762

  16. Inhibition of Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase by REP8839 and Effects of Resistance Mutations on Enzyme Activity▿

    PubMed Central

    Green, Louis S.; Bullard, James M.; Ribble, Wendy; Dean, Frank; Ayers, David F.; Ochsner, Urs A.; Janjic, Nebojsa; Jarvis, Thale C.

    2009-01-01

    REP8839 is a selective inhibitor of methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) with antibacterial activity against a variety of gram-positive organisms. We determined REP8839 potency against Staphylococcus aureus MetRS and assessed its selectivity for bacterial versus human orthologs of MetRS. The inhibition constant (Ki) of REP8839 was 10 pM for Staphylococcus aureus MetRS. Inhibition of MetRS by REP8839 was competitive with methionine and uncompetitive with ATP. Thus, high physiological ATP levels would actually facilitate optimal binding of the inhibitor. While many gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, express exclusively the MetRS1 subtype, many gram-negative bacteria express an alternative homolog called MetRS2. Some gram-positive bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus anthracis, express both MetRS1 and MetRS2. MetRS2 orthologs were considerably less susceptible to REP8839 inhibition. REP8839 inhibition of human mitochondrial MetRS was 1,000-fold weaker than inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus MetRS; inhibition of human cytoplasmic MetRS was not detectable, corresponding to >1,000,000-fold selectivity for the bacterial target relative to its cytoplasmic counterpart. Mutations in MetRS that confer reduced susceptibility to REP8839 were examined. The mutant MetRS enzymes generally exhibited substantially impaired catalytic activity, particularly in aminoacylation turnover rates. REP8839 Ki values ranged from 4- to 190,000-fold higher for the mutant enzymes than for wild-type MetRS. These observations provide a potential mechanistic explanation for the reduced growth fitness observed with MetRS mutant strains relative to that with wild-type Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:19015366

  17. Biosynthesis of Polymyxins B, E, and P Using Genetically Engineered Polymyxin Synthetases in the Surrogate Host Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Yu; Park, Soo-Young; Choi, Soo-Keun; Park, Seung-Hwan

    2015-07-01

    The development of diverse polymyxin derivatives is needed to solve the toxicity and resistance problems of polymyxins. However, no platform has generated polymyxin derivatives by genetically engineering a polymyxin synthetase, which is a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. In this study, we present a two-step approach for the construction of engineered polymyxin synthetases by substituting the adenylation (A) domains of polymyxin A synthetase, which is encoded by the pmxABCDE gene cluster of Paenibacillus polymyxa E681. First, the seventh L-threonine-specific A-domain region in pmxA was substituted with the Lleucine- specific A-domain region obtained from P. polymyxa ATCC21830 to make polymyxin E synthetase, and then the sixth D-leucine-specific A-domain region (A6-D-Leu-domain) was substituted with the D-phenylalanine-specific A-domain region (A6-D-Phe-domain) obtained from P. polymyxa F4 to make polymyxin B synthetase. This step was performed in Escherichia coli on a pmxA-containing fosmid, using the lambda Red recombination system and the sacB gene as a counter-selectable marker. Next, the modified pmxA gene was fused to pmxBCDE on the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis BSK4dA, and the resulting recombinant strains BSK4-PB and BSK4-PE were confirmed to produce polymyxins B and E, respectively. We also succeeded in constructing the B. subtilis BSK4-PP strain, which produces polymyxin P, by singly substituting the A6-D-Leu-domain with the A6-D-Phe-domain. This is the first report in which polymyxin derivatives were generated by genetically engineering polymyxin synthetases. The two recombinant B. subtilis strains will be useful for improving the commercial production of polymyxins B and E, and they will facilitate the generation of novel polymyxin derivatives. PMID:26059516

  18. Root of the universal tree of life based on ancient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene duplications.

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Doolittle, W F

    1995-03-28

    Universal trees based on sequences of single gene homologs cannot be rooted. Iwabe et al. [Iwabe, N., Kuma, K.-I., Hasegawa, M., Osawa, S. & Miyata, T. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 9355-9359] circumvented this problem by using ancient gene duplications that predated the last common ancestor of all living things. Their separate, reciprocally rooted gene trees for elongation factors and ATPase subunits showed Bacteria (eubacteria) as branching first from the universal tree with Archaea (archaebacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes) as sister groups. Given its topical importance to evolutionary biology and concerns about the appropriateness of the ATPase data set, an evaluation of the universal tree root using other ancient gene duplications is essential. In this study, we derive a rooting for the universal tree using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes, an extensive multigene family whose divergence likely preceded that of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. An approximately 1600-bp conserved region was sequenced from the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases of several species representing deep evolutionary branches of eukaryotes (Nosema locustae), Bacteria (Aquifex pyrophilus and Thermotoga maritima) and Archaea (Pyrococcus furiosus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius). In addition, a new valyl-tRNA synthetase was characterized from the protist Trichomonas vaginalis. Different phylogenetic methods were used to generate trees of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases rooted by valyl- and leucyl-tRNA synthetases. All isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase trees showed Archaea and Eucarya as sister groups, providing strong confirmation for the universal tree rooting reported by Iwabe et al. As well, there was strong support for the monophyly (sensu Hennig) of Archaea. The valyl-tRNA synthetase gene from Tr. vaginalis clustered with other eukaryotic ValRS genes, which may have been transferred from the mitochondrial genome to the nuclear genome, suggesting that this amitochondrial trichomonad once harbored an

  19. Enrichment and characterization of the mRNAs of four aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sellami, M; Rether, B; Gangloff, J; Ebel, J P; Bonnet, J

    1983-01-01

    We have partially purified the messenger RNAs for yeast arginyl-, aspartyl-, valyl-, alpha and beta subunits of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases in order to study their biosynthesis and ultimately, to isolate their genes. Sucrose gradient fractionation of poly U-Sepharose selected mRNAs resulted in a ten fold enrichment of the in vitro translation activity of these mRNAs. The translation products of messenger RNAs for arginyl- and valyl-tRNA synthetases have the same molecular weight as the purified enzymes; translation of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase messenger RNA yielded a 68 kD molecular weight polypeptide (while the purified cristallisable enzyme appears as a 64-66 kD doublet, which, as we showed is a proteolysis product). The translation of the mRNAs for alpha and beta phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase gave polypeptides having the same molecular weight as those obtained from the purified enzyme, but the major translation products are slightly heavier, indicating that they may be translated as precursors. As estimated from centrifugation experiments mRNAs of arginyl-, aspartyl-, alpha and beta subunits of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase were 1700-2000 nucleotides long, indicating that alpha and beta are translated from two different mRNAs. Images PMID:6344009

  20. Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    PubMed

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1975-07-01

    1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase. PMID:1004

  1. Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    PubMed Central

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1975-01-01

    1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase. PMID:1004

  2. Chitin synthetase activity is bound to chitosomes and to the plasma membrane in protoplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flores Martinez, A; Schwencke, J

    1988-12-22

    The sub-cellular distribution of chitin synthetase was studied in homogenates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae protoplasts. Use of a mild disruption method minimized rupture of vacuoles and ensuing contamination of subcellular fractions by vacuolar proteinases. After fractionation of whole or partially purified homogenates through an isopycnic sucrose gradient chitin synthetase activity was found to be distributed between two distinct particulate fractions with different buoyant density and particle diameter. When whole homogenates were used, about 52% of the chitin synthetase loaded was localized in a microvesicular population identified as chitosomes (diameter 40-110 nm; buoyant density (d) = 1.146 g/cm3). Another vesicular population containing 26% of the activity was identified as plasma membrane vesicles because of its large mean diameter (260 nm), its high buoyant density (d = 1.203 g/cm3) and by the presence of the vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. Moreover, after surface labeling of protoplasts with 3H-concanavalin A, the label cosedimented with the presumed plasma membrane vesicles. There was a negligible cross-contamination of the chitosome fraction by yeast plasma membrane markers. In both the plasma membrane and the chitosome fractions, the chitin synthetase was stable and essentially zymogenic. Activation of the chitosome fraction produces microfibrils 100-250 nm in length. Our results support the idea that chitosomes do not originate by plasma membrane vesiculation but are defined sub-cellular organelles containing most of the chitin synthetase in protoplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:2974729

  3. Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of adrenoleukodystrophy: the roles of the Bubblegum and Double bubble acyl-CoA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Sivachenko, Anna; Gordon, Hannah B.; Kimball, Suzanne S.; Gavin, Erin J.; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.; Letsou, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Debilitating neurodegenerative conditions with metabolic origins affect millions of individuals worldwide. Still, for most of these neurometabolic disorders there are neither cures nor disease-modifying therapies, and novel animal models are needed for elucidation of disease pathology and identification of potential therapeutic agents. To date, metabolic neurodegenerative disease has been modeled in animals with only limited success, in part because existing models constitute analyses of single mutants and have thus overlooked potential redundancy within metabolic gene pathways associated with disease. Here, we present the first analysis of a very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) double mutant. We show that the Drosophila bubblegum (bgm) and double bubble (dbb) genes have overlapping functions, and that the consequences of double knockout of both bubblegum and double bubble in the fly brain are profound, affecting behavior and brain morphology, and providing the best paradigm to date for an animal model of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disease associated with the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Using this more fully penetrant model of disease to interrogate brain morphology at the level of electron microscopy, we show that dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism via disruption of ACS function in vivo is causal of neurodegenerative pathologies that are evident in both neuronal cells and their supporting cell populations, and leads ultimately to lytic cell death in affected areas of the brain. Finally, in an extension of our model system to the study of human disease, we describe our identification of an individual with leukodystrophy who harbors a rare mutation in SLC27a6 (encoding a very-long-chain ACS), a human homolog of bgm and dbb. PMID:26893370

  4. REGULATION OF RAT HEPATIC DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID SYNTHETASE AND HEME OXYGENASE ACTIVITIES: EVIDENCE FOR CONTROL BY HEME AND AGAINST MEDIATION BY PROSTHETIC IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of in vivo administration of 6 compounds on the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetase and heme oxygenase were determined. The order of decreasing potency in reducing ALA synthetase activity was heme, bilirubin, protoporphyrin IX, bilirubin dimethyl es...

  5. Recognition of Escherichia coli valine transfer RNA by its cognate synthetase: A fluorine-19 NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Wenchy; Horowitz, J. )

    1991-02-12

    Interactions of 5-fluorouracil-substituted Escherichia coli tRNA{sup Val} with its cognate synthetase have been investigated by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance. Valyl-tRNA synthetase (VRS) (EC 6.1.1.9), purified to homogeneity from an overproducing strain of E. coli, differs somewhat from VRS previously isolated from E. coli K12. Its amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence agree well with results derived from the sequence of the VRS gene. Apparent K{sub M} and V{sub max} values of the purified VRS are the same for both normal and 5-fluorouracil (FUra)-substituted tRNA{sup Val}. Binding of VRS to (FUra)tRNA{sup Val} induces structural perturbations that are reflected in selective changes in the {sup 19}F NMR spectrum of the tRNA. Addition of increasing amounts of VRS results in a gradual loss of intensity at resonances corresponding to FU34, FU7, and FU67, with FU34, at the wobble position of the anticodon, being affected most. At higher VRS/tRNA ratios, a broadening and shifting of FU12 and of FU4 and/or FU8 occur. These results indicate that VRS interacts with tRNA{sup Val} along the entire inside of the L-shape molecule, from the acceptor stem to the anticodon. Valyl-tRNA synthetase also causes a splitting of resonances FU55 and FU64 in the T-loop and stem of tRNA{sup Val}, suggesting conformational changes in this part of the molecule. No {sup 19}F NMR evidence was found for formation of the Michael adduct between VRS and FU8 of 5-fluorouracil-substituted tRNA{sup Val} that has been proposed as a common intermediate in the aminoacylation reaction.

  6. Glial glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase regulate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Enshe; Yan, Xisheng; Weng, Han-Rong

    2012-05-01

    Decreased GABAergic synaptic strength ('disinhibition') in the spinal dorsal horn is a crucial mechanism contributing to the development and maintenance of pathological pain. However, mechanisms leading to disinhibition in the spinal dorsal horn remain elusive. We investigated the role of glial glutamate transporters (GLT-1 and GLAST) and glutamine synthetase in maintaining GABAergic synaptic activity in the spinal dorsal horn. Electrically evoked GABAergic inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs), spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs were recorded in superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons of spinal slices from young adult rats. We used (2S,3S)-3-[3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoylamino]benzyloxy]aspartate (TFB-TBOA), to block both GLT-1 and GLAST and dihydrokainic acid to block only GLT-1. We found that blockade of both GLAST and GLT-1 and blockade of only GLT-1 in the spinal dorsal horn decreased the amplitude of GABAergic eIPSCs, as well as both the amplitude and frequency of GABAergic sIPSCs or miniature IPSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of glial glutamine synthetase had similar effects on both GABAergic eIPSCs and sIPSCs. We provided evidence demonstrating that the reduction in GABAergic strength induced by the inhibition of glial glutamate transporters is due to insufficient GABA synthesis through the glutamate-glutamine cycle between astrocytes and neurons. Thus, our results indicate that deficient glial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase significantly attenuate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn, which may be a crucial synaptic mechanism underlying glial-neuronal interactions caused by dysfunctional astrocytes in pathological pain conditions. PMID:22339645

  7. Biochemical and Crystallographic Analysis of Substrate Binding and Conformational Changes in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Reger,A.; Carney, J.; Gulick, A.

    2007-01-01

    The adenylate-forming enzymes, including acyl-CoA synthetases, the adenylation domains of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and firefly luciferase, perform two half-reactions in a ping-pong mechanism. We have proposed a domain alternation mechanism for these enzymes whereby, upon completion of the initial adenylation reaction, the C-terminal domain of these enzymes undergoes a 140{sup o} rotation to perform the second thioester-forming half-reaction. Structural and kinetic data of mutant enzymes support this hypothesis. We present here mutations to Salmonella enterica acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) and test the ability of the enzymes to catalyze the complete reaction and the adenylation half-reaction. Substitution of Lys609 with alanine results in an enzyme that is unable to catalyze the adenylate reaction, while the Gly524 to leucine substitution is unable to catalyze the complete reaction yet catalyzes the adenylation half-reaction with activity comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The positions of these two residues, which are located on the mobile C-terminal domain, strongly support the domain alternation hypothesis. We also present steady-state kinetic data of putative substrate-binding residues and demonstrate that no single residue plays a dominant role in dictating CoA binding. We have also created two mutations in the active site to alter the acyl substrate specificity. Finally, the crystallographic structures of wild-type Acs and mutants R194A, R584A, R584E, K609A, and V386A are presented to support the biochemical analysis.

  8. L-arginine recognition by yeast arginyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Cavarelli, J; Delagoutte, B; Eriani, G; Gangloff, J; Moras, D

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS), with L-arginine bound to the active site has been solved at 2.75 A resolution and refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 19.7%. ArgRS is composed predominantly of alpha-helices and can be divided into five domains, including the class I-specific active site. The N-terminal domain shows striking similarity to some completely unrelated proteins and defines a module which should participate in specific tRNA recognition. The C-terminal domain, which is the putative anticodon-binding module, displays an all-alpha-helix fold highly similar to that of Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase. While ArgRS requires tRNAArg for the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, the results show that its presence is not a prerequisite for L-arginine binding. All H-bond-forming capability of L-arginine is used by the protein for the specific recognition. The guanidinium group forms two salt bridge interactions with two acidic residues, and one H-bond with a tyrosine residue; these three residues are strictly conserved in all ArgRS sequences. This tyrosine is also conserved in other class I aaRS active sites but plays several functional roles. The ArgRS structure allows the definition of a new framework for sequence alignments and subclass definition in class I aaRSs. PMID:9736621

  9. The McbB component of microcin B17 synthetase is a zinc metalloprotein.

    PubMed

    Zamble, D B; McClure, C P; Penner-Hahn, J E; Walsh, C T

    2000-12-26

    The microcin B17 synthetase converts glycine, serine, and cysteine residues in a polypeptide precursor into oxazoles and thiazoles during the maturation of the Escherichia coli antibiotic Microcin B17. This multimeric enzyme is composed of three subunits (McbB, McbC, and McbD), and it employs both ATP and FMN as cofactors. The McbB subunit was purified as a fusion with the maltose-binding protein (MBP), and metal analysis revealed that this protein binds 0.91+/-0.17 zinc atoms. Upon incubation of MBP-McbB with excess zinc, the stoichiometry increased to two atoms of zinc bound, but metal binding to the second site resulted in a decrease in the heterocyclization activity when MBP-McbB was reconstituted with the other components of the synthetase. Apo-protein was prepared by using p-hydroxymercuriphenylsulfonic acid (PMPS), and loss of the metal caused a severe reduction in enzymatic activity. However, if dithiothreitol was added to the PMPS reactions within a few minutes, enzymatic activity was retained and MBP-McbB could be reconstituted with zinc. Spectroscopic analysis of the cobalt-containing protein and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the zinc-containing protein both provide evidence for a tetrathiolate coordination sphere. Site-directed mutants of MBP-McbB as well as the synthetase tagged with the calmodulin-binding peptide were constructed. Activity assays and metal analysis were used to determine which of the six cysteines in McbB are metal ligands. These results suggest that the zinc cofactor in McbB plays a structural role. PMID:11123948

  10. Characterization of an Archaeal Medium-Chain Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetase from Methanosarcina acetivorans▿

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yu; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl; Cooper, Leroy L.; Smith, Kerry S.

    2010-01-01

    Short- and medium-chain acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA from an acyl substrate, ATP, and CoA. These enzymes catalyze mechanistically similar two-step reactions that proceed through an enzyme-bound acyl-AMP intermediate. Here we describe the characterization of a member of this enzyme family from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans. This enzyme, a medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase designated MacsMa, utilizes 2-methylbutyrate as its preferred substrate for acyl-CoA synthesis but cannot utilize acetate and thus cannot catalyze the first step of acetoclastic methanogenesis in M. acetivorans. When propionate or other less favorable acyl substrates, such as butyrate, 2-methylpropionate, or 2-methylvalerate, were utilized, the acyl-CoA was not produced or was produced at reduced levels. Instead, acyl-AMP and PPi were released in the absence of CoA, whereas in the presence of CoA, the intermediate was broken down into AMP and the acyl substrate, which were released along with PPi. These results suggest that although acyl-CoA synthetases may have the ability to utilize a broad range of substrates for the acyl-adenylate-forming first step of the reaction, the intermediate may not be suitable for the thioester-forming second step. The MacsMa structure has revealed the putative acyl substrate- and CoA-binding pockets. Six residues proposed to form the acyl substrate-binding pocket, Lys256, Cys298, Gly351, Trp259, Trp237, and Trp254, were targeted for alteration. Characterization of the enzyme variants indicates that these six residues are critical in acyl substrate binding and catalysis, and even conservative alterations significantly reduced the catalytic ability of the enzyme. PMID:20851904

  11. Affinity chromatography and affinity labeling of rat liver succinyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Ball, D J; Nishimura, J S

    1980-11-25

    Succinyl-CoA synthetase has been purified to apparent homogeneity from rat liver. The key step in the purification procedure involved adsorption on a GDP dialdehyde (dial-GDP)-adipic dihydrazide-Sepharose 4B column and elution by GDP-Mg2+. Like the pig heart enzyme (Brownie, E. R., and Bridger, W. A. (1972) Can. J. Biochem. 50, 719--724), the rat liver enzyme was an alpha beta heterodimer and only the alpha subunit was phosphorylated by [gamma-32P]GTP. The A 280(0.1%) of the enzyme was determined to be 0.5. Amino acid analyses revealed significant similarities in 50% of the amino acid residues of rat liver and Escherichia coli succinyl-CoA synthetases. However, immunodiffusion analysis failed to reveal any antigenic identity between the two enzymes. Incubation with the affinity label, dial-GDP, in the presence of Mg2+ resulted in a biphasic inactivation of the enzyme. The extent of the rapid phase of inactivation appeared to be related to the extent of dephosphorylation of the enzyme and was prevented by preincubation of the enzyme with GTP-Mg2+. The presence of GDP-Mg2+ in the incubation medium prevented the slow phase of the inactivation and retarded the rapid phase. Dephosphorylated enzyme was approximately 2 orders of magnitude more susceptible to inactivation by dial-GDP than phosphorylated enzyme. Labeling of succinyl-CoA synthetase with [3H]dial-GDP gave a linear relationship between inactivation and incorporation of radioactivity with an extrapolated value of less than 1.2 mol of analog/mol of enzyme at 100% inactivation. The distribution of the label in enzyme that was inactivated 40% was approximately 60% in the alpha subunit and 40% in the beta subunit. Thus, while phosphorylation of the enzyme occurs exclusively in the alpha subunit, the nucleotide binding site appears to include components from both alpha and beta subunits. PMID:7430155

  12. Characterization of the acyl substrate binding pocket of acetyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Ingram-Smith, Cheryl; Woods, Barrett I; Smith, Kerry S

    2006-09-26

    AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase [ACS; acetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.2.1.1] catalyzes the activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA in a two-step reaction. This enzyme is a member of the adenylate-forming enzyme superfamily that includes firefly luciferase, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, and acyl- and aryl-CoA synthetases/ligases. Although the structures of several superfamily members demonstrate that these enzymes have a similar fold and domain structure, the low sequence conservation and diversity of the substrates utilized have limited the utility of these structures in understanding substrate binding in more distantly related enzymes in this superfamily. The crystal structures of the Salmonella enterica ACS and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACS1 have allowed a directed approach to investigating substrate binding and catalysis in ACS. In the S. enterica ACS structure, the propyl group of adenosine 5'-propylphosphate, which mimics the acyl-adenylate intermediate, lies in a hydrophobic pocket. Modeling of the Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus Z245 ACS (MT-ACS1) on the S. cerevisiae ACS structure showed similar active site architecture, and alignment of the amino acid sequences of proven ACSs indicates that the four residues that compose the putative acetate binding pocket are well conserved. These four residues, Ile312, Thr313, Val388, and Trp416 of MT-ACS1, were targeted for alteration, and our results support that they do indeed form the acetate binding pocket and that alterations at these positions significantly alter the enzyme's affinity for acetate as well as the range of acyl substrates that can be utilized. In particular, Trp416 appears to be the primary determinant for acyl chain length that can be accommodated in the binding site. PMID:16981708

  13. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases*♦

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Brieba, Luis G.; Grøtli, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor. PMID:27226617

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from Chorispora bungeana.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chenchen; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yu; Liu, Sha; Yan, Kan; Yue, Xiule; Zhang, Hua; Xiang, Yun; An, Lizhe; Chen, Shuyan

    2015-11-10

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) which is a molecule essential for polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis, methylation modifications of protein, DNA and lipids. SAMS also plays an important role in abiotic stress response. Chorispora bungeana (C. bungeana) is an alpine subnival plant species which possesses strong tolerance to cold stress. Here, we cloned and characterized an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene, CbSAMS (C. bungeana S-adenosylmethionine synthetase), from C. bungeana, which encodes a protein of 393 amino acids containing a methionine binding motif GHPDK, an ATP binding motif GAGDQG and a phosphate binding motif GGGAFSGDK. Furthermore, an NES (nuclear export signal) peptide was identified through bioinformatics analysis. To explore the CbSAMS gene expression regulation, we isolated the promoter region of CbSAMS gene 1919bp upstream the ATG start codon, CbSAMSp, and analyzed its cis-acting elements by bioinformatics method. It was revealed that a transcription start site located at 320 bp upstream the ATG start codon and cis-acting elements related to light, ABA, auxin, ethylene, MeJA, low temperature and drought had been found in the CbSAMSp sequence. The gene expression pattern of CbSAMS was then analyzed by TR-qPCR and GUS assay method. The result showed that CbSAMS is expressed in all examined tissues including callus, roots, petioles, leaves, and flowers with a significant higher expression level in roots and flowers. Furthermore, the expression level of CbSAMS was induced by low temperature, ethylene and NaCl. Subcellular localization revealed that CbSAMS was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus but has a significant higher level in the nucleus. These results indicated a potential role of CbSAMS in abiotic stresses and plant growth in C. bungeana. PMID:26205258

  15. Bacterial expression of catalytically active fragments of the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase.

