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Sample records for human protein kinases

  1. The protein interaction landscape of the human CMGC kinase group.

    PubMed

    Varjosalo, Markku; Keskitalo, Salla; Van Drogen, Audrey; Nurkkala, Helka; Vichalkovski, Anton; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias

    2013-04-25

    Cellular information processing via reversible protein phosphorylation requires tight control of the localization, activity, and substrate specificity of protein kinases, which to a large extent is accomplished by complex formation with other proteins. Despite their critical role in cellular regulation and pathogenesis, protein interaction information is available for only a subset of the 518 human protein kinases. Here we present a global proteomic analysis of complexes of the human CMGC kinase group. In addition to subgroup-specific functional enrichment and modularity, the identified 652 high-confidence kinase-protein interactions provide a specific biochemical context for many poorly studied CMGC kinases. Furthermore, the analysis revealed a kinase-kinase subnetwork and candidate substrates for CMGC kinases. Finally, the presented interaction proteome uncovered a large set of interactions with proteins genetically linked to a range of human diseases, including cancer, suggesting additional routes for analyzing the role of CMGC kinases in controlling human disease pathways. PMID:23602568

  2. Human protein kinase CK2 genes.

    PubMed

    Wirkner, U; Voss, H; Lichter, P; Pyerin, W

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the genomic structure of human protein kinase CK2. Of the presumably four genes, the gene encoding the regulatory subunit beta and a processed (pseudo)gene of the catalytic subunit alpha have been characterized completely. In addition, a 18.9 kb-long central part of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit alpha has been characterized. The subunit beta gene spans 4.2 kb and is composed of seven exons. Its promoter region shows several features of a "housekeeping gene" and shares common features with the promoter of the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Conforming to the genomic structure, the beta gene transcripts form a band around 1.1 kb. The central part of the subunit alpha gene contains eight exons comprising bases 102 to 824 of the translated region. Within the introns, 16 Alu repeats were identified, some of which arranged in tandems. The structure of both human CK2 coding genes, alpha and beta, is highly conserved. Several introns are located at corresponding positions in the respective genes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The processed alpha (pseudo)gene has a complete open reading frame and is 99% homologous to the coding region of the CK2 alpha cDNA. Although the gene has a promoter-like upstream region, no transcript could be identified so far. The genomic clones were used for localization in the human genome. The beta gene was mapped to locus 6p21, the alpha gene to locus 20p13 and the alpha (pseudo)gene to locus 11p15. There is no evidence for additional alpha or beta loci in the human genome. PMID:7735323

  3. Bryostatins activate protein kinase C in intact human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.B.; Tallant, E.A.; Pettit, G.R.; Wallace, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Bryostatins, macrocyclic lactones isolated from a marine bryozoan, have antineoplastic activity in the P388 lymphocytic leukemia system. These compounds also stimulate growth in Swiss 3T3 cells, induce secretion in leukocytes, inhibit phorbol dibutyrate binding to a high affinity receptor, and activate the C-kinase in vitro. In human platelets, phorbol esters induce aggregation and activate protein kinase C, resulting in phosphorylation of a 47K protein and the 20K myosin light chain. The authors now show that bryostatin 7 (B-7) triggers platelet aggregation to the same rate and extent as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). B-7 also causes the in vivo activation of the C-kinase, resulting in phosphorylation of both the 47K and the 20K proteins; the time courses and dose-responses of these B-7-induced phosphorylations were similar to those found with PMA. In addition, B-7 increases the level of /sup 32/P-incorporation into the platelet polyphosphoinositides, which also occurs in response to PMA. Bryostatin 3 (B-3), which has been shown to be much less potent than B-7 in mimicking other PMA effects, was much less effective than PMA or B-7 in inducing platelet aggregation and in stimulating /sup 32/P-incorporation into both proteins and the phosphoinositides. These results demonstrate that, intact human platelets, bryostatins mimic the phorbol esters tumor promoters and directly activate protein kinase C.

  4. HPLC-DAD protein kinase inhibitor analysis in human serum.

    PubMed

    Dziadosz, Marek; Lessig, Rüdiger; Bartels, Heidemarie

    2012-04-15

    We here describe an HPLC-DAD method to analyse different protein kinase inhibitors. Potential applications of this method are pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring. Optimised chromatography conditions resulted in a very good separation of seven inhibitors (vatalanib, bosutinib, canertinib, tandutinib, pazopanib, dasatinib - internal standard and erlotinib). The good sensitivity makes this method competitive with LC/MS/MS. The separation was performed with a Lichrospher 100-5 RP8, 250 mm × 4 mm column maintained at 30 ± 1 °C, and with a mobile phase of 0.05 M H(3)PO(4)/KH(2)PO(4) (pH=2.3)-acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. A simple and fast sample preparation sequence with liquid-liquid extraction led to good recoveries (73-90%) of all analytes. The recovery hardly reached 50% only for pazopanib. This method can also be used for targeted protein kinase inhibitor quantification. A perfect linearity in the validated range (20-10,000 ng/mL) and an LOQ of 20 ng/mL were achieved. The relative standard deviations and accuracies of all examined drug concentrations gave values much lower than 15% both for between- and within-batch calculations. All analysed PKIs were stable for 6 months in a 1mg/mL dimethyl sulfoxide stock solution. Vatalanib, bosutinib and erlotinib were also stable in human serum in the whole examined concentration range. PMID:22425385

  5. Phosphorylation of Human Choline Kinase Beta by Protein Kinase A: Its Impact on Activity and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching Ching; Few, Ling Ling; Konrad, Manfred; See Too, Wei Cun

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase beta (CKβ) is one of the CK isozymes involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. CKβ is important for normal mitochondrial function and muscle development as the lack of the ckβ gene in human and mice results in the development of muscular dystrophy. In contrast, CKα is implicated in tumorigenesis and has been extensively studied as an anticancer target. Phosphorylation of human CKα was found to regulate the enzyme’s activity and its subcellular location. This study provides evidence for CKβ phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro phosphorylation of CKβ by PKA was first detected by phosphoprotein staining, as well as by in-gel kinase assays. The phosphorylating kinase was identified as PKA by Western blotting. CKβ phosphorylation by MCF-7 cell lysate was inhibited by a PKA-specific inhibitor peptide, and the intracellular phosphorylation of CKβ was shown to be regulated by the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a PKA activator. Phosphorylation sites were located on CKβ residues serine-39 and serine-40 as determined by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation increased the catalytic efficiencies for the substrates choline and ATP about 2-fold, without affecting ethanolamine phosphorylation, and the S39D/S40D CKβ phosphorylation mimic behaved kinetically very similar. Remarkably, phosphorylation drastically increased the sensitivity of CKβ to hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibition by about 30-fold. These findings suggest that CKβ, in concert with CKα, and depending on its phosphorylation status, might play a critical role as a druggable target in carcinogenesis. PMID:27149373

  6. Protein kinase C translocation in human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hoauyan; Friedman, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) activity and translocation in response to the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), serotonin (5-HT) and thrombin was assessed in human platelets. Stimulation with PMA and 5-HT for 10 minutes or thrombin for 1 minute elicited platelet PKC translocation from cytosol to membrane. The catecholamines, norepinephrine or epinephrine at 10 {mu}M concentrations did not induce redistribution of platelet PKC. Serotonin and the specific 5-HT{sub 2} receptor agonist, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-amino-propane (DOI) but not the 5-HT{sub 1A} or 5-HT{sub 1B} agonists, ({plus minus}) 8-hydroxy-dipropylamino-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) or 5-methoxy-3-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridin) 1H-indole succinate (RU 24969) induced dose-dependent PKC translocations. Serotonin-evoked PKC translocation was blocked by selective 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonists, ketanserin and spiroperidol. These results suggest that, in human platelets, PMA, thrombin and 5-HT can elicit PKC translocation from cytosol to membrane. Serotonin-induced PKC translocation in platelets is mediated via 5-HT{sub 2} receptors.

  7. Requirement for the Kinase Activity of Human DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit in DNA Strand Break Rejoining

    PubMed Central

    Kurimasa, Akihiro; Kumano, Satoshi; Boubnov, Nikolai V.; Story, Michael D.; Tung, Chang-Shung; Peterson, Scott R.; Chen, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is an enormous, 470-kDa protein serine/threonine kinase that has homology with members of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase superfamily. This protein contributes to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by assembling broken ends of DNA molecules in combination with the DNA-binding factors Ku70 and Ku80. It may also serve as a molecular scaffold for recruiting DNA repair factors to DNA strand breaks. This study attempts to better define the role of protein kinase activity in the repair of DNA DSBs. We constructed a contiguous 14-kb human DNA-PKcs cDNA and demonstrated that it can complement the DNA DSB repair defects of two mutant cell lines known to be deficient in DNA-PKcs (M059J and V3). We then created deletion and site-directed mutations within the conserved PI 3-kinase domain of the DNA-PKcs gene to test the importance of protein kinase activity for DSB rejoining. These DNA-PKcs mutant constructs are able to express the protein but fail to complement the DNA DSB or V(D)J recombination defects of DNA-PKcs mutant cells. These results indicate that the protein kinase activity of DNA-PKcs is essential for the rejoining of DNA DSBs in mammalian cells. We have also determined a model structure for the DNA-PKcs kinase domain based on comparisons to the crystallographic structure of a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. This structure gives some insight into which amino acid residues are crucial for the kinase activity in DNA-PKcs. PMID:10207111

  8. Modulation of skeletal muscle sodium channels by human myotonin protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, J P; Xu, P; John, J E; Horne, L T; Gilbert, J; Roses, A D; Moorman, J R

    1995-01-01

    In myotonic muscular dystrophy, abnormal muscle Na currents underlie myotonic discharges. Since the myotonic muscular dystrophy gene encodes a product, human myotonin protein kinase, with structural similarity to protein kinases, we tested the idea that human myotonin protein kinase modulates skeletal muscle Na channels. Coexpression of human myotonin protein kinase with rat skeletal muscle Na channels in Xenopus oocytes reduced the amplitude of Na currents and accelerated current decay. The effect required the presence of a potential phosphorylation site in the inactivation mechanism of the channel. The mutation responsible for human disease, trinucleotide repeats in the 3' untranslated region, did not prevent the effect. The consequence of an abnormal amount of the kinase would be altered muscle cell excitability, consistent with the clinical finding of myotonia in myotonic dystrophy. Images PMID:7738201

  9. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

    SciTech Connect

    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen

    2010-07-19

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  10. Identifying Human Kinase-Specific Protein Phosphorylation Sites by Integrating Heterogeneous Information from Various Sources

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Du, Pufeng; Xu, Nanfang

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an important type of protein post-translational modification. Identification of possible phosphorylation sites of a protein is important for understanding its functions. Unbiased screening for phosphorylation sites by in vitro or in vivo experiments is time consuming and expensive; in silico prediction can provide functional candidates and help narrow down the experimental efforts. Most of the existing prediction algorithms take only the polypeptide sequence around the phosphorylation sites into consideration. However, protein phosphorylation is a very complex biological process in vivo. The polypeptide sequences around the potential sites are not sufficient to determine the phosphorylation status of those residues. In the current work, we integrated various data sources such as protein functional domains, protein subcellular location and protein-protein interactions, along with the polypeptide sequences to predict protein phosphorylation sites. The heterogeneous information significantly boosted the prediction accuracy for some kinase families. To demonstrate potential application of our method, we scanned a set of human proteins and predicted putative phosphorylation sites for Cyclin-dependent kinases, Casein kinase 2, Glycogen synthase kinase 3, Mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C families (avaiable at http://cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/huphospho). The predicted phosphorylation sites can serve as candidates for further experimental validation. Our strategy may also be applicable for the in silico identification of other post-translational modification substrates. PMID:21085571

  11. Human pyruvate kinase M2: a multifunctional protein.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vibhor; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2010-11-01

    Glycolysis, a central metabolic pathway, harbors evolutionary conserved enzymes that modulate and potentially shift the cellular metabolism on requirement. Pyruvate kinase, which catalyzes the last but rate-limiting step of glycolysis, is expressed in four isozymic forms, depending on the tissue requirement. M2 isoform (PKM2) is exclusively expressed in embryonic and adult dividing/tumor cells. This tetrameric allosterically regulated isoform is intrinsically designed to downregulate its activity by subunit dissociation (into dimer), which results in partial inhibition of glycolysis at the last step. This accumulates all upstream glycolytic intermediates as an anabolic feed for synthesis of lipids and nucleic acids, whereas reassociation of PKM2 into active tetramer replenishes the normal catabolism as a feedback after cell division. In addition, involvement of this enzyme in a variety of pathways, protein-protein interactions, and nuclear transport suggests its potential to perform multiple nonglycolytic functions with diverse implications, although multidimensional role of this protein is as yet not fully explored. This review aims to provide an overview of the involvement of PKM2 in various physiological pathways with possible functional implications. PMID:20857498

  12. The human cytomegalovirus UL97 protein is a protein kinase that autophosphorylates on serines and threonines.

    PubMed Central

    He, Z; He, Y S; Kim, Y; Chu, L; Ohmstede, C; Biron, K K; Coen, D M

    1997-01-01

    The product of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL97 gene, which controls ganciclovir phosphorylation in virus-infected cells, is homologous to known protein kinases but diverges from them at a number of positions that are functionally important. To investigate UL97, we raised an antibody against it and overexpressed it in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Recombinant baculovirus expressing full-length UL97 directed the phosphorylation of ganciclovir in insect cells, which was abolished by a four-codon deletion that confers ganciclovir resistance to CMV. When incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, full-length UL97 was phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. Phosphorylation was severely impaired by a point mutation that alters lysine-355 in a motif that aligns with subdomain II of protein kinases. However, phosphorylation was impaired much less severely by the four-codon deletion. A UL97 fusion protein expressed from recombinant baculovirus was purified to near homogeneity. It too was phosphorylated upon incubation with [gamma-32P]ATP in vitro. This phosphorylation, which was abolished by the lysine 355 mutation, was optimal at high NaCl and high pH. The activity required either Mn2+ or Mg2+, with a preference for Mn2+, and utilized either ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor, with Kms of 2 and 4 microM, respectively. The phosphorylation rate was first order with protein concentration, consistent with autophosphorylation. These data strongly argue that UL97 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that autophosphorylates and suggest that the four-codon deletion affects its substrate specificity. PMID:8985364

  13. Anti-proliferative effects of protein kinase C inhibitors in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, L; Bonnekoh, B; van Rooijen, L A; Mahrle, G

    1992-07-01

    Various lines of evidence indicate that protein kinase C, a key enzyme in transmembraneous signal transduction, is involved in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation. In the present study we have investigated the effects of various structurally unrelated protein kinase C inhibitors on the proliferation of HaCa T cells, a non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte cell line. All protein kinase C inhibitors dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation as assessed by the incorporation of radioactively labelled thymidine and amino acids as well as the increase in total protein content in keratinocytes. The potencies of the drugs to inhibit cell proliferation were strongly correlated to their inhibitory potency on purified protein kinase C, displaying a correlation coefficient of 0.97. Methotrexate, an anti-proliferative drug, was found not to inhibit protein kinase C. Therefore, our data provide evidence that protein kinase C is crucially involved in the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation but is not the only target of anti-proliferative drug action. PMID:1390454

  14. Human thrombopoiesis depends on Protein kinase Cδ/protein kinase Cε functional couple

    PubMed Central

    Carubbi, Cecilia; Masselli, Elena; Martini, Silvia; Galli, Daniela; Aversa, Franco; Mirandola, Prisco; Italiano, Joseph E.; Gobbi, Giuliana; Vitale, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A deeper understanding of the molecular events driving megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis is essential to regulate in vitro and in vivo platelet production for clinical applications. We previously documented the crucial role of PKCε in the regulation of human and mouse megakaryocyte maturation and platelet release. However, since several data show that different PKC isoforms fulfill complementary functions, we targeted PKCε and PKCδ, which show functional and phenotypical reciprocity, at the same time as boosting platelet production in vitro. Results show that PKCδ, contrary to PKCε, is persistently expressed during megakaryocytic differentiation, and a forced PKCδ down-modulation impairs megakaryocyte maturation and platelet production. PKCδ and PKCε work as a functional couple with opposite roles on thrombopoiesis, and the modulation of their balance strongly impacts platelet production. Indeed, we show an imbalance of PKCδ/PKCε ratio both in primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia, featured by impaired megakaryocyte differentiation and increased platelet production, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate that concurrent molecular targeting of both PKCδ and PKCε represents a strategy for in vitro platelet factories. PMID:27081176

  15. Expression, purification and crystallization of a human tau-tubulin kinase 2 that phosphorylates tau protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kitano-Takahashi, Michiko; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Shin; Tomizawa, Kayoko; Kato, Ryohei; Tanio, Michikazu; Shirota, Yoshiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2007-07-01

    The kinase domain (residues 1–331) of human tau-tubulin kinase 2 was expressed in insect cells, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.9 Å resolution. Tau-tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2) is a Ser/Thr kinase that putatively phosphorylates residues Ser208 and Ser210 (numbered according to a 441-residue human tau isoform) in tau protein. Functional analyses revealed that a recombinant kinase domain (residues 1–331) of human TTBK2 expressed in insect cells with a baculovirus overexpression system retains kinase activity for tau protein. The kinase domain of TTBK2 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.6, b = 113.7, c = 117.3 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  16. Identification of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase in bovine and human follicular fluids.

    PubMed

    Yang, L S; Kadam, A L; Koide, S S

    1993-11-01

    A soluble protein kinase (PK) was purified from bovine and human follicular fluids (FF) by ultrafiltration through a PM-10 membrane followed by chromatography on heparin-agarose, DEAE-cellulose and cellulose phosphate columns. The PK phosphorylated calf thymus histones and endogenous FF proteins having estimated Mrs of 40, 62, 128 and 180 KD. cAMP enhanced PK activity; whereas protein kinase A (PKA)-inhibitor peptide blocked the activity. The present findings suggest that the enzyme is a cAMP-dependent PK. PMID:8118427

  17. Analysis of Substrates of Protein Kinase C Isoforms in Human Breast Cells By The Traceable Kinase Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiangyu; Zhao, Xin; Abeyweera, Thushara P.; Rotenberg, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A previous report (Biochemistry 46: 2364–2370, 2007) described the application of The Traceable Kinase Method to identify substrates of PKCα in non-transformed human breast MCF-10A cells. Here, a non-radioactive variation of this method compared the phospho-protein profiles of three traceable PKC isoforms (α, δ and ζ) for the purpose of identifying novel, isoform-selective substrates. Each FLAG-tagged traceable kinase was expressed and co-immunoprecipitated along with high affinity substrates. The isolated kinase and its associated substrates were subjected to an in vitro phosphorylation reaction with traceable kinase-specific N6-phenyl-ATP, and the resulting phospho-proteins were analyzed by Western blot with an antibody that recognizes the phosphorylated PKC consensus site. Phospho-protein profiles generated by PKC-α and -δ were similar and differed markedly from that of PKC-ζ. Mass spectrometry of selected bands revealed known PKC substrates and several potential substrates that included the small GTPase-associated effector protein Cdc42 effector protein-4 (CEP4). Of those potential substrates tested, only CEP4 was phosphorylated by pure PKC-α, –δ, and −ζ isoforms in vitro, and by endogenous PKC isoforms in MCF-10A cells treated with DAG-lactone, a membrane permeable PKC activator. Under these conditions, the stoichiometry of CEP4 phosphorylation was 3.2 ± 0.5 (mol phospho-CEP4/mol CEP4). Following knock-down with isoform-specific shRNA-encoding plasmids, phosphorylation of CEP4 was substantially decreased in response to silencing of each of the three isoforms (PKC–α, –δ, or –ζ), whereas testing of kinase-dead mutants supported a role for only PKC-α and –δ in CEP4 phosphorylation. These findings identify CEP4 as a novel intracellular PKC substrate that is phosphorylated by multiple PKC isoforms. PMID:22897107

  18. Benzofuran Small Molecules as Potential Inhibitors of Human Protein Kinases. A Review.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Halina; Goszczyńska, Agata; Rokosz, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Kinases are known to regulate the majority of human cellular processes such as communication, division, metabolism, survival and apoptosis therefore they can be promising targets in cancer diseases, viral infection and in other disorders. Small molecules acting as selective human protein kinase inhibitors are very attractive pharmacological targets. This review presents a number of examples of biologically active natural and synthetic benzo[b]furans and their derivatives, such as benzo[b]furan-2- and 3-ones, benzo[b]furan-2- and 3-carboxylic acids, as well as benzo[c]furans as potential inhibitors of various human protein kinases. The pathways of function and implication of the inhibitors in cancer and other diseases are discussed. PMID:26648467

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef binds directly to Lck and mitogen-activated protein kinase, inhibiting kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, A; Azad, A; Mills, J; McPhee, D

    1996-01-01

    It is now well established that human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) Nef contributes substantially to disease pathogenesis by augmenting virus replication and markedly perturbing T-cell function. The effect of Nef on host cell activation could be explained in part by its interaction with specific cellular proteins involved in signal transduction, including at least a member of the src family kinase, Lck, and the serine/threonine kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Recombinant Nef directly interacted with purified Lck and MAPK in coprecipitation experiments and binding assays. A proline-rich repeat sequence [(Pxx)4] in Nef occurring between amino acid residues 69 to 78 is highly conserved and bears strong resemblance to a defined consensus sequence identified as an SH3 binding domain present in several proteins which can interact with the SH3 domain of various signalling and cytoskeletal proteins. Binding and coprecipitation assays with short synthetic peptides corresponding to the proline-rich repeat sequence [(Pxx)4] of Nef and the SH2, SH3, or SH2 and SH3 domains of Lck revealed that the interaction between these two proteins is at least in part mediated by the proline repeat sequence of Nef and the SH3 domain of Lck. In addition to direct binding to full-length Nef, MAPK was also shown to bind the same proline repeat motif. Nef protein significantly decreased the in vitro kinase activity of Lck and MAPK. Inhibition of key members of signalling cascades, including those emanating from the T-cell receptor, by the HIV-1 Nef protein undoubtedly alters the ability of the infected T cell to respond to antigens or cytokines, facilitating HIV-1 replication and contributing to HIV-1-induced disease pathogenesis. PMID:8794306

  20. KinMutBase, a database of human disease-causing protein kinase mutations.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, K A; Riikonen, P T; Vihinen, M

    1999-01-01

    KinMutBase (http://www.uta.fi/laitokset/imt/KinMut Base.html) is a registry of mutations in human protein kinases related to disorders. Kinases are essential cellular signalling molecules, in which mutations can lead into diseases including, e.g., immunodeficiencies, cancers and endocrine disorders. The first release of KinMutBase contains information for nine protein tyrosine kinases. There are altogether 170 entries representing 273 families and 403 patients. Mutations appear both in conserved hallmark residues of the kinases as well as in non-homologous sites. The KinMutBase WWW pages provide plenty of information, namely mutation statistics and display, clickable sequences with mutations, restriction enzyme patterns and online submission. PMID:9847229

  1. The retinoblastoma protein physically associates with the human cdc2 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Q J; Lees, J A; Buchkovich, K J; Harlow, E

    1992-01-01

    The protein product (pRB) of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene functions as a negative regulator of cell proliferation, and its activity appears to be modulated by phosphorylation. Using a new panel of anti-human pRB monoclonal antibodies, we have investigated the biochemical properties of this protein. These antibodies have allowed us to detect a pRB-associated kinase that has been identified as the cell cycle-regulating kinase p34cdc2 or a closely related enzyme. Since this associated kinase phosphorylates pRB at most of the sites used in vivo, these results suggest that this kinase is one of the major regulators of pRB. The associated kinase activity follows the pattern of phosphorylation seen for pRB in vivo. The associated kinase activity is not seen in the G1 phase but appears in the S phase, and the levels continue to increase throughout the remainder of the cell cycle. Images PMID:1545827

  2. Apoptosis and melanogenesis in human melanoma cells induced by anthrax lethal factor inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Han-Mo; Vanbrocklin, Matt; McWilliams, Mary Jane; Leppla, Stephan H.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.; Vande Woude, George F.

    2002-03-01

    Lethal factor, the principal virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by proteolytically cleaving MAPK kinases. Edema factor, another component of anthrax toxin, is an adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP. Inhibition of MAPK signaling with either anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) or small molecule MAPK kinase inhibitors triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Normal melanocytes do not undergo apoptosis in response to MAPK inhibition but arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Importantly, in vivo treatment of human melanoma xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice with LeTx results in significant or complete tumor regression without apparent side effects, suggesting that inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway may be a useful strategy for treating melanoma. Additionally, interrupting MAPK signaling with LeTx and elevating cAMP with anthrax edema toxin in both melanoma cells and melanocytes lead to dramatic melanin production, perhaps explaining the formation of blackened eschars in cutaneous anthrax.

  3. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  4. wKinMut-2: Identification and Interpretation of Pathogenic Variants in Human Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Miguel; Pons, Tirso; Brunak, Søren; Valencia, Alfonso; Izarzugaza, Jose M G

    2016-01-01

    Most genomic alterations are tolerated while only a minor fraction disrupts molecular function sufficiently to drive disease. Protein kinases play a central biological function and the functional consequences of their variants are abundantly characterized. However, this heterogeneous information is often scattered across different sources, which makes the integrative analysis complex and laborious. wKinMut-2 constitutes a solution to facilitate the interpretation of the consequences of human protein kinase variation. Nine methods predict their pathogenicity, including a kinase-specific random forest approach. To understand the biological mechanisms causative of human diseases and cancer, information from pertinent reference knowledge bases and the literature is automatically mined, digested, and homogenized. Variants are visualized in their structural contexts and residues affecting catalytic and drug binding are identified. Known protein-protein interactions are reported. Altogether, this information is intended to assist the generation of new working hypothesis to be corroborated with ulterior experimental work. The wKinMut-2 system, along with a user manual and examples, is freely accessible at http://kinmut2.bioinfo.cnio.es, the code for local installations can be downloaded from https://github.com/Rbbt-Workflows/KinMut2. PMID:26443060

  5. Functional Analysis of Protein Kinase CK2 of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Zoë; Prudent, Renaud; Reiser, Jean-Baptiste; Cochet, Claude; Doerig, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) is a eukaryotic serine/threonine protein kinase with multiple substrates and roles in diverse cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and translation. The mammalian holoenzyme consists of two catalytic alpha or alpha′ subunits and two regulatory beta subunits. We report the identification and characterization of a Plasmodium falciparum CK2α orthologue, PfCK2α, and two PfCK2β orthologues, PfCK2β1 and PfCK2β2. Recombinant PfCK2α possesses protein kinase activity, exhibits similar substrate and cosubstrate preferences to those of CK2α subunits from other organisms, and interacts with both of the PfCK2β subunits in vitro. Gene disruption experiments show that the presence of PfCK2α is crucial to asexual blood stage parasites and thereby validate the enzyme as a possible drug target. PfCK2α is amenable to inhibitor screening, and we report differential susceptibility between the human and P. falciparum CK2α enzymes to a small molecule inhibitor. Taken together, our data identify PfCK2α as a potential target for antimalarial chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:19114502

  6. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase of synthetic peptides derived from the linker region of human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, T C; Pohl, J; Glass, D B; Kuo, J F

    1994-01-01

    Specific sites in the linker region of human P-glycoprotein phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) were identified by means of a synthetic peptide substrate, PG-2, corresponding to residues 656-689 from this region of the molecule. As PG-2 has several sequences of the type recognized by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), PG-2 was also tested as a substrate for PKA. PG-2 was phosphorylated by purified PKC in a Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent manner, with a Km of 1.3 microM, and to a maximum stoichiometry of 2.9 +/- 0.1 mol of phosphate/mol of peptide. Sequence analysis of tryptic fragments of PG-2 phosphorylated by PKC identified Ser-661, Ser-667 and Ser-671 as the three sites of phosphorylation. PG-2 was also found to be phosphorylated by purified PKA in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner, with a Km of 21 microM, and to a maximum stoichiometry of 2.6 +/- 0.2 mol of phosphate/mol of peptide. Ser-667, Ser-671 and Ser-683 were phosphorylated by PKA. Truncated peptides of PG-2 were utilized to confirm that Ser-661 was PKC-specific and Ser-683 was PKA-specific. Further studies showed that PG-2 acted as a competitive substrate for the P-glycoprotein kinase present in membranes from multidrug-resistant human KB cells. The membrane kinase phosphorylated PG-2 mainly on Ser-661, Ser-667 and Ser-671. These results show that human P-glycoprotein can be phosphorylated by at least two protein kinases, stimulated by different second-messenger systems, which exhibit both overlapping and unique specificities for phosphorylation of multiple sites in the linker region of the molecule. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7909431

  7. Parasite Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases as Drug Discovery Targets to Treat Human Protozoan Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Brumlik, Michael J.; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Ludwig, Sara M.; Murthy, Kruthi; Curiel, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    Protozoan pathogens are a highly diverse group of unicellular organisms, several of which are significant human pathogens. One group of protozoan pathogens includes obligate intracellular parasites such as agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis. The other group includes extracellular pathogens such as agents of giardiasis and amebiasis. An unfortunate unifying theme for most human protozoan pathogens is that highly effective treatments for them are generally lacking. We will review targeting protozoan mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as a novel drug discovery approach towards developing better therapies, focusing on Plasmodia, Leishmania, and Toxoplasma, about which the most is known. PMID:21637385

  8. Protein Kinase RNA-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase-Mediated Bcl-2 Protein Phosphorylation Contributes to Evodiamine-Induced Apoptosis of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Shin; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Yen-Chou; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the anticancer mechanism of evodiamine (EVO) against the viability of human A498 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro study showed that EVO decreased the viability of A498 cells with the occurrence of apoptotic characteristics such as hypodiploid cells, DNA ladders, chromatin-condensed cells, and cleaved caspase (Casp)-3/poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. Pharmacological studies using chemical inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) indicated that phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein participated in EVO-induced cell death of A498 cells, and application of the JNK inhibitor, SP600125 (SP), inhibited EVO-induced cleavage of the Casp-3/PARP proteins and chromatin condensation according to Giemsa staining. EVO disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with increased protein levels of the phosphorylated Bcl-2 protein (p-Bcl-2) was prevented by JNK inhibitors in A498 cells. A structure-activity relationship study showed that a methyl group at position 14 in EVO was important for its apoptotic effects and increased p-Bcl-2 protein in A498 cells. Furthermore, significant increases in the phosphorylated endoplasmic reticular stress protein, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK at Thr980), by EVO were detected in A498 cells, and the PERK inhibitor, GSK2606414, significantly suppressed EVO-induced apoptosis, p-JNK, p-PERK, and cleaved PARP proteins. The in vivo study showed that EVO significantly reduced RCC growth elicited by a subcutaneous injection of A498 cells, and an increased protein level of p-PERK was observed according to an immunohistochemical analysis. Apoptosis by EVO was also demonstrated in other RCC cells such as 786-O, ACHN, and Caki-1 cells. This is the first study to demonstrate the anti-RCC effect of EVO via apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and activation of JNK and PERK to induce Bcl-2

  9. Structural insight into nucleotide recognition by human death-associated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Laurie K.; Watterson, D. Martin; Brunzelle, Joseph S.

    2009-03-01

    The crystal structures of DAPK–ADP–Mg{sup 2+} and DAPK–AMP-PNP–Mg{sup 2+} complexes were determined at 1.85 and 2.00 Å resolution, respectively. Comparison of the two nucleotide-bound states with apo DAPK revealed localized changes in the glycine-rich loop region that were indicative of a transition from a more open state to a more closed state on binding of the nucleotide substrate and to an intermediate state with the bound nucleotide product. Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a member of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-regulated family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The role of the kinase activity of DAPK in eukaryotic cell apoptosis and the ability of bioavailable DAPK inhibitors to rescue neuronal death after brain injury have made it a drug-discovery target for neurodegenerative disorders. In order to understand the recognition of nucleotides by DAPK and to gain insight into DAPK catalysis, the crystal structure of human DAPK was solved in complex with ADP and Mg{sup 2+} at 1.85 Å resolution. ADP is a product of the kinase reaction and product release is considered to be the rate-limiting step of protein kinase catalytic cycles. The structure of DAPK–ADP–Mg{sup 2+} was compared with a newly determined DAPK–AMP-PNP–Mg{sup 2+} structure and the previously determined apo DAPK structure (PDB code http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm). The comparison shows that nucleotide-induced changes are localized to the glycine-rich loop region of DAPK.

  10. Activation of S6 kinase in human neutrophils by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals: protein kinase C-dependent and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-independent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Tudan, C; Jackson, J K; Charlton, L; Pelech, S L; Sahl, B; Burt, H M

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been shown previously to be a central enzyme in crystal-induced neutrophil activation. Since activation of the 70 kDa S6 kinase (p70S6K) has been shown to be dependent on PI 3-kinase activation in mammalian cells, and since the former is a key enzyme in the transmission of signals to the cell nucleus, activation of p70(S6K) was investigated in crystal-stimulated neutrophils. Cytosolic fractions from calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD)-crystal-activated neutrophils were separated by Mono Q chromatography and analysed for phosphotransferase activity using a range of substrates and probed by Western analysis using antibodies to p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase). CPPD crystals induced a robust, transient activation (peak activity at 2 min) of p70(S6K) that was fully inhibited by pretreatment with rapamycin. This is the first report of the activation of p70(S6K) in neutrophil signal transduction pathways induced by an agonist. This crystal-induced activation of p70(S6K) could also be inhibited by a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (Compound 3), but not by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. CPPD crystals also activated the ERK1 and ERK2 forms of MAP kinase (wortmannin insensitive), PKC (Compound 3 sensitive) and protein kinase B (wortmannin sensitive) in neutrophils. These data suggest that activation of p70(S6K) may proceed through a PI 3-kinase- and protein kinase B-independent but PKC-dependent pathway in crystal-activated neutrophils. PMID:9531494

  11. Structural basis of CX-4945 binding to human protein kinase CK2

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Andrew D.; Sheth, Payal R.; Basso, Andrea D.; Paliwal, Sunil; Gray, Kimberly; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Le, Hung V.

    2012-02-07

    Protein kinase CK2 (CK2), a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase, is involved in a variety of roles essential to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Elevated levels of CK2 expression results in the dysregulation of key signaling pathways that regulate transcription, and has been implicated in cancer. The adenosine-5'-triphosphate-competitive inhibitor CX-4945 has been reported to show broad spectrum anti-proliferative activity in multiple cancer cell lines. Although the enzymatic IC{sub 50} of CX-4945 has been reported, the thermodynamics and structural basis of binding to CK2{alpha} remained elusive. Presented here are the crystal structures of human CK2{alpha} in complex with CX-4945 and adenylyl phosphoramidate at 2.7 and 1.3 {angstrom}, respectively. Biophysical analysis of CX-4945 binding is also described. This data provides the structural rationale for the design of more potent inhibitors against this emerging cancer target.

  12. The Protein Architecture of Human Secretory Vesicles Reveals Differential Regulation of Signaling Molecule Secretion by Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Taupenot, Laurent; Ziegler, Michael; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Ma, Qi; Smoot, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Hook, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Secretory vesicles are required for release of chemical messengers to mediate intercellular signaling among human biological systems. It is necessary to define the organization of the protein architecture of the ‘human’ dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) to understand mechanisms for secretion of signaling molecules essential for cellular regulatory processes. This study, therefore, conducted extensive quantitative proteomics and systems biology analyses of human DCSV purified from human pheochromocytoma. Over 600 human DCSV proteins were identified with quantitative evaluation of over 300 proteins, revealing that most proteins participate in producing peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, enzymes, and the secretory machinery. Systems biology analyses provided a model of interacting DCSV proteins, generating hypotheses for differential intracellular protein kinases A and C signaling pathways. Activation of cellular PKA and PKC pathways resulted in differential secretion of neuropeptides, catecholamines, and β-amyloid of Alzheimer's disease for mediating cell-cell communication. This is the first study to define a model of the protein architecture of human DCSV for human disease and health. PMID:22916103

  13. Atypical Protein Kinase Cι as a human oncogene and therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Peter J.; Justilien, Verline; Riou, Philippe; Linch, Mark; Fields, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors represent a major class of targeted therapeutics that has made a positive impact on treatment of cancer and other disease indications. Among the promising kinase targets for further therapeutic development are members of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family.The PKCs are central components of many signaling pathways that regulate diverse cellular functions including proliferation, cell cycle, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and polarity. Genetic manipulation of individual PKC isozymes has demonstrated that they often fulfill distinct, nonredundant cellular functions.11 Participation of PKC members in different intracellular signaling pathways reflects responses to varying extracellular stimuli, intracellular localization, tissue distribution, phosphorylation status, and intermolecular interactions. PKC activity, localization, phosphorylation, and/or expression are often altered in human tumors, and PKC isozymes have been implicated in various aspects of transformation, including uncontrolled proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and resistance to apoptosis. Despite the strong relationship between PKC isozymes and cancer, to date only atypical PKCiota has been shown to function as a bona fide oncogene, and as such is a particularly attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the role of PKCiota in transformation and describe mechanism-based approaches to therapeutically target oncogenic PKCiota signaling in cancer. PMID:24231509

  14. Protein Kinase C Controls Vesicular Transport and Secretion of Apolipoprotein E from Primary Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Denuja; Kockx, Maaike; Owen, Dylan M.; Burnett, John R.; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Macrophage-specific apolipoprotein E (apoE) secretion plays an important protective role in atherosclerosis. However, the precise signaling mechanisms regulating apoE secretion from primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) remain unclear. Here we investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in regulating basal and stimulated apoE secretion from HMDMs. Treatment of HMDMs with structurally distinct pan-PKC inhibitors (calphostin C, Ro-31-8220, Go6976) and a PKC inhibitory peptide all significantly decreased apoE secretion without significantly affecting apoE mRNA or apoE protein levels. The PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated apoE secretion, and both PMA-induced and apoAI-induced apoE secretion were inhibited by PKC inhibitors. PKC regulation of apoE secretion was found to be independent of the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCA1. Live cell imaging demonstrated that PKC inhibitors inhibited vesicular transport of apoE to the plasma membrane. Pharmacological or peptide inhibitor and knockdown studies indicate that classical isoforms PKCα/β and not PKCδ, -ϵ, -θ, or -ι/ζ isoforms regulate apoE secretion from HMDMs. The activity of myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS) correlated with modulation of PKC activity in these cells, and direct peptide inhibition of MARCKS inhibited apoE secretion, implicating MARCKS as a downstream effector of PKC in apoE secretion. Comparison with other secreted proteins indicated that PKC similarly regulated secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and chitinase-3-like-1 protein but differentially affected the secretion of other proteins. In conclusion, PKC regulates the secretion of apoE from primary human macrophages. PMID:23288845

  15. Global Detection of Protein Kinase D-dependent Phosphorylation Events in Nocodazole-treated Human Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Eisler, Stephan A.; Krug, Karsten; Wahl, Silke; Carpy, Alejandro; Nordheim, Alfred; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Hausser, Angelika; Macek, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) is a cytosolic serine/threonine kinase implicated in regulation of several cellular processes such as response to oxidative stress, directed cell migration, invasion, differentiation, and fission of the vesicles at the trans-Golgi network. Its variety of functions must be mediated by numerous substrates; however, only a couple of PKD substrates have been identified so far. Here we perform stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture-based quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis to detect phosphorylation events dependent on PKD1 activity in human cells. We compare relative phosphorylation levels between constitutively active and kinase dead PKD1 strains of HEK293 cells, both treated with nocodazole, a microtubule-depolymerizing reagent that disrupts the Golgi complex and activates PKD1. We identify 124 phosphorylation sites that are significantly down-regulated upon decrease of PKD1 activity and show that the PKD target motif is significantly enriched among down-regulated phosphorylation events, pointing to the presence of direct PKD1 substrates. We further perform PKD1 target motif analysis, showing that a proline residue at position +1 relative to the phosphorylation site serves as an inhibitory cue for PKD1 activity. Among PKD1-dependent phosphorylation events, we detect predominantly proteins with localization at Golgi membranes and function in protein sorting, among them several sorting nexins and members of the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor pathway. This study presents the first global detection of PKD1-dependent phosphorylation events and provides a wealth of information for functional follow-up of PKD1 activity upon disruption of the Golgi network in human cells. PMID:22496350

  16. The human DNA-activated protein kinase, DNA-PK: Substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.; Connelly, M.A.; Zhang, H.; Sipley, J.A.; Lees-Miller, S.P.; Lintott, L.G.; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Appella, E.

    1994-11-05

    Although much has been learned about the structure and function of p53 and the probable sequence of subsequent events that lead to cell cycle arrest, little is known about how DNA damage is detected and the nature of the signal that is generated by DNA damage. Circumstantial evidence suggests that protein kinases may be involved. In vitro, human DNA-PK phosphorylates a variety of nuclear DNA-binding, regulatory proteins including the tumor suppressor protein p53, the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, the heat shock protein hsp90, the large tumor antigen (TAg) of simian virus 40, a variety of transcription factors including Fos, Jun, serum response factor (SRF), Myc, Sp1, Oct-1, TFIID, E2F, the estrogen receptor, and the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (reviewed in Anderson, 1993; Jackson et al., 1993). However, for most of these proteins, the sites that are phosphorylated by DNA-PK are not known. To determine if the sites that were phosphorylated in vitro also were phosphorylated in vivo and if DNA-PK recognized a preferred protein sequence, the authors identified the sites phosphorylated by DNA-PK in several substrates by direct protein sequence analysis. Each phosphorylated serine or threonine is followed immediately by glutamine in the polypeptide chain; at no other positions are the amino acid residues obviously constrained.

  17. Crystal structure of human protein kinase CK2: insights into basic properties of the CK2 holoenzyme

    PubMed Central

    Niefind, Karsten; Guerra, Barbara; Ermakowa, Inessa; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 Å resolution (Protein Data Bank code: 1JWH). In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalytic subunits, which make no direct contact with one another. Each catalytic subunit interacts with both regulatory chains, predominantly via an extended C-terminal tail of the regulatory subunit. The CK2 structure is consistent with its constitutive activity and with a flexible role of the regulatory subunit as a docking partner for various protein kinases. Furthermore it shows an inter-domain mobility in the catalytic subunit known to be functionally important in protein kinases and detected here for the first time directly within one crystal structure. PMID:11574463

  18. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakedis, Jeffery; French, Randall; Babicky, Michele; Jaquish, Dawn; Howard, Haleigh; Mose, Evangeline; Lam, Raymond; Holman, Patrick; Miyamoto, Jaclyn; Walterscheid, Zakk; Lowy, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription (IPT) domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patient derived xenografts and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirms translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  19. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chakedis, J; French, R; Babicky, M; Jaquish, D; Howard, H; Mose, E; Lam, R; Holman, P; Miyamoto, J; Walterscheid, Z; Lowy, A M

    2016-06-23

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of xenografts derived from pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirm translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing cells, activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  20. Activation of death-associated protein kinase in human peritumoral tissue: A potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Haiyan; Pollok, Karen E; Chen, Jinhui; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the molecular mechanisms of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) phosphorylation and its contribution to glioma-related seizures, we investigated the expression of death-associated protein kinase-1 (DAPK1), which is a kinase known to phosphorylate NR2B at S1303 in glioma and peritumoral tissue. The molecular mechanisms leading to glioma-associated seizures are poorly understood. We recently discovered that NR2B is phosphorylated at S1303 in glioma peritumoral tissue. NR2B is an excitatory glutamate receptor, suggesting that glutamate released from glioma tumor cells may excite the neurons in the peritumoral tissue and contribute to glioma-associated epileptogenesis. DAPK1 levels were assessed in an intracranial mouse model of human glioma and in primary patient peritumoral and glioma tissues using immunohistochemistry. DAPK1 is highly expressed in the peritumoral region, but is poorly expressed in glioma tissues in both a mouse model of human glioma and in the primary patient glioma. In our previous report, we found that NR2B is also highly phosphorylated in the same region. Upregulation of DAPK1 in the peritumoral tissues suggests that DAPK1 can phosphorylate NR2B, increase its excitability, lead to glioma-induced seizures, and could potentially be an important therapeutic target. Furthermore, the xenograft model offers an opportunity to develop and test therapeutic approaches that can block DAPK1 activity in vivo. PMID:26165472

  1. Protein Kinase PKN1 Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard G.; Bosch, Katherine A.; Kulikauskas, Rima M.; Yang, Peitzu T.; Robin, Nick C.; Toroni, Rachel A.; Biechele, Travis L.; Berndt, Jason D.; von Haller, Priska D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A. PMID:24114839

  2. Structural and energetic basis of protein kinetic destabilization in human phosphoglycerate kinase 1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pey, Angel L; Mesa-Torres, Noel; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Valentini, Giovanna

    2013-02-19

    Protein kinetic destabilization is a common feature of many human genetic diseases. Human phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) deficiency is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations in the PGK1 protein, which often shows reduced kinetic stability. In this work, we have performed an in-depth characterization of the thermal stability of the wild type and four disease-causing mutants (I47N, L89P, E252A, and T378P) of human PGK1. PGK1 thermal denaturation is a process under kinetic control, and it is described well by a two-state irreversible denaturation model. Kinetic analysis of differential scanning calorimetry profiles shows that the disease-causing mutations decrease PGK1 kinetic stability from ~5-fold (E252A) to ~100000-fold (L89P) compared to that of wild-type PGK1, and in some cases, mutant enzymes are denatured on a time scale of a few minutes at physiological temperature. We show that changes in protein kinetic stability are associated with large differences in enthalpic and entropic contributions to denaturation free energy barriers. It is also shown that the denaturation transition state becomes more nativelike in terms of solvent exposure as the protein is destabilized by mutations (Hammond effect). Unfolding experiments with urea further suggest a scenario in which the thermodynamic stability of PGK1 at least partly determines its kinetic stability. ATP and ADP kinetically stabilize PGK1 enzymes, and kinetic stabilization is nucleotide- and mutant-selective. Overall, our data provide insight into the structural and energetic basis underlying the low kinetic stability displayed by some mutants causing human PGK1 deficiency, which may have important implications for the development of native state kinetic stabilizers for the treatment of this disease. PMID:23336698

  3. Biochemical and Genetic Conservation of Fission Yeast Dsk1 and Human SR Protein-Specific Kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhaohua; Kuo, Tiffany; Shen, Jenny; Lin, Ren-Jang

    2000-01-01

    Arginine/serine-rich (RS) domain-containing proteins and their phosphorylation by specific protein kinases constitute control circuits to regulate pre-mRNA splicing and coordinate splicing with transcription in mammalian cells. We present here the finding that similar SR networks exist in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We previously showed that Dsk1 protein, originally described as a mitotic regulator, displays high activity in phosphorylating S. pombe Prp2 protein (spU2AF59), a homologue of human U2AF65. We now demonstrate that Dsk1 also phosphorylates two recently identified fission yeast proteins with RS repeats, Srp1 and Srp2, in vitro. The phosphorylated proteins bear the same phosphoepitope found in mammalian SR proteins. Consistent with its substrate specificity, Dsk1 forms kinase-competent complexes with those proteins. Furthermore, dsk1+ gene determines the phenotype of prp2+ overexpression, providing in vivo evidence that Prp2 is a target for Dsk1. The dsk1-null mutant strain became severely sick with the additional deletion of a related kinase gene. Significantly, human SR protein-specific kinase 1 (SRPK1) complements the growth defect of the double-deletion mutant. In conjunction with the resemblance of dsk1+ and SRPK1 in sequence homology, biochemical properties, and overexpression phenotypes, the complementation result indicates that SRPK1 is a functional homologue of Dsk1. Collectively, our studies illustrate the conserved SR networks in S. pombe consisting of RS domain-containing proteins and SR protein-specific kinases and thus establish the importance of the networks in eucaryotic organisms. PMID:10629038

  4. Human biliverdin reductase, a previously unknown activator of protein kinase C betaII.

    PubMed

    Maines, Mahin D; Miralem, Tihomir; Lerner-Marmarosh, Nicole; Shen, Jenny; Gibbs, Peter E M

    2007-03-16

    Human biliverdin reductase (hBVR), a dual specificity kinase (Ser/Thr/Tyr) is, as protein kinase C (PKC) betaII, activated by insulin and free radicals (Miralem, T., Hu, Z., Torno, M. D., Lelli, K. M., and Maines, M. D. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 17084-17092; Lerner-Marmarosh, N., Shen, J., Torno, M. D., Kravets, A., Hu, Z., and Maines, M. D. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102, 7109-7114). Here, by using 293A cells co-transfected with pcDNA3-hBVR and PKC betaII plasmids, we report the co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins and co-purification in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assay. hBVR and PKC betaII, but not the reductase and PKC zeta, transphosphorylated in assay systems supportive of activity of only one of the kinases. PKC betaII K371R mutant protein ("kinase-dead") was also a substrate for hBVR. The reductase increased the Vmax but not the apparent Km values of PKC betaII for myelin basic protein; activation was independent of phospholipids and extended to the phosphorylation of S2, a PKC-specific substrate. The increase in substrate phosphorylation was blocked by specific inhibitors of conventional PKCs and attenuated by sihBVR. The effect of the latter could be rescued by subsequent overexpression of hBVR. To a large extent, the activation was a function of the hBVR N-terminal chain of valines and intact ATP-binding site and the cysteine-rich C-terminal segment. The cobalt protoporphyrin-activated hBVR phosphorylated a threonine in a peptide corresponding to the Thr500 in the human PKC betaII activation loop. Neither serine nor threonine residues in peptides corresponding to other phosphorylation sites of the PKC betaII nor PKC zeta activation loop-derived peptides were substrates. The phosphorylation of Thr500 was confirmed by immunoblotting of hBVR.PKC betaII immunocomplex. The potential biological relevance of the hBVR activation of PKC betaII was suggested by the finding that in cells transfected with the PKC betaII, h

  5. Site on the human erythrocyte glucose transporter phosphorylated by protein kinase C resides on the protein's hydrophilic domain

    SciTech Connect

    Deziel, M.R.; McReynolds, J.H.; Lippes, H.A.; Jung, C.Y.

    1986-05-01

    A recently published model of the human erythrocyte hexose transporter deduced from the protein's primary structure proposes that the transporter is organized into two membrane domains comprising 77% of the protein's mass and three hydrophilic domains, a short segment that includes the polypeptide's N-terminus and two larger segments, one lying between the membrane domains and the other at the protein's C-terminus. Limited tryptic digestion of the transporter produces two membrane-bound fragments corresponding to the proposed membrane domains and releases a number of soluble peptides. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectroscopic analysis of the released peptides and comparison of the peptide's masses with the transporter's amino acid sequence revealed that tryptic peptides corresponding to at least 63% of the hydrophilic domains' mass were recovered. The site of phosphorylation by protein kinase C, tagged using (/sup 32/P)-ATP, was also released from the transporter under these conditions, (in contrast to sites located within the protein's membrane domains), indicating that this site is located within one of the hydrophilic domains. Tryptic digestion at elevated ionic strength or cleavage with S. Aureus V8 protease results in the recovery of the /sup 32/P label on the carbohydrate-bearing membrane domain that is located near the protein's N-terminus, thus eliminating the C-terminal hydrophilic segment as a possible site of phosphorylation.

  6. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM
    IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    * Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue1
    1The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  7. Muscarine enhances soluble amyloid precursor protein secretion in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y by a pathway dependent on protein kinase C(alpha), src-tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase but not phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Canet-Aviles, Rosa-Maria; Anderton, Mark; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J; Vaughan, Peter F T

    2002-06-15

    The signalling pathways by which muscarine and epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulate the secretion of the alpha-secretase cleavage product (sAPPalpha) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) were examined in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. Using specific inhibitors it was found that over 80% of sAPPalpha secretion, enhanced by muscarine, occurred via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and was dependent on protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and a member of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src-TK). In contrast the stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion by EGF was not affected by inhibitors of PKC nor Src-TK but was dependent on ERK1/2. In addition muscarine-enhanced sAPPalpha secretion and ERK1/2 activation were inhibited 60 and 80%, respectively, by micromolar concentrations of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor wortmannin. In comparison wortmannin decreased EGF stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion and ERK 1/2 activation by approximately 40%. Unexpectedly, U73122, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, did not inhibit muscarine enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion. These data are discussed in relation to a pathway for the enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion by muscarine which involves the activation of a Src-TK by G-protein beta/gamma-subunits leading to activation of PKCalpha, and ERK1/2 by a mechanism not involving phospholipase C. PMID:12191495

  8. Protein kinase C-dependent regulation of human hepatic drug transporter expression.

    PubMed

    Mayati, Abdullah; Le Vee, Marc; Moreau, Amélie; Jouan, Elodie; Bucher, Simon; Stieger, Bruno; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2015-12-15

    Hepatic drug transporters are now recognized as major actors of hepatobiliary elimination of drugs. Characterization of their regulatory pathways is therefore an important issue. In this context, the present study was designed to analyze the potential regulation of human hepatic transporter expression by protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Treatment by the reference PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 48h was shown to decrease mRNA expression of various sinusoidal transporters, including OATP1B1, OATP2B1, NTCP, OCT1 and MRP3, but to increase that of OATP1B3, whereas mRNA expression of canalicular transporters was transiently enhanced (MDR1), decreased (BSEP and MRP2) or unchanged (BCRP) in human hepatoma HepaRG cells. The profile of hepatic transporter mRNA expression changes in PMA-treated HepaRG cells was correlated to that found in PMA-exposed primary human hepatocytes and was similarly observed in response to the PKC-activating marketed drug ingenol mebutate. It was associated with concomitant repression of OATP1B1 and OATP2B1 protein expression and reduction of OATP, OCT1, NTCP and MRP2 activity. The use of chemical PKC inhibitors further suggested a contribution of novel PKCs isoforms to PMA-mediated regulations of transporter mRNA expression. PMA was finally shown to cause epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HepaRG cells and exposure to various additional EMT inducers, i.e., hepatocyte growth factor, tumor growth factor-β1 or the HNF4α inhibitor BI6015, led to transporter expression alterations highly correlated to those triggered by PMA. Taken together, these data highlight PKC-dependent regulation of human hepatic drug transporter expression, which may be closely linked to EMT triggered by PKC activation. PMID:26462574

  9. Phosphorylation of Human CTP Synthetase 1 by Protein Kinase A: IDENTIFICATION OF Thr455 AS A MAJOR SITE OF PHOSPHORYLATION*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Carman, George M.

    2007-01-01

    CTP synthetase is an essential enzyme that generates the CTP required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and membrane phospholipids. In this work, we examined the phosphorylation of the human CTPS1-encoded CTP synthetase 1 by protein kinase A. CTP synthetase 1 was expressed and purified from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ double mutant that lacks CTP synthetase activity. Using purified CTP synthetase 1 as a substrate, protein kinase A activity was time- and dose-dependent. The phosphorylation, which primarily occurred on a threonine residue, was accompanied by a 50% decrease in CTP synthetase 1 activity. The synthetic peptide LGKRRTLFQT that contains the protein kinase A motif for Thr455 was a substrate for protein kinase A. A Thr455 to Ala (T455A) mutation in CTP synthetase 1 was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and was expressed and purified from the S. cerevisiae ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant. The T455A mutation caused a 78% decrease in protein kinase A phosphorylation, and the loss of the phosphothreonine residue and a major phosphopeptide that were present in the purified wild type enzyme phosphorylated by protein kinase A. The CTP synthetase 1 activity of the T455A mutant enzyme was 2-fold higher than the wild type enzyme. In addition, the T455A mutation caused a 44% decrease in the amount of human CTP synthetase 1 that was phosphorylated in S. cerevisiae cells, and this was accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in the cellular concentration of CTP and a 1.5-fold increase in the choline-dependent synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. PMID:17189248

  10. Identification of the human pim-1 gene product as a 33-kilodalton cytoplasmic protein with tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Telerman, A.; Amson, R.; Zakut-Houri, R.; Givol, D.