    PubMed

    Haese, A; Pieper, R; von Ostrowski, T; Zocher, R

    1994-10-14

    Enniatin synthetase catalyzes the biosynthesis of N-methylated cyclohexadepsipeptides. The 347 kDa enzyme is encoded by the esyn1 gene of Fusarium scirpi and contains two domains (EA and EB) homologous to each other and to regions of other microbial peptide synthetases. Parts of the esyn1 gene were subcloned in frame to a small lacZ gene portion of Escherichia coli expression vectors. Overproduced recombinant proteins showed a high tendency towards inclusion body formation and could be only partially dissolved in 8 M urea or 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. After renaturation, a 121 kDa recombinant protein representing the N-terminal conserved domain EA of enniatin synthetase was shown to activate D-hydroxyisolvaleric acid via adenylation. Similarly, a 158 kDa recombinant protein comprising the C-terminal conserved domain EB catalyzed the activation of the substrate amino acid (e.g. L-valine). Moreover, this protein could be photolabeled with S-[methyl-14C]adenosyl-L-methionine, (AdoMet) indicating the presence of the methyltransferase. Both functions, L-valine activation and AdoMet binding, could be assigned to a 108 kDa recombinant protein encompassing the A and the M segment of domain EB. The fact that a 65 kDa recombinant protein representing the M portion could be photolabeled, indicated the localization of the methyltransferase in this region. Three deletion mutants of the 65 kDa protein were shown to be inactive with respect to UV-induced AdoMet labeling. PMID:7932733

  16. Cylindrospermopsin and Saxitoxin Synthetase Genes in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Strains from Brazilian Freshwater

    PubMed Central

    Hoff-Risseti, Caroline; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Schaker, Patricia Dayane Carvalho; Pinto, Ernani; Werner, Vera Regina; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2013-01-01

    The Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii population from Brazilian freshwater is known to produce saxitoxin derivatives (STX), while cylindrospermopsin (CYN), which is commonly detected in isolates from Australia and Asia continents, has thus far not been detected in South American strains. However, during the investigation for the presence of cyrA, cyrB, cyrC and cyrJ CYN synthetase genes in the genomes of four laboratory-cultured C. raciborskii Brazilian strains, the almost complete cyrA gene sequences were obtained for all strains, while cyrB and cyrC gene fragments were observed in two strains. These nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, and the predicted protein functions and domains confirmed their identity as CYN synthetase genes. Attempts to PCR amplify cyrJ gene fragments from the four strains were unsuccessful. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the nucleotide sequences together with their homologues found in known CYN synthetase clusters of C. raciborskii strains with high bootstrap support. In addition, fragments of sxtA, sxtB and sxtI genes involved in STX production were also obtained. Extensive LC-MS analyses were unable to detect CYN in the cultured strains, whereas the production of STX and its analogues was confirmed in CENA302, CENA305 and T3. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of cyr genes in South American strains of C. raciborskii and the presence of sxt and cyr genes in a single C. raciborskii strain. This discovery suggests a shift in the type of cyanotoxin production over time of South American strains of C. raciborskii and contributes to the reconstruction of the evolutionary history and diversification of cyanobacterial toxins. PMID:24015317

  17. Control of Escherichia coli lysyl-tRNA synthetase expression by anaerobiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lévêque, F; Gazeau, M; Fromant, M; Blanquet, S; Plateau, P

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli lysyl-tRNA synthetase was previously shown to occur as two distinct species encoded by either the lysS or the lysU gene. The expression of one of these genes, lysU, is under the control of cell growth conditions. To study the regulation of lysU, delta lysS strains were constructed. During aerobic growth at 37 degrees C or below, the amount of the lysU product in the cell is so reduced that delta lysS bacteria grow only poorly. The reduced expression of lysU is not related to the steady-state lysyl-tRNA synthetase concentration in the cell, since the expression of a lysU::lacZ fusion is insensitive to the absence of either lysS or lysU or to the addition of a multi-copy plasmid carrying either lysU or lysS. During anaerobic growth in rich medium, the lysU gene becomes strongly expressed and, in cell extracts, the amount of lysyl-tRNA synthetase activity originating from lysU may become seven times greater than the activity originating from lysS. In minimal medium, lysU expression is only slightly induced. Evidence that the sensitivity of lysU expression to anaerobiosis, as well as to low external pH conditions (E. W. Hickey and I. N. Hirshfield, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:1038-1045, 1990), is governed at the level of transcription is provided. Images FIG. 4 PMID:1744045

  18. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Mertens, Haydyn; Svergun, Dmitri; Brieba, Luis G; Grøtli, Morten; Torres-Larios, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor. PMID:27226617

  19. Glutamine synthetase in ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase deficient tobacco mutants in cell suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Hirel, B; Nato, A; Martin, F

    1984-06-01

    In two tobacco mutants lacking ribulose, 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase the amount of glutamine synthetase and its activity were determined and compared with the wild type green cells. It was shown that in these two mutants glutamine synthetase protein content was six times lower than in the wild type. This situation was comparable to that found in etiolated cells where ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was absent. These observations suggest that a common regulatory mechanism might control the dual light dependent biosynthesis of both enzymes. The results have also implications concerning the efficiency of the reassimilation of ammonia by chloroplastic glutamine synthetase during the photorespiratory process. PMID:24253436

  20. Purification, gene cloning, and characterization of γ-butyrobetainyl CoA synthetase from Agrobacterium sp. 525a.

    PubMed

    Fujimitsu, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Akira; Takubo, Sayaka; Fukui, Akiko; Okada, Kazuma; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Arima, Jiro; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2016-08-01

    The report is the first of purification, overproduction, and characterization of a unique γ-butyrobetainyl CoA synthetase from soil-isolated Agrobacterium sp. 525a. The primary structure of the enzyme shares 70-95% identity with those of ATP-dependent microbial acyl-CoA synthetases of the Rhizobiaceae family. As distinctive characteristics of the enzyme of this study, ADP was released in the catalytic reaction process, whereas many acyl CoA synthetases are annotated as an AMP-forming enzyme. The apparent Km values for γ-butyrobetaine, CoA, and ATP were, respectively, 0.69, 0.02, and 0.24 mM. PMID:27125317

  1. Alterations in Dihydropteroate Synthetase in Cell-Free Extracts of Sulfanilamide-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Richard I.; Corman, Leonard; Morse, Stephen A.; Artenstein, Malcolm S.

    1974-01-01

    Extracts from Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae with varying susceptibility to sulfanilamide have been investigated for dihydropteroate synthetase activity. Sulfanilamide was a competitive inhibitor of dihydropteroate synthetase with respect to p-aminobenzoate in extracts from both species. Though the Km for p-aminobenzoate was unaffected, the Ki for sulfanilamide increased and the Vmax decreased as the strains' resistance to sulfanilamide increased. Temperature studies have revealed differences in the dihydropteroate synthetase from N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. A direct relationship was observed between the minimal inhibitory concentration of sulfanilamide determined in vitro and the ratio of Ki/Km. This ratio may be a molecular explanation of sulfanilamide resistance for both N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:15825393

  2. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of DHNA synthetase from Geobacillus kaustophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad; Ranjani, Chellamuthu Vasuki; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Baba, Seiki; Kuroishi, Chizu; Ebihara, Akio; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-02-01

    DHNA synthetase from G. kaustophilus has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The aerobic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus is a bacillus species that was isolated from deep-sea sediment from the Mariana Trench. 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA) synthetase plays a vital role in the biosynthesis of menaquinone (vitamin K{sub 2}) in this bacterium. DHNA synthetase from Geobacillus kaustophilus was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.01, b = 130.66, c = 131.69 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Preliminary studies and molecular-replacement calculations reveal the presence of three monomers in the asymmetric unit.

  3. Impaired T cell function in argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tarasenko, Tatyana N.; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; McGuire, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    ASS1 is a cytosolic enzyme that plays a role in the conversion of citrulline to arginine. In human and mouse tissues, ASS1 protein is found in several components of the immune system, including the thymus and T cells. However, the role of ASS1 in these tissues remains to be defined. Considerable attention has been focused recently on the role of metabolism in T cell differentiation and function. Based on the expression of ASS1 in the immune system, we hypothesized that ASS1 deficiency would result in T cell defects. To evaluate this question, we characterized immune function in hypomorphic fold/fold mice. Analysis of splenic T cells by flow cytometry showed a marked reduction in T cell numbers with normal expression of activation surface markers. Gene therapy correction of liver ASS1 to enhance survival resulted in a partial recovery of splenic T cells for characterization. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the persistence of the ASS1 enzyme defect in T cells and abnormal T cell differentiation and function. Overall, our work suggests that ASS1 plays a role in T cell function, and deficiency produces primary immune dysfunction. In addition, these data suggest that patients with ASS1 deficiency (citrullinemia type I) may have T cell dysfunction. PMID:25492936

  4. Hydrogen peroxide induces spawning in mollusks, with activation of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase.

    PubMed

    Morse, D E; Duncan, H; Hooker, N; Morse, A

    1977-04-15

    Addition of hydrogen peroxide to seawater causes synchronous spawning in gravid male and female abalones, and certain other mollusks as well. This effect is blocked by exposure of the animals to aspirin, an inhibitor of the enzyme catalyzing oxidative synthesis of prostaglandin endoperoxide. Hydrogen peroxide activates this enzymatic reaction in cell-free extracts prepared from abalone eggs (a very rich source of the prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase); this effect appears to reveal a fundamental property of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthesis. Applicability of these findings to both mariculture and medical purposes is suggested. PMID:403609

  5. Control of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase activity in Rhodopseudomonas spheroides. The involvement of sulphur metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Albert; Sandy, John D.; Tait, George H.

    1973-01-01

    1. The `initial' 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase activity, that is the activity observed immediately after cell disruption, in extracts prepared from unharvested semianaerobically grown Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, was twice that observed under the same assay conditions in extracts prepared from harvested cells. 2. The effect of oxygenation of a culture on the `maximum' aminolaevulinate synthetase activity, that is the activity observed 1h after disruption of harvested cells, is markedly influenced by the contents of the growth medium. Oxygenation of organisms for 1h in the medium in which they have grown produces an 80–90% decrease in maximum activity, whereas similar treatment of organisms resuspended in fresh medium produces less than a 40% decrease. 3. This protective effect of fresh medium is absolutely dependent on the presence of sulphate. When cells are suspended in sulphate-deficient fresh medium, the maximum activity falls by 65–75% even without oxygenation. A high maximum activity is regenerated when sulphate is resupplied. 4. When organisms are oxygenated in the medium in which they have grown, the cellular contents of GSH+GSSG and cysteine+cystine fall very markedly and homolanthionine is formed. Both the fall in aminolaevulinate synthetase activity and the changes in sulphur metabolism are largely prevented by the addition of compounds which stimulate synthesis of cysteine de novo or inhibit the conversion of cysteine S into homocysteine S. 5. The maximum aminolaevulinate synthetase activity was directly proportional to the GSH+GSSG content of all cell preparations. In glutathione-depleted extracts the `low'-activity enzyme could be re-activated in vitro by the addition of GSH, GSSG, cysteine or cystine, whereas in extracts with a high glutathione content the `high'-activity enzyme was unaffected by these sulphur compounds. 6. The activation of low-activity enzyme with exogenous sulphur compounds was prevented by excluding air or by adding NADH

  6. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  7. Tissue Distribution of Glutamate Synthase and Glutamine Synthetase in Rice Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Toshihiko; Tanasawa, Keisuke; Kamachi, Kazunari; Mae, Tadahiko; Ojima, Kunihiko

    1992-01-01

    To further explore the function of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (GOGAT), the tissue distribution of NADH-GOGAT protein and activity was investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves. The distributions of ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent GOGAT, plastidic glutamine synthetase, and cytosolic glutamine synthetase proteins were also determined in the same tissues. High levels of NADH-GOGAT protein (33.1 μg protein/g fresh weight) and activity were detected in the 10th leaf blade before emergence. The unexpanded, nongreen portion of the 9th leaf blade contained more than 50% of the NADH-GOGAT protein and activity per gram fresh weight when compared with the 10th leaf. The expanding, green portion of the 9th leaf blade outside of the sheath contained a slightly lower abundance of NADH-GOGAT protein than the nongreen portion of the 9th blade on a fresh weight basis. The fully expanded leaf blades at positions lower than the 9th leaf had decreased NADH-GOGAT levels as a function of increasing age, and the oldest, 5th blade contained only 4% of the NADH-GOGAT protein compared with the youngest 10th leaf blade. Fd-GOGAT protein, on the other hand, was the major form of GOGAT in the green tissues, and the highest amount of Fd-GOGAT protein (111 μg protein/g fresh weight) was detected in the 7th leaf blade. In the nongreen 10th leaf blade, the content of Fd-GOGAT protein was approximately 7% of that found in the 7th leaf blade. In addition, the content of NADH-GOGAT protein in the 10th leaf blade was about 4 times higher than that of Fd-GOGAT protein. The content of plastidic glutamine synthetase polypeptide was also the highest in the 7th leaf blade (429 μg/g fresh weight) and lowest in nongreen blades and sheaths. On the other hand, the relative abundance of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase polypeptide was the highest in the oldest leaf blade, decreasing to 10 to 20% of that value in young, nongreen leaves. These results suggest that NADH-GOGAT is important for the

  8. Structures of Trypanosoma brucei Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase with Urea-Based Inhibitors Provide Guidance for Drug Design against Sleeping Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cho Yeow; Kim, Jessica E.; Wetzel, Allan B.; de van der Schueren, Will J.; Shibata, Sayaka; Ranade, Ranae M.; Liu, Jiyun; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J. Robert; Buckner, Frederick S.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Methionyl-tRNA synthetase of Trypanosoma brucei (TbMetRS) is an important target in the development of new antitrypanosomal drugs. The enzyme is essential, highly flexible and displaying a large degree of changes in protein domains and binding pockets in the presence of substrate, product and inhibitors. Targeting this protein will benefit from a profound understanding of how its structure adapts to ligand binding. A series of urea-based inhibitors (UBIs) has been developed with IC50 values as low as 19 nM against the enzyme. The UBIs were shown to be orally available and permeable through the blood-brain barrier, and are therefore candidates for development of drugs for the treatment of late stage human African trypanosomiasis. Here, we expand the structural diversity of inhibitors from the previously reported collection and tested for their inhibitory effect on TbMetRS and on the growth of T. brucei cells. The binding modes and binding pockets of 14 UBIs are revealed by determination of their crystal structures in complex with TbMetRS at resolutions between 2.2 Å to 2.9 Å. The structures show binding of the UBIs through conformational selection, including occupancy of the enlarged methionine pocket and the auxiliary pocket. General principles underlying the affinity of UBIs for TbMetRS are derived from these structures, in particular the optimum way to fill the two binding pockets. The conserved auxiliary pocket might play a role in binding tRNA. In addition, a crystal structure of a ternary TbMetRS•inhibitor•AMPPCP complex indicates that the UBIs are not competing with ATP for binding, instead are interacting with ATP through hydrogen bond. This suggests a possibility that a general ‘ATP-engaging’ binding mode can be utilized for the design and development of inhibitors targeting tRNA synthetases of other disease-causing pathogen. PMID:24743796

  9. A Drosophila model for mito-nuclear diseases generated by an incompatible interaction between tRNA and tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Marissa A.; Donner, Julia R.; Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Rand, David M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Communication between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes is vital for cellular function. The assembly of mitochondrial enzyme complexes, which produce the majority of cellular energy, requires the coordinated expression and translation of both mitochondrially and nuclear-encoded proteins. The joint genetic architecture of this system complicates the basis of mitochondrial diseases, and mutations both in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)- and nuclear-encoded genes have been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction. Previously, in a set of mitochondrial-nuclear introgression strains, we characterized a dual genome epistasis in which a naturally occurring mutation in the Drosophila simulans simw501 mtDNA-encoded transfer RNA (tRNA) for tyrosine (tRNATyr) interacts with a mutation in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrially localized tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we show that the incompatible mitochondrial-nuclear combination results in locomotor defects, reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activity and severe alterations in mitochondrial morphology. Transgenic rescue strains containing nuclear variants of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase are sufficient to rescue many of the deleterious phenotypes identified when paired with the simw501 mtDNA. However, the severity of this defective mito-nuclear interaction varies across traits and genetic backgrounds, suggesting that the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction might be tissue specific. Because mutations in mitochondrial tRNATyr are associated with exercise intolerance in humans, this mitochondrial-nuclear introgression model in Drosophila provides a means to dissect the molecular basis of these, and other, mitochondrial diseases that are a consequence of the joint genetic architecture of mitochondrial function. PMID:26035388

  10. The Role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase in Fatty Acid Synthesis in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jinshan; Behal, Robert H.; Back, Stephanie L.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Oliver, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) formed within the plastid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and, through them, a range of important biomolecules. The source of acetyl-CoA in the plastid is not known, but two enzymes are thought to be involved: acetyl-CoA synthetase and plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To determine the importance of these two enzymes in synthesizing acetyl-CoA during lipid accumulation in developing Arabidopsis seeds, we isolated cDNA clones for acetyl-CoA synthetase and for the ptE1α- and ptE1β-subunits of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported acetyl-CoA synthetase sequence from a plant source. The Arabidopsis acetyl-CoA synthetase preprotein has a calculated mass of 76,678 D, an apparent plastid targeting sequence, and the mature protein is a monomer of 70 to 72 kD. During silique development, the spatial and temporal patterns of the ptE1β mRNA level are very similar to those of the mRNAs for the plastidic heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits. The pattern of ptE1β mRNA accumulation strongly correlates with the formation of lipid within the developing embryo. In contrast, the level of mRNA for acetyl-CoA synthetase does not correlate in time and space with lipid accumulation. The highest level of accumulation of the mRNA for acetyl-CoA synthetase during silique development is within the funiculus. These mRNA data suggest a predominant role for plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase in acetyl-CoA formation during lipid synthesis in seeds. PMID:10859180

  11. The structures of cytosolic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases from Medicago truncatula reveal a common and dynamic architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Torreira, Eva; Seabra, Ana Rita; Marriott, Hazel; Zhou, Min; Llorca, Óscar; Robinson, Carol V.; Carvalho, Helena G.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2014-04-01

    The experimental models of dicotyledonous cytoplasmic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases unveil a conserved eukaryotic-type decameric architecture, with subtle structural differences in M. truncatula isoenzymes that account for their distinct herbicide resistance. The first step of nitrogen assimilation in higher plants, the energy-driven incorporation of ammonia into glutamate, is catalyzed by glutamine synthetase. This central process yields the readily metabolizable glutamine, which in turn is at the basis of all subsequent biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds. The essential role performed by glutamine synthetase makes it a prime target for herbicidal compounds, but also a suitable intervention point for the improvement of crop yields. Although the majority of crop plants are dicotyledonous, little is known about the structural organization of glutamine synthetase in these organisms and about the functional differences between the different isoforms. Here, the structural characterization of two glutamine synthetase isoforms from the model legume Medicago truncatula is reported: the crystallographic structure of cytoplasmic GSII-1a and an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of plastid-located GSII-2a. Together, these structural models unveil a decameric organization of dicotyledonous glutamine synthetase, with two pentameric rings weakly connected by inter-ring loops. Moreover, rearrangement of these dynamic loops changes the relative orientation of the rings, suggesting a zipper-like mechanism for their assembly into a decameric enzyme. Finally, the atomic structure of M. truncatula GSII-1a provides important insights into the structural determinants of herbicide resistance in this family of enzymes, opening new avenues for the development of herbicide-resistant plants.

  12. Molecular recognition of proline tRNA by prolyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, Junji; Okamoto, Koji; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Kuno, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Tsunemi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the recognition mechanism of tRNA(Pro) by prolyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1, various tRNA(Pro) transcripts were prepared by in vitro transcription system. These transcripts were aminoacylated with proline by overexpressed A. pernix prolyl-tRNA synthetase. From prolylation experiments, recognition elements of A. pernix tRNA(Pro) were determined to be G35 and G36 of anticodon, discriminator base A73, and G1-C72 base pair at acceptor stem end. PMID:14510473

  13. Activity of interferon-dependent 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase in rat lymphoid cells under transformed environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapchenko, L. I.; Mikhailik, I. V.; Prokopova, K. V.

    It is detected that interferon-dependent 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase is a sensitive index of immunocompetent cells functional state under transformed environment conditions. Microgravitation and ionising radiation induce increase of investigated enzyme activity in rat lymphocytes, which can be a result of lymphoid cells compensatory mechanisms starting in response to stress factors action. Administration of interferon inductors permits to stimulate the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, which enables one to correct pathological changes in the cells and to intensify adaptive reactions of immune systems.

  14. The nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of hisS, the structural gene for histidyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Eisenbeis, S J; Parker, J

    1982-05-01

    A plasmid has been constructed which carries hisS, the structural gene for histidyl-RNA synthetase of E. coli, on a 1.6-kb fragment bounded by PvuII and BstEII sites. The DNA sequence of both ends of this fragment was determined. The amino-terminal sequence of histidyl-tRNA synthetase was also determined to locate the promoter proximal coding region and the frame in which it is read. Three promoters were identified by consensus criteria. The region surrounding these promoters contains extensive twofold symmetry. PMID:6290315

  15. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase and the activation of benzo(a)pyrene to reactive metabolites in vivo in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Garattini, E.; Coccia, P.; Romano, M.; Jiritano, L.; Noseda, A.; Salmona, M.

    1984-11-01

    The role of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase in the in vivo activation of benzo(a)pyrene to reactive metabolites capable of interacting irreversibly with cellular macromolecules was studied in guinea pig liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, colon, and brain. DNA and protein covalent binding experiments were made after systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg) followed by radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene (4 microgram/kg). Results are compared with a control situation in which the prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase inhibitor (acetylsalicylic acid) was not administered. No decrease in the level of DNA or protein benzo(a)pyrene-derived covalent binding was observed in any of the tissues studied.