    1988-04-01

    The human pim-1 gene was recently identified as a new putative oncogene located on chromosome 6p21, a region showing karyotypic abnormalities in particular leukemias. In the present work the authors characterized the pim protein product. In vitro translation of positively selected poly(A)/sup +/ mRNA indicates that this gene encodes a 33-kilodalton protein. Anti-pim antibodies were raised against a fused TrpE-pim protein induced in a bacterial expression vector. This antibody immunoprecipitated a 33-kilodalton protein from in vivo (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled K562 and KCl myelogenous origin cell lines. This protein was localized to the cytoplasm, and in vivo labeling as well as in vitro kinase assay suggests that it is a phosphoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity. This was further confirmed by performing autophosphorylation directly on a p33/sup pim/-containing gel band cut out after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrphoresis. The results imply that the tyrosine kinase activity of pim can be recovered after boiling the pim-1 protein in sample buffer: a feature not described yet for this class of protein. These results suggest that pim-1 is a new member of the subgroup of oncogenes encoding tyrosine kinases.

  11. Characterization of protein kinase C and its isoforms in human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Beyers, A D; Hanekom, C; Rheeder, A; Strachan, A F; Wooten, M W; Nel, A E

    1988-11-15

    Protein kinase C (PKC) regulates numerous T cell functions and is present in abundance in normal human T cells and certain T cell lines. Although crude Triton X-100 soluble material obtained from T cell pellets contains minimal PKC activity, DEAE chromatography revealed that 12 to 37% of cellular PKC was membrane associated, probably due to removal of an inhibitor through column chromatography. As in other tissues, PKC from lymphoid tissue was phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent and diolein reduced the Ca2+ requirements for enzyme activity. Hydroxylapatite chromatography revealed that T cells possess two major peaks of PKC activity. Although, the enzyme in these peaks had similar m.w. and identical iso-electric mobility, the proteins differed with respect to their autophosphorylation sites and immunoreactivity toward an isoform specific antibody. Furthermore, differences in their activities in the presence of phospholipid, diolein, and limiting amounts of Ca2+ imply that these isoforms may be differentially activated. We discuss optimal conditions for activation of PKC and its isoforms for study of T lymphocyte cellular function. PMID:3263426

  12. Activation of group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 in human eosinophils by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Myou, Shigeharu; Leff, Alan R; Myo, Saori; Boetticher, Evan; Meliton, Angelo Y; Lambertino, Anissa T; Liu, Jie; Xu, Chang; Munoz, Nilda M; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2003-10-15

    Activation of group IV cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (gIV-PLA(2)) is the essential first step in the synthesis of inflammatory eicosanoids and in integrin-mediated adhesion of leukocytes. Prior investigations have demonstrated that phosphorylation of gIV-PLA(2) results from activation of at least two isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We investigated the potential role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in the activation of gIV-PLA(2) and the hydrolysis of membrane phosphatidylcholine in fMLP-stimulated human blood eosinophils. Transduction into eosinophils of Deltap85, a dominant negative form of class IA PI3K adaptor subunit, fused to an HIV-TAT protein transduction domain (TAT-Deltap85) concentration dependently inhibited fMLP-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B, a downstream target of PI3K. FMLP caused increased arachidonic acid (AA) release and secretion of leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)). TAT-Deltap85 and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, blocked the phosphorylation of gIV-PLA(2) at Ser(505) caused by fMLP, thus inhibiting gIV-PLA(2) hydrolysis and production of AA and LTC(4) in eosinophils. FMLP also caused extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in eosinophils; however, neither phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 nor p38 was inhibited by TAT-Deltap85 or LY294002. Inhibition of 1) p70 S6 kinase by rapamycin, 2) protein kinase B by Akt inhibitor, or 3) protein kinase C by Ro-31-8220, the potential downstream targets of PI3K for activation of gIV-PLA(2), had no effect on AA release or LTC(4) secretion caused by fMLP. We find that PI3K is required for gIV-PLA(2) activation and hydrolytic production of AA in activated eosinophils. Our data suggest that this essential PI3K independently activates gIV-PLA(2) through a pathway that does not involve MAPK. PMID:14530366

  13. Aluminum interaction with human brain tau protein phosphorylation by various kinases

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sebae, A.H.; Zeid, M.M.A.; Saleh, M.A. . Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Lab.); Abdel-Ghany, M.E.; Shalloway, D. ); Blancato, J. . Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.)

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an indispensable process for energy and signal transduction in biological systems. AlCl[sub 3] at 10 nM to 10 uM range activated in-vitro [[gamma]-[sup 32]P] ATP phosphorylation of the brain (tau) [Tau] protein in both normal human or E. coli expressed [Tau] forms; in the presence of the kinases P34, PKP, and PKC to a maximum at 1 mM level. AlCl[sub 3] at 100 uM to 500 uM range induced non-enzymatic phosphorylation of [Tau] with [gamma]-ATP, [gamma]-GTP, and [alpha]-GTP, and [alpha]-GTP. AlCl[sub 3] activated histone phosphorylation by P34 in a similar pattern. The hyperphosphorylation of [Tau] with [gamma]-ATP, [gamma]-GTP, and [alpha]-GTP. AlCl[sub 3] activated histone phosphorylation by P34 in a similar pattern. The hyperphosphorylation of [Tau] by Al[sup 3+] was accompanied by molecular shift and mobility retardation in SDS-PAGE. This may demonstrate the mechanism of the longterm neurological effect of Al[sup 3+] in human brain leading to the formation of the neurofibrillary tangles related to Alzeheimer's disease.

  14. Aluminum interaction with human brain tau protein phosphorylation by various kinases

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sebae; Abou Zeid, M.M.; Saleh, M.A. . Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Lab.); Abdel-Ghany, M.E.; Shalloway, D. . Section of Biochemistry, Mol, and Cell Biology); Blancato, J. . Environmental Monit. Systems Lab.)

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an indispensable process for energy and signal transduction in biological systems. AlCl[sub 3] at 10 nM to 10 [mu]M range activated in-vitro [[gamma][sup [minus]32]P]ATP phosphorylation of the brain ([tau]) [Gamma] protein in both normal human or E.coli expressed [Gamma] forms; in the presence of the kinases P34,PKP, and PKC. However, higher concentrations of AlCl[sub 3] inhibited the [Gamma] phosphorylation with P34, PKP, and PKC to a maximum at 1 mM level. AlCl[sub 3] at 100 [mu]M to 500 [mu]M range induced non-enzymatic phosphorylation of [Gamma] with [gamma]-ATP, [gamma]-GTP, and [alpha]-GRP. AlCl[sub 3] activated histone phosphorylation by P34 in a similar pattern. The hyperphosphorylation of [Gamma] by Al[sup 3+] was accompanied in molecular shift and mobility retardation in SDS-PAGE. This may demonstrate the mechanism of the long term neurological effect of Al[sub 3+] in human brain leading to the formation of the neutrofibrillary tangles related to Alzeheimer's disease.

  15. Monosodium Urate Activates Src/Pyk2/PI3 Kinase and Cathepsin Dependent Unconventional Protein Secretion From Human Primary Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Välimäki, Elina; Miettinen, Juho J.; Lietzén, Niina; Matikainen, Sampsa; Nyman, Tuula A.

    2013-01-01

    Monosodium urate (MSU) is an endogenous danger signal that is crystallized from uric acid released from injured cells. MSU is known to activate inflammatory response in macrophages but the molecular mechanisms involved have remained uncharacterized. Activated macrophages start to secrete proteins to activate immune response and to recruit other immune cells to the site of infection and/or tissue damage. Secretome characterization after activation of innate immune system is essential to unravel the details of early phases of defense responses. Here, we have analyzed the secretome of human primary macrophages stimulated with MSU using quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomics as well as high-throughput qualitative GeLC-MS/MS approach combining protein separation by SDS-PAGE and protein identification by liquid chromatography-MS/MS. Both methods showed that MSU stimulation induced robust protein secretion from lipopolysaccharide-primed human macrophages. Bioinformatic analysis of the secretome data showed that MSU stimulation strongly activates unconventional, vesicle mediated protein secretion. The unconventionally secreted proteins included pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-18, interferon-induced proteins, and danger signal proteins. Also active forms of lysosomal proteases cathepsins were secreted on MSU stimulation, and cathepsin activity was essential for MSU-induced unconventional protein secretion. Additionally, proteins associated to phosphorylation events including Src family tyrosine kinases were increased in the secretome of MSU-stimulated cells. Our functional studies demonstrated that Src, Pyk2, and PI3 kinases act upstream of cathepsins to activate the overall protein secretion from macrophages. In conclusion, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of protein secretion pathways activated by MSU in human macrophages, and reveal a novel role for cathepsins and Src, Pyk2, PI3 kinases in the activation of

  16. Human protein S inhibits the uptake of AcLDL and expression of SR-A through Mer receptor tyrosine kinase in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dan; Wang, Xinwen; Li, Min; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi

    2009-01-01

    Human protein S is an anticoagulation protein. However, it is unknown whether protein S could regulate the expression and function of macrophage scavenger receptor A (SR-A) in macrophages. Human THP-1 monocytes and peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and then treated with physiological concentrations of human protein S. We found that protein S significantly reduced acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) uptake and binding by macrophages and decreased the intracellular cholesteryl ester content. Protein S suppressed the expression of the SR-A at both mRNA and protein levels. Protein S reduced the SR-A promoter activity primarily through inhibition in the binding of transcription factors to the AP-1 promoter element in macrophages. Furthermore, human protein S could bind and induce phosphorylation of Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer RTK). Soluble Mer protein or tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A effectively blocked the effects of protein S on AcLDL uptake. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the level of protein S was substantially increased in human atherosclerotic arteries. Thus, human protein S can inhibit the expression and activity of SR-A through Mer RTK in macrophages, suggesting that human protein S is a modulator for macrophage functions in uptaking of modified lipoproteins. PMID:18922854

  17. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase in human cells by the mycotoxin patulin

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.-S.; Yu, F.-Y.; Su, C.-C.; Kan, J.-C.; Chung, C.-P.; Liu, B.-H. . E-mail: bingliu@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-09-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, is often detectable in moldy fruits and their derivative products. PAT led to a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Exposure of HEK293 cells to concentrations above 5 {mu}M PAT for 30 min induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation; activation of ERK1/2 was also observed after 24 h incubation with 0.05 {mu}M of PAT. Treatment of human PBMCs for 30 min with 30 {mu}M PAT dramatically increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Both MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suppressed ERK1/2 activation in either HEK293 or MDCK cells. In HEK293 cells, U0126-mediated inhibition of PAT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in levels of DNA damage, expressed as tail moment values, in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Conversely, U0126 did not affect cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the DNA synthesis rate in PAT-treated cultures. Exposure of HEK293 cells for 90 min to 15 {mu}M PAT elevated the levels of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) mRNA, but not of c-fos, fosB, and junB mRNAs. These results indicate that in human cells, PAT causes a rapid and persistent activation of ERK1/2 and this signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating PAT-induced DNA damage and egr-1 gene expression.

  18. Role for zinc in a cellular response mediated by protein kinase C in human B lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, I.J.; Zalewski, P.D.; Giannakis, C. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested a role for Zn{sup 2+}, distinct from that of CA{sup 2+}, in the subcellular distribution and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Here the author show that Zn{sup 2+} is required for a cellular response mediated by PKC, the rapid loss of expression of a human B cell receptor MER, detected by resetting with mouse erythrocytes. Zn{sup 2+}, in the presence of the Zn{sup 2+} ionophore pyrithione, caused rapid inhibition of MER rosetting at concentrations which induce the translocation and activation of PKC. This required cellular uptake of Zn{sup 2+} and was blocked by 1,10-phenanthroline and TPEN which chelate Zn{sup 2+} but not Ca{sup 2+}. Gold, a metal with similar properties, also induced translocation of PKC and inhibition of MER. Phenanthroline and TPEN also blocked the inhibition of MER induced by the PKC activators phorbol ester and sodium fluoride, suggesting that endogenous cellular Zn{sup 2+} is required. They propose that some cellular actions of PKC require a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent event and that these may be a target for gold during chrysotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Protein kinase C inhibition by sphingoid long-chain bases: effects on secretion in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.; Arnold, R.R.; Merrill, A.H.; Lambeth, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    Sphingoid long-chain bases (sphinganine and sphingosine(So)) have recently been shown to inhibit protein kinase C (PK-C) in vitro and to block activation of the oxidative burst in intact neutrophils (PMN) by inhibiting this enzyme. In the present study, the authors have used So to investigate the role of protein kinase C in stimulus-induced secretion of PMN granule contents. Secretion of the specific granule component lactoferrin (Lf) is completely inhibited by pretreatment with So when either PMA or fLMP is used as the secretogogue. Secretion of lysozyme, a component of both the azurophilic and specific granules, is completely inhibited by So when PMA is used, but only 40% inhibited with fMLP. The secretion of the azurophilic granule markers US -glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase was not affected by So regardless of the agonist used. Data indicate that both PK-C-dependent and -independent pathways participate in the neutrophil secretory response.

  20. Livin enhances tumorigenesis by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ae; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Park, Young-Lan; Chung, Ik-Joo; Joo, Young-Eun; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-07-01

    Livin, a member of the human inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is expressed at high levels in various human cancer tissues and may have prognostic significance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Livin on tumor cell behavior and oncogenic signaling pathways in human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. A cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis were used to assess the functional effects of small interfering RNA‑mediated Livin knockdown. Livin was overexpressed in fresh HSCC tissues, compared with the adjacent normal mucosa. Livin knockdown led to significantly reduced cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase of the human HSCC cells. The expression levels of c‑myc, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin‑dependent kinase (CDK)4 and CDK6 were decreased. The phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c‑Jun N-terminal kinase and Akt were also decreased by Livin knockdown in the HSCC cells. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that Livin may enhance tumorigenesis by modulating the mitogen‑activated/Akt signaling pathways in human HSCC. PMID:27175933

  1. The Nek8 protein kinase, mutated in the human cystic kidney disease nephronophthisis, is both activated and degraded during ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zalli, Detina; Bayliss, Richard; Fry, Andrew M

    2012-03-01

    Mutations in the never-in-mitosis A-related kinase, Nek8, are associated with cystic kidney disease in both humans and mice, with Nek8 being the NPHP9 gene in the human juvenile cystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis. Human Nek8/NPHP9 localizes to centrosomes and the proximal region of cilia in dividing and ciliated cells, respectively. However, the regulation of Nek8 kinase activity, as well as its role in ciliogenesis, remains to be defined. Here, by establishing Nek8 kinase assays, we first demonstrate that the localization of Nek8 to centrosomes and cilia is dependent on both kinase activity and the C-terminal non-catalytic RCC1 domain. The kinase domain alone is active, but does not localize correctly, while the RCC1 domain localizes correctly and can be phosphorylated by Nek8. We propose that centrosome recruitment is mediated by the RCC1 domain, but requires a conformational change in the full-length protein that is promoted by autophosphorylation. Interestingly, three human NPHP9-associated mutants retain full kinase activity. However, only two of these, L330F and A497P, localize correctly, suggesting that the third mutant, H425Y, disrupts a centrosome targeting sequence in the RCC1 domain. Importantly, we find that induction of ciliogenesis upon cell cycle exit is accompanied by both activation and proteasomal degradation of Nek8, and that activation is dependent upon phosphorylation within the catalytic domain. Taken together, these findings reveal important insights into the mechanisms through which Nek8 activity and localization are regulated during ciliogenesis. PMID:22106379

  2. Tyrosine phosphorylation is a mandatory proximal step in radiation-induced activation of the protein kinase C signaling pathway in human B-lymphocyte precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, F M; Schieven, G L; Tuel-Ahlgren, L M; Dibirdik, I; Myers, D E; Ledbetter, J A; Song, C W

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation triggers a signal in human B-lymphocyte precursors that is intimately linked to an active protein-tyrosine kinase regulatory pathway. We show that in B-lymphocyte precursors, irradiation with gamma-rays leads to (i) stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover; (ii) downstream activation by covalent modification of multiple serine-specific protein kinases, including protein kinase C; and (iii) activation of nuclear factor kappa B. All of the radiation-induced signals were effectively prevented by the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation is an important and perhaps mandatory proximal step in the activation of the protein kinase C signaling cascade in human B-lymphocyte precursors. Our report expands current knowledge of the radiation-induced signaling cascade by clarifying the chronological sequence of biochemical events that follow irradiation. Images PMID:8419931

  3. Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, M A; Kerr, N C; Robbins, J H; McBride, O W; Alamo, I; Barrett, S F; Hickson, I D; Fornace, A J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the expression of two DNA-damage-inducible genes, designated gadd45 and gadd153, was examined in cultured human cells. These genes have previously been shown to be strongly and coordinately induced by UV radiation and alkylating agents in human and hamster cells. We found that the gadd45 but not the gadd153 gene is strongly induced by X rays in human cells. The level of gadd45 mRNA increased rapidly after X rays at doses as low as 2 Gy. After 20 Gy of X rays, gadd45 induction, as measured by increased amounts of mRNA, was similar to that produced by the most effective dose of the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. No induction was seen after treatment of either human or hamster cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, a known activator of protein kinase C (PKC). Therefore, gadd45 represents the only known mammalian X-ray-responsive gene whose induction is not mediated by PKC. However, induction was blocked by the protein kinase inhibitor H7, indicating that induction is mediated by some other kinase(s). Sequence analysis of human and hamster cDNA clones demonstrated that this gene has been highly conserved and encodes a novel 165-amino-acid polypeptide which is 96% identical in the two species. This gene was localized to the short arm of human chromosome 1 between p12 and p34. When induction in lymphoblast lines from four normal individuals was compared with that in lines from four patients with ataxia telangiectasia, induction by X rays of gadd45 mRNA was less in the cell lines from this cancer-prone radiosensitive disorder. Our results provide evidence for the existence of an X-ray stress response in human cells which is independent of PKC and which is abnormal in taxia telangiectasia. Images PMID:1990262

  4. Modeled microgravity-induced protein kinase C isoform expression in human lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    2004-01-01

    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited in both microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected by diminished DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type I collagen. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas the calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 1 g and MMG culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and serial samples were assessed for locomotion by using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were downregulated by >50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 1-g controls. Events upstream of PKC, such as phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than PKC, but after ligand-receptor interaction.

  5. Modeled Microgravity-Induced Protein Kinase C Isoform Expression in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    2003-01-01

    In long-term space travel, the crew is exposed to microgravity and radiation that invoke potential hazards to the immune system. T cell activation is a critical step in the immune response. Receptor-mediated signaling is inhibited both in microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) as reflected in diminished DNA synthess in peripheral blood lymphocytes and their locomotion through gelled type 1 collagen. Direct activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC) bypassing cell surface events using the phorbol ester PMA rescues MMG-inhibited lymphocyte activation and locomotion, whereas calcium ionophore ionomycin had no rescue effect. Thus calcium-independent PKC isoforms may be affected in MMG-induced locomotion inhibition and rescue. Both calcium-dependent isoforms and calcium-independent PKC isoforms were investigated to assess their expression in lymphocytes in 19 and MMG-culture. Human lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours and serial samples assessed for locomotion using type I collagen and expression of PKC isoforms. Expression of PKC-alpha, -delta and -epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Results indicated that PKC isoforms delta and epsilon were down-regulated by more than 50% at the transcriptional and translational levels in MMG-cultured lymphocytes compared with 19 controls. Events upstream of PKC such as phosphorylation of Phospholipase C(gamma) (PLC-gamma) in MMG, revealed accumulation of inactive enzyme. Depressed Ca++ -independent PKC isoforms may be a consequence of an upstream lesion in the signal transduction pathway. The differential response among calcium-dependent and calcium-independent isoforms may actually result from MMG intrusion events earlier than, but after ligand-receptor interaction. Keywords: Signal transduction, locomotion, immunity

  6. Metformin inhibits growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells via liver kinase B-1-independent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    GUO, QIANQIAN; LIU, ZHIYAN; JIANG, LILI; LIU, MENGJIE; MA, JIEQUN; YANG, CHENGCHENG; HAN, LILI; NAN, KEJUN; LIANG, XUAN

    2016-01-01

    Metformin, the most widely administered oral anti-diabetic therapeutic agent, exerts its glucose-lowering effect predominantly via liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-dependent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that metformin possesses potential antitumor effects. However, whether the antitumor effect of metformin is via the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway remains to be determined. In the current study, the effects of metformin on proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 (LKB1-null) and H1299 (LKB1-positive) cells were assessed, and the role of LKB1/AMPK signaling in the anti-growth effects of metformin were investigated. Cell viability was determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry, and protein expression levels were measured by western blotting. Metformin inhibited proliferation, induced significant cell cycle arrest at the G0–G1 phase and increased apoptosis in NSCLC cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, regardless of the level of LKB1 protein expression. Furthermore, knockdown of LKB1 with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) did not affect the antiproliferative effect of metformin in the H1299 cells. Metformin stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently suppressed the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream effector, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase in the two cell lines. These effects were abrogated by silencing AMPK with small interfering RNA (siRNA). In addition, knockdown of AMPK with siRNA inhibited the effect of metformin on cell proliferation in the two cell lines. These results provide evidence that the growth inhibition of metformin in NSCLC cells is mediated by LKB1-independent activation of AMPK, indicating that metformin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of

  7. Nuclear association of cyclin D1 in human fibroblasts: tight binding to nuclear structures and modulation by protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Scovassi, A I; Stivala, L A; Rossi, L; Bianchi, L; Prosperi, E

    1997-11-25

    The association of cyclin D1 with nuclear structures was investigated in normal human fibroblasts by using hypotonic detergent extraction procedures, immunofluorescence quantitation with flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. About 20% of the total cellular levels of cyclin D1 was found to be tightly bound to nuclear structures, being the complex formation resistant to DNase I treatment and to high salt extraction. Maximal levels of the insoluble form of the protein were found in the middle to late G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation techniques after in vivo 32P-labeling showed that both soluble and nuclear-bound forms of cyclin D1 were phosphorylated. Both fractions were reactive to an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, while only the latter was detectable with an anti-phosphoserine antibody. Treatment with the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, which induces a cell cycle arrest in early G1 phase, strongly reduced cyclin D1 phosphorylation. Concomitantly, the ratio of nuclear-bound/total cyclin D1 levels was reduced by about 60%, compared with the control value. The protein kinase A specific inhibitor isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H-89) induced a similar reduction in the ratio, with no significant modification in the total amount of protein. In contrast, both calphostin C and bisindolylmaleimide, specific inhibitors of protein kinase C, consistently increased by 30-50% the ratio of nuclear-bound/total amount of the cyclin protein. These results suggest that, during the G1 phase, formation of an insoluble complex of cyclin D1 occurs at nuclear matrix structures and that this association is mediated by a protein kinase A-dependent pathway. PMID:9417875

  8. Problem-Solving Test: "In Vitro" Protein Kinase A Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is an important mechanism in the regulation of protein activity. Among hundreds of protein kinases present in human cells, PKA, the first kinase discovered, belongs to the most important and best characterized group of these enzymes. The author presents an experiment that analyzes the "in vitro"…

  9. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity and PKC messenger RNAs in human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Maeda, T; Chandler, W F; Lloyd, R V

    1993-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the differentiation and growth regulation of a variety of tissues including anterior pituitary gland cells. To determine the distribution of PKC in different types of adenomas, PKC activity was analyzed in human pituitary tumors and the effects of hypothalamic hormone stimulation on PKC activity were examined in cultured adenoma cells. Gonadotroph (LH/FSH) and null cell adenomas had significantly higher levels of particulate, soluble, and total PKC activity compared with growth hormone (GH) adenomas (P < 0.05). Chronic stimulation of null cell adenomas with gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone or of one GH adenoma with GH-releasing hormone for 7 days did not significantly alter total PKC activity in pituitary cells cultured in serum-free medium. Localization of the calcium-dependent PKC isozymes (alpha, beta and gamma) by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed predominantly PKC alpha in all adenomas and variable expression of PKC beta and gamma in some tumors. When the calcium-independent PKC isozymes (delta, epsilon, and zeta) were localized by in situ hybridization, normal and neoplastic pituitaries expressed abundant mRNA for PKC epsilon, whereas some tumors and one normal pituitary had a few cells positive for PKC zeta mRNA as evaluated by grain density and the number of cells labeled. These results indicate that there is a variable distribution of PKC mRNA isozymes in human pituitary adenomas and that normal pituitaries and pituitary adenoma cells express the mRNA for both the calcium-dependent and some of the calcium-independent PKC isozymes. Chronic treatment with the hypothalamic gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone and GH-releasing hormone, which increased LH/FSH and GH secretion, respectively, did not increase PKC activity in cultured adenoma cells. The presence of calcium-dependent and calcium-independent PKC isozymes in normal and neoplastic pituitary cells indicates that PKC probably plays a

  10. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 Attenuation of Protein Kinase C-Induced Inflammation in Human Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yi-Ning; Sun, David; Peng, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two important inflammatory mediators in ovulation. Ghrelin may modulate inflammatory signaling via growth hormone secretagogue receptors. We investigated the role of ghrelin in KGN human ovarian granulosa cells using protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) and synthetic ghrelin analog growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2). GHRP-2 attenuated PDD-induced expression of protein and mRNA, the promoter activity of COX-2 and IL-8 genes, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-8. GHRP-2 promoted the degradation of PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 proteins with the involvement of proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. PDD-mediated COX-2 production acts via the p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways; PDD-mediated IL-8 production acts via the p38, JNK and ERK pathways. GHRP-2 reduced the PDD-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and activator protein 1 (AP-1) reporter activation and PDD-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and reporter activation. The inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) reduced the inhibitory effect of GHRP-2 on PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 expression. Our findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role for ghrelin (GHRP-2) in PKC-mediated inflammation of granulosa cells, at least in part, due to its inhibitory effect on PKC-induced activation of p38, JNK and NF-κB, possibly by targeting to MKP-1 and PP2A. PMID:27548147

  11. Protein kinase C is differentially regulated by thrombin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor in human mammary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.L.; Tellez-Inon, M.T. ); Medrano, E.E.; Cafferatta, E.G.A. )

    1988-03-01

    The exposure of serum-deprived mammary tumor cells MCF-7 and T-47D to insulin, thrombin, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) resulted in dramatic modifications in the activity and in the translocation capacity of protein kinase C from cytosol to membrane fractions. Insulin induces a 600% activation of the enzyme after 5 h of exposure to the hormone in MCF-7 cells; thrombin either activates (200% in MCF-7) or down-regulates (in T-47D), and EGF exerts only a moderate effect. Thus, the growth factors studied modulate differentially the protein kinase C activity in human mammary tumor cells. The physiological significance of the results obtained are discussed in terms of the growth response elicited by insulin, thrombin, and EGF.

  12. Inhibition of protein kinase C catalytic activity by additional regions within the human protein kinase Calpha-regulatory domain lying outside of the pseudosubstrate sequence.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Angie F; Bibby, Ashley C; Mvilongo, Thierry; Riedel, Heimo; Burke, Thomas; Millis, Sherri Z; Parissenti, Amadeo M

    2003-07-15

    The N-terminal pseudosubstrate site within the protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha)-regulatory domain has long been regarded as the major determinant for autoinhibition of catalytic domain activity. Previously, we observed that the PKC-inhibitory capacity of the human PKCalpha-regulatory domain was only reduced partially on removal of the pseudosubstrate sequence [Parissenti, Kirwan, Kim, Colantonio and Schimmer (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8940-8945]. This finding suggested that one or more additional region(s) contributes to the inhibition of catalytic domain activity. To assess this hypothesis, we first examined the PKC-inhibitory capacity of a smaller fragment of the PKCalpha-regulatory domain consisting of the C1a, C1b and V2 regions [GST-Ralpha(39-177): this protein contained the full regulatory domain of human PKCalpha fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST), but lacked amino acids 1-38 (including the pseudosubstrate sequence) and amino acids 178-270 (including the C2 region)]. GST-Ralpha(39-177) significantly inhibited PKC in a phorbol-independent manner and could not bind the peptide substrate used in our assays. These results suggested that a region within C1/V2 directly inhibits catalytic domain activity. Providing further in vivo support for this hypothesis, we found that expression of N-terminally truncated pseudosubstrate-less bovine PKCalpha holoenzymes in yeast was capable of inhibiting cell growth in a phorbol-dependent manner. This suggested that additional autoinhibitory force(s) remained within the truncated holoenzymes that could be relieved by phorbol ester. Using tandem PCR-mediated mutagenesis, we observed that mutation of amino acids 33-86 within GST-Ralpha(39-177) dramatically reduced its PKC-inhibitory capacity when protamine was used as substrate. Mutagenesis of a broad range of sequences within C2 (amino acids 159-242) also significantly reduced PKC-inhibitory capacity. Taken together, these observations support strongly the existence of

  13. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  14. Enediyne lidamycin induces apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yong-Zhan; Lin, Ya-Jun; Shang, Bo-Yang; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, the effects of lidamycin (LDM), a member of the enediyne antibiotic family, on two human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines, U266 and SKO-007, were evaluated. In MTS assay, LDM showed much more potent cytotoxicity than conventional anti-MM agents to both cell lines. The IC(50) values of LDM for the U266 and SKO-007 cells were 0.0575 +/- 0.0015 and 0.1585 +/- 0.0166 nM, respectively, much lower than those of adriamycin, dexamethasone, and vincristine. Mechanistically, LDM triggered MM cells apoptosis by increasing the levels of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3/7. In addition, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was a critical mediator in LDM-induced cell death. Inhibition of the expression of p38 MAPK and JNK by pharmacological inhibitors reversed the LDM-induced apoptosis through decreasing the level of cleaved PARP and caspase-3/7. Interestingly, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase was increased by LDM; conversely, MEK inhibitor synergistically enhanced LDM-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MM cells. The results demonstrated that LDM suppresses MM cell growth through the activation of p38 MAPK and JNK, with the potential to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for MM. PMID:19468799

  15. Expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in the early phases of human epithelial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Loda, M.; Capodieci, P.; Mishra, R.; Yao, H.; Corless, C.; Grigioni, W.; Wang, Y.; Magi-Galluzzi, C.; Stork, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    Many mitogens and human oncogenes activate extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs), which in turn convey proliferation signals. ERKs or mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are inactivated in vitro by MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs). The gene encoding one of these MKPs, MKP-1, is a serum-inducible gene and is transcriptionally activated by mitogenic signals in cultured cells. As MKP-1 has been shown to block DNA synthesis by inhibiting ERKs when expressed at elevated levels in cultured cells, it has been suggested that it may act as a tumor suppressor. MKP-1 mRNA and MAP kinase (ERK-1 and -2) protein expression was assessed in 164 human epithelial tumors of diverse tissue origin by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. MKP-1 was overexpressed in the early phases of prostate, colon, and bladder carcinogenesis, with progressive loss of expression with higher histological grade and in metastases. In contrast, breast carcinomas showed significant MKP-1 expression even when poorly differentiated or in late stages of the disease. MKP-1, ERK-1, and ERK-2 were co-expressed in most tumors examined. In a subset of 15 tumors, ERK-1 enzymatic activity as well as structural alterations that might be responsible for loss of function of MKP-1 during tumor progression, were examined. ERK-1 enzymatic activity was found to be elevated despite MKP-1 overexpression. No loss of 5q35-ter (containing the MKP-1 locus) was detected by polymerase chain reaction in metastases compared with primary tumors. Finally, no mutations were found in the catalytic domain of MKP-1. These data indicate that MKP-1 is an early marker for a wide range of human epithelial tumors and suggest that MKP-1 does not behave as a tumor suppressor in epithelial tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8909245

  16. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on voltage-dependent K+ currents in human cardiac fibroblasts through protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyemi; Lee, Donghee; Kim, Young-Won; Choi, Jeongyoon; Lee, Hong Jun; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kim, Taeho; Noh, Yun-Hee; Ko, Jae-Hong; Bang, Hyoweon

    2016-01-01

    Human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) have various voltage-dependent K+ channels (VDKCs) that can induce apoptosis. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) modulates VDKCs and induces oxidative stress, which is the main contributor to cardiac injury and cardiac remodeling. We investigated whether H2O2 could modulate VDKCs in HCFs and induce cell injury through this process. In whole-cell mode patch-clamp recordings, application of H2O2 stimulated Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) currents but not delayed rectifier K+ or transient outward K+ currents, all of which are VDKCs. H2O2-stimulated KCa currents were blocked by iberiotoxin (IbTX, a large conductance KCa blocker). The H2O2-stimulating effect on large-conductance KCa (BKCa) currents was also blocked by KT5823 (a protein kinase G inhibitor) and 1 H-[1, 2, 4] oxadiazolo-[4, 3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor). In addition, 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) stimulated BKCa currents. In contrast, KT5720 and H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitors) did not block the H2O2-stimulating effect on BKCa currents. Using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, three subtypes of KCa channels were detected in HCFs: BKCa channels, small-conductance KCa (SKCa) channels, and intermediate-conductance KCa (IKCa) channels. In the annexin V/propidium iodide assay, apoptotic changes in HCFs increased in response to H2O2, but IbTX decreased H2O2-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that among the VDKCs of HCFs, H2O2 only enhances BKCa currents through the protein kinase G pathway but not the protein kinase A pathway, and is involved in cell injury through BKCa channels. PMID:27162486

  17. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  18. Inhibition of human neutrophil responses by alpha-cyano-3,4-dihydroxythiocinnamamide; a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Dryden, P.; Duronio, V.; Martin, L.; Hudson, A. T.; Salari, H.

    1992-01-01

    1. Activation of neutrophils results in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins that may have important roles in receptor/effector coupling. In this study, the effect of a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor on receptor-mediated neutrophil activation by platelet-activating factor (PAF), leukotriene, B4 (LTB4) and N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP) is investigated. 2. alpha-Cyano-3,4-dihydroxythiocinnamamide dose-dependently inhibited intracellular calcium release and superoxide generation from human neutrophils activated by 1 microM LTB4, PAF, and FMLP. 3. In the presence of cytochalasin B, FMLP stimulated elastase release from neutrophils was also inhibited to unstimulated levels by 5 min pretreatment with alpha-cyano-3,4-dihydroxythiocinnamamide. 4. The inhibitory action of alpha-cyano-3,4-dihydroxythiocinnamamide was found to be at or upstream of phospholipase C activation, blocking both phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis and protein kinase C activation. alpha-Cyano-3,4-dihydroxythiocinnamamide did not affect agonist receptor binding sites or receptor affinity in neutrophils. 5. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of 41, 56, 66, and 104 kDa in neutrophils treated with agonists. Treatment of neutrophils with alpha-cyano-3,4-dihydroxythiocinnamamide prior to stimulation with chemoattractants reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of the above phosphoproteins. 6. These results indicate that alpha-cyano-3,4-dihydroxythiocinnamamide might be a useful agent in characterizing the essential proteins and biochemical pathways that regulate neutrophil activation. PMID:1504749

  19. Tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of a new mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase cascade in human neutrophils stimulated with various agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, N; Molski, T F; Fernandez, G A; Sha'afi, R I

    1996-01-01

    The presence of a novel 38 kDa protein that is tyrosine phosphorylated in human neutrophils, a terminally differentiated cell, upon stimulation of these cells with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with serum has been demonstrated. This 38 kDa protein was identified as the mammalian homologue of HOG1 in yeast, the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. This conclusion is based on the experimental findings that anti-phosphotyrosine (anti-PY) antibody immunoprecipitates a 38 kDa protein that is recognized by anti-p38 MAP kinase antibody, and conversely, anti-p38 MAP kinase antibody immunoprecipitates a 38 kDa protein that can be recognized by anti-PY antibody. Moreover, this tyrosine phosphorylated protein is found associated entirely with the cytosol. It was also found that this p38 MAP kinase is activated following stimulation of these cells with low concentrations of LPS in combination with serum. This conclusion is based on three experimental findings. First, soluble fractions isolated from LPS-stimulated cells phosphorylate heat shock protein 27 (hsp27) in an in vitro assay, and this effect is not inhibited by protein kinase C and protein kinase A inhibitor peptides. This effect is similar to the effect produced by the commercially available phosphorylated and activated MAPKAP kinase-2 (MAP kinase activated protein kinase-2). Secondly, a 27 kDa protein that aligns with a protein recognized by anti-hsp27 antibody is phosphorylated upon LPS stimulation of intact human neutrophils prelabelled with radioactive phosphate. Lastly, immune complex protein kinase assays, using [gamma-32P]ATP and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) as substrates, showed increased p38 MAP kinase activity from LPS-stimulated human neutrophils. The phosphorylation and activation of this p38 MAP kinase can be affected by both G-protein-coupled receptors such as platelet-activating factor (PAF) and non-G-protein-coupled receptors such as the cytokine

  20. The effects of knockdown of rho-associated kinase 1 and zipper-interacting protein kinase on gene expression and function in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jing-Ti; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Chen, Yong-Xiang; O'Brien, Edward R; Gui, Yu; Walsh, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) have been implicated in diverse physiological functions. ROCK1 phosphorylates and activates ZIPK suggesting that at least some of these physiological functions may require both enzymes. To test the hypothesis that sequential activation of ROCK1 and ZIPK is commonly involved in regulatory pathways, we utilized siRNA to knock down ROCK1 and ZIPK in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC). Microarray analysis using a whole-transcript expression chip identified changes in gene expression induced by ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown. ROCK1 knockdown affected the expression of 553 genes, while ZIPK knockdown affected the expression of 390 genes. A high incidence of regulation of transcription regulator genes was observed in both knockdowns. Other affected groups included transporters, kinases, peptidases, transmembrane and G protein-coupled receptors, growth factors, phosphatases and ion channels. Only 76 differentially expressed genes were common to ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified five pathways shared between the two knockdowns. We focused on cytokine signaling pathways since ROCK1 knockdown up-regulated 5 and down-regulated 4 cytokine genes, in contrast to ZIPK knockdown, which affected the expression of only two cytokine genes (both down-regulated). IL-6 gene expression and secretion of IL-6 protein were up-regulated by ROCK1 knockdown, whereas ZIPK knockdown reduced IL-6 mRNA expression and IL-6 protein secretion and increased ROCK1 protein expression, suggesting that ROCK1 may inhibit IL-6 secretion. IL-1β mRNA and protein levels were increased in response to ROCK1 knockdown. Differences in the effects of ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown on cell cycle regulatory genes suggested that ROCK1 and ZIPK regulate the cell cycle by different mechanisms. ROCK1, but not ZIPK knockdown reduced the viability and inhibited proliferation of vascular SMC. We conclude that ROCK1 and

  1. The Effects of Knockdown of Rho-Associated Kinase 1 and Zipper-Interacting Protein Kinase on Gene Expression and Function in Cultured Human Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jing-Ti; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Chen, Yong-Xiang; O’Brien, Edward R.; Gui, Yu; Walsh, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) have been implicated in diverse physiological functions. ROCK1 phosphorylates and activates ZIPK suggesting that at least some of these physiological functions may require both enzymes. To test the hypothesis that sequential activation of ROCK1 and ZIPK is commonly involved in regulatory pathways, we utilized siRNA to knock down ROCK1 and ZIPK in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC). Microarray analysis using a whole-transcript expression chip identified changes in gene expression induced by ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown. ROCK1 knockdown affected the expression of 553 genes, while ZIPK knockdown affected the expression of 390 genes. A high incidence of regulation of transcription regulator genes was observed in both knockdowns. Other affected groups included transporters, kinases, peptidases, transmembrane and G protein-coupled receptors, growth factors, phosphatases and ion channels. Only 76 differentially expressed genes were common to ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified five pathways shared between the two knockdowns. We focused on cytokine signaling pathways since ROCK1 knockdown up-regulated 5 and down-regulated 4 cytokine genes, in contrast to ZIPK knockdown, which affected the expression of only two cytokine genes (both down-regulated). IL-6 gene expression and secretion of IL-6 protein were up-regulated by ROCK1 knockdown, whereas ZIPK knockdown reduced IL-6 mRNA expression and IL-6 protein secretion and increased ROCK1 protein expression, suggesting that ROCK1 may inhibit IL-6 secretion. IL-1β mRNA and protein levels were increased in response to ROCK1 knockdown. Differences in the effects of ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown on cell cycle regulatory genes suggested that ROCK1 and ZIPK regulate the cell cycle by different mechanisms. ROCK1, but not ZIPK knockdown reduced the viability and inhibited proliferation of vascular SMC. We conclude that ROCK1 and

  2. Induction of Macrophage Function in Human THP-1 Cells Is Associated with Rewiring of MAPK Signaling and Activation of MAP3K7 (TAK1) Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Erik; Ventz, Katharina; Harms, Manuela; Mostertz, Jörg; Hochgräfe, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent the primary human host response to pathogen infection and link the immediate defense to the adaptive immune system. Mature tissue macrophages convert from circulating monocyte precursor cells by terminal differentiation in a process that is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the protein kinases of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 before and after induction of macrophage differentiation by using kinomics and phosphoproteomics. When comparing the macrophage-like state with the monocytic precursor, 50% of the kinome was altered in expression and even 71% of covered kinase phosphorylation sites were affected. Kinome rearrangements are for example characterized by a shift of overrepresented cyclin-dependent kinases associated with cell cycle control in monocytes to calmodulin-dependent kinases and kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. Eventually, we show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with major rewiring of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks and demonstrate that protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1) acts as the key signaling hub in bacterial killing, chemokine production and differentiation. Our study proves the fundamental role of protein kinases and cellular signaling as major drivers of macrophage differentiation and function. The finding that MAP3K7 is central to macrophage function suggests MAP3K7 and its networking partners as promising targets in host-directed therapy for macrophage-associated disease. PMID:27066479

  3. Thrombin produces phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-independent mechanism in the human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M; Bayón, Y; Sánchez Crespo, M; Nieto, M L

    1997-01-01

    The release of [3H]arachidonic acid was studied in the 1321N1 astrocytoma cell line upon stimulation with thrombin. The effect of thrombin was antagonized by hirudin only when both compounds were added simultaneously, which suggests activation of thrombin receptor. Evidence that the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) takes part in thrombin-induced arachidonate release was provided by the finding that thrombin induced retardation of the mobility of cPLA2 in SDS/polyacrylamide gels, which is a feature of the activation of cPLA2 by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Thrombin induced activation of two members of the MAP kinase family whose consensus primary sequence appears in cPLA2, namely p42-MAP kinase and c-Jun kinase. However, the activation of c-Jun kinase preceded the phosphorylation of cPLA2 more clearly than the activation of p42-MAK kinase did. Both cPLA2 and c-Jun kinase activation were not affected by PD-98059, a specific inhibitor of MAP kinase kinases, which indeed completely blocked p42-MAP kinase shift. Heat shock, a well-known activator of c-Jun kinase, also phosphorylated cPLA2 but not p42-MAP kinase. These data indicate the existence in astrocytoma cells of a signalling pathway triggered by thrombin receptor stimulation that activates a kinase cascade acting on the Pro-Leu-Ser-Pro consensus primary sequence, activates cPLA2, and associates the release of arachidonate with nuclear signalling pathways. PMID:9359863

  4. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  5. Proteomic Interaction Patterns between Human Cyclins, the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 and Additional Cytomegalovirus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Steingruber, Mirjam; Kraut, Alexandra; Socher, Eileen; Sticht, Heinrich; Reichel, Anna; Stamminger, Thomas; Amin, Bushra; Couté, Yohann; Hutterer, Corina; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog pUL97 associates with human cyclin B1 and other types of cyclins. Here, the question was addressed whether cyclin interaction of pUL97 and additional viral proteins is detectable by mass spectrometry-based approaches. Proteomic data were validated by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP), Western blot, in vitro kinase and bioinformatic analyses. Our findings suggest that: (i) pUL97 shows differential affinities to human cyclins; (ii) pUL97 inhibitor maribavir (MBV) disrupts the interaction with cyclin B1, but not with other cyclin types; (iii) cyclin H is identified as a new high-affinity interactor of pUL97 in HCMV-infected cells; (iv) even more viral phosphoproteins, including all known substrates of pUL97, are detectable in the cyclin-associated complexes; and (v) a first functional validation of pUL97-cyclin B1 interaction, analyzed by in vitro kinase assay, points to a cyclin-mediated modulation of pUL97 substrate preference. In addition, our bioinformatic analyses suggest individual, cyclin-specific binding interfaces for pUL97-cyclin interaction, which could explain the different strengths of interactions and the selective inhibitory effect of MBV on pUL97-cyclin B1 interaction. Combined, the detection of cyclin-associated proteins in HCMV-infected cells suggests a complex pattern of substrate phosphorylation and a role of cyclins in the fine-modulation of pUL97 activities. PMID:27548200

  6. Proteomic Interaction Patterns between Human Cyclins, the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 and Additional Cytomegalovirus Proteins.

    PubMed

    Steingruber, Mirjam; Kraut, Alexandra; Socher, Eileen; Sticht, Heinrich; Reichel, Anna; Stamminger, Thomas; Amin, Bushra; Couté, Yohann; Hutterer, Corina; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog pUL97 associates with human cyclin B1 and other types of cyclins. Here, the question was addressed whether cyclin interaction of pUL97 and additional viral proteins is detectable by mass spectrometry-based approaches. Proteomic data were validated by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP), Western blot, in vitro kinase and bioinformatic analyses. Our findings suggest that: (i) pUL97 shows differential affinities to human cyclins; (ii) pUL97 inhibitor maribavir (MBV) disrupts the interaction with cyclin B1, but not with other cyclin types; (iii) cyclin H is identified as a new high-affinity interactor of pUL97 in HCMV-infected cells; (iv) even more viral phosphoproteins, including all known substrates of pUL97, are detectable in the cyclin-associated complexes; and (v) a first functional validation of pUL97-cyclin B1 interaction, analyzed by in vitro kinase assay, points to a cyclin-mediated modulation of pUL97 substrate preference. In addition, our bioinformatic analyses suggest individual, cyclin-specific binding interfaces for pUL97-cyclin interaction, which could explain the different strengths of interactions and the selective inhibitory effect of MBV on pUL97-cyclin B1 interaction. Combined, the detection of cyclin-associated proteins in HCMV-infected cells suggests a complex pattern of substrate phosphorylation and a role of cyclins in the fine-modulation of pUL97 activities. PMID:27548200

  7. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, DNA methyltransferase, and transforming growth factor-β promotes differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Nao; Iwao, Takahiro; Kabeya, Tomoki; Horikawa, Takashi; Niwa, Takuro; Kondo, Yuki; Nakamura, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Tamihide

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that small-molecule compounds were effective in generating pharmacokinetically functional enterocytes from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In this study, to determine whether the compounds promote the differentiation of human iPS cells into enterocytes, we investigated the effects of a combination of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibitors on intestinal differentiation. Human iPS cells cultured on feeder cells were differentiated into endodermal cells by activin A. These endodermal-like cells were then differentiated into intestinal stem cells by fibroblast growth factor 2. Finally, the cells were differentiated into enterocyte cells by epidermal growth factor and small-molecule compounds. After differentiation, mRNA expression levels and drug-metabolizing enzyme activities were measured. The mRNA expression levels of the enterocyte marker sucrase-isomaltase and the major drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 were increased by a combination of MEK, DNMT, and TGF-β inhibitors. The mRNA expression of CYP3A4 was markedly induced by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Metabolic activities of CYP1A1/2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4/5, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase were also observed in the differentiated cells. In conclusion, MEK, DNMT, and TGF-β inhibitors can be used to promote the differentiation of human iPS cells into pharmacokinetically functional enterocytes. PMID:27161454

  8. Human mutation within Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain-containing protein kinase (PASK) causes basal insulin hypersecretion.

    PubMed

    Semplici, Francesca; Vaxillaire, Martine; Fogarty, Sarah; Semache, Meriem; Bonnefond, Amélie; Fontés, Ghislaine; Philippe, Julien; Meur, Gargi; Diraison, Frederique; Sessions, Richard B; Rutter, Jared; Poitout, Vincent; Froguel, Philippe; Rutter, Guy A

    2011-12-23

    PAS kinase (PASK) is a glucose-regulated protein kinase involved in the control of pancreatic islet hormone release and insulin sensitivity. We aimed here to identify mutations in the PASK gene that may be associated with young-onset diabetes in humans. We screened 18 diabetic probands with unelucidated maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). We identified two rare nonsynonymous mutations in the PASK gene (p.L1051V and p.G1117E), each of which was found in a single MODY family. Wild type or mutant PASKs were expressed in HEK 293 cells. Kinase activity of the affinity-purified proteins was assayed as autophosphorylation at amino acid Thr307 or against an Ugp1p-derived peptide. Whereas the PASK p.G1117E mutant displayed a ∼25% increase with respect to wild type PASK in the extent of autophosphorylation, and a ∼2-fold increase in kinase activity toward exogenous substrates, the activity of the p.L1051V mutant was unchanged. Amino acid Gly1117 is located in an α helical region opposing the active site of PASK and may elicit either: (a) a conformational change that increases catalytic efficiency or (b) a diminished inhibitory interaction with the PAS domain. Mouse islets were therefore infected with adenoviruses expressing wild type or mutant PASK and the regulation of insulin secretion was examined. PASK p.G1117E-infected islets displayed a 4-fold decrease in glucose-stimulated (16.7 versus 3 mM) insulin secretion, chiefly reflecting a 4.5-fold increase in insulin release at low glucose. In summary, we have characterized a rare mutation (p.G1117E) in the PASK gene from a young-onset diabetes family, which modulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. PMID:22065581

  9. Protein Crystals of Raf Kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image shows crystals of the protein raf kinase grown on Earth (photo a) and on USML-2 (photo b). The space-grown crystals are an order of magnitude larger. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals

  10. Distinct contribution of protein kinase Cδ and protein kinase Cε in the lifespan and immune response of human blood monocyte subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Malavez, Yadira; Voss, Oliver H; Gonzalez-Mejia, Martha Elba; Parihar, Arti; Doseff, Andrea I

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes, key components of the immune system, are a heterogeneous population comprised of classical monocytes (CD16−) and non-classical monocytes (CD16+). Monocytes are short lived and undergo spontaneous apoptosis, unless stimulated. Dysregulation of monocyte numbers contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, yet the contribution of each subset remains poorly characterized. Protein kinase C (PKC) family members are central to monocyte biology; however, their role in regulating lifespan and immune function of CD16− and CD16+ monocytes has not been studied. Here, we evaluated the contribution of PKCδ and PKCε in the lifespan and immune response of both monocyte subsets. We showed that CD16+ monocytes are more susceptible to spontaneous apoptosis because of the increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities accompanied by higher kinase activity of PKCδ. Silencing of PKCδ reduced apoptosis in both CD16+ and CD16− monocytes. CD16+ monocytes express significantly higher levels of PKCε and produce more tumour necrosis factor-α in CD16+ compared with CD16− monocytes. Silencing of PKCε affected the survival and tumour necrosis factor-α production. These findings demonstrate a complex network with similar topography, yet unique regulatory characteristics controlling lifespan and immune response in each monocyte subset, helping define subset-specific coordination programmes controlling monocyte function. PMID:25322815

  11. Rho GTPase/Rho Kinase Negatively Regulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation through the Inhibition of Protein Kinase B/Akt in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Xiu-Fen; Viswambharan, Hema; Barandier, Christine; Ruffieux, Jean; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Rusconi, Sandro; Yang, Zhihong

    2002-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis by production of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelial cells. It can be activated by protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt via phosphorylation at Ser-1177. We are interested in the role of Rho GTPase/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway in regulation of eNOS expression and activation. Using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we show here that both active RhoA and ROCK not only downregulate eNOS gene expression as reported previously but also inhibit eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 and cellular NO production with concomitant suppression of PKB activation. Moreover, coexpression of a constitutive active form of PKB restores the phosphorylation but not gene expression of eNOS in the presence of active RhoA. Furthermore, we show that thrombin inhibits eNOS phosphorylation, as well as expression via Rho/ROCK pathway. Expression of the active PKB reverses eNOS phosphorylation but has no effect on downregulation of eNOS expression induced by thrombin. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Rho/ROCK pathway negatively regulates eNOS phosphorylation through inhibition of PKB, whereas it downregulates eNOS expression independent of PKB. PMID:12446767

  12. Family-wide Structural Analysis of Human Numb-Associated Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Fiona J.; Szklarz, Marta; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R.; Elkins, Jon M.; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Summary The highly diverse Numb-associated kinase (NAK) family has been linked to broad cellular functions including receptor-mediated endocytosis, Notch pathway modulation, osteoblast differentiation, and dendrite morphogenesis. Consequently, NAK kinases play a key role in a diverse range of diseases from Parkinson's and prostate cancer to HIV. Due to the plasticity of this kinase family, NAK kinases are often inhibited by approved or investigational drugs and have been associated with side effects, but they are also potential drug targets. The presence of cysteine residues in some NAK family members provides the possibility for selective targeting via covalent inhibition. Here we report the first high-resolution structures of kinases AAK1 and BIKE in complex with two drug candidates. The presented data allow a comprehensive structural characterization of the NAK kinase family and provide the basis for rational design of selective NAK inhibitors. PMID:26853940

  13. Family-wide Structural Analysis of Human Numb-Associated Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Fiona J; Szklarz, Marta; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R; Elkins, Jon M; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    The highly diverse Numb-associated kinase (NAK) family has been linked to broad cellular functions including receptor-mediated endocytosis, Notch pathway modulation, osteoblast differentiation, and dendrite morphogenesis. Consequently, NAK kinases play a key role in a diverse range of diseases from Parkinson's and prostate cancer to HIV. Due to the plasticity of this kinase family, NAK kinases are often inhibited by approved or investigational drugs and have been associated with side effects, but they are also potential drug targets. The presence of cysteine residues in some NAK family members provides the possibility for selective targeting via covalent inhibition. Here we report the first high-resolution structures of kinases AAK1 and BIKE in complex with two drug candidates. The presented data allow a comprehensive structural characterization of the NAK kinase family and provide the basis for rational design of selective NAK inhibitors. PMID:26853940

  14. Catalytic and molecular properties of highly purified phosvitin/casein kinase type II from human epithelial cells in culture (HeLa) and relation to ecto protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Pyerin, W; Burow, E; Michaely, K; Kübler, D; Kinzel, V

    1987-03-01

    Phosvitin/casein type II kinase was purified from HeLa cell extracts to homogeneity and characterized. The kinase prefers phosvitin over casein (Vmax phosvitin greater than Vmax casein; apparent Km 0.5 microM phosvitin and 3.3 microM casein) and utilizes as cosubstrate ATP (apparent Km 3-4 microM), GTP (apparent Km 4-5 microM) and other purine nucleoside triphosphates, including dATP and dGTP but not pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates. Enzyme reaction is optimal at pH 6-8 and at 10-25 mM Mg2+.Mg2+ cannot be replaced by, but is antagonized by other divalent metal ions. The kinase is stimulated by polycations (spermine) and monovalent cations (Na+,K+), and is inhibited by fluoride, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and low levels of heparin (50% inhibition at 0.1 microgram/ml). The HeLa enzyme is composed of three subunits with Mr of approximately 43,000 (alpha), 38,000 (alpha'), and 28,000 (beta) forming alpha alpha'beta 2 and alpha'2 beta 2 structures with obvious sequence homology of alpha with alpha' but not with beta. Photoaffinity labeling with [alpha-32P]- and [gamma-32P]8-azido-ATP revealed high affinity binding sites on subunits alpha and alpha' but not on subunit beta. The kinase autophosphorylates subunit beta and, much weaker, subunits alpha and alpha'. Ecto protein kinase, detectable only by its enzyme activity but not yet as a protein (J. Biol. Chem. 257, 322-329), was characterized in cell-bound form and in released form, and the released form both with and without prior separation from phosvitin which was employed to induce the kinase release from intact HeLa cells (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 4021-4025). Ratios of phosvitin/casein phosphorylation (greater than 2) and of ATP/GTP utilization (1.5-2.1), inhibition by heparin (50% inhibition at 0.1 microgram/ml), and amino-acid side chains phosphorylated in phosvitin and casein (serine, threonine) are comparable for cell-bound and released form. These properties resemble those of type II kinase as does Mr

  15. E6 variants of human papillomavirus 18 differentially modulate the protein kinase B/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (akt/PI3K) signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras-Paredes, Adriana

    2009-01-05

    Intra-type genome variations of high risk Human papillomavirus (HPV) have been associated with a differential threat for cervical cancer development. In this work, the effect of HPV18 E6 isolates in Akt/PKB and Mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPKs) signaling pathways and its implication in cell proliferation were analyzed. E6 from HPV types 16 and 18 are able to bind and promote degradation of Human disc large (hDlg). Our results show that E6 variants differentially modulate hDlg degradation, rebounding in levels of activated PTEN and PKB. HPV18 E6 variants are also able to upregulate phospho-PI3K protein, strongly correlating with activated MAPKs and cell proliferation. Data was supported by the effect of E6 silencing in HPV18-containing HeLa cells, as well as hDlg silencing in the tested cells. Results suggest that HPV18 intra-type variations may derive in differential abilities to activate cell-signaling pathways such as Akt/PKB and MAPKs, directly involved in cell survival and proliferation.

  16. Involvement of protein kinase C in phagocytosis of human retinal pigment epithelial cells and induction of matrix metalloproteinase secretion.

    PubMed

    Irschick, Eveline U; Haas, Gertrud; Troger, Josef; Ueberall, Florian; Huemer, Hartwig P

    2009-10-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in cell activation. We investigated PKC-mediated pathways and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in phagocytosis by human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). We used time-resolved fluorometry for europium-labeled microsphere uptake and gel zymography to assay the influence of PKC modulators. PKC inhibitors blocked phagocytosis by RPE. ARPE-19, a human RPE-cell line, showed reduced secretion of MMP-2, although MMP-9 secretion by PKC activation was conserved in both cell types, namely in the primary RPEs and in the RPE-cell line. Particle uptake by RPE cells requires activation of PKC; the use of PKC inhibitors as new anticancer drugs may possibly cause ocular side-effects. PMID:18641922

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors sensitize reduced glucocorticoid response mediated by TNF{alpha} in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT)

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Kenji . E-mail: knjond@ps.toyaku.ac.jp; Nagashima, Masahiro; Kawakubo, Yo; Inoue, Shota; Hirano, Toshihiko; Oka, Kitaro

    2006-12-08

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential drugs administered topically or systematically for the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases such as pemphigus. However, a certain proportion of patients does not respond well to GCs. Although studies on the relationship between cytokines and GC insensitivity in local tissues have attracted attention recently, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) for GC insensitivity in epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we report that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) {alpha} reduces GC-induced transactivation of endogenous genes as well as a reporter plasmid which contains GC responsive element (GRE) in human epidermal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The GC insensitivity by TNF{alpha} was not accompanied by changes in mRNA expressions of GR isoforms ({alpha} or {beta}). However, we observed that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-1/ERK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) significantly sensitized the GC-induced transactivation of anti-inflammatory genes (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 gene in the presence of TNF{alpha}. Additionally, we observed that TNF{alpha} reduced prednisolone (PSL)-dependent nuclear translocation of GR, which was restored by pre-treatment of MEK-1 inhibitors. This is the first study demonstrating a role of the MEK-1/ERK cascade in TNF{alpha}-mediated GC insensitivity. Our data suggest that overexpression of TNF{alpha} leads to topical GC insensitivity by reducing GR nuclear translocation in keratinocytes, and our findings also suggest that inhibiting the MEK-1/ERK cascade may offer a therapeutic potential for increasing GC efficacy in epidermis where sufficient inflammatory suppression is required.

  18. Overexpression of myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate enhances activation of phospholipase D by protein kinase C in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morash, S C; Rosé, S D; Byers, D M; Ridgway, N D; Cook, H W

    1998-01-01

    Signal transduction can involve the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the subsequent phosphorylation of protein substrates, including myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS). Previously we showed that stimulation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) synthesis by PMA in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells required overexpression of MARCKS, whereas PKCalpha alone was insufficient. We have now investigated the role of MARCKS in PMA-stimulated PtdCho hydrolysis by phospholipase D (PLD). Overexpression of MARCKS enhanced PLD activity 1.3-2.5-fold compared with vector controls in unstimulated cells, and 3-4-fold in cells stimulated with 100 nM PMA. PMA-stimulated PLD activity was blocked by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide. Activation of PLD by PMA was linear with time to 60 min, whereas stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by PMA in clones overexpressing MARCKS was observed after a 15 min time lag, suggesting that the hydrolysis of PtdCho by PLD preceded synthesis. The formation of phosphatidylbutanol by PLD was greatest when PtdCho was the predominantly labelled phospholipid, indicating that PtdCho was the preferred, but not the only, phospholipid substrate for PLD. Cells overexpressing MARCKS had 2-fold higher levels of PKCalpha than in vector control cells analysed by Western blot analysis; levels of PKCbeta and PLD were similar in all clones. The loss of both MARCKS and PKCalpha expression at higher subcultures of the clones was paralleled by the loss of stimulation of PLD activity and PtdCho synthesis by PMA. Our results show that MARCKS is an essential link in the PKC-mediated activation of PtdCho-specific PLD in these cells and that the stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by PMA is a secondary response. PMID:9601059

  19. Matrine-induced autophagy regulated by p53 through AMP-activated protein kinase in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shan-Bu; He, Xing-Xing; Yao, Shu-Kun

    2015-08-01

    Matrine, one of the main extract components of Sophora flavescens, has been shown to exhibit inhibitory effects on some tumors through autophagy. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of matrine remains unclear. The cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and SMMC‑7721 were treated with matrine. Signal transduction and gene expression profile were determined. Matrine stimulated autophagy in SMMC‑7721 cells in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner, but in an mTOR-independent manner in HepG2 cells. Next, in HepG2 cells, autophagy induced by matrine was regulated by p53 inactivation through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling transduction, then AMPK suppression switched autophagy to apoptosis. Furthermore, the interferon (IFN)-inducible genes, including interferon α-inducible protein 27 (IFI27) and interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), which are downstream effector of p53, might be modulated by matrine-induced autophagy. In addition, we found that the p53 protein isoforms, p53β, p53γ, ∆133p53, and ∆133p53γ, due to alternative splicing of intron 9, might be regulated by the p53-mediated autophagy. These results show that matrine induces autophagy in human hepatoma cells through a novel mechanism, which is p53/AMPK signaling pathway involvement in matrine-promoted autophagy. PMID:26034977

  20. Human protein kinase C lota gene (PRKC1) is closely linked to the BTK gene in Xq21.3

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzarella, R.; Jones, C.; Schlessinger, D.

    1995-04-10

    The human X chromosome contains many disease loci, but only a small number of X-linked genes have been cloned and characterized. One approach to finding genes in genomic DNA uses partial sequencing of random cDNAs to develop {open_quotes}expressed sequence tags{close_quotes} (ESTs). Many authors have recently reported chromosomal localization of such ESTs using hybrid panels. Twenty ESTs specific for the X chromosome have been localized to defined regions with somatic cell hybrids, and 12 of them have been physically linked to markers that detect polymorphisms. One of these ESTs, EST02087, was physically linked in a 650-kb contig to the GLA ({alpha}-galactosidase) gene involved in Fabry disease. A comparison of this contig with a 7.5-Mb YAC contig indicated that this gene is also within 250 kb of the src-like protein-tyrosine kinase BTK (X-linked agammaglobulinemia protein-tyrosine kinase) gene in Xq21.3. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  5. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  6. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  7. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  8. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  9. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  10. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  11. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  12. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates IL-8 induction by the ribotoxin deoxynivalenol in human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Zahidul; Gray, Jennifer S.; Pestka, James J. . E-mail: pestka@msu.edu

    2006-06-15

    The effects of the ribotoxic trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated IL-8 expression were investigated in cloned human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). DON (250 to 1000 ng/ml) induced both IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA), an indicator of IL-8 transcription, in the human U937 monocytic cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of IL-8 hnRNA, mRNA and protein correlated with p38 phosphorylation and was completely abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. DON at 500 ng/ml similarly induced p38-dependent IL-8 protein and mRNA expression in PBMC cultures from healthy volunteers. Significantly increased IL-6 and IL-1{beta} intracellular protein and mRNA expression was also observed in PBMC treated with DON (500 ng/ml) which were also partially p38-dependent. Flow cytometry of PBMC revealed that DON-induced p38 phosphorylation varied among individuals relative to both threshold toxin concentrations (25-100 ng/ml) and relative increases in percentages of phospho-p38{sup +} cells. DON-induced p38 activation occurred exclusively in the CD14{sup +} monocyte population. DON was devoid of agonist activity for human Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9. However, two other ribotoxins, emetine and anisomycin, induced p38 phosphorylation in PBMC similarly to DON. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) p38 activation was required for induction of IL-8 and proinflammatory gene expression in the monocyte and (2) DON induced p38 activation in human monocytes via the ribotoxic stress response.

  13. Structural Properties of Human CaMKII Ca2+ /Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II using X-ray Crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yumeng Melody; McSpadden, Ethan; Kuriyan, John; Department of Molecular; Cell Biology; Department of Chemistry Team

    To this day, human memory storage remains a mystery as we can at most describe the process vaguely on a cellular level. Switch-like properties of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II make it a leading candidate in understanding the molecular basis of human memory. The protein crystal was placed in the beam of a synchrotron source and the x-ray crystallography data was collected as reflections on a diffraction pattern that undergo Fourier transform to obtain the electron density. We observed two drastic differences from our solved structure at 2.75Å to a similar construct of the mouse CaMKII association domain. Firstly, our structure is a 6-fold symmetric dodecamer, whereas the previously published construct was a 7-fold symmetric tetradecamer. This suggests the association domain of human CaMKII is a dynamic structure that is triggered subunit exchange process. Secondly, in our structure the N-terminal tag is docked as an additional beta-strand on an uncapped beta-sheet present in each association domain protomer. This is concrete evidence of the involvement of the polypeptide docking site in the molecular mechanism underlining subunit exchange. In the future, we would like to selectively inhibit the exchange process while not disrupting the other functionalities of CaMKII.

  14. Creatine kinase isoenzymes specificities: histidine 65 in human CK-BB, a role in protein stability, not in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mourad-Terzian, T; Steghens, J P; Min, K L; Collombel, C; Bozon, D

    2000-06-01

    Creatine kinases (CK) play a prominent role in cell energy distribution through an energy shuttle between mitochondria and other organelles. Human brain CK was cloned and overexpressed in COS-7 cells. We then deleted His-65 and/or Pro-66 situated near the center of a flexible loop as shown by X-ray crystallography on mitochondrial and cytosolic CK. The DeltaH65 mutant had nearly the same affinity for its substrates as wild isoenzyme, but its stability was very low. Unlike DeltaH65, DeltaH65P66 had a eightfold decreased affinity for creatine phosphate and was unable to dephosphorylate cyclocreatine phosphate. Our results demonstrate that, despite an overall similar shape of the proteins, this loop accounts for some subtle differences in isoenzyme functions. PMID:10854850

  15. Bitter melon juice activates cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase causing apoptotic death of human pancreatic carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Prognosis of pancreatic cancer is extremely poor, suggesting critical needs for additional drugs to improve disease outcome. In this study, we examined efficacy and associated mechanism of a novel agent bitter melon juice (BMJ) against pancreatic carcinoma cells both in culture and nude mice. BMJ anticancer efficacy was analyzed in human pancreatic carcinoma BxPC-3, MiaPaCa-2, AsPC-1 and Capan-2 cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and annexin/propidium iodide assays. BMJ effect on apoptosis regulators was assessed by immunoblotting. In vivo BMJ efficacy was evaluated against MiaPaCa-2 tumors in nude mice, and xenograft was analyzed for biomarkers by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results showed that BMJ (2–5% v/v) decreases cell viability in all four pancreatic carcinoma cell lines by inducing strong apoptotic death. At molecular level, BMJ caused caspases activation, altered expression of Bcl-2 family members and cytochrome-c release into the cytosol. Additionally, BMJ decreased survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein but increased p21, CHOP and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38) levels. Importantly, BMJ activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a biomarker for cellular energy status, and an AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) reversed BMJ-induced caspase-3 activation suggesting activated AMPK involvement in BMJ-induced apoptosis. In vivo, oral administration of lyophilized BMJ (5mg in 100 µl water/day/mouse) for 6 weeks inhibited MiaPaCa-2 tumor xenograft growth by 60% (P < 0.01) without noticeable toxicity in nude mice. IHC analyses of MiaPaCa-2 xenografts showed that BMJ also inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and activates AMPK in vivo. Overall, BMJ exerts strong anticancer efficacy against human pancreatic carcinoma cells, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its clinical

  16. Structure of the Human Protein Kinase ZAK in Complex with Vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Mathea, Sebastian; Abdul Azeez, Kamal R; Salah, Eidarus; Tallant, Cynthia; Wolfreys, Finn; Konietzny, Rebecca; Fischer, Roman; Lou, Hua Jane; Brennan, Paul E; Schnapp, Gisela; Pautsch, Alexander; Kessler, Benedikt M; Turk, Benjamin E; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-06-17

    The mixed lineage kinase ZAK is a key regulator of the MAPK pathway mediating cell survival and inflammatory response. ZAK is targeted by several clinically approved kinase inhibitors, and inhibition of ZAK has been reported to protect from doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. On the other hand, unintended targeting of ZAK has been linked to severe adverse effects such as the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, both specific inhibitors of ZAK, as well as anticancer drugs lacking off-target activity against ZAK, may provide therapeutic benefit. Here, we report the first crystal structure of ZAK in complex with the B-RAF inhibitor vemurafenib. The cocrystal structure displayed a number of ZAK-specific features including a highly distorted P loop conformation enabling rational inhibitor design. Positional scanning peptide library analysis revealed a unique substrate specificity of the ZAK kinase including unprecedented preferences for histidine residues at positions -1 and +2 relative to the phosphoacceptor site. In addition, we screened a library of clinical kinase inhibitors identifying several inhibitors that potently inhibit ZAK, demonstrating that this kinase is commonly mistargeted by currently used anticancer drugs. PMID:26999302

  17. Cadmium-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human osteoblasts: role of caspases and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways.

    PubMed

    Brama, M; Politi, L; Santini, P; Migliaccio, S; Scandurra, R

    2012-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant which induces severe toxic alterations, including osteomalacia and osteoporosis, likely by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms. Indeed, cadmium has been described to act as an endocrine disruptor and its toxicity is exerted both in vivo and in vitro through induction of apoptosis and/or necrosis by not fully clarified intracellular mechanism(s) of action. Aim of the present study was to further investigate the molecular mechanism by which cadmium might alter homeostasis of estrogen target cells, such as osteoblast homeostasis, inducing cell apoptosis and/or necrosis. Human osteoblastic cells (hFOB 1.19) in culture were used as an in vitro model to characterize the intracellular mechanisms induced by this heavy metal. Cells were incubated in the presence/ absence of 10-50 μM cadmium chloride at different times and DNA fragmentation and activation of procaspases- 8 and -3 were induced upon CdCl(2) treatment triggering apoptotic and necrotic pathways. Addition of caspase-8 and -3 inhibitors (Z-IETD-FMK and Z-DQMD-FMK) partially blocked these effects. No activation of procaspase-9 was observed. To determine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in these events, we investigated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation which were activated by 10 μM CdCl(2). Chemical inhibitors of JNK, p38, and ERK1/2, SP600125, SB202190, and PD98059, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of the kinases and blunted apoptosis. In contrast, caspase inhibitors did not reduce the cadmium-induced MAPK phosphorylation, suggesting an independent activation of these pathways. In conclusion, at least 2 pathways appear activated by cadmium in osteoblasts: a direct induction of caspase-8 followed by activation of caspase-3 and an indirect induction by phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK MAPK triggering activation of caspase-8 and -3. PMID:21697648

  18. Curcumin specifically binds to the human calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Hoda, Nasimul; Naz, Huma; Jameel, Ehtesham; Shandilya, Ashutosh; Dey, Sharmistha; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan; Jayaram, B

    2016-03-01

    Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4) plays significant role in the regulation of calcium-dependent gene expression, and thus, it is involved in varieties of cellular functions such as cell signaling and neuronal survival. On the other hand, curcumin, a naturally occurring yellow bioactive component of turmeric possesses wide spectrum of biological actions, and it is widely used to treat atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and inflammation. It also acts as an antioxidant. Here, we studied the interaction of curcumin with human CAMK4 at pH 7.4 using molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, fluorescence binding, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methods. We performed MD simulations for both neutral and anionic forms of CAMK4-curcumin complexes for a reasonably long time (150 ns) to see the overall stability of the protein-ligand complex. Molecular docking studies revealed that the curcumin binds in the large hydrophobic cavity of kinase domain of CAMK4 through several hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonded interactions. Additionally, MD simulations studies contributed in understanding the stability of protein-ligand complex system in aqueous solution and conformational changes in the CAMK4 upon binding of curcumin. A significant increase in the fluorescence intensity at 495 nm was observed (λexc = 425 nm), suggesting a strong interaction of curcumin to the CAMK4. A high binding affinity (KD = 3.7 × 10(-8) ± .03 M) of curcumin for the CAMK4 was measured by SPR further indicating curcumin as a potential ligand for the CAMK4. This study will provide insights into designing a new inspired curcumin derivatives as therapeutic agents against many life-threatening diseases. PMID:25929263

  19. Mechanism of activation and functional role of protein kinase Ceta in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Bynagari, Yamini S; Nagy, Bela; Tuluc, Florin; Bhavaraju, Kamala; Kim, Soochong; Vijayan, K Vinod; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2009-05-15

    The novel class of protein kinase C (nPKC) isoform eta is expressed in platelets, but not much is known about its activation and function. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of activation and functional implications of nPKCeta using pharmacological and gene knock-out approaches. nPKCeta was phosphorylated (at Thr-512) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by 2MeSADP. Pretreatment of platelets with MRS-2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, or YM-254890, a G(q) blocker, abolished 2MeSADP-induced phosphorylation of nPKCeta. Similarly, ADP failed to activate nPKCeta in platelets isolated from P2Y1 and G(q) knock-out mice. However, pretreatment of platelets with P2Y12 receptor antagonist, AR-C69331MX did not interfere with ADP-induced nPKCeta phosphorylation. In addition, when platelets were activated with 2MeSADP under stirring conditions, although nPKCeta was phosphorylated within 30 s by ADP receptors, it was also dephosphorylated by activated integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 mediated outside-in signaling. Moreover, in the presence of SC-57101, a alpha(IIb)beta3 receptor antagonist, nPKCeta dephosphorylation was inhibited. Furthermore, in murine platelets lacking PP1cgamma, a catalytic subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase, alpha(IIb)beta3 failed to dephosphorylate nPKCeta. Thus, we conclude that ADP activates nPKCeta via P2Y1 receptor and is subsequently dephosphorylated by PP1gamma phosphatase activated by alpha(IIb)beta3 integrin. In addition, pretreatment of platelets with eta-RACK antagonistic peptides, a specific inhibitor of nPKCeta, inhibited ADP-induced thromboxane generation. However, these peptides had no affect on ADP-induced aggregation when thromboxane generation was blocked. In summary, nPKCeta positively regulates agonist-induced thromboxane generation with no effects on platelet aggregation. PMID:19286657

  20. The human protein kinase HIPK2 phosphorylates and downregulates the methyl-binding transcription factor ZBTB4.

    PubMed

    Yamada, D; Pérez-Torrado, R; Filion, G; Caly, M; Jammart, B; Devignot, V; Sasai, N; Ravassard, P; Mallet, J; Sastre-Garau, X; Schmitz, M L; Defossez, P-A

    2009-07-01

    HIPK2 is a eukaryotic Serine-Threonine kinase that controls cellular proliferation and survival in response to exogenous signals. Here, we show that the human transcription factor ZBTB4 is a new target of HIPK2. The two proteins interact in vitro, colocalize and associate in vivo, and HIPK2 phosphorylates several conserved residues of ZBTB4. Overexpressing HIPK2 causes the degradation of ZBTB4, whereas overexpressing a kinase-deficient mutant of HIPK2 has no effect. The chemical activation of HIPK2 also decreases the amount of ZBTB4 in cells. Conversely, the inhibition of HIPK2 by drugs or by RNA interference causes a large increase in ZBTB4 levels. This negative regulation of ZBTB4 by HIPK2 occurs under normal conditions of cell growth. In addition, the degradation is increased by DNA damage. These findings have two consequences. First, we have recently shown that ZBTB4 inhibits the transcription of p21. Therefore, the activation of p21 by HIPK2 is two-pronged: stimulation of the activator p53, and simultaneous repression of the inhibitor ZBTB4. Second, ZBTB4 is also known to bind methylated DNA and repress methylated sequences. Consequently, our findings raise the possibility that HIPK2 might influence the epigenetic regulation of gene expression at loci that remain to be identified. PMID:19448668

  1. The kinetics of translocation and cellular quantity of protein kinase C in human leukocytes are modified during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, J. P.; Gaubert, F.; Lewis, M. L.; Darsel, Y.; Ohlmann, P.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D.

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in mediating intracellular signal transduction in eukaryotes. U937 cells were exposed to microgravity during a space shuttle flight and stimulated with a radiolabeled phorbol ester ([3H]PDBu) to both specifically label and activate translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the particulate fraction of the cell. Although significant translocation of PKC occurred at all g levels, the kinetics of translocation in flight were significantly different from those on the ground. In addition, the total quantity of [3H]PDBu binding PKC was increased in flight compared to cells at 1 g on the ground, whereas the quantity in hypergravity (1.4 g) was decreased with respect to 1 g. Similarly, in purified human peripheral blood T cells the quantity of PKCdelta varied in inverse proportion to the g level for some experimental treatments. In addition to these novel findings, the results confirm earlier studies which showed that PKC is sensitive to changes in gravitational acceleration. The mechanisms of cellular gravisensitivity are poorly understood but the demonstrated sensitivity of PKC to this stimulus provides us with a useful means of measuring the effect of altered gravity levels on early cell activation events.

  2. AMP-activated protein kinase: a key regulator of energy balance with many roles in human disease.

    PubMed

    Grahame Hardie, D

    2014-12-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that regulates cellular and whole-body energy balance. A recently reported crystal structure has illuminated the complex regulatory mechanisms by which AMP and ADP cause activation of AMPK, involving phosphorylation by the upstream kinase LKB1. Once activated by falling cellular energy status, AMPK activates catabolic pathways that generate ATP whilst inhibiting anabolic pathways and other cellular processes that consume ATP. A role of AMPK is implicated in many human diseases. Mutations in the γ2 subunit cause heart disease due to excessive glycogen storage in cardiac myocytes, leading to ventricular pre-excitation. AMPK-activating drugs reverse many of the metabolic defects associated with insulin resistance, and recent findings suggest that the insulin-sensitizing effects of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin are mediated by AMPK. The upstream kinase LKB1 is a tumour suppressor, and AMPK may exert many of its antitumour effects. AMPK activation promotes the oxidative metabolism typical of quiescent cells, rather than the aerobic glycolysis observed in tumour cells and cells involved in inflammation, explaining in part why AMPK activators have both antitumour and anti-inflammatory effects. Salicylate (the major in vivo metabolite of aspirin) activates AMPK, and this could be responsible for at least some of the anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin. In addition to metformin and salicylates, novel drugs that modulate AMPK are likely to enter clinical trials soon. Finally, AMPK may be involved in viral infection: downregulation of AMPK during hepatitis C virus infection appears to be essential for efficient viral replication. PMID:24824502

  3. Curcumin increases gelatinase activity in human neutrophils by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Francis; Girard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has been found to possess anti-inflammatory activities and neutrophils, key players in inflammation, were previously found to be important targets to curcumin in a few studies. For example, curcumin was found to induce apoptosis in neutrophils by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. However, the role of curcumin on the biology of neutrophils is still poorly defined. To study the role of curcumin on neutrophil degranulation and to determine the role of p38 MAPK, human neutrophils were freshly isolated from healthy individuals and incubated in vitro with curcumin. Degranulation was studied at three levels: surface expression of granule markers by flow cytometry; release of matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9 or gelatinase B) enzyme into supernatants by Western blot; and gelatinase B activity by zymography. Activation of p38 MAPK was studied by monitoring its tyrosine phosphorylation levels by western blot and its role by the utilization of a pharmacological inhibitor. The results indicate that curcumin increased the cell surface expression of CD35 (secretory vesicle), CD63 (azurophilic granules), and CD66b (gelatinase granules) in neutrophils. Also, curcumin increased the release and enzymatic activity of gelatinase B in the extracellular milieu and activated p38 MAP kinase in these cells. However, in contrast to fMLP, curcumin-induced enzymatic activity and secretion of gelatinase B were not reversed by use of a p38 inhibitor. Finally, it was found that curcumin was able to enhance phagocytosis. Taken together, the results here demonstrate that curcumin induced degranulation in human neutrophils and that the increased gelatinase activity is not dependent on p38 MAPK activation. Therefore, degranulation is another human neutrophil function that could be modulated by curcumin, as well as phagocytosis. PMID:24926560

  4. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ball, K. Aurelia; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lewinski, Mary K.; Guatelli, John; Verschueren, Erik; Krogan, Nevan J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well. PMID:27253329

  5. AKT serine/threonine protein kinase modulates baicalin-triggered autophagy in human bladder cancer T24 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Tseng, Michael T; Peng, Shu-Fen; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lin, Meng-Wei; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Lee, Miau-Rong; Amagaya, Sakae; Huang, Wen-Wen; Wu, Tian-Shung; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2013-03-01

    Baicalin is one of the major compounds in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of cell autophagy induced by baicalin in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Baicalin inhibited cell survival as shown by MTT assay and increased cell death by trypan blue exclusion assay in a concentration-dependent manner. Baicalin did not induce apoptotic cell death in T24 cells by TUNEL and caspase-3 activity assay. Baicalin induced the acidic vesicular organelle cell autophagy marker, manifested by acridine orange (AO) and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and cleavage of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). The protein expression levels of the Atg 5, Atg 7, Atg 12, Beclin-1 and LC3-II were upregulated in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyl-adenine (an inhibitor of class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase; 3-MA) reduced the cleavage of LC3 in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. Furthermore, protein expression levels of phospho-AKT (Ser473) and enzyme activity of AKT were downregulated in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. In conclusion, baicalin triggered cell autophagy through the AKT signaling pathway in T24 cells. PMID:23354080

  6. Signaling of the human calcium-sensing receptor expressed in HEK293-cells is modulated by protein kinases A and C.

    PubMed

    Bösel, J; John, M; Freichel, M; Blind, E

    2003-02-01

    In this study, the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) stably expressed in HEK293 cells was investigated with regard to the phosphorylation-induced desensitization of its signaling pathway. The receptor is known to activate the phospholipase C/inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) signaling cascade, thus stimulating protein kinase C (PKC). In contrast, the adenylylcyclase/cAMP signaling pathway that activates protein kinase A (PKA) is believed to be coupled to the receptor via an inhibitory G-protein. We elucidated the roles of PKC and PKA by measuring Ca 2+o -stimulated accumulation of total inositol phosphates and by individually and simultaneously inhibiting the two kinases pharmacologically in HEK293 cells, which stably expressed the human CaR. Pharmacological inhibition of PKC resulted in a 5-fold enhancement of IP 3 signaling, whereas blocking PKA had almost no effect. IP 3 signaling activity increased even more (10-fold) however, when the two kinases were inhibited simultaneously. Apart from validating the role of PKC as a potent down-regulator of signaling of the human CaR in this cell system, this study suggests that both kinases synergize in inhibiting Ca 2+o -stimulated IP 3 signaling in CaR-transfected HEK293 cells. PMID:12605346

  7. Localization of the human stress responsive MAP kinase-like CSAIDs binding protein (CSBP) gene to chromosome 6p21.3/21.2

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, P.C.; Young, P.R.; DiLella, A.G.

    1995-09-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) play a pivotal role in the initiation of inflammatory responses. Soluble protein antagonists of IL-1 and TNF, such as IL-1ra, sTNFR-Fc fusion, and monoclonal antibodies to TNF have proven to be effective at blocking acute and chronic responses in a number of animal models of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, septic shock, and inflammatory bowel disease. Consequently, there has been considerable interest in discovering compounds that could inhibit the production of these cytokines and might therefore become treatments. Recently, a structurally related series of pyridinyl imidazoles was found to block IL-1 and TNF production from LPS-stimulated human monocytes and to ameliorate inflammatory diseases significantly in vivo, leading to their being named CSAIDs (cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs). The protein target of these compounds, termed CSBP (CSAID binding protein), was discovered to be a new member of the MAP kinase family of serine-threonine protein kinases whose kinase activity is activated by LPS in human monocytes. Independently, the same kinase, or its rodent homologues, was found to respond also to chemical, thermal, and osmotic stress and IL-1 treatment. Inhibition of this kinase correlated with reduction in inflammatory cytokine production from LPS-activated monocytes. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Brominated Flame Retardants, Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane, Activate Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) in Human Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cato, Anita; Celada, Lindsay; Kibakaya, Esther Caroline; Simmons, Nadia; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    NK cells provide a vital surveillance against virally infected cells, tumor cells, and antibody-coated cells through the release of cytolytic mediators and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used primarily in expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for thermal insulation in the building and construction industry. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is used both as a reactive and an additive flame retardant in a variety of materials. HBCD and TBBPA contaminate the environment and are found in human blood samples. In previous studies, we have shown that other environmental contaminants, such as the dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT), decrease NK lytic function by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the NK cells. HBCD and TBBPA also interfere with NK cell(s) lytic function. The current study evaluates whether HBCD and/or TBBPA have the capacity to activate MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks). The effects of concentrations of HBCD and TBBPA that inhibited lytic function on the phosphorylation state and total levels of the MAPKs (p44/42, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation and total levels of the MAP2Ks (MEK1/2 and MKK3/6) were examined. Results indicate that exposure of human NK cells to 10-0.5 µM HBCD or TBBPA activate MAPKs and MAP2Ks. This HBCD and TBBPA-induced activation of MAPKs may leave them unavailable for activation by virally infected or tumor target cells and thus contributes to the observed decreases in lytic function seen in NK cells exposed to HBCD and TBBPA. PMID:25341744

  9. Thermodynamic parameters for binding of some halogenated inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2

    SciTech Connect

    Winiewska, Maria; Makowska, Małgorzata; Maj, Piotr; Wielechowska, Monika; Bretner, Maria; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Two new compounds being potential human CK2a inhibitors are studied. • Their IC50 values were determined in vitro. • The heats of binding and kbind were estimated using DSC. • The increased stability of protein–ligand complexes was followed by fluorescence. • Methylated TBBt derivative (MeBr3Br) is almost as active as TBBt. - Abstract: The interaction of human CK2α with a series of tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBBt) and tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz) analogs, in which one of the bromine atoms proximal to the triazole/imidazole ring is replaced by a methyl group, was studied by biochemical (IC{sub 50}) and biophysical methods (thermal stability of protein–ligand complex monitored by DSC and fluorescence). Two newly synthesized tri-bromo derivatives display inhibitory activity comparable to that of the reference compounds, TBBt and TBBz, respectively. DSC analysis of the stability of protein–ligand complexes shows that the heat of ligand binding (H{sub bind}) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions involving the triazole/imidazole ring, as indicated by a strong correlation between H{sub bind} and ligand pK{sub a}. Screening, based on fluorescence-monitored thermal unfolding of protein–ligand complexes, gave comparable results, clearly identifying ligands that most strongly bind to the protein. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly, relative to possible intermolecular halogen bonding, in binding of the ligands to the CK2α ATP-binding site.

  10. Cl- Channels in CF: Lack of Activation by Protein Kinase C and cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Lu, Luo; Zeitlin, Pamela L.; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Huganir, Richard; Guggino, William B.

    1989-06-01

    Secretory chloride channels can be activated by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase in normal airway epithelial cells but not in cells from individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). In excised, inside-out patches of apical membrane of normal human airway cells and airway cells from three patients with CF, the chloride channels exhibited a characteristic outwardly rectifying current-voltage relation and depolarization-induced activation. Channels from normal tissues were activated by both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. However, chloride channels from CF patients could not be activated by either kinase. Thus, gating of normal epithelial chloride channels is regulated by both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C, and regulation by both kinases is defective in CF.

  11. Protein kinase A signalling in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and schistosomules.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Natasha L; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A regulates multiple processes in eukaryotes by phosphorylating diverse cellular substrates, including metabolic and signalling enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Here we provide insight into protein kinase A signalling in cercariae and 24h in vitro cultured somules of the blood parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. Functional mapping of activated protein kinase A using anti-phospho protein kinase A antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed activated protein kinase A in the central and peripheral nervous system, oral-tip sensory papillae, oesophagus and excretory system of intact cercariae. Cultured 24h somules, which biologically represent the skin-resident stage of the parasite, exhibited similar activation patterns in oesophageal and nerve tissues but also displayed striking activation at the tegument and activation in a region resembling the germinal 'stem' cell cluster. The adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulated somule protein kinase A activation and produced a hyperkinesia phenotype. The biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine known to be present in skin also induced protein kinase A activation in somules, whereas neuropeptide Y or [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-neuropeptide Y attenuated protein kinase A activation. However, neuropeptide Y did not block the forskolin-induced somule hyperkinesia. Bioinformatic investigation of potential protein associations revealed 193 medium confidence and 59 high confidence protein kinase A interacting partners in S. mansoni, many of which possess putative protein kinase A phosphorylation sites. These data provide valuable insight into the intricacies of protein kinase A signalling in S. mansoni and a framework for further physiological investigations into the roles of protein kinase A in schistosomes, particularly in the context of interactions between the parasite and the host. PMID:26777870

  12. Slow cluster formation of purified human or rhesus T cells requires protein kinase C and LFA-1.

    PubMed

    Eylar, E H; Molina, C; Báez, I; Kessler, M

    1996-03-01

    Homotropic T cell adhesion, as generally studied, consists of a rapid, transient binding process that is measured over a 15-120 min. period. Here we report a slow type of adhesion process occurring with human or rhesus T cells, purified from peripheral blood, that manifests itself by the formation of rounded, multi-layer clusters which may contain hundreds of cells. The maximal number and size of the clusters peak 1-2 days after the addition of phorbol ester, an absolute requirement. The number of clusters formed is proportional to phorbol ester concentration up to 1.25 ng/mL. Phorbol esters such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), phorbol dibutyrate (PDB), and 7-octylindolactam (OIL) induced optimal cluster formation at 1-13 ng/mL, levels slightly higher than that required to induce mitogenesis of purified T cells. Phorbol itself and the alpha-form of the ester were inactive. Both cluster formation and mitogenesis (stimulated by Con A or anti-CD3) are completely inhibited by staurosporin at 12.5 ng/mL. Even at 2.5 ng/mL, 74% of cluster formation was inhibited, which strongly implies a crucial role for protein kinase C. In the presence of accessory cells, T cell clusters were suppressed. Monoclonal Ab such as anti-CD3, mouse anti-CD3 followed by anti-mouse IgG, anti-CD4, anti-CD4A, anti-CD2, anti-CD8, and anti-CD45 did not induce cluster formation. None were inhibitory or stimulatory in the presence of PMA, except for anti-CD3 which enhanced cluster formation by 26%. However, anti-LFA-1 beta-chain (mouse monoclonal) completely blocked cluster formation over the range studied (63-1000 ng/mL) for both human and rhesus cells; rat anti-LFA-1 only blocked human cell adhesion. Anti LFA-1 only partially inhibited T cell mitogenesis. These results show that slow cluster formation shares the LFA-1 and phorbol ester requirements of the rapid adhesion of T cells requiring LFA-1 and ICAM-1. However, cluster occurs at a very low phorbol ester concentration, appears more

  13. Cloning of the cDNA of the heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2. alpha. (eIF-2. alpha. ) kinase of rabbit reticulocytes: Homology to yeast GCN2 protein kinase and human double-stranded-RNA-dependent eIF-2. alpha. kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.J.; Throop, M.S.; Kuo, I.; Pal, J.K.; Brodsky, M.; London, I.M. ); Gehrke, L. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-09-01

    The authors have cloned the cDNA of the heme-regulated eIF-2{alpha} kinase (HRI) of rabbit reticulocytes. In vitro translation of mRNA transcribed from the HRI cDNA yields a 90-kDa polypeptide that exhibits eIF-2{alpha} kinase activity and is recognized by a monoclonal antibody directed against authentic HRI. The open reading frame sequence of the HRI cDNA contains all 11 catalytic domains of protein kinases with consensus sequences of protein-serine/threonine kinases in conserved catalytic domains VI and VIII. The HRI cDNA also contains an insert of {approx} 140 amino acids between catalytic domains V and VI. The HRI cDNA coding sequence has extensive homology to GCN2 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to human double-stranded-RNA-dependent eIF-2{alpha} kinase. This observation suggests that GCN2 protein kinase may be an eIF-2{alpha} kinase in yeast. In addition, HRI has an unusually high degree of homology to three protein kinases (NimA, Wee1, and CDC2) that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle.

  14. Sensitization of human colon cancer cells to sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis by modulation of sphingosine kinase 2 and protein kinase D

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Yungang; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) have been recognized as important proteins regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Of the two isoforms of SphK (SphK1 and SphK2), little is known about the functions of SphK2. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) has been established as a promising chemotherapeutic agent, but the precise mechanism for its effects is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SphK2 in NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that following NaBT treatment SphK2 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, leading to its accumulation in the cytoplasm; in the meantime, only mild apoptosis occurred. However, downregulation of SphK2 resulted in sensitized apoptosis, and overexpression of SphK2 led to even lighter apoptosis; these strongly indicate an inhibitory role of SphK2 in cell apoptosis induced by NaBT. After knocking down protein kinase D (PKD), another protein reported to be critical in cell proliferation/apoptosis process, by using siRNA, blockage of cytoplasmic accumulation of SphK2 and sensitized apoptosis following NaBT treatment were observed. The present study suggests that PKD and SphK2 may form a mechanism for the resistance of cancer cells to tumor chemotherapies, such as HCT116 colon cancer cells to NaBT, and these two proteins may become molecular targets for designation of new tumor-therapeutic drugs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the present study sodium butyrate (10 mM) induced mild apoptosis of cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apoptosis was negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Sphingosine Kinase 2 (SphK2). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Translocation of SphK2 from nucleus to cytoplasm was mediated by protein kinase D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of SphK2 or protein kinase D leads to sensitized cell apoptosis.

  15. Crystal structure of the human protein kinase CK2 regulatory subunit reveals its zinc finger-mediated dimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Chantalat, L; Leroy, D; Filhol, O; Nueda, A; Benitez, M J; Chambaz, E M; Cochet, C; Dideberg, O

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a tetramer composed of two alpha catalytic subunits and two beta regulatory subunits. The structure of a C-terminal truncated form of the human beta subunit has been determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.7 A resolution. One dimer is observed in the asymmetric unit of the crystal. The most striking feature of the structure is the presence of a zinc finger mediating the dimerization. The monomer structure consists of two domains, one entirely alpha-helical and one including the zinc finger. The dimer has a crescent shape holding a highly acidic region at both ends. We propose that this acidic region is involved in the interactions with the polyamines and/or catalytic subunits. Interestingly, conserved amino acid residues among beta subunit sequences are clustered along one linear ridge that wraps around the entire dimer. This feature suggests that protein partners may interact with the dimer through a stretch of residues in an extended conformation. PMID:10357806

  16. Regulation of Lysophosphatidic Acid-induced Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation and Interleukin-8 Secretion in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells by Protein Kinase Cδ, Lyn Kinase, and Matrix Metalloproteinases*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yutong; He, Donghong; Saatian, Bahman; Watkins, Tonya; Spannhake, Ernst Wm.; Pyne, Nigel J.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated earlier that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion is regulated by protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ)-dependent NF-κB activation in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs). Here we provide evidence for signaling pathways that regulate LPA-mediated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the role of cross-talk between G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor-tyrosine kinases in IL-8 secretion in HBEpCs. Treatment of HBEpCs with LPA stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, which was attenuated by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (GM6001), heparin binding (HB)-EGF inhibitor (CRM 197), and HB-EGF neutralizing antibody. Overexpression of dominant negative PKCδ or pretreatment with a PKCδ inhibitor (rottlerin) or Src kinase family inhibitor (PP2) partially blocked LPA-induced MMP activation, proHB-EGF shedding, and EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Down-regulation of Lyn kinase, but not Src kinase, by specific small interfering RNA mitigated LPA-induced MMP activation, proHB-EGF shedding, and EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, overexpression of dominant negative PKCδ blocked LPA-induced phosphorylation and translocation of Lyn kinase to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, down-regulation of EGFR by EGFR small interfering RNA or pretreatment of cells with EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and PD158780 almost completely blocked LPA-dependent EGFR phosphorylation and partially attenuated IL-8 secretion, respectively. These results demonstrate that LPA-induced IL-8 secretion is partly dependent on EGFR transactivation regulated by PKCδ-dependent activation of Lyn kinase and MMPs and proHB-EGF shedding, suggesting a novel mechanism of cross-talk and interaction between G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor-tyrosine kinases in HBEpCs. PMID:16687414

  17. Inhibition of growth of established human glioma cell lines by modulators of the protein kinase-C system

    SciTech Connect

    Couldwell, W.T.; Antel, J.P.; Apuzzo, M.L.; Yong, V.W. )

    1990-10-01

    The protein kinase-C (PKC) second messenger system contributes to regulation of cell growth and differentiation. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of modulators of the PKC enzyme system on the state of differentiation and proliferation rates of human gliomas in vitro. The administration of the PKC-activating phorbol esters 4-beta-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) resulted in a dose-related inhibition of growth of human glioma cell lines in vitro as measured by 3H-thymidine uptake. The synthetic nonphorbol PKC activator (SC-9) produced an even more pronounced decrease of 3H-thymidine uptake. Diacylglycerol, an endogenous activator of the system, applied externally, transiently decreased the proliferation, in concordance with its short-lived existence in vivo. Conversely, the administration of 4-alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (alpha-PDD), a phorbol ester that binds but does not activate the enzyme, had no effect on the proliferation rate. At the dosages that maximally decreased proliferation, there was no evidence of direct glioma cell lysis induced by these agents as measured by a chromium-release assay. Immunocytochemical analysis and cytofluorometric measurement of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining in the treated cultures revealed an increase in GFAP staining over control cultures. In contrast to the response of glioma cells, nonmalignant human adult astrocytes treated with the PKC activators responded by increasing their proliferation rate. The authors postulate that the diametrically opposed effects of PKC activators on nonmalignant astrocytes versus glioma growth may be due to a high intrinsic PKC activity in glioma cells, with resultant down-regulation of enzyme activity following the administration of the pharmacological activators.

  18. Protein tyrosine kinase activity is essential for Fc gamma receptor-mediated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L; Nibbering, P H; Zomerdijk, T P; van Furth, R

    1994-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma receptor I (Fc gamma RI) or Fc gamma RII is a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent process. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity plays a role in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of bacteria and activation of PLC in these cells. The results showed that phagocytosis of bacteria by monocytes was not affected by the PTK inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin-47. The intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma RII or Fc gamma RII with anti-Fc gamma R monoclonal antibody and a bridging antibody or with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was inhibited by these compounds in a dose-dependent fashion. The production of O2- by monocytes after stimulation with IgG or IgG-opsonized S. aureus was almost completely blocked by the PTK inhibitor. These results indicate that inhibition of PTK impairs the oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanisms of monocytes. Genistein and tyrphostin-47, which do not affect the enzymatic activity of purified PLC, prevented activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII, measured as an increase in the intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration. Cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in monocytes, one of which was identified as PLC-gamma 1, and the phosphorylation could be completely blocked by PTK inhibitors, leading to the conclusion that activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma R in monocytes is regulated by PTK activity. Together, these results demonstrate that PTK activity is essential for the activation of PLC which is involved in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of S. aureus by human monocytes. Images PMID:7927687

  19. Atypical Protein Kinase Cι Expression and Aurothiomalate Sensitivity in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Regala, Roderick P.; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Fields, Alan P.

    2008-01-01

    The anti-rheumatoid agent aurothiomalate (ATM) is a potent inhibitor of oncogenic PKCι ATM inhibits non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) growth by binding PKCι and blocking activation of a PKCι-Par6-Rac1-Pak-Mek 1,2-Erk 1,2 signaling pathway. Here, we assessed the growth inhibitory activity of ATM in a panel of human cell lines representing major lung cancer subtypes. ATM inhibited anchorage-independent growth in all lines tested with IC50s ranging from ~300 nM – >100 µM. ATM sensitivity correlates positively with expression of PKCι and Par6, but not with the PKCι binding protein p62, or the proposed targets of ATM in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), thioredoxin reductase 1 or 2 (TrxR1 and TrxR2). PKCι expression profiling revealed that a significant subset of primary NSCLC tumors express PKCι at or above the level associated with ATM sensitivity. ATM sensitivity is not associated with general sensitivity to the cytotoxic agents cis-platin, placitaxel and gemcitabine. ATM inhibits tumorigenicity of both sensitive and insensitive lung cell tumors in vivo at plasma drug concentrations achieved in RA patients undergoing ATM therapy. ATM inhibits Mek/Erk signaling and decreases proliferative index without effecting tumor apoptosis or vascularization in vivo. We conclude that ATM exhibits potent anti-tumor activity against major lung cancer subtypes, particularly tumor cells that express high levels of the ATM target PKCι and Par6. Our results indicate that PKCι expression profiling will be useful in identifying lung cancer patients most likely to respond to ATM therapy in an ongoing clinical trial. PMID:18632643

  20. Multifunctional human transcriptional coactivator protein PC4 is a substrate of Aurora kinases and activates the Aurora enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Karthigeyan; Kumari, Sujata; Boopathi, Ramachandran; Shima, Hiroki; Swaminathan, Amrutha; Bachu, Mahesh; Ranga, Udaykumar; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kundu, Tapas K

    2016-03-01

    Positive coactivator 4 (PC4), a human transcriptional coactivator, is involved in diverse processes like chromatin organization and transcription regulation. It is hyperphosphorylated during mitosis, with unknown significance. For the first time, we demonstrate the function of PC4 outside the nucleus upon nuclear envelope breakdown. A fraction of PC4 associates with Aurora A and Aurora B and undergoes phosphorylation, following which PC4 activates both Aurora A and B to sustain optimal kinase activity to maintain the phosphorylation gradient for the proper functioning of the mitotic machinery. This mitotic role is evident in PC4 knockdown cells where the defects are rescued only by the catalytically active Aurora kinases, but not the kinase-dead mutants. Similarly, the PC4 phosphodeficient mutant failed to rescue such defects. Hence, our observations establish a novel mitotic function of PC4 that might be dependent on Aurora kinase-mediated phosphorylation. PMID:26777301

  1. Expression of protein kinase A regulatory subunits in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Peverelli, Erika; Treppiedi, Donatella; Lania, Andrea; Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrero, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms and prognostic implications of the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in human tumors, with special emphasis on the malignant thyroid. The PKA signaling pathway is differentially activated by the expression of regulatory subunits 1 (R1) and 2 (R2), whose levels change during development, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. Following the identification of gene mutations within the PKA regulatory subunit R1A (PRKAR1A) that cause Carney complex-associated neoplasms, several investigators have studied PRKAR1A expression in sporadic thyroid tumors. The PKA regulatory subunit R2B (PRKAR2B) is highly expressed in benign, as well as in malignant differentiated and undifferentiated lesions. PRKAR1A is highly expressed in follicular adenomas and malignant lesions with a statistically significant gradient between benign and malignant tumors; however, it is not expressed in hyperplastic nodules. Although the importance of PKA in human malignancy outcomes is not completely understood, PRKAR1A expression correlates with tumor dimension in malignant lesions. Additional studies are needed to determine whether a relationship exists between PKA subunit expression and clinical outcomes, particularly in undifferentiated tumors. In conclusion, the R1A subunit might be a good molecular candidate for the targeted treatment of malignant thyroid tumors. PMID:27321957

  2. Absence of humoral mediated 5'AMP-activated protein kinase activation in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Johnsen, Anders Bo; Birk, Jesper B; Nielsen, Jakob Nis; Jensen, Bente Rona; Hellsten, Ylva; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2007-12-15

    5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) exists as a heterotrimer comprising a catalytic alpha subunit and regulatory beta and gamma subunits. The AMPK system is activated under conditions of cellular stress, indicated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio, as observed, e.g. in muscles during contractile activity. AMPK was originally thought to be activated only by local intracellular mechanisms. However, recently it has become apparent that AMPK in mammals is also regulated by humoral substances, e.g. catecholamines. We studied whether humoral factors released during exercise regulate AMPK activity in contracting and resting muscles as well as in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. In resting leg muscle and adipose tissue the AMPK activity was not up-regulated by humoral factors during one-legged knee extensor exercise even when arm cranking exercise, inducing a approximately 20-fold increase in plasma catecholamine level, was added simultaneously. In exercising leg muscle the AMPK activity was increased by one-legged knee extensor exercise eliciting a whole body respiratory load of only 30% .VO(2,peak) but was not further increased by adding arm cranking exercise. In conclusion, during exercise with combined leg kicking and arm cranking, the AMPK activity in human skeletal muscle is restricted to contracting muscle without influence of marked increased catecholamine levels. Also, with this type of exercise the catecholamines or other humoral factors do not seem to be physiological regulators of AMPK in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:17962330

  3. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B initiates protein kinase C translocation and eicosanoid metabolism while inhibiting thrombin-induced aggregation in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Tran, Uyen; Boyle, Thomas; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2006-08-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) B, a heat-stable toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of several critical illnesses. It has been hypothesized that enterotoxins may interact with blood products such as platelets, in addition to T-lymphocytes and renal proximal tubule cells. The aim of this present study was to elucidate whether SEB directly alters human platelet function. Human platelet rich plasma (PRP) was pre-incubated with SEA, SEB, SEC or TSST-1, (at various concentrations and incubation times). After incubation, PRP was exposed to thrombin and aggregation was assessed. Incubation with all toxins tested resulted in decreased aggregation, specifically; exposure to 10mu g/ml of SEB for 30 min caused a 20% decrease and a 49% decrease at 90 min. A similar reduction in aggregation was seen in samples incubated with phorbol myristate acetate, a known stimulator of protein kinase C (PKC). Further, platelets exposed to SEB exhibited an increased plasma membrane PKC activity. Sphingosine, an inhibitor of PKC proved to block the SEB-induced reduction in aggregation. SEB effects on platelet metabolism were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography showing up to a 2-fold increase of active metabolites lipoxin A4 and 12-HETE, as compared to control. These data indicate that SEB is able to induce platelet dysfunction, and these effects may be mediated through activation of PKC. PMID:16550298

  4. Cell cycle regulation of the activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a human protein kinase implicated in mitotic spindle function.

    PubMed

    Golsteyn, R M; Mundt, K E; Fry, A M; Nigg, E A

    1995-06-01

    Correct assembly and function of the mitotic spindle during cell division is essential for the accurate partitioning of the duplicated genome to daughter cells. Protein phosphorylation has long been implicated in controlling spindle function and chromosome segregation, and genetic studies have identified several protein kinases and phosphatases that are likely to regulate these processes. In particular, mutations in the serine/threonine-specific Drosophila kinase polo, and the structurally related kinase Cdc5p of Saccharomyces cerevisae, result in abnormal mitotic and meiotic divisions. Here, we describe a detailed analysis of the cell cycle-dependent activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a recently identified human protein kinase with extensive sequence similarity to both Drosophila polo and S. cerevisiae Cdc5p. With the aid of recombinant baculoviruses, we have established a reliable in vitro assay for Plk1 kinase activity. We show that the activity of human Plk1 is cell cycle regulated, Plk1 activity being low during interphase but high during mitosis. We further show, by immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy, that human Plk1 binds to components of the mitotic spindle at all stages of mitosis, but undergoes a striking redistribution as cells progress from metaphase to anaphase. Specifically, Plk1 associates with spindle poles up to metaphase, but relocalizes to the equatorial plane, where spindle microtubules overlap (the midzone), as cells go through anaphase. These results indicate that the association of Plk1 with the spindle is highly dynamic and that Plk1 may function at multiple stages of mitotic progression. Taken together, our data strengthen the notion that human Plk1 may represent a functional homolog of polo and Cdc5p, and they suggest that this kinase plays an important role in the dynamic function of the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation. PMID:7790358

  5. Molecular Basis of the Interaction of the Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-receptor Type 4 (PTPN4) with the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase p38γ.