  16. Anticodon recognition in evolution: switching tRNA specificity of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase by site-directed peptide transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brevet, Annie; Chen, Josiane; Commans, Stéphane; Lazennec, Christine; Blanquet, Sylvain; Plateau, Pierre

    2003-08-15

    The highly conserved aspartyl-, asparaginyl-, and lysyl-tRNA synthetases compose one subclass of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, called IIb. The three enzymes possess an OB-folded extension at their N terminus. The function of this extension is to specifically recognize the anticodon triplet of the tRNA. Three-dimensional models of bacterial aspartyl- and lysyl-tRNA synthetases complexed to tRNA indicate that a rigid scaffold of amino acid residues along the five beta-strands of the OB-fold accommodates the base U at the center of the anticodon. The binding of the adjacent anticodon bases occurs through interactions with a flexible loop joining strands 4 and 5 (L45). As a result, a switching of the specificity of lysyl-tRNA synthetase from tRNALys (anticodon UUU) toward tRNAAsp (GUC) could be attempted by transplanting the small loop L45 of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase inside lysyl-tRNA synthetase. Upon this transplantation, lysyl-tRNA synthetase loses its capacity to aminoacylate tRNALys. In exchange, the chimeric enzyme acquires the capacity to charge tRNAAsp with lysine. Upon giving the tRNAAsp substrate the discriminator base of tRNALys, the specificity shift is improved. The change of specificity was also established in vivo. Indeed, the transplanted lysyl-tRNA synthetase succeeds in suppressing a missense Lys --> Asp mutation inserted into the beta-lactamase gene. These results functionally establish that sequence variation in a small peptide region of subclass IIb aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases contributes to specification of nucleic acid recognition. Because this peptide element is not part of the core catalytic structure, it may have evolved independently of the active sites of these synthetases. PMID:12766171

  17. Induced Resistance to Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors in Trypanosoma brucei Is Due to Overexpression of the Target

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Ranae M.; Gillespie, J. Robert; Shibata, Sayaka; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2013-01-01

    New classes of antiparasitic drugs active against Trypanosoma brucei are needed to combat human African trypanosomiasis. Inhibitors of methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) have excellent potential to be developed for this purpose (S. Shibata, J. R. Gillespie, A. M. Kelley, A. J. Napuli, Z. Zhang, K. V. Kovzun, R. M. Pefley, J. Lam, F. H. Zucker, W. C. Van Voorhis, E. A. Merritt, W. G. Hol, C. L. Verlinde, E. Fan, and F. S. Buckner, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55:1982–1989, 2011). In order to assess the potential for resistance to develop against this new class of inhibitors, T. brucei cultures were grown in the presence of MetRS inhibitors or comparison drugs. Resistance up to ∼50 times the baseline 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was induced against a MetRS inhibitor after ∼120 days. A similar level of resistance to the clinical drug eflornithine was induced after ∼50 days and for pentamidine after ∼80 days. Thus, resistance was induced more slowly against MetRS inhibitors than against clinically used drugs. The parasites resistant to the MetRS inhibitor were shown to overexpress MetRS mRNA by a factor of 35 over the parental strain. Southern analysis indicated that the MetRS gene was amplified in the genome by nearly 8-fold. When injected into mice, the MetRS inhibitor-resistant parasites caused a reduced level of infection, indicating that the changes associated with resistance attenuated their virulence. This finding and the fact that resistance to MetRS inhibitors developed relatively slowly are encouraging for further development of this class of compounds. Published studies on other antitrypanosomal drugs have primarily shown that alterations in membrane transporters were the mechanisms responsible for resistance. This is the first published report of induced drug resistance in the African trypanosome due to overexpression of the target enzyme. PMID:23587950

  18. Levels of acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 5 in urothelial cells and corresponding neoplasias reflect cellular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gaisa, Nadine T; Reinartz, Andrea; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina; Heidenreich, Axel; Jakse, Gerhard; Kaemmerer, Elke; Klinkhammer, Barbara Mara; Knuechel, Ruth; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic components like fatty acids and acyl-Coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesters have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various tumours. The activation of fatty acids to acyl-CoAs is catalysed by long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs), and impairment of ACSL expression levels has been associated with tumourigenesis and progression. Since ACSLs have never been investigated in bladder tissues, the study aims to characterize ACSL expression and acyl-CoA synthesis in normal and neoplastic bladder tissues, as well as cell lines. ACSL isoforms 1, 3, 4 and 5 and synthesis of acyl-CoAs were analysed using qRT-PCR, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and lipid mass spectrometry. In normal urothelium, expression of ACSL1, 3, 4 and 5, with highest levels of ACSL isoform 5 was found. However, ACSL5 expression was reduced in corresponding neoplastic tissues and urothelial cell lines depending on the grade of cellular differentiation. Anti-ACSL5 immunostainings showed expression in normal urothelium and a gradual loss of ACSL5 protein via pre-invasive lesions to invasive carcinomas. High expression of ACSL5 correlated with increased α-galactosidase activity and positive Uroplakin III staining in tumours. In contrast, synthesis of acyl-CoAs was enhanced in neoplastic bladder tissues compared to normal urothelium, and reflected an increase with respect to cellular differentiation. These results confirm an expression of ACSLs, especially isoform 5, in human urothelium, prove enzymatic/lipidomic changes in bladder cancer tissues, and suggest an involvement of ACSL5 in cellular maturation and/or senescence with possible effects onto induction of tumour formation or progression. Further work may identify responsible pathway alterations, and attempting to re-balance the metabolic equilibrium of the urothelium may offer a further opportunity for tumour treatment and prevention. PMID:23348389

  19. High Throughput Screen Identifies Natural Product Inhibitor of Phenylalanyl-tRNA Synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanmei; Palmer, Stephanie O; Munoz, Hector; Bullard, James M

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae are causative agents in a wide range of infections. Genes encoding proteins corresponding to phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) were cloned from both bacteria. The two forms of PheRS were kinetically evaluated and the K(m)'s for P. aeruginosa PheRS with its three substrates, phenylalanine, ATP and tRNA(Phe) were determined to be 48, 200, and 1.2 µM, respectively, while the K(m)'s for S. pneumoniae PheRS with respect to phenylalanine, ATP and tRNA(Phe) were 21, 225 and 0.94 µM, respectively. P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae PheRS were used to screen a natural compound library and a single compound was identified that inhibited the function of both enzymes. The compound inhibited P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae PheRS with IC50's of 2.3 and 4.9 µM, respectively. The compound had a K(I) of 0.83 and 0.98 µM against P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae PheRS, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compound was determined against a panel of Gram positive and negative bacteria including efflux pump mutants and hyper-sensitive strains. MICs against wild-type P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae cells in culture were determined to be 16 and 32 µg/ml, respectively. The mechanism of action of the compound was determined to be competitive with the amino acid, phenylalanine, and uncompetitive with ATP. There was no inhibition of cytoplasmic protein synthesis, however, partial inhibition of the human mitochondrial PheRS was observed. PMID:25601215

  20. A binding hotspot in Trypanosoma cruzi histidyl-tRNA synthetase revealed by fragment-based crystallographic cocktail screens

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cho Yeow; Kallur Siddaramaiah, Latha; Ranade, Ranae M.; Nguyen, Jasmine; Jian, Tengyue; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J. Robert; Buckner, Frederick S.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2015-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The chronic form of the infection often causes debilitating morbidity and mortality. However, the current treatment for the disease is typically inadequate owing to drug toxicity and poor efficacy, necessitating a continual effort to discover and develop new antiparasitic therapeutic agents. The structure of T. cruzi histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS), a validated drug target, has previously been reported. Based on this structure and those of human cytosolic HisRS, opportunities for the development of specific inhibitors were identified. Here, efforts are reported to identify small molecules that bind to T. cruzi HisRS through fragment-based crystallographic screening in order to arrive at chemical starting points for the development of specific inhibitors. T. cruzi HisRS was soaked into 68 different cocktails from the Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa (MSGPP) fragment library and diffraction data were collected to identify bound fragments after soaking. A total of 15 fragments were identified, all bound to the same site on the protein, revealing a fragment-binding hotspot adjacent to the ATP-binding pocket. On the basis of the initial hits, the design of reactive fragments targeting the hotspot which would be simultaneously covalently linked to a cysteine residue present only in trypanosomatid HisRS was initiated. Inhibition of T. cruzi HisRS was observed with the resultant reactive fragments and the anticipated binding mode was confirmed crystallo­graphically. These results form a platform for the development of future generations of selective inhibitors for trypanosomatid HisRS. PMID:26249349

  1. The bifunctional active site of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Roles of the basic residues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Markham, G D

    2000-02-11

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase catalyzes a unique two-step enzymatic reaction leading to formation of the primary biological alkylating agent. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli AdoMet synthetase shows that the active site, which lies between two subunits, contains four lysines and one histidine as basic residues. In order to test the proposed charge and hydrogen bonding roles in catalytic function, each lysine has been changed to an uncharged methionine or alanine, and the histidine has been altered to asparagine. The resultant enzyme variants are all tetramers like the wild type enzyme; however, circular dichroism spectra show reductions in helix content for the K245*M and K269M mutants. (The asterisk denotes that the residue is in the second subunit.) Four mutants have k(cat) reductions of approximately 10(3)-10(4)-fold in AdoMet synthesis; however, the k(cat) of K165*M variant is only reduced 2-fold. In each mutant, there is a smaller catalytic impairment in the partial reaction of tripolyphosphate hydrolysis. The K165*A enzyme has a 100-fold greater k(cat) for tripolyphosphate hydrolysis than the wild type enzyme, but this mutant is not activated by AdoMet in contrast to the wild type enzyme. The properties of these mutants require reassessment of the catalytic roles of these residues. PMID:10660564

  2. Mechanism of oxidant-induced mistranslation by threonyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Fan, Yongqiang; Ling, Jiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases maintain the fidelity during protein synthesis by selective activation of cognate amino acids at the aminoacylation site and hydrolysis of misformed aminoacyl-tRNAs at the editing site. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) misactivates serine and utilizes an editing site cysteine (C182 in Escherichia coli) to hydrolyze Ser-tRNA(Thr). Hydrogen peroxide oxidizes C182, leading to Ser-tRNA(Thr) production and mistranslation of threonine codons as serine. The mechanism of C182 oxidation remains unclear. Here we used a chemical probe to demonstrate that C182 was oxidized to sulfenic acid by air, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite. Aminoacylation experiments in vitro showed that air oxidation increased the Ser-tRNA(Thr) level in the presence of elongation factor Tu. C182 forms a putative metal binding site with three conserved histidine residues (H73, H77 and H186). We showed that H73 and H186, but not H77, were critical for activating C182 for oxidation. Addition of zinc or nickel ions inhibited C182 oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. These results led us to propose a model for C182 oxidation, which could serve as a paradigm for the poorly understood activation mechanisms of protein cysteine residues. Our work also suggests that bacteria may use ThrRS editing to sense the oxidant levels in the environment. PMID:24744241

  3. Mammalian folylpoly-. gamma. -glutamate synthetase. 1. Purification and general properties of the hog liver enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Cichowicz, D.J.; Shane, B.

    1987-01-27

    Folylpolyglutamate synthetase was purified 30,000-150,000-fold from hog liver. Purification required the use of protease inhibitors, and the protein was purified to homogeneity in two forms. Both forms of the enzyme were monomers of M/sub r/ 62,000 and had similar specific activities. The specific activity of the homogeneous protein was over 2000-fold higher than reported for partially purified folylpolyglutamate synthetases from other mammalian sources. Enzyme activity was absolutely dependent on the presence of a reducing agent and a monovalent cation, of which K/sup +/ was most effective. The purified enzyme catalyzed a MgATP-dependent addition of glutamate to tetrahydrofolate with the concomitant stoichiometric formation of MgADP and phosphate. Under conditions that resembled the expected substrate and enzyme concentrations in hog liver, tetrahydrofolate was metabolized to long glutamate chain length derivatives with the hexaglutamate, the major in vivo folate derivative, predominating. Enzyme activity was maximal at about pH 9.5. The high-pH optimum was primarily due to an increase in the K/sub m/ value for the L-glutamate substrate at lower pH values, and the reaction proceeded effectively at physiological pH provided high levels of glutamate were supplied.

  4. Synthetic cycle of the initiation module of a formylating nonribosomal peptide synthetase.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Janice M; Aloise, Martin N; Harrison, Paul M; Schmeing, T Martin

    2016-01-14

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are very large proteins that produce small peptide molecules with wide-ranging biological activities, including environmentally friendly chemicals and many widely used therapeutics. NRPSs are macromolecular machines, with modular assembly-line logic, a complex catalytic cycle, moving parts and many active sites. In addition to the core domains required to link the substrates, they often include specialized tailoring domains, which introduce chemical modifications and allow the product to access a large expanse of chemical space. It is still unknown how the NRPS tailoring domains are structurally accommodated into megaenzymes or how they have adapted to function in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. Here we present a series of crystal structures of the initiation module of an antibiotic-producing NRPS, linear gramicidin synthetase. This module includes the specialized tailoring formylation domain, and states are captured that represent every major step of the assembly-line synthesis in the initiation module. The transitions between conformations are large in scale, with both the peptidyl carrier protein domain and the adenylation subdomain undergoing huge movements to transport substrate between distal active sites. The structures highlight the great versatility of NRPSs, as small domains repurpose and recycle their limited interfaces to interact with their various binding partners. Understanding tailoring domains is important if NRPSs are to be utilized in the production of novel therapeutics. PMID:26762462

  5. Glutamine synthetase mutations which affect expression of nitrogen fixation genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Ausubel, F M; Bird, S C; Durbin, K J; Janssen, K A; Margolskee, R F; Peskin, A P

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate:ammonia ligase [adenosine diphosphate for-ing], EC 6.6.1.2) as a major controlling element of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. We report here the isolation of a new class of K. pneumoniae mutants which exhibit altered patterns of nif and hut (histidine utlization) regulation. The expression of nif in these mutants, which were isolated as Gln+ (glutamine nonrequiring) revertants of a particular glnA mutation, is extremely sensitive to ammonia repression. These mutants have a Nif- Hut- phenotype at external ammonia concentrations at which wild-type strains are Nif+ Hut+. On the other hand, these mutants can be fully derepressed for nif at very low ammonia concentrations. We adopted the nomenclature "GlnR- (Nif- Hut-)" to facilitate discussion of the phenotype of these mutant strains. The mutations in these strains which confer the GlnR- phenotype map at or near glnA, the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. PMID:40960

  6. Crystal Structure and Function of 5-Formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleotide Synthetase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; White, Robert H.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-08-06

    Purine biosynthesis requires 10 enzymatic steps in higher organisms, while prokaryotes require an additional enzyme for step 6. In most organisms steps 9 and 10 are catalyzed by the purH gene product, a bifunctional enzyme with both 5-formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (FAICAR) synthase and inosine monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase activity. Recently it was discovered that Archaea utilize different enzymes to catalyze steps 9 and 10. An ATP-dependent FAICAR synthetase is encoded by the purP gene, and IMP cyclohydrolase is encoded by the purO gene. We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of FAICAR synthetase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii complexed with various ligands, including the tertiary substrate complex and product complex. The enzyme belongs to the ATP grasp superfamily and is predicted to use a formyl phosphate intermediate formed by an ATP-dependent phosphorylation. In addition, we have determined the structures of a PurP orthologue from Pyrococcus furiosus, which is functionally unclassified, in three crystal forms. With approximately 50% sequence identity, P. furiosus PurP is structurally homologous to M. jannaschii PurP. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to explore the possible role of this functionally unclassified PurP.

  7. Folylpolyglutamate synthetase: direct evidence for an acyl phosphate intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, R.; McGuire, J.J.; Shane, B.; Coward, J.K.

    1986-05-01

    The nature of the intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by folylpoly-..gamma..-glutamate synthetase (FPGS) has been investigated. Incubation of ..cap alpha..,..gamma..-(/sup 18/O)methotrexate with ATP, glutamate, and FPGS resulted in the formation of (/sup 18/O)phosphate, thus providing strong evidence for the formation of a ..gamma..-glutamyl phosphate during catalysis. The inorganic phosphate formed in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction was separated from other products and substrates by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, then converted to the trimethyl ester, and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Stoichiometric formation of (/sup 18/O)phosphate was observed in the case of the E. coli enzyme, isolated from a transformant containing the cloned FPGS-dihydrofolate synthetase (folC) gene. In addition, /sup 31/P-NMR analysis of the phosphate isolated from the reaction using E. coli FPGS showed the expected /sup 18/O-isotopic perturbations due to both singly bonded and doubly bonded P-/sup 18/O species. Similar experiments were carried out with FPGS isolated from hog liver. In this case, the small amounts of pure enzyme available precluded use of the NMR technique. However, mass spectral analysis of the derivatized phosphate product revealed the presence of (/sup 18/O)-trimethyl phosphate, thus indicating that the reaction catalyzed by the mammalian enzyme also proceeds via an acyl phosphate intermediate.

  8. Reaction Mechanism of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Glutamine Synthetase Using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Calculations.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Cátia; Ramos, Maria J; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino

    2016-06-27

    This paper is devoted to the understanding of the reaction mechanism of mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase (mtGS) with atomic detail, using computational quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods at the ONIOM M06-D3/6-311++G(2d,2p):ff99SB//B3LYP/6-31G(d):ff99SB level of theory. The complete reaction undergoes a three-step mechanism: the spontaneous transfer of phosphate from ATP to glutamate upon ammonium binding (ammonium quickly loses a proton to Asp54), the attack of ammonia on phosphorylated glutamate (yielding protonated glutamine), and the deprotonation of glutamine by the leaving phosphate. This exothermic reaction has an activation free energy of 21.5 kcal mol(-1) , which is consistent with that described for Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (15-17 kcal mol(-1) ). The participating active site residues have been identified and their role and energy contributions clarified. This study provides an insightful atomic description of the biosynthetic reaction that takes place in this enzyme, opening doors for more accurate studies for developing new anti-tuberculosis therapies. PMID:27225077

  9. Poly specific trans-acyltransferase machinery revealed via engineered acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Koryakina, Irina; McArthur, John; Randall, Shan; Draelos, Matthew M; Musiol, Ewa M; Muddiman, David C; Weber, Tilmann; Williams, Gavin J

    2013-01-18

    Polyketide synthases construct polyketides with diverse structures and biological activities via the condensation of extender units and acyl thioesters. Although a growing body of evidence suggests that polyketide synthases might be tolerant to non-natural extender units, in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at probing and utilizing polyketide synthase specificity are severely limited to only a small number of extender units, owing to the lack of synthetic routes to a broad variety of acyl-CoA extender units. Here, we report the construction of promiscuous malonyl-CoA synthetase variants that can be used to synthesize a broad range of malonyl-CoA extender units substituted at the C2-position, several of which contain handles for chemoselective ligation and are not found in natural biosynthetic systems. We highlighted utility of these enzymes by probing the acyl-CoA specificity of several trans-acyltransferases, leading to the unprecedented discovery of poly specificity toward non-natural extender units, several of which are not found in naturally occurring biosynthetic pathways. These results reveal that polyketide biosynthetic machinery might be more tolerant to non-natural substrates than previously established, and that mutant synthetases are valuable tools for probing the specificity of biosynthetic machinery. Our data suggest new synthetic biology strategies for harnessing this promiscuity and enabling the regioselective modification of polyketides. PMID:23083014

  10. Measurement of Long-Chain Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetase Activity.

    PubMed

    Füllekrug, Joachim; Poppelreuther, Margarete

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS) are a family of essential enzymes of lipid metabolism, activating fatty acids by thioesterification with coenzyme A. Fatty acyl-CoA molecules are then readily utilized for the biosynthesis of storage and membrane lipids, or for the generation of energy by ß-oxidation. Acyl-CoAs also function as transcriptional activators, allosteric inhibitors, or precursors for inflammatory mediators. Recent work suggests that ACS enzymes may drive cellular fatty acid uptake by metabolic trapping, and may also regulate the channeling of fatty acids towards specific metabolic pathways. The implication of ACS enzymes in widespread lipid associated diseases like type 2 diabetes has rekindled interest in this protein family. Here, we describe in detail how to measure long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase activity by a straightforward radiometric assay. Cell lysates are incubated with ATP, coenzyme A, Mg(2+), and radiolabeled fatty acid bound to BSA. Differential phase partitioning of fatty acids and acyl-CoAs is exploited to quantify the amount of generated acyl-CoA by scintillation counting. The high sensitivity of this assay also allows the analysis of small samples like patient biopsies. PMID:26552674

  11. Search for primitive Methanopyrus based on genetic distance between Val- and Ile-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiliang; Takai, Ken; Slesarev, Alexei; Xue, Hong; Wong, J Tze-Fei

    2009-10-01

    Since evidence indicates that the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) was phylogenetically closest to Methanopyrus kandleri among living organisms with elucidated genomes, this study has been directed to a search for the most primitive Methanopyrus lineage. For this purpose, the divergence of valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) and isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) was employed as a measure of primitivity. Comparison of Methanopyrus kandleri and the Methanopyrus isolates GC34 and GC37 from the Pacific Ocean and KOL6, TAG1, TAG11, and SNP6 from the Atlantic Ocean established that the Pacific lineages are more primitive than the Atlantic lineages. Both the groups, however, are younger than environmental genomes from the Kairei Field of Central Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean. These results showed that different Methanopyrus isolates differ significantly with respect to ValRS-IleRS divergence. On this basis, genomes giving rise to the ValRS and IleRS gene fragments from the Central Indian Ridge represent the most primitive Methanopyrus, phylogenetically the oldest living lineage closest to LUCA. PMID:19841848

  12. Sirtuin-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of glutamine synthetases reveals an autofeedback loop in nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    You, Di; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Li, Zhi-Hai; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Wen-Bang; Zuo, Peng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-06-14

    In cells of all domains of life, reversible lysine acetylation modulates the function of proteins involved in central cellular processes such as metabolism. In this study, we demonstrate that the nitrogen regulator GlnR of the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea directly regulates transcription of the acuA gene (SACE_5148), which encodes a Gcn5-type lysine acetyltransferase. We found that AcuA acetylates two glutamine synthetases (GlnA1 and GlnA4) and that this lysine acetylation inactivated GlnA4 (GSII) but had no significant effect on GlnA1 (GSI-β) activity under the conditions tested. Instead, acetylation of GlnA1 led to a gain-of-function that modulated its interaction with the GlnR regulator and enhanced GlnR-DNA binding. It was observed that this regulatory function of acetylated GSI-β enzymes is highly conserved across actinomycetes. In turn, GlnR controls the catalytic and regulatory activities (intracellular acetylation levels) of glutamine synthetases at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels, indicating an autofeedback loop that regulates nitrogen metabolism in response to environmental change. Thus, this GlnR-mediated acetylation pathway provides a signaling cascade that acts from nutrient sensing to acetylation of proteins to feedback regulation. This work presents significant new insights at the molecular level into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of protein acetylation and nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes. PMID:27247389

  13. Archaeal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases interact with the ribosome to recycle tRNAs.

    PubMed

    Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Jaric, Jelena; Greber, Basil J; Franke, Vedran; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Ban, Nenad; Weygand-Durasevic, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) are essential enzymes catalyzing the formation of aminoacyl-tRNAs, the immediate precursors for encoded peptides in ribosomal protein synthesis. Previous studies have suggested a link between tRNA aminoacylation and high-molecular-weight cellular complexes such as the cytoskeleton or ribosomes. However, the structural basis of these interactions and potential mechanistic implications are not well understood. To biochemically characterize these interactions we have used a system of two interacting archaeal aaRSs: an atypical methanogenic-type seryl-tRNA synthetase and an archaeal ArgRS. More specifically, we have shown by thermophoresis and surface plasmon resonance that these two aaRSs bind to the large ribosomal subunit with micromolar affinities. We have identified the L7/L12 stalk and the proteins located near the stalk base as the main sites for aaRS binding. Finally, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of synonymous codons in the Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus genome that supports a mechanism in which the deacylated tRNAs may be recharged by aaRSs bound to the ribosome and reused at the next occurrence of a codon encoding the same amino acid. These results suggest a mechanism of tRNA recycling in which aaRSs associate with the L7/L12 stalk region to recapture the tRNAs released from the preceding ribosome in polysomes. PMID:24569352

  14. Archaeal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases interact with the ribosome to recycle tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Jaric, Jelena; Greber, Basil J.; Franke, Vedran; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Ban, Nenad; Weygand-Durasevic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) are essential enzymes catalyzing the formation of aminoacyl-tRNAs, the immediate precursors for encoded peptides in ribosomal protein synthesis. Previous studies have suggested a link between tRNA aminoacylation and high-molecular-weight cellular complexes such as the cytoskeleton or ribosomes. However, the structural basis of these interactions and potential mechanistic implications are not well understood. To biochemically characterize these interactions we have used a system of two interacting archaeal aaRSs: an atypical methanogenic-type seryl-tRNA synthetase and an archaeal ArgRS. More specifically, we have shown by thermophoresis and surface plasmon resonance that these two aaRSs bind to the large ribosomal subunit with micromolar affinities. We have identified the L7/L12 stalk and the proteins located near the stalk base as the main sites for aaRS binding. Finally, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of synonymous codons in the Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus genome that supports a mechanism in which the deacylated tRNAs may be recharged by aaRSs bound to the ribosome and reused at the next occurrence of a codon encoding the same amino acid. These results suggest a mechanism of tRNA recycling in which aaRSs associate with the L7/L12 stalk region to recapture the tRNAs released from the preceding ribosome in polysomes. PMID:24569352

  15. Trans-oligomerization of duplicated aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases maintains genetic code fidelity under stress.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Napolitano, Mauro; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A G; Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Patterson, Carl J; Foster, Andrew W; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Robinson, Nigel J; Luque, Ignacio

    2015-11-16

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play a key role in deciphering the genetic message by producing charged tRNAs and are equipped with proofreading mechanisms to ensure correct pairing of tRNAs with their cognate amino acid. Duplicated aaRSs are very frequent in Nature, with 25,913 cases observed in 26,837 genomes. The oligomeric nature of many aaRSs raises the question of how the functioning and oligomerization of duplicated enzymes is organized. We characterized this issue in a model prokaryotic organism that expresses two different threonyl-tRNA synthetases, responsible for Thr-tRNA(Thr) synthesis: one accurate and constitutively expressed (T1) and another (T2) with impaired proofreading activity that also generates mischarged Ser-tRNA(Thr). Low zinc promotes dissociation of dimeric T1 into monomers deprived of aminoacylation activity and simultaneous induction of T2, which is active for aminoacylation under low zinc. T2 either forms homodimers or heterodimerizes with T1 subunits that provide essential proofreading activity in trans. These findings evidence that in organisms with duplicated genes, cells can orchestrate the assemblage of aaRSs oligomers that meet the necessities of the cell in each situation. We propose that controlled oligomerization of duplicated aaRSs is an adaptive mechanism that can potentially be expanded to the plethora of organisms with duplicated oligomeric aaRSs. PMID:26464444

  16. Trans-oligomerization of duplicated aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases maintains genetic code fidelity under stress

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Napolitano, Mauro; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A. G.; Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Patterson, Carl J.; Foster, Andrew W.; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Robinson, Nigel J.; Luque, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play a key role in deciphering the genetic message by producing charged tRNAs and are equipped with proofreading mechanisms to ensure correct pairing of tRNAs with their cognate amino acid. Duplicated aaRSs are very frequent in Nature, with 25,913 cases observed in 26,837 genomes. The oligomeric nature of many aaRSs raises the question of how the functioning and oligomerization of duplicated enzymes is organized. We characterized this issue in a model prokaryotic organism that expresses two different threonyl-tRNA synthetases, responsible for Thr-tRNAThr synthesis: one accurate and constitutively expressed (T1) and another (T2) with impaired proofreading activity that also generates mischarged Ser-tRNAThr. Low zinc promotes dissociation of dimeric T1 into monomers deprived of aminoacylation activity and simultaneous induction of T2, which is active for aminoacylation under low zinc. T2 either forms homodimers or heterodimerizes with T1 subunits that provide essential proofreading activity in trans. These findings evidence that in organisms with duplicated genes, cells can orchestrate the assemblage of aaRSs oligomers that meet the necessities of the cell in each situation. We propose that controlled oligomerization of duplicated aaRSs is an adaptive mechanism that can potentially be expanded to the plethora of organisms with duplicated oligomeric aaRSs. PMID:26464444

  17. β-Lactam formation by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase during antibiotic biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaudelli, Nicole M.; Long, Darcie H.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are giant enzymes comprised of modules that house repeated sets of functional domains, which select, activate and couple amino acids drawn from a pool of nearly 500 potential building blocks.1 The structurally and stereochemically diverse peptides generated in this manner underlie the biosynthesis of a large sector of natural products. Many of their derived metabolites are bioactive such as the antibiotics vancomycin, bacitracin, daptomycin and the β-lactam-containing penicillins, cephalosporins and nocardicins. Although penicillins and cephalosporins are synthesised from a classically derived NRPS tripeptide (from ACVS, δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)–L-cysteinyl–D-valine synthetase)2, we now report an unprecedented NRPS activity to both assemble a serine-containing peptide and mediate its cyclisation to the critical β-lactam ring of the nocardicin family of antibiotics. A histidine-rich condensation (C) domain, which typically carries out peptide bond formation during product assembly, was found to also synthesise the embedded 4-membered ring. Here, a mechanism is proposed and supporting experiments are described, which is distinct from the pathways that have evolved to the three other β-lactam antibiotic families: penicillin/cephalosporins, clavams and carbapenems. These findings raise the possibility that β-lactam rings can be regio- and stereospecifically integrated into engineered peptides for application as, for example, targeted protease inactivators.3,4 PMID:25624104

  18. MIST, a Novel Approach to Reveal Hidden Substrate Specificity in Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Eriani, Gilbert; Karam, Joseph; Jacinto, Jomel; Morris Richard, Erin; Geslain, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) constitute a family of RNA-binding proteins, that participate in the translation of the genetic code, by covalently linking amino acids to appropriate tRNAs. Due to their fundamental importance for cell life, AARSs are likely to be one of the most ancient families of enzymes and have therefore been characterized extensively. Paradoxically, little is known about their capacity to discriminate tRNAs mainly because of the practical challenges that represent precise and systematic tRNA identification. This work describes a new technical and conceptual approach named MIST (Microarray Identification of Shifted tRNAs) designed to study the formation of tRNA/AARS complexes independently from the aminoacylation reaction. MIST combines electrophoretic mobility shift assays with microarray analyses. Although MIST is a non-cellular assay, it fully integrates the notion of tRNA competition. In this study we focus on yeast cytoplasmic Arginyl-tRNA synthetase (yArgRS) and investigate in depth its ability to discriminate cellular tRNAs. We report that yArgRS in submicromolar concentrations binds cognate and non-cognate tRNAs with a wide range of apparent affinities. In particular, we demonstrate that yArgRS binds preferentially to type II tRNAs but does not support their misaminoacylation. Our results reveal important new trends in tRNA/AARS complex formation and potential deep physiological implications. PMID:26067673

  19. Does Lowering Glutamine Synthetase Activity in Nodules Modify Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth of Lotus japonicus?1

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Judith; Pou de Crescenzo, Marie-Anne; Sené, Olivier; Hirel, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS) from Lotus japonicus was fused in the antisense orientation relative to the nodule-specific LBC3 promoter of soybean (Glycine max) and introduced into L. japonicus via transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Among the 12 independent transformed lines into which the construct was introduced, some of them showed diminished levels of GS1 mRNA and lower levels of GS activity. Three of these lines were selected and their T1 progeny was further analyzed both for plant biomass production and carbon and nitrogen (N) metabolites content under symbiotic N-fixing conditions. Analysis of these plants revealed an increase in fresh weight in nodules, roots and shoots. The reduction in GS activity was found to correlate with an increase in amino acid content of the nodules, which was primarily due to an increase in asparagine content. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that when GS becomes limiting, other enzymes (e.g. asparagine synthetase) that have the capacity to assimilate ammonium may be important in controlling the flux of reduced N in temperate legumes such as L. japonicus. Whether these alternative metabolic pathways are important in the control of plant biomass production still remains to be fully elucidated. PMID:12970491

  20. Asparagine synthetase deficiency detected by whole exome sequencing causes congenital microcephaly, epileptic encephalopathy and psychomotor delay

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Salem, Salma; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Al-Shamsi, Aisha M.; Islam, Barira; Hertecant, Jozef; Ali, Bassam R.

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of Asparagine Synthetase (ASNSD, MIM 615574) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder presenting with some brain abnormalities. Affected individuals have congenital microcephaly and progressive encephalopathy associated with severe intellectual disability and intractable seizures. The loss of function of the asparagine synthetase (ASNS, EC 6.3.5.4), particularly in the brain, is the major cause of this particular congenital microcephaly. In this study, we clinically evaluated an affected child from a consanguineous Emirati family presenting with congenital microcephaly and epileptic encephalopathy. In addition, whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous substitution mutation (c.1193A>C) in the ASNS gene. This mutation resulted in the substitution of highly conserved tyrosine residue by cysteine (p.Y398C). Molecular modeling analysis predicts hypomorphic and damaging effects of this mutation on the protein structure and altering its enzymatic activity. Therefore, we conclude that the loss of ASNS function is most likely the cause of this condition in the studied family. This report brings the number of reported families with this very rare disorder to five and the number of pathogenic mutations in the ASNS gene to four. This finding extends the ASNS pathogenic mutations spectrum and highlights the utility of whole-exome sequencing in elucidation the causes of rare recessive disorders that are heterogeneous and/or overlap with other conditions. PMID:25227173

  1. Dominant lethality by expression of a catalytically inactive class I tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, E; Schimmel, P

    1993-01-01

    Alignment-guided mutagenesis was used to create an inactive, but toxic, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. An Asp-96-->Ala (D96A) replacement in the nucleotide binding fold of the class I Escherichia coli isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase inactivates the enzyme without disrupting its competence for binding isoleucine tRNA. Expression of plasmid-encoded mutant enzyme in a cell with a wild-type ileS chromosomal allele resulted in cell death. Introduction of a second K732T substitution previously shown to weaken tRNA binding gives an inactive D96A/K732T double mutant. Expression of the double mutant is not lethal to E. coli. D96A but not the double mutant significantly inhibited in vitro charging of isoleucine tRNA by the wild-type enzyme. The results suggest a dominant tRNA binding-dependent arrest of cell growth caused by a reduction in the pool of a specific tRNA. Specific tRNA binding drugs may have therapeutic applications for treatment of microbial pathogens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8346197

  2. An Acyl-CoA Synthetase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Involved in Triacylglycerol Accumulation during Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Jaiyanth; Sirakova, Tatiana; Kolattukudy, Pappachan

    2014-01-01

    Latent infection with dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the major reasons behind the emergence of drug-resistant strains of the pathogen worldwide. In its dormant state, the pathogen accumulates lipid droplets containing triacylglycerol synthesized from fatty acids derived from host lipids. In this study, we show that Rv1206 (FACL6), which is annotated as an acyl-CoA synthetase and resembles eukaryotic fatty acid transport proteins, is able to stimulate fatty acid uptake in E. coli cells. We show that purified FACL6 displays acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity with a preference towards oleic acid, which is one of the predominant fatty acids in host lipids. Our results indicate that the expression of FACL6 protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is significantly increased during in vitro dormancy. The facl6-deficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant displayed a diminished ability to synthesize acyl-coenzyme A in cell-free extracts. Furthermore, during in vitro dormancy, the mutant synthesized lower levels of intracellular triacylglycerol from exogenous fatty acids. Complementation partially restored the lost function. Our results suggest that FACL6 modulates triacylglycerol accumulation as the pathogen enters dormancy by activating fatty acids. PMID:25490545

  3. CcsBA is a cytochrome c synthetase that also functions in heme transport

    PubMed Central

    Frawley, Elaine R.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about trafficking of heme from its sites of synthesis to sites of heme-protein assembly. We describe an integral membrane protein that allows trapping of endogenous heme to elucidate trafficking mechanisms. We show that CcsBA, a representative of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in cytochrome c biosynthesis, exports and protects heme from oxidation. CcsBA has 10 transmembrane domains (TMDs) and reconstitutes cytochrome c synthesis in the Escherichia coli periplasm; thus, CcsBA is a cytochrome c synthetase. Purified CcsBA contains heme in an “external heme binding domain” for which two external histidines are shown to serve as axial ligands that protect the heme iron from oxidation. This is likely the active site of the synthetase. Furthermore, two conserved histidines in TMDs are required for heme to travel to the external heme binding domain. Remarkably, the function of CcsBA with mutations in these TMD histidines is corrected by exogenous imidazole, a result analogous to correction of heme binding by myoglobin when its proximal histidine is mutated. These data suggest that CcsBA has a heme binding site within the bilayer and that CcsBA is a heme channel. PMID:19509336

  4. Glutamine synthetase 2 is not essential for biosynthesis of compatible solutes in Halobacillus halophilus

    PubMed Central

    Shiyan, Anna; Thompson, Melanie; Köcher, Saskia; Tausendschön, Michaela; Santos, Helena; Hänelt, Inga; Müller, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Halobacillus halophilus, a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from salt marshes, produces various compatible solutes to cope with osmotic stress. Glutamate and glutamine are dominant compatible solutes at mild salinities. Glutamine synthetase activity in cell suspensions of Halobacillus halophilus wild type was shown to be salt dependent and chloride modulated. A possible candidate to catalyze glutamine synthesis is glutamine synthetase A2, whose transcription is stimulated by chloride. To address the role of GlnA2 in the biosynthesis of the osmolytes glutamate and glutamine, a deletion mutant (ΔglnA2) was generated and characterized in detail. We compared the pool of compatible solutes and performed transcriptional analyses of the principal genes controlling the solute production in the wild type strain and the deletion mutant. These measurements did not confirm the hypothesized role of GlnA2 in the osmolyte production. Most likely the presence of another, yet to be identified enzyme has the main contribution in the measured activity in crude extracts and probably determines the total chloride-modulated profile. The role of GlnA2 remains to be elucidated. PMID:24782854

  5. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  6. A facile reproducible radioimmunoassay of the mixed metabolites of prostaglandins E, suitable for measurement of relative differences of phospholipase/prostaglandin synthetase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fretland, D J; Cammarata, P S

    1984-04-01

    A relatively simple, reproducible, radioimmunoassay for the mixed metabolites of prostaglandins E (U-PGE-M) in rat and human urine is described. Results of the assay of treated versus control urine extracts correlate well with differences expected from treatments known to alter in vivo phospholipase/prostaglandin synthetase activity. Cross-reactivity of heterogeneous metabolite antiserum with 5 available endogenous prostaglandins and a single metabolite was determined and showed little or no cross reaction. Sensitivity, within-assay precision, interassay reproducibility, and parallelism were also determined and found acceptable. Excretion rates of U-PGE-M by rats and humans were determined, and statistically significant differences could be shown, although absolute values were smaller than estimated absolute values obtained from mass-spectrometric measurements of single, purified metabolites. Normal human male excretion rates differed significantly from those of females. Injection of prostaglandin E1 caused a significant rise in U-PGE-M excretion in rats whereas aspirin and indomethacin caused it to fall. U-PGE-M excretion rates of spontaneous hypertensive rats were significantly less than rates of normotensive controls. Adrenalectomy resulted in excretion of significantly larger amounts of U-PGE-M than in normal or sham-operated controls. A screen of clinically active pharmacological agents and hormones gave results consistent with previously published reports. PMID:6427792

  7. Characterization of two members among the five ADP-forming acyl coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) synthetases reveals the presence of a 2-(Imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase in Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    PubMed

    Awano, Tomotsugu; Wilming, Anja; Tomita, Hiroya; Yokooji, Yuusuke; Fukui, Toshiaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Thermococcus kodakarensis, along with those of most Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species, harbors five paralogous genes encoding putative α subunits of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP)-forming acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases. The substrate specificities of the protein products for three of these paralogs have been clarified through studies on the individual enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus and T. kodakarensis. Here we have examined the biochemical properties of the remaining two acyl-CoA synthetase proteins from T. kodakarensis. The TK0944 and TK2127 genes encoding the two α subunits were each coexpressed with the β subunit-encoding TK0943 gene. In both cases, soluble proteins with an α2β2 structure were obtained and their activities toward various acids in the ADP-forming reaction were examined. The purified TK0944/TK0943 protein (ACS IIITk) accommodated a broad range of acids that corresponded to those generated in the oxidative metabolism of Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe, and Cys. In contrast, the TK2127/TK0943 protein exhibited relevant levels of activity only toward 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate, a metabolite of His degradation, and was thus designated 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase (ICSTk), a novel enzyme. Kinetic analyses were performed on both proteins with their respective substrates. In T. kodakarensis, we found that the addition of histidine to the medium led to increases in intracellular ADP-forming 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase activity, and 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate was detected in the culture medium, suggesting that ICSTk participates in histidine catabolism. The results presented here, together with those of previous studies, have clarified the substrate specificities of all five known NDP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase proteins in the Thermococcales. PMID:24163338

  8. Modulation of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase by environmental stress in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, H.C.; Wiens, M.; Mueller, W.E.G.; Kuusksalu, A.; Kelve, M.

    1997-07-01

    Recently the authors established the presence of relatively high amounts of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylates (2{prime}-5{prime} A) and 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase (2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase) in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium. Here they determined by applying radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatographical methods that the concentration of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase change following exposure of G. cydonium tissue to environmental stress. The 2{prime}-5{prime} A content and the activity of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase, present in crude sponge extract, increase by up to three-fold after treating sponge cubes for 2 h with natural stressors including heat shock (26 C), cold shock (6 C), pH shock (pH 6), and hypertonic shock and subsequent incubation for 18 h under ambient conditions (16 C). No response was observed after exposure of sponges to an alkaline (pH 10) or hypotonic environment. Similar changes have been found for the expression of heat shock protein HSP70 in G. cydonium. These results show that 2{prime}-5{prime} A in sponges may be useful as a novel biomarker for environmental monitoring.

  9. Introduction of a leucine half-zipper engenders multiple high-quality crystals of a recalcitrant tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Min; Shapiro, Ryan; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2010-03-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase is recalcitrant to crystallization. A group of leucine substitutions has transformed the protein. Although Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase was among the first tRNA synthetases to be sequenced and extensively studied by functional analysis, it has proved to be recalcitrant to crystallization. This challenge remained even for crystallization of the catalytic fragment. By mutationally introducing three stacked leucines onto the solvent-exposed side of an α-helix, an engineered catalytic fragment of the synthetase was obtained that yielded multiple high-quality crystals and cocrystals with different ligands. The engineered α-helix did not form a leucine zipper that interlocked with the same α-helix from another molecule. Instead, using the created hydrophobic spine, it interacted with other surfaces of the protein as a leucine half-zipper (LHZ) to enhance the crystal lattice interactions. The LHZ made crystal lattice contacts in all crystals of different space groups. These results illustrate the power of introducing an LHZ into helices to facilitate crystallization. The authors propose that the method can be unified with surface-entropy reduction and can be broadly used for protein-surface optimization in crystallization.

  10. Ricinus communis contains and acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially activates ricinoleate to its CoA thioester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our effort to identify enzymes that are critical for producing large amounts of ricinoleate in castor oil, we have isolated three cDNAs encoding acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) in the castor plant. Analysis of the cDNA sequences reveals that two of them, designated RcACS 2 and RcACS 4, contain...

  11. ANALYSIS OF RILERS, AN ISOLEUCYL-TRNA SYNTHETASE GENE ASSOCIATED WITH MUPIROCIN PRODUCTION BY PSUEDOMONAS FLUORESCENS NCIMB 10586

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens produce the antibiotic mupirocin, which functions as a competitive inhibitor of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (ILERS). Mupirocin-producing strains of P. fluorescens must overcome the inhibitory effects of the antibiotic to avoid self-suicide. However, it is not c...

  12. Seryl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli: implication of its N-terminal domain in aminoacylation activity and specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Borel, F; Vincent, C; Leberman, R; Härtlein, M

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) a dimeric class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase with two structural domains charges specifically the five iso-acceptor tRNA(ser) as well as the tRNA(sec) (selC product) of E. coli. The N-terminal domain is a 60 A long arm-like coiled coil structure built of 2 long antiparallel a-h helices, whereas the C-terminal domain is a alpha-beta structure. A deletion of the N-terminal arm of the enzyme does not affect the amino acid activation step of the reaction, but reduces dramatically amino-acylation activity. The Kcat/Km value for the mutant enzyme is reduced by more than 4 orders of magnitude, with a nearly 30 fold increased Km value for tRNA(ser). An only slightly truncated mutant form (16 amino acids of the tip of the arm replaced by a glycine) has an intermediate aminoacylation activity. Both mutant synthetases have lost their specificity for tRNA(ser) and charge also non-cognate type 1 tRNA(s). Our results support the hypothesis that class II synthetases have evolved from an ancestral catalytic core enzyme by adding non-catalytic N-terminal or C-terminal tRNA binding (specificity) domains which act as determinants for cognate and anti-determinants for non-cognate tRNAs. Images PMID:8065908

  13. Purification and Characterization of Two Forms of Glutamine Synthetase from the Pedicel Region of Maize (Zea mays L.) Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Muhitch, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) kernel pedicels, including vascular tissues, pedicel parenchyma, placento-chalazal tissue, and the surrounding pericarp, contained two forms of glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2), separable by anion exchange chromatography under mildly acidic conditions. The earlier-eluting activity (GSp1), but not the later-eluting activity (GSp2), was chromatographically distinct from the maize leaf and root glutamine synthetases. The level of GSp1 activity changed in a developmentally dependent manner while GSp2 activity was constitutive. GSp1 and GSp2 exhibited distinct ratios of transferase to hydroxylamine-dependent synthetase activities (5 and 23, respectively), which did not change with kernel age. Purified pedicel glutamine synthetases had native relative molecular masses of 340,000, while the subunit relative molecular masses differed slightly at 38,900 and 40,500 for GSp1 and GSp2, respectively. Both GS forms required free Mg2+ with apparent Kms = 2.0 and 0.19 millimolar for GSp1 and GSp2, respectively. GSp1 had an apparent Km for glutamate of 35 millimolar and exhibited substrate inhibition at glutamate concentrations greater than 90 millimolar. In contrast, GSp2 exhibited simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics for glutamate with a Km value of 3.4 millimolar. Both isozymes exhibited positive cooperativity for ammonia, with S0.5 values of 100 and 45 micromolar, respectively. GSp1 appears to be a unique, kernel-specific form of plant glutamine synthetase. Possible functions for the pedicel GS isozymes in kernel nitrogen metabolism are discussed. Images Figure 4 PMID:16667150

  14. Distinctive properties and expression profiles of glutamine synthetase from a plant symbiotic fungus.

    PubMed Central

    Montanini, Barbara; Betti, Marco; Márquez, Antonio J; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2003-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank(R)/EBI Nucleotide Sequence Databases with accession numbers AF462037 (glutamine synthetase) and AF462032 (glutamate synthase). Nitrogen retrieval and assimilation by symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi is thought to play a central role in the mutualistic interaction between these organisms and their plant hosts. Here we report on the molecular characterization of the key N-assimilation enzyme glutamine synthetase from the mycorrhizal ascomycete Tuber borchii (TbGS). TbGS displayed a strong positive co-operativity ( n =1.7+/-0.29) and an unusually high S(0.5) value (54+/-16 mM; S(0.5) is the substrate concentration value at which v =(1/2) V (max)) for glutamate, and a correspondingly low sensitivity towards inhibition by the glutamate analogue herbicide phosphinothricin. The TbGS mRNA, which is encoded by a single-copy gene in the Tuber genome, was up-regulated in N-starved mycelia and returned to basal levels upon resupplementation of various forms of N, the most effective of which was nitrate. Both responses were accompanied by parallel variations of TbGS protein amount and glutamine synthetase activity, thus indicating that TbGS levels are primarily controlled at the pre-translational level. As revealed by a comparative analysis of the TbGS mRNA and of the mRNAs for the metabolically related enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthase, TbGS is not only the sole messenger that positively responds to N starvation, but also the most abundant under N-limiting conditions. A similar, but even more discriminating expression pattern, with practically undetectable glutamate dehydrogenase mRNA levels, was observed in fruitbodies. The TbGS mRNA was also found to be expressed in symbiosis-engaged hyphae, with distinctively higher hybridization signals in hyphae that were penetrating among and within root cells. PMID:12683951

  15. Partial Purification and Properties of d-Desthiobiotin Synthetase from Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, P.; Pai, C. H.

    1970-01-01

    d-Desthiobiotin synthetase, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of d-desthiobiotin from dl-7,8-diaminopelargonic acid and HCO3−, was purified 100-fold from cells of a biotin mutant strain of Escherichia coli. Adenosine triphosphate and Mg2+ were shown, especially in purified extracts, to be obligatory for enzyme activity, although concentrations higher than 5 mm caused severe inhibition of the reaction with unpurified cell-free extracts. Adenosine diphosphate and adenosine monophosphate were shown to inhibit the reaction, but fluoride (up to 50 mm) had no detectable effect. The product of the enzyme reaction was identical to d-desthiobiotin on the basis of biological activity and chromatography. Furthermore, when H14CO3− was used as a substrate, the radioactive product was shown to be 14C-desthiobiotin labeled exclusively in the ureido carbon. PMID:4923070

  16. Peculiarities and impacts of expression of bacterial cyanophycin synthetases in plants.

    PubMed

    Nausch, Henrik; Huckauf, Jana; Broer, Inge

    2016-02-01

    Cyanophycin (CP) can be successfully produced in plants by the ectopic expression of the CphA synthetase from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (Berg et al. 2000), yielding up to 6.8 % of dry weight (DW) in tobacco leaf tissue and 7.5 % in potato tubers (Huehns et al. 2008, 2009). Though, high amounts of the polymer lead to phenotypical abnormalities in both crops. The extension of abnormalities and the maximum amount of CP tolerated depend on the compartment that CP production is localized at the tissue/crop in which CP was produced (Huehns et al. 2008, 2009; Neumann et al. 2005). It cannot be ascribed to a depletion of arginine, lysine, or aspartate, the substrates for CP synthesis. PMID:26658983

  17. SIRT5 Deacetylates carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 and regulates the urea cycle.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Lomb, David J; Haigis, Marcia C; Guarente, Leonard

    2009-05-01

    Sirtuins are NAD-dependent protein deacetylases that connect metabolism and aging. In mammals, there are seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), three of which are associated with mitochondria. Here, we show that SIRT5 localizes in the mitochondrial matrix and interacts with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), an enzyme, catalyzing the initial step of the urea cycle for ammonia detoxification and disposal. SIRT5 deacetylates CPS1 and upregulates its activity. During fasting, NAD in liver mitochondria increases, thereby triggering SIRT5 deacetylation of CPS1 and adaptation to the increase in amino acid catabolism. Indeed, SIRT5 KO mice fail to upregulate CPS1 activity and show elevated blood ammonia during fasting. Similar effects occur during long-term calorie restriction or a high protein diet. These findings demonstrate SIRT5 plays a pivotal role in ammonia detoxification and disposal by activating CPS1. PMID:19410549

  18. Inhibition of Long Chain Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetase (ACSL) and Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Allan M.; Zhang, Man; Blakeman, Nina; Datta, Palika; Pham, Hung; Young, Lindon H.; Weis, Margaret T.; Hua, Duy H.