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, Pierre; Caillet-Saguy, Célia; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Bibi-Zainab, Edoo; Sawyer, Kristi; Raynal, Bertrand; Haouz, Ahmed; Delepierre, Muriel; Lafon, Monique; Cordier, Florence; Wolff, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The human protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) prevents cell death induction in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines in a PDZ·PDZ binding motifs-dependent manner, but the cellular partners of PTPN4 involved in cell protection are unknown. Here, we described the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38γ as a cellular partner of PTPN4. The main contribution to the p38γ·PTPN4 complex formation is the tight interaction between the C terminus of p38γ and the PDZ domain of PTPN4. We solved the crystal structure of the PDZ domain of PTPN4 bound to the p38γ C terminus. We identified the molecular basis of recognition of the C-terminal sequence of p38γ that displays the highest affinity among all endogenous partners of PTPN4. We showed that the p38γ C terminus is also an efficient inducer of cell death after its intracellular delivery. In addition to recruiting the kinase, the binding of the C-terminal sequence of p38γ to PTPN4 abolishes the catalytic autoinhibition of PTPN4 and thus activates the phosphatase, which can efficiently dephosphorylate the activation loop of p38γ. We presume that the p38γ·PTPN4 interaction promotes cellular signaling, preventing cell death induction. PMID:27246854

  6. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase increases the ratio of formation of blastocysts from single human blastomeres

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, SUNXING; DING, CHENHUI; MAI, QINGYUN; XU, YANWEN; ZHOU, CANQUAN

    2016-01-01

    Y-27632 is a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs), which are downstream effectors of Rho GTPase. The present study aimed to determine the effect of the specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, on fresh human embryos and on single blastomeres obtained from discarded human embryos. A total of 784 poor-quality embryos were included, of which 526 were allocated to blastocyst culture directly and the remaining 258 were allocated to blastomere isolation. Embryos and single blastomeres were cultured either with, or without, Y-27632. Embryonic development was observed and recorded daily from day 5 onwards. Y-27632 did not affect the ratio of blastocyst formation or the quality of the human embryos. The duration of blastocyst formation was compared between the two groups in the embryo culture. On day 5, the blastocyst formation ratio in the experimental group was 11.4% (26/228), which was significantly (P=0.015) lower than the corresponding rate (19.7%; 44/223) in the control group. Survival analysis of the blastocyst formation duration showed that the median formation duration in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The present study also obtained 1,192 blastomeres from 258 discarded day 3 embryos, and sibling blastomeres of similar sizes were equally allocated to experimental and control groups (n=596 in each). Treatment with Y-27632 increased the blastocyst formation ratio of human individual blastomeres, with 82 blastocysts of 596 blastomeres (13.8%), and 51 blastocysts of 596 blastomeres (8.6%) formed in the presence and absence of Y-27632, respectively (P=0.004). Compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of E-cadherin in the blastocysts from blastomeres were enhanced by Y-27632 (P=0.022). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that Y-27632 has different effects on the cleavage-stage of embryos and single blastomeres. Y-27632 increases the ratio of formation of blastocysts

  7. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  8. [Relationship between PTEN mutations and protein kinase B phosphorylation caused by insulin or recombinant human epidermal growth factor stimulation].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hailan; Hu, Xianfu; Lin, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    Objective To study the effect of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) mutations on protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation of CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line. Methods CNE-1 cells were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 100 mL/L fetal calf serum, and then transfected with wild-type PTEN (wtPTEN), mutant PTEN C124S and mutant PTEN G129E plasmid separately. After overnight serum starvation, the cells were stimulated with 0.15 IU/mL insulin or 0.3 μg/mL recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF). At last, Akt phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting. Results Insulin or rhEGF stimulation led to Akt activation in CNE-1 cells. The wtPTEN inhibited insulin- or rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. PTEN C124S mutant activated insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, but not rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. PTEN G129E mutant inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. Conclusion The wtPTEN inhibited insulin- or rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, while PTEN C124S and G129E mutants failed to activate the phosphorylation of Akt consistently. This suggested PTEN mutations might not be correlated with activated Akt. PMID:27412938

  9. Differentiation of Varicella-Zoster Virus ORF47 Protein Kinase and IE62 Protein Binding Domains and Their Contributions to Replication in Human Skin Xenografts in the SCID-hu Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Jaya; Sommer, Marvin H.; Zerboni, Leigh; Bagowski, Christoph P.; Ito, Hideki; Moffat, Jennifer; Ku, Chia-Chi; Arvin, Ann M.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of the ORF47 protein kinase of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), we constructed VZV recombinants with targeted mutations in conserved motifs of ORF47 and a truncated ORF47 and characterized these mutants for replication, phosphorylation, and protein-protein interactions in vitro and for infectivity in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo. Previous experiments showed that ROka47S, a null mutant that makes no ORF47 protein, did not replicate in skin in vivo (J. F. Moffat, L. Zerboni, M. H. Sommer, T. C. Heineman, J. I. Cohen, H. Kaneshima, and A. M. Arvin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:11969-11974, 1998). The construction of VZV recombinants with targeted ORF47 mutations made it possible to assess the effects on VZV infection of human skin xenografts of selectively abolishing ORF47 protein kinase activity. ORF47 mutations that resulted in a C-terminal truncation or disrupted the DYS kinase motif eliminated ORF47 kinase activity and were associated with extensive nuclear retention of ORF47 and IE62 proteins in vitro. Disrupting ORF47 kinase function also resulted in a marked decrease in VZV replication and cutaneous lesion formation in skin xenografts in vivo. However, infectivity in vivo was not blocked completely as long as the capacity of ORF47 protein to bind IE62 protein was preserved, a function that we identified and mapped to the N-terminal domain of ORF47 protein. These experiments indicate that ORF47 kinase activity is of critical importance for VZV infection and cell-cell spread in human skin in vivo but suggest that it is the formation of complexes between ORF47 and IE62 proteins, both VZV tegument components, that constitutes the essential contribution of ORF47 protein to VZV replication in vivo. PMID:12719588

  10. Modulation of human basophil histamine release by protein kinase C inhibitors differs with secretagogue and with inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bergstrand, H; Lundquist, B; Karabelas, K; Michelsen, P

    1992-03-01

    To assess possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) in human basophil degranulation, the present work compared effects of various purported PKC inhibitors on leukocyte histamine release triggered by different stimuli. The effects recorded varied with the inhibitor and the secretagogue used; moreover, with a given secretagogue, different inhibitors often displayed different activities. Thus, histamine release triggered by the PKC activator 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was blocked by K252a, staurosporine and the purported specific PKC inhibitor Ro 31-7549, and reduced by calphostin C, H-7, TMB-8 and W-7 but not affected by polymyxin B; it was augmented by 2.1 microM palmitoyl carnitine. The leukocyte response induced by another putative activator of PKC, 1,2-isopropylidene-3-decanoyl-sn-glycerol, was also enhanced by 2.1 microM palmitoyl carnitine, slightly increased by staurosporine, TMB-8 and W-7 but not affected by calphostin C, H-7, K252a or Ro 31-7549, whereas the hyperosmolar mannitol-induced response was reduced by H-7, calphostin C, TMB-8 and W-7 and slightly augmented by staurosporine. Anti-IgE-induced histamine release was blocked by staurosporine and K252a and reduced by calphostin C, sphingosine, TMB-8 and W-7 but not affected by H-7, polymyxin B or retinal. It was enhanced by Ro 31-7549. In contrast, leukocyte histamine release induced by calcium ionophore A23187 or by ionomycin was blocked by retinal, TMB-8 and W-7 and reduced by calphostin C and palmitoyl carnitine but enhanced by H-7, staurosporine and polymyxin B; K252a and Ro 31-7549 did not affect such responses. Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-triggered histamine release was barely affected by any agent used. Thus, the specific PKC inhibitor Ro 31-7549 selectively blocked 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-triggered leukocyte histamine release. These results imply that examined secretagogues trigger human leukocyte histamine release through partly separate pathways

  11. Identification of Novel Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation Sites in the M-domain of Human and Murine Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Using Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Weitao; Shaffer, Justin F.; Harris, Samantha P.; Leary, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a large multi-domain accessory protein bound to myosin thick filaments in striated muscle sarcomeres. It plays an important role in the regulation of muscle contraction and mutations in the gene encoding cMyBP-C are a common cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young people1. The N-terminal domains including the C0, C1, cMyBP-C motif, and C2 domains play a crucial role in maintaining and modulating actomyosin interactions (keeping normal cardiac function) in a phosphorylation dependent manner. The cMyBP-C motif or “M-domain” is a highly conserved linker domain in the N-terminus of cMyBP-C that contains three to five protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites, depending on species. For the human isoform, three PKA sites were previously identified (Ser275, Ser284, and Ser304), while three homologous sites exist in the murine isoform (Ser273, Ser282, and Ser302). The murine cMyBP-C isoform contains an additional conserved consensus site, Ser307 that is not present in the human isoform. In this study, we investigated sites of PKA phosphorylation of murine and human cMyBP-C by treating the recombinant protein C0C2 (~50 KDa, which contains the N-terminal C0, C1, M, and C2 domains) and C1C2 (~35 KDa, contains C1, M and C2 domains) with PKA and assessing the phosphorylation states using SDS-PAGE with ProQ Diamond staining, and powerful hybrid mass spectrometric analyses. Both high-accuracy bottom-up and measurements of intact proteins mass spectrometric approaches were used to determine the phosphorylation states of C0C2 and C1C2 proteins with or without PKA treatment. Herein, we report for the first time that there are four PKA phosphorylation sites in both murine and human M-domains; both murine Ser307 and a novel human Ser311 can be phosphorylated in vitro by PKA. Future studies are needed to investigate the phosphorylation state of murine and human cMyBP-C in vivo

  12. Radio-sensitization of human leukaemic MOLT-4 cells by DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, NU7441.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Ales; Durisova, Kamila; Salovska, Barbora; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Zarybnicka, Lenka; Vavrova, Jirina; Dye, Natalie A; Sinkorova, Zuzana

    2014-03-01

    We studied the effect of pre-incubation with NU7441, a specific inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), on molecular mechanisms triggered by ionizing radiation (IR). The experimental design involved four groups of human T-lymphocyte leukaemic MOLT-4 cells: control, NU7441-treated (1 μM), IR-treated (1 Gy), and combination of NU7441 and IR. We used flow cytometry for apoptosis assessment, Western blotting and ELISA for detection of proteins involved in DNA repair signalling and epifluorescence microscopy for detection of IR-induced phosphorylation of histone H2A.X. We did not observe any major changes in the amount of DNA-PK subunits Ku70/80 caused by the combination of NU7441 and radiation. Their combination led to an increased phosphorylation of H2A.X, a hallmark of DNA damage. However, it did not prevent up-regulation of neither p53 (and its phosphorylation at Ser 15 and 392) nor p21. We observed a decrease in the levels of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1, cdc25A phosphatase, cleavage of PARP and a significant increase in apoptosis in the group treated with combination. In conclusion, the combination of NU7441 with IR caused increased phosphorylation of H2A.X early after irradiation and subsequent induction of apoptosis. It was efficient in MOLT-4 cells in 10× lower concentration than the inhibitor NU7026. NU7441 proved as a potent radio-sensitizing agent, and it might provide a platform for development of new radio-sensitizers in radiotherapy. PMID:24100951

  13. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21waf1/Cip1, and p16INK4A), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors ((4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2α and CK2α′ induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2α resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2α and CK2α′ play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity. PMID:19826041

  14. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2009-08-21

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21{sup waf1/Cip1}, and p16{sup INK4A}), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2{alpha} resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity.

  15. Translocation of protein kinase C to membranes induced by TNF does not cause the inhibition of EGF binding to human wish cells.

    PubMed

    Katoh, T; Karasaki, Y; Hirano, H; Gotoh, S; Higashi, K

    1990-04-30

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) caused an inhibition of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor [( 125I]EGF) binding to its receptors of human amniotic (WISH) cells at 5 min after addition of TNF, which reached a maximal level (60-70% reduction) after 15-30 min and declined thereafter. TNF also induced a translocation of protein kinase C activity from the cytosol to the membrane, which peaked at 45-60 min after addition of TNF and almost returned to basal level at 120 min. Furthermore, prolonged incubation of WISH cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13 acetate (TPA) diminished the TPA effect on the inhibition of EGF binding to the cells due to the desensitization of protein kinase C; however, TNF still reduced the EGF binding to the cells pretreated with TPA for a long time. These results indicate that although TNF causes the translocation of protein kinase C to the membrane, activation of protein kinase C is not required for TNF to induce a decrease in EGF binding to the cells. PMID:2334431

  16. Protein kinase CK2 and protein kinase D are associated with the COP9 signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Uhle, Stefan; Medalia, Ohad; Waldron, Richard; Dumdey, Renate; Henklein, Peter; Bech-Otschir, Dawadschargal; Huang, Xiaohua; Berse, Matthias; Sperling, Joseph; Schade, Rüdiger; Dubiel, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) purified from human erythrocytes possesses kinase activity that phosphoryl ates proteins such as c-Jun and p53 with consequence for their ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent degradation. Here we show that protein kinase CK2 (CK2) and protein kinase D (PKD) co-purify with CSN. Immunoprecipi tation and far-western blots reveal that CK2 and PKD are in fact associated with CSN. As indicated by electron microscopy with gold-labeled ATP, at least 10% of CSN particles are associated with kinases. Kinase activity, most likely due to CK2 and PKD, co-immuno precipitates with CSN from HeLa cells. CK2 binds to ΔCSN3(111–403) and CSN7, whereas PKD interacts with full-length CSN3. CK2 phosphorylates CSN2 and CSN7, and PKD modifies CSN7. Both CK2 and PKD phosphorylate c-Jun as well as p53. CK2 phosphoryl ates Thr155, which targets p53 to degradation by the Ub system. Curcumin, emodin, DRB and resveratrol block CSN-associated kinases and induce degradation of c-Jun in HeLa cells. Curcumin treatment results in elevated amounts of c-Jun–Ub conjugates. We conclude that CK2 and PKD are recruited by CSN in order to regulate Ub conjugate formation. PMID:12628923

  17. Fragment-based structure-guided drug discovery: strategy, process, and lessons from human protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Burley, Stephen K.; Hirst, Gavin; Sprengeler, Paul; Reich, Siegfried

    2012-04-24

    The experimental roots of fragment-based drug discovery can be found in the work of Petsko, Ringe, and coworkers, who were the first to report flooding of protein crystals with small organic solutes (e.g., compounds such as benzene with ten or fewer nonhydrogen atoms) to identify bound functional groups that might ultimately be transformed into targeted ligands. The concept of linking fragments together to increase binding affinity was described as early as 1992 by Verlinde et al. Computational screening of fragments, using tools such as DOCK or MCSS, was also described in the early 1990s. Pharmaceutical industry application of fragment screening began at Abbott Laboratories, where Fesik and coworkers pioneered 'SAR by NMR' (structure/activity relationship by nuclear magnetic resonance). In this spectroscopic approach, bound fragments are detected by NMR screening and subsequently linked together to increase affinity, as envisaged by Verlinde and coworkers. Application of x-ray crystallography to detect and identify fragment hits was also pursued at Abbott. Fragment-based drug discovery has now been under way for more than a decade. Although Fesik and coworkers popularized the notion of linking fragments (as in their highly successful BCL-2 program), tactical emphasis appears to have largely shifted from fragment condensation to fragment engineering (or growing the fragment) to increase binding affinity and selectivity. Various biotechnology companies, including SGX Pharmaceuticals, Astex, and Plexxikon, have recently demonstrated that fragment-based approaches can indeed produce development candidates suitable for Phase I studies of safety and tolerability in patients (www.clinicaltrials.gov).

  18. Nuclear lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase and its interaction with CR6-interacting factor 1 promote the survival of human leukemic T cells

    PubMed Central

    VAHEDI, SHAHROOZ; CHUEH, FU-YU; DUTTA, SUJOY; CHANDRAN, BALA; YU, CHAO-LAN

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression and hyperactivation of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) have been associated with leukemia development. We previously showed that, other than its known function as a cytoplasmic signal transducer, Lck also acts as a nuclear transcription factor in mouse leukemic cells. In the present study, we demonstrated the presence of nuclear Lck in human leukemic T cells and in primary cells. We further established a positive correlation between Lck nuclear localization and its kinase activity. Proteomic analysis identified CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) as one of the Lck-interacting proteins. CRIF1 and Lck association in the nucleus was confirmed both by immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation in human leukemic T cells. Close-range interaction between Lck and CRIF1 was validated by in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA). Consistent with the role of nuclear CRIF1 as a tumor suppressor, CRIF1 silencing promotes leukemic T cell survival in the absence of growth factors. This protective effect can be recapitulated by endogenous Lck or reconstituted Lck in leukemic T cells. All together, our results support a novel function of nuclear Lck in promoting human leukemic T cell survival through interaction with a tumor suppressor. It has important implications in defining a paradigm shift of non-canonical protein tyrosine kinase signaling. PMID:25997448

  19. Regulation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase activity and substrate utilization in exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wojtaszewski, Jorgen F P; MacDonald, Christopher; Nielsen, Jakob N; Hellsten, Ylva; Hardie, D Grahame; Kemp, Bruce E; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A

    2003-04-01

    The metabolic role of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism in humans is unresolved. We measured isoform-specific AMPK activity and beta-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCbeta) Ser(221) phosphorylation and substrate balance in skeletal muscle of eight athletes at rest, during cycling exercise for 1 h at 70% peak oxygen consumption, and 1 h into recovery. The experiment was performed twice, once in a glycogen-loaded (glycogen concentration approximately 900 mmol/kg dry wt) and once in a glycogen-depleted (glycogen concentration approximately 160 mmol/kg dry wt) state. At rest, plasma long-chain fatty acids (FA) were twofold higher in the glycogen-depleted than in the loaded state, and muscle alpha1 AMPK (160%) and alpha2 AMPK (145%) activities and ACCbeta Ser(221) phosphorylation (137%) were also significantly higher in the glycogen-depleted state. During exercise, alpha2 AMPK activity, ACCbeta Ser(221) phosphorylation, plasma catecholamines, and leg glucose and net FA uptake were significantly higher in the glycogen-depleted than in the glycogen-loaded state without apparent differences in muscle high-energy phosphates. Thus exercise in the glycogen-depleted state elicits an enhanced uptake of circulating fuels that might be associated with elevated muscle AMPK activation. It is concluded that muscle AMPK activity and ACCbeta Ser(221) phosphorylation at rest and during exercise are sensitive to the fuel status of the muscle. During exercise, this dependence may in part be mediated by humoral factors. PMID:12488245

  20. Differential effects of phorbol ester on growth and protein kinase C isoenzyme regulation in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, S L; Chou, Y H; Yin, S C; Liu, J Y

    1998-01-01

    PMA has both mitogenic and antiproliferative effects on human hepatoma Hep3B cells. In response to low PMA concentration (10 nM), Hep3B cells displayed an increasing proliferation potentiation. At high PMA concentration (1 microM) Hep3B cells exhibited modest cytostatic effects. Determinations of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in PMA-treated cells revealed that alterations in PKC activity are associated with proliferative capacity. The decrease in PKC activity mediated by a high dose of PMA was accompanied by cell growth inhibition. Increases in PKC activity mediated by a low dose of PMA were consistent with proliferation stimulation. Immunoblot analysis showed that there are at least six PKC isoenzymes: alpha, delta, epsilon, mu, zeta and iota/lambda, constitutively expressed in Hep3B cells. Cellular fractionation and immunocytochemical staining results demonstrated that both 10 nM and 1 microM PMA treatments induced a marked translocation of PKC-alpha from cytosol to membrane or nuclear fraction within 5-30 min. At the same time PKC-delta and epsilon were translocated from the membrane to nuclear fraction. In addition, prolonged treatment with 1 microM PMA, but not with 10 nM PMA, selectively mediated the down-regulation of these three PKC isoenzymes. The distinct effects of different concentrations of PMA on cell proliferation and PKC-alpha, delta and epsilon isoenzyme modulation support the involvement of these three PKC isotypes in the mechanism of action of Hep3B cells in cell growth events. PMID:9639562

  1. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  2. Long Wavelength Monitoring of Protein Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Nathan P.; Nguyen, Luong T.; Jernigan, Finith E.; Priestman, Melanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A family of long wavelength protein kinase fluorescent reporters is described in which the probing wavelength is pre-programmed using readily available fluorophores. These agents can assess protein kinase activity within the optical window of tissue, as exemplified by monitoring endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity (1) in erythrocyte lysates and (2) in intact erythrocytes using a light-activatable reporter. PMID:24604833

  3. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  4. Transforming growth factor beta 1 increases the stability of p21/WAF1/CIP1 protein and inhibits CDK2 kinase activity in human colon carcinoma FET cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, JianGen; Ammanamanchi, Sudhakar; Ko, Tien C; Brattain, Michael G

    2003-06-15

    We examined transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) effects on cell cycle progression of human colon carcinoma FET cells. TGF-beta 1 inhibited DNA synthesis and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity after release from growth arrest in association with induction of the p21 CDK inhibitor, whereas cyclins, CDKs, and p27 protein levels remained relatively unchanged. The decrease in CDK2 kinase activity was the result of increased p21 association with cyclin A-CDK2 and cyclin E-CDK2. TGF-beta 1 treatment in late G(1) showed reduced induction of p21 protein levels in association with increased DNA synthesis. Consequently, p21 induction in early G(1) is critical for TGF-beta 1 inhibition of CDK2 kinase activity. Although TGF-beta 1 treatments in late G(1) failed to induce p21 protein, p21 mRNA induction was observed in late G(1) and in S phase. Further analysis showed that TGF-beta 1 treatment in early G(1) increases p21 protein stability throughout the G(1) and S phases of the cell cycle. Our results demonstrate that TGF-beta 1 stimulation of p21 is regulated at the posttranscriptional and transcriptional levels. This is a novel mechanism of TGF-beta 1 inhibition requiring early G(1) induction and stabilization of p21 protein, which binds to and inhibits cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin A-CDK2 kinase activity rather than direct modulation of cyclin or CDK protein levels as seen in other systems. PMID:12810668

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced human dental pulp cell differentiation involves p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated canonical WNT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Ye, Ling; Hui, Tian-Qian; Yang, Dong-Mei; Huang, Ding-Ming; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Mao, Jeremy J; Wang, Cheng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Both bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and the wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT)/β-catenin signalling pathway play important roles in odontoblast differentiation and dentinogenesis. Cross-talk between BMP2 and WNT/β-catenin in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation has been identified. However, the roles and mechanisms of the canonical WNT pathway in the regulation of BMP2 in dental pulp injury and repair remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that BMP2 promotes the differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) by activating WNT/β-catenin signalling, which is further mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in vitro. BMP2 stimulation upregulated the expression of β-catenin in HDPCs, which was abolished by SB203580 but not by Noggin or LDN193189. Furthermore, BMP2 enhanced cell differentiation, which was not fully inhibited by Noggin or LDN193189. Instead, SB203580 partially blocked BMP2-induced β-catenin expression and cell differentiation. Taken together, these data suggest a possible mechanism by which the elevation of β-catenin resulting from BMP2 stimulation is mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway, which sheds light on the molecular mechanisms of BMP2-mediated pulp reparative dentin formation. PMID:26047580

  6. BH3-only protein Bim more critical than Puma in tyrosine kinase inhibitor–induced apoptosis of human leukemic cells and transduced hematopoietic progenitors carrying oncogenic FLT3

    PubMed Central

    Nordigården, Amanda; Kraft, Maria; Eliasson, Pernilla; Labi, Verena; Lam, Eric W.-F.; Villunger, Andreas; Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Constitutively activating internal tandem duplications (ITD) of FLT3 (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3) are the most common mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and correlate with poor prognosis. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting FLT3 have developed as attractive treatment options. Because relapses occur after initial responses, identification of FLT3-ITD–mediated signaling events are important to facilitate novel therapeutic interventions. Here, we have determined the growth-inhibitory and proapototic mechanisms of 2 small molecule inhibitors of FLT3, AG1295 or PKC412, in hematopoietic progenitor cells, human leukemic cell lines, and primary AML cells expressing FLT3-ITD. Inactivation of the PI3-kinase pathway, but not of Ras–mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling, was essential to elicit cytotoxic responses. Both compounds induced up-regulation of proapoptotic BH3-only proteins Bim and Puma, and subsequent cell death. However, only silencing of Bim, or its direct transcriptional activator FOXO3a, abrogated apoptosis efficiently. Similar findings were made in bone marrow cells from gene-targeted mice lacking Bim and/or Puma infected with FLT3-ITD and treated with inhibitor, where loss of Puma only provided transient protection from apoptosis, but loss of Bim preserved clonal survival upon FLT3-ITD inhibition. PMID:19064725

  7. Sensitization of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to Shiga toxin: involvement of protein kinase C and NF-kappaB.

    PubMed Central

    Louise, C B; Tran, M C; Obrig, T G

    1997-01-01

    Infection of humans with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 is strongly associated with vascular endothelial cell damage and the development of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxins on vascular endothelial cells in vitro is enhanced by prior exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or either of the host cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1). The purpose of this study was to examine individual signal transduction components involved in the sensitization of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to Shiga toxin 1. The results demonstrate that class I and II protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are required for sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or LPS but not by TNF or IL-1. Thus, the specific competitive inhibitor of class I/II PKC, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (AMG), prevented only the action of PMA and LPS on HUVEC. Additional data obtained with ATP binding site inhibitors which affect all PKCs (i.e., classes I, II, and III) suggest that TNF may utilize class III PKC isozymes in the Shiga toxin sensitization of HUVEC. Transcriptional activator NF-kappaB did not appear to be involved in the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin by LPS, TNF, IL-1, or PMA. Thus, the specific serine protease inhibitor L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not inhibit the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin by LPS, TNF, IL-1, or PMA despite its ability to inhibit NF-kappaB activation and the induction of the NF-kappaB-dependent tissue factor gene by these agents. Finally, all-trans retinoic acid partially inhibited the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin, by unknown mechanisms which also appeared to be independent of NF-kappaB activation. These results indicate that PKC plays a role in the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin in response to some, but not all, sensitizing agents. In contrast, NF

  8. Cytoskeletal protein kinases: titin and its relations in mechanosensing.

    PubMed

    Gautel, Mathias

    2011-07-01

    Titin, the giant elastic ruler protein of striated muscle sarcomeres, contains a catalytic kinase domain related to a family of intrasterically regulated protein kinases. The most extensively studied member of this branch of the human kinome is the Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-regulated myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK). However, not all kinases of the MLCK branch are functional MLCKs, and about half lack a CaM binding site in their C-terminal autoinhibitory tail (AI). A unifying feature is their association with the cytoskeleton, mostly via actin and myosin filaments. Titin kinase, similar to its invertebrate analogue twitchin kinase and likely other "MLCKs", is not Ca(2+)-calmodulin-activated. Recently, local protein unfolding of the C-terminal AI has emerged as a common mechanism in the activation of CaM kinases. Single-molecule data suggested that opening of the TK active site could also be achieved by mechanical unfolding of the AI. Mechanical modulation of catalytic activity might thus allow cytoskeletal signalling proteins to act as mechanosensors, creating feedback mechanisms between cytoskeletal tension and tension generation or cellular remodelling. Similar to other MLCK-like kinases like DRAK2 and DAPK1, TK is linked to protein turnover regulation via the autophagy/lysosomal system, suggesting the MLCK-like kinases have common functions beyond contraction regulation. PMID:21416260

  9. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by celecoxib oppositely regulates survivin and gamma-H2AX in human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, P.-W.; Chang, C.-C.; Liu, H.-F.; Tsai, C.-M.; Chiu, Ted H.; Chao, J.-I . E-mail: chaoji@mail.tcu.edu.tw

    2007-07-01

    Cancer cells express survivin that facilitates tumorigenesis. Celecoxib has been shown to reduce human colorectal cancers. However, the role and regulation of survivin by celecoxib in colorectal carcinoma cells remain unclear. Treatment with 40-80 {mu}M celecoxib for 24 h induced cytotoxicity and proliferation inhibition via a concentration-dependent manner in RKO colorectal carcinoma cells. Celecoxib blocked the survivin protein expression and increased the phosphorylation of H2AX at serine-193 ({gamma}-H2AX). The survivin gene knockdown by transfection with a survivin siRNA revealed that the loss of survivin correlated with the expression of {gamma}-H2AX. Meanwhile, celecoxib increased caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Celecoxib activated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The phosphorylated proteins of p38 MAP kinase and {gamma}-H2AX were observed in the apoptotic cells. SB203580, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, protected the survivin protein expression and decreased the levels of {gamma}-H2AX and apoptosis in the celecoxib-exposed cells. The blockade of survivin expression increased the celecoxib-induced cytotoxicity; conversely, overexpression of survivin by transfection with a survivin-expressing vector raised the cancer cell proliferation and resisted the celecoxib-induced cell death. Our results provide for the first time that p38 MAP kinase participates in the down-regulation of survivin and subsequently induces the activation of {gamma}-H2AX for mediating apoptosis following treatment with celecoxib in human colorectal cancer cells.

  10. Ten things you should know about protein kinases: IUPHAR Review 14

    PubMed Central

    Fabbro, Doriano; Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W; Moebitz, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Many human malignancies are associated with aberrant regulation of protein or lipid kinases due to mutations, chromosomal rearrangements and/or gene amplification. Protein and lipid kinases represent an important target class for treating human disorders. This review focus on ‘the 10 things you should know about protein kinases and their inhibitors', including a short introduction on the history of protein kinases and their inhibitors and ending with a perspective on kinase drug discovery. Although the ‘10 things’ have been, to a certain extent, chosen arbitrarily, they cover in a comprehensive way the past and present efforts in kinase drug discovery and summarize the status quo of the current kinase inhibitors as well as knowledge about kinase structure and binding modes. Besides describing the potentials of protein kinase inhibitors as drugs, this review also focus on their limitations, particularly on how to circumvent emerging resistance against kinase inhibitors in oncological indications. PMID:25630872

  11. Quantitative Profiling of Protein Tyrosine Kinases in Human Cancer Cell Lines by Multiplexed Parallel Reaction Monitoring Assays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lin, De; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Li, Ming; Liebler, Daniel C

    2016-02-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in cellular signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell division, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of PTK-activated pathways, often by receptor overexpression, gene amplification, or genetic mutation, is a causal factor underlying numerous cancers. In this study, we have developed a parallel reaction monitoring-based assay for quantitative profiling of 83 PTKs. The assay detects 308 proteotypic peptides from 54 receptor tyrosine kinases and 29 nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in a single run. Quantitative comparisons were based on the labeled reference peptide method. We implemented the assay in four cell models: 1) a comparison of proliferating versus epidermal growth factor-stimulated A431 cells, 2) a comparison of SW480Null (mutant APC) and SW480APC (APC restored) colon tumor cell lines, and 3) a comparison of 10 colorectal cancer cell lines with different genomic abnormalities, and 4) lung cancer cell lines with either susceptibility (11-18) or acquired resistance (11-18R) to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We observed distinct PTK expression changes that were induced by stimuli, genomic features or drug resistance, which were consistent with previous reports. However, most of the measured expression differences were novel observations. For example, acquired resistance to erlotinib in the 11-18 cell model was associated not only with previously reported up-regulation of MET, but also with up-regulation of FLK2 and down-regulation of LYN and PTK7. Immunoblot analyses and shotgun proteomics data were highly consistent with parallel reaction monitoring data. Multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring assays provide a targeted, systems-level profiling approach to evaluate cancer-related proteotypes and adaptations. Data are available through Proteome eXchange Accession PXD002706. PMID:26631510

  12. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Chien-Liang; Huang, Shih-Yuan; Hu, Meng-Chun; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:24586874

  13. Plant protein kinase substrates identification using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases regulate signaling pathways by phosphorylating their targets. They play critical roles in plant signaling networks. Although many important protein kinases have been identified in plants, their substrates are largely unknown. We have developed and produced plant protein microarrays with more than 15,000 purified plant proteins. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to use these microarrays to identify plant protein kinase substrates via in vitro phosphorylation assays on these arrays. PMID:25930701

  14. Effect of pH on the structure, function, and stability of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: combined spectroscopic and MD simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Naz, Huma; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Bisetty, Krishna; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-06-01

    Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMKIV) is a member of Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is regulated by the calcium-calmodulin dependent signal through a secondary messenger, Ca(2+), which leads to the activation of its autoinhibited form. The over-expression and mutation in CAMKIV as well as change in Ca(2+) concentration is often associated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. We have successfully cloned, expressed, and purified a functionally active kinase domain of human CAMKIV. To observe the effect of different pH conditions on the structural and functional properties of CAMKIV, we have used spectroscopic techniques such as circular diachroism (CD) absorbance and fluorescence. We have observed that within the pH range 5.0-11.5, CAMKIV maintained both its secondary and tertiary structures, along with its function, whereas significant aggregation was observed at acidic pH (2.0-4.5). We have also performed ATPase activity assays under different pH conditions and found a significant correlation between the structure and enzymatic activities of CAMKIV. In-silico validations were further carried out by modeling the 3-dimensional structure of CAMKIV and then subjecting it to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand its conformational behavior in explicit water conditions. A strong correlation between spectroscopic observations and the output of molecular dynamics simulation was observed for CAMKIV. PMID:27032767

  15. Effects of tiflucarbine as a dual protein kinase C/calmodulin antagonist on proliferation of human keratinocytes and release of reactive oxygen species from human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, L; Fruchtmann, R; Bonnekoh, B; Schmidt, B H; Traber, J; Mahrle, G; Müller-Peddinghaus, R; van Rooijen, L A

    1991-01-01

    Various studies have suggested that calmodulin (CaM) is involved in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Protein kinase C (PKC) is also accepted as playing a regulatory role in cell proliferation as well as in inflammatory processes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the known CaM antagonist tiflucarbine (BAY/TVX P 4495) on two cellular systems related to the major clinical symptoms of psoriasis: proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes (HaCa T cell line) and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Tiflucarbine inhibited both cellular responses in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, tiflucarbine directly affected PKC, and may thus be considered to be a dual PKC/CaM antagonist with putative antipsoriatic activity. The effects of tiflucarbine on the different parameters were compared with those of the structurally unrelated dual PKC/CaM inhibitor W-7 and those of the potent PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The potencies of all three compounds were found to be in the same range as their PKC-inhibiting potency. Our data indicate that PKC, rather than CaM, may play a regulatory role in the release of ROS as well as in keratinocyte proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of PKC in general might have a therapeutic benefit in psoriasis. PMID:1801655

  16. Evidence that phosphorylation of human Upfl protein varies with intracellular location and is mediated by a wortmannin-sensitive and rapamycin-sensitive PI 3-kinase-related kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Pal, M; Ishigaki, Y; Nagy, E; Maquat, L E

    2001-01-01

    Human Upf1 protein (p), a group 1 RNA helicase, has recently been shown to function in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that the estimated 3 x 10(6) copies of hUpf1 p per exponentially growing HeLa cell are essentially equally distributed among polysomal, subpolysomal, and ribosome-free fractions. We also demonstrate that hUpf1p binds RNA and is a phosphoprotein harboring phosphoserine and phosphothreonine. hUpf1p is phosphorylated to the highest extent when polysome-associated and to the lowest extent when ribosome free. We find that serum-induced phosphorylation of hUpf1p is inhibited by wortmannin at a concentration that selectively inhibits PI 3-kinase related kinases and, to a lesser extent, by rapamycin. These and other data suggest that phosphorylation is mediated by a wortmannin-sensitive and rapamycin-sensitive PI 3-kinase-related kinase signaling pathway. Comparisons are made of hUpf1p to Upf1p and SMG-2, which are the orthologs to hUpf1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans, respectively. PMID:11214180

  17. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru )

    1988-12-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with ({gamma}-{sup 32})ATP for 10 min at 37{degree}C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation.

  18. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  19. Correlation between cell-cell contact formation and activation of protein kinase C in a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Nagao, S; Kitajima, Y; Nagata, K; Inoue, S; Yaoita, H; Nozawa, Y

    1989-02-01

    Formation of desmosomal cell-cell contact associated with reorganization of keratin intermediate filaments (KIFs) was observed when cultured cells of a cell line of human skin squamous cell carcinoma were transferred from low (0.07 mM) calcium to high (1.87 mM) calcium medium. At low calcium, cells were dispersed without desmosomal cell-cell contact and the KIFs were mostly concentrated around the nucleus. After 15 min of the transfer, cells contacted each other and formed small colonies and the KIFs initiated to show a radial arrangement. In addition to the cell-cell contact formation and rearrangement of KIFs, the transfer induced fourfold increase of particulate-associated protein kinase C (C-kinase) activity. When 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (PMA), which specifically activates C-kinase, was added to the cells grown at low calcium medium, cell-cell contact formation and radial arrangement of KIF bundles almost identical to those induced by the transfer to high calcium medium were observed. These data suggest a correlation between an increase in C-kinase activity and formation of cell-cell contacts associated with rearrangements of KIFs. PMID:2465349

  20. Protein kinase C activity is not involved in N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced phospholipase D activation in human neutrophils, but is essential for concomitant NADPH oxidase activation: studies with a staurosporine analogue with improved selectivity for protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Kessels, G C; Krause, K H; Verhoeven, A J

    1993-06-15

    Stimulation of human neutrophils by the receptor agonist N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) results in a respiratory burst, catalysed by an NADPH oxidase. Concomitantly, phospholipase D (PLD) is activated. To investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in these neutrophil responses, we have compared the effects of staurosporine and a structural analogue of staurosporine (cgp41251), that reflects a higher selectivity towards PKC [Meyer, Regenass, Fabbro, Alteri, Rösel, Müller, Caravatti and Matter (1989) Int. J. Cancer 43, 851-856]. Both staurosporine and cgp41251 dose-dependently inhibited the production of superoxide induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Both compounds also caused inhibition of the fMLP-induced respiratory burst, but with a lower efficacy during the initiation phase of this response. This latter observation cannot be taken as evidence against PKC involvement in the activation of the respiratory burst, because pretreatment of neutrophils with ionomycin before PMA stimulation also results in a lower efficacy of inhibition. Activation of PLD by fMLP was enhanced in the presence of staurosporine, but not in the presence of cgp41251. Enhancement of PLD activation was also observed in the presence of H-89, an inhibitor of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Both staurosporine and H-89 reversed the dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP-induced inhibition of PLD activation, whereas cgp41251 was without effect. These results indicate that the potentiating effect of staurosporine on PLD activation induced by fMLP does not reflect a feedback inhibition by PKC activation, but instead a feedback inhibition by PKC activation. Taken together, our results indicate that in human neutrophils: (i) PKC activity is not essential for fMLP-induced activation of PLD; (ii) PKC activity does play an essential role in the activation of the respiratory burst by fMLP, other than mediating or modulating PLD activation; (iii) there exists a negative

  1. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed. PMID:24705157

  2. Dynamic architecture of a protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Christopher L.; Kornev, Alexandr P.; Gilson, Michael K.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases are dynamically regulated signaling proteins that act as switches in the cell by phosphorylating target proteins. To establish a framework for analyzing linkages between structure, function, dynamics, and allostery in protein kinases, we carried out multiple microsecond-scale molecular-dynamics simulations of protein kinase A (PKA), an exemplar active kinase. We identified residue–residue correlated motions based on the concept of mutual information and used the Girvan–Newman method to partition PKA into structurally contiguous “communities.” Most of these communities included 40–60 residues and were associated with a particular protein kinase function or a regulatory mechanism, and well-known motifs based on sequence and secondary structure were often split into different communities. The observed community maps were sensitive to the presence of different ligands and provide a new framework for interpreting long-distance allosteric coupling. Communication between different communities was also in agreement with the previously defined architecture of the protein kinase core based on the “hydrophobic spine” network. This finding gives us confidence in suggesting that community analyses can be used for other protein kinases and will provide an efficient tool for structural biologists. The communities also allow us to think about allosteric consequences of mutations that are linked to disease. PMID:25319261

  3. Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F; Ventura, F; Doody, J; Massagué, J

    1995-01-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are universal regulators of animal development. We report the identification and cloning of the BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II), a missing component of this receptor system in vertebrates. BMPR-II is a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase that binds BMP-2 and BMP-7 in association with multiple type I receptors, including BMPR-IA/Brk1, BMPR-IB, and ActR-I, which is also an activin type I receptor. Cloning of BMPR-II resulted from a strong interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with diverse transforming growth factor beta family type I receptor cytoplasmic domains in a yeast two-hybrid system. In mammalian cells, however, the interaction of BMPR-II is restricted to BMP type I receptors and is ligand dependent. BMPR-II binds BMP-2 and -7 on its own, but binding is enhanced by coexpression of type I BMP receptors. BMP-2 and BMP-7 can induce a transcriptional response when added to cells coexpressing ActR-I and BMPR-II but not to cells expressing either receptor alone. The kinase activity of both receptors is essential for signaling. Thus, despite their ability to bind to type I and II receptors receptors separately, BMPs appear to require the cooperation of these two receptors for optimal binding and for signal transduction. The combinatorial nature of these receptors and their capacity to crosstalk with the activin receptor system may underlie the multifunctional nature of their ligands. PMID:7791754

  4. Microgravity modifies protein kinase C isoform translocation in the human monocytic cell line U937 and human peripheral blood T-cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Jason P.; Gaubert, Francois; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Schmitt, Didier; Hashemi, B. B. (Principal Investigator); Hughes-Fulford, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Individual protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms fulfill distinct roles in the regulation of the commitment to differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in both monocytes and T-cells. The human monocyte like cell line U937 and T-cells were exposed to microgravity, during spaceflight and the translocation (a critical step in PKC signaling) of individual isoforms to cell particulate fraction examined. PKC activating phorbol esters induced a rapid translocation of several PKC isoforms to the particulate fraction of U937 monocytes under terrestrial gravity (1 g) conditions in the laboratory. In microgravity, the translocation of PKC beta II, delta, and epsilon in response to phorbol esters was reduced in microgravity compared to 1 g, but was enhanced in weak hypergravity (1.4 g). All isoforms showed a net increase in particulate PKC following phorbol ester stimulation, except PKC delta which showed a net decrease in microgravity. In T-cells, phorbol ester induced translocation of PKC delta was reduced in microgravity, compared to 1 g, while PKC beta II translocation was not significantly different at the two g-levels. These data show that microgravity differentially alters the translocation of individual PKC isoforms in monocytes and T-cells, thus providing a partial explanation for the modifications previously observed in the activation of these cell types under microgravity.

  5. In silico design of protein kinase inhibitors: successes and failures.

    PubMed

    Dubinina, Galina G; Chupryna, Oleksandr O; Platonov, Maxim O; Borisko, Petro O; Ostrovska, Galina V; Tolmachov, Andriy O; Shtil, Alexander A

    2007-03-01

    Protein kinases are among the most exploited targets in modern drug discovery due to key roles these enzymes play in human diseases including cancer. The in silico approach, an important part of rational design of protein kinase inhibitors, is founded on vast information about 3D structures of these enzymes. This review summarizes general structural features of the kinase inhibitors and the studies applied toward a large scale chemical database for virtual screening. Analyzed are the ways of validating the modern docking tools and their combinations with different scoring functions. In particular, we discuss the kinase flexibility as a reason for failures of the docking procedure. Finally, evidence is provided for the main patterns of kinase-inhibitor interactions and creation of the hinge-region-directed 2D filters. PMID:17348826

  6. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  7. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  8. Selective expression of a protein-tyrosine kinase, p56 sup lyn , in hematopoietic cells and association with production of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanashi, Yuji; Mori, Shigeo; Inoue, Kazushi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Toyoshima, Kumao ); Yoshida, Mitsuaki ); Kishimoto, Tadamitsu )

    1989-09-01

    This paper reports the identification of the lyn gene product, a member of the src-related family of protein-tyrosine kinases, and its expression in hematopoietic cells. A lyn-specific sequence (Arg-25 to Ala-119 of the protein) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with {beta}-galactosidase. Antiserum raised against the fusion protein immunoprecipitated a 56-kDa protein from human B lymphocytes. Incubation of the immunoprecipitate with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the phosphorylation of this protein at tyrosine residues. Immunohistological and immunoblotting analyses showed that the lyn gene product was expressed in lymphatic tissues (spleen and tonsil) and in adult lung, which contains many macrophages. Furthermore, both the transcripts and the protein products of the lyn gene accumulated in macrophages/monocytes, platelets, and B lymphocytes but were not expressed appreciably in granulocytes, erythrocytes, or T lymphocytes, suggesting that lyn gene products function primarily in certain differentiated cells of lymphoid and myeloid lineages.

  9. Neuropeptide Y1 receptor inhibits cell growth through inactivating mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiufang; Zhao, Fengbo; Huo, Xisong; Tang, Weidong; Hu, Baoying; Gong, Xiu; Yang, Juan; Shen, Qiujin; Qin, Wenxin

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) broadly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system. It participates in multiple physiological and pathological processes through specific receptors. Evidences are accumulating that NPY is involved in development and progression in neuro- or endocrine-related cancers. However, little is known about the potential roles and underlying mechanisms of NPY receptors in HCC. In this study, we analyzed the expression of NPY receptors by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining. Correlation between NPY1R levels and clinicopathological characteristics, and survival of HCC patients were explored, respectively. Cell proliferation was researched by CCK-8 in vitro, and tumor growth was studied by nude mice xenografts in vivo. We found that mRNA and protein level of NPY receptor Y1 subtype (NPY1R) significantly decreased in HCC tissues. Low expression of NPY1R closely correlated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. Proliferation of HCC cells was significantly inhibited by recombinant NPY protein in vitro. This inhibitory effect could be blocked by selected NPY1R antagonist BIBP3226. Furthermore, overexpression of NPY1R could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation. Knockdown of NPY1R promoted cell multiplication in vitro and increased tumorigenicity and tumor growth in vivo. NPY1R was found to participate in the inhibition of cell proliferation via inactivating mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway in HCC cells. Collectively, NPY1R plays an inhibitory role in tumor growth and may be a promising therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:27262566

  10. Stimulation of the protein tyrosine kinase c-Yes but not c-Src by neurotrophins in human brain-metastatic melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, D; Parikh, N; Sudol, M; Gallick, G E

    1998-06-25

    The c-Yes proto-oncogene (pp62c-Yes) encodes a non-receptor-type protein tyrosine kinase (NRPTK) of the Src family. c-Yes activities and protein levels are elevated in human melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. Because the neurotrophins (NT) are important in the progression of melanoma to the brain-metastatic phenotype, we determined whether NT stimulate c-Yes activity in human MeWo melanoma cells and two variant sublines with opposite metastatic capabilities, 3 S 5 and 70W. The highly brain-metastatic 70W subline had an intrinsically higher c-Yes activity than parental MeWo or poorly metastatic 3 S 5 cells. c-Yes kinase was further induced by the prototypic human NT, nerve growth factor (NGF) in a dose and time-dependent manner. In contrast, c-Src activity (pp60-Src) was similar in all these cells and unaffected by NGF exposure. Additionally, human NGF and neurotrophin-3 stimulated c-Yes in brain-metastatic 70W cells. The magnitude of c-Yes activation correlated with the degree of invasion of 70 W cells following incubation of these neurotrophins. To further examine NT stimulation of c-Yes in melanoma cells, three additional cell lines were examined. Metastatic TXM-13 and TXM-18 increased c-Yes activity in response to NGF. In contrast, no increase was observed in low-metastatic TXM-40 cells. Together, these data suggest that altered c-Yes expression may play a role in the malignant progression of the human melanocyte towards the brain-metastatic phenotype and that NT enhance the activity of c-Yes in signaling penetration into the matrix of NT-rich stromal microenvironments such as the brain. PMID:9681823

  11. Hyperglycaemia promotes human brain microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of protein kinase C-ßI and prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Blood–brain barrier disruption represents a key feature in hyperglycaemia-aggravated cerebral damage after an ischaemic stroke. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is thought to play a critical role. This study examined whether apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) might contribute to hyperglycaemia-evoked barrier damage and assessed the specific role of PKC in this phenomenon. Treatments with hyperglycaemia (25 mM) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator, 100 nM) significantly increased NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- generation, proapoptotic protein Bax expression, TUNEL-positive staining and caspase-3/7 activities. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase, PKC-a, PKC-ß or PKC-ßI via their specific inhibitors and neutralisation of O2•- by a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP normalised all the aforementioned increases induced by hyperglycaemia. Suppression of these PKC isoforms also negated the stimulatory effects of hyperglycaemia on the protein expression of NADPH oxidase membrane-bound components, Nox2 and p22-phox which determine the overall enzymatic activity. Silencing of PKC-ßI gene through use of specific siRNAs abolished the effects of both hyperglycaemia and PMA on endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- production and apoptosis and consequently improved the integrity and function of an in vitro model of human cerebral barrier comprising HBMEC, astrocytes and pericytes. Hyperglycaemia-mediated apoptosis of HBMEC contributes to cerebral barrier dysfunction and is modulated by sequential activations of PKC-ßI and NADPH oxidase. PMID:24936444

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Ju, Tsai-Kai; Huang, Yuan-Li; Lee, Ming-Shyue; Chen, Jiun-Hong; Lee, Hsinyu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3}. •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3} siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway.

  13. The extended protein kinase C superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, H; Parker, P J

    1998-01-01

    Members of the mammalian protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily play key regulatory roles in a multitude of cellular processes, ranging from control of fundamental cell autonomous activities, such as proliferation, to more organismal functions, such as memory. However, understanding of mammalian PKC signalling systems is complicated by the large number of family members. Significant progress has been made through studies based on comparative analysis, which have defined a number of regulatory elements in PKCs which confer specific location and activation signals to each isotype. Further studies on simple organisms have shown that PKC signalling paradigms are conserved through evolution from yeast to humans, underscoring the importance of this family in cellular signalling and giving novel insights into PKC function in complex mammalian systems. PMID:9601053

  14. Regulation of Axonal Transport by Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Katherine L; Greensmith, Linda; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular transport of organelles, proteins, lipids, and RNA along the axon is essential for neuronal function and survival. This process, called axonal transport, is mediated by two classes of ATP-dependent motors, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, which carry their cargoes along microtubule tracks. Protein kinases regulate axonal transport through direct phosphorylation of motors, adapter proteins, and cargoes, and indirectly through modification of the microtubule network. The misregulation of axonal transport by protein kinases has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several nervous system disorders. Here, we review the role of protein kinases acting directly on axonal transport and discuss how their deregulation affects neuronal function, paving the way for the exploitation of these enzymes as novel drug targets. PMID:26410600

  15. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2004-10-12

    The present invention relates to 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  16. The Role of Protein Kinase A Regulation of the E6 PDZ-Binding Domain during the Differentiation-Dependent Life Cycle of Human Papillomavirus Type 18

    PubMed Central

    Delury, Craig P.; Marsh, Elizabeth K.; James, Claire D.; Boon, Siaw Shi; Banks, Lawrence; Knight, Gillian L.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins of high-risk alpha types target a select group of PSD95/DLG1/ZO1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins by using a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PBM), an interaction that can be negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the E6 PBM by protein kinase A (PKA). Here, we have mutated the canonical PKA recognition motif that partially overlaps with the E6 PBM in the HPV18 genome (E6153PKA) and compared the effect of this mutation on the HPVl8 life cycle in primary keratinocytes with the wild-type genome and with a second mutant genome that lacks the E6 PBM (E6ΔPDZ). Loss of PKA recognition of E6 was associated with increased growth of the genome-containing cells relative to cells carrying the wild-type genome, and upon stratification, a more hyperplastic phenotype, with an increase in the number of S-phase competent cells in the upper suprabasal layers, while the opposite was seen with the E6ΔPDZ genome. Moreover, the growth of wild-type genome-containing cells was sensitive to changes in PKA activity, and these changes were associated with increased phosphorylation of the E6 PBM. In marked contrast to E6ΔPDZ genomes, the E6153PKA mutation exhibited no deleterious effects on viral genome amplification or expression of late proteins. Our data suggest that the E6 PBM function is differentially regulated by phosphorylation in the HPV18 life cycle. We speculate that perturbation of protein kinase signaling pathways could lead to changes in E6 PBM function, which in turn could have a bearing on tumor promotion and progression. PMID:23804647

  17. Syk protein tyrosine kinase involves PECAM-1 signaling through tandem immunotyrosine inhibitory motifs in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Wu, Yanling; Hu, Hai; Wang, Weimin; Lu, Ying; Mao, Huiming; Liu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Zhongmin; Chen, Bing-guan

    2011-01-01

    Although recent evidence supports a functional relationship between platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) and Syk tyrosine kinase, little is known about the interaction of Syk with PECAM-1. We report that down-regulation of Syk inhibits the spreading of human THP-1 macrophage cells. Moreover, our data indicate that Syk binds PECAM-1 through its immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), and dual phosphorylation of the ITIM domain of PECAM-1 leads to activation of Syk. Our results indicate that the distance between the phosphotyrosines could be up to 22 amino acids in length, depending on the conformational flexibility, and that the dual ITIM tyrosine motifs of PECAM-1 facilitate immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-like signaling. The preferential binding of PECAM-1 to Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 or Syk may depend on their relative affinities, and could provide a mechanism by which signal transduction from PECAM-1 is internally regulated by both positive and negative signaling enzymes. PMID:22000807

  18. Phospholipase D1 is threonine-phosphorylated in human-airway epithelial cells stimulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate by a mechanism involving Src tyrosine kinase and protein kinase Cdelta.

    PubMed Central

    Ghelli, Anna; Porcelli, Anna M; Facchini, Annalisa; Hrelia, Silvana; Flamigni, Flavio; Rugolo, Michela

    2002-01-01

    The regulatory role of protein kinase C (PKC) delta isoform in the stimulation of phospholipase D (PLD) by sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP) in a human-airway epithelial cell line (CFNPE9o(-)) was revealed by using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to PKCdelta, in combination with the specific inhibitor rottlerin. Cell treatment with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, but not with sense oligodeoxynucleotide, completely eliminated PKCdelta expression and resulted in the strong inhibition of SPP-stimulated phosphatidic acid formation. Indeed, among the PKCalpha, beta, delta, epsilon and zeta isoforms expressed in these cells, only PKCdelta was activated on cell stimulation with SPP, as indicated by translocation into the membrane fraction. Furthermore, pertussis toxin and genistein eliminated both PKCdelta translocation and PLD activation. In particular, a significant reduction in phosphatidylbutanol formation by SPP was observed in the presence of 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl) pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine (PP1), an inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase. Furthermore, the activity of Src kinase was slightly increased by SPP and inhibited by PP1. However, the level of PKCdelta tyrosine phosphorylation was not increased in SPP-stimulated cells, suggesting that Src did not directly phosphorylate PKCdelta. Finally, the level of serine phosphorylation of PLD1 and PLD2 isoforms was not changed, whereas the PLD1 isoform alone was threonine-phosphorylated in SPP-treated cells. PLD1 threonine phosphorylation was strongly inhibited by rottlerin, by anti-PKCdelta oligodeoxynucleotide and by PP1. In conclusion, in CFNPE9o(-) cells, SPP interacts with a membrane receptor linked to a G(i) type of G-protein, leading to activation of PLD, probably the PLD1 isoform, by a signalling pathway involving Src and PKCdelta. PMID:12014986

  19. Protein kinase domain of twitchin has protein kinase activity and an autoinhibitory region.

    PubMed

    Lei, J; Tang, X; Chambers, T C; Pohl, J; Benian, G M

    1994-08-19

    Twitchin is a 753-kDa polypeptide located in the muscle A-bands of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. It consists of multiple copies of both fibronectin III and immunoglobulin C2 domains and, near the C terminus, a protein kinase domain with greatest homology to the catalytic domains of myosin light chain kinases. We have expressed and purified from Escherichia coli twitchin's protein kinase catalytic core and flanking sequences that do not include fibronectin III and immunoglobulin C2 domains. The protein was shown to phosphorylate a model substrate and to undergo autophosphorylation. The autophosphorylation occurs at a slow rate, attaining a maximum at 3 h with a stoichiometry of about 1.0 mol of phosphate/mol of protein, probably through an intramolecular mechanism. Sequence analysis of proteolytically derived phosphopeptides revealed that autophosphorylation occurred N-terminal to the catalytic core, predominantly at Thr-5910, with possible minor sites at Ser5912 and/or Ser-5913. This portion of twitchin (residues 5890-6268) was also phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C in the absence of calcium and phosphotidylserine, but not by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. By comparing the activities of three twitchin segments, the enzyme appears to be inhibited by the 60-amino acid residues lying just C-terminal to the kinase catalytic core. Thus, like a number of other protein kinases including myosin light chain kinases, the twitchin kinase appears to be autoregulated. PMID:8063727

  20. All-trans retinoic acid modulates mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation in human scleral fibroblasts through retinoic acid receptor beta

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Lijun; Cui, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Zhenya; Trier, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is known to inhibit the proliferation of human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs) and to modulate the scleral intercellular matrix composition, and may therefore serve as a mediator for controlling eye growth. Cell proliferation is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether changed activation of the MAPK pathway could be involved in the response of HSFs exposed to ATRA. Methods HSFs were cultured in Dulbecco Modified Eagle's Medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) and exposed to 1 μmol/l ATRA for 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 8 h, or 24 h. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in HSFs was assessed with western blot analysis and immunocytofluorescence. Results After exposure to ATRA for 24 h, the HSFs appeared shrunken and thinner than the control cells. The intercellular spaces were wider, and the HSFs appeared less numerous than in the control culture. Western blot showed decreased activation of ERK 1/2 in the HSFs from 30 min (p=0.01) to 24 h (p<0.01) after the start of exposure to ATRA, and increased activation of the JNK protein from 10 to 30 min (p<0.01) after the start of exposure to ATRA. Indirect immunofluorescence confirmed changes in activation of ERK 1/2 and JNK in HSFs exposed to ATRA. No change in activation of p38 in HSFs was observed after exposure to ATRA. Pretreatment of the HSFs with LE135, an antagonist of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ), abolished the ATRA-induced changes inactivation of ERK 1/2 and JNK. Conclusions ATRA inhibits HSF proliferation by a mechanism associated with modulation of ERK 1/2 and JNK activation and depends on stimulation of retinoic acid receptor beta. PMID:23946634

  1. Protein kinase activators alter glial cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-05-01

    Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.

  2. Subcellular proteomic approach for identifying the signaling effectors of protein kinase C-β2 under high glucose conditions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MIN; SUN, FANG; CHEN, FANGFANG; ZHOU, BO; DUAN, YAQIAN; SU, HONG; LIN, XUEBO

    2015-01-01

    The high glucose-induced activation of protein kinase C-β2 (PKC-β2) has an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes-associated vascular disease. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in high and normal glucose conditions prior to being infected with a recombinant adenovirus to induce the overexpression of PKC-β2. The activity of PKC-β2 was also decreased using a selective PKC-β2 inhibitor. A series of two-dimensional electrophoresis images detected ~800 spots in the nuclei, and ~600 spots in the cytosol. Following intra- and inter-group cross-matching, 38 significantly altered spots were identified as high glucose-induced and PKC-β2-associated nuclear proteins. In addition to the observation that the regulation of key proteins involved in the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling cascade occurred in the cytosol, various transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPAR-δ), were also altered in the nuclei. A human protein-protein interaction network of potential connections of PKC-β2-associated proteins was constructed in the proteomics investigation using Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets. The results indicated that PKC-β2 may be involved in high glucose-induced glucose and lipid crosstalk by regulating PPAR-δ. In addition, NF-κB inhibitor-interacting Ras-like protein 1 may be important in the PKC-β2-NF-κB inhibitor-NF-κB signaling pathway in HUVECs under high-glucose conditions. PMID:26459836

  3. Osthole-mediated cell differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway in human osteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Lin; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Chang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chang, Jiunn-Kae

    2005-09-01

    The survival of osteoblast cells is one of the determinants of the development of osteoporosis in patients. Osthole (7-methoxy-8-isopentenoxycoumarin) is a coumarin derivative present in many medicinal plants. By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and type I collagen, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we have shown that osthole exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in two human osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and hFOB. Induction of differentiation by osthole was associated with increased bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 production and the activations of SMAD1/5/8 and p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 kinases. Addition of purified BMP-2 protein did not increase the up-regulation of ALP activity and osteocalcin by osthole, whereas the BMP-2 antagonist noggin blocked both osthole and BMP-2-mediated ALP activity enhancement, indicating that BMP-2 production is required in osthole-mediated osteoblast maturation. Pretreatment of osteoblast cells with noggin abrogated p38 activation but only partially decreased ERK1/2 activation, suggesting that BMP-2 signaling is required in p38 activation and is partially involved in ERK1/2 activation in osthole-treated osteoblast cells. Cotreatment of p38 inhibitor SB203580 [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole] or p38 small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression inhibited osthole-mediated activation of ALP but only slightly affected osteocalcin production. In contrast, the production of osteocalcin induced by osthole was inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 (2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone) or by expression of an ERK2 siRNA. These data suggest that BMP-2/p38 pathway links to the early phase, whereas ERK1/2 pathway is associated with the later phase in osthole-mediated differentiation of osteoblast cells. In this study, we demonstrate that osthole is a promising agent for treating osteoporosis

  4. [Mitogen-activated protein kinases in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Bryk, Dorota; Olejarz, Wioletta; Zapolska-Downar, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They may mediate inflammatory processes, endothelial cell activation, monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and T-lymphocyte differentiation, all of which represent crucial mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The specific inhibition of an activity of the respective MAP kinases may prove a new therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaque formation in the future. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge concerning MAP kinase-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:24491891

  5. Structural and functional diversity in the activity and regulation of DAPK-related protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Temmerman, Koen; Simon, Bertrand; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    Within the large group of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) of the human kinome, there is a distinct branch of highly related kinases that includes three families: death-associated protein-related kinases, myosin light-chain-related kinases and triple functional domain protein-related kinases. In this review, we refer to these collectively as DMT kinases. There are several functional features that span the three families, such as a broad involvement in apoptotic processes, cytoskeletal association and cellular plasticity. Other CAMKs contain a highly conserved HRD motif, which is a prerequisite for kinase regulation through activation-loop phosphorylation, but in all 16 members of the DMT branch, this is replaced by an HF/LD motif. This DMT kinase signature motif substitutes phosphorylation-dependent active-site interactions with a local hydrophobic core that maintains an active kinase conformation. Only about half of the DMT kinases have an additional autoregulatory domain, C-terminal to the kinase domain that binds calcium/calmodulin in order to regulate kinase activity. Protein substrates have been identified for some of the DMT kinases, but little is known about the mechanism of recognition. Substrate conformation could be an equally important parameter in substrate recognition as specific preferences in sequence position. Taking the data together, this kinase branch encapsulates a treasure trove of features that renders it distinct from many other protein kinases and calls for future research activities in this field. PMID:23745726

  6. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  7. In vivo and ex vivo regulation of visfatin production by leptin in human and murine adipose tissue: role of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bee K; Chen, Jing; Brown, James; Adya, Raghu; Ramanjaneya, Manjunath; Menon, Vinod; Bailey, Clifford J; Lehnert, Hendrik; Randeva, Harpal S

    2009-08-01

    Visfatin is an adipogenic adipokine with increased levels in obesity, properties common to leptin. Thus, leptin may modulate visfatin production in adipose tissue (AT). Therefore, we investigated the effects of leptin on visfatin levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and human/murine AT, with or without a leptin antagonist. The potential signaling pathways and mechanisms regulating visfatin production in AT was also studied. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to assess the relative mRNA and protein expression of visfatin. ELISA was performed to measure visfatin levels in conditioned media of AT explants, and small interfering RNA technology was used to reduce leptin receptor expression. Leptin significantly (P < 0.01) increased visfatin levels in human and murine AT with a maximal response at leptin 10(-9) M, returning to baseline at leptin 10(-7) M. Importantly, ip leptin administration to C57BL/6 ob/ob mice further supported leptin-induced visfatin protein production in omental AT (P < 0.05). Additionally, soluble leptin receptor levels rose with concentration dependency to a maximal response at leptin 10(-7) M (P < 0.01). The use of a leptin antagonist negated the induction of visfatin and soluble leptin receptor by leptin. Furthermore, leptin-induced visfatin production was significantly decreased in the presence of MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors. Also, when the leptin receptor gene was knocked down using small interfering RNA, leptin-induced visfatin expression was significantly decreased. Thus, leptin increases visfatin production in AT in vivo and ex vivo via pathways involving MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. The pleiotropic effects of leptin may be partially mediated by visfatin. PMID:19389835

  8. Epigenetic modulation of the protein kinase A RIIα (PRKAR2A) gene by histone deacetylases 1 and 2 in human smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Loughney, Andrew D; Robson, Stephen C; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recently we reported that the expression of the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit RIIα is dynamically regulated in human smooth muscle cells of the uterus. We showed that expression levels of mRNA/protein were substantially increased during pregnancy and decreased upon labour, changes that were mirrored by particulate type II PKA activity. This implied an important role for RIIα in maintaining uterine quiescence during pregnancy. Consequently the purpose of the present study was to identify potential mechanisms by which expression of the RIIα gene was regulated in this tissue. We indicate here that the three SpI-III (GC) binding domains within the proximal promoter region of the human RIIα gene may play important roles in modulating expression of the gene in human myometrial cells. We show that all three GC binding domains are involved in binding Sp1, Sp3, histone deacetylase (HDACs) 1/2 and RbAp48 transcriptional complexes. The functional significance of these binding domains was further analysed employing in vitro luciferase reporter assays with full-length/truncated RIIα promoter constructs. Importantly we show that treatment of primary human myometrial cell cultures with the general class I/II HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A results in an increase in mRNA/protein levels. Moreover the increase in mRNA levels appeared to be preceded by an increase in aH3, PolIIa, Sp3 and HDAC 2 binding to the three SpI-III (GC) binding sites within the RIIα promoter. These results enable us to provide a model whereby RIIα expression is epigenetically regulated in human myometrial smooth muscle cells by histone deacetylase(s) activity within the GC-rich proximal promoter region of the gene. PMID:19818097

  9. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management. PMID:25005949

  10. Protein Kinase A: A Master Kinase of Granulosa Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pawan; Little-Ihrig, Lynda; Chandran, Uma; Law, Nathan C.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Zeleznik, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) transduces the signal that drives differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). An unresolved question is whether PKA is sufficient to initiate the complex program of GC responses to FSH. We compared signaling pathways and gene expression profiles of GCs stimulated with FSH or expressing PKA-CQR, a constitutively active mutant of PKA. Both FSH and PKA-CQR stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins known to be involved in GC differentiation including CREB, ß-catenin, AKT, p42/44 MAPK, GAB2, GSK-3ß, FOXO1, and YAP. In contrast, FSH stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but PKA-CQR did not. Microarray analysis revealed that 85% of transcripts that were up-regulated by FSH were increased to a comparable extent by PKA-CQR and of the transcripts that were down-regulated by FSH, 76% were also down-regulated by PKA-CQR. Transcripts regulated similarly by FSH and PKA-CQR are involved in steroidogenesis and differentiation, while transcripts more robustly up-regulated by PKA-CQR are involved in ovulation. Thus, PKA, under the conditions of our experimental approach appears to function as a master upstream kinase that is sufficient to initiate the complex pattern of intracellular signaling pathway and gene expression profiles that accompany GC differentiation. PMID:27324437

  11. Requirement of T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase for TRAIL resistance of human HeLa cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hyeok-Ran; Lee, Ki Won; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Kyung Bok; Oh, Sang-Muk

    2010-01-01

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) appears to be highly expressed in various cancer cells and to play an important role in maintaining proliferation of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism by which TOPK regulates growth of cancer cells remains elusive. Here we report that upregulated endogenous TOPK augments resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Stable knocking down of TOPK markedly increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of human HeLa cervical cancer cells, as compared with control cells. Caspase 8 or caspase 3 activities in response to TRAIL were greatly incremented in TOPK-depleted cells. Ablation of TOPK negatively regulated TRAIL-mediated NF-{kappa}B activity. Furthermore, expression of NF-{kappa}B-dependent genes, FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1), or X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was reduced in TOPK-depleted cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that TOPK contributed to TRAIL resistance of cancer cells via NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that TOPK might be a potential molecular target for successful cancer therapy using TRAIL.

  12. Protein kinase D1 stimulates proliferation and enhances tumorigenesis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through a MEK/ERK-dependent signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, Manale; Legay, Christine; Auclair, Christian; Ricort, Jean-Marc

    2012-03-10

    Protein kinase D1, PKD1, is a novel serine/threonine kinase whose altered expression and dysregulation in many tumors as well as its activation by several mitogens suggest that this protein could regulate proliferation and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, the precise signaling pathways used are still unclear and the potential direct role of PKD1 in tumor development and progression has not been yet investigated. In order to clarify the role of PKD1 in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, we studied the effects of PKD1 overexpression in a human adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells. We demonstrated that overexpression of PKD1 specifically promotes MCF-7 cell proliferation through accelerating G0/G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous PKD1 significantly reduced cell proliferation. Taken together, these results clearly strengthen the regulatory role of PKD1 in cell growth. We also demonstrated that overexpression of PKD1 specifically diminished serum- and anchorage-dependence for proliferation and survival in vitro and allowed MCF-7 cells to form tumors in vivo. Thus, all these data highlight the central role of PKD1 in biological processes which are hallmarks of malignant transformation. Analysis of two major signaling pathways implicated in MCF-7 cell proliferation showed that PKD1 overexpression significantly increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation state without affecting Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, PKD1 overexpression-stimulated cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth were totally impaired by inhibition of the MEK/ERK kinase cascade. However, neither of these effects was affected by blocking the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, the MEK/ERK signaling appears to be a determining pathway mediating the biological effects of PKD1 in MCF-7 cells. Taken together, all these data demonstrate that PKD1 overexpression increases the aggressiveness of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through enhancing their oncogenic

  13. Multiple protein kinase pathways mediate amplified IL-6 release by human lung fibroblasts co-exposed to nickel and TLR-2 agonist, MALP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Fei; Brant, Kelly A.; Ward, Rachel M.; Cattley, Richard T.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Fabisiak, James P.

    2010-09-01

    Microbial stimuli and atmospheric particulate matter (PM) interact to amplify the release of inflammatory and immune-modulating cytokines. The basis of this interaction, however, is not known. Cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLF) were used to determine whether various protein kinase pathways were involved in the release of IL-6 following combined exposure to the PM-derived metal, Ni, and M. fermentans-derived macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2), a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. Synergistic release of IL-6 by MALP-2 and NiSO{sub 4} was obvious after 8 h of co-stimulation and correlated with a late phase accumulation of IL-6 mRNA. Ni and MALP-2, alone or together, all led to rapid and transient phosphorylations of ERK{sub 1/2} and JNK/SAPK of similar magnitude. p38 phosphorylation, however, was observed only after prolonged treatment of cells with both stimuli together. A constitutive level of PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation remained unchanged by Ni and/or MALP-2 exposure. IL-6 induced by Ni/MALP-2 co-exposure was partially dependent on activity of HIF-1{alpha} and COX-2 as shown by targeted knockdown using siRNA. IL-6 release in response to Ni/MALP-2 was partially sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of ERK{sub 1/2}, p38, and PI3K signaling. The protein kinase inhibitors had minimal or no effects on Ni/MALP-2-induced accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} protein, however, COX-2 expression and, more markedly PGE{sub 2} production, were suppressed by LY294002, SB203580, and U0126. Thus, Ni/MALP-2 interactions involve multiple protein kinase pathways (ERK{sub 1/2}, p38, and PI3K) that modulate events downstream from the early accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} to promote IL-6 gene expression directly or secondarily, through COX-2-derived autocrine products like PGE{sub 2}.

  14. Human adenosine A1 receptor and P2Y2-purinoceptor-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in transfected CHO cells

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, John M; Blank, Jonathan L; Hill, Stephen J

    1998-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling pathway can be activated by a variety of heterotrimeric Gi/Go protein-coupled and Gq/G11 protein-coupled receptors. The aims of the current study were: (i) to investigate whether the Gi/Go protein-coupled adenosine A1 receptor activates the MAP kinase pathway in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-A1) and (ii) to determine whether adenosine A1 receptor activation would modulate the MAP kinase response elicited by the endogenous P2Y2 purinoceptor.The selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) stimulated time and concentration-dependent increases in MAP kinase activity in CHO-A1 cells (EC50 7.1±0.4 nM). CPA-mediated increases in MAP kinase activity were blocked by PD 98059 (50 μM; 89±4% inhibition), an inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKI) activation, and by pre-treating cells with pertussis toxin (to block Gi/Go-dependent pathways).Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated activation of MAP kinase was abolished by pre-treatment with the protein tyrosine inhibitor, genistein (100 μM; 6±10% of control). In contrast, daidzein (100 μM), the inactive analogue of genistein had no significant effect (96±12 of control). MAP kinase responses to CPA (1 μM) were also sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin (100 nM; 55±8% inhibition) and LY 294002 (30 μM; 40±5% inhibition) but not to the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (10 μM).Activation of the endogenous P2Y2 purinoceptor with UTP also stimulated time and concentration-dependent increases in MAP kinase activity in CHO-A1 cells (EC50=1.6±0.3 μM). The MAP kinase response to UTP was partially blocked by pertussis toxin (67±3% inhibition) and by the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (10 μM; 45±5% inhibition), indicating the possible involvement of both Gi/Go protein and Gq protein-dependent pathways in the overall response to UTP.CPA and UTP stimulated concentration

  15. Human Neutrophil Elastase Induce Interleukin-10 Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells through Protein Kinase C Theta/Delta and Phospholipase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Jin; Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Sakamoto, Arisa; Aoki, Manabu; Kitano, Masafumi; Umehashi, Misako; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neutrophils have an important role in the rapid innate immune response, and the release or active secretion of elastase from neutrophils is linked to various inflammatory responses. Purpose of this study was to determine how the human neutrophil elastase affects the interleukin-10 (IL-10) response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Materials and Methods In this prospective study, changes in IL-10 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels in monocytes derived from human PBMCs were investigated after stimulation with human neutrophil elastase (HNE). A set of inhibitors was used for examining the pathways for IL-10 production induced by HNE. Results Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that stimulation with HNE upregulated IL-10 mRNA expression by monocytes, while the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed an increase of IL-10 protein level in the culture medium. A phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) partially blunt- ed the induction of IL-10 mRNA expression by HNE, while IL-10 mRNA expression was significantly reduced by a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (Rottlerin). A calcium chelator (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)octyl ester: TMB-8) inhibited the response of IL-10 mRNA to stimulation by HNE. In addition, pretreatment with a broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor (Ro-318425) partly blocked the response to HNE. Finally, an inhibitor of PKC theta/delta abolished the increased level of IL-10 mRNA expression. Conclusion These results indicate that HNE mainly upregulates IL-10 mRNA ex- pression and protein production in moncytes via a novel PKC theta/delta, although partially via the conventional PKC pathway. PMID:26862528

  16. Intracellular calcium changes induced by the endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: role of protein kinase C and effect of calcium channel blockers

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Cattaneo, Simona; Frigo, Giuseppina; Fietta, Anna M; Lecchini, Sergio; Frigo, Gian Mario

    2004-01-01

    Background The endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide (TTN) induces intracellular calcium ([Ca++]i) changes followed by activation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of protein kinase (PK) C in the modulation of the response to TTN by human PMNs, and to examine the pharmacology of TTN-induced Ca++ entry through the plasma membrane of these cells. Results The PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA) concentration-dependently inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise, and this effect was reverted by the PKC inhibitors rottlerin (partially) and Ro 32-0432 (completely). PMA also inhibited TTN-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. In the absence of PMA, however, rottlerin (but not Ro 32-0432) per se partially inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise. The response of [Ca++]i to TTN was also sensitive to mibefradil and flunarizine (T-type Ca++-channel blockers), but not to nifedipine, verapamil (L-type) or ω-conotoxin GVIA (N-type). In agreement with this observation, PCR analysis showed the expression in human PMNs of the mRNA for all the α1 subunits of T-type Ca++ channels (namely, α1G, α1H, and α1I). Conclusions In human PMNs TTN activates PKC-modulated pathways leading to Ca++ entry possibly through T-type Ca++ channels. PMID:15228623

  17. N-Farnesyloxy-norcantharimide inhibits progression of human leukemic Jurkat T cells through regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and interleukin-2 production

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Che; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liao, Hui-Fen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anticancer effects of N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide (NOC15), a newly synthesized norcantharidin (NCTD) analogue, on human leukemic Jurkat T cells and the signaling pathway underlying its effects. We found that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of NOC15 on Jurkat T cells is 1.4 μmol/l, which is 11.14-fold (=15.6÷1.4) smaller than the 15.6 μmol/l of NCTD on Jurkat T cells, whereas the IC50 of NOC15 on human normal lymphoblast (HNL) is 207.9 μmol/l, which is 8.17-fold (=1698.0÷207.8) smaller than the 1698.0 μmol/l of NCTD on HNL cells. These results indicated that NOC15 exerts a higher anticancer effect on Jurkat T cells and has higher toxicity toward HNL cells than NCTD. Thus, NOC15 is 1.36-fold (=11.14÷8.17) beneficial as an anticancer agent toward Jurkat T cells compared with NCTD. Moreover, NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase and reduce the cell viability of Jurkat T cells, stimulate p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway, and inhibit calcineurin expression and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. However, NOC15 exerted no effects on the Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) signaling pathway, the production of IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We conclude that the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized NOC15 is 1.36-fold beneficial than NCTD as an anticancer agent and that NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase through the stimulation of p38 and ERK1/2 of the MAPK signaling pathway and the inhibition of calcineurin expression and IL-2 production. The NOC15 may have the potential of being developed into an anticancer agent in the future. PMID:26288134

  18. Brief Report: Elastin Microfibril Interface 1 and Integrin-Linked Protein Kinase Are Novel Markers of Islet Regenerative Function in Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jessie R; Creskey, Marybeth M; Muradia, Gauri; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Gao, Jun; Stewart, Duncan J; Cyr, Terry D; Hess, David A; Rosu-Myles, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation is proposed as a novel therapy for treating diabetes by promoting the regeneration of damaged islets. The clinical promise of such treatments may be hampered by a high degree of donor-related variability in MSC function and a lack of standards for comparing potency. Here, we set out to identify markers of cultured human MSCs directly associated with islet regenerative function. Stromal cultures from nine separate bone marrow donors were demonstrated to have differing capacities to reduce hyperglycemia in the NOD/SCID streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Regenerative (R) and non-regenerative (NR) MSC cultures were directly compared using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics. A total of 1,410 proteins were quantified resulting in the identification of 612 upregulated proteins and 275 downregulated proteins by ± 1.2-fold in R-MSC cultures. Elastin microfibril interface 1 (EMILIN-1), integrin-linked protein kinase (ILK), and hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) were differentially expressed in R-MSCs, and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses revealed each candidate as known regulators of integrin signaling. Western blot validation of EMILIN-1, ILK, and HDGF not only showed significantly higher abundance levels in R-MSCs, as compared with NR-MSCs, but also correlated with passage-induced loss of islet-regenerative potential. Generalized estimating equation modeling was applied to examine the association between each marker and blood glucose reduction. Both EMILIN-1 and ILK were significantly associated with blood glucose lowering function in vivo. Our study is the first to identify EMILIN-1 and ILK as prospective markers of islet regenerative function in human MSCs. Stem Cells 2016;34:2249-2255. PMID:27090767

  19. Protein Kinase Cδ mediates the activation of Protein Kinase D2 in Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Bhavanasi, Dheeraj; Kim, Soochong; Goldfinger, Lawrence E.; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2011-01-01

    Protein Kinase D (PKD) is a subfamily of serine/threonine specific family of kinases, comprised of PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3 (PKCμ, PKD2 and PKCν in humans). It is known that PKCs activate PKD, but the relative expression of isoforms of PKD or the specific PKC isoform/s responsible for its activation in platelets is not known. This study is aimed at investigating the pathway involved in activation of PKD in platelets. We show that PKD2 is the major isoform of PKD that is expressed in human as well as murine platelets but not PKD1 or PKD3. PKD2 activation induced by AYPGKF was abolished with a Gq inhibitor YM-254890, but was not affected by Y-27632, a RhoA/p160ROCK inhibitor, indicating that PKD2 activation is Gq-, but not G12/13-mediated Rho-kinase dependent. Calcium-mediated signals are also required for activation of PKD2 as dimethyl BAPTA inhibited its phosphorylation. GF109203X, a pan PKC inhibitor abolished PKD2 phosphorylation but Go6976, a classical PKC inhibitor had no effect suggesting that novel PKC isoforms are involved in PKD2 activation. Importantly, Rottlerin, a non-selective PKCδ inhibitor, inhibited AYPGKF-induced PKD2 activation in human platelets. Similarly, AYPGKF- and Convulxin-induced PKD2 phosphorylation was dramatically inhibited in PKCδ-deficient platelets, but not in PKCθ– or PKCε–deficient murine platelets compared to that of wild type platelets. Hence, we conclude that PKD2 is a common signaling target downstream of various agonist receptors in platelets and Gq-mediated signals along with calcium and novel PKC isoforms, in particular, PKCδ activate PKD2 in platelets. PMID:21736870

  20. Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II is a Ubiquitous Molecule in Human Long-term Memory Synaptic Plasticity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ataei, Negar; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Movahedian, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term memory is based on synaptic plasticity, a series of biochemical mechanisms include changes in structure and proteins of brain's neurons. In this article, we systematically reviewed the studies that indicate calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous molecule among different enzymes involved in human long-term memory and the main downstream signaling pathway of long-term memory. Methods: All of the observational, case–control and review studies were considered and evaluated by the search engines PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ScienceDirect Scopus between 1990 and February 2015. We did not carry out meta-analysis. Results: At the first search, it was fined 1015 articles which included “synaptic plasticity” OR “neuronal plasticity” OR “synaptic density” AND memory AND “molecular mechanism” AND “calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II” OR CaMKII as the keywords. A total of 335 articles were duplicates in the databases and eliminated. A total of 680 title articles were evaluated. Finally, 40 articles were selected as reference. Conclusions: The studies have shown the most important intracellular signal of long-term memory is calcium-dependent signals. Calcium linked calmodulin can activate CaMKII. After receiving information for learning and memory, CaMKII is activated by Glutamate, the most important neurotransmitter for memory-related plasticity. Glutamate activates CaMKII and it plays some important roles in synaptic plasticity modification and long-term memory. PMID:26445635

  1. Escherichia coli K1 internalization via caveolae requires caveolin-1 and protein kinase Calpha interaction in human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Sunil K; Quon, Michael J; Prasadarao, Nemani V

    2002-12-27

    The morbidity and mortality associated with Escherichia coli K1 meningitis during the neonatal period have remained significant over the last decade and are once again on the rise. Transcytosis of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) by E. coli within an endosome to avoid lysosomal fusion is crucial for dissemination into the central nervous system. Central to E. coli internalization of BMEC is the expression of OmpA (outer membrane protein A), which interacts with its receptor for the actin reorganization that leads to invasion. However, nothing is known about the nature of the signaling events for the formation of endosomes containing E. coli K1. We show here that E. coli K1 infection of human BMEC (HBMEC) results in activation of caveolin-1 for bacterial uptake via caveolae. The interaction of caveolin-1 with phosphorylated protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) at the E. coli attachment site is critical for the invasion of HBMEC. Optical sectioning of confocal images of infected HBMEC indicates continuing association of caveolin-1 with E. coli during transcytosis. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of caveolin-1 containing mutations in the scaffolding domain blocked the interaction of phospho-PKCalpha with caveolin-1 and the E. coli invasion of HBMEC, but not actin cytoskeleton rearrangement or the phosphorylation of PKCalpha. The interaction of caveolin-1 with phospho-PKCalpha was completely abrogated in HBMEC overexpressing dominant-negative forms of either focal adhesion kinase or PKCalpha. Treatment of HBMEC with a cell-permeable peptide that represents the scaffolding domain, which was coupled to an antennapedia motif of a Drosophila transcription factor significantly blocked the interaction of caveolin-1 with phospho-PKCalpha and E. coli invasion. These results show that E. coli K1 internalizes HBMEC via caveolae and that the scaffolding domain of caveolin-1 plays a significant role in the formation of endosomes. PMID:12386163

  2. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB in tumour necrosis factor-induced eotaxin release of human eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    WONG, C K; ZHANG, J P; IP, W K; LAM, C W K

    2002-01-01

    The CC chemokine eotaxin is a potent eosinophil-specific chemoattractant that is crucial for allergic inflammation. Allergen-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) has been shown to induce eotaxin synthesis in eosinophils. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) have been found to play an essential role for the eotaxin-mediated eosinophilia. We investigated the modulation of NF-κB and MAPK activation in TNF-induced eotaxin release of human eosinophils. Human blood eosinophils were purified from fresh buffy coat using magnetic cell sorting. NF-κB pathway-related genes were evaluated by cDNA expression array system. Degradation of IκBα and phosphorylation of MAPK were detected by Western blot. Activation of NF-κB was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Eotaxin released into the eosinophil culture medium was measured by ELISA. TNF was found to up-regulate the gene expression of NF-κB and IκBα in eosinophils. TNF-induced IκBα degradation was inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor N-cbz-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG-132) and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (NaSal). Using EMSA, both MG-132 and NaSal were found to suppress the TNF-induced NF-κB activation in eosinophils. Furthermore, TNF was shown to induce phosphorylation of p38 MAPK time-dependently but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). Inhibition of NF-κB activation and p38 MAPK activity decreased the TNF-induced release of eotaxin from eosinophils. These results indicate that NF-κB and p38 MAPK play an important role in TNF-activated signalling pathway regulating eotaxin release by eosinophils. They have also provided a biochemical basis for the potential of using specific inhibitors of NF-κB and p38 MAPK for treating allergic inflammation. PMID:12067303

  3. Treatment of cultured human astrocytes and vascular endothelial cells with protein kinase CK2 inhibitors induces early changes in cell shape and cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Kramerov, A A; Golub, A G; Bdzhola, V G; Yarmoluk, S M; Ahmed, K; Bretner, M; Ljubimov, A V

    2011-03-01

    Ubiquitous protein kinase CK2 is a key regulator of cell migration, proliferation and tumor growth. CK2 is abundant in retinal astrocytes, and its inhibition suppresses retinal neovascularization in a mouse retinopathy model. In human astrocytes, CK2 co-distributes with GFAP-containing intermediate filaments, which implies its association with cytoskeleton. Contrary to astrocytes, CK2 is co-localized in microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEC) with microtubules and actin stress fibers, but not with vimentin-containing intermediate filaments. Specific CK2 inhibitors (TBB, TBI, TBCA and DMAT) and nine novel CK2 inhibiting compounds (TID43, TID46, Quinolone-7, Quinolone-39, FNH28, FNH62, FNH64, FNH68 and FNH74) were tested at 10-200 μM for their ability to induce morphological alterations in cultured human astrocytes (HAST-40), and HBMVEC (For explanation of the inhibitor names, see "Methods" section). CK2 inhibitors caused dramatic changes in shape of cultured cells with effective inhibitor concentrations between 50 and 100 μM. Attached cells retracted, acquired shortened processes, and eventually rounded up and detached. CK2 inhibitor-induced morphological alterations were completely reversible and were not blocked by caspase inhibition. However, longer treatment or higher inhibitor concentration did cause apoptosis. The speed and potency of the CK2 inhibitors effects on cell shape and adhesion were inversely correlated with serum concentration. Western analyses showed that TBB and TBCA elicited a significant (about twofold) increase in the activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinases that may be involved in cytoskeleton regulation. This novel early biological cell response to CK2 inhibition may underlie the anti-angiogenic effect of CK2 suppression in the retina. PMID:21125314

  4. Induction of cell death by stimulation of protein kinase C in human epithelial cells expressing a mutant ras oncogene: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Jackson, C. A.; Jones, T.; Eccles, N. G.; Dawson, T. P.; Bond, J. A.; Gescher, A.; Wynford-Thomas, D.

    1998-01-01

    Ras oncogene activation is a key genetic event in several types of human cancer, making its signal pathways an ideal target for novel therapies. We previously showed that expression of mutant ras sensitizes human thyroid epithelial cells to induction of cell death by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and other phorbol esters. We have now investigated further the nature and mechanism of this cell death using both primary and cell line models. The cytotoxic effect of PMA could be blocked by bisindolylmaleimide (GF 109203X), a well-characterized inhibitor of c and n protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and by prior down-regulation of PKC, indicating that it is mediated by acute stimulation, rather than down-regulation. Western analysis identified two candidate isoforms--alpha and epsilon--both of which showed PMA-induced subcellular translocation, either or both of which may be necessary for PMA-induced cell death. Immunofluorescence showed that PMA induced a rapid nuclear translocation of p42 MAP kinase of similar magnitude in the presence or absence of mutant ras expression. Cell death exhibited the microscopic features (chromatin condensation, TdT labelling) and DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis but after a surprising lag (4 days). Taken together with recent models of ras-modulated apoptosis, our data suggest that activation of the MAPK pathway by PMA tips the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic signals generated by ras in favour of apoptosis. The high frequency of ras mutations in some cancers, such as cancer of the pancreas, which are refractory to conventional chemotherapy, together with the potential for stimulating PKC by cell-permeant pharmacological agents, makes this an attractive therapeutic approach. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9744505

  5. Human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene transcription: up-regulation by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K W; Leung, P C

    2001-07-01

    Transient transfection of mouse gonadotrope-derived (alphaT3-1) cells with a 2297 bp human GnRHR promoter-luciferase construct (p2300-LucF) showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in the human gonodotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) promoter activity after forskolin treatment. An average of 4.8-fold increase in promoter activity was observed after 12 h of 10 microM forskolin treatment. This effect was mimicked by administration of cholera toxin, cAMP analog or pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP). A specific adenylate cyclase (AC) inhibitor (ACI) or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (PKAI) pretreatment reversed the forskolin- and PACAP-induced increase in the human GnRHR promoter activity. These results not only confirm the stimulatory effect of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in human GnRHR promoter activation, but also suggest that hormones or neurotransmitters that activate adenylate cyclase in pituitary gonadotropes may increase the expression of human GnRHR gene in transcriptional level. Progressive 5' deletion assays identified a 412 bp fragment (-577 to 167) in the human GnRHR 5'-flanking region that is essential in maintaining the basal responsiveness to cAMP. Mutagenesis coupled with functional studies have identified two putative AP-1/CREB binding sites, namely hGR-AP/CRE-1 and hGR-AP/CRE-2 that participated in mediating the cAMP-stimulatory effect. Mutation of the putative hGR-AP/CRE-1 and hGR-CRE-2 resulted in a 38 and 32% decrease in the forskolin-induced stimulation. However, mutation of both binding sites did not completely abolish the cAMP-stimulatory effect, suggesting that multiple transcription factor binding sites were involved in full response in cAMP stimulation. The binding of CREB to these motifs was confirmed by gel mobility shift assay and antibody supershift assay. PMID:11476937

  6. Using Bacteria to Determine Protein Kinase Specificity and Predict Target Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Joshua M.; Church, George M.; Husson, Robert N.; Schwartz, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The identification of protein kinase targets remains a significant bottleneck for our understanding of signal transduction in normal and diseased cellular states. Kinases recognize their substrates in part through sequence motifs on substrate proteins, which, to date, have most effectively been elucidated using combinatorial peptide library approaches. Here, we present and demonstrate the ProPeL method for easy and accurate discovery of kinase specificity motifs through the use of native bacterial proteomes that serve as in vivo libraries for thousands of simultaneous phosphorylation reactions. Using recombinant kinases expressed in E. coli followed by mass spectrometry, the approach accurately recapitulated the well-established motif preferences of human basophilic (Protein Kinase A) and acidophilic (Casein Kinase II) kinases. These motifs, derived for PKA and CK II using only bacterial sequence data, were then further validated by utilizing them in conjunction with the scan-x software program to computationally predict known human phosphorylation sites with high confidence. PMID:23300758

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

  8. Fasting Induces Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters via Protein Kinase A and Sirtuin-1 in Mouse and Human

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Xu, Jialin; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Qiuqiong C.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) dependent mechanisms modulate ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transport protein expression. ABC transport proteins (ABCC2–4) are essential for chemical elimination from hepatocytes and biliary excretion. Nuclear factor-E2 related-factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that mediates ABCC induction in response to chemical inducers and liver injury. However, a role for NRF2 in the regulation of transporter expression in nonchemical models of liver perturbation is largely undescribed. Results: Here we show that fasting increased NRF2 target gene expression through NRF2- and SIRT1–dependent mechanisms. In intact mouse liver, fasting induces NRF2 target gene expression by at least 1.5 to 5-fold. In mouse and human hepatocytes, treatment with 8-Bromoadenosine-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased NRF2 target gene expression and antioxidant response element activity, which was decreased by the PKA inhibitor, H-89. Moreover, fasting induced NRF2 target gene expression was decreased in liver and hepatocytes of SIRT1 liver-specific null mice and NRF2-null mice. Lastly, NRF2 and SIRT1 were recruited to MAREs and Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs) in the human ABCC2 promoter. Innovation: Oxidative stress mediated NRF2 activation is well described, yet the influence of basic metabolic processes on NRF2 activation is just emerging. Conclusion: The current data point toward a novel role of nutrient status in regulation of NRF2 activity and the antioxidant response, and indicates that cAMP/PKA and SIRT1 are upstream regulators for fasting-induced activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 15–30. PMID:23725046

  9. Reversal of efflux of an anticancer drug in human drug-resistant breast cancer cells by inhibition of protein kinase Cα (PKCα) activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Woo; Asai, Daisuke; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a 170-kDa transmembrane protein that mediates the efflux of anticancer drugs from cells. Pgp overexpression has a distinct role in cells exhibiting multidrug resistance (MDR). We examined reversal of drug resistance in human MDR breast cancer cells by inhibition of protein kinase Cα (PKCα) activity, which is associated with Pgp-mediated efflux of anticancer drugs. PKCα activity was confirmed by measurement of phosphorylation levels of a PKCα-specific peptide substrate (FKKQGSFAKKK-NH2), showing relatively higher basal activity in drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells (84 %) than that in drug-sensitive MCF-7 cells (63 %). PKCα activity was effectively suppressed by the PKC inhibitor, Ro-31-7549, and reversal of intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin was observed by inhibition of PKCα activity in MCF-7/ADR cells compared with their intrinsic drug resistance. Importantly, increased accumulation of doxorubicin could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in MDR cells significantly. These results suggest a potential for overcoming MDR via inhibition of PKCα activity with conventional anticancer drugs. PMID:26323260

  10. Intrinsic resistance to selumetinib, a selective inhibitor of MEK1/2, by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activation in human lung and colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Troiani, T; Vecchione, L; Martinelli, E; Capasso, A; Costantino, S; Ciuffreda, L P; Morgillo, F; Vitagliano, D; D'Aiuto, E; De Palma, R; Tejpar, S; Van Cutsem, E; De Lorenzi, M; Caraglia, M; Berrino, L; Ciardiello, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: MEK is activated in ∼40% colorectal cancer (CRC) and 20–30% non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Selumetinib is a selective inhibitor of MEK1/2, which is currently in clinical development. Methods: We evaluated the effects of selumetinib in vitro and in vivo in CRC and NSCLC cell lines to identify cancer cell characteristics correlating with sensitivity to MEK inhibition. Results: Five NSCLC and six CRC cell lines were treated with selumetinib and classified according to the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values as sensitive (⩽1 μℳ) or resistant (>1 μℳ). In selumetinib-sensitive cancer cell lines, selumetinib treatment induced G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and suppression of tumour growth as xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Evaluation of intracellular effector proteins and analysis of gene mutations showed no correlation with selumetinib sensitivity. Microarray gene expression profiles revealed that the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) was associated with MEK inhibitor resistance. Combined targeting of both MEK and PKA resulted in cancer cell growth inhibition of MEK inhibitor-resistant cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: This study provides molecular insights to explain resistance to an MEK inhibitor in human cancer cell lines. PMID:22569000

  11. SUMOylation regulates the SNF1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J.; Johnston, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major stress sensor of mammalian cells. AMPK’s homolog in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SNF1 protein kinase, is a central regulator of carbon metabolism that inhibits the Snf3/Rgt2-Rgt1 glucose sensing pathway and activates genes involved in respiration. We present evidence that glucose induces modification of the Snf1 catalytic subunt of SNF1 with the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO, catalyzed by the SUMO (E3) ligase Mms21. Our results suggest that SUMOylation of Snf1 inhibits its function in two ways: by interaction of SUMO attached to lysine 549 with a SUMO-interacting sequence motif located near the active site of Snf1, and by targeting Snf1 for destruction via the Slx5-Slx8 (SUMO-directed) ubiquitin ligase. These findings reveal another way SNF1 function is regulated in response to carbon source. PMID:24108357

  12. Berberine Induced Apoptosis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Inhibiting Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt) Signal Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor with high mortality but effective therapy has not yet been developed. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid component in several Chinese herbs including Huanglian, has been shown to induce growth inhibition and the apoptosis of certain cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and its potential mechanism. Methods: The proliferation effect of U20S was exanimed by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) and the percentage of apoptotic cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of PI3K, p-Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, cleavage-PARP and Caspase3 were detected by Western blott. Results: Berberine treatment caused dose-dependent inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of U20S cell. Mechanistically, berberine inhibits PI3K/AKT activation that, in turn, results in up-regulating the expression of Bax, and PARP and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase3. In all, berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. Conclusion: Berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. PMID:27398330

  13. Protein kinases as drug targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Kutuk, Ozgur; Basaga, Huveyda

    2006-11-01

    Identification of the key roles of protein kinases in signaling pathways leading to development of cancer has caused pharmacological interest to concentrate extensively on targeted therapies as a more specific and effective way for blockade of cancer progression. This review will mainly focus on inhibitors targeting these key components of cellular signaling by employing a technology-based point of view with respect to ATP- and non-ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies of selected protein kinases, particularly, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), BCR-ABL, MEK, p38 MAPK, EGFR PDGFR, VEGFR, HER2 and Raf. Inhibitors of the heat shock protein Hsp90 are also included in a separate section, as this protein plays an essential role for the maturation/proper activation of cancer-related protein kinases. In the following review, the molecular details of the mode of action of these inhibitors as well as the emergence of drug resistance encountered in several cases are discussed in light of the structural, molecular and clinical studies conducted so far. PMID:17100568

  14. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF{kappa}B in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weidong | Alexis, Neil E. |; Chen Xian |; Bromberg, Philip A. |; Peden, David B. ||

    2008-04-15

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF{kappa}B were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NF{kappa}B activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NF{kappa}B activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NF{kappa}B.

  15. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, Marina; Finkernagel, Florian; Cavalcante, Marcela Frota; Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra; Müller, Rolf; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload. PMID:26098914

  16. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, Marina; Finkernagel, Florian; Cavalcante, Marcela Frota; Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra; Müller, Rolf; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload. PMID:26098914

  17. The protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SNAP190 to negatively regulate SNAPC DNA binding and human U6 transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liping; Husain-Ponnampalam, Rhonda; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne; Henry, R William

    2007-09-21

    Human U6 small nuclear RNA gene transcription by RNA polymerase III requires the general transcription factor SNAP(C), which binds to human small nuclear RNA core promoter elements and nucleates pre-initiation complex assembly with the Brf2-TFIIIB complex. Multiple components in this pathway are phosphorylated by the protein kinase CK2, including the Bdp1 subunit of the Brf2-TFIIIB complex, and RNA polymerase III, with negative and positive outcomes for U6 transcription, respectively. However, a role for CK2 phosphorylation of SNAP(C) in U6 transcription has not been defined. In this report, we investigated the role of CK2 in modulating the transcriptional properties of SNAP(C) and demonstrate that within SNAP(C), CK2 phosphorylates the N-terminal half of the SNAP190 subunit at two regions (amino acids 20-63 and 514-545) that each contain multiple CK2 consensus sites. SNAP190 phosphorylation by CK2 inhibits both SNAP(C) DNA binding and U6 transcription activity. Mutational analyses of SNAP190 support a model wherein CK2 phosphorylation triggers an allosteric inhibition of the SNAP190 Myb DNA binding domain. PMID:17670747

  18. Regulation of mitogen-stimulated human T-cell proliferation, interleukin-2 production, and interleukin-2 receptor expression by protein kinase C inhibitor, H-7

    SciTech Connect

    Atluru, D.; Polam, S.; Atluru, S. ); Woloschak, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Recently published reports suggest that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the activation pathway of many cell types. In this study, the authors examined the role of PKC in human T-cell proliferation, IL-2 production, and IL-2R expression, when cultured with the mitogen PHA, the PKC inhibitor H-7, and H-7 control HA1004. H-7 inhibited the PHA-simulated ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake, IL-2production, and IL-2R expression in a dose-related manner. Further, they found H-7 inhibited T-cell proliferation, IL-2 production, and IL-2mRNA from PHA plus PMA-stimulated cultures. They also found that H-7 inhibited the early-stage activation of PHA-stimulated cells. The presence of exogenous purified human IL-2 or rIL-4 partly reversed the immunosuppression caused by H-7. In contrast, HA1004 had no effect on cell proliferation, IL-2 production, or IL-2R expression. The results demonstrate that PKC activation is one major pathway through which T-cells become activated.

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Enters Brain Microvascular Endothelia by Macropinocytosis Dependent on Lipid Rafts and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nancy Q.; Lossinsky, Albert S.; Popik, Waldemar; Li, Xia; Gujuluva, Chandrasekhar; Kriederman, Benjamin; Roberts, Jaclyn; Pushkarsky, Tatania; Bukrinsky, Michael; Witte, Marlys; Weinand, Martin; Fiala, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) present an incomplete barrier to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neuroinvasion. In order to clarify the mechanisms of HIV-1 invasion, we have examined HIV-1 uptake and transcellular penetration in an in vitro BMVEC model. No evidence of productive infection was observed by luciferase, PCR, and reverse transcriptase assays. Approximately 1% of viral RNA and 1% of infectious virus penetrated the BMVEC barrier without disruption of tight junctions. The virus upregulated ICAM-1 on plasma membranes and in cytoplasmic vesiculotubular structures. HIV-1 virions were entangled by microvilli and were taken into cytoplasmic vesicles through surface invaginations without fusion of the virus envelope with the plasma membrane. Subsequently, the cytoplasmic vesicles fused with lysosomes, the virions were lysed, and the vesicles diminished in size. Upon cell entry, HIV-1 colocalized with cholera toxin B, which targets lipid raft-associated GM1 ganglioside. Cholesterol-extracting agents, cyclodextrin and nystatin, and polyanion heparin significantly inhibited virus entry. Anti-CD4 had no effect and the chemokine AOP-RANTES had only a slight inhibitory effect on virus entry. HIV-1 activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and inhibition of MAPK/Erk kinase inhibited virus entry. Entry was also blocked by dimethylamiloride, indicating that HIV-1 enters endothelial cells by macropinocytosis. Therefore, HIV-1 penetrates BMVECs in ICAM-1-lined macropinosomes by a mechanism involving lipid rafts, MAPK signaling, and glycosylaminoglycans, while CD4 and chemokine receptors play limited roles in this process. PMID:12050382

  20. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  1. Identification of four plastid-localized protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas S; Gartmann, Hans; Fechler, Mona; Rödiger, Anja; Baginsky, Sacha; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    In chloroplasts, protein phosphorylation regulates important processes, including metabolism, photosynthesis, gene expression, and signaling. Because the hitherto known plastid protein kinases represent only a fraction of existing kinases, we aimed at the identification of novel plastid-localized protein kinases that potentially phosphorylate enzymes of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TBS) pathway. We screened publicly available databases for proteins annotated as putative protein kinase family proteins with predicted chloroplast localization. Additionally, we analyzed chloroplast fractions which were separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation by mass spectrometry. We identified four new candidates for protein kinases, which were confirmed to be plastid localized by expression of GFP-fusion proteins in tobacco leaves. A phosphorylation assay with the purified kinases confirmed the protein kinase activity for two of them. PMID:27214872

  2. 3pK, a new mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase located in the small cell lung cancer tumor suppressor gene region.

    PubMed Central

    Sithanandam, G; Latif, F; Duh, F M; Bernal, R; Smola, U; Li, H; Kuzmin, I; Wixler, V; Geil, L; Shrestha, S

    1996-01-01

    NotI linking clones, localized to the human chromosome 3p21.3 region and homozygously deleted in small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H740 and NCI-H1450, were used to search for a putative tumor suppressor gene(s). One of these clones, NL1G210, detected a 2.5-kb mRNA in all examined human tissues, expression being especially high in the heart and skeletal muscle. Two overlapping cDNA clones containing the entire open reading frame were isolated from a human heart cDNA library and fully characterized. Computer analysis and a search of the GenBank database to reveal high sequence identity of the product of this gene to serine-threonine kinases, especially to mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2, a recently described substrate of mitogen-activated kinases. Sequence identitiy was 72% at the nucleotide level and 75% at the amino acid level, strongly suggesting that this protein is a serine-threonine kinase. Here we demonstrate that the new gene, referred to as 3pK (for chromosome 3p kinase), in fact encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated protein serine-threonine kinase with a novel substrate specificity. PMID:8622688

  3. Effect of Protein Kinase C delta (PKC-δ) Inhibition on the Transcriptome of Normal and Systemic Sclerosis Human Dermal Fibroblasts In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wermuth, Peter J.; Addya, Sankar; Jimenez, Sergio A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase C- δ (PKC-δ) inhibition with the selective inhibitor, rottlerin, resulted in potent downregulation of type I collagen expression and production in normal human dermal fibroblasts and abrogated the exaggerated type I collagen production and expression in fibroblasts cultured from affected skin from patients with the fibrosing disorder systemic sclerosis (SSc). To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the ability of PKC-δ to regulate collagen production in fibroblasts, we examined the effects of PKC-δ inhibition on the transcriptome of normal and SSc human dermal fibroblasts. Normal and SSc human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with rottlerin (5 µM), and their gene expression was analyzed by microarrays. Pathway analysis and gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes in each comparison were performed. Identification of significantly overrepresented transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) was performed using the Promoter Analysis and Interaction Network Toolset (PAINT) program. PKC-δ activity was also inhibited using RNA interference (siRNA) and by treating fibroblasts with a specific PKC-δ inhibitory cell permeable peptide. Differential gene expression of 20 genes was confirmed using real time PCR. PKC-δ inhibition caused a profound change in the transcriptome of normal and SSc human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Pathway and gene ontology analysis identified multiple cellular and organismal pathways affected by PKC-δ inhibition. Furthermore, both pathway and PAINT analyses indicated that the transcription factor NFκB played an important role in the transcriptome changes induced by PKC-δ inhibition. Multiple genes involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix components were significantly reduced in SSc fibroblasts and their expression was increased by PKC-δ inhibition. These results indicate that isoform-specific inhibition of PKC-δ profibrotic effects may represent a novel

  4. Protein kinase inhibitors in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, H; Nibbs, R; McInnes, I; Siebert, S

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases mediate protein phosphorylation, which is a fundamental component of cell signalling, with crucial roles in most signal transduction cascades: from controlling cell growth and proliferation to the initiation and regulation of immunological responses. Aberrant kinase activity is implicated in an increasing number of diseases, with more than 400 human diseases now linked either directly or indirectly to protein kinases. Protein kinases are therefore regarded as highly important drug targets, and are the subject of intensive research activity. The success of small molecule kinase inhibitors in the treatment of cancer, coupled with a greater understanding of inflammatory signalling cascades, has led to kinase inhibitors taking centre stage in the pursuit for new anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Herein we discuss the main classes of kinase inhibitors; namely Janus kinase (JAK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitors. We provide a mechanistic insight into how these inhibitors interfere with kinase signalling pathways and discuss the clinical successes and failures in the implementation of kinase-directed therapeutics in the context of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. PMID:24313320

  5. Targeting Human Central Nervous System Protein Kinases: An Isoform Selective p38αMAPK Inhibitor That Attenuates Disease Progression in Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first kinase inhibitor drug approval in 2001 initiated a remarkable decade of tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs for oncology indications, but a void exists for serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor drugs and central nervous system indications. Stress kinases are of special interest in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders due to their involvement in synaptic dysfunction and complex disease susceptibility. Clinical and preclinical evidence implicates the stress related kinase p38αMAPK as a potential neurotherapeutic target, but isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor candidates are lacking and the mixed kinase inhibitor drugs that are promising in peripheral tissue disease indications have limitations for neurologic indications. Therefore, pursuit of the neurotherapeutic hypothesis requires kinase isoform selective inhibitors with appropriate neuropharmacology features. Synaptic dysfunction disorders offer a potential for enhanced pharmacological efficacy due to stress-induced activation of p38αMAPK in both neurons and glia, the interacting cellular components of the synaptic pathophysiological axis, to be modulated. We report a novel isoform selective p38αMAPK inhibitor, MW01-18-150SRM (=MW150), that is efficacious in suppression of hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial memory deficits in two distinct synaptic dysfunction mouse models. A synthetic scheme for biocompatible product and positive outcomes from pharmacological screens are presented. The high-resolution crystallographic structure of the p38αMAPK/MW150 complex documents active site binding, reveals a potential low energy conformation of the bound inhibitor, and suggests a structural explanation for MW150’s exquisite target selectivity. As far as we are aware, MW150 is without precedent as an isoform selective p38MAPK inhibitor or as a kinase inhibitor capable of modulating in vivo stress related behavior. PMID:25676389

  6. Differential AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Recognition Mechanism of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naoki; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-06-24

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) is a known activating kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In vitro, CaMKKβ phosphorylates Thr(172) in the AMPKα subunit more efficiently than CaMKKα, with a lower Km (∼2 μm) for AMPK, whereas the CaMKIα phosphorylation efficiencies by both CaMKKs are indistinguishable. Here we found that subdomain VIII of CaMKK is involved in the discrimination of AMPK as a native substrate by measuring the activities of various CaMKKα/CaMKKβ chimera mutants. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that Leu(358) in CaMKKβ/Ile(322) in CaMKKα confer, at least in part, a distinct recognition of AMPK but not of CaMKIα. PMID:27151216

  7. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor.