    2014-01-01

    Various triacsin C analogs, containing different alkenyl chains and carboxylic acid bioisoteres including 4-aminobenzoic acid, isothiazolidine dioxide, hydroxylamine, hydroxytriazene, and oxadiazolidine dione, were synthesized and their inhibitions of long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) were examined. Two methods, a cell-based assay of ACSL activity and an in situ [14C]-palmitate incorporation into extractable lipids were used to study the inhibition. Using an in vivo leukocyte recruitment inhibition protocol, the translocation of one or more cell adhesion molecules from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane on either the endothelium or leukocyte or both was inhibited by inhibitors 1, 9, and triacsin C. The results suggest that inhibition of ACSL may attenuate the vascular inflammatory component associated with ischemia reperfusion injury and lead to a decrease of infarct expansion. PMID:24480468

  19. Four Trypanosoma brucei fatty acyl-CoA synthetases: fatty acid specificity of the recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, D W; Englund, P T

    2001-01-01

    As part of our investigation of fatty acid metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei, we have expressed four acyl-CoA synthetase (TbACS) genes in Esherichia coli. The recombinant proteins, with His-tags on their C-termini, were purified to near homogeneity using nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. Although these enzymes are highly homologous, they have distinct specificities for fatty acid chain length. TbACS1 prefers saturated fatty acids in the range C(11:0) to C(14:0) and TbACS2 prefers shorter fatty acids, mainly C(10:0). TbACS3 and 4, which have 95% sequence identity, have similar specificities, favouring fatty acids between C(14:0) and C(17:0). In addition, TbACS1, 3 and 4 function well with a variety of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:11535136

  20. Plant growth is influenced by glutamine synthetase-catalyzed nitrogen metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Langston-Unkefer, P.J.

    1991-06-11

    Ammonia assimilation has been implicated as participating in regulation of nitrogen fixation in free-living bacteria. In fact, these simple organisms utilize an integrated regulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism; we except to observe an integration of nitrogen and carbon fixation in plants; how could these complex systems grow efficiently and compete in the ecosystem without coordinating these two crucial activities We have been investigating the role of ammonia assimilation regulating the complex symbiotic nitrogen fixation of legumes. Just as is observed in the simple bacterial systems, perturbation of ammonia assimilation in legumes results in increased overall nitrogen fixation. The perturbed plants have increased growth and total nitrogen fixation capability. Because we have targeted the first enyzme in ammonia assimilation, glutamine synthetase, this provides a marker that could be used to assist selection or screening for increased biomass yield. 45 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. GSH2, a gene encoding gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Ubiyvovk, Vira M; Nazarko, Taras Y; Stasyk, Olena G; Sohn, Min Jeong; Kang, Hyun Ah; Sibirny, Andrei A

    2002-08-01

    The GSH2 gene, encoding Hansenula polymorpha gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, was cloned by functional complementation of a glutathione (GSH)-deficient gsh2 mutant of H. polymorpha. The gene was isolated as a 4.3-kb XbaI fragment that was capable of restoring GSH synthesis, heavy-metal resistance and cell proliferation when introduced into gsh2 mutant cells. It possesses 53% identical and 69% similar amino acids compared with the Candida albicans homologue (Gcs1p). In comparison to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue (Gsh1p), it possesses 47% identical and 61% similar amino acids. The GSH2 sequence appears in the GenBank database under accession No. AF435121. PMID:12702282

  2. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes in the Microbial Metagenomes of Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila Marie; Grozdanov, Lubomir; Proksch, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Genomic mining revealed one major nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) phylogenetic cluster in 12 marine sponge species, one ascidian, an actinobacterial isolate and seawater. Phylogenetic analysis predicts its taxonomic affiliation to the actinomycetes and hydroxy-phenyl-glycine as a likely substrate. Additionally, a phylogenetically distinct NRPS gene cluster was discovered in the microbial metagenome of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba, which shows highest similarities to NRPS genes that were previously assigned, by ways of single cell genomics, to a Chloroflexi sponge symbiont. Genomic mining studies such as the one presented here for NRPS genes, contribute to on-going efforts to characterize the genomic potential of sponge-associated microbiota for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:22822366

  3. Non-standard amino acid recognition by Escherichia coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinis, S. A.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant E. coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase was screened for amino acid-dependent pyrophosphate exchange activity using noncognate aliphatic amino acids including norvaline, homocysteine, norleucine, methionine, and homoserine. [32P]-labeled reaction products were separated by thin layer chromatography using a novel solvent system and then quantified by phosphorimaging. Norvaline which differs from leucine by only one methyl group stimulated pyrophosphate exchange activity as did both homocysteine and norleucine to a lesser extent. The KM parameters for leucine and norvaline were measured to be 10 micromoles and 1.5 mM, respectively. Experiments are in progress to determine if norvaline is transferred to tRNA(Leu) and/or edited by a pre- or post-transfer mechanism.

  4. Thromboxane synthetase inhibition reduces ventricular irritability after coronary occlusion and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Austin, J C; Berrizbeitia, L D; Schoen, F J; Kauffman, R P; Hechtman, H B; Cohn, L H

    1988-03-01

    Reperfusion of ischemic tissue is responsible for production of metabolites with deleterious local vascular effects. Thromboxane A2, a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator, has been implicated as a mediator of the "reperfusion injury." We studied the effect of an experimental thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, OKY-046, on coronary sinus thromboxane levels, ventricular irritability, myocardial contractility, infarct salvage, and histologic features of reperfusion. Sixteen sheep were randomized to OKY-046, 3 mg/kg, or saline vehicle before 3-hour occlusion and subsequent reperfusion of the left anterior descending artery. The OKY group demonstrated less ventricular irritability as measured by incidence of ventricular fibrillation and necessity for countershock to reverse tachyarrhythmias. Coronary sinus thromboxane levels were significantly lower in the OKY group compared with the control group. There is additional evidence to suggest that OKY increases infarct salvage and attenuates histologic features of microcirculatory damage. PMID:3344655

  5. Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance and biochemical characterization of fluorotyrosine-labeled-thymidylate-synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosson, Dan; Lewis, Charles A.; Ellis, Paul D.; Dunlap, R. Bruce

    1994-03-01

    Fluorotyrosine has been incorporated into thymidylate synthetase from Lactobacillus casei by growth of the bacterium in media containing 3-fluorotyrosine. The enzyme exhibited a specific activity 70% of that of the normal enzyme and formed a covalent binary complex with pyrimidine nucleotides, as well as a covalent ternary complex with 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to follow the formation of these complexes. 5-Fluorodeoxyuridylate, dUMP, dTMP and dCMP produced identical conformational changes in the enzyme as monitored by the fluorotyrosyl resonances. Ternary complex formation of the fluorotyrosine-containing enzyme with 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate resulted in further spectral changes.

  6. Diversity of nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes in the microbial metagenomes of marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila Marie; Grozdanov, Lubomir; Proksch, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute

    2012-06-01

    Genomic mining revealed one major nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) phylogenetic cluster in 12 marine sponge species, one ascidian, an actinobacterial isolate and seawater. Phylogenetic analysis predicts its taxonomic affiliation to the actinomycetes and hydroxy-phenyl-glycine as a likely substrate. Additionally, a phylogenetically distinct NRPS gene cluster was discovered in the microbial metagenome of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba, which shows highest similarities to NRPS genes that were previously assigned, by ways of single cell genomics, to a Chloroflexi sponge symbiont. Genomic mining studies such as the one presented here for NRPS genes, contribute to on-going efforts to characterize the genomic potential of sponge-associated microbiota for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:22822366

  7. Optimization of Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pantothenate Synthetase Based on Group Efficiency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Alvin W.; Silvestre, H. Leonardo; Wen, Shijun; George, Guillaume P. C.; Boland, Jennifer; Blundell, Tom L.; Ciulli, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ligand efficiency has proven to be a valuable concept for optimization of leads in the early stages of drug design. Taking this one step further, group efficiency (GE) evaluates the binding efficiency of each appendage of a molecule, further fine‐tuning the drug design process. Here, GE analysis is used to systematically improve the potency of inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pantothenate synthetase, an important target in tuberculosis therapy. Binding efficiencies were found to be distributed unevenly within a lead molecule derived using a fragment‐based approach. Substitution of the less efficient parts of the molecule allowed systematic development of more potent compounds. This method of dissecting and analyzing different groups within a molecule offers a rational and general way of carrying out lead optimization, with potential broad application within drug discovery. PMID:26486566

  8. Barley chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity is not affected by CO sub 2 -concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, C.; Forde, B.; Wallsgrove, R. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been reported that when photorespiration is suppressed by raising the concentration of CO{sub 2}, the expression of the chloroplast glutamine synthetase (GS2) gene in pea leaves is reduced (Plant Cell, 1, 241). We have examined this effect in barley (Hordeum vulgare), and confirm that plants grown continuously in 0.8% CO{sub 2}, or transferred to such conditions after growth in air, appear to have a reduced GS2 mRNA abundance. However, we were unable to detect any significant difference in the extractable GS2 activity, or any change in amount of GS2 protein (judged by Western blots). Whatever controls are operating on gS2 mRNA expression in response to changes is external CO{sub 2}, they do not affect the activity or amount of the enzyme in barley.

  9. Active site coupling in Plasmodium falciparum GMP synthetase is triggered by domain rotation

    PubMed Central

    Ballut, Lionel; Violot, Sébastien; Shivakumaraswamy, Santosh; Thota, Lakshmi Prasoona; Sathya, Manu; Kunala, Jyothirmai; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Terreux, Raphaël; Haser, Richard; Balaram, Hemalatha; Aghajari, Nushin

    2015-01-01

    GMP synthetase (GMPS), a key enzyme in the purine biosynthetic pathway performs catalysis through a coordinated process across two catalytic pockets for which the mechanism remains unclear. Crystal structures of Plasmodium falciparum GMPS in conjunction with mutational and enzyme kinetic studies reported here provide evidence that an 85° rotation of the GATase domain is required for ammonia channelling and thus for the catalytic activity of this two-domain enzyme. We suggest that conformational changes in helix 371–375 holding catalytic residues and in loop 376–401 along the rotation trajectory trigger the different steps of catalysis, and establish the central role of Glu374 in allostery and inter-domain crosstalk. These studies reveal the mechanism of domain rotation and inter-domain communication, providing a molecular framework for the function of all single polypeptide GMPSs and form a solid basis for rational drug design targeting this therapeutically important enzyme. PMID:26592566

  10. Glutamine Triggers Acetylation-Dependent Degradation of Glutamine Synthetase via the Thalidomide Receptor Cereblon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T Van; Lee, J Eugene; Sweredoski, Michael J; Yang, Seung-Joo; Jeon, Seung-Je; Harrison, Joseph S; Yim, Jung-Hyuk; Lee, Sang Ghil; Handa, Hiroshi; Kuhlman, Brian; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Reitsma, Justin M; Park, Chul-Seung; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-03-17

    Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor for the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase 4 (CRL4) complex, is a direct protein target for thalidomide teratogenicity and antitumor activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). Here we report that glutamine synthetase (GS) is an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Upon exposing cells to high glutamine concentration, GS is acetylated at lysines 11 and 14, yielding a degron that is necessary and sufficient for binding and ubiquitylation by CRL4(CRBN) and degradation by the proteasome. Binding of acetylated degron peptides to CRBN depends on an intact thalidomide-binding pocket but is not competitive with IMiDs. These findings reveal a feedback loop involving CRL4(CRBN) that adjusts GS protein levels in response to glutamine and uncover a new function for lysine acetylation. PMID:26990986

  11. Site-specific cleavage of acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase by legumain.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shinya; Inoue, Daiki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Li, Chuan; Imai, Masahiko; Takahashi, Noriko; Fukui, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AACS) is a ketone body-utilizing enzyme and is responsible for the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids. We have previously shown that AACS is cleaved by legumain, a lysosomal asparaginyl endopeptidase. In this study, we attempted to determine the cleavage site of AACS. Mutagenesis analysis of AACS revealed that Asn547 is the specific cleavage site of AACS in mouse livers. The cleaved form of AACS (1-547) lost the ability to convert acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. Moreover, hydrodynamics-based gene transduction showed that overexpression of AACS (1-547) increases the protein expression of caveolin-1, the principal component of the caveolae. These results suggest that cleavage of AACS by legumain is critical for the regulation of enzymatic activity and results in gain-of-function changes. PMID:27129883

  12. Characterization of Drosophila CMP-sialic acid synthetase activity reveals unusual enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Mertsalov, Ilya B; Novikov, Boris N; Scott, Hilary; Dangott, Lawrence; Panin, Vladislav M

    2016-07-01

    CMP-sialic acid synthetase (CSAS) is a key enzyme of the sialylation pathway. CSAS produces the activated sugar donor, CMP-sialic acid, which serves as a substrate for sialyltransferases to modify glycan termini with sialic acid. Unlike other animal CSASs that normally localize in the nucleus, Drosophila melanogaster CSAS (DmCSAS) localizes in the cell secretory compartment, predominantly in the Golgi, which suggests that this enzyme has properties distinct from those of its vertebrate counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we purified recombinant DmCSAS and characterized its activity in vitro Our experiments revealed several unique features of this enzyme. DmCSAS displays specificity for N-acetylneuraminic acid as a substrate, shows preference for lower pH and can function with a broad range of metal cofactors. When tested at a pH corresponding to the Golgi compartment, the enzyme showed significant activity with several metal cations, including Zn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Mn(2+), whereas the activity with Mg(2+) was found to be low. Protein sequence analysis and site-specific mutagenesis identified an aspartic acid residue that is necessary for enzymatic activity and predicted to be involved in co-ordinating a metal cofactor. DmCSAS enzymatic activity was found to be essential in vivo for rescuing the phenotype of DmCSAS mutants. Finally, our experiments revealed a steep dependence of the enzymatic activity on temperature. Taken together, our results indicate that DmCSAS underwent evolutionary adaptation to pH and ionic environment different from that of counterpart synthetases in vertebrates. Our data also suggest that environmental temperatures can regulate Drosophila sialylation, thus modulating neural transmission. PMID:27114558

  13. Recombinant expression, purification, and crystallization of the glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Jason M; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Belrhali, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases play a critical role in protein synthesis by providing precursor transfer-RNA molecules correctly charged with their cognate amino-acids. The essential nature of these enzymes make them attractive targets for designing new drugs against important pathogenic protozoans like Toxoplasma. Because no structural data currently exists for a protozoan glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (QRS), an understanding of its potential as a drug target and its function in the assembly of the Toxoplasma multi-aminoacyl tRNA (MARS) complex is therefore lacking. Here we describe the optimization of expression and purification conditions that permitted the recovery and crystallization of both domains of the Toxoplasma QRS enzyme from a heterologous Escherichia coli expression system. Expression of full-length QRS was only achieved after the addition of an N-terminal histidine affinity tag and the isolated protein was active on both cellular and in vitro produced Toxoplasma tRNA. Taking advantage of the proteolytic susceptibility of QRS to cleavage into component domains, N-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST) motif-containing domain fragments were isolated and crystallization conditions discovered. Isolation of the C-terminal catalytic domain was accomplished after subcloning the domain and optimizing expression conditions. Purified catalytic domain survived cryogenic storage and yielded large diffraction-quality crystals over-night after optimization of screening conditions. This work will form the basis of future structural studies into structural-functional relationships of both domains including potential targeted drug-design studies and investigations into the assembly of the Toxoplasma MARS complex. PMID:25736594

  14. A minimalist mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase exhibits tRNA-isoacceptor specificity during proofreading

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Meng; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Yong; Chen, Yun; Liu, Ru-Juan; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2014-01-01

    Yeast mitochondria contain a minimalist threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) composed only of the catalytic core and tRNA binding domain but lacking the entire editing domain. Besides the usual tRNAThr2, some budding yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also contain a non-canonical tRNAThr1 with an enlarged 8-nucleotide anticodon loop, reprograming the usual leucine CUN codons to threonine. This raises interesting questions about the aminoacylation fidelity of such ThrRSs and the possible contribution of the two tRNAThrs during editing. Here, we found that, despite the absence of the editing domain, S. cerevisiae mitochondrial ThrRS (ScmtThrRS) harbors a tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing activity. Remarkably, only the usual tRNAThr2 stimulated pre-transfer editing, thus, establishing the first example of a synthetase exhibiting tRNA-isoacceptor specificity during pre-transfer editing. We also showed that the failure of tRNAThr1 to stimulate tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing was due to the lack of an editing domain. Using assays of the complementation of a ScmtThrRS gene knockout strain, we showed that the catalytic core and tRNA binding domain of ScmtThrRS co-evolved to recognize the unusual tRNAThr1. In combination, the results provide insights into the tRNA-dependent editing process and suggest that tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing takes place in the aminoacylation catalytic core. PMID:25414329

  15. A minimalist mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA synthetase exhibits tRNA-isoacceptor specificity during proofreading.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Meng; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Yong; Chen, Yun; Liu, Ru-Juan; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2014-12-16

    Yeast mitochondria contain a minimalist threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) composed only of the catalytic core and tRNA binding domain but lacking the entire editing domain. Besides the usual tRNA(Thr)2, some budding yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also contain a non-canonical tRNA(Thr)1 with an enlarged 8-nucleotide anticodon loop, reprograming the usual leucine CUN codons to threonine. This raises interesting questions about the aminoacylation fidelity of such ThrRSs and the possible contribution of the two tRNA(Thr)s during editing. Here, we found that, despite the absence of the editing domain, S. cerevisiae mitochondrial ThrRS (ScmtThrRS) harbors a tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing activity. Remarkably, only the usual tRNA(Thr)2 stimulated pre-transfer editing, thus, establishing the first example of a synthetase exhibiting tRNA-isoacceptor specificity during pre-transfer editing. We also showed that the failure of tRNA(Thr)1 to stimulate tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing was due to the lack of an editing domain. Using assays of the complementation of a ScmtThrRS gene knockout strain, we showed that the catalytic core and tRNA binding domain of ScmtThrRS co-evolved to recognize the unusual tRNA(Thr)1. In combination, the results provide insights into the tRNA-dependent editing process and suggest that tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing takes place in the aminoacylation catalytic core. PMID:25414329

  16. On the role of helix 0 of the tryptophan synthetase alpha chain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yee, M C; Horn, V; Yanofsky, C

    1996-06-21

    The role of helix 0 of the alpha chain (TrpA) of the tryptophan synthetase alpha2beta2 multi-functional enzyme complex of Escherichia coli was examined by deleting amino-terminal residues 2-6, 2-11, or 2-19 of TrpA. Selected substitutions were also introduced at TrpA positions 2-6. The altered genes encoding these polypeptides were overexpressed from a foreign promoter on a multicopy plasmid and following insertion at their normal chromosomal location. Each deletion polypeptide was functional in vivo. However all appeared to be somewhat more labile and insoluble and less active enzymatically than wild type TrpA. The deletion polypeptides were overproduced and solubilized from cell debris by denaturation and refolding. Several were partially purified and assayed in various reactions in the presence of tryptophan synthetase beta2 (TrpB). The purified TrpADelta2-6 and TrpADelta2-11 deletion polypeptides had low activity in both the indole + serine --> tryptophan reaction and the indoleglycerol phosphate + serine --> tryptophan reaction. Poor activity in each reaction was partly due to reduced association of TrpA with TrpB. The addition of the TrpA ligands, alpha-glycerophosphate or indoleglycerol phosphate, during catalysis of the indole + serine --> tryptophan reaction increased association and activity. These findings suggest that removal of helix 0 of TrpA decreases TrpA-TrpB association as well as the activity of the TrpA active site. Alignment of the TrpA sequences from different species indicates that several lack part or all of helix 0. In some of these polypeptides, extra residues at the carboxyl end may substitute for helix 0. PMID:8662916

  17. Crystal structure of a non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Jörg O; Masoumi, Ava; Nickel, Daniel; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Schubert, Wolf-Dieter; Heinz, Dirk W

    2006-09-01

    Error-free protein biosynthesis is dependent on the reliable charging of each tRNA with its cognate amino acid. Many bacteria, however, lack a glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. In these organisms, tRNA(Gln) is initially mischarged with glutamate by a non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-GluRS). This enzyme thus charges both tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln) with glutamate. Discriminating GluRS (D-GluRS), found in some bacteria and all eukaryotes, exclusively generates Glu-tRNA(Glu). Here we present the first crystal structure of a non-discriminating GluRS from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (ND-GluRS(Tel)) in complex with glutamate at a resolution of 2.45 A. Structurally, the enzyme shares the overall architecture of the discriminating GluRS from Thermus thermophilus (D-GluRS(Tth)). We confirm experimentally that GluRS(Tel) is non-discriminating and present kinetic parameters for synthesis of Glu-tRNA(Glu) and of Glu-tRNA(Gln). Anticodons of tRNA(Glu) (34C/UUC36) and tRNA(Gln) (34C/UUG36) differ only in base 36. The pyrimidine base of C36 is specifically recognized in D-GluRS(Tth) by the residue Arg358. In ND-GluRS(Tel) this arginine residue is replaced by glycine (Gly366) presumably allowing both cytosine and the bulkier purine base G36 of tRNA(Gln) to be tolerated. Most other ND-GluRS share this structural feature, leading to relaxed substrate specificity. PMID:16876193

  18. Functional connectivity between tRNA binding domains in glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Sherman, J M; Thomann, H U; Söll, D

    1996-03-15

    The structure of Escherichia coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) in complex with tRNAGln and ATP has identified a number a sequence-specific protein-tRNA interactions. The contribution to glutamine identity has previously been determined for the nucleotides in tRNAGln. Here, we report the mutational analysis of residues in all three tRNA recognition domains of GlnRS, thus completing a survey of the major sequence-specific contacts between GlnRS and tRNAGln. Specifically, we analyzed the GlnRS determinants involved in recognition of the anticodon which is essential for glutamine identity and in the communication of anticodon recognition to the acceptor binding domain in GlnRS. A combined in vivo and in vitro approach has demonstrated that Arg341, which makes a single sequence-specific hydrogen bond with U35 in the anticodon of tRNAGln, is involved in initial RNA recognition and is an important positive determinant for this base in both cognate and non- cognate tRNA contexts. However, Arg341, as well as Arg402, which interacts with G36 in the anticodon, are negative determinants for non-cognate nucleotides at their respective positions. Analysis of acceptor-anticodon binding double mutants and of a mutation of Glu323 in the loop-strand-helix connectivity subdomain in GlnRS has further implicated this domain in the functional communication of anticodon recognition. The better than expected activity (anticooperativity) of these double mutants has led us to propose an "anticodon-independent" mechanism, in which the removal of certain synthetase interactions with the anticodon eliminates structural constraints, thus allowing the relaxed specificity mutants in the acceptor binding domain ot make more productive interactions. PMID:8601833

  19. Metabolic regulation of the gene encoding glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, H M; Peng, S S; Coruzzi, G M

    1994-01-01

    Here, we characterize a cDNA encoding a glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase (ASN1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and assess the effects of metabolic regulation on ASN1 mRNA levels. Sequence analysis shows that the predicted ASN1 peptide contains a purF-type glutamine-binding domain. Southern blot experiments and cDNA clone analysis suggest that ASN1 is the only gene encoding glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase in A. thaliana. The ASN1 gene is expressed predominantly in shoot tissues, where light has a negative effect on its mRNA accumulation. This negative effect of light on ASN1 mRNA levels was shown to be mediated, at least in part, via the photoreceptor phytochrome. We also investigated whether light-induced changes in nitrogen to carbon ratios might exert a metabolic regulation of the ASN1 mRNA accumulation. These experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of ASN1 mRNA in dark-grown plants is strongly repressed by the presence of exogenous sucrose. Moreover, this sucrose repression of ASN1 expression can be partially rescued by supplementation with exogenous amino acids such as asparagine, glutamine, and glutamate. These findings suggest that the expression of the ASN1 gene is under the metabolic control of the nitrogen to carbon ratio in cells. This is consistent with the fact that asparagine, synthesized by the ASN1 gene product, is a favored compound for nitrogen storage and nitrogen transport in dark-grown plants. We have put forth a working model suggesting that when nitrogen to carbon ratios are high, the gene product of ASN1 functions to re-direct the flow of nitrogen into asparagine, which acts as a shunt for storage and/or long-distance transport of nitrogen. PMID:7846154