    PubMed

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Nagata, Sayaka; Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Murakami, Manabu; Hattori, Yuichi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2016-02-19

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM1 receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM1 receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM1 receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [(125)I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β2-adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449-453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM1 receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. PMID:26820533

  8. Coumestrol induces senescence through protein kinase CKII inhibition-mediated reactive oxygen species production in human breast cancer and colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hoon; Yuk, Heung Joo; Park, Ki-Hun; Bae, Young-Seuk

    2013-11-01

    An inhibitor of the protein kinase CKII (CKII) was purified from leaves of Glycine max (L.) Merrill and was identified as coumestrol by structural analysis. Coumestrol inhibited the phosphotransferase activity of CKII toward β-casein, with an IC50 of about 5 μM. It acted as a competitive inhibitor with respect to ATP as a substrate, with an apparent Ki value of 7.67 μM. Coumestrol at 50μM resulted in 50% and 30% growth inhibition of human breast cancer MCF-7 and colorectal cancer HCT116 cells, respectively. Coumestrol promoted senescence through the p53-p21(Cip1/WAF1) pathway by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in MCF-7 and HCT116 cells. The ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and p22(phox) siRNA almost completely abolished this event. Overexpression of CKIIα antagonised cellular senescence mediated by coumestrol, indicating that this compound induced senescence via a CKII-dependent pathway. Since senescence is an important tumour suppression process in vivo, these results suggest that coumestrol can function by inhibiting oncogenic disease, at least in part, through CKII inhibition-mediated cellular senescence. PMID:23768371

  9. Short-term and long-term effects of protein kinase C on the trafficking and stability of human organic anion transporter 3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Suh, Wonmo; Pan, Zui; You, Guofeng

    2012-01-01

    Human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of numerous clinically important drugs. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this transporter has profound clinical significance. In the current study, we investigated the short-term and long-term regulation of hOAT3 by protein kinase C (PKC). We showed that short-term activation of PKC by phobol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) inhibited hOAT3 activity through accelerating its internalization from cell surface to intracellular recycling endosomes. The colocalization of hOAT3 with EEA1-positive recycling endosomes was demonstrated by immunolocalization with confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we showed that long-term activation of PKC resulted in the enhanced degradation of cell surface hOAT3. The pathways for hOAT3 degradation were further examined using proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors. Our results showed that both proteasomal inhibitors and the lysosomal inhibitors significantly blocked hOAT3 degradation. These results demonstrate that PKC plays critical roles in the trafficking and the stability of hOAT3. PMID:22773962

  10. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase by Adenine Alleviates TNF-Alpha-Induced Inflammation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Fang; Young, Guang-Huar; Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Jang, Hyun-Hwa; Chen, Chin-Chen; Nong, Jing-Yi; Chen, Po-Ku; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Han-Min

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling system plays a key role in cellular stress by repressing the inflammatory responses induced by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) system. Previous studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory role of AMPK involves activation by adenine, but the mechanism that allows adenine to produce these effects has not yet been elucidated. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), adenine was observed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK in both a time- and dose-dependent manner as well as its downstream target acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACC). Adenine also attenuated NF-κB targeting of gene expression in a dose-dependent manner and decreased monocyte adhesion to HUVECs following tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) treatment. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against AMPK α1 in HUVECs attenuated the adenine-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α, thereby suggesting that the anti-inflammatory role of adenine is mediated by AMPK. Following the knockdown of adenosyl phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) in HUVECs, adenine supplementation failed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. Similarly, the expression of a shRNA against APRT nullified the anti-inflammatory effects of adenine in HUVECs. These results suggested that the role of adenine as an AMPK activator is related to catabolism by APRT, which increases the cellular AMP levels to activate AMPK. PMID:26544976

  11. The Human Adenovirus E4-ORF1 Protein Subverts Discs Large 1 to Mediate Membrane Recruitment and Dysregulation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kathleen; Kumar, Manish; Taruishi, Midori; Javier, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses infect epithelial cells lining mucous membranes to cause acute diseases in people. They are also utilized as vectors for vaccination and for gene and cancer therapy, as well as tools to discover mechanisms of cancer due to their tumorigenic potential in experimental animals. The adenovirus E4-ORF1 gene encodes an oncoprotein that promotes viral replication, cell survival, and transformation by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). While the mechanism of activation is not understood, this function depends on a complex formed between E4-ORF1 and the membrane-associated cellular PDZ protein Discs Large 1 (Dlg1), a common viral target having both tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions. Here, we report that in human epithelial cells, E4-ORF1 interacts with the regulatory and catalytic subunits of PI3K and elevates their levels. Like PI3K activation, PI3K protein elevation by E4-ORF1 requires Dlg1. We further show that Dlg1, E4-ORF1, and PI3K form a ternary complex at the plasma membrane. At this site, Dlg1 also co-localizes with the activated PI3K effector protein Akt, indicating that the ternary complex mediates PI3K signaling. Signifying the functional importance of the ternary complex, the capacity of E4-ORF1 to induce soft agar growth and focus formation in cells is ablated either by a mutation that prevents E4-ORF1 binding to Dlg1 or by a PI3K inhibitor drug. These results demonstrate that E4-ORF1 interacts with Dlg1 and PI3K to assemble a ternary complex where E4-ORF1 hijacks the Dlg1 oncogenic function to relocate cytoplasmic PI3K to the membrane for constitutive activation. This novel mechanism of Dlg1 subversion by adenovirus to dysregulate PI3K could be used by other pathogenic viruses, such as human papillomavirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, and influenza A virus, which also target Dlg1 and activate PI3K in cells. PMID:24788832

  12. Human UMP-CMP kinase 2, a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase localized in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunjian; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna

    2008-01-18

    Enzyme deficiency in the salvage pathway of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in mitochondria can cause mtDNA depletion syndromes. We have identified a human mitochondrial UMP-CMP kinase (UMP-CMPK, cytidylate kinase; EC 2.7.4.14), designated as UMP-CMP kinase 2 (UMP-CMPK2). The C-terminal domain of this 449-amino acid protein contains all consensus motifs of a nucleoside monophosphate kinase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that UMP-CMPK2 belonged to a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase family, which was closer to thymidylate kinase than to cytosolic UMP-CMP kinase. Subcellular localization with green fluorescent protein fusion proteins illustrated that UMP-CMPK2 was localized in the mitochondria of HeLa cells and that the mitochondrial targeting signal was included in the N-terminal 22 amino acids. The enzyme was able to phosphorylate dUMP, dCMP, CMP, and UMP with ATP as phosphate donor, but the kinetic properties were different compared with the cytosolic UMP-CMPK. Its efficacy to convert dUMP was highest, followed by dCMP, whereas CMP and UMP were the poorest substrates. It also phosphorylated the monophosphate forms of the nucleoside analogs ddC, dFdC, araC, BVDU, and FdUrd, which suggests that UMP-CMPK2 may be involved in mtDNA depletion caused by long term treatment with ddC or other pyrimidine analogs. UMP-CMPK2 mRNA expression was exclusively detected in chronic myelogenous leukemia K-562 and lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 among eight studied cancer cell lines. Particular high expression in leukemia cells, dominant expression in bone marrow, and tight correlation with macrophage activation and inflammatory response suggest that UMP-CMPK2 may have other functions in addition to the supply of substrates for mtDNA synthesis. PMID:17999954

  13. Protein kinase A alterations in endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Ragazzon, B; Rizk-Rabin, M; Bertherat, J

    2012-09-01

    Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Since protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway, studies of the alterations of PKA subunits in endocrine tumors reveal new aspects of the mechanisms of cAMP pathway alterations in human diseases. So far, most alterations have been observed for the regulatory subunits, mainly PRKAR1A and to a lower extent, PRKAR2B. One of the best examples of such alteration today is the multiple neoplasia syndrome Carney complex (CNC). The most common endocrine gland manifestations of CNC are pituitary GH-secreting adenomas, thyroid tumors, testicular tumors, and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) are observed in about two-third of CNC patients, and also in patients with isolated PPNAD. PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic endocrine tumors. More than 120 different PRKAR1A mutations have been found today. Most of them lead to an unstable mutant mRNA, which will be degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay. In vitro and in vivo functional studies are in progress to understand the mechanisms of endocrine tumor development due to PKA regulatory subunits inactivation. PRKAR1A mutations stimulate in most models PKA activity, mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. Cross-talks with other signaling pathways summarized in this review have been described and might participate in endocrine tumorigenesis. PMID:22752956

  14. Modulation of the human cardiac sodium channel alpha-subunit by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the responsible sequence domain.

    PubMed Central

    Frohnwieser, B; Chen, L Q; Schreibmayer, W; Kallen, R G

    1997-01-01

    1. In order to investigate the modulation of human hH1 sodium channel alpha-subunits by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), the channel was expressed in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. 2. Cytosolic injection of cAMP, as well as of SP-cyclic 3',5'-hydrogen phosphorothioate adenosine triethylammonium salt (SP-cAMPS, the S-diastereoisomeric configuration of the compound with respect to the phosphorus atom), resulted in a marked and significant increase in peak sodium current (INa,p). Cytosolic injections of RP-cyclic 3',5'-hydrogen phosphorothioate adenosine triethylammonium salt (RP-cAMPS; a compound inhibitory to PKA) had no effect on peak current. 3. Kinetic parameters of steady-state activation, inactivation and recovery from inactivation were unchanged following stimulation of PKA activity, but a 42 +/- 5% (mean +/- S.E.M.) increase in maximal sodium conductance (delta gmax) could account for the observed increase in INa,p. 4. A set of chimerical sodium channels made from portions of the human cardiac hH1 alpha-subunit and the rat skeletal muscle SkM1 alpha-subunit (which is not affected by PKA stimulation) was generated. These were used to localize the structural determinant in the hH1 sequence responsible for PKA modulation of hH1. From our data we conclude that the effects of PKA on hH1 are conferred by the large cytosolic loop interconnecting transmembrane domains I and II, which is not conserved among sodium channel subtypes. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9032680

  15. Structure of the human dimeric ATM kinase.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wilson C Y; Li, Yinyin; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Huen, Michael S Y

    2016-01-01

    DNA-double strand breaks activate the serine/threonine protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to initiate DNA damage signal transduction. This activation process involves autophosphorylation and dissociation of inert ATM dimers into monomers that are catalytically active. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we determined the structure of dimeric ATM in its resting state. The EM map could accommodate the crystal structure of the N-terminal truncated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a closely related enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family, allowing for the localization of the N- and the C-terminal regions of ATM. In the dimeric structure, the actives sites are buried, restricting the access of the substrates to these sites. The unanticipated domain organization of ATM provides a basis for understanding its mechanism of inhibition. PMID:27097373

  16. Structure of the human dimeric ATM kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wilson C. Y.; Li, Yinyin; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Huen, Michael S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA-double strand breaks activate the serine/threonine protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to initiate DNA damage signal transduction. This activation process involves autophosphorylation and dissociation of inert ATM dimers into monomers that are catalytically active. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we determined the structure of dimeric ATM in its resting state. The EM map could accommodate the crystal structure of the N-terminal truncated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a closely related enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family, allowing for the localization of the N- and the C-terminal regions of ATM. In the dimeric structure, the actives sites are buried, restricting the access of the substrates to these sites. The unanticipated domain organization of ATM provides a basis for understanding its mechanism of inhibition. PMID:27097373

  17. Chromosomal assignment of the gene encoding the human 58-kDa inhibitor (PRKRI) of the interferon-induced dsRNA-activated protein kinase to chromosome 13q32

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, M.J.; Katze, M.G.; Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M.

    1996-01-15

    The 58-kDa inhibitor (p58) of the interferon-induced dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a cellular protein recruited by the influenza virus to down-regulate the activity of PKR during virus infection. The inhibitor also appears to play a role in the regulation of cellular gene expression in the absence of viral infection and has oncogenic properties when overexpressed. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have mapped the p58 gene (PRKRI) to human chromosome 13 band q32. Aberrations in the structure or number of chromosome 13 have been identified in a variety of human cancers, particularly in acute leukemia. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Osmotic stress signaling via protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroaki; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2012-10-01

    Plants face various kinds of environmental stresses, including drought, salinity, and low temperature, which cause osmotic stress. An understanding of the plant signaling pathways that respond to osmotic stress is important for both basic biology and agriculture. In this review, we summarize recent investigations concerning the SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) 2 kinase family, which play central roles in osmotic stress responses. SnRK2s are activated by osmotic stress, and a mutant lacking SnRK2s is hypersensitive to osmotic stress. Many questions remain about the signaling pathway upstream and downstream of SnRK2s. Because some SnRK2s also functions in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, which has recently been well clarified, study of SnRK2s in ABA signaling can provide clues regarding their roles in osmotic stress signaling. PMID:22828864

  19. Analysis of the Human Kinome Using Methods Including Fold Recognition Reveals Two Novel Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Philip E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Protein sequence similarity is a commonly used criterion for inferring the unknown function of a protein from a protein of known function. However, proteins can diverge significantly over time such that sequence similarity is difficult, if not impossible, to find. In some cases, a structural similarity remains over long evolutionary time scales and once detected can be used to predict function. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we employed a high-throughput approach to assign structural and functional annotation to the human proteome, focusing on the collection of human protein kinases, the human kinome. We compared human protein sequences to a library of domains from known structures using WU-BLAST, PSI-BLAST, and 123D. This approach utilized both sequence comparison and fold recognition methods. The resulting set of potential protein kinases was cross-checked against previously identified human protein kinases, and analyzed for conserved kinase motifs. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that our structure-based method can be used to identify both typical and atypical human protein kinases. We also identify two potentially novel kinases that contain an interesting combination of kinase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase domains. PMID:18270584

  20. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Interaction Protein Functions as an A-kinase Anchoring Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Hundsrucker, Christian; Skroblin, Philipp; Christian, Frank; Zenn, Hans-Michael; Popara, Viola; Joshi, Mangesh; Eichhorst, Jenny; Wiesner, Burkhard; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Reif, Bernd; Rosenthal, Walter; Klussmann, Enno

    2010-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) include a family of scaffolding proteins that target protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins to cellular compartments and thereby confine the activities of the associated proteins to distinct regions within cells. AKAPs bind PKA directly. The interaction is mediated by the dimerization and docking domain of regulatory subunits of PKA and the PKA-binding domain of AKAPs. Analysis of the interactions between the dimerization and docking domain and various PKA-binding domains yielded a generalized motif allowing the identification of AKAPs. Our bioinformatics and peptide array screening approaches based on this signature motif identified GSKIP (glycogen synthase kinase 3β interaction protein) as an AKAP. GSKIP directly interacts with PKA and GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β). It is widely expressed and facilitates phosphorylation and thus inactivation of GSK3β by PKA. GSKIP contains the evolutionarily conserved domain of unknown function 727. We show here that this domain of GSKIP and its vertebrate orthologues binds both PKA and GSK3β and thereby provides a mechanism for the integration of PKA and GSK3β signaling pathways. PMID:20007971

  1. Naturally appearing N-feruloylserotonin isomers suppress oxidative burst of human neutrophils at the protein kinase C level.

    PubMed

    Nosáĺ, Rado; Perečko, Tomáš; Jančinová, Viera; Drábiková, Katarína; Harmatha, Juraj; Sviteková, Klara

    2011-01-01

    N-feruloylserotonin (N-f-5HT) isomers, isolated from seeds of Leuzea carthamoides (Wild) DC, inhibited dose-dependent oxidative burst in human whole blood and isolated neutrophils in vitro, which were measured by luminol- and/or isoluminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in the following rank order of stimuli: PMA > OpZ > calcium ionophore A23187. In isolated neutrophils that were stimulated with PMA, N-f-5HT isomers were effective against extracellular and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Liberation of ATP, analysis of apoptosis, and recombinant caspase-3 activity revealed that N-f-5HT isomers, used in concentrations up to 100 μM, did not alter the viability and integrity of isolated neutrophils. Western blot analysis documented that in concentrations of 10 and 100 μM, N-f-5HT isomers significantly decreased PMA-induced phosphorylation of PKC α/β II. The results suggest that N-f-5HT isomers are an effective, naturally occurring substance with a potent pharmacological effect on the oxidative burst of human neutrophils. It should be further investigated for its pharmacological activity against oxidative stress in ischemia-reperfusion, inflammation and other pathological conditions. PMID:21857090

  2. Photoinduced structural changes to protein kinase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozinek, Sarah C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    The importance of porphyrins in organisms is underscored by the ubiquitous biological and biochemical functions that are mediated by these compounds and by their potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is the precursor to heme and has biomedical applications such as its use as a photosensitizer in phototherapy and photodetection of cancer. Among other applications, our group has demonstrated that low-irradiance exposure to laser irradiation of PPIX, Fe-PPIX, or meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TSPP) non-covalently docked to a protein causes conformational changes in the polypeptide. Such approach can have remarkable consequences in the study of protein structure/function relationship and can be used to prompt non-native protein properties. Therefore we have investigated protein kinase A (PKA), a more relevant protein model towards the photo-treatment of cancer. PKA's enzymatic functions are regulated by the presence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate for intracellular signal transduction involved in, among other things, stimulation of transcription, tumorigenesis in Carney complex and migration of breast carcinoma cells. Since phosphorylation is a necessary step in some cancers and inflammatory diseases, inhibiting the protein kinase, and therefore phosphorylation, may serve to treat these diseases. Changes in absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime indicate: 1) both TSPP and PPIX non-covalently bind to PKA where they maintain photoreactivity; 2) absorptive photoproduct formation occurs only when PKA is bound to TSPP and irradiated; and 3) PKA undergoes secondary structural changes after irradiation with either porphyrin bound. These photoinduced changes could affect the protein's enzymatic and signaling capabilities.

  3. Radial Spoke Protein 3 Is a Mammalian Protein Kinase A-anchoring Protein That Binds ERK1/2*

    PubMed Central

    Jivan, Arif; Earnest, Svetlana; Juang, Yu-Chi; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2009-01-01

    Initially identified in Chlamydomonas, RSP3 (radial spoke protein 3) is 1 of more than 20 identified radial spoke structural components of motile cilia and is required for axonemal sliding and flagellar motility. The mammalian orthologs for this and other radial spoke proteins, however, remain to be characterized. We found mammalian RSP3 to bind to the MAPK ERK2 through a yeast two-hybrid screen designed to identify interacting proteins that have a higher affinity for the phosphorylated, active form of the protein kinase. Consistent with the screening result, the human homolog, RSPH3, interacts with and is a substrate for ERK1/2. Moreover, RSPH3 is a protein kinase A-anchoring protein (AKAP) that scaffolds the cAMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme. The binding of RSPH3 to the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, RIIα and RIIβ, is regulated by ERK1/2 activity and phosphorylation. Here we describe an ERK1/2-interacting AKAP and suggest a mechanism by which cAMP-dependent protein kinase-AKAP binding can be modulated by the activity of other enzymes. PMID:19684019

  4. Annexin 5 as a potential regulator of annexin 1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C. In vitro inhibition compared with quantitative data on annexin distribution in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Raynal, P; Hullin, F; Ragab-Thomas, J M; Fauvel, J; Chap, H

    1993-01-01

    In vitro phosphorylation of annexin 1 by purified rat brain protein kinase C (PKC) has been studied in the presence of annexin 5, which is not a substrate for PKC. Annexin 5 promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of annexin 1 phosphorylation, which could be overcome by increasing the concentration of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). In addition, a close relationship was found between the amount of PtdSer uncovered by annexin 5 and the residual phosphorylation of annexin 1. These data fit with the 'surface depletion model' explaining the antiphospholipase activity of annexins. In order to check the possibility that the in vitro effect of annexin 5 could be of some physiological relevance, annexins 1, 2, and 5, as well as the light chain of calpactin 1 (p11), have been quantified in human endothelial cells by measuring the radioactivity bound to the proteins after Western blotting with specific antibodies and 125I-labelled secondary antibody. Our data indicate that annexins 1 and 5, PKC and PtdSer are present in human endothelial cells in relative amounts very similar to those used in vitro under conditions permitting the detection of the inhibitory effect of annexin 5. Since annexin 1 remained refractory to PKC-dependent phosphorylation in intact cells, we suggest that annexin 5 might exert its inhibitory effect towards PKC in vivo, provided that its binding to phospholipids can occur at physiological (micromolar) concentrations of Ca2+. This was previously shown to occur in vitro using phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidic acid vesicles [Blackwood and Ernst (1990) Biochem. J. 266, 195-200]. Using identical assay conditions, which also allowed expression of PKC activity, annexin 5 again inhibited annexin 1 phosphorylation without interfering with PKC autophosphorylation. These data suggest that annexins 1 and 5 might interact with each other on the lipid surface, resulting in a specific inhibition of annexin 1 phosphorylation by PKC. Whether a similar mechanism also

  5. Protein kinase C delta-mediated cytoskeleton remodeling is involved in aloe-emodin-induced photokilling of human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Te; You, Bang-Jau; Yang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Chi-Yu; Bau, Da-Tian; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2012-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy is becoming a widely accepted form of cancer treatment using a photosensitizing agent and light. Our previous study has demonstrated that photoactivated aloe-emodin induced anoikis and changes in cell morphology, which were in part mediated through its effect on cytoskeleton in lung carcinoma H460 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of these photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced changes remain unknown. The present study demonstrated that the expression of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) was triggered by aloe-emodin and irradiation in H460 cells. Furthermore, the photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced cell death and translocation of PKCδ from the cytosol to the nucleus was found to be significantly inhibited by rottlerin, a PKCδ-selective inhibitor. Western blot analysis demonstrated that rottlerin also reversed the decrease in protein expression of cytoskeleton-related proteins, such as rat sarcoma (RAS), ras homolog gene family member A (RHO), p38, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), α-actinin and tubulin, induced by photoactivated aloe-emodin. Our findings suggest that the regulation of cytoskeleton-related proteins mediated by PKCδ may be the mechanisms for the protective effects of rottlerin against the photoactivated aloe-emodin induced H460 cell death. PMID:22993309

  6. An ent-kaurane diterpenoid from Croton tonkinensis induces apoptosis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase in SK-HEP1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sul, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sun; Cha, Eun Young; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Song, In Sang

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with high mortality worldwide. Traditional chemotherapy for HCC is not widely accepted by clinical practitioners because of its toxic side effects. Thus, there is a need to identify chemotherapeutic drugs against HCC. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a biologic sensor for cellular energy status that acts a tumor suppressor and a potential cancer therapeutic target. The traditional Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis shows cytotoxicity in various cancer cells; however, its anticancer mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we determined whether the ent-kaurane diterpenoid ent-18-acetoxy-7β-hydroxy kaur-15-oxo-16-ene (CrT1) isolated from this plant plays a role as a chemotherapeutic drug targeting AMPK. CrT1 blocked proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manners in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP1 cells. CrT1 induced sub-G(1) arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. CrT1 activated caspase-3, -7, -8, -9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and its effect was inhibited by z-VAD-fmk suppressing caspase-3 cleavage. CrT1 induced increases in p53 and Bax levels but decreased Bcl(2) levels. In addition, CrT1 resulted in increased translocation of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. We showed that CrT1-activated AMPK activation was followed by modulating the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K pathway and was inactivated by treating cells with compound C. Treatment with CrT1 and aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) synergistically activated AMPK. CrT1-induced AMPK activation regulated cell viability and apoptosis. These results suggest that CrT1 is a novel AMPK activator and that AMPK activation in SK-HEP1 cells is responsible for CrT1-induced anticancer activity including apoptosis. PMID:23302650

  7. Loss of Ypk1, the yeast homolog to the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase, accelerates phospholipase B1-mediated phosphatidylcholine deacylation.

    PubMed

    Surlow, Beth A; Cooley, Benjamin M; Needham, Patrick G; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Patton-Vogt, Jana

    2014-11-01

    Ypk1, the yeast homolog of the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (Sgk1), affects diverse cellular activities, including sphingolipid homeostasis. We now report that Ypk1 also impacts the turnover of the major phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Pulse-chase radiolabeling reveals that a ypk1Δ mutant exhibits increased PC deacylation and glycerophosphocholine production compared with wild type yeast. Deletion of PLB1, a gene encoding a B-type phospholipase that hydrolyzes PC, in a ypk1Δ mutant curtails the increased PC deacylation. In contrast to previous data, we find that Plb1 resides in the ER and in the medium. Consistent with a link between Ypk1 and Plb1, the levels of both Plb1 protein and PLB1 message are elevated in a ypk1Δ strain compared with wild type yeast. Furthermore, deletion of PLB1 in a ypk1Δ mutant exacerbates phenotypes associated with loss of YPK1, including slowed growth and sensitivity to cell wall perturbation, suggesting that increased Plb1 activity buffers against the loss of Ypk1. Because Plb1 lacks a consensus phosphorylation site for Ypk1, we probed other processes under the control of Ypk1 that might be linked to PC turnover. Inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the drug myriocin or through utilization of a lcb1-100 mutant results in increased PLB1 expression. Furthermore, we discovered that the increase in PLB1 expression observed upon inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis or loss of Ypk1 is under the control of the Crz1 transcription factor. Taken together, these results suggest a functional interaction between Ypk1 and Plb1 in which altered sphingolipid metabolism up-regulates PLB1 expression via Crz1. PMID:25258318

  8. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemistry, structure and function of DNA-PK, its roles in DNA double strand break repair and its newly described roles in mitosis and other cellular processes. PMID:25550082

  9. Myogenic signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase requires the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing-Hua; Aoki, Masahiro; Zheng, Jenny Z.; Li, Jian; Vogt, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of muscle-specific proteins. Here we demonstrate that a downstream target of PI 3-kinase, serine-threonine kinase Akt, plays an important role in myogenic differentiation. Expression of constitutively active forms of Akt dramatically enhances myotube formation and expression of the muscle-specific proteins MyoD, creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and desmin. Transdominant negative forms of Akt inhibit myotube formation and the expression of muscle-specific proteins. The inhibition of myotube formation and the reduced expression of muscle-specific proteins caused by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 are completely reversed by constitutively active forms of Akt. Wild-type cellular Akt effects a partial reversal of LY294002-induced inhibition of myogenic differentiation. This result suggests that Akt can substitute for PI 3-kinase in the stimulation of myogenesis; Akt may be an essential downstream component of PI 3-kinase-induced muscle differentiation. PMID:10051597

  10. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Trappanese, Danielle M; Sivilich, Sarah; Ets, Hillevi K; Kako, Farah; Autieri, Michael V; Moreland, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Vascular smooth muscle contraction is primarily regulated by phosphorylation of myosin light chain. There are also modulatory pathways that control the final level of force development. We tested the hypothesis that protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase modulate vascular smooth muscle activity via effects on MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). Swine carotid arteries were mounted for isometric force recording and subjected to histamine stimulation in the presence and absence of inhibitors of PKC [bisindolylmaleimide-1 (Bis)], MAP kinase kinase (MEK) (U0126), and MKP-1 (sanguinarine) and flash frozen for measurement of MAP kinase, PKC-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor 17 (CPI-17), and caldesmon phosphorylation levels. CPI-17 was phosphorylated in response to histamine and was inhibited in the presence of Bis. Caldesmon phosphorylation levels increased in response to histamine stimulation and were decreased in response to MEK inhibition but were not affected by the addition of Bis. Inhibition of PKC significantly increased p42 MAP kinase, but not p44 MAP kinase. Inhibition of MEK with U0126 inhibited both p42 and p44 MAP kinase activity. Inhibition of MKP-1 with sanguinarine blocked the Bis-dependent increase of MAP kinase activity. Sanguinarine alone increased MAP kinase activity due to its effects on MKP-1. Sanguinarine increased MKP-1 phosphorylation, which was inhibited by inhibition of MAP kinase. This suggests that MAP kinase has a negative feedback role in inhibiting MKP-1 activity. Therefore, PKC catalyzes MKP-1 phosphorylation, which is reversed by MAP kinase. Thus the fine tuning of vascular contraction is due to the concerted effort of PKC, MAP kinase, and MKP-1. PMID:27053523

  11. Identification of Protein Kinase Substrates by the Kinase-Interacting Substrate Screening (KISS) Approach.

    PubMed

    Amano, Mutsuki; Nishioka, Tomoki; Yura, Yoshimitsu; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the substrates of protein kinases to understand their modes of action has been undertaken by various approaches and remains an ongoing challenge. Phosphoproteomic technologies have accelerated the accumulation of data concerning protein phosphorylation and have uncovered vast numbers of phosphorylation sites in vivo. In this unit, a novel in vitro screening approach for protein kinase substrates is presented, based on protein-protein interaction and mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic technology. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27580705

  12. Protein kinases are potential targets to treat inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Yan, Yutao

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the two main forms of which are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. In this article, we will review the mechanisms of involvement of protein kinases in the pathogenesis of and intervention against IBD, in terms of their effects on genetics, microbiota, mucous layer and tight junction, and the potential of protein kinases as therapeutic targets against IBD. PMID:25374761

  13. Mediator kinase module and human tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Alison D.; Oldenbroek, Marieke; Boyer, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is a conserved multi-subunit signal processor through which regulatory informatiosn conveyed by gene-specific transcription factors is transduced to RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, MED13, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C (CycC) comprise a four-subunit “kinase” module that exists in variable association with a 26-subunit Mediator core. Genetic and biochemical studies have established the Mediator kinase module as a major ingress of developmental and oncogenic signaling through Mediator, and much of its function in signal-dependent gene regulation derives from its resident CDK8 kinase activity. For example, CDK8-targeted substrate phosphorylation impacts transcription factor half-life, Pol II activity and chromatin chemistry and functional status. Recent structural and biochemical studies have revealed a precise network of physical and functional subunit interactions required for proper kinase module activity. Accordingly, pathologic change in this activity through altered expression or mutation of constituent kinase module subunits can have profound consequences for altered signaling and tumor formation. Herein, we review the structural organization, biological function and oncogenic potential of the Mediator kinase module. We focus principally on tumor-associated alterations in kinase module subunits for which mechanistic relationships as opposed to strictly correlative associations are established. These considerations point to an emerging picture of the Mediator kinase module as an oncogenic unit, one in which pathogenic activation/deactivation through component change drives tumor formation through perturbation of signal-dependent gene regulation. It follows that therapeutic strategies to combat CDK8-driven tumors will involve targeted modulation of CDK8 activity or pharmacologic manipulation of dysregulated CDK8-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26182352

  14. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  16. Crystal structure of human nicotinamide riboside kinase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed A; Xiang, Song; Tong, Liang

    2007-08-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD(+) as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 A resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 A resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel beta sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations. PMID:17698003

  17. Crystal Structure of Human Nicotinamide Riboside Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Khan,J.; Xiang, S.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel {beta} sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations.

  18. The selectivity of protein kinase inhibitors: a further update

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jenny; Plater, Lorna; Elliott, Matt; Shpiro, Natalia; Hastie, C. James; Mclauchlan, Hilary; Klevernic, Iva; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Alessi, Dario R.; Cohen, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70–80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB 203580/SB202190 and BIRB 0796 to be used in parallel to assess the physiological roles of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) isoforms, PI-103 and wortmannin to be used in parallel to inhibit phosphatidylinositol (phosphoinositide) 3-kinases, PP1 or PP2 to be used in parallel with Src-I1 (Src inhibitor-1) to inhibit Src family members; PD 184352 or PD 0325901 to inhibit MKK1 (MAPK kinase-1) or MKK1 plus MKK5, Akt-I-1/2 to inhibit the activation of PKB (protein kinase B/Akt), rapamycin to inhibit TORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)–raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) complex], CT 99021 to inhibit GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), BI-D1870 and SL0101 or FMK (fluoromethylketone) to be used in parallel to inhibit RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase), D4476 to inhibit CK1 (casein kinase 1), VX680 to inhibit Aurora kinases, and roscovitine as a pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. We have also identified harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase 1A) in vitro. The results have further emphasized the need for considerable caution in using small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases to assess the physiological roles of these enzymes. Despite being used widely, many of the compounds that we analysed were too non-specific for useful conclusions to be made, other than to exclude the involvement of particular protein kinases in cellular processes. PMID:17850214

  19. CDPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases and tyrosine autophosphorylation attenuates kinase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases but we made the surprising observation that soybean CDPK' and several Arabidopsis isoforms (AtCPK4 and AtCPK34) could also autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. In studies with His6-GmCDPK', we ide...

  20. Protein Kinases: Emerging Therapeutic Targets in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although protein kinases are primary targets for inhibition in hematological malignancies, until recently their contribution to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was poorly understood. Insights into B cell receptor (BCR) signaling and its role in regulating key cellular functions have shed light on candidate protein kinases that are aberrantly activated in CLL. In this regard, protein kinases are now considered as potential drug targets in CLL. Area covered This review has covered signaling pathways and associated protein kinases in CLL and the kinase inhibitors currently available in preclinical and clinical investigations. Individual protein kinases that are abnormally active in CLL and the functional consequences of their inhibition are discussed. Expert opinion A growing body of evidence suggests that protein kinases are druggable targets for patients with CLL. The emergence of novel and bio-available kinase inhibitors and their promising clinical activity in CLL underscore the oncogenic role of kinases in leukemogenesis. Further investigations directed towards their role as single agents or in combinations may provide insight into understanding the substantial role of kinase mediated signal transduction pathways and their inhibition in B- CLL. PMID:22409342

  1. Protein kinase C, an elusive therapeutic target?

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Das, Kanad; Grimes, Kevin V

    2013-01-01

    Preface Protein kinase C (PKC) has been a tantalizing target for drug discovery ever since it was first identified as the receptor for the tumor promoter phorbol ester in 19821. Although initial therapeutic efforts focused on cancer, additional diseases, including diabetic complications, heart failure, myocardial infarction, pain and bipolar disease were targeted as researchers developed a better understanding of the roles that PKC’s eight conventional and novel isozymes play in health and disease. Unfortunately, both academic and pharmaceutical efforts have yet to result in the approval of a single new drug that specifically targets PKC. Why does PKC remain an elusive drug target? This review will provide a short account of some of the efforts, challenges and opportunities in developing PKC modulators to address unmet clinical needs. PMID:23197040

  2. Structural investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barak, D.; Shibata, M.; Rein, R.

    1991-01-01

    The phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent protein kinase (PKC) plays an essential role in a variety of cellular events. Inhibition of PKC was shown to arrest growth in tumor cell cultures making it a target for possible antitumor therapy. Calphostins are potent inhibitors of PKC with high affinity for the enzyme regulatory site. Structural characteristics of calphostins, which confer the inhibitory activity, are investigated by comparing their optimized structures with the existing models for PKC activation. The resulting model of inhibitory activity assumes interaction with two out of the three electrostatic interaction sites postulated for activators. The model shows two sites of hydrophobic interaction and enables the inhibitory activity of gossypol to be accounted for.

  3. Survey of activated kinase proteins reveals potential targets for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Dokduang, Hasaya; Juntana, Sirinun; Techasen, Anchalee; Namwat, Nisana; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Khuntikeo, Narong; Riggins, Gregory J; Loilome, Watcharin

    2013-12-01

    Improving therapy for patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) presents a significant challenge. This is made more difficult by a lack of a clear understanding of potential molecular targets, such as deregulated kinases. In this work, we profiled the activated kinases in CCA in order to apply them as the targets for CCA therapy. Human phospho-receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and phospho-kinase array analyses revealed that multiple kinases are activated in both CCA cell lines and human CCA tissues that included cell growth, apoptosis, cell to cell interaction, movement, and angiogenesis RTKs. Predominately, the kinases activated downstream were those in the PI3K/Akt, Ras/MAPK, JAK/STAT, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Western blot analysis confirms that Erk1/2 and Akt activation were increased in CCA tissues when compared with their normal adjacent tissue. The inhibition of kinase activation using multi-targeted kinase inhibitors, sorafenib and sunitinib led to significant cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction via suppression of Erk1/2 and Akt activation, whereas drugs with specificity to a single kinase showed less potency. In conclusion, our study reveals the involvement of multiple kinase proteins in CCA growth that might serve as therapeutic targets for combined kinase inhibition. PMID:23812726

  4. Synthetic sulfoglycolipids targeting the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt.

    PubMed

    Costa, Barbara; Dangate, Milind; Vetro, Maria; Donvito, Giulia; Gabrielli, Luca; Amigoni, Loredana; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Lanzi, Cinzia; Ceriani, Michela; De Gioia, Luca; Filippi, Giulia; Cipolla, Laura; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Perego, Paola; Colombo, Diego

    2016-08-15

    The serine-threonine protein kinase Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is a key component of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTOR axis. Deregulated activation of this pathway is frequent in human tumors and Akt-dependent signaling appears to be critical in cell survival. PI3K activation generates 3-phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols that bind Akt pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The blockage of Akt PH domain/phosphoinositides interaction represents a promising approach to interfere with the oncogenic potential of over-activated Akt. In the present study, phosphatidyl inositol mimics based on a β-glucoside scaffold have been synthesized as Akt inhibitors. The compounds possessed one or two lipophilic moieties of different length at the anomeric position of glucose, and an acidic or basic group at C-6. Docking studies, ELISA Akt inhibition assays, and cellular assays on different cell models highlighted 1-O-octadecanoyl-2-O-β-d-sulfoquinovopyranosyl-sn-glycerol as the best Akt inhibitor among the synthesized compounds, which could be considered as a lead for further optimization in the design of Akt inhibitors. PMID:27316541

  5. Carnosol, a dietary diterpene, displays growth inhibitory effects in human prostate cancer PC3 cells leading to G2-phase cell cycle arrest and targets the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeremy J.; Syed, Deeba N.; Heren, Chenelle R.; Suh, Yewseok; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The anti-cancer effect of carnosol was investigated in human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Methods Biochemical analysis and protein array data of carnosol treated PC3 cells were analyzed. Results We evaluated carnosol for its potential anti-cancer properties in the PC3 cells. Using an MTT assay we found that carnosol (10 – 70 µM) decreases cell viability in a time and dose dependent manner. Next, we evaluated the effect of carnosol (20–60 uM) effect using flow cytometry as well as biochemical analysis and found induction of G2-phase cell cycle arrest. To establish a more precise mechanism, we performed a protein array that evaluated 638 proteins involved in cell signaling pathways. The protein array identified 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the regulation of cellular energy balance as a potential target. Further downstream effects consistent with cancer inhibition included the modulation of the mTOR/HSP70S6k/4E-BP1 pathway. Additionally, we found that carnosol targeted the PI3K/Akt pathway in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions These results suggest that carnosol targets multiple signaling pathways that include the AMPK pathway. The ability of carnosol to inhibit prostate cancer in vitro suggests carnosol may be a novel agent for the management of PCa. PMID:18286356

  6. A novel protein kinase is essential in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bryan C; Booster, Nick; Vidadala, Rama Subba Rao; Maly, Dustin J; Parsons, Marilyn

    2016-07-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis a fatal disease for which no vaccines exist and treatment regimens are difficult. Here, we evaluate a Trypanosoma brucei protein kinase, AEK1, as a potential drug target. Conditional knockouts confirmed AEK1 essentiality in bloodstream forms. For chemical validation, we overcame the lack of AEK1 inhibitors by creating parasites expressing a single, functional analog-sensitive AEK1 allele. Analog treatment of mice infected with this strain delayed parasitemia and death, with one-third of animals showing no parasitemia. These studies validate AEK1 as a drug target and highlight the need for further understanding of its function. PMID:27018127

  7. Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase repertoire, or kinome, is in general significantly larger than other eukaryotes, ranging in size from 600 to 2500 members. This large variation in kinome size is mainly due to the expansion and contraction of a few families, particularly the receptor-like kinase/Pelle family. A number of protein kinases reside in highly conserved, low copy number families and often play broadly conserved regulatory roles in metabolism and cell division, although functions of plant homologues have often diverged from their metazoan counterparts. Members of expanded plant kinase families often have roles in plant-specific processes and some may have contributed to adaptive evolution. Nonetheless, non-adaptive explanations, such as kinase duplicate subfunctionalization and insufficient time for pseudogenization, may also contribute to the large number of seemingly functional protein kinases in plants. PMID:22889912

  8. Hemoglobin Receptor Protein from Porphyromonas gingivalis Induces Interleukin-8 Production in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells through Stimulation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and NF-κB Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yuki; Nakayama, Masaaki; Naito, Mariko; Yamachika, Eiki; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Nakayama, Koji; Iida, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of polymicrobial origin affecting the tissues supporting the tooth. The oral anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is implicated as an important pathogen for chronic periodontitis, triggers a series of host inflammatory responses that promote the destruction of periodontal tissues. Among the virulence factors of P. gingivalis, hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR) is a major protein found in culture supernatants. In this study, we investigated the roles of HbR in the production of inflammatory mediators. We found that HbR induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in the human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) were activated in HbR-stimulated Ca9-22 cells. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580) and Erk1/2 (PD98059) blocked HbR-induced IL-8 production. Additionally, HbR stimulated the translocation of NF-κB-p65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) or cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) inhibited HbR-induced IL-8 production. Moreover, pretreatment with SB203580 and PD98059 reduced HbR-induced phosphorylation of CREB and ATF-2, respectively. Combined pretreatment with an inhibitor of NF-κB (BAY11-7082) and SB203580 was more efficient in inhibiting the ability of HbR to induce IL-8 production than pretreatment with either BAY11-7082 or SB203580 alone. Thus, in Ca9-22 cells, the direct activation of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 by HbR caused the activation of the transcription factors ATF-2, CREB, and NF-κB, thus resulting in the induction of IL-8 production. PMID:24126532

  9. Regulation of ABC Transporter Function Via Phosphorylation by Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I.; Reiling, Cassandra J.; Paumi, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are multispanning membrane proteins that utilize ATP to move a broad range of substrates across cellular membranes. ABC transporters are involved in a number of human disorders and diseases [1]. Overexpression of a subset of the transporters has been closely linked to multidrug resistance in both bacteria and viruses and in cancer. A poorly understood and important aspect of ABC transporter biology is the role of phosphorylation as a mechanism to regulate transporter function. In this review, we summarize the current literature addressing the role of phosphorylation in regulating ABC transporter function. A comprehensive list of all the phosphorylation sites that have been identified for the human ABC transporters is presented, and we discuss the role of individual kinases in regulating transporter function. We address the potential pitfalls and difficulties associated with identifying phosphorylation sites and the corresponding kinase(s), and we discuss novel techniques that may circumvent these problems. We conclude by providing a brief perspective on studying ABC transporter phosphorylation. PMID:21118091

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human Pim-1 kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Kevin C.; Studts, Joey; Wang, Lian; Barringer, Kevin; Kronkaitis, Anthony; Peng, Charline; Baptiste, Alistair; LaFrance, Roger; Mische, Sheenah; Farmer, Bennett

    2005-01-01

    Pim kinases, belong to a distinctive serine/threonine protein-kinase family and are involved in cytokine-induced signal transduction and the development of lymphoid malignancies. Human Pim-1 kinase has been cloned, expressed and crystallized Pim kinases, including Pim-1, Pim-2 and Pim-3, belong to a distinctive serine/threonine protein-kinase family. They are involved in cytokine-induced signal transduction and the development of lymphoid malignancies. Their kinase domains are highly homologous to one another, but share low sequence identity to other kinases. Specifically, there are two proline residues in the conserved hinge-region sequence ERPXPX separated by a residue that is non-conserved among Pim kinases. Full-length human Pim-1 kinase (1–313) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST-fusion protein and truncated to Pim-1 (14–313) by thrombin digestion during purification. The Pim-1 (14–313) protein was purified to high homogeneity and monodispersity. This protein preparation yielded small crystals in the initial screening and large crystals after optimization. The large crystals of apo Pim-1 enzyme diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and belong to space group P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.9, c = 80.0 Å, β = 120° and one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  11. Systematic identification of signal integration by protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Marie; Diss, Guillaume; Dubé, Alexandre K.; Schraffl, Andrea; Bachmann, Verena A.; Gagnon-Arsenault, Isabelle; Chrétien, Andrée-Ève; Steunou, Anne-Lise; Dionne, Ugo; Bisson, Nicolas; Stefan, Eduard; Landry, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular processes and homeostasis control in eukaryotic cells is achieved by the action of regulatory proteins such as protein kinase A (PKA). Although the outbound signals from PKA directed to processes such as metabolism, growth, and aging have been well charted, what regulates this conserved regulator remains to be systematically identified to understand how it coordinates biological processes. Using a yeast PKA reporter assay, we identified genes that influence PKA activity by measuring protein–protein interactions between the regulatory and the two catalytic subunits of the PKA complex in 3,726 yeast genetic-deletion backgrounds grown on two carbon sources. Overall, nearly 500 genes were found to be connected directly or indirectly to PKA regulation, including 80 core regulators, denoting a wide diversity of signals regulating PKA, within and beyond the described upstream linear pathways. PKA regulators span multiple processes, including the antagonistic autophagy and methionine biosynthesis pathways. Our results converge toward mechanisms of PKA posttranslational regulation by lysine acetylation, which is conserved between yeast and humans and that, we show, regulates protein complex formation in mammals and carbohydrate storage and aging in yeast. Taken together, these results show that the extent of PKA input matches with its output, because this kinase receives information from upstream and downstream processes, and highlight how biological processes are interconnected and coordinated by PKA. PMID:25831502

  12. Regulation of mitochondrial protein import by cytosolic kinases.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B; Rao, Sanjana; Eyrich, Beate; Zahedi, René P; Stojanovski, Diana; Schönfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Sickmann, Albert; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2011-01-21

    Mitochondria import a large number of nuclear-encoded proteins via membrane-bound transport machineries; however, little is known about regulation of the preprotein translocases. We report that the main protein entry gate of mitochondria, the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex), is phosphorylated by cytosolic kinases-in particular, casein kinase 2 (CK2) and protein kinase A (PKA). CK2 promotes biogenesis of the TOM complex by phosphorylation of two key components, the receptor Tom22 and the import protein Mim1, which in turn are required for import of further Tom proteins. Inactivation of CK2 decreases the levels of the TOM complex and thus mitochondrial protein import. PKA phosphorylates Tom70 under nonrespiring conditions, thereby inhibiting its receptor activity and the import of mitochondrial metabolite carriers. We conclude that cytosolic kinases exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects on biogenesis and function of the TOM complex and thus regulate protein import into mitochondria. PMID:21215441

  13. Protein kinase C is increased in the liver of humans and rats with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: an alteration not due to hyperglycemia.

    PubMed Central

    Considine, R V; Nyce, M R; Allen, L E; Morales, L M; Triester, S; Serrano, J; Colberg, J; Lanza-Jacoby, S; Caro, J F

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that liver protein kinase C (PKC) is increased in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). To this end we examined the distribution of PKC isozymes in liver biopsies from obese individuals with and without NIDDM and in lean controls. PKC isozymes alpha, beta, epsilon and zeta were detected by immunoblotting in both the cytosol and membrane fractions. Isozymes gamma and delta were not detected. There was a significant increase in immunodetectable PKC-alpha (twofold), -epsilon (threefold), and -zeta (twofold) in the membrane fraction isolated from obese subjects with NIDDM compared with the lean controls. In obese subjects without NIDDM, the amount of membrane PKC isozymes was not different from the other two groups. We next sought an animal model where this observation could be studied further. The Zucker diabetic fatty rat offered such a model system. Immunodetectable membrane PKC-alpha, -beta, -epsilon, and -zeta were significantly increased when compared with both the lean and obese controls. The increase in immunodetectable PKC protein correlated with a 40% elevation in the activity of PKC at the membrane. Normalization of circulating glucose in the rat model by either insulin or phlorizin treatment did not result in a reduction in membrane PKC isozyme protein or kinase activity. Further, phlorizin treatment did not improve insulin receptor autophosphorylation nor did the treatment lower liver diacylglycerol. We conclude that liver PKC is increased in NIDDM, a change that is not secondary to hyperglycemia. It is possible that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of some component in the insulin signaling cascade contributes to the insulin resistance observed in NIDDM. Images PMID:7769136

  14. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  15. Insulin-induced Drosophila S6 kinase activation requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Jose M; Alrubaie, Saif; Kieloch, Agnieszka; Deak, Maria; Leevers, Sally J; Alessi, Dario R

    2003-01-01

    An important mechanism by which insulin regulates cell growth and protein synthesis is through activation of the p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K). In mammalian cells, insulin-induced PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activation, generates the lipid second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3), which is thought to play a key role in triggering the activation of S6K. Although the major components of the insulin-signalling pathway are conserved in Drosophila, recent studies suggested that S6K activation does not require PI3K in this system. To investigate further the role of dPI3K (Drosophila PI3K) in dS6K (Drosophila S6K) activation, we examined the effect of two structurally distinct PI3K inhibitors on insulin-induced dS6K activation in Kc167 and S2 Drosophila cell lines. We found that both inhibitors prevented insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and activation of dS6K. To investigate further the role of the dPI3K pathway in regulating dS6K activation, we also used dsRNAi (double-stranded RNA-mediated interference) to decrease expression of dPI3K and the PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) phosphatase dPTEN ( Drosophila phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) in Kc167 and S2 cells. Knock-down of dPI3K prevented dS6K activation, whereas knock-down of dPTEN, which would be expected to increase PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) levels, stimulated dS6K activity. Moreover, when the expression of the dPI3K target, dPKB (Drosophila protein kinase B), was decreased to undetectable levels, we found that insulin could no longer trigger dS6K activation. This observation provides the first direct demonstration that dPKB is required for insulin-stimulated dS6K activation. We also present evidence that the amino-acid-induced activation of dS6K in the absence of insulin, thought to be mediated by dTOR (Drosophila target of rapamycin), which is unaffected by the inhibition of dPI3K by wortmannin. The results of the present study support the view that, in Drosophila cells, dPI3K and dPKB, as well d

  16. Protein Kinase C Pharmacology: Refining the Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Zhang, Alyssa X.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Protein kinase C (PKC) has been in the limelight since the discovery three decades ago that it acts as a major receptor for the tumor-promoting phorbol esters. Phorbol esters, with their potent ability to activate two of the three classes of PKC isozymes, have remained the best pharmacological tool for directly modulating PKC activity. However, with the discovery of other phorbol ester-responsive proteins, the advent of various small-molecule and peptide modulators, and the need to distinguish isozyme-specific activity, the pharmacology of PKC has become increasingly complex. Not surprisingly, many of the compounds originally touted as direct modulators of PKC have subsequently been shown to hit many other cellular targets and, in some cases, not even directly modulate PKC. The complexities and reversals in PKC pharmacology have led to widespread confusion about the current status of the pharmacological tools available to control PKC activity. Here, we aim to clarify the cacophony in the literature regarding the current state of bona fide and discredited cellular PKC modulators, including activators, small-molecule inhibitors, and peptides, and also address the use of genetically-encoded reporters and of PKC mutants to measure the effects of these drugs on the spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling by specific isozymes. PMID:23662807

  17. Mechanism of inhibition of Raf-1 by protein kinase A.

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, S; Adler, H S; Mischak, H; Janosch, P; Heidecker, G; Wolfman, A; Pippig, S; Lohse, M; Ueffing, M; Kolch, W

    1994-01-01

    The cytoplasmic Raf-1 kinase is essential for mitogenic signalling by growth factors, which couple to tyrosine kinases, and by tumor-promoting phorbol esters such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activate protein kinase C (PKC). Signalling by the Raf-1 kinase can be blocked by activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). The molecular mechanism of this inhibition is not precisely known but has been suggested to involve attenuation of Raf-1 binding to Ras. Using purified proteins, we show that in addition to weakening the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras, PKA can inhibit Raf-1 function directly via phosphorylation of the Raf-1 kinase domain. Phosphorylation by PKA interferes with the activation of Raf-1 by either PKC alpha or the tyrosine kinase Lck and even can downregulate the kinase activity of Raf-1 previously activated by PKC alpha or amino-terminal truncation. This type of inhibition can be dissociated from the ability of Raf-1 to associate with Ras, since (i) the isolated Raf-1 kinase domain, which lacks the Ras binding domain, is still susceptible to inhibition by PKA, (ii) phosphorylation of Raf-1 by PKC alpha alleviates the PKA-induced reduction of Ras binding but does not prevent the downregulation of Raf-1 kinase activity by PKA and (iii) cAMP agonists antagonize transformation by v-Raf, which is Ras independent. Images PMID:7935389

  18. Docetaxel enhances apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest by suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in human renal clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, T D; Shang, D H; Tian, Y

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous efforts have been made in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients' research; however, clinical findings in patients have been disappointing. The aims of our study were to identify better or alternative therapeutic methods that can reverse chemotherapy resistance and to enhance sensitivity to docetaxel (DOX)-based chemotherapy drugs. We evaluated the anti-proliferative effect of DOX against RCC cells. DOX was found to suppress proliferation of RCC cells under in vitro and in vivo settings. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that DOX suppressed cell growth by induction of both apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Various patterns of gene expression were observed by cluster analysis. In addition, based on network analysis using the ingenuity pathway analysis software, DOX was found to suppress phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38, suggesting that the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway plays a vital role in the anti-proliferative effect of DOX against RCC. PMID:26909952

  19. Phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II at T286 enhances invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Mengna; Evans, Hamish; Gilchrist, Jackson; Mayhew, Jack; Hoffman, Alexander; Pearsall, Elizabeth Ann; Jankowski, Helen; Brzozowski, Joshua Stephen; Skelding, Kathryn Anne

    2016-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a multi-functional kinase that controls a range of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The biological properties of CaMKII are regulated by multi-site phosphorylation. However, the role that CaMKII phosphorylation plays in cancer cell metastasis has not been examined. We demonstrate herein that CaMKII expression and phosphorylation at T286 is increased in breast cancer when compared to normal breast tissue, and that increased CAMK2 mRNA is associated with poor breast cancer patient prognosis (worse overall and distant metastasis free survival). Additionally, we show that overexpression of WT, T286D and T286V forms of CaMKII in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells increases invasion, migration and anchorage independent growth, and that overexpression of the T286D phosphomimic leads to a further increase in the invasive, migratory and anchorage independent growth capacity of these cells. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII decreases MDA-MB-231 migration and invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of T286D, but not WT or T286V-CaMKII, leads to phosphorylation of FAK, STAT5a, and Akt. These results demonstrate a novel function for phosphorylation of CaMKII at T286 in the control of breast cancer metastasis, offering a promising target for the development of therapeutics to prevent breast cancer metastasis. PMID:27605043

  20. Phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II at T286 enhances invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Mengna; Evans, Hamish; Gilchrist, Jackson; Mayhew, Jack; Hoffman, Alexander; Pearsall, Elizabeth Ann; Jankowski, Helen; Brzozowski, Joshua Stephen; Skelding, Kathryn Anne

    2016-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a multi-functional kinase that controls a range of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The biological properties of CaMKII are regulated by multi-site phosphorylation. However, the role that CaMKII phosphorylation plays in cancer cell metastasis has not been examined. We demonstrate herein that CaMKII expression and phosphorylation at T286 is increased in breast cancer when compared to normal breast tissue, and that increased CAMK2 mRNA is associated with poor breast cancer patient prognosis (worse overall and distant metastasis free survival). Additionally, we show that overexpression of WT, T286D and T286V forms of CaMKII in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells increases invasion, migration and anchorage independent growth, and that overexpression of the T286D phosphomimic leads to a further increase in the invasive, migratory and anchorage independent growth capacity of these cells. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII decreases MDA-MB-231 migration and invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of T286D, but not WT or T286V-CaMKII, leads to phosphorylation of FAK, STAT5a, and Akt. These results demonstrate a novel function for phosphorylation of CaMKII at T286 in the control of breast cancer metastasis, offering a promising target for the development of therapeutics to prevent breast cancer metastasis. PMID:27605043

  1. DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts functionally with the RNA polymerase II complex recruited at the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat and plays an important role in HIV gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Shilpi; Ochem, Alex; Tyagi, Mudit

    2011-07-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a nuclear protein kinase that specifically requires association with DNA for its kinase activity, plays important roles in the regulation of different DNA transactions, including transcription, replication and DNA repair, as well as in the maintenance of telomeres. Due to its large size, DNA-PK is also known to facilitate the activities of other factors by providing the docking platform at their site of action. In this study, by running several chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate the parallel distribution of DNA-PK with RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) along the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provirus before and after activation with tumour necrosis factor alpha. The association between DNA-PK and RNAP II is also long-lasting, at least for up to 4 h (the duration analysed in this study). Knockdown of endogenous DNA-PK using specific small hairpin RNAs expressed from lentiviral vectors resulted in significant reduction in HIV gene expression and replication, demonstrating the importance of DNA-PK for HIV gene expression. Sequence analysis of the HIV-1 Tat protein revealed three potential target sites for phosphorylation by DNA-PK and, by using kinase assays, we confirmed that Tat is an effective substrate of DNA-PK. Through peptide mapping, we found that two of these three potential phosphorylation sites are recognized and phosphorylated by DNA-PK. Mutational studies on the DNA-PK target sites of Tat further demonstrated the functional significance of the Tat-DNA-PK interaction. Thus, overall our results clearly demonstrate the functional interaction between DNA-PK and RNAP II during HIV transcription. PMID:21450944

  2. Protein Kinase C Is Involved in the Induction of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Liver X Receptor/Retinoid X Receptor Agonist in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huwait, Etimad A; Singh, Nishi N; Michael, Daryn R; Davies, Thomas S; Moss, Joe W E; Ramji, Dipak P

    2015-09-01

    The transcription of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene, which plays a key anti-atherogenic role, is known to be induced by agonists of liver X receptors (LXRs). LXRs form obligate heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and interact with their recognition sequences in the regulatory regions of key genes implicated in the control of cholesterol, fatty acid and glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown a novel role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in the LXRs-mediated induction of macrophage gene expression. Protein kinase C (PKC) is often found to regulate the action of nuclear receptors and cross talk between this kinase family and JNK and/or PI3K has been shown in several settings. We have, therefore, investigated a potential role for PKC in the action of LXR/RXR agonist 22-(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22-(R)-HC)/9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) in THP-1 macrophages, including the induction of ABCA1 expression. The pan PKC inhibitor bisindoylmaleimide was found to attenuate the induction of ABCA1 protein expression, the activation of the JNK signaling pathway and the stimulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity in macrophages treated with 22-(R)-HC and 9cRA. The role of PKC in the action of these ligands was confirmed further by the use of more isotype-specific inhibitors. These studies, therefore, reveal a potentially important role for PKC in the action of 22-(R)-HC and 9cRA in human macrophages. PMID:25752819

  3. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases modulate capacitation of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Luconi, M; Barni, T; Vannelli, G B; Krausz, C; Marra, F; Benedetti, P A; Evangelista, V; Francavilla, S; Properzi, G; Forti, G; Baldi, E

    1998-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates the presence of p21 Ras and of a protein with characteristics similar to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), in mammalian spermatozoa, suggesting the occurrence of the Ras/ERK cascade in these cells. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of ERKs and their biological functions in human spermatozoa. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated localization of ERKs in the postacrosomal region of spermatozoa. After stimulation of acrosome reaction with the calcium ionophore A23187 and progesterone, ERKs were mostly localized at the level of the equatorial region, indicating redistribution of these proteins in acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Two proteins of 42 and 44 kDa that are tyrosine phosphorylated in a time-dependent manner during in vitro capacitation were identified as p42 (ERK-2) and p44 (ERK-1) by means of specific antibodies. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins during capacitation was accompanied by increased kinase activity, as determined by the ability of ERK-1 and ERK-2 to phosphorylate the substrate myelin basic protein. The role of this activity in the occurrence of sperm capacitation was also investigated by using PD098059, an inhibitor of the MAPK cascade. The presence of this compound during in vitro capacitation inhibits ERK activation and significantly reduces the ability of spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction in response to progesterone. Since only capacitated spermatozoa are able to respond to progesterone, these data strongly indicate that ERKs are involved in the regulation of capacitation. In summary, our data demonstrate the presence of functional ERKs in human spermatozoa and indicate that these enzymes are involved in activation of these cells during capacitation, providing new insight in clarifying the molecular mechanisms and the

  4. Structural and functional characterization of human NAD kinase.

    PubMed

    Lerner, F; Niere, M; Ludwig, A; Ziegler, M

    2001-10-19

    NADP is essential for biosynthetic pathways, energy, and signal transduction. Its synthesis is catalyzed by NAD kinase. Very little is known about the structure, function, and regulation of this enzyme from multicellular organisms. We identified a human NAD kinase cDNA and the corresponding gene using available database information. A cDNA was amplified from a human fibroblast cDNA library and functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The obtained cDNA, slightly different from that deposited in the database, encodes a protein of 49 kDa. The gene is expressed in most human tissues, but not in skeletal muscle. Human NAD kinase differs considerably from that of prokaryotes by subunit molecular mass (49 kDa vs 30-35 kDa). The catalytically active homotetramer is highly selective for its substrates, NAD and ATP. It did not phosphorylate the nicotinic acid derivative of NAD (NAAD) suggesting that the potent calcium-mobilizing pyridine nucleotide NAADP is synthesized by an alternative route. PMID:11594753

  5. Protein kinase C mediates platelet secretion and thrombus formation through protein kinase D2

    PubMed Central

    Konopatskaya, Olga; Matthews, Sharon A.; Harper, Matthew T.; Gilio, Karen; Cosemans, Judith M. E. M.; Williams, Christopher M.; Navarro, Maria N.; Carter, Deborah A.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Leitges, Michael; Cantrell, Doreen; Poole, Alastair W.