  20. Naturally Occurring Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase without tRNA-dependent Pre-transfer Editing*

    PubMed Central

    Cvetesic, Nevena; Dulic, Morana; Bilus, Mirna; Sostaric, Nikolina; Lenhard, Boris; Gruic-Sovulj, Ita

    2016-01-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) is unusual among aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in having a tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing activity. Alongside the typical bacterial IleRS (such as Escherichia coli IleRS), some bacteria also have the enzymes (eukaryote-like) that cluster with eukaryotic IleRSs and exhibit low sensitivity to the antibiotic mupirocin. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ileS1 and ileS2 genes of contemporary bacteria are the descendants of genes that might have arisen by an ancient duplication event before the separation of bacteria and archaea. We present the analysis of evolutionary constraints of the synthetic and editing reactions in eukaryotic/eukaryote-like IleRSs, which share a common origin but diverged through adaptation to different cell environments. The enzyme from the yeast cytosol exhibits tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing analogous to E. coli IleRS. This argues for the presence of this proofreading in the common ancestor of both IleRS types and an ancient origin of the synthetic site-based quality control step. Yet surprisingly, the eukaryote-like enzyme from Streptomyces griseus IleRS lacks this capacity; at the same time, its synthetic site displays the 103-fold drop in sensitivity to antibiotic mupirocin relative to the yeast enzyme. The discovery that pre-transfer editing is optional in IleRSs lends support to the notion that the conserved post-transfer editing domain is the main checkpoint in these enzymes. We substantiated this by showing that under error-prone conditions S. griseus IleRS is able to rescue the growth of an E. coli lacking functional IleRS, providing the first evidence that tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing in IleRS is not essential for cell viability. PMID:26921320

  1. Heme ligand identification and redox properties of the cytochrome c synthetase, CcmF†

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Brian San; Bretsnyder, Eric C.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome c maturation in many bacteria, archaea, and plant mitochondria involves the integral membrane protein CcmF, which is thought to function as a cytochrome c synthetase by facilitating the final covalent attachment of heme to the apocytochrome c. We previously reported that the E. coli CcmF protein contains a b-type heme that is stably and stoichiometrically associated with the protein and is not the heme attached to apocytochrome c. Here, we show that mutation of either of two conserved transmembrane histidines (His261 or His491) impairs stoichiometric b-heme binding in CcmF and results in spectral perturbations in the remaining heme. Exogeneous imidazole is able to correct cytochrome c maturation for His261 and His491 substitutions with small side chains (Ala or Gly), suggesting that a “cavity” is formed in these CcmF mutants in which imidazole binds and acts as a functional ligand to the b-heme. The results of resonance Raman spectroscopy on wild-type CcmF are consistent with a hexacoordinate low spin b-heme with at least one endogeneous axial His ligand. Analysis of purified recombinant CcmF proteins from diverse prokaryotes reveals that the b-heme in CcmF is widely conserved. We have also determined the reduction potential of the CcmF b-heme (Em,7 = -147 mV). We discuss these results in the context of CcmF structure and functions as a heme reductase and cytochrome c synthetase. PMID:22066495

  2. Structural basis for translational fidelity ensured by transfer RNA lysidine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kotaro; Bonnefond, Luc; Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2009-10-22

    Maturation of precursor transfer RNA (pre-tRNA) includes excision of the 5' leader and 3' trailer sequences, removal of introns and addition of the CCA terminus. Nucleotide modifications are incorporated at different stages of tRNA processing, after the RNA molecule adopts the proper conformation. In bacteria, tRNA(Ile2) lysidine synthetase (TilS) modifies cytidine into lysidine (L; 2-lysyl-cytidine) at the first anticodon of tRNA(Ile2) (refs 4-9). This modification switches tRNA(Ile2) from a methionine-specific to an isoleucine-specific tRNA. However, the aminoacylation of tRNA(Ile2) by methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS), before the modification by TilS, might lead to the misincorporation of methionine in response to isoleucine codons. The mechanism used by bacteria to avoid this pitfall is unknown. Here we show that the TilS enzyme specifically recognizes and modifies tRNA(Ile2) in its precursor form, thereby avoiding translation errors. We identified the lysidine modification in pre-tRNA(Ile2) isolated from RNase-E-deficient Escherichia coli and did not detect mature tRNA(Ile2) lacking this modification. Our kinetic analyses revealed that TilS can modify both types of RNA molecule with comparable efficiencies. X-ray crystallography and mutational analyses revealed that TilS specifically recognizes the entire L-shape structure in pre-tRNA(Ile2) through extensive interactions coupled with sequential domain movements. Our results demonstrate how TilS prevents the recognition of tRNA(Ile2) by MetRS and achieves high specificity for its substrate. These two key points form the basis for maintaining the fidelity of isoleucine codon translation in bacteria. Our findings also provide a rationale for the necessity of incorporating specific modifications at the precursor level during tRNA biogenesis. PMID:19847269

  3. Purification, Characterization, and Expression of Multiple Glutamine Synthetases from Prevotella ruminicola 23

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Nam; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2012-01-01

    The Prevotella ruminicola 23 genome encodes three different glutamine synthetase (GS) enzymes: glutamine synthetase I (GSI) (ORF02151), GSIII-1 (ORF01459), and GSIII-2 (ORF02034). GSI, GSIII-1, and GSIII-2 have each been heterologously expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. The subunit molecular mass of GSI was 56 kDa, while GSIII-1 and GSIII-2 were both 83 kDa. Optimal conditions for γ-glutamyl transferase activity were found to be 35°C at pH 5.6 with 0.25 mM Mn2+ ions (GSI) or 37°C at pH 6.0 (GSIII-1 and GSIII-2) with 0.50 to 1.00 mM Mn2+ ions. GSIII biosynthetic activity was found to be optimal at 50 to 60°C and pH 6.8 to 7.0 with 10 mM Mn2+ ions, while GSI displayed no GS biosynthetic activity. Kinetic analysis revealed Km values for glutamate and ammonium as well as for hydrolysis of ATP to be 8.58, 0.48, and 1.91 mM, respectively, for GSIII-1 and 1.72, 0.43, and 2.65 mM, respectively, for GSIII-2. A quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay (qRT-PCR) revealed GSIII-2 to be significantly induced by high concentrations of ammonia, and this corresponded with increases in measured GS activity. Collectively, these results show that both GSIII enzymes in P. ruminicola 23 are functional and indicate that GSIII-2, flanked by GOGAT (gltB and gltD genes), plays an important role in the acquisition and metabolism of ammonia, particularly under nonlimiting ammonia growth conditions. PMID:22020637

  4. Variable Sensitivity to Bacterial Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors Reveals Subpopulations of Streptococcus pneumoniae with Two Distinct Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Daniel R.; Ingraham, Karen A.; Stanhope, Michael J.; Rittenhouse, Stephen; Jarvest, Richard L.; O'Hanlon, Peter J.; Brown, James R.; Holmes, David J.

    2003-01-01

    As reported previously (J. R. Jarvest et al., J. Med. Chem. 45:1952-1962, 2002), potent inhibitors (at nanomolar concentrations) of Staphylococcus aureus methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetS; encoded by metS1) have been derived from a high-throughput screening assay hit. Optimized compounds showed excellent activities against staphylococcal and enterococcal pathogens. We report on the bimodal susceptibilities of S. pneumoniae strains, a significant fraction of which was found to be resistant (MIC, ≥8 mg/liter) to these inhibitors. Using molecular genetic techniques, we have found that the mechanism of resistance is the presence of a second, distantly related MetS enzyme, MetS2, encoded by metS2. We present evidence that the metS2 gene is necessary and sufficient for resistance to MetS inhibitors. PCR analysis for the presence of metS2 among a large sample (n = 315) of S. pneumoniae isolates revealed that it is widespread geographically and chronologically, occurring at a frequency of about 46%. All isolates tested also contained the metS1 gene. Searches of public sequence databases revealed that S. pneumoniae MetS2 was most similar to MetS in Bacillus anthracis, followed by MetS in various non-gram-positive bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic species, with streptococcal MetS being considerably less similar. We propose that the presence of metS2 in specific strains of S. pneumoniae is the result of horizontal gene transfer which has been driven by selection for resistance to some unknown class of naturally occurring antibiotics with similarities to recently reported synthetic MetS inhibitors. PMID:12760849

  5. Aminolaevulinate synthetase of Micrococcus denitrificans. Purification and properties of the enzyme, and the effect of growth conditions on the enzyme activity in cells.

    PubMed

    Tait, G H

    1973-02-01

    1. 5-Aminolaevulinate synthetase was detected in extracts of the non-photosynthetic bacterium Micrococcus denitrificans. 2. Activity is high in cells grown anaerobically in a defined nitrate medium, but is low in cells grown in an iron-deficient medium, and in cells grown aerobically. 3. Aminolaevulinate synthetase was purified extensively; it has a molecular weight of about 68000; apparent K(m) values for glycine, succinyl-CoA and pyridoxal phosphate are 12mm, 10mum and 11mum respectively; 2mum-haemin and 14mum-protoporphyrin inhibit by 50%. 4. The low activity of aminolaevulinate synthetase in iron-deficient cells increases on adding iron salts to cells only under conditions where protein synthesis can occur. 5. In defined nitrate medium with a high Ca(2+) concentration anaerobic growth yield is higher, but aminolaevulinate synthetase activity is lower than in cells grown in the medium with a low Ca(2+) concentration. In medium made from AnalaR constituents, growth yield is low and aminolaevulinate synthetase activity is high even in the presence of high concentrations of Ca(2+); on adding Cu(2+) (0.1mum) to the medium growth yield and aminolaevulinate synthetase activity become the same as in non-AnalaR medium. 6. Cells incubated under conditions where protein synthesis does not occur but where electron transport does, lose their aminolaevulinate synthetase activity rapidly. 7. The activities of aminolaevulinate dehydratase and succinic thiokinase do not change under any of the conditions of growth examined. 8. The possible mechanisms controlling aminolaevulinate synthetase activity and the role of this enzyme in controlling the synthesis of haem in this organism are discussed. PMID:4722442

  6. Mitochondrial import of a cytoplasmic lysine-tRNA in yeast is mediated by cooperation of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial lysyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Tarassov, I; Entelis, N; Martin, R P

    1995-01-01

    Cytoplasmic tRNA(Lys)CUU is the only nuclear-encoded tRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae found to be associated with mitochondria. Selective import of this tRNA into isolated organelles requires cytoplasmic factors. Here we identify two of these factors as the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial lysyl-tRNA synthetases. The cytoplasmic enzyme is obligatory for in vitro import of the deacylated, but not of the aminoacylated tRNA. We thus infer that it is needed for aminoacylation of the tRNA, which is a prerequisite for its import. The mitochondrial synthetase, which cannot aminoacylate tRN(Lys)CUU, is required for import of both aminoacylated and deacylated forms. Its depletion leads to a total arrest of tRNA import, in vitro and in vivo. The mitochondrial lysyl-tRNA synthetase is able to form specific and stable RNP complexes with the amino-acylated tRNA. Furthermore, an N-terminal truncated form of the synthetase which cannot be targeted into mitochondria is unable to direct the import of the tRNA. We therefore hypothesize that the cytosolic precursor form of the mitochondrial synthetase has a carrier function for translocation of the tRNA across the mitochondrial membranes. However, cooperation of the two synthetases is not sufficient to direct tRNA import, suggesting the need of additional factor(s). Images PMID:7628447

  7. Identification of 16 novel mutations in the argininosuccinate synthetase gene and genotype-phenotype correlation in 38 classical citrullinemia patients.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Zhi; Kobayashi, Keiko; Tabata, Ayako; Tsuge, Hideaki; Iijima, Mikio; Yasuda, Tomotsugu; Kalkanoglu, H Serap; Dursun, Ali; Tokatli, Aysegul; Coskun, Turgay; Trefz, Friedrich K; Skladal, Daniela; Mandel, Hanna; Seidel, Joerg; Kodama, Soichi; Shirane, Seiko; Ichida, Takafumi; Makino, Shigeru; Yoshino, Makoto; Kang, Jong-Hon; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Barshop, Bruce A; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Seneca, Sara; Zeesman, Susan; Knerr, Ina; Rodés, Margarita; Wasant, Pornswan; Yoshida, Ichiro; De Meirleir, Linda; Abdul Jalil, Md; Begum, Laila; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Nakagawa, Shiro; Saheki, Takeyori

    2003-07-01

    Classical citrullinemia (CTLN1), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by mutations of the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene, localized on chromosome 9q34.1. ASS functions as a rate-limiting enzyme in the urea cycle. Previously, we identified 32 mutations in the ASS gene of CTLN1 patients mainly in Japan and the United States, and to date 34 different mutations have been described in 50 families worldwide. In the present study, we report ASS mutations detected in 35 additional CTLN1 families from 11 countries. By analyzing the entire coding sequence and the intron-exon boundaries of the ASS gene using RT-PCR and/or genomic DNA-PCR, we have identified 16 novel mutations (two different 1-bp deletions, a 67-bp insertion, and 13 missense) and have detected 12 known mutations. Altogether, 50 different mutations (seven deletion, three splice site, one duplication, two nonsense, and 37 missense) in 85 CTLN1 families were identified. On the basis of primary sequence comparisons with the crystal structure of E. coli ASS protein, it may be concluded that any of the 37 missense mutations found at 30 different positions led to structural and functional impairments of the human ASS protein. It has been found that three mutations are particularly frequent: IVS6-2A>G in 23 families (Japan: 20 and Korea: three), G390R in 18 families (Turkey: six, U.S.: five, Spain: three, Israel: one, Austria: one, Canada: one, and Bolivia: one), and R304W in 10 families (Japan: nine and Turkey: one). Most mutations of the ASS gene are "private" and are distributed throughout the gene, except for exons 5 and 12-14. It seems that the clinical course of the patients with truncated mutations or the G390R mutation is early-onset/severe. The phenotype of the patients with certain missense mutations (G362V or W179R) is more late-onset/mild. Eight patients with R86H, A118T, R265H, or K310R mutations were adult/late-onset and four of them showed severe symptoms during pregnancy or

  8. Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli: cloning and characterisation of the gene, homologies of its translated amino acid sequence with asparaginyl- and lysyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Eriani, G; Dirheimer, G; Gangloff, J

    1990-01-01

    By screening of an Escherichia coli plasmidic library using antibodies against aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS) several clones were obtained containing aspS, the gene coding for AspRS. We report here the nucleotide sequence of aspS and the corresponding primary structure of the aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, a protein of 590 amino acid residues with a Mr 65,913, a value in close agreement with that observed for the purified protein. Primer extension analysis of the aspS mRNA using reverse transcriptase located its 5'-end at 94 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation AUG; nuclease S1 analysis located the 3'-end at 126 nucleotides downstream of the stop codon UGA. Comparison of the DNA-derived protein sequence with known aminoacyl-tRNA sequences revealed important homologies with asparaginyl- and lysyl-tRNA synthetases from E.coli; more than 25% of their amino acid residues are identical, the homologies being distributed preferencially in the first part and the carboxy-terminal end of the molecule. Mutagenesis directed towards a consensus tetrapeptide (Gly-Leu-Asp-Arg) and the carboxy-terminal end showed that both domains could be implicated in catalysis as well as in ATP binding. Images PMID:2129559

  9. Rheb Protein Binds CAD (Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase 2, Aspartate Transcarbamoylase, and Dihydroorotase) Protein in a GTP- and Effector Domain-dependent Manner and Influences Its Cellular Localization and Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase (CPSase) Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J.; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-01

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. PMID:25422319

  10. Functional Characterization of PyrG, an Unusual Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Module from the Pyridomycin Biosynthetic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tingting; Li, Lili; Brock, Nelson L; Deng, Zixin; Lin, Shuangjun

    2016-08-01

    Pyridomycin is an antimycobacterial cyclodepsipeptide assembled by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase hybrid system. Analysis of its cluster revealed a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) module, PyrG, that contains two tandem adenylation domains and a PKS-type ketoreductase domain. In this study, we biochemically validated that the second A domain recognizes and activates α-keto-β-methylvaleric acid (2-KVC) as the native substrate; the first A domain was not functional but might play a structural role. The KR domain catalyzed the reduction of the 2-KVC tethered to the peptidyl carrier protein of PyrG in the presence of the MbtH family protein, PyrH. PyrG was demonstrated to recognize many amino acids. This substrate promiscuity provides the potential to generate pyridomycin analogues with various enolic acids moiety; this is important for binding InhA, a critical enzyme for cell-wall biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:27197800

  11. Demonstration of an altered phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase in an analogue-resistant mutant of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, B N; Bisen, P S; Sinha, U

    1987-08-01

    We have isolated and characterized a new class of p-fluorophenylalanine (FPA)-resistant mutant in Aspergillus nidulans using a phenA strain as the wild type, by optimizing the conditions of growth. All four spontaneous mutants selected on a medium containing FPA were found to be recessive to their wild-type alleles in heterozygous diploids. Complementation analyses and linkage data showed that they were allelic and mapped at a single locus (fpaU) in the facA-riboD interval on the right arm of linkage group V. Partial purification and characterization of Phe-tRNA synthetase from wild-type and mutant strains revealed that the mutant enzyme had a greatly reduced ability to activate the analogue. It is suggested that mutation in the fpaU gene brings about a structural alteration in Phe-tRNA synthetase. PMID:3312953

  12. Severe respiratory failure as a presenting feature of an interstitial lung disease associated with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS).

    PubMed

    Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Barlascini, Cornelius; Castagneto, Corrado; Nicolini, Antonello

    2016-07-01

    Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is defined as a heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by the association of an interstitial lung disease (ILD) with or without inflammatory myositis with the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase antibodies. ILD is one of the major extra-muscular manifestations of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. We report a case of a patient with dyspnea, cough, and intermittent fever as well as ILD associated ASS in the absence of muscular involvement. This patient was admitted to the emergency department with severe respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation. Our patient's case demonstrates that the diagnosis of ASS may not be obvious. However, its diagnosis leads to appropriate and potentially life-saving treatment. PMID:27424829

  13. Diagnostic of protein crystallization by dynamic light scattering; an application to an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikol, Vincent; Vincendon, Pascale; Eriani, Gilbert; Hirsch, Ernest; Giegé, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The apparent hydrodynamic radius of a truncated form of baker's yeast aspartyl-tRNA synthetase has been measured in various precipitating agent solutions as a function of the protein concentration by dynamic light scattering. In solvents containing ammonium sulfate or 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as the precipitating agent the protein remains essentially monodisperse, whereas in the presence of polyethylene glycol interactions and aggregations between protein molecules are detected before reaching supersaturation. These data are indications of possible crystallizations of the protein by the two former precipitants and no crystallization by the latter one. Crystallization experiments indeed have shown that the truncated synthetase crystallizes in the presence of ammonium sulfate and that no crystals grow in solvents containing polyethylene glycol.

  14. Three-dimensional structure of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from E. coli at 2.71 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli was cloned, purified, and crystallized. Single crystals of the enzyme were grown under microgravity. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility and used to determine the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme by the molecular-replacement method at 2.71 Å resolution. The active and regulatory sites in the molecule of E. coli phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase were revealed by comparison with the homologous protein from Bacillus subtilis, the structure of which was determined in a complex with functional ligands. The conformations of polypeptide-chain fragments surrounding and composing the active and regulatory sites were shown to be identical in both proteins.

  15. Fatty Acid Elongation Is Independent of Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Activities in Leek and Brassica napus1

    PubMed Central

    Hlousek-Radojcic, Alenka; Evenson, Kimberly J.; Jaworski, Jan G.; Post-Beittenmiller, Dusty

    1998-01-01

    In both animal and plant acyl elongation systems, it has been proposed that fatty acids are first activated to acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) before their elongation, and that the ATP dependence of fatty acid elongation is evidence of acyl-CoA synthetase involvement. However, because CoA is not supplied in standard fatty acid elongation assays, it is not clear if CoA-dependent acyl-CoA synthetase activity can provide levels of acyl-CoAs necessary to support typical rates of fatty acid elongation. Therefore, we examined the role of acyl-CoA synthetase in providing the primer for acyl elongation in leek (Allium porrum L.) epidermal microsomes and Brassica napus L. cv Reston oil bodies. As presented here, fatty acid elongation was independent of CoA and proceeded at maximum rates with CoA-free preparations of malonyl-CoA. We also showed that stearic acid ([1-14C]18:0)-CoA was synthesized from [1-14C]18:0 in the presence of CoA-free malonyl-CoA or acetyl-CoA, and that [1-14C]18:0-CoA synthesis under these conditions was ATP dependent. Furthermore, the appearance of [1-14C]18:0 in the acyl-CoA fraction was simultaneous with its appearance in phosphatidylcholine. These data, together with the s of a previous study (A. Hlousek-Radojcic, H. Imai, J.G. Jaworski [1995] Plant J 8: 803–809) showing that exogenous [14C]acyl-CoAs are diluted by a relatively large endogenous pool before they are elongated, strongly indicated that acyl-CoA synthetase did not play a direct role in fatty acid elongation, and that phosphatidylcholine or another glycerolipid was a more likely source of elongation primers than acyl-CoAs.

  16. p53-Dependent DNA damage response sensitive to editing-defective tRNA synthetase in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Song, Youngzee; Shi, Yi; Carland, Tristan M; Lian, Shanshan; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Schork, Nicholas J; Head, Steven R; Kishi, Shuji; Schimmel, Paul

    2016-07-26

    Brain and heart pathologies are caused by editing defects of transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases, which preserve genetic code fidelity by removing incorrect amino acids misattached to tRNAs. To extend understanding of the broader impact of synthetase editing reactions on organismal homeostasis, and based on effects in bacteria ostensibly from small amounts of mistranslation of components of the replication apparatus, we investigated the sensitivity to editing of the vertebrate genome. We show here that in zebrafish embryos, transient overexpression of editing-defective valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS(ED)) activated DNA break-responsive H2AX and p53-responsive downstream proteins, such as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21, which promotes cell-cycle arrest at DNA damage checkpoints, and Gadd45 and p53R2, with pivotal roles in DNA repair. In contrast, the response of these proteins to expression of ValRS(ED) was abolished in p53-deficient fish. The p53-activated downstream signaling events correlated with suppression of abnormal morphological changes caused by the editing defect and, in adults, reversed a shortened life span (followed for 2 y). Conversely, with normal editing activities, p53-deficient fish have a normal life span and few morphological changes. Whole-fish deep sequencing showed genomic mutations associated with the editing defect. We suggest that the sensitivity of p53 to expression of an editing-defective tRNA synthetase has a critical role in promoting genome integrity and organismal homeostasis. PMID:27402763

  17. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes pesL and pes1 are essential for Fumigaclavine C production in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, Karen A; Gallagher, Lorna; Schrettl, Markus; Jöchl, Christoph; Kavanagh, Kevin; Larsen, Thomas O; Doyle, Sean

    2012-05-01

    The identity of metabolites encoded by the majority of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in the opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, remains outstanding. We found that the nonribosomal peptide (NRP) synthetases PesL and Pes1 were essential for fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, the end product of the complex ergot alkaloid (EA) pathway in A. fumigatus. Deletion of either pesL (ΔpesL) or pes1 (Δpes1) resulted in complete loss of fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, relatively increased production of fumitremorgins such as TR-2, fumitremorgin C and verruculogen, increased sensitivity to H(2)O(2), and increased sensitivity to the antifungals, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. Deletion of pesL resulted in severely reduced virulence in an invertebrate infection model (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that NRP synthesis plays an essential role in mediating the final prenylation step of the EA pathway, despite the apparent absence of NRP synthetases in the proposed EA biosynthetic cluster for A. fumigatus. Liquid chromatography/diode array detection/mass spectrometry analysis also revealed the presence of fumiquinazolines A to F in both A. fumigatus wild-type and ΔpesL strains. This observation suggests that alternative NRP synthetases can also function in fumiquinazoline biosynthesis, since PesL has been shown to mediate fumiquinazoline biosynthesis in vitro. Furthermore, we provide here the first direct link between EA biosynthesis and virulence, in agreement with the observed toxicity associated with EA exposure. Finally, we demonstrate a possible cluster cross-talk phenomenon, a theme which is beginning to emerge in the literature. PMID:22344643

  18. Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes pesL and pes1 Are Essential for Fumigaclavine C Production in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanlon, Karen A.; Gallagher, Lorna; Schrettl, Markus; Jöchl, Christoph; Kavanagh, Kevin; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of metabolites encoded by the majority of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in the opportunistic pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, remains outstanding. We found that the nonribosomal peptide (NRP) synthetases PesL and Pes1 were essential for fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, the end product of the complex ergot alkaloid (EA) pathway in A. fumigatus. Deletion of either pesL (ΔpesL) or pes1 (Δpes1) resulted in complete loss of fumigaclavine C biosynthesis, relatively increased production of fumitremorgins such as TR-2, fumitremorgin C and verruculogen, increased sensitivity to H2O2, and increased sensitivity to the antifungals, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. Deletion of pesL resulted in severely reduced virulence in an invertebrate infection model (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that NRP synthesis plays an essential role in mediating the final prenylation step of the EA pathway, despite the apparent absence of NRP synthetases in the proposed EA biosynthetic cluster for A. fumigatus. Liquid chromatography/diode array detection/mass spectrometry analysis also revealed the presence of fumiquinazolines A to F in both A. fumigatus wild-type and ΔpesL strains. This observation suggests that alternative NRP synthetases can also function in fumiquinazoline biosynthesis, since PesL has been shown to mediate fumiquinazoline biosynthesis in vitro. Furthermore, we provide here the first direct link between EA biosynthesis and virulence, in agreement with the observed toxicity associated with EA exposure. Finally, we demonstrate a possible cluster cross-talk phenomenon, a theme which is beginning to emerge in the literature. PMID:22344643

  19. Splicing Defect in Mitochondrial Seryl-tRNA Synthetase Gene Causes Progressive Spastic Paresis Instead of HUPRA Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Linnankivi, Tarja; Neupane, Nirajan; Richter, Uwe; Isohanni, Pirjo; Tyynismaa, Henna

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are an important group of disease genes typically underlying either a disorder affecting an isolated tissue or a distinct syndrome. Missense mutations in the mitochondrial seryl-tRNA synthetase gene, SARS2, have been identified in HUPRA syndrome (hyperuricemia, pulmonary hypertension, renal failure in infancy, and alkalosis). We report here a homozygous splicing mutation in SARS2 in a patient with progressive spastic paresis. We show that the mutation leads to diminished levels of the synthetase in patient's fibroblasts. This has a destabilizing effect on the tRNASer(AGY) isoacceptor, but to a lesser degree than in HUPRA syndrome patients. tRNASer(UCN) is largely unaffected in both phenotypes. In conclusion, the level of tRNASer(AGY) instability may be a factor in determining tissue manifestation in patients with SARS2 mutations. This finding exemplifies the sensitivity of the nervous system to partially reduced aminoacylation, which is sufficient in other tissues to maintain respiratory chain function. PMID:27279129

  20. Toward understanding phosphoseryl-tRNACys formation: The crystal structure of Methanococcus maripaludis phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Kamtekar, Satwik; Hohn, Michael J.; Park, Hee-Sung; Schnitzbauer, Michael; Sauerwald, Anselm; Söll, Dieter; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of archaeal organisms generate Cys-tRNACys in a two-step pathway, first charging phosphoserine (Sep) onto tRNACys and subsequently converting it to Cys-tRNACys. We have determined, at 3.2-Å resolution, the structure of the Methanococcus maripaludis phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase (SepRS), which catalyzes the first step of this pathway. The structure shows that SepRS is a class II, α4 synthetase whose quaternary structure arrangement of subunits closely resembles that of the heterotetrameric (αβ)2 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS). Homology modeling of a tRNA complex indicates that, in contrast to PheRS, a single monomer in the SepRS tetramer may recognize both the acceptor terminus and anticodon of a tRNA substrate. Using a complex with tungstate as a marker for the position of the phosphate moiety of Sep, we suggest that SepRS and PheRS bind their respective amino acid substrates in dissimilar orientations by using different residues. PMID:17301225

  1. Non-discriminating and discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetases differ in the anticodon-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Christophe; Roy, Hervé; Blaise, Mickael; Giegé, Richard; Kern, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In most organisms, tRNA aminoacylation is ensured by 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). In eubacteria, however, synthetases can be duplicated as in Thermus thermophilus, which contains two distinct AspRSs. While AspRS-1 is specific, AspRS-2 is non-discriminating and aspartylates tRNAAsp and tRNAAsn. The structure at 2.3 Å resolution of AspRS-2, the first of a non-discriminating synthetase, was solved. It differs from that of AspRS-1 but has resemblance to that of discriminating and archaeal AspRS from Pyrococcus kodakaraensis. The protein presents non-conventional features in its OB-fold anticodon-binding domain, namely the absence of a helix inserted between two β-strands of this fold and a peculiar L1 loop differing from the large loops known to interact with tRNAAsp identity determinant C36 in conventional AspRSs. In AspRS-2, this loop is small and structurally homologous to that in AsnRSs, including conservation of a proline. In discriminating Pyrococcus AspRS, the L1 loop, although small, lacks this proline and is not superimposable with that of AspRS-2 or AsnRS. Its particular status is demonstrated by a loop-exchange experiment that renders the Pyrococcus AspRS non-discriminating. PMID:12660169

  2. Identification of a Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana1

    PubMed Central

    Tonon, Thierry; Qing, Renwei; Harvey, David; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony Robert; Graham, Ian Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The draft genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was searched for DNA sequences showing homology with long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (LACSs), since the corresponding enzyme may play a key role in the accumulation of health-beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in triacylglycerol. Among the candidate genes identified, an open reading frame named TplacsA was found to be full length and constitutively expressed during cell cultivation. The predicted amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein, TpLACSA, exhibited typical features of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases involved in the activation of long-chain fatty acids. Feeding experiments carried out in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) transformed with the algal gene showed that TpLACSA was able to activate a number of PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Determination of acyl-CoA synthetase activities by direct measurement of acyl-CoAs produced in the presence of different PUFA substrates showed that TpLACSA was most active toward DHA. Heterologous expression also revealed that TplacsA transformants were able to incorporate more DHA in triacylglycerols than the control yeast. PMID:15821149

  3. Impaired protein translation in Drosophila models for Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy caused by mutant tRNA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Niehues, Sven; Bussmann, Julia; Steffes, Georg; Erdmann, Ines; Köhrer, Caroline; Sun, Litao; Wagner, Marina; Schäfer, Kerstin; Wang, Guangxia; Koerdt, Sophia N.; Stum, Morgane; RajBhandary, Uttam L.; Thomas, Ulrich; Aberle, Hermann; Burgess, Robert W.; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Dieterich, Daniela; Storkebaum, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Dominant mutations in five tRNA synthetases cause Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) neuropathy, suggesting that altered aminoacylation function underlies the disease. However, previous studies showed that loss of aminoacylation activity is not required to cause CMT. Here we present a Drosophila model for CMT with mutations in glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS). Expression of three CMT-mutant GARS proteins induces defects in motor performance and motor and sensory neuron morphology, and shortens lifespan. Mutant GARS proteins display normal subcellular localization but markedly reduce global protein synthesis in motor and sensory neurons, or when ubiquitously expressed in adults, as revealed by FUNCAT and BONCAT. Translational slowdown is not attributable to altered tRNAGly aminoacylation, and cannot be rescued by Drosophila Gars overexpression, indicating a gain-of-toxic-function mechanism. Expression of CMT-mutant tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase also impairs translation, suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism. Finally, genetic reduction of translation is sufficient to induce CMT-like phenotypes, indicating a causal contribution of translational slowdown to CMT. PMID:26138142

  4. A cognate tRNA specific conformational change in glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase and its implication for specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, A. K.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhattacharyya, T.; Roy, S.

    1998-01-01

    Conformational changes that occur upon substrate binding are known to play crucial roles in the recognition and specific aminoacylation of cognate tRNA by glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. In a previous study we had shown that glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase labeled selectively in a nonessential sulfhydryl residue by an environment sensitive probe, acrylodan, monitors many of the conformational changes that occur upon substrate binding. In this article we have shown that the conformational change that occurs upon tRNA(Gln) binding to glnRS/ATP complex is absent in a noncognate tRNA tRNA(Glu)-glnRS/ATP complex. CD spectroscopy indicates that this cognate tRNA(Gln)-induced conformational change may involve only a small change in secondary structure. The Van't Hoff plot of cognate and noncognate tRNA binding in the presence of ATP is similar, suggesting similar modes of interaction. It was concluded that the cognate tRNA induces a local conformational change in the synthetase that may be one of the critical elements that causes enhanced aminoacylation of the cognate tRNA over the noncognate ones. PMID:9568911

  5. Expression of rat liver S-adenosylmethionine synthetase in Escherichia coli results in two active oligomeric forms.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, L; Mingorance, J; Pajares, M A; Mato, J M

    1994-01-01

    A cDNA containing the complete coding sequence for rat liver S-adenosylmethionine synthetase was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pT7-7 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). A major additional band corresponding to a protein of 48 kDa was detected on SDS/PAGE after induction with isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. This protein was distributed in both the soluble and insoluble fractions and accounted for approx. 30% of the total bacterial protein. The soluble enzyme was fully active, as revealed by assays in vitro of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase activity. In addition, transformed bacteria exhibited highly increased levels of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine. Two active forms of the recombinant enzyme, with apparent molecular masses of 210 kDa and 110 kDa, were detected when cytosolic extracts of the transformed cells were fractionated by gel-filtration chromatography. It is concluded that the expressed S-adenosylmethionine synthetase polypeptide assemble as tetramers and dimers. Images Figure 1 PMID:8043003

  6. Fusion of the subunits α and β of succinyl-CoA synthetase as a phylogenetic marker for Pezizomycotina fungi

    PubMed Central

    Koire, Amanda M.; Cavalcanti, Andre R.O.

    2011-01-01

    Gene fusions, yielding the formation of multidomain proteins, are evolutionary events that can be utilized as phylogenetic markers. Here we describe a fusion gene comprising the α and β subunits of succinyl-coA synthetase, an enzyme of the TCA cycle, in Pezizomycotina fungi. This fusion is present in all Pezizomycotina with complete genome sequences and absent from all other organisms. Phylogenetic analysis of the α and β subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase suggests that both subunits were duplicated and retained in Pezizomycotina while one copy was lost from other fungi. One of the duplicated copies was then fused in Pezizomycotina. Our results suggest that the fusion of the α and β subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase can be used as a molecular marker for membership in the Pezizomycotina subphylum. If a species has the fusion it can be reliably classified as Pezizomycotina, while the absence of the fusion is suggestive that the species is not a member of this subphylum. PMID:22215972

  7. Preparation of fatty-acylated derivatives of acyl carrier protein using Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z; Fice, D; Byers, D M

    1992-07-01

    A simple two-step purification of Vibrio harveyi fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) synthetase, which is useful for the quantitative preparation and analysis of fatty-acylated derivatives of ACP, is described. Acyl-ACP synthetase can be partially purified from extracts of this bioluminescent bacterium by Cibacron blue chromatography and Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration and is stable for months at -20 degrees C in the presence of glycerol. Incubation of ACP from Escherichia coli with ATP and radiolabeled fatty acids (6 to 16 carbons in length) in the presence of the enzyme resulted in quantitative conversion to biologically active acylated derivatives. The enzyme reaction can be monitored by a filter disk assay to quantitate levels of ACP or by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography to detect ACP in cell extracts. With its broad fatty acid chain length specificity and optimal activity in mild nondenaturing buffers, the soluble V. harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase provides an attractive alternative to current chemical and enzymatic methods of acyl-ACP preparation and analysis. PMID:1514693

  8. MD Simulations of tRNA and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases: Dynamics, Folding, Binding, and Allostery.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongzhong; Macnamara, Lindsay M; Leuchter, Jessica D; Alexander, Rebecca W; Cho, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    While tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are classes of biomolecules that have been extensively studied for decades, the finer details of how they carry out their fundamental biological functions in protein synthesis remain a challenge. Recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are verifying experimental observations and providing new insight that cannot be addressed from experiments alone. Throughout the review, we briefly discuss important historical events to provide a context for how far the field has progressed over the past few decades. We then review the background of tRNA molecules, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and current state of the art MD simulation techniques for those who may be unfamiliar with any of those fields. Recent MD simulations of tRNA dynamics and folding and of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dynamics and mechanistic characterizations are discussed. We highlight the recent successes and discuss how important questions can be addressed using current MD simulations techniques. We also outline several natural next steps for computational studies of AARS:tRNA complexes. PMID:26184179

  9. MD Simulations of tRNA and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases: Dynamics, Folding, Binding, and Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongzhong; Macnamara, Lindsay M.; Leuchter, Jessica D.; Alexander, Rebecca W.; Cho, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    While tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are classes of biomolecules that have been extensively studied for decades, the finer details of how they carry out their fundamental biological functions in protein synthesis remain a challenge. Recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are verifying experimental observations and providing new insight that cannot be addressed from experiments alone. Throughout the review, we briefly discuss important historical events to provide a context for how far the field has progressed over the past few decades. We then review the background of tRNA molecules, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and current state of the art MD simulation techniques for those who may be unfamiliar with any of those fields. Recent MD simulations of tRNA dynamics and folding and of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dynamics and mechanistic characterizations are discussed. We highlight the recent successes and discuss how important questions can be addressed using current MD simulations techniques. We also outline several natural next steps for computational studies of AARS:tRNA complexes. PMID:26184179

  10. C-terminal Domain of Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase from Pathogenic Candida albicans Recognizes both tRNASer and tRNALeu.

    PubMed

    Ji, Quan-Quan; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Ye, Qing; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2016-02-12

    Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) is a multidomain enzyme that catalyzes Leu-tRNA(Leu) formation and is classified into bacterial and archaeal/eukaryotic types with significant diversity in the C-terminal domain (CTD). CTDs of both bacterial and archaeal LeuRSs have been reported to recognize tRNA(Leu) through different modes of interaction. In the human pathogen Candida albicans, the cytoplasmic LeuRS (CaLeuRS) is distinguished by its capacity to recognize a uniquely evolved chimeric tRNA(Ser) (CatRNA(Ser)(CAG)) in addition to its cognate CatRNA(Leu), leading to CUG codon reassignment. Our previous study showed that eukaryotic but not archaeal LeuRSs recognize this peculiar tRNA(Ser), suggesting the significance of their highly divergent CTDs in tRNA(Ser) recognition. The results of this study provided the first evidence of the indispensable function of the CTD of eukaryotic LeuRS in recognizing non-cognate CatRNA(Ser) and cognate CatRNA(Leu). Three lysine residues were identified as involved in mediating enzyme-tRNA interaction in the leucylation process: mutation of all three sites totally ablated the leucylation activity. The importance of the three lysine residues was further verified by gel mobility shift assays and complementation of a yeast leuS gene knock-out strain. PMID:26677220

  11. A Deoxynivalenol-Activated Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Gene from Wheat Encodes a Nuclear Localized Protein and Protects Plants Against Fusarium Pathogens and Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Dong-Yun; Yi, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Rong-Jing; Qu, Bo; Huang, Tao; He, Wei-Jie; Li, Cheng; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the fungal pathogen that causes globally important diseases of cereals and produces mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Owing to the dearth of available sources of resistance to Fusarium pathogens, characterization of novel genes that confer resistance to mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi is vitally important for breeding resistant crop varieties. In this study, a wheat methionyl-tRNA synthetase (TaMetRS) gene was identified from suspension cell cultures treated with DON. It shares conserved aminoacylation catalytic and tRNA anticodon binding domains with human MetRS and with the only previously characterized plant MetRS, suggesting that it functions in aminoacylation in the cytoplasm. However, the TaMetRS comprises a typical nuclear localization signal and cellular localization studies with a TaMetRS::GFP fusion protein showed that TaMetRS is localized in the nucleus. Expression of TaMetRS was activated by DON treatment and by infection with a DON-producing F. graminearum strain in wheat spikes. No such activation was observed following infection with a non-DON-producing F. graminearum strain. Expression of TaMetRS in Arabidopsis plants conferred significant resistance to DON and F. graminearum. These results indicated that this DON-activated TaMetRS gene may encode a novel type of MetRS in plants that has a role in defense and detoxification. PMID:26882849

  12. 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) deficiency suppresses central nervous system damage in a murine MOG-induced multiple sclerosis model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bo Young; Sim, Chan Kyu; Cho, Yeon Sook; Sohn, Min; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Myeong Sup; Suh, Sang Won

    2016-08-15

    Type I Interferon (IFN-I) is critical for antiviral and antitumor defense. Additionally, IFN-I has been used for treating multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, we reported that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates IFN-I production upon viral infection and tumor challenge. Therefore, OASL1 deficient (Oasl1(-)(/)(-)) mice are resistant to viral infections and tumor challenge. In this study, we examined whether OASL1 plays a negative role in the development of autoimmune MS by using Oasl1(-)(/)(-) mice and a murine MS model, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Oasl1(-)(/)(-) mice showed enhanced resistance to EAE development compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Additionally, EAE-induced Oasl1(-)(/)(-) mice showed fewer infiltrated immune cells such as T cells and macrophages in the CNS and less CNS inflammation, compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results indicate that OASL1 deficiency suppresses the development of MS-like autoimmunity and suggest that negative regulators of IFN-I could be good therapeutic targets for treating MS in humans. PMID:27297771

  13. Expression and purification of an adenylation domain from a eukaryotic nonribosomal peptide synthetase: using structural genomics tools for a challenging target.

    PubMed

    Lee, T Verne; Lott, J Shaun; Johnson, Richard D; Arcus, Vickery L

    2010-12-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large multimodular and multidomain enzymes that are involved in synthesising an array of molecules that are important in human and animal health. NRPSs are found in both bacteria and fungi but most of the research to date has focused on the bacterial enzymes. This is largely due to the technical challenges in producing active fungal NRPSs, which stem from their large size and multidomain nature. In order to target fungal NRPS domains for biochemical and structural characterisation, we tackled this challenge by using the cloning and expression tools of structural genomics to screen the many variables that can influence the expression and purification of proteins. Using these tools we have screened 32 constructs containing 16 different fungal NRPS domains or domain combinations for expression and solubility. Two of these yielded soluble protein with one, the third adenylation domain of the SidN NRPS (SidNA3) from the grass endophyte Neotyphodium lolii, being tractable for purification using Ni-affinity resin. The initial purified protein exhibited poor solution behaviour but optimisation of the expression construct and the buffer conditions used for purification, resulted in stable recombinant protein suitable for biochemical characterisation, crystallisation and structure determination. PMID:20716446

  14. Characterization of the Cephalosporium acremonium pcbAB gene encoding alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetase, a large multidomain peptide synthetase: linkage to the pcbC gene as a cluster of early cephalosporin biosynthetic genes and evidence of multiple functional domains.

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, S; Díez, B; Montenegro, E; Martín, J F

    1991-01-01

    A 24-kb region of Cephalosporium acremonium C10 DNA was cloned by hybridization with the pcbAB and pcbC genes of Penicillium chrysogenum. A 3.2-kb BamHI fragment of this region complemented the mutation in the structural pcbC gene of the C. acremonium N2 mutant, resulting in cephalosporin production. A functional alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine (ACV) synthetase was encoded by a 15.6-kb EcoRI-BamHI DNA fragment, as shown by complementation of an ACV synthetase-deficient mutant of P. chrysogenum. Two transcripts of 1.15 and 11.4 kb were found by Northern (RNA blot) hybridization with probes internal to the pcbC and pcbAB genes, respectively. An open reading frame of 11,136 bp was located upstream of the pcbC gene that matched the 11.4-kb transcript initiation and termination regions. It encoded a protein of 3,712 amino acids with a deduced Mr of 414,791. The nucleotide sequence of the gene showed 62.9% similarity to the pcbAB gene encoding the ACV synthetase of P. chrysogenum; 54.9% of the amino acids were identical in both ACV synthetases. Three highly repetitive regions occur in the deduced amino acid sequence of C. acremonium ACV synthetase. Each is similar to the three repetitive domains in the deduced sequence of P. chrysogenum ACV synthetase and also to the amino acid sequence of gramicidin synthetase I and tyrocidine synthetase I of Bacillus brevis. These regions probably correspond to amino acid activating domains in the ACV synthetase protein. In addition, a thioesterase domain was present in the ACV synthetases of both fungi. A similarity has been found between the domains existing in multienzyme nonribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide and fatty acid synthetases. The pcbAB gene is linked to the pcbC gene, forming a cluster of early cephalosporin-biosynthetic genes. Images PMID:1706706

  15. Mis-regulation of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase does not account for growth inhibition by phenylalanine in Agmenellum quadruplicatum.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R A; Stenmark-Cox, S; Ingram, L O

    1974-12-01

    The growth of the blue-green bacterium, Agmenellum quadruplicatum, is inhibited in the presence of l-phenylalanine. This species has a single, constitutively synthesized 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthetase. l-Phenylalanine inhibits DAHP synthetase non-competitively with respect to both substrate reactants. Other aromatic amino acids do not inhibit the activity of DAHP synthetase. A common expectation for branch-point enzymes such as DAHP synthetase is a balanced pattern of feedback control by all of the ultimate end products. It seemed likely that growth inhibition might equate with defective regulation within the branched aromatic pathway. Accordingly, the possibility was examined that mis-regulation of DAHP synthetase by l-phenylalanine in wild-type cells causes starvation for precursors of the other aromatic end products. However, the molecular basis for growth inhibition cannot be attributed to l-phenylalanine inhibition of DAHP synthetase for the following reasons: (i) DAHP synthetase enzymes from l-phenylalanine-resistant mutants are more, rather than less, sensitive to feedback inhibition by l-phenylalanine. (ii) Shikimate not only fails to antagonize inhibition, but is itself inhibitory. (iii) Neither the sensitivity nor the completeness of l-phenylalanine inhibition of the wild-type enzyme in vitro appears sufficient to account for the potent inhibition of growth in vivo by l-phenylalanine. The dominating effect of l-phenylalanine in the control of DAHP synthetase appears to reflect a mechanism that prevents rather than causes growth inhibition by l-phenylalanine. The alteration of the control of DAHP synthetase in mutants selected for resistance to growth inhibition by l-phenylalanine did indicate that the cause for this metabolite vulnerability can be localized within the aromatic amino acid pathway. Apparently, an aromatic intermediate (between shikimate and the end products) accumulates in the presence of l

  16. The bifunctional active site of s-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Roles of the active site aspartates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Markham, G D

    1999-11-12

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthetase catalyzes the biosynthesis of AdoMet in a unique enzymatic reaction. Initially the sulfur of methionine displaces the intact tripolyphosphate chain (PPP(i)) from ATP, and subsequently PPP(i) is hydrolyzed to PP(i) and P(i) before product release. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli AdoMet synthetase shows that the active site contains four aspartate residues. Aspartate residues Asp-16* and Asp-271 individually provide the sole protein ligand to one of the two required Mg(2+) ions (* denotes a residue from a second subunit); aspartates Asp-118 and Asp-238* are proposed to interact with methionine. Each aspartate has been changed to an uncharged asparagine, and the metal binding residues were also changed to alanine, to assess the roles of charge and ligation ability on catalytic efficiency. The resultant enzyme variants all structurally resemble the wild type enzyme as indicated by circular dichroism spectra and are tetramers. However, all have k(cat) reductions of approximately 10(3)-fold in AdoMet synthesis, whereas the MgATP and methionine K(m) values change by less than 3- and 8-fold, respectively. In the partial reaction of PPP(i) hydrolysis, mutants of the Mg(2+) binding residues have >700-fold reduced catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)), whereas the D118N and D238*N mutants are impaired less than 35-fold. The catalytic efficiency for PPP(i) hydrolysis by Mg(2+) site mutants is improved by AdoMet, like the wild type enzyme. In contrast AdoMet reduces the catalytic efficiency for PPP(i) hydrolysis by the D118N and D238*N mutants, indicating that the events involved in AdoMet activation are hindered in these methionyl binding site mutants. Ca(2+) uniquely activates the D271A mutant enzyme to 15% of the level of Mg(2+), in contrast to the approximately 1% Ca(2+) activation of the wild type enzyme. This indicates that the Asp-271 side chain size is a discriminator between the activating ability of Ca(2+) and the