    2016-01-01

    Platelets are highly specialized blood cells critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family have established roles in regulating platelet function and thrombosis, but the molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In particular, the conventional PKC isoform, PKCα, is a major regulator of platelet granule secretion, but the molecular pathway from PKCα to secretion is not defined. Protein kinase D (PKD) is a family of 3 kinases activated by PKC, which may represent a step in the PKC signaling pathway to secretion. In the present study, we show that PKD2 is the sole PKD member regulated downstream of PKC in platelets, and that the conventional, but not novel, PKC isoforms provide the upstream signal. Platelets from a gene knock-in mouse in which 2 key phosphorylation sites in PKD2 have been mutated (Ser707Ala/Ser711Ala) show a significant reduction in agonist-induced dense granule secretion, but not in α-granule secretion. This deficiency in dense granule release was responsible for a reduced platelet aggregation and a marked reduction in thrombus formation. Our results show that in the molecular pathway to secretion, PKD2 is a key component of the PKC-mediated pathway to platelet activation and thrombus formation through its selective regulation of dense granule secretion. PMID:21527521

  6. Tonoplast-Bound Protein Kinase Phosphorylates Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth D.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1992-01-01

    Tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) is a member of a family of putative membrane channels found in bacteria, animals, and plants. Plants have seed-specific, vegetative/reproductive organ-specific, and water-stress-induced forms of TIP. Here, we report that the seed-specific TIP is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation can be monitored in vivo by allowing bean cotyledons to take up [32P]orthophosphate and in vitro by incubating purified tonoplasts with γ-labeled [32P]ATP. Characterization of the in vitro phosphorylation of TIP indicates that a membrane-bound protein kinase phosphorylates TIP in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The capacity of the isolated tonoplast membranes to phosphorylate TIP declined markedly during seed germination, and this decline occurred well before the development-mediated decrease in TIP occurs. Phosphoamino acid analysis of purified, radiolabeled TIP showed that serine is the major, if not only, phosphorylated residue, and cyanogen bromide cleavage yielded a single radioactive peptide peak on a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatogram. Estimation of the molecular mass of the cyanogen bromide phosphopeptide by laser desorption mass spectroscopy led to its identification as the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of TIP. The putative phosphate-accepting serine residue occurs in a consensus phosphorylation site for serine/threonine protein kinases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16653198

  7. PDGF-induced receptor phosphorylation and phosphoinositide hydrolysis are unaffected by protein kinase C activation in mouse swiss 3T3 and human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sturani, E.; Vicentini, L.M.; Zippel, R.; Toschi, L.; Pandiella-Alonso, A.; Comoglio, P.M.; Meldolesi, J.

    1986-05-29

    Short (1-10 min) pretreatment of intact cells with activators of protein kinase C (e.g. phorbol-12 myristate, 13-acetate, PMA) affects the activity of a variety of surface receptors (for growth factors, hormones and neurotransmitters), with inhibition of transmembrane signal generation. In two types of fibroblasts it is demonstrated that the PDGF receptor is unaffected by PMA. Exposure to PMA at concentrations up to 100 nM for 10 min failed to inhibit either one of the agonist-induced, receptor-coupled responses of PDGF: the autophosphorylation of receptor molecules at tyrosine residues, and the hydrolysis of membrane polyphosphoinositides. In contrast, the EGF receptor autophosphorylation (in A 431 cells) and the bombesin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis were readily inhibited by PMA.

  8. Resolution of thylakoid polyphenol oxidase and a protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Race, H.L.; Davenport, J.W.; Hind, G.

    1995-12-31

    The predominant protein kinase activity in octylglucoside (OG) extracts of spinach thylakoids has been attributed to a 64-kDa protein, tp64. Recent work calls into question the relation between tp64 and protein kinase activity, which were fractionated apart using fluid phase IEF and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Hind et al. sequenced tp64 from the cDNA and showed it to be a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) homolog. Its transit peptide indicates a location for the mature protein within the thylakoid lumen, where there is presumably no ATP and where it is remote from the presumed kinase substrates: the stromally exposed regions of integral PS-II membrane proteins. Here the authors suggest that the kinase is a 64-kDa protein distinct from tp64.

  9. Characterization of the endogenous protein kinase activity of the hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kann, M; Thomssen, R; Köchel, H G; Gerlich, W H

    1993-01-01

    During the assembly of the nucleocapsid of the hepatitis B virus a protein kinase, probably of cellular origin, is encapsidated. This enzyme phosphorylates serine residue(s) localized within the lumen of the particle. By using purified, liver-derived core particles, we characterized the protein kinase activity in the presence of different ions and inhibitors. Controls were performed with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) and recombinant core particles. We showed that the endogenous protein kinase of the core particles was not inhibited by H89, a specific inhibitor of PKA. Staurosporine, a selective inhibitor of PKC inhibited the endogenous kinase activity only within the first minutes of the reaction. In contrast, quercetine, a selective inhibitor of the protein kinase M (PKM) did not inhibit during the first minutes but inhibited efficiently during later phases of incubation. PKM represents an enzymatically active proteolytic fragment of PKC. These results suggest that PKC is encapsidated into human core particles and is converted to PKM during the in vitro reaction. This conclusion implies the association of a protease activity localized with the HBV nucleocapsid inside liver-derived core particles. PMID:8260877

  10. Dataset of integrin-linked kinase protein: Protein interactions in cardiomyocytes identified by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Traister, Alexandra; Lu, Mingliang; Coles, John G; Maynes, Jason T

    2016-06-01

    Using hearts from mice overexpressing integrin linked kinase (ILK) behind the cardiac specific promoter αMHC, we have performed immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify novel ILK protein:protein interactions that regulate cardiomyocyte activity and calcium flux. Integrin linked kinase complexes were captured from mouse heart lysates using a commercial antibody, with subsequent liquid chromatography tandem mass spectral analysis. Interacting partners were identified using the MASCOT server, and important interactions verified using reverse immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. All ILK interacting proteins were identified in a non-biased manner, and are stored in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (reference ID PRIDE: PXD001053). The functional role of identified ILK interactions in cardiomyocyte function and arrhythmia were subsequently confirmed in human iPSC-cardiomyocytes. PMID:27408918

  11. Discovery and Characterization of Non-ATP Site Inhibitors of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Comess, Kenneth M.; Sun, Chaohong; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Goedken, Eric R.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Borhani, David W.; Argiriadi, Maria; Groebe, Duncan R.; Jia, Yong; Clampit, Jill E.; Haasch, Deanna L.; Smith, Harriet T.; Wang, Sanyi; Song, Danying; Coen, Michael L.; Cloutier, Timothy E.; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Xueheng; Quinn, Christopher; Liu, Bo; Xin, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Stoll, Vincent; Ng, Teresa I.; Banach, David; Marcotte, Doug; Burns, David J.; Calderwood, David J.; Hajduk, Philip J.

    2012-03-02

    Inhibition of protein kinases has validated therapeutic utility for cancer, with at least seven kinase inhibitor drugs on the market. Protein kinase inhibition also has significant potential for a variety of other diseases, including diabetes, pain, cognition, and chronic inflammatory and immunologic diseases. However, as the vast majority of current approaches to kinase inhibition target the highly conserved ATP-binding site, the use of kinase inhibitors in treating nononcology diseases may require great selectivity for the target kinase. As protein kinases are signal transducers that are involved in binding to a variety of other proteins, targeting alternative, less conserved sites on the protein may provide an avenue for greater selectivity. Here we report an affinity-based, high-throughput screening technique that allows nonbiased interrogation of small molecule libraries for binding to all exposed sites on a protein surface. This approach was used to screen both the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase Jnk-1 (involved in insulin signaling) and p38{alpha} (involved in the formation of TNF{alpha} and other cytokines). In addition to canonical ATP-site ligands, compounds were identified that bind to novel allosteric sites. The nature, biological relevance, and mode of binding of these ligands were extensively characterized using two-dimensional {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, protein X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and direct enzymatic activity and activation cascade assays. Jnk-1 and p38{alpha} both belong to the MAP kinase family, and the allosteric ligands for both targets bind similarly on a ledge of the protein surface exposed by the MAP insertion present in the CMGC family of protein kinases and distant from the active site. Medicinal chemistry studies resulted in an improved Jnk-1 ligand able to increase adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes and increase insulin-induced protein kinase PKB phosphorylation in human hepatocytes, in

  12. Mitogen activated protein kinase at the nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Faustino, Randolph S; Maddaford, Thane G; Pierce, Grant N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases control eukaryotic proliferation, and import of kinases into the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) can influence gene expression to affect cellular growth, cell viability and homeostatic function. The NPC is a critical regulatory checkpoint for nucleocytoplasmic traffic that regulates gene expression and cell growth, and MAP kinases may be physically associated with the NPC to modulate transport. In the present study, highly enriched NPC fractions were isolated and investigated for associated kinases and/or activity. Endogenous kinase activity was identified within the NPC fraction, which phosphorylated a 30 kD nuclear pore protein. Phosphomodification of this nucleoporin, here termed Nup30, was inhibited by apigenin and PD-98059, two MAP kinase antagonists as well as with SB-202190, a pharmacological blocker of p38. Furthermore, high throughput profiling of enriched NPCs revealed constitutive presence of all members of the MAP kinase family, extracellular regulated kinases (ERK), p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase. The NPC thus contains a spectrum of associated MAP kinases that suggests an intimate role for ERK and p38 in regulation of nuclear pore function. PMID:20497490

  13. Identification of the regulatory autophosphorylation site of autophosphorylation-dependent protein kinase (auto-kinase). Evidence that auto-kinase belongs to a member of the p21-activated kinase family.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J S; Chen, W J; Ni, M H; Chan, W H; Yang, S D

    1998-01-01

    Autophosphorylation-dependent protein kinase (auto-kinase) was identified from pig brain and liver on the basis of its unique autophosphorylation/activation property [Yang, Fong, Yu and Liu (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 7034-7040; Yang, Chang and Soderling (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 9421-9427]. Its substrate consensus sequence motif was determined as being -R-X-(X)-S*/T*-X3-S/T-. To characterize auto-kinase further, we partly sequenced the kinase purified from pig liver. The N-terminal sequence (VDGGAKTSDKQKKKAXMTDE) and two internal peptide sequences (EKLRTIV and LQNPEK/ILTP/FI) of auto-kinase were obtained. These sequences identify auto-kinase as a C-terminal catalytic fragment of p21-activated protein kinase 2 (PAK2 or gamma-PAK) lacking its N-terminal regulatory region. Auto-kinase can be recognized by an antibody raised against the C-terminal peptide of human PAK2 by immunoblotting. Furthermore the autophosphorylation site sequence of auto-kinase was successfully predicted on the basis of its substrate consensus sequence motif and the known PAK2 sequence, and was further demonstrated to be RST(P)MVGTPYWMAPEVVTR by phosphoamino acid analysis, manual Edman degradation and phosphopeptide mapping via the help of phosphorylation site analysis of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence of PAK2 from residues 396 to 418. During the activation process, auto-kinase autophosphorylates mainly on a single threonine residue Thr402 (according to the sequence numbering of human PAK2). In addition, a phospho-specific antibody against a synthetic phosphopeptide containing this identified sequence was generated and shown to be able to differentially recognize the activated auto-kinase autophosphorylated at Thr402 but not the non-phosphorylated/inactive auto-kinase. Immunoblot analysis with this phospho-specific antibody further revealed that the change in phosphorylation level of Thr402 of auto-kinase was well correlated with the activity change of the kinase during both

  14. The WNKs: atypical protein kinases with pleiotropic actions

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, James A.; Ellison, David H.

    2011-01-01

    WNKs are serine/threonine kinases that comprise a unique branch of the kinome. They are so-named owing to the unusual placement of an essential catalytic lysine. WNKs have now been identified in diverse organisms. In humans and other mammals, four genes encoding WNKs. WNKs are widely expressed at the message level, although data on protein expression is more limited. Soon after the WNKs were identified, mutations in genes encoding WNK 1 and 4 were determined to cause the human disease, Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (also known as pseudohypoaldosteronism II, or Gordon’s Syndrome). For this reason, a major focus of investigation has been to dissect the role of WNK kinases in renal regulation of ion transport. More recently, a different mutation in WNK1 was identified as the cause of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSANII), an early-onset autosomal disease of peripheral sensory nerves. Thus, the WNKs represent an important family of potential targets for the treatment of human disease, and further elucidation of their physiological actions outside of the kidney and brain is necessary. In this review, we describe the gene structure and mechanisms regulating expression and activity of the WNKs. Subsequently, we outline substrates and targets of WNKs, and effects of WNKs on cellular physiology, both in the kidney and elsewhere. Next, consequences of these effects on integrated physiological function are outlined. Finally, we discuss the known and putative pathophysiological relevance of the WNKs. PMID:21248166

  15. Cell cycle regulation by the NEK family of protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew M; O'Regan, Laura; Sabir, Sarah R; Bayliss, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis A (NIMA), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. Since that discovery, NIMA-related kinases, or NEKs, have been identified in most eukaryotes, including humans where eleven genetically distinct proteins named NEK1 to NEK11 are expressed. Although there is no evidence that human NEKs are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several NEK family members have important roles in cell cycle control. In particular, NEK2, NEK6, NEK7 and NEK9 contribute to the establishment of the microtubule-based mitotic spindle, whereas NEK1, NEK10 and NEK11 have been implicated in the DNA damage response. Roles for NEKs in other aspects of mitotic progression, such as chromatin condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and cytokinesis have also been proposed. Interestingly, NEK1 and NEK8 also function within cilia, the microtubule-based structures that are nucleated from basal bodies. This has led to the current hypothesis that NEKs have evolved to coordinate microtubule-dependent processes in both dividing and non-dividing cells. Here, we review the functions of the human NEKs, with particular emphasis on those family members that are involved in cell cycle control, and consider their potential as therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:23132929

  16. Protein kinase A alterations in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Espiard, S; Ragazzon, B; Bertherat, J

    2014-11-01

    Stimulation of the cAMP pathway by adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is essential for adrenal cortex maintenance, glucocorticoid and adrenal androgens synthesis, and secretion. Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cAMP pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway. Molecular alterations of PKA subunits have been observed in adrenocortical tumors. PKA molecular defects can be germline in hereditary disorders or somatic in sporadic tumors. Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) can be observed in patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Germline gene duplication of the catalytic subunits Cα (PRKACA) has been observed in patients with PPNAD. Furthermore, exome sequencing revealed recently activating somatic mutations of PRKACA in about 40% of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. In vitro and in vivo functional studies help in the progress to understand the mechanisms of adrenocortical tumors development due to PKA regulatory subunits alterations. All these alterations are observed in benign oversecreting tumors and are mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. On the long term, unraveling these alterations will open new strategies of pharmacological treatment targeting the cAMP pathway in adrenal tumors and cortisol-secretion disorders. PMID:25105543

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michelle W.M.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that male reproductive function is modulated via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The MAPK cascade is involved in numerous male reproductive processes, including spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and activation, capacitation and acrosome reaction, before fertilization of the oocyte. In this review, we discuss the latest findings in this rapidly developing field regarding the role of MAPK in male reproduction in animal models and in human spermatozoa in vitro. This research will facilitate the design of future studies in humans, although much work is needed before this information can be used to manage male infertility and environmental toxicant-induced testicular injury in men, such as blood–testis-barrier disruption. PMID:19303360

  18. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  19. Citron kinase enhances ubiquitination of HIV-1 Gag protein and intracellular HIV-1 budding.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiwei; Zhao, Jianyuan; Sun, Lei; Mi, Zeyun; Cen, Shan

    2016-09-01

    Assembly and budding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles is a complex process involving a number of host proteins. We have previously reported that the RhoA effector citron kinase enhances HIV-1 production. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. In this study, we found that citron kinase interacted with HIV-1 Gag protein via its zinc finger and leucine zipper domains. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that citron kinase induced viral particle assembly in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Citron kinase enhanced ubiquitination of HIV-1 Gag protein. Knockdown of Nedd4L, a member of the HECT ubiquitin E3 ligase family, partly decreased the ability of citron kinase to enhance HIV-1 production and reduced ubiquitination of HIV-1 Gag. Interestingly, the function of citron kinase to promote HIV-1 budding was severely impaired when endogenous ALIX was knocked down. Overexpression of the AAA-type ATPase VPS4 eliminated citron-kinase-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 production. Our results suggest that citron kinase interacts with HIV-1 Gag and enhances HIV-1 production by promoting Gag ubiquitination and inducing viral release via the MVB pathway. PMID:27339686

  20. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Christofk, H.R.; Vander Heiden, M.G.; Wu, N.; Asara, J.M.; Cantley, L.C.

    2008-06-03

    Growth factors stimulate cells to take up excess nutrients and to use them for anabolic processes. The biochemical mechanism by which this is accomplished is not fully understood but it is initiated by phosphorylation of signalling proteins on tyrosine residues. Using a novel proteomic screen for phosphotyrosine-binding proteins, we have made the observation that an enzyme involved in glycolysis, the human M2 (fetal) isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), binds directly and selectively to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. We show that binding of phosphotyrosine peptides to PKM2 results in release of the allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, leading to inhibition of PKM2 enzymatic activity. We also provide evidence that this regulation of PKM2 by phosphotyrosine signalling diverts glucose metabolites from energy production to anabolic processes when cells are stimulated by certain growth factors. Collectively, our results indicate that expression of this phosphotyrosine-binding form of pyruvate kinase is critical for rapid growth in cancer cells.

  1. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Is Required for Regulation during Dark-Light Transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Horim

    2015-07-01

    Plant growth and development are coordinately orchestrated by environmental cues and phytohormones. Light acts as a key environmental factor for fundamental plant growth and physiology through photosensory phytochromes and underlying molecular mechanisms. Although phytochromes are known to possess serine/threonine protein kinase activities, whether they trigger a signal transduction pathway via an intracellular protein kinase network remains unknown. In analyses of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK, also called MKK) mutants, the mkk3 mutant has shown both a hypersensitive response in plant hormone gibberellin (GA) and a less sensitive response in red light signaling. Surprisingly, light-induced MAPK activation in wild-type (WT) seedlings and constitutive MAPK phosphorylation in dark-grown mkk3 mutant seedlings have also been found, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that MKK3 acts in negative regulation in darkness and in light-induced MAPK activation during dark-light transition. PMID:26082029

  2. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  3. Regulatory Crosstalk by Protein Kinases on CFTR Trafficking and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David L.; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e., channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease. PMID:26835446

  4. Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A regulates apoptosis by stabilizing the BH3-only protein Bim.

    PubMed

    Moujalled, Diane; Weston, Ross; Anderton, Holly; Ninnis, Robert; Goel, Pranay; Coley, Andrew; Huang, David C S; Wu, Li; Strasser, Andreas; Puthalakath, Hamsa

    2011-01-01

    The proapoptotic Bcl2 homology domain 3(BH3)-only protein Bim is controlled by stringent post-translational regulation, predominantly through alterations in phosphorylation status. To identify new kinases involved in its regulation, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen using a non-spliceable variant of the predominant isoform--Bim(EL)--as the bait and identified the regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A--PRKAR1A--as an interacting partner. We also show that protein kinase A (PKA) is a Bim(EL) isoform-specific kinase that promotes its stabilization. Inhibition of PKA or mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site within Bim(EL) resulted in its accelerated proteasome-dependent degradation. These results might have implications for human diseases that are characterized by abnormally increased PKA activity, such as the Carney complex and dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:21151042

  5. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling cascades for progesterone and IGF-binding protein-1 production in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Seto-Young, Donna; Zajac, Jacek; Liu, Hung-Ching; Rosenwaks, Zev; Poretsky, Leonid

    2003-07-01

    Insulin and IGF-I participate in the regulation of ovulation, steroidogenesis, and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) production in the ovary. Insulin and IGF-I actions in the ovary are closely related. For example, insulin may amplify IGF-I action in the ovary by up-regulating type I IGF receptors and inhibiting IGFBP-1 production, thus increasing the bioavailability of IGF-I. It is hypothesized that ovarian effects of insulin in insulin-resistant states are mediated via an insulin action pathway(s) distinct from those involved in glucose transport. We previously reported that insulin-induced stimulation of progesterone and inhibition of IGFBP-1 production in the human ovary are mediated by signaling pathways that are independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the enzyme whose activation is crucial for glucose transport. We now examined whether activation of MAPK is necessary to mediate insulin-induced or IGF-I-induced stimulation of progesterone or inhibition of IGFBP-1 production in human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were obtained during in vitro fertilization. Cells (0.5-1 x 10(5)) were incubated for 24 h in the presence of 0, 10, 10(2), or 10(3) ng/ml insulin or 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, or 5 ng/ml IGF-I and in the presence or absence of 1 micro M PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 MAPK. The progesterone concentration in the tissue culture medium was measured by RIA (Pantex, Santa Monica, CA), and the IGFBP-1 concentration was measured by immunoradiometric assay (DSL-7800, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc., Webster, TX). MAPK activity was assessed using the MAPK IP-Kinase assay kit (Upstate Biotechnology, Inc., Lake Placid, NY). ANOVA was used to compare mean values of progesterone or IGFBP-1 concentrations. MAPK was stimulated by insulin up to 350% of the baseline value. Progesterone production in human granulosa cells was stimulated by insulin in a dose-related manner to 123% of the control value (P < 0.001), and IGFBP-1 production was inhibited to 25

  6. Protein kinase C sensitizes olfactory adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Frings, S

    1993-02-01

    Effects of neurotransmitters on cAMP-mediated signal transduction in frog olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were studied using in situ spike recordings and radioimmunoassays. Carbachol, applied to the mucosal side of olfactory epithelium, amplified the electrical response of ORCs to cAMP-generating odorants, but did not affect unstimulated cells. A similar augmentation of odorant response was observed in the presence of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC). The electrical response to forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase (AC), was also enhanced by PDBu, and it was attenuated by the PKC inhibitor Goe 6983. Forskolin-induced accumulation of cAMP in olfactory tissue was potentiated by carbachol, serotonin, and PDBu to a similar extent. Potentiation was completely suppressed by the PKC inhibitors Goe 6983, staurosporine, and polymyxin B, suggesting that the sensitivity of olfactory AC to stimulation by odorants and forskolin was increased by PKC. Experiments with deciliated olfactory tissue indicated that sensitization of AC was restricted to sensory cilia of ORCs. To study the effects of cell Ca2+ on these mechanisms, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of olfactory tissue was either increased by ionomycin or decreased by BAPTA/AM. Increasing cell Ca2+ had two effects on cAMP production: (a) the basal cAMP production was enhanced by a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of calmodulin; and (b) similar to phorbol ester, cell Ca2+ caused sensitization of AC to stimulation by forskolin, an effect sensitive to Goe 6983. Decreasing cell Ca2+ below basal levels rendered AC unresponsive to stimulation by forskolin. These data suggest that a crosstalk mechanism is functional in frog ORCs, linking the sensitivity of AC to the activity of PKC. At increased activity of PKC, olfactory AC becomes more responsive to stimulation by odorants, forskolin, and cell Ca2+. Neurotransmitters appear to use this crosstalk mechanism to regulate olfactory

  7. Phosphorylation of the 27-kDa heat shock protein via p38 MAP kinase and MAPKAP kinase in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J K; Yamboliev, I A; Weber, L A; Gerthoffer, W T

    1997-11-01

    The 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP27) is expressed in a variety of tissues in the absence of stress and is thought to regulate actin filament dynamics, possibly by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanism. HSP27 has also been suggested to be involved in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle. We have investigated phosphorylation of HSP27 in airway smooth muscle in response to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Carbachol increased 32P incorporation into canine tracheal HSP27 and induced a shift in the distribution of charge isoforms on two-dimensional gels to more acidic, phosphorylated forms. The canine HSP27 amino acid sequence includes three serine residues corresponding to sites in human HSP27 known to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-2. To determine whether muscarinic receptors are coupled to a "stress response" pathway in smooth muscle culminating in phosphorylation of HSP27, we assayed MAPKAP kinase-2 activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, the enzyme thought to activate MAPKAP kinase-2. Recombinant canine HSP27 expressed in Escherichia coli was a substrate for MAPKAP kinase-2 in vitro as well as a substrate for endogenous smooth muscle HSP27 kinase, which was activated by carbachol. Carbachol also increased tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. SB-203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinases, reduced activation of endogenous HSP27 kinase activity and blocked the shift in HSP27 charge isoforms to acidic forms. We suggest that HSP27 in airway smooth muscle, in addition to being a stress response protein, is phosphorylated by a receptor-initiated signaling cascade involving muscarinic receptors, tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, and activation of MAPKAP kinase-2. PMID:9374719

  8. Pim Kinase Interacts with Nonstructural 5A Protein and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chorong; Min, Saehong; Park, Eun-Mee; Lim, Yun-Sook; Kang, Sangmin; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on host cellular proteins for virus propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assay using the HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein as a probe. Of ∼9,000 human cellular proteins immobilized in a microarray, approximately 90 cellular proteins were identified as NS5A interactors. Of these candidates, Pim1, a member of serine/threonine kinase family composed of three different isoforms (Pim1, Pim2, and Pim3), was selected for further study. Pim kinases share a consensus sequence which overlaps with kinase activity. Pim kinase activity has been implicated in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we verified the physical interaction between NS5A and Pim1 by both in vitro pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Pim1 interacted with NS5A through amino acid residues 141 to 180 of Pim1. We demonstrated that protein stability of Pim1 was increased by NS5A protein and this increase was mediated by protein interplay. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Pim kinase abrogated HCV propagation. By employing HCV pseudoparticle entry and single-cycle HCV infection assays, we further demonstrated that Pim kinase was involved in HCV entry at a postbinding step. These data suggest that Pim kinase may represent a new host factor for HCV entry. IMPORTANCE Pim1 is an oncogenic serine/threonine kinase. HCV NS5A protein physically interacts with Pim1 and contributes to Pim1 protein stability. Since Pim1 protein expression level is upregulated in many cancers, NS5A-mediated protein stability may be associated with HCV pathogenesis. Either gene silencing or chemical inhibition of Pim kinase abrogated HCV propagation in HCV-infected cells. We further showed that Pim kinase was specifically required at an early entry step of the HCV life cycle. Thus, we have identified Pim kinase not only as an HCV cell

  9. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    PubMed Central

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inês CR; Willige, Björn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the—in many cells—asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02860.001 PMID:24948515

  10. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID.

    PubMed

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inês C R; Willige, Björn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the--in many cells--asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant. PMID:24948515

  11. Silencing expression of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase by small interfering RNA sensitizes human cells for radiation-induced chromosome damage, cell killing, and mutation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Yuanlin; Zhang, Qinming; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Liber, Howard L.; Bedford, Joel S.

    2002-01-01

    Targeted gene silencing in mammalian cells by RNA interference (RNAi) using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was recently described by Elbashir et al. (S. M. Elbashir et al., Nature (Lond.), 411: 494-498, 2001). We have used this methodology in several human cell strains to reduce expression of the Prkdc (DNA-PKcs) gene coding for the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) that is involved in the nonhomologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks. We have also demonstrated a radiosensitization for several phenotypic endpoints of radiation damage. In low-passage normal human fibroblasts, siRNA knock-down of DNA-PKcs resulted in a reduced capacity for restitution of radiation-induced interphase chromosome breaks as measured by premature chromosome condensation, an increased yield of acentric chromosome fragments at the first postirradiation mitosis, and an increased radiosensitivity for cell killing. For three strains of related human lymphoblasts, DNA-PKcs-targeted siRNA transfection resulted in little or no increase in radiosensitivity with respect to cell killing, a 1.5-fold decrease in induced mutant yield in TK6- and p53-null NH32 cells, but about a 2-fold increase in induced mutant yield in p53-mutant WTK1 cells at both the hypoxanthine quanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) and the thymidine kinase loci.

  12. Global Analysis of Human Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase Specificity Using High-Density Peptide Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases phosphorylate substrates in the context of specific phosphorylation site sequence motifs. The knowledge of the specific sequences that are recognized by kinases is useful for mapping sites of phosphorylation in protein substrates and facilitates the generation of model substrates to monitor kinase activity. Here, we have adapted a positional scanning peptide library method to a microarray format that is suitable for the rapid determination of phosphorylation site motifs for tyrosine kinases. Peptide mixtures were immobilized on glass slides through a layer of a tyrosine-free Y33F mutant avidin to facilitate the analysis of phosphorylation by radiolabel assay. A microarray analysis provided qualitatively similar results in comparison with the solution phase peptide library “macroarray” method. However, much smaller quantities of kinases were required to phosphorylate peptides on the microarrays, which thus enabled a proteome scale analysis of kinase specificity. We illustrated this capability by microarray profiling more than 80% of the human nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). Microarray results were used to generate a universal NRTK substrate set of 11 consensus peptides for in vitro kinase assays. Several substrates were highly specific for their cognate kinases, which should facilitate their incorporation into kinase-selective biosensors. PMID:25164267

  13. Activation of protein kinase C induces mitogen-activated protein kinase dephosphorylation and pronucleus formation in rat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Smith, Gary D; Chen, Da-Yuan; Han, Zhi-Ming; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2002-07-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII) before fertilization. When oocytes are stimulated by spermatozoa, they exit MII stage and complete meiosis. It has been suggested that an immediate increase in intracellular free calcium concentration and inactivation of maturation promoting factor (MPF) are required for oocyte activation. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and their interplay in rat oocyte activation. We found that MAP kinase became dephosphorylated in correlation with pronucleus formation after fertilization. Protein kinase C activators, phorbol 12-myriatate 13-acetate (PMA) and 1,2-dioctanoyl-rac-glycerol (diC8), triggered dephosphorylation of MAP kinase and pronucleus formation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Dephosphorylation of MAP kinase was also correlated with pronucleus formation when oocytes were treated with PKC activators. Effects of PKC activators were abolished by the PKC inhibitors, calphostin C and staurosporine, as well as a protein phosphatase blocker, okadaic acid (OA). These results suggest that PKC activation may cause rat oocyte pronucleus formation via MAP kinase dephosphorylation, which is probably mediated by OA-sensitive protein phosphatases. We also provide evidence supporting the involvement of such a process in fertilization. PMID:12080000

  14. Hypolipidemic activity of Taraxacum mongolicum associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jin; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Lee, Jang-Chang; Chen, Fu-An; Lee, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Way, Tzong-Der

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect and potential mechanisms of T. mongolicum extracts. T. mongolicum was extracted by refluxing three times with water (TM-1), 50% ethanol (TM-2) and 95% ethanol (TM-3). TM-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potentials in HepG2 cells. Extended administration of TM-2 stimulated a significant reduction in body weight and levels of serum triglyceride LDL-C and total cholesterol in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively fractionated TM-2 with n-hexane (TM-4), dichloromethane (TM-5), ethyl acetate (TM-6), and water (TM-7). TM-4 fraction had the most effective hypolipidemic potential in HepG2 cells, and it decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) through the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Linoleic acid, phytol and tetracosanol are bioactive compounds identified from TM-4. These results suggest that T. mongolicum is expected to be useful for hypolipidemic effects. PMID:24903219

  15. Biochemical Screening of Five Protein Kinases from Plasmodium falciparum against 14,000 Cell-Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Gregory J.; Hillesland, Heidi K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Reid, Molly C.; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria Jose; Ghidelli-Disse, Sonja; Leonard, Stephen E.; He, Panqing; Jones, Jackson C.; Krahn, Mallory M.; Mo, Jack S.; Dasari, Kartheek S.; Fox, Anna M. W.; Boesche, Markus; El Bakkouri, Majida; Rivas, Kasey L.; Leroy, Didier; Hui, Raymond; Drewes, Gerard; Maly, Dustin J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Ojo, Kayode K.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010 the identities of thousands of anti-Plasmodium compounds were released publicly to facilitate malaria drug development. Understanding these compounds’ mechanisms of action—i.e., the specific molecular targets by which they kill the parasite—would further facilitate the drug development process. Given that kinases are promising anti-malaria targets, we screened ~14,000 cell-active compounds for activity against five different protein kinases. Collections of cell-active compounds from GlaxoSmithKline (the ~13,000-compound Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set, or TCAMS), St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (260 compounds), and the Medicines for Malaria Venture (the 400-compound Malaria Box) were screened in biochemical assays of Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinases 1 and 4 (CDPK1 and CDPK4), mitogen-associated protein kinase 2 (MAPK2/MAP2), protein kinase 6 (PK6), and protein kinase 7 (PK7). Novel potent inhibitors (IC50 < 1 μM) were discovered for three of the kinases: CDPK1, CDPK4, and PK6. The PK6 inhibitors are the most potent yet discovered for this enzyme and deserve further scrutiny. Additionally, kinome-wide competition assays revealed a compound that inhibits CDPK4 with few effects on ~150 human kinases, and several related compounds that inhibit CDPK1 and CDPK4 yet have limited cytotoxicity to human (HepG2) cells. Our data suggest that inhibiting multiple Plasmodium kinase targets without harming human cells is challenging but feasible. PMID:26934697

  16. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  17. African swine fever virus encodes a serine protein kinase which is packaged into virions.

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, S A; Banham, A H; Vydelingum, S; Dixon, L K; Smith, G L

    1993-01-01

    Nucleotide sequencing of the SalI j region of the virulent Malawi (LIL20/1) strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV) identified an open reading frame (ORF), designated j9L, with extensive similarity to the family of protein kinases. This ORF encodes a 35.1-kDa protein of 299 amino acids which shares 24.6% amino acid identity with the human pim-1 proto-oncogene and 21.0% identity with the vaccinia virus B1R-encoded protein kinase. The ASFV ORF contains the motifs characteristic of serine-threonine protein kinases, with the exception of the presumed ATP-binding site, which is poorly conserved. The ORF was expressed to high levels in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme phosphorylated a calf thymus histone protein on serine residues in vitro. An antibody raised to an amino-terminal peptide of the ASFV protein kinase was reactive with the recombinant protein in Western immunoblot analyses and was used to demonstrate the presence of the protein kinase in ASF virions. Images PMID:8331722

  18. Dynamics of Protein Kinases: Insights from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yao; Liddle, Jennifer C.; Pardi, Arthur; Ahn, Natalie G.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Protein kinases are ubiquitous enzymes with critical roles in cellular processes and pathology. As a result, researchers have studied their activity and regulatory mechanisms extensively. Thousands of X-ray structures give snapshots of the architectures of protein kinases in various states of activation and ligand binding. However, the extent of and manner by which protein motions and conformational dynamics underlie the function and regulation of these important enzymes is not well understood. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide complementary information about protein conformation and dynamics in solution. However, until recently, the large size of these enzymes prevented researchers from using these methods with kinases. Developments in transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY)-based techniques and more efficient isotope labeling strategies are now allowing researchers to carry out NMR studies on full-length protein kinases. In this Account, we describe recent insights into the role of dynamics in protein kinase regulation and catalysis that have been gained from NMR measurements of chemical shift changes and line broadening, residual dipolar couplings, and relaxation. These findings show strong associations between protein motion and events that control kinase activity. Dynamic and conformational changes occurring at ligand binding sites and other regulatory domains of these proteins propagate to conserved kinase core regions that mediate catalytic function. NMR measurements of slow time scale (microsecond to millisecond) motions also reveal that kinases carry out global exchange processes that synchronize multiple residues and allosteric interconversion between conformational states. Activating covalent modifications or ligand binding to form the Michaelis complex can induce these global processes. Inhibitors can also exploit the exchange properties of kinases by using conformational selection to form dynamically quenched

  19. Protein Kinase C-mediated Phosphorylation and Activation of PDE3A Regulate cAMP Levels in Human Platelets*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Roger W.; MacKintosh, Carol; Hers, Ingeborg

    2009-01-01

    The elevation of [cAMP]i is an important mechanism of platelet inhibition and is regulated by the opposing activity of adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase (PDE). In this study, we demonstrate that a variety of platelet agonists, including thrombin, significantly enhance the activity of PDE3A in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Stimulation of platelets with the PAR-1 agonist SFLLRN resulted in rapid and transient phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser312, Ser428, Ser438, Ser465, and Ser492, in parallel with the PKC (protein kinase C) substrate, pleckstrin. Furthermore, phosphorylation and activation of PDE3A required the activation of PKC, but not of PI3K/PKB, mTOR/p70S6K, or ERK/RSK. Activation of PKC by phorbol esters also resulted in phosphorylation of the same PDE3A sites in a PKC-dependent, PKB-independent manner. This was further supported by the finding that IGF-1, which strongly activates PI3K/PKB, but not PKC, did not regulate PDE3A. Platelet activation also led to a PKC-dependent association between PDE3A and 14-3-3 proteins. In contrast, cAMP-elevating agents such as PGE1 and forskolin-induced phosphorylation of Ser312 and increased PDE3A activity, but did not stimulate 14-3-3 binding. Finally, complete antagonism of PGE1-evoked cAMP accumulation by thrombin required both Gi and PKC activation. Together, these results demonstrate that platelet activation stimulates PKC-dependent phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser312, Ser428, Ser438, Ser465, and Ser492 leading to a subsequent increase in cAMP hydrolysis and 14-3-3 binding. PMID:19261611

  20. Leishmania Infection Engages Non-Receptor Protein Kinases Differentially to Persist in Infected Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naixin; Kima, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases play important roles in the regulation of cellular activities. In cells infected by pathogens, there is an increasing appreciation that dysregulated expression of protein kinases promotes the success of intracellular infections. In Leishmania-infected cells, expression and activation of protein kinases, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases, kinases in the PI3-kinase signaling pathway, and kinases in the NF-κB-signaling pathway, are modulated in some manner. Several recent reviews have discussed our current understanding of the roles of these kinases in Leishmania infections. Apart from the kinases in the pathways enumerated above, there are other host cell protein kinases that are activated during the Leishmania infection of mammalian cells whose roles also appear to be significant. This review discusses recent observations on the Abl family of protein kinases and the protein kinase regulated by RNA in Leishmania infections. PMID:27148265

  1. Giant protein kinases: domain interactions and structural basis of autoregulation.

    PubMed Central

    Kobe, B; Heierhorst, J; Feil, S C; Parker, M W; Benian, G M; Weiss, K R; Kemp, B E

    1996-01-01

    The myosin-associated giant protein kinases twitchin and titin are composed predominantly of fibronectin- and immunoglobulin-like modules. We report the crystal structures of two autoinhibited twitchin kinase fragments, one from Aplysia and a larger fragment from Caenorhabditis elegans containing an additional C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain. The structure of the longer fragment shows that the immunoglobulin domain contacts the protein kinase domain on the opposite side from the catalytic cleft, laterally exposing potential myosin binding residues. Together, the structures reveal the cooperative interactions between the autoregulatory region and the residues from the catalytic domain involved in protein substrate binding, ATP binding, catalysis and the activation loop, and explain the differences between the observed autoinhibitory mechanism and the one found in the structure of calmodulin-dependent kinase I. Images PMID:9003756

  2. Targeting protein kinases in central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chico, Laura K.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Watterson, D. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinases are a growing drug target class in disorders in peripheral tissues, but the development of kinase-targeted therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases remains a challenge, largely owing to issues associated specifically with CNS drug discovery. However, several candidate therapeutics that target CNS protein kinases are now in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. We review candidate compounds and discuss selected CNS protein kinases that are emerging as important therapeutic targets. In addition, we analyse trends in small-molecule properties that correlate with key challenges in CNS drug discovery, such as blood–brain barrier penetrance and cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, and discuss the potential of future approaches that will integrate molecular-fragment expansion with pharmacoinformatics to address these challenges. PMID:19876042

  3. Angiotensin II stimulates melanogenesis via the protein kinase C pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, LI-HONG; FAN, XIN; XIA, ZHI-KUAN; AN, XU-XI; YANG, RONG-YA

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a physiological process that results in the synthesis of melanin pigments, which serve a crucial function in hyperpigmentation. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on melanogenesis and to elucidate the molecular events of Ang II-induced melanogenesis. Experiments were performed on human melanocytes to elucidate the pigmenting effect of Ang II and the underlying mechanisms. The elements involved in melanogenesis, including melanin content, tyrosinase (TYR) activity, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and TYR expression at the mRNA and protein levels were evaluated. Melanin content and TYR activity increased in response to Ang II treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. MITF and TYR mRNA and protein expression levels were increased significantly in response to Ang II in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ang II-induced increase in melanin synthesis was reduced significantly in response to co-treatment with Ro-32-0432, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, whereas co-treatment with H-89, a PKA inhibitor, did not attenuate the Ang II-induced increase in melanin levels. These results suggest that PKC is required for Ang II-induced pigmentation in human melanocytes and that the mechanism involves the PKC pathway and MITF upregulation. PMID:26622519

  4. The crystal structure of choline kinase reveals a eukaryotic protein kinase fold

    SciTech Connect

    Peisach, D.; Gee, P.; Kent, K.; Xu, Z.

    2010-03-08

    Choline kinase catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of choline, the first committed step in the CDP-choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of a choline kinase from C. elegans (CKA-2) reveals that the enzyme is a homodimeric protein with each monomer organized into a two-domain fold. The structure is remarkably similar to those of protein kinases and aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, despite no significant similarity in amino acid sequence. Comparisons to the structures of other kinases suggest that ATP binds to CKA-2 in a pocket formed by highly conserved and catalytically important residues. In addition, a choline binding site is proposed to be near the ATP binding pocket and formed by several structurally flexible loops.

  5. AKAP79 Selectively Enhances Protein Kinase C Regulation of GluR1 at a Ca2+-Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II/Protein Kinase C Site*

    PubMed Central

    Tavalin, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Enhancement of AMPA receptor activity in response to synaptic plasticity inducing stimuli may arise, in part, through phosphorylation of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit at Ser-831. This site is a substrate for both Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase C (PKC). However, neuronal protein levels of CaMKII may exceed those of PKC by an order of magnitude. Thus, it is unclear how PKC could effectively regulate this common target site. The multivalent neuronal scaffold A-kinase-anchoring protein 79 (AKAP79) is known to bind PKC and is linked to GluR1 by synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97). Here, biochemical studies demonstrate that AKAP79 localizes PKC activity near the receptor, thus accelerating Ser-831 phosphorylation. Complementary electrophysiological studies indicate that AKAP79 selectively shifts the dose-dependence for PKC modulation of GluR1 receptor currents ∼20-fold, such that low concentrations of PKC are as effective as much higher CaMKII concentrations. By boosting PKC activity near a target substrate, AKAP79 provides a mechanism to overcome limitations in kinase abundance thereby ensuring faithful signal propagation and efficient modification of AMPA receptor-mediated responses. PMID:18305116

  6. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Attenuates High Salt-Induced Activation of Epithelial Sodium Channels (ENaC) in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Yuan; Hu, Qing-Qing; Ma, He-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in the endothelial cells. To test whether high salt affects the NO production via regulation of endothelial ENaC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated in solutions containing either normal or high sodium (additional 20 mM NaCl). Our data showed that high sodium treatment significantly increased α-, β-, and γ-ENaC expression levels in HUVECs. Using the cell-attached patch-clamp technique, we demonstrated that high sodium treatment significantly increased ENaC open probability (PO). Moreover, nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation (Ser 1177) levels and NO production were significantly decreased by high sodium in HUVECs; the effects of high sodium on eNOS phosphorylation and NO production were inhibited by a specific ENaC blocker, amiloride. Our results showed that high sodium decreased AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in endothelial cells. On the other hand, metformin, an AMPK activator, prevented high sodium-induced upregulation of ENaC expression and PO. Moreover, metformin prevented high salt-induced decrease in NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. These results suggest that high sodium stimulates ENaC activation by negatively modulating AMPK activity, thereby leading to reduction in eNOS activity and NO production in endothelial cells.

  7. The lectin-like domain of TNF protects from listeriolysin-induced hyperpermeability in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells — A crucial role for protein kinase C-α inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Chenling; Yang, Guang; Kumar, Sanjiv; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Leustik, Martin; Snead, Connie; Hamacher, Juerg; Fischer, Bernhard; Umapathy, Nagavedi S.; Hossain, Hamid; Wendel, Albrecht; Catravas, John D.; Verin, Alexander D.; Fulton, David; Black, Stephen M.; Chakraborty, Trinad; Lucas, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Listeriosis can lead to potentially lethal pulmonary complications in newborns and immune compromised patients, characterized by extensive permeability edema. Listeriolysin (LLO), the main virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a dose-dependent hyperpermeability in monolayers of human lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. The permeability increasing activity of LLO, which is accompanied by an increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, RhoA activation and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, can be completely inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) α/β inhibitor GÖ6976, indicating a crucial role for PKC in the induction of barrier dysfunction. The TNF-derived TIP peptide, which mimics the lectin-like domain of the cytokine, blunts LLO-induced hyperpermeability in vitro, upon inhibiting LLO-induced protein kinase C-α activation, ROS generation and MLC phosphorylation and upon restoring the RhoA/Rac 1 balance. These results indicate that the lectin-like domain of TNF has a potential therapeutic value in protecting from LLO-induced pulmonary endothelial hyperpermeability. PMID:20074664

  8. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Interaction Motif in Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-4 Mediates Cross-talk between Protein Kinase A and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Robin J.; Delavaine, Laurent; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Stewart, Graeme; Staples, Christopher J.; Didmon, Mark P.; Trinidad, Antonio Garcia; Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael; Keyse, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase 4 (DUSP9/MKP-4) plays an essential role during placental development and is one of a subfamily of three closely related cytoplasmic dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases, which includes the ERK-specific enzymes DUSP6/MKP-3 and DUSP7/MKP-X. However, unlike DUSP6/MKP-3, DUSP9/MKP-4 also inactivates the p38α MAP kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of both ERK1/2 and p38α by DUSP9/MKP-4 is mediated by a conserved arginine-rich kinase interaction motif located within the amino-terminal non-catalytic domain of the protein. Furthermore, DUSP9/MKP-4 is unique among these cytoplasmic MKPs in containing a conserved PKA consensus phosphorylation site 55RRXSer-58 immediately adjacent to the kinase interaction motif. DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 by PKA in vitro, and phosphorylation abrogates the binding of DUSP9/MKP-4 to both ERK2 and p38α MAP kinases. In addition, although mutation of Ser-58 to either alanine or glutamic acid does not affect the intrinsic catalytic activity of DUSP9/MKP-4, phospho-mimetic (Ser-58 to Glu) substitution inhibits both the interaction of DUSP9/MKP-4 with ERK2 and p38α in vivo and its ability to dephosphorylate and inactivate these MAP kinases. Finally, the use of a phospho-specific antibody demonstrates that endogenous DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 in response to the PKA agonist forskolin and is also modified in placental tissue. We conclude that DUSP9/MKP-4 is a bona fide target of PKA signaling and that attenuation of DUSP9/MKP-4 function can mediate cross-talk between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling through both ERK1/2 and p38α in vivo. PMID:21908610

  9. A Novel Mode of Protein Kinase Inhibition Exploiting Hydrophobic Motifs of Autoinhibited Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    S Eathiraj; R Palma; M Hirschi; E Volckova; E Nakuci; J Castro; C Chen; T Chan; D France; M Ashwell

    2011-12-31

    Protein kinase inhibitors with enhanced selectivity can be designed by optimizing binding interactions with less conserved inactive conformations because such inhibitors will be less likely to compete with ATP for binding and therefore may be less impacted by high intracellular concentrations of ATP. Analysis of the ATP-binding cleft in a number of inactive protein kinases, particularly in the autoinhibited conformation, led to the identification of a previously undisclosed non-polar region in this cleft. This ATP-incompatible hydrophobic region is distinct from the previously characterized hydrophobic allosteric back pocket, as well as the main pocket. Generalized hypothetical models of inactive kinases were constructed and, for the work described here, we selected the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase family as a case study. Initial optimization of a FGFR2 inhibitor identified from a library of commercial compounds was guided using structural information from the model. We describe the inhibitory characteristics of this compound in biophysical, biochemical, and cell-based assays, and have characterized the binding mode using x-ray crystallographic studies. The results demonstrate, as expected, that these inhibitors prevent activation of the autoinhibited conformation, retain full inhibitory potency in the presence of physiological concentrations of ATP, and have favorable inhibitory activity in cancer cells. Given the widespread regulation of kinases by autoinhibitory mechanisms, the approach described herein provides a new paradigm for the discovery of inhibitors by targeting inactive conformations of protein kinases.

  10. Quantitation of protein kinase C by immunoblot-expression in different cell lines and response to phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Stabel, S.; Rodriguez-Pena, A.; Young, S.; Rozengurt, E.; Parker, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Antisera have been raised against human protein kinase C and also against a synthetic peptide based on the sequence of the bovine brain enzyme (LLNQEEGEYYNVPIPE). These antibodies react with protein kinase C from a number of species (human, murine, rat, rabbit, bovine), indicating substantial conservation of epitopes. These antisera have been used to quantitate directly protein kinase C by immunoblot analysis. The authors show here that there is a strict correlation between the levels of immunoreactive polypeptide and extractable calcium- and phospholipid-dependent kinase activity for various cell lines. Treatment of murine, rat, and human cells with phorbol dibutyrate was found to deplete levels of immunoreactive protein kinase C severely. A detailed study of the time course of this depletion in Swiss 3T3 cells shows that it follows precisely the loss of extractable activity. On exposure to 400 nM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate protein kinase C was essentially undetectable by 40 hours; the half-life of this down-regulation was 6.7 hours. This data thus demonstrate that the loss of immunoreactive protein kinase C and of extractable calcium- and phospholipid-dependent kinase activity precisely parallels the phorbol ester induced down-regulation of binding and responsiveness in Swiss 3T3 cells.