  17. Lincosamide Synthetase—A Unique Condensation System Combining Elements of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Mycothiol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Janata, Jiri; Kadlcik, Stanislav; Koberska, Marketa; Ulanova, Dana; Kamenik, Zdenek; Novak, Petr; Kopecky, Jan; Novotna, Jitka; Radojevic, Bojana; Plhackova, Kamila; Gazak, Radek; Najmanova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    In the biosynthesis of lincosamide antibiotics lincomycin and celesticetin, the amino acid and amino sugar units are linked by an amide bond. The respective condensing enzyme lincosamide synthetase (LS) is expected to be an unusual system combining nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) components with so far unknown amino sugar related activities. The biosynthetic gene cluster of celesticetin was sequenced and compared to the lincomycin one revealing putative LS coding ORFs shared in both clusters. Based on a bioassay and production profiles of S. lincolnensis strains with individually deleted putative LS coding genes, the proteins LmbC, D, E, F and V were assigned to LS function. Moreover, the newly recognized N-terminal domain of LmbN (LmbN-CP) was also assigned to LS as a NRPS carrier protein (CP). Surprisingly, the homologous CP coding sequence in celesticetin cluster is part of ccbZ gene adjacent to ccbN, the counterpart of lmbN, suggesting the gene rearrangement, evident also from still active internal translation start in lmbN, and indicating the direction of lincosamide biosynthesis evolution. The in vitro test with LmbN-CP, LmbC and the newly identified S. lincolnensis phosphopantetheinyl transferase Slp, confirmed the cooperation of the previously characterized NRPS A-domain LmbC with a holo-LmbN-CP in activation of a 4-propyl-L-proline precursor of lincomycin. This result completed the functional characterization of LS subunits resembling NRPS initiation module. Two of the four remaining putative LS subunits, LmbE/CcbE and LmbV/CcbV, exhibit low but significant homology to enzymes from the metabolism of mycothiol, the NRPS-independent system processing the amino sugar and amino acid units. The functions of particular LS subunits as well as cooperation of both NRPS-based and NRPS-independent LS blocks are discussed. The described condensing enzyme represents a unique hybrid system with overall composition quite dissimilar to any other known enzyme system

  18. Overexpression of SIRT5 confirms its involvement in deacetylation and activation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Masahito; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Zhuang, Xiaotong; Fujita, Yoshihito; Obara, Akio; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Hosokawa, Masaya; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2010-02-26

    SIR2 protein, an NAD-dependent deacetylase, is localized to nucleus and is involved in life span extension by calorie restriction in yeast. In mammals, among the seven SIR2 homologues (SIRT1-7), SIRT3, 4, and 5 are localized to mitochondria. As SIRT5 mRNA levels in liver are increased by fasting, the physiological role of SIRT5 was investigated in liver of SIRT5-overexpressing transgenic (SIRT5 Tg) mice. We identified carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), a key enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes condensation of ammonia with bicarbonate to form carbamoyl phosphate, as a target of SIRT5 by two-dimensional electrophoresis comparing mitochondrial proteins in livers of SIRT5 Tg and wild-type mice. CPS1 protein was more deacetylated and activated in liver of SIRT5 Tg mice than in wild-type. In addition, urea production was upregulated in hepatocytes of SIRT5 Tg mice. These results agree with those of a previous study using SIRT5 knockout (KO) mice. Because ammonia generated during fasting is toxic, SIRT5 protein might play a protective role by converting ammonia to non-toxic urea through deacetylation and activation of CPS1. PMID:20097174

  19. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency in Italy: clinical and genetic findings in a heterogeneous cohort.

    PubMed

    Funghini, S; Thusberg, J; Spada, M; Gasperini, S; Parini, R; Ventura, L; Meli, C; De Cosmo, L; Sibilio, M; Mooney, S D; Guerrini, R; Donati, M A; Morrone, A

    2012-02-10

    Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) is a rare autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder, potentially leading to lethal hyperammonemia. Based on the age of onset, there are two distinct phenotypes: neonatal and late form. The CPS1 enzyme, located in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes and epithelial cells of intestinal mucosa, is encoded by the CPS1 gene. At present more than 220 clear-cut genetic lesions leading to CPS1D have been reported. As most of them are private mutations diagnosis is complicated. Here we report an overview of the main clinical findings and biochemical and molecular data of 13 CPS1D Italian patients. In two of them, one with the neonatal form and one with the late form, cadaveric auxiliary liver transplant was performed. Mutation analysis in these patients identified 17 genetic lesions, 9 of which were new confirming their "private" nature. Seven of the newly identified mutations were missense/nonsense changes. In order to study their protein level effects, we performed an in silico analysis whose results indicate that the amino acid substitutions occur at evolutionary conserved positions and affect residues necessary for enzyme stability or function. PMID:22173106

  20. Structure and mechanism of an intramembrane liponucleotide synthetase central for phospholipid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuying; Yin, Yan; Wu, Jinjun; Liu, Zhenfeng

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipids are elemental building-block molecules for biological membranes. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine requires a central liponucleotide intermediate named cytidine-diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG). The CDP-DAG synthetase (Cds) is an integral membrane enzyme catalysing the formation of CDP-DAG, an essential step for phosphoinositide recycling during signal transduction. Here we report the structure of the Cds from Thermotoga maritima (TmCdsA) at 3.4 Å resolution. TmCdsA forms a homodimer and each monomer contains nine transmembrane helices arranged into a novel fold with three domains. An unusual funnel-shaped cavity penetrates half way into the membrane, allowing the enzyme to simultaneously accept hydrophilic substrate (cytidine 5′-triphosphate (CTP)/deoxy-CTP) from cytoplasm and hydrophobic substrate (phosphatidic acid) from membrane. Located at the bottom of the cavity, a Mg2+-K+ hetero-di-metal centre coordinated by an Asp-Asp dyad serves as the cofactor of TmCdsA. The results suggest a two-metal-ion catalytic mechanism for the Cds-mediated synthesis of CDP-DAG at the membrane–cytoplasm interface. PMID:24968740

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from E. Coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Abramchik, Yu. A.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes of the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase family (PRPPS, EC 2.7.6.1) catalyze the formation of 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (5-PRPP) from adenosine triphosphate and ribose 5-phosphate. 5-Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate is an important intermediate in the synthesis of purine, pyrimidine, and pyridine nucleotides, as well as of the amino acids histidine and tryptophan. The crystallization conditions for E. coli PRPPS were found by the vapor-diffusion technique and were optimized to apply the capillary counter-diffusion technique. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected from the crystals grown by the counter-diffusion technique using a synchrotron radiation source to 3.1-Å resolution. The crystals of PRPPS belong to sp. gr. P6322 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = b = 104.44 Å, c = 124.98 Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120°. The collected X-ray diffraction data set is suitable for the solution of the three-dimensional structure of PRPPS at 3.1-Å resolution.

  2. Evolution of selenophosphate synthetases: emergence and relocation of function through independent duplications and recurrent subfunctionalization.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Marco; Santesmasses, Didac; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Mateo, Andrea; Arnan, Carme; Johnson, Rory; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Yim, Sun Hee; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Serras, Florenci; Corominas, Montserrat; Gabaldón, Toni; Guigó, Roderic

    2015-09-01

    Selenoproteins are proteins that incorporate selenocysteine (Sec), a nonstandard amino acid encoded by UGA, normally a stop codon. Sec synthesis requires the enzyme Selenophosphate synthetase (SPS or SelD), conserved in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes encoding selenoproteins. Here, we study the evolutionary history of SPS genes, providing a map of selenoprotein function spanning the whole tree of life. SPS is itself a selenoprotein in many species, although functionally equivalent homologs that replace the Sec site with cysteine (Cys) are common. Many metazoans, however, possess SPS genes with substitutions other than Sec or Cys (collectively referred to as SPS1). Using complementation assays in fly mutants, we show that these genes share a common function, which appears to be distinct from the synthesis of selenophosphate carried out by the Sec- and Cys- SPS genes (termed SPS2), and unrelated to Sec synthesis. We show here that SPS1 genes originated through a number of independent gene duplications from an ancestral metazoan selenoprotein SPS2 gene that most likely already carried the SPS1 function. Thus, in SPS genes, parallel duplications and subsequent convergent subfunctionalization have resulted in the segregation to different loci of functions initially carried by a single gene. This evolutionary history constitutes a remarkable example of emergence and evolution of gene function, which we have been able to trace thanks to the singular features of SPS genes, wherein the amino acid at a single site determines unequivocally protein function and is intertwined to the evolutionary fate of the entire selenoproteome. PMID:26194102

  3. Broad-spectrum antiviral and cytocidal activity of cyclopentenylcytosine, a carbocyclic nucleoside targeted at CTP synthetase.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E; Murase, J; Marquez, V E

    1991-06-15

    Cyclopentenylcytosine (Ce-Cyd) is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent active against DNA viruses [herpes (cytomegalo), pox (vaccinia)], (+)RNA viruses [picorna (polio, Coxsackie, rhino), toga (Sindbis, Semliki forest), corona], (-)RNA viruses [orthomyxo (influenza), paramyxo (parainfluenza, measles), arena (Junin, Tacaribe), rhabdo (vesicular stomatitis)] and (+/-)RNA viruses (reo). Ce-Cyd is a more potent antiviral agent than its saturated counterpart, cyclopentylcytosine (carbodine, C-Cyd). Ce-Cyd also has potent cytocidal activity against a number of tumor cell lines. The putative target enzyme for both the antiviral and antitumor action of Ce-Cyd is assumed to be the CTP synthetase that converts UTP to CTP. In keeping with this hypothesis was the finding that the antiviral and cytocidal effects of Ce-Cyd are readily reversed by Cyd and, to a lesser extent, Urd, but not by other nucleosides such as dThd or dCyd. In contrast, pyrazofurin and 6-azauridine, two nucleoside analogues that are assumed to interfere with OMP decarboxylase, another enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, potentiate the cytocidal activity of Ce-Cyd. Ce-Cyd should be further pursued, as such and in combination with OMP decarboxylase inhibitors, for its therapeutic potential in the treatment of both viral and neoplastic diseases. PMID:1710119

  4. The Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition on the Cellular Localization of Glutamine Synthetase Isoforms in Barley Roots.

    PubMed Central

    Peat, L. J.; Tobin, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) was detected by immunogold localization in the cytosol and plastids of roots of 7-d-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Klaxon) seedlings grown in the presence or absence of NO3- (15 mM) or NH4+ (30 mM). The number of GS polypeptides changed during root development, and this was affected by N nutrition. There was no evidence of a NO3--inducible root plastid GS.In apical 5- to 10-mm regions of the root the concentration of immunogold labeling of cytosolic GS was higher in the cortical parenchyma than in the vascular cells of the stele, irrespective of N nutrition. This labeling was at least 50% higher in both cell types in N-free compared with N-grown (either NO3- or NH4+) seedlings. In contrast, GS specific activity was highest in roots of NO3--grown seedlings. It is suggested that this indicates the presence of inactive GS in roots grown without N. This study has identified both cell- and development-specific responses of GS to N nutrition. PMID:12226350

  5. Methenyltetrahydrofolate Synthetase is a High-Affinity Catecholamine-Binding Protein1

    PubMed Central

    Anguera, Montserrat C.; Stover, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant mouse 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFS) was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to co-purify with a chromophore that had a λmax at 320 nm. The chromophore remained bound to MTHFS during extensive dialysis, but dissociated from MTHFS when its substrate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, was bound. The chromophore was identified as an oxidized catecholamine by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Purified recombinant mouse MTHFS and rabbit liver MTHFS proteins were shown to bind oxidized N-acetyldopamine (NADA) tightly. The addition of NADA to cell culture medium accelerated markedly folate turnover and decreased both folate accumulation and total cellular folate concentrations in MCF-7 cells. Expression of the MTHFS cDNA in MCF-7 cells increased the concentration of NADA required to deplete cellular folate. The results of this study are the first to identify a link between catecholamines and one-carbon metabolism and demonstrate that NADA accelerates folate turnover and impairs cellular folate accumulation in MCF-7 cells. PMID:17055997

  6. Plant perception of β-aminobutyric acid is mediated by an aspartyl-tRNA synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Estrella; van Hulten, Marieke; Zhang, Yuhua; Berkowitz, Oliver; López, Ana; Pétriacq, Pierre; Sellwood, Matthew A.; Chen, Beining; Burrell, Mike; van de Meene, Allison; Pieterse, Corné M.J.; Flors, Victor; Ton, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    Specific chemicals can prime the plant immune system for augmented defence. β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a priming agent that provides broad-spectrum disease protection. However, BABA also suppresses plant growth when applied in high doses, which has hampered its application as a crop defence activator. Here we describe a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that is impaired in BABA-induced disease immunity (ibi1) but hypersensitive to BABA-induced growth repression. IBI encodes an aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Enantiomer-specific binding of R-BABA to IBI1 primed the protein for non-canonical defence signalling in the cytoplasm after pathogen attack. This priming was associated with aspartic acid accumulation and tRNA-induced phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α. However, mutation of eIF2α-phosphorylating GCN2 kinase did not affect BABA-induced immunity, but relieved BABA-induced growth repression. Hence, BABA-activated IBI1 controls plant immunity and growth via separate pathways. Our results open new opportunities to separate broad-spectrum disease resistance from the associated costs on plant growth. PMID:24776930

  7. Plant perception of β-aminobutyric acid is mediated by an aspartyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Luna, Estrella; van Hulten, Marieke; Zhang, Yuhua; Berkowitz, Oliver; López, Ana; Pétriacq, Pierre; Sellwood, Matthew A; Chen, Beining; Burrell, Mike; van de Meene, Allison; Pieterse, Corné M J; Flors, Victor; Ton, Jurriaan

    2014-06-01

    Specific chemicals can prime the plant immune system for augmented defense. β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a priming agent that provides broad-spectrum disease protection. However, BABA also suppresses plant growth when applied in high doses, which has hampered its application as a crop defense activator. Here we describe a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that is impaired in BABA-induced disease immunity (ibi1) but is hypersensitive to BABA-induced growth repression. IBI1 encodes an aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Enantiomer-specific binding of the R enantiomer of BABA to IBI1 primed the protein for noncanonical defense signaling in the cytoplasm after pathogen attack. This priming was associated with aspartic acid accumulation and tRNA-induced phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α. However, mutation of eIF2α-phosphorylating GCN2 kinase did not affect BABA-induced immunity but relieved BABA-induced growth repression. Hence, BABA-activated IBI1 controls plant immunity and growth via separate pathways. Our results open new opportunities to separate broad-spectrum disease resistance from the associated costs on plant growth. PMID:24776930

  8. Physiological Studies of Glutamine Synthetases I and III from Synechococcus sp. WH7803 Reveal Differential Regulation.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Díez, Jesús; García-Fernández, José M

    2016-01-01

    The marine picocyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7803 possesses two glutamine synthetases (GSs; EC 6.3.1.2), GSI encoded by glnA and GSIII encoded by glnN. This is the first work addressing the physiological regulation of both enzymes in a marine cyanobacterial strain. The increase of GS activity upon nitrogen starvation was similar to that found in other model cyanobacteria. However, an unusual response was found when cells were grown under darkness: the GS activity was unaffected, reflecting adaptation to the environment where they thrive. On the other hand, we found that GSIII did not respond to nitrogen availability, in sharp contrast with the results observed for this enzyme in other cyanobacteria thus far studied. These features suggest that GS activities in Synechococcus sp. WH7803 represent an intermediate step in the evolution of cyanobacteria, in a process of regulatory streamlining where GSI lost the regulation by light, while GSIII lost its responsiveness to nitrogen. This is in good agreement with the phylogeny of Synechococcus sp. WH7803 in the context of the marine cyanobacterial radiation. PMID:27446010

  9. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase

    PubMed Central

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M.; Vega, José M.; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J.; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress. PMID:26442073

  10. Arsenic and mercury tolerance and cadmium sensitivity in Arabidopsis plants expressing bacterial gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2005-06-01

    Cysteine sulfhydryl-rich peptide thiols are believed to play important roles in the detoxification of many heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic, mercury, and cadmium in plants. The gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) catalyzes the synthesis of the dipeptidethiol gamma-glu-cys (gamma-EC), the first step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs). Arabidopsis thaliana, engineered to express the bacterial gamma-ECS gene under control of a strong constitutive actin regulatory sequence (A2), expressed gamma-ECS at levels approaching 0.1% of total protein. In response to arsenic, mercury, and cadmium stresses, the levels of gamma-EC and its derivatives, glutathione (GSH) and PCs, were increased in the A2::ECS transgenic plants to three- to 20-fold higher concentrations than the increases that occurred in wild-type (WT). Compared to cadmium and mercury treatments, arsenic treatment most significantly increased levels of gamma-EC and PCs in both the A2::ECS transgenic and WT plants. The A2::ECS transgenic plants were highly resistant to arsenic and weakly resistant to mercury. Although exposure to cadmium produced three- to fivefold increases in levels of gamma-EC-related peptides in the A2::ECS lines, these plants were significantly more sensitive to Cd(II) than WT and trace levels of Cd(II) blocked resistance to arsenic and mercury. A few possible mechanisms for gamma-ECS-enhanced arsenic and mercury resistance and cadmium hypersensitivity are discussed. PMID:16117113

  11. Peripheral neuropathy via mutant tRNA synthetases: Inhibition of protein translation provides a possible explanation.

    PubMed

    Storkebaum, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Recent evidence indicates that inhibition of protein translation may be a common pathogenic mechanism for peripheral neuropathy associated with mutant tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). aaRSs are enzymes that ligate amino acids to their cognate tRNA, thus catalyzing the first step of translation. Dominant mutations in five distinct aaRSs cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy, characterized by length-dependent degeneration of peripheral motor and sensory axons. Surprisingly, loss of aminoacylation activity is not required for mutant aaRSs to cause CMT. Rather, at least for some mutations, a toxic-gain-of-function mechanism underlies CMT-aaRS. Interestingly, several mutations in two distinct aaRSs were recently shown to inhibit global protein translation in Drosophila models of CMT-aaRS, by a mechanism independent of aminoacylation, suggesting inhibition of translation as a common pathogenic mechanism. Future research aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the translation defect induced by CMT-mutant aaRSs should provide novel insight into the molecular pathogenesis of these incurable diseases. PMID:27352040

  12. Selective inhibition of apicoplast tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase causes delayed death in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Cheung, Vanessa; Kennedy, Kit; Lim, Erin E; Baell, Jonathan B; Griffin, Michael D W; Ralph, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum relies on efficient protein translation. An essential component of translation is the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) that charges tRNA(trp). Here we characterise two isoforms of TrpRS in Plasmodium; one eukaryotic type localises to the cytosol and a bacterial type localises to the remnant plastid (apicoplast). We show that the apicoplast TrpRS aminoacylates bacterial tRNA(trp) while the cytosolic TrpRS charges eukaryotic tRNA(trp). An inhibitor of bacterial TrpRSs, indolmycin, specifically inhibits aminoacylation by the apicoplast TrpRS in vitro, and inhibits ex vivo Plasmodium parasite growth, killing parasites with a delayed death effect characteristic of apicoplast inhibitors. Indolmycin treatment ablates apicoplast inheritance and is rescuable by addition of the apicoplast metabolite isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). These data establish that inhibition of an apicoplast housekeeping enzyme leads to loss of the apicoplast and this is sufficient for delayed death. Apicoplast TrpRS is essential for protein translation and is a promising, specific antimalarial target. PMID:27277538

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from E. Coli

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, V. I. Abramchik, Yu. A. Zhukhlistova, N. E. Kuranova, I. P.

    2015-09-15

    Enzymes of the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase family (PRPPS, EC 2.7.6.1) catalyze the formation of 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (5-PRPP) from adenosine triphosphate and ribose 5-phosphate. 5-Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate is an important intermediate in the synthesis of purine, pyrimidine, and pyridine nucleotides, as well as of the amino acids histidine and tryptophan. The crystallization conditions for E. coli PRPPS were found by the vapor-diffusion technique and were optimized to apply the capillary counter-diffusion technique. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected from the crystals grown by the counter-diffusion technique using a synchrotron radiation source to 3.1-Å resolution. The crystals of PRPPS belong to sp. gr. P6{sub 3}22 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = b = 104.44 Å, c = 124.98 Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120°. The collected X-ray diffraction data set is suitable for the solution of the three-dimensional structure of PRPPS at 3.1-Å resolution.

  14. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L.; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q.; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  15. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase with a unique iterative-alternative-optional mechanism catalyzes amonabactin synthesis in Aeromonas.

    PubMed

    Esmaeel, Qassim; Chevalier, Mickael; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Subashkumar, Rathinasamy; Jacques, Philippe; Leclère, Valérie

    2016-10-01

    Based on the exploration of data generated by genome sequencing, a bioinformatics approach has been chosen to identify the biosynthetic pathway of the siderophores produced by Aeromonas species. The amonabactins, considered as a virulence factor, represent a family of four variants of catechol peptidic siderophores containing Dhb, Lys, Gly, and an aromatic residue either Trp or Phe in a D-configuration. The synthesis operon is constituted of seven genes named amoCEBFAGH and is iron-regulated. The cluster includes genes encoding proteins involved in the synthesis and incorporation of the Dhb monomer, and genes encoding specific nonribosomal peptide synthetases, which are responsible for the building of the peptidic moiety. The amonabactin assembly line displays a still so far not described atypical mode of synthesis that is iterative, alternative, and optional. A disruption mutant in the adenylation domain of AmoG was unable to synthesize any amonabactin and to grow in iron stress conditions while a deletion of amoH resulted in the production of only two over the four forms. The amo cluster is widespread among most of the Aeromonas species, only few species produces the enterobactin siderophore. PMID:27531515

  16. Proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Lamers, Wouter H; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2016-06-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4 (+) with glutamate to form glutamine. GS is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule (PT), suggesting ammonia recycling via GS could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of PT GS in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with PT-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. After the induction of metabolic acidosis, the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple components of ammonia generation, including SN1 (Slc38a3), phosphate-dependent glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and Na(+)-coupled electrogenic bicarbonate cotransporter. We conclude that 1) GS-mediated ammonia recycling in the PT contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism and 2) adaptive changes in other proteins involved in ammonia metabolism occur in response to PT-GS-KO and cause an underestimation of the role of PT GS expression. PMID:27009341

  17. Adeno-associated Virus-mediated Rescue of Neonatal Lethality in Argininosuccinate Synthetase-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Cindy Y; Cunningham, Sharon C; Carpenter, Kevin H; Dane, Allison P; Siew, Susan M; Logan, Grant J; Kuchel, Philip W; Alexander, Ian E

    2013-01-01

    Viral vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are showing exciting promise in gene therapy trials targeting the adult liver. A major challenge in extending this promise to the pediatric liver is the loss of episomal vector genomes that accompanies hepatocellular proliferation during liver growth. Hence maintenance of sufficient transgene expression will be critical for success in infants and children. We therefore set out to explore the therapeutic efficacy and durability of liver-targeted gene transfer in the challenging context of a neonatal lethal urea cycle defect, using the argininosuccinate synthetase deficient mouse. Lethal neonatal hyperammonemia was prevented by prenatal and early postnatal vector delivery; however, hyperammonemia subsequently recurred limiting survival to no more than 33 days despite vector readministration. Antivector antibodies acquired in milk from vector-exposed dams were subsequently shown to be blocking vector readministration, and were avoided by crossfostering vector-treated pups to vector-naive dams. In the absence of passively acquired antivector antibodies, vector redelivery proved efficacious with mice surviving to adulthood without recurrence of significant hyperammonemia. These data demonstrate the potential of AAV vectors in the developing liver, showing that vector readministration can be used to counter growth-associated loss of transgene expression provided the challenge of antivector humoral immunity is addressed. PMID:23817206

  18. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Vega, José M; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress. PMID:26442073