  11. Protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation blocks juvenile hormone action.

    PubMed

    Kethidi, Damu R; Li, Yiping; Palli, Subba R

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile hormones (JH) regulate a wide variety of developmental and physiological processes in insects. Although the biological actions of JH are well documented, the molecular mechanisms underlying JH action are poorly understood. We studied the molecular basis of JH action using a JH response element (JHRE) identified in the promoter region of JH esterase gene cloned from Choristoneura fumiferana, which is responsive to JH and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In Drosophila melanogaster L57 cells, the JHRE-regulated reporter gene was induced by JH I, JH III, methoprene, and hydroprene. Nuclear proteins isolated from L57 cells bound to the JHRE and exposure of these proteins to ATP resulted in a reduction in their DNA binding. Either JH III or calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was able to restore the binding of nuclear proteins to the DNA. In addition, protein kinase C inhibitors increased and protein kinase C activators reduced the binding of nuclear proteins to the JHRE. In transactivation assays, protein kinase C inhibitors induced the luciferase gene placed under the control of a minimal promoter and the JHRE. These data suggest that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation prevents binding of nuclear proteins to juvenile hormone responsive promoters resulting in suppression of JH action. PMID:16448742

  12. Cholera toxin, and the related nontoxic adjuvants mmCT and dmLT, promote human Th17 responses via cyclic AMP-protein kinase A and inflammasome-dependent IL-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Larena, Maximilian; Holmgren, Jan; Lebens, Michael; Terrinoni, Manuela; Lundgren, Anna

    2015-04-15

    We have examined the molecular pathways involved in the adjuvant action of cholera toxin (CT) and two novel nontoxic molecules, multiple-mutated CT (mmCT) and double-mutant heat-labile toxin (dmLT) on human T cell responses. Human PBMCs or isolated monocytes were stimulated in vitro with CT, mmCT, or dmLT plus a polyclonal stimulus (staphylococcal enterotoxin B) or specific bacterial Ags, and effects on expression of cytokines and signaling molecules were determined. CT, mmCT, and dmLT strongly enhanced IL-17A and to a lesser extent IL-13 responses, but had little effect on IFN-γ production or cell proliferation. Intracellular cytokine staining revealed that the enhanced IL-17A production was largely confined to CD4(+) T cells and coculture experiments showed that the IL-17A promotion was effectively induced by adjuvant-treated monocytes. Relative to CT, mmCT and dmLT induced at least 100-fold lower levels of cAMP, yet this cAMP was enough and essential for the promotion of Th17 responses. Thus, inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A was abolished, and stimulation with a cAMP analog mimicked the adjuvant effect. Furthermore, CT, mmCT, and dmLT induced IL-1β production and caspase-1 activation in monocytes, which was associated with increased expression of key proinflammatory and inflammasome-related genes, including NLRP1, NLRP3, and NLRC4. Inflammasome inhibition with a specific caspase-1 inhibitor, or blocking of IL-1 signaling by IL-1 receptor antagonist, abrogated the Th17-promoting effect. We conclude that CT, mmCT, and dmLT promote human Th17 responses via cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and caspase-1/inflammasome-dependent IL-1 signaling. PMID:25786687

  13. Synergistic activation of stress-activated protein kinase 1/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK1/JNK) isoforms by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) and MKK7.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Y; Armstrong, C G; Morrice, N; Paterson, A; Goedert, M; Cohen, P

    2000-01-01

    Stress-activated protein kinase 1 (SAPK1), also called c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), becomes activated in vivo in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines or cellular stresses. Its full activation requires the phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Pro-Tyr motif, which can be catalysed by the protein kinases mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK)4 and MKK7. Here we report that MKK4 shows a striking preference for the tyrosine residue (Tyr-185), and MKK7 a striking preference for the threonine residue (Thr-183) in three SAPK1/JNK1 isoforms tested (JNK1 alpha 1, JNK2 alpha 2 and JNK3 alpha 1). For this reason, MKK4 and MKK7 together produce a synergistic increase in the activity of each SAPK1/JNK isoform in vitro. The MKK7 beta variant, which is several hundred-fold more efficient in activating all three SAPK1/JNK isoforms than is MKK7 alpha', is equally specific for Thr-183. MKK7 also phosphorylates JNK2 alpha 2 at Thr-404 and Ser-407 in vitro, Ser-407 being phosphorylated much more rapidly than Thr-183 in vitro. Thr-404/Ser-407 are phosphorylated in unstimulated human KB cells and HEK-293 cells, and phosphorylation is increased in response to an osmotic stress (0.5 M sorbitol). However, in contrast with Thr-183 and Tyr-185, the phosphorylation of Thr-404 and Ser-407 is not increased in response to other agonists that activate MKK7 and SAPK1/JNK, suggesting that phosphorylation of these residues is catalysed by another protein kinase, such as CK2, which also phosphorylates Thr-404 and Ser-407 in vitro. MKK3, MKK4 and MKK6 all show a strong preference for phosphorylation of the tyrosine residue of the Thr-Gly-Tyr motifs in their known substrates SAPK2a/p38, SAPK3/p38 gamma and SAPK4/p38 delta. MKK7 also phosphorylates SAPK2a/p38 at a low rate (but not SAPK3/p38 gamma or SAPK4/p38 delta), and phosphorylation occurs exclusively at the tyrosine residue, demonstrating that MKK7 is intrinsically a 'dual-specific' protein kinase. PMID:11062067

  14. Bryostatin 1, a novel antineoplastic agent and protein kinase C activator, induces human myalgia and muscle metabolic defects: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, P. F.; Kemp, G. J.; Thompson, C. H.; Salisbury, A. J.; Wade, K.; Harris, A. L.; Radda, G. K.

    1995-01-01

    Bryostatin 1, a novel antineoplastic agent and protein kinase C (PKC) activator, has been found to induce myalgia (muscle pain) 48 h after administration in clinical trials. This is the dose-limiting toxicity and has restricted the duration of therapy in phase I trials. To investigate the mechanisms and try to increase toleration of the drug, we studied calf muscle metabolism of 14 patients at rest and during exercise and subsequent recovery using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) before and 4 h, 48-72 h and 1-2 weeks following bryostatin therapy. In resting muscle there was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the phosphodiester/adenosine 5'-triphosphate (PDE/ATP) ratio 48 h post bryostatin and in patients with myalgia compared with pre-bryostatin control studies. Following exercise, patients with myalgia showed significantly slower phosphocreatine (PCr) and ADP recovery half-time (P < or = 0.05) suggesting impaired mitochondrial (oxidative) energy production, possibly due to a direct effect on the mitochondria or secondary to reduced blood flow. The apparent proton efflux rate following exercise was significantly reduced 4 h after bryostatin (P < or = 0.05), suggesting reduced blood flow. The rate of post-exercise reoxygenation was studied in four patients by near-infrared spectroscopy 4 h post bryostatin. In three of these the rate was reduced, consistent with reduced muscle blood flow. Bryostatin 1 appeared to cause a long-lasting impairment of oxidative metabolism and proton washout from muscle, consistent with a vasoconstrictive action. Thus these studies provide evidence for two mechanisms of the dose-limiting toxicity for bryostatin. Prospective studies on the use of vasodilators to improve the tolerance of the drug should be carried out. PMID:7547256

  15. Peptide biosensors for the electrochemical measurement of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kerman, Kagan; Song, Haifeng; Duncan, James S; Litchfield, David W; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2008-12-15

    The kinase activities are elucidated using the novel redox-active cosubstrate adenosine 5'-[gamma-ferrocene] triphosphate (Fc-ATP), which enables the kinase-catalyzed transfer of a redox active gamma-phosphate-Fc to a hydroxyamino acid. In this report, a versatile electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring the activity and inhibition of a serine/threonine kinase, casein kinase 2 (CK2), and protein tyrosine kinases, Abl1-T315I and HER2, in buffered solutions and in cell lysates. The method is based on the labeling of a specific phosphorylation event with Fc, followed by electrochemical detection. The electrochemical response obtained from the "ferrocenylated" peptides enables monitoring the activity of the kinase and its substrate, as well as the inhibition of small molecule inhibitors on protein phosphorylation. Kinetic information was extracted from the electrochemical measurements for the determination of K(m) and V(m) values, which were in agreement with those previously reported. Kinase reactions were also performed in the presence of well-defined inhibitors of CK2, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole, and E-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)acrylic acid as well as the nonspecific kinase inhibitors, staurosporine and N-benzoylstaurosporine. On the basis of the dependency of the Fc signal on inhibitor concentration, K(i) of the inhibitors was estimated, which were also in agreement with the literature values. The performance of the biosensor was optimized including the kinase reaction, incubation with Fc-ATP, and the small molecule inhibitors. Peptide modified electrochemical biosensors are promising candidates for cost-effective in vitro kinase activity and inhibitor screening assays. PMID:18989981

  16. Focal adhesion kinases and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases regulate protein tyrosine phosphorylation in stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Lauro; Macías-García, Beatriz; Loux, Shavahn C; Varner, Dickson D; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2013-06-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY) is a hallmark of sperm capacitation. In stallion sperm, calcium inhibits PY at pH <7.8, mediated by calmodulin. To explore the mechanism of that inhibition, we incubated stallion sperm in media without added calcium, with calcium, or with calcium plus the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 (Ca/W-7 treatment). Treatment with inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases, protein kinase A (PRKA), or Src family kinases suppressed the PY induced by the absence of added calcium, but not that induced by the Ca/W-7 treatment, indicating that PY in the absence of added calcium occurred via the canonical PRKA pathway, but that PY in the Ca/W-7 treatment did not. This suggested that when calmodulin was inhibited, calcium stimulated PY via a noncanonical pathway. Incubation with PF-431396, an inhibitor of focal adhesion kinases (FAKs), a family of calcium-induced protein tyrosine kinases, inhibited the PY induced both by the absence of added calcium and by the Ca/W-7 treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that both FAK family members, protein tyrosine kinases 2 and 2B, were phosphorylated in the absence of added calcium and in the Ca/W-7 treatment, but not in the presence of calcium without calmodulin inhibitors. Inhibition of FAK proteins inhibited PY in stallion sperm incubated under capacitating conditions (in the presence of calcium, bovine serum albumin, and bicarbonate at pH >7.8). These results show for the first time a role for calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases in PRKA-dependent sperm PY; a non-PRKA-dependent pathway regulating sperm PY; and the apparent involvement of the FAK family of protein tyrosine kinases downstream in both pathways. PMID:23595906

  17. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates human platelet inositol trisphosphate 5/sup +/-/-phosphomonoesterase (IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase) increasing phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, T.M.; Majerus, P.W.

    1986-05-01

    Phosphoinositide breakdown in response to thrombin stimulation of human platelets generates messenger molecules that activate PKC (diglyceride) and mobilize Ca/sup + +/ (inositol tris-phosphates). The water soluble products of phospholipase C-mediated metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate are inositol 1,4,5 P/sub 3/ (IP/sub 3/) and inositol 1:2-cyclic 4,5 P/sub 3/ (cIP/sub 3/). A specific phosphatase, IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase, cleaves the 5 phosphate from IP/sub 3/ or cIP/sub 3/ to form IP/sub 2/ or cIP/sub 2/ and P/sub i/, none of which mobilizes Ca/sup + +/. Thus, the IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase may regulate cellular responses to IP/sub 3/ or cIP/sub 3/. The authors find that IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase isolated from human platelets is phosphorylated by rat brain PKC, resulting in a 4-fold increase in IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase activity. The authors phosphorylated IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase using ..gamma.. /sup 32/P-ATP and found that the labeled enzyme comigrated on SDS-PAGE with the previously described 40K protein phosphorylated in response to thrombin stimulation of platelets. The similarity of the PKC-phosphorylated IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase observed in vitro and the thrombin-stimulated phosphorylated 40K protein known to be phosphorylated by PKC in vivo, suggests that these proteins may be the same. These results suggest that platelet Ca/sup + +/ mobilization maybe regulated by PKC phosphorylation of the IP/sub 3/ 5'-p'tase and can explain the observation that phorbol ester treatment of intact human platelets results in decreased production of IP/sub 3/ and decreased Ca/sup + +/ mobilization upon subsequent thrombin addition.

  18. Apoptotic Efficacy of Etomoxir in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells. Cooperation with Arsenic Trioxide and Glycolytic Inhibitors, and Regulation by Oxidative Stress and Protein Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Estañ, María Cristina; Calviño, Eva; Calvo, Susana; Guillén-Guío, Beatriz; Boyano-Adánez, María del Carmen; de Blas, Elena; Rial, Eduardo; Aller, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are frequently exacerbated in leukemia cells, and may therefore represent a target for therapeutic intervention. In this work we analyzed the apoptotic and chemo-sensitizing action of the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir in human acute myeloid leukemia cells. Etomoxir caused negligible lethality at concentrations up to 100 µM, but efficaciously cooperated to cause apoptosis with the anti-leukemic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO, Trisenox), and with lower efficacy with other anti-tumour drugs (etoposide, cisplatin), in HL60 cells. Etomoxir-ATO cooperation was also observed in NB4 human acute promyelocytic cells, but not in normal (non-tumour) mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Biochemical determinations in HL60 cells indicated that etomoxir (25–200 µM) dose-dependently inhibited mitochondrial respiration while slightly stimulating glycolysis, and only caused marginal alterations in total ATP content and adenine nucleotide pool distribution. In addition, etomoxir caused oxidative stress (increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, decrease in reduced glutathione content), as well as pro-apoptotic LKB-1/AMPK pathway activation, all of which may in part explain the chemo-sensitizing capacity of the drug. Etomoxir also cooperated with glycolytic inhibitors (2-deoxy-D-glucose, lonidamine) to induce apoptosis in HL60 cells, but not in NB4 cells. The combined etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment did not increase oxidative stress, caused moderate decrease in net ATP content, increased the AMP/ATP ratio with concomitant drop in energy charge, and caused defensive Akt and ERK kinase activation. Apoptosis generation by etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose was further increased by co-incubation with ATO, which is apparently explained by the capacity of ATO to attenuate Akt and ERK activation. In summary, co-treatment with etomoxir may represent an interesting strategy to increase the apoptotic

  19. Apoptotic efficacy of etomoxir in human acute myeloid leukemia cells. Cooperation with arsenic trioxide and glycolytic inhibitors, and regulation by oxidative stress and protein kinase activities.

    PubMed

    Estañ, María Cristina; Calviño, Eva; Calvo, Susana; Guillén-Guío, Beatriz; Boyano-Adánez, María Del Carmen; de Blas, Elena; Rial, Eduardo; Aller, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are frequently exacerbated in leukemia cells, and may therefore represent a target for therapeutic intervention. In this work we analyzed the apoptotic and chemo-sensitizing action of the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir in human acute myeloid leukemia cells. Etomoxir caused negligible lethality at concentrations up to 100 µM, but efficaciously cooperated to cause apoptosis with the anti-leukemic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO, Trisenox), and with lower efficacy with other anti-tumour drugs (etoposide, cisplatin), in HL60 cells. Etomoxir-ATO cooperation was also observed in NB4 human acute promyelocytic cells, but not in normal (non-tumour) mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Biochemical determinations in HL60 cells indicated that etomoxir (25-200 µM) dose-dependently inhibited mitochondrial respiration while slightly stimulating glycolysis, and only caused marginal alterations in total ATP content and adenine nucleotide pool distribution. In addition, etomoxir caused oxidative stress (increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, decrease in reduced glutathione content), as well as pro-apoptotic LKB-1/AMPK pathway activation, all of which may in part explain the chemo-sensitizing capacity of the drug. Etomoxir also cooperated with glycolytic inhibitors (2-deoxy-D-glucose, lonidamine) to induce apoptosis in HL60 cells, but not in NB4 cells. The combined etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment did not increase oxidative stress, caused moderate decrease in net ATP content, increased the AMP/ATP ratio with concomitant drop in energy charge, and caused defensive Akt and ERK kinase activation. Apoptosis generation by etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose was further increased by co-incubation with ATO, which is apparently explained by the capacity of ATO to attenuate Akt and ERK activation. In summary, co-treatment with etomoxir may represent an interesting strategy to increase the apoptotic

  20. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Regulates Gene Transcription by Acting as A Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueliang; Wang, Haizhen; Jenny, J. Yang; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a glycolysis enzyme catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate with transferring a phosphate from PEP to ADP. We report here that PKM2 localizes to the cell nucleus. The levels of nuclear PKM2 correlate with cell proliferation. PKM2 activates transcription of MEK5 by phosphorylating stat3 at Y705. In vitro phosphorylation assays show that PKM2 is a protein kinase using PEP as phosphate donor. ADP competes with the protein substrate binding, indicating that the substrate may bind to the ADP site of PKM2. Our experiments suggest that PKM2 dimer is an active protein kinase, while the tetramer is an active pyruvate kinase. Expression a PKM2 mutant that exists as a dimer promotes cell proliferation, indicating that protein kinase activity of PKM2 plays a role in promoting cell proliferation. Our study reveals an important link between metabolism alteration and gene expression during tumor transformation and progression. PMID:22306293

  1. A secretory kinase complex regulates extracellular protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jixin; Xiao, Junyu; Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Wen, Jianzhong; Rahdar, Meghdad; Dixon, Jack E

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous extracellular phosphoproteins have been identified, the protein kinases within the secretory pathway have only recently been discovered, and their regulation is virtually unexplored. Fam20C is the physiological Golgi casein kinase, which phosphorylates many secreted proteins and is critical for proper biomineralization. Fam20A, a Fam20C paralog, is essential for enamel formation, but the biochemical function of Fam20A is unknown. Here we show that Fam20A potentiates Fam20C kinase activity and promotes the phosphorylation of enamel matrix proteins in vitro and in cells. Mechanistically, Fam20A is a pseudokinase that forms a functional complex with Fam20C, and this complex enhances extracellular protein phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. Our findings shed light on the molecular mechanism by which Fam20C and Fam20A collaborate to control enamel formation, and provide the first insight into the regulation of secretory pathway phosphorylation. PMID:25789606

  2. Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Jessica R; Knockenhauer, Kevin E; Markus, Benedikt M; Mandelbaum, Joseph; Ramek, Alexander; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E; Schwartz, Thomas U; Ploegh, Hidde L; Lourido, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics, the effects of 1B7-kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes. PMID:26305940

  3. Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jessica R.; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Markus, Benedikt M.; Mandelbaum, Joseph; Ramek, Alexander; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Lourido, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics, the effects of 1B7–kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes. PMID:26305940

  4. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)–dependent and –independent pathways regulate hypoxic inhibition of transepithelial Na+ transport across human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, CD; Smolenski, RT; Harhun, MI; Patel, HK; Ahmed, SG; Wanisch, K; Yáñez-Muñoz, RJ; Baines, DL

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pulmonary transepithelial Na+ transport is reduced by hypoxia, but in the airway the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the role of AMPK and ROS in the hypoxic regulation of apical amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and basolateral Na+K+ ATPase activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H441 human airway epithelial cells were used to examine the effects of hypoxia on Na+ transport, AMP : ATP ratio and AMPK activity. Lentiviral constructs were used to modify cellular AMPK abundance and activity; pharmacological agents were used to modify cellular ROS. KEY RESULTS AMPK was activated by exposure to 3% or 0.2% O2 for 60 min in cells grown in submerged culture or when fluid (0.1 mL·cm−2) was added to the apical surface of cells grown at the air–liquid interface. Only 0.2% O2 activated AMPK in cells grown at the air–liquid interface. AMPK activation was associated with elevation of cellular AMP : ATP ratio and activity of the upstream kinase LKB1. Hypoxia inhibited basolateral ouabain-sensitive Isc (Iouabain) and apical amiloride-sensitive Na+ conductance (GNa+). Modification of AMPK activity prevented the effect of hypoxia on Iouabain (Na+K+ ATPase) but not apical GNa+. Scavenging of superoxide and inhibition of NADPH oxidase prevented the effect of hypoxia on apical GNa+ (epithelial Na+ channels). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Hypoxia activates AMPK-dependent and -independent pathways in airway epithelial cells. Importantly, these pathways differentially regulate apical Na+ channels and basolateral Na+K+ ATPase activity to decrease transepithelial Na+ transport. Luminal fluid potentiated the effect of hypoxia and activated AMPK, which could have important consequences in lung disease conditions. PMID:22509822

  6. Priming the proteasome by protein kinase G: a novel cardioprotective mechanism of sildenafil

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanming; Wang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    The proteasome mediates the degradation of most cellular proteins including misfolded proteins, pivotal to intracellular protein hemostasis. Proteasome functional insufficiency is implicated in a large subset of human failing hearts. Experimental studies have established proteasome functional insufficiency as a major pathogenic factor, rationalizing proteasome enhancement as a potentially new therapeutic strategy for congestive heart failure. Protein kinase G activation known to be cardioprotective was recently found to facilitate proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins in cardiomyocytes; sildenafil was shown to activate myocardial protein kinase G, improve cardiac protein quality control and slow down the progression of cardiac proteinopathy in mice. This identifies the first clinically used drug that is capable of benign proteasome enhancement and unveils a potentially novel cardioprotective mechanism for sildenafil. PMID:25760877

  7. Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 66 Protein Kinase and Its Relationship to Alphaherpesvirus US3 Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Erazo, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame (ORF) 66 encodes a basophilic kinase orthologous to the US3 protein kinases found in all alphaherpesviruses. This review summarizes current information on the ORF66 kinase, and outlines apparent differences from other US3 kinases, as well as some of the conserved functions. One critical difference is the VZV ORF66 kinase targeting of the major regulatory VZV IE62 protein to control its nuclear import and assembly into the VZV virion, which is so far unprecedented in the alphaherpesviruses. However, ORF66 targets some cellular targets which are also targeted by US3 kinases of other herpesviruses, including the histone deacetylase-1 and 2 proteins, pathways that lead to changes in actin dynamics, and the targeting of substrates of protein kinase A, including the nuclear matrix protein matrin 3. PMID:20186610

  8. FMLP activates Ras and Raf in human neutrophils. Potential role in activation of MAP kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, G S; Avdi, N; Buhl, A M; Suzuki, N; Johnson, G L

    1994-01-01

    Chemoattractants bind to seven transmembrane-spanning, G-protein-linked receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and induce a variety of functional responses, including activation of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) kinase. Although the pathways by which MAP kinases are activated in neutrophils are unknown, we hypothesized that activation of the Ras/Raf pathway leading to activation of MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) would be induced by the chemoattractant f-met-leu-phe. Human neutrophils exposed to 10 nM FMLP for 30 s exhibited an MAP kinase kinase activity coeluting with MEK-1. Immunoprecipitation of Raf-1 kinase after stimulation with FMLP revealed an activity that phosphorylated MEK, was detectable at 30 s, and peaked at 2-3 min. Immunoprecipitation of Ras from both intact neutrophils labeled with [32P]orthophosphate and electropermeabilized neutrophils incubated with [32P]GTP was used to determine that FMLP treatment was associated with activation of Ras. Activation of both Ras and Raf was inhibited by treatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin, indicating predominant linkage to the Gi2 protein. Although phorbol esters activated Raf, activation induced by FMLP appeared independent of protein kinase C, further suggesting that Gi2 was linked to Ras and Raf independent of phospholipase C and protein kinase C. Dibutyryl cAMP, which inhibits many neutrophil functional responses, blocked the activation of Raf by FMLP, suggesting that interruption of the Raf/MAP kinase pathway influences neutrophil responses to chemoattractants. These data suggest that Gi2-mediated receptor regulation of the Ras/Raf/MAP kinase pathway is a primary response to chemoattractants. Images PMID:8040337

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 are induced differently by metal nanoparticles in human monocytes: The role of oxidative stress and protein tyrosine kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Rong; Mo, Yiqun; Zhang, Xing; Chien, Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang, Qunwei

    2009-01-01

    Recently, many studies have shown that nanoparticles can translocate from the lungs to the circulatory system. As a particulate foreign body, nanoparticles could induce host responses such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) release which play a major role in tissue destruction and remodeling. However, the direct effects of nanoparticles on leukocytes, especially monocytes, are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of Nano-Co and Nano-TiO2 to cause alteration of transcription and activity of MMPs and to explore possible mechanisms. We hypothesized that non-toxic doses of some transition metal nanoparticles stimulate an imbalance of MMP/TIMP that cause MMP production that may contribute to their health effects. To test this hypothesis, U937 cells were treated with Nano-Co and Nano-TiO2 and cytotoxic effects and ROS generation were measured. The alteration of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 after exposure to these metal nanoparticles were subsequently determined. To investigate the potential signaling pathways involved in the Nano-Co-induced MMP activation, the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, AP-1 inhibitor, and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors were also used to pre-treat U937 cells. Our results demonstrated that exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO2, at a dose that does not cause cytotoxicity, resulted in ROS generation and up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression.. Our results also showed dose- and time-related increases in pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 gelatinolytic activities in conditioned media after exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO2. Nano-Co-induced pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 activity increases were inhibited by pre-treatment with ROS scavengers or inhibitors. We also demonstrated dose- and time-related decreases in tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) in U937 cells after

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 are induced differently by metal nanoparticles in human monocytes: The role of oxidative stress and protein tyrosine kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Rong; Mo Yiqun; Zhang Xing; Chien Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang Qunwei

    2008-12-01

    Recently, many studies have shown that nanoparticles can translocate from the lungs to the circulatory system. As a particulate foreign body, nanoparticles could induce host responses such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) release which play a major role in tissue destruction and remodeling. However, the direct effects of nanoparticles on leukocytes, especially monocytes, are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of Nano-Co and Nano-TiO{sub 2} to cause alteration of transcription and activity of MMPs and to explore possible mechanisms. We hypothesized that non-toxic doses of some transition metal nanoparticles stimulate an imbalance of MMP/TIMP that cause MMP production that may contribute to their health effects. To test this hypothesis, U937 cells were treated with Nano-Co and Nano-TiO{sub 2} and cytotoxic effects and ROS generation were measured. The alteration of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 after exposure to these metal nanoparticles were subsequently determined. To investigate the potential signaling pathways involved in the Nano-Co-induced MMP activation, the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, AP-1 inhibitor, and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors were also used to pre-treat U937 cells. Our results demonstrated that exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO{sub 2}, at a dose that does not cause cytotoxicity, resulted in ROS generation and up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression{sub ..} Our results also showed dose- and time-related increases in pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 gelatinolytic activities in conditioned media after exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO{sub 2}. Nano-Co-induced pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 activity increases were inhibited by pre-treatment with ROS scavengers or inhibitors. We also demonstrated dose- and time-related decreases in tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 2

  11. A novel partner for D-type cyclins: protein kinase A-anchoring protein AKAP95.

    PubMed Central

    Arsenijevic, Tatjana; Degraef, Chantal; Dumont, Jacques E; Roger, Pierre P; Pirson, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    Using a yeast interaction screen to search for proteins that interact with cyclin D3 in thyroid gland, we identified the cAMP-dependent AKAP95 (protein kinase A-anchoring protein 95). AKAP95 is a scaffolding protein that primarily co-fractionates with the nuclear matrix, whereas a minor fraction associates with chromatin in interphase cells. In co-transfected Chinese-hamster ovary cells, AKAP95 strongly interacted with the three D-type cyclins, but not with CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) or with p27kip1. CDK4 displaced the interaction between cyclin D3 and AKAP95, suggesting that AKAP95 could not be the elusive bridging adaptor between D-type cyclins and CDK4 or play a role in the regulation of cyclin D3-CDK4 activity. Interaction between endogenous AKAP95 and cyclin D3 or cyclin D1 was detected in canine thyrocytes, human fibroblasts and NIH-3T3 cells. As both AKAP95 and cyclins D were recently reported to associate with minichromosome maintenance proteins [Eide, Tasken, Carlson, Williams, Jahnsen, Tasken and Collas (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 26750-26756; Gladden and Diehl (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 9754-9760], we hypothesize that the interaction between AKAP95 and D-type cyclins might serve to facilitate the emerging regulatory role of cyclin D-CDK4 in the formation of the prereplication complex at the DNA replication origins. PMID:14641107

  12. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Simarro, Maria; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Kedersha, Nancy; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rhee, Kirsten; Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika; Benarafa, Charaf; Orduna, Anonio; Anderson, Paul

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. {yields} The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. {yields} Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  13. Protein Kinase C and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Regulate Movement, Attachment, Pairing and Egg Release in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Ressurreição, Margarida; De Saram, Paulu; Kirk, Ruth S.; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M.; Page, Nigel M.; Davies, Angela J.; Walker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are evolutionary conserved cell signalling enzymes that coordinate cell function. Here we have employed biochemical approaches using ‘smart’ antibodies and functional screening to unravel the importance of these enzymes to Schistosoma mansoni physiology. Various PKC and ERK isotypes were detected, and were differentially phosphorylated (activated) throughout the various S. mansoni life stages, suggesting isotype-specific roles and differences in signalling complexity during parasite development. Functional kinase mapping in adult worms revealed that activated PKC and ERK were particularly associated with the adult male tegument, musculature and oesophagus and occasionally with the oesophageal gland; other structures possessing detectable activated PKC and/or ERK included the Mehlis' gland, ootype, lumen of the vitellaria, seminal receptacle and excretory ducts. Pharmacological modulation of PKC and ERK activity in adult worms using GF109203X, U0126, or PMA, resulted in significant physiological disturbance commensurate with these proteins occupying a central position in signalling pathways associated with schistosome muscular activity, neuromuscular coordination, reproductive function, attachment and pairing. Increased activation of ERK and PKC was also detected in worms following praziquantel treatment, with increased signalling associated with the tegument and excretory system and activated ERK localizing to previously unseen structures, including the cephalic ganglia. These findings support roles for PKC and ERK in S. mansoni homeostasis, and identify these kinase groups as potential targets for chemotherapeutic treatments against human schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of enormous public health significance. PMID:24921927

  14. A protein kinase screen of Neurospora crassa mutant strains reveals that the SNF1 protein kinase promotes glycogen synthase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Candido, Thiago De Souza; Gonçalves, Rodrigo Duarte; Felício, Ana Paula; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; De Carvalho, Ana Carolina Gomes Vieira; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2014-12-15

    Glycogen functions as a carbohydrate reserve in a variety of organisms and its metabolism is highly regulated. The activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, the rate-limiting enzymes of the synthesis and degradation processes, respectively, are regulated by allosteric modulation and reversible phosphorylation. To identify the protein kinases affecting glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa, we performed a screen of 84 serine/threonine kinase knockout strains. We identified multiple kinases that have already been described as controlling glycogen metabolism in different organisms, such as NcSNF1, NcPHO85, NcGSK3, NcPKA, PSK2 homologue and NcATG1. In addition, many hypothetical kinases have been implicated in the control of glycogen metabolism. Two kinases, NcIME-2 and NcNIMA, already functionally characterized but with no functions related to glycogen metabolism regulation, were also identified. Among the kinases identified, it is important to mention the role of NcSNF1. We showed in the present study that this kinase was implicated in glycogen synthase phosphorylation, as demonstrated by the higher levels of glycogen accumulated during growth, along with a higher glycogen synthase (GSN) ±glucose 6-phosphate activity ratio and a lesser set of phosphorylated GSN isoforms in strain Ncsnf1KO, when compared with the wild-type strain. The results led us to conclude that, in N. crassa, this kinase promotes phosphorylation of glycogen synthase either directly or indirectly, which is the opposite of what is described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The kinases also play a role in gene expression regulation, in that gdn, the gene encoding the debranching enzyme, was down-regulated by the proteins identified in the screen. Some kinases affected growth and development, suggesting a connection linking glycogen metabolism with cell growth and development. PMID:25253091

  15. Eicosapentaenoic acid membrane incorporation impairs ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux via a protein kinase A signaling pathway in primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Natalie; Tardivel, Sylviane; Benoist, Jean-François; Vedie, Benoît; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Nowak, Maxime; Allaoui, Fatima; Paul, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    A diet rich in n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is cardioprotective. Dietary PUFAs affect the cellular phospholipids composition, which may influence the function of membrane proteins. We investigated the impact of the membrane incorporation of several PUFAs on ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, a key antiatherogenic pathway. Arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6 n-3) decreased or increased cholesterol efflux from J774 mouse macrophages, respectively, whereas they had no effect on efflux from human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Importantly, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5 n-3) induced a dose-dependent reduction of ABCA1 functionality in both cellular models (-28% for 70μM of EPA in HMDM), without any alterations in ABCA1 expression. These results show that PUFA membrane incorporation does not have the same consequences on cholesterol efflux from mouse and human macrophages. The EPA-treated HMDM exhibited strong phospholipid composition changes, with high levels of both EPA and its elongation product docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C22:5 n-3), which is associated with a decreased level of AA. In HMDM, EPA reduced the ATPase activity of the membrane transporter. Moreover, the activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and the inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine restored ABCA1 cholesterol efflux in EPA-treated human macrophages. In conclusion, EPA membrane incorporation reduces ABCA1 functionality in mouse macrophages as well as in primary human macrophages and this effect seems to be PKA-dependent in human macrophages. PMID:26776055

  16. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in oxytocin-induced contraction of uterine smooth muscle in pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Nohara, A; Ohmichi, M; Koike, K; Masumoto, N; Kobayashi, M; Akahane, M; Ikegami, H; Hirota, K; Miyake, A; Murata, Y

    1996-12-24

    Oxytocin causes the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in both human and rat puerperal uterine myometrial cultured cells. The potential role of the MAP kinase pathway in oxytocin action was investigated with the specific MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059. Oxytocin stimulation of the tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase in both human and rat cultured puerperal uterine cells was abolished by pretreatment of the cells with MEK inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. Although MEK inhibitor had no effect on oxytocin-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in either pregnant human or pregnant rat uterine cells, it partly inhibited oxytocin-induced pregnant rat uterine contraction in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that MAP kinase pathway may have some important roles in oxytocin-induced uterine contraction. PMID:8954997

  17. The molecular basis of targeting protein kinases in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of targeted anticancer therapies with small molecule kinase inhibitors. First, we discuss why a single constitutively active kinase emanating from a variety of aberrant genetic alterations is capable of transforming a normal cell, leading it to acquire the hallmarks of a cancer cell. To draw attention to the fact that kinase inhibition in targeted cancer therapeutics differs from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, we exploit a conceptual framework explaining why suppressed kinase activity will selectively kill only the so-called oncogene 'addicted' cancer cell, while sparing the healthy cell. Second, we introduce the protein kinase superfamily in light of its common active conformation with precisely positioned structural elements, and the diversified auto-inhibitory conformations among the kinase families. Understanding the detailed activation mechanism of individual kinases is essential to relate the observed oncogenic alterations to the elevated constitutively active state, to identify the mechanism of consequent drug resistance, and to guide the development of the next-generation inhibitors. To clarify the vital importance of structural guidelines in studies of oncogenesis, we explain how somatic mutations in EGFR result in kinase constitutive activation. Third, in addition to the common theme of secondary (acquired) mutations that prevent drug binding from blocking a signaling pathway which is hijacked by the aberrant activated kinase, we discuss scenarios of drug resistance and relapse by compensating lesions that bypass the inactivated pathway in a vertical or horizontal fashion. Collectively, these suggest that the future challenge of cancer therapy with small molecule kinase inhibitors will rely on the discovery of distinct combinations of optimized drugs to target individual subtypes of different cancers. PMID:23651790

  18. Metformin-mediated downregulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent excision repair cross-complementing 1 decreases DNA repair capacity and sensitizes human lung cancer cells to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Sheng-Chieh; Huang, Yu-Ching; Chen, Huang-Jen; Chiu, Hsien-Chun; Huang, Yi-Jhen; Wo, Ting-Yu; Weng, Shao-Hsing; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2013-02-15

    Metformin, an extensively used and well-tolerated drug for treating individuals with type 2 diabetes, has recently gained significant attention as an anticancer drug. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol) is a new antineoplastic drug that has shown promise in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). High expression levels of excision repair cross-complementary 1 (ERCC1) in cancers have been positively associated with the DNA repair capacity and a poor prognosis in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy. In this current study, paclitaxel was found to increase phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6)-p38 MAPK as well as protein and mRNA levels of ERCC1 in H1650 and H1703 cells. Moreover, paclitaxel-induced ERCC1 protein and mRNA levels significantly decreased via the downregulation of p38 activity by either a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 or p38 knockdown with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). Specific inhibition of ERCC1 with siRNA was found to enhance the paclitaxel-induced cytotoxic effect and growth inhibition. Furthermore, metformin was able to not only decrease the paclitaxel-induced p38 MAPK-mediated ERCC1 expression, but also augment the cytotoxic effect induced by paclitaxel. Finally, expression of constitutive activate MKK6 or HA-p38 MAPK vectors in lung cancer cells was able to abrogate ERCC1 downregulation by metformin and paclitaxel as well as cell viability and DNA repair capacity. Overall, our results suggest that inhibition of the p38 MAPK signaling by metformin coupled with paclitaxel therapy in human NSCLC cells may be a clinically useful combination, which however will require further validation. PMID:23228696

  19. Revisiting protein kinase-substrate interactions: Toward therapeutic development.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio L; Ferraz, Felipe Augusto N; Pena, Darlene A; Pramio, Dimitrius T; Morais, Felipe A; Schechtman, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efforts of pharmaceutical companies to develop specific kinase modulators, few drugs targeting kinases have been completely successful in the clinic. This is primarily due to the conserved nature of kinases, especially in the catalytic domains. Consequently, many currently available inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity for effective clinical application. Kinases phosphorylate their substrates to modulate their activity. One of the important steps in the catalytic reaction of protein phosphorylation is the correct positioning of the target residue within the catalytic site. This positioning is mediated by several regions in the substrate binding site, which is typically a shallow crevice that has critical subpockets that anchor and orient the substrate. The structural characterization of this protein-protein interaction can aid in the elucidation of the roles of distinct kinases in different cellular processes, the identification of substrates, and the development of specific inhibitors. Because the region of the substrate that is recognized by the kinase can be part of a linear consensus motif or a nonlinear motif, advances in technology beyond simple linear sequence scanning for consensus motifs were needed. Cost-effective bioinformatics tools are already frequently used to predict kinase-substrate interactions for linear consensus motifs, and new tools based on the structural data of these interactions improve the accuracy of these predictions and enable the identification of phosphorylation sites within nonlinear motifs. In this Review, we revisit kinase-substrate interactions and discuss the various approaches that can be used to identify them and analyze their binding structures for targeted drug development. PMID:27016527

  20. Nek8, a NIMA family kinase member, is overexpressed in primary human breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Alex J; Boylan, John F

    2004-03-17

    The family of human Nek (NIMA Related Kinase) kinases currently contains 11 members. We have identified Nek8 as a new member of the Nek kinase family. For many of the Nek family members, primary tumor expression data and function have been limited. However, all of the Nek family proteins share considerable homology with the Never In Mitosis, gene A (NIMA) kinase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. NIMA, as well as its most closely related human ortholog, Nek2, are required for G(2)/M progression and promote centrosome maturation during mitosis. We isolated Nek8 from a primary human colon cDNA library, and found it to be highly homologous to murine Nek8. Recently, a previously named Nek8 sequence was renamed Nek9/Nercc1 in Genbank due to its lack of homology to murine Nek8 and its high homology to murine Nek9. Interestingly, in our study, phylogenetic analysis suggests that human Nek8 and Nek9 form a subfamily within the Nek family. Nek8 has high homology to the Nek family kinase domain as well as to a regulator of chromosome condensation domain (RCC1), which is also present in Nek9. The open reading frame of human Nek8 encodes a 692 amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 75 kDa. Nek8 is differently expressed between normal human breast tissue and breast tumors. Overexpression of a mutated kinase domain Nek8 in U2-0S cells led to a decrease in actin protein, and a small increase in the level of cdk1/cyclinB1. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Nek8 is a novel tumor associated gene, and shares considerable sequence homology with the Nek family of protein kinases and may be involved in G(2)/M progression. PMID:15019993

  1. Universal quantitative kinase assay based on diagonal SCX chromatography and stable isotope dimethyl labeling provides high-definition kinase consensus motifs for PKA and human Mps1.

    PubMed

    Hennrich, Marco L; Marino, Fabio; Groenewold, Vincent; Kops, Geert J P L; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R

    2013-05-01

    In order to understand cellular signaling, a clear understanding of kinase-substrate relationships is essential. Some of these relationships are defined by consensus recognition motifs present in substrates making them amendable for phosphorylation by designated kinases. Here, we explore a method that is based on two sequential steps of strong cation exchange chromatography combined with differential stable isotope labeling, to define kinase consensus motifs with high accuracy. We demonstrate the value of our method by evaluating the motifs of two very distinct kinases: cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PKA) and human monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) kinase, also known as TTK. PKA is a well-studied basophilic kinase with a relatively well-defined motif and numerous known substrates in vitro and in vivo. Mps1, a kinase involved in chromosome segregation, has been less well characterized. Its substrate specificity is unclear and here we show that Mps1 is an acidophilic kinase with a striking tendency for phosphorylation of threonines. The final outcomes of our work are high-definition kinase consensus motifs for PKA and Mps1. Our generic method, which makes use of proteolytic cell lysates as a source for peptide-substrate libraries, can be implemented for any kinase present in the kinome. PMID:23510141

  2. G-protein coupled receptor kinases in inflammation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Packiriswamy, Nandakumar; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases originally discovered for their role in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) phosphorylation. Recent studies have demonstrated a much broader function for this kinase family including phosphorylation of cytosolic substrates involved in cell signaling pathways stimulated by GPCRs as well as non-GPCRs. In addition, GRKs modulate signaling via phosphorylation-independent functions. Because of these various biochemical functions, GRKs have been shown to affect critical physiological and pathophysiological processes and thus are considered as drug targets in diseases such as heart failure. Role of GRKs in inflammation and inflammatory diseases is an evolving area of research and several studies including work from our lab in the recent years have demonstrated critical role of GRKs in the immune system. In this review we discuss the classical and the newly emerging functions of GRKs in the immune system and their role in inflammation and disease processes. PMID:26226012

  3. MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases (MKs): Novel Insights and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gaestel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Downstream of MAPKs, such as classical/atypical ERKs and p38 MAPKs, but not of JNKs, signaling is often mediated by protein kinases which are phosphorylated and activated by MAPKs and, therefore, designated MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Recently, novel insights into the specificity of the assembly of MAPK/MAPKAPK hetero-dimeric protein kinase signaling complexes have been gained. In addition, new functional aspects of MKs have been described and established functions have been challenged. This short review will summarize recent developments including the linear motif (LM) in MKs, the ERK-independent activation of RSK, the RSK-independent effects of some RSK-inhibitors and the challenged role of MK5/PRAK in tumor suppression. PMID:26779481

  4. MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases (MKs): Novel Insights and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Gaestel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Downstream of MAPKs, such as classical/atypical ERKs and p38 MAPKs, but not of JNKs, signaling is often mediated by protein kinases which are phosphorylated and activated by MAPKs and, therefore, designated MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Recently, novel insights into the specificity of the assembly of MAPK/MAPKAPK hetero-dimeric protein kinase signaling complexes have been gained. In addition, new functional aspects of MKs have been described and established functions have been challenged. This short review will summarize recent developments including the linear motif (LM) in MKs, the ERK-independent activation of RSK, the RSK-independent effects of some RSK-inhibitors and the challenged role of MK5/PRAK in tumor suppression. PMID:26779481

  5. A Coiled-Coil Enabled Split-Luciferase Three-Hybrid System: Applied Toward Profiling Inhibitors of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Jester, Benjamin W.; Cox, Kurt J.; Gaj, Alicia; Shomin, Carolyn D.; Porter, Jason R.; Ghosh, Indraneel

    2010-01-01

    The 518 protein kinases encoded in the human genome are exquisitely regulated and their aberrant function(s) are often associated with human disease. Thus, in order to advance therapeutics and to probe signal transduction cascades there is considerable interest in the development of inhibitors that can selectively target protein kinases. However, identifying specific compounds against such a large array of protein kinases is difficult to routinely achieve utilizing traditional activity assays, where purified protein kinases are necessary. Toward a simple, rapid, and practical method for identifying specific inhibitors, we describe the development and application of a split-protein methodology utilizing a coiled-coil assisted three-hybrid system. In this approach, a protein kinase of interest is attached to the C-terminal fragment of split-firefly luciferase and the coiled-coil Fos, which is specific for the coiled-coil Jun, is attached to the N-terminal fragment. Upon addition of Jun conjugated to a pan-kinase inhibitor such as staurosporine, a three-hybrid complex is established with concomitant reassembly of the split-luciferase enzyme. An inhibitor can be potentially identified by the commensurate loss in split-luciferase activity by displacement of the modified staurosporine. We demonstrate that this new three-hybrid approach is potentially general by testing protein kinases from the different kinase families. To interrogate whether this method allows for screening inhibitors, we tested six different protein kinases against a library of 80 known protein kinase inhibitors. Finally, we demonstrate that this three-hybrid system can potentially provide a rapid method for structure/function analysis as well as aid in the identification of allosteric inhibitors. PMID:20669947

  6. Purification and characterization of a thylakoid protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.

    1986-01-01

    Control of state transitions in the thylakoid by reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is modulated by a kinase. The kinase catalyzing this phosphorylation is associated with the thylakoid membrane, and is regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. The isolation and partial purification from spinach thylakoids of two protein kinases (CPK1, CPK2) of apparent molecular masses 25 kDa and 38 kDa has been reported. Neither enzyme utilizes isolated LHC-II as a substrate. The partial purification of a third protein kinase (LHCK) which can utilize both lysine-rich histones (IIIs and Vs) and isolated LHC-II as substrate has now been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a 64 kDa peptide. From a comparison of the two isolation procedures we have concluded that CPK1 is indeed a protein kinase, but has a lower specific activity than that of LHCK. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Téllez-Iñón, M T

    1988-01-01

    A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. Images Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2848508

  8. Protein kinase activity associated with pancreatic zymogen granules.

    PubMed

    Burnham, D B; Munowitz, P; Thorn, N; Williams, J A

    1985-05-01

    Purified zymogen granules were prepared from rat pancreas by using an iso-osmotic Percoll gradient. In the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, phosphorylation of several granule proteins was induced by Ca2+, most notably a Mr-13 000 protein, whereas addition of cyclic AMP was without effect. When phosphatidylserine was also added, Ca2+ increased the phosphorylation of additional proteins, with the largest effect on a protein of Mr 62 000. Purified granules were also able to phosphorylate exogenous substrates. Ca2+-induced phosphorylation of lysine-rich histone was enhanced over 3-fold in the presence of phosphatidylserine, and cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase activity was revealed with mixed histone as substrate. The concentrations of free Ca2+ and cyclic AMP required for half-maximal phosphorylation of both endogenous and exogenous proteins were 1-3 microM and 57 nM respectively. Treatment of granules with 0.25 M-KCl resulted in the release of phosphatidylserine-dependent kinase activity into a high-speed granule supernatant. In contrast, granule-protein substrates of Ca2+-activated kinase activity were resistant to KCl extraction, and in fact were present in purified granule membranes. Kinase activity activated by cyclic AMP was not extracted by KCl treatment. It is concluded that phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins in the zymogen granule can be induced by one or more Ca2+-activated protein kinases. Such a reaction is a potential mechanism by which exocytosis may be regulated in the exocrine pancreas by Ca2+-mediated secretagogues. PMID:4004796

  9. Protein kinase activity associated with pancreatic zymogen granules.

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, D B; Munowitz, P; Thorn, N; Williams, J A

    1985-01-01

    Purified zymogen granules were prepared from rat pancreas by using an iso-osmotic Percoll gradient. In the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, phosphorylation of several granule proteins was induced by Ca2+, most notably a Mr-13 000 protein, whereas addition of cyclic AMP was without effect. When phosphatidylserine was also added, Ca2+ increased the phosphorylation of additional proteins, with the largest effect on a protein of Mr 62 000. Purified granules were also able to phosphorylate exogenous substrates. Ca2+-induced phosphorylation of lysine-rich histone was enhanced over 3-fold in the presence of phosphatidylserine, and cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase activity was revealed with mixed histone as substrate. The concentrations of free Ca2+ and cyclic AMP required for half-maximal phosphorylation of both endogenous and exogenous proteins were 1-3 microM and 57 nM respectively. Treatment of granules with 0.25 M-KCl resulted in the release of phosphatidylserine-dependent kinase activity into a high-speed granule supernatant. In contrast, granule-protein substrates of Ca2+-activated kinase activity were resistant to KCl extraction, and in fact were present in purified granule membranes. Kinase activity activated by cyclic AMP was not extracted by KCl treatment. It is concluded that phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins in the zymogen granule can be induced by one or more Ca2+-activated protein kinases. Such a reaction is a potential mechanism by which exocytosis may be regulated in the exocrine pancreas by Ca2+-mediated secretagogues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:4004796

  10. Extending Thymidine Kinase Activity to the Catalytic Repertoire of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Saugata; Sabini, Eliszbetta; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2009-03-04

    Salvage of nucleosides in the cytosol of human cells is carried out by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinase 1 (TK1). Whereas TK1 is only responsible for thymidine phosphorylation, dCK is capable of converting dC, dA, and dG into their monophosphate forms. Using structural data on dCK, we predicted that select mutations at the active site would, in addition to making the enzyme faster, expand the catalytic repertoire of dCK to include thymidine. Specifically, we hypothesized that steric repulsion between the methyl group of the thymine base and Arg104 is the main factor preventing the phosphorylation of thymidine by wild-type dCK. Here we present kinetic data on several dCK variants where Arg104 has been replaced by select residues, all performed in combination with the mutation of Asp133 to an alanine. We show that several hydrophobic residues at position 104 endow dCK with thymidine kinase activity. Depending on the exact nature of the mutations, the enzyme's substrate preference is modified. The R104M-D133A double mutant is a pyrimidine-specific enzyme due to large K{sub m} values with purines. The crystal structure of the double mutant R104M-D133A in complex with the L-form of thymidine supplies a structural explanation for the ability of this variant to phosphorylate thymidine and thymidine analogs. The replacement of Arg104 by a smaller residue allows L-dT to bind deeper into the active site, making space for the C5-methyl group of the thymine base. The unique catalytic properties of several of the mutants make them good candidates for suicide-gene/protein-therapy applications.

  11. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P. )

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders.

  12. Novel Mechanism of Impaired Function of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1B3 in Human Hepatocytes: Post-Translational Regulation of OATP1B3 by Protein Kinase C Activation

    PubMed Central

    Powell, John; Farasyn, Taleah; Köck, Kathleen; Meng, Xiaojie; Pahwa, Sonia; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2014-01-01

    The organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 is a membrane transport protein that mediates hepatic uptake of many drugs and endogenous compounds. Currently, determination of OATP-mediated drug-drug interactions in vitro is focused primarily on direct substrate inhibition. Indirect inhibition of OATP1B3 activity is under-appreciated. OATP1B3 has putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation sites. Studies were designed to determine the effect of PKC activation on OATP1B3-mediated transport in human hepatocytes using cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), a specific OATP1B3 substrate, as the probe. A PKC activator, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), did not directly inhibit [3H]CCK-8 accumulation in human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). However, pretreatment with PMA for as little as 10 minutes rapidly decreased [3H]CCK-8 accumulation. Treatment with a PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM) I prior to PMA treatment blocked the inhibitory effect of PMA, indicating PKC activation is essential for downregulating OATP1B3 activity. PMA pretreatment did not affect OATP1B3 mRNA or total protein levels. To determine the mechanism(s) underlying the indirect inhibition of OATP1B3 activity upon PKC activation, adenoviral vectors expressing FLAG-Myc-tagged OATP1B3 (Ad-OATP1B3) were transduced into human hepatocytes; surface expression and phosphorylation of OATP1B3 were determined by biotinylation and by an anti–phosphor-Ser/Thr/Tyr antibody, respectively. PMA pretreatment markedly increased OATP1B3 phosphorylation without affecting surface or total OATP1B3 protein levels. In conclusion, PKC activation rapidly decreases OATP1B3 transport activity by post-translational regulation of OATP1B3. These studies elucidate a novel indirect inhibitory mechanism affecting hepatic uptake mediated by OATP1B3, and provide new insights into predicting OATP-mediated drug interactions between OATP substrates and kinase modulator drugs/endogenous compounds. PMID:25200870

  13. Characterization of p21Ras-mediated apoptosis induced by protein kinase C inhibition and application to human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liou, James S; Chen, James S; Faller, Douglas V

    2004-02-01

    Suppression of PKC activity can selectively induce apoptosis in cells expressing a constitutively activated p21Ras protein. We demonstrate that continued expression of p21Ras activity is required in PKC-mediated apoptosis because farnesyltransferase inhibitors abrogated the loss of viability in p21Ras-transformed cells occurring following PKC inhibition. Studies utilizing gene transfer or viral vectors demonstrate that transient expression of oncogenic p21Ras activity is sufficient for induction of apoptosis by PKC inhibition, whereas physiologic activation of p21Ras by growth factor is not sufficient to induce apoptosis. Mechanistically, the p21Ras-mediated apoptosis induced by PKC inhibition is dependent upon mitochondrial dysregulation, with a concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (psim). Cyclosporine A, which prevented the loss of psim, also inhibited HMG-induced DNA fragmentation in cells expressing an activated p21Ras. Induction of apoptosis by PKC inhibition in human tumors with oncogenic p21Ras mutations was demonstrated. Inhibition of PKC caused increased apoptosis in MIA-PaCa-2, a human pancreatic tumor line containing a mutated Ki-ras allele, when compared to HS766T, a human pancreatic tumor line with normal Ki-ras alleles. Furthermore, PKC inhibition induced apoptosis in HCT116, a human colorectal tumor line containing an oncogenic Ki-ras allele but not in a subline (Hke3) in which the mutated Ki-ras allele had been disrupted. The PKC inhibitor 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (HMG), significantly reduced p21Ras-mediated tumor growth in vivo in a nude mouse MIA-PaCa-2 xenograft model. Collectively these studies suggest the therapeutic feasibility of targeting PKC activity in tumors expressing an activated p21Ras oncoprotein. PMID:14603530

  14. PRKX, a Novel cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Member, Plays an Important Role in Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sizhou; Li, Qian; Alberts, Ian; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-03-01

    The human protein kinase X gene (PRKX) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are both c-AMP-dependent serine/threonine protein kinases within the protein kinase AGC subgroup. Of all the protein kinases in this group, PRKX is the least studied. PRKX has been isolated from patients with chondrodysplasia punctate and is involved in numerous processes, including sexual differentiation and fertilization, normal kidney development and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), blood maturation, neural development, and angiogenesis in vitro. Although the role of PRKX in development and disease has been reported recently, the underlying mechanism of PRKX activity is largely unknown. In addition, based on the expression pattern of PRKX and the extensive role of PKA in disease and development, PRKX might have additional crucial functions that have not been addressed in the literature. In this review, we summarize the characteristics and developmental functions of PRKX that have been reported by recent studies. In particular, we elucidate the structural and functional differences between PRKX and PKA, as well as the possible roles of PRKX in development and related diseases. Finally, we propose future studies that could lead to important discoveries of more PRKX functions and the underlying mechanisms involved. PMID:26252946

  15. Changes of epidermal cell morphology and keratin expression induced by inhibitors of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, L; Wevers, A; Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G

    1992-03-01

    Several lines of evidence show protein kinase C as being involved in various regulatory processes in keratinocyte biology, e.g. proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of three different inhibitors of protein kinase C, staurosporine, CP 46'665-1, and tiflucarbine, on cell morphology and keratin expression in a non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). Staurosporine, being the most potent inhibitor of protein kinase C activity in vitro, and CP 46'665-1 induced morphological transformation to a fibroblast-like cell shape. In contrast, no changes in cell morphology were observed after exposure to tiflucarbine. The investigation of keratin expression in HaCaT cells grown in the presence of the different compounds revealed the following changes: After 72 h of cultivation, keratins 8 and 18 were still expressed in treated cells, whereas expression of keratin 13 was decreased as compared to control cells. Immunoblotting to detect vimentin demonstrated its absence in treated and control cells. Since tiflucarbine is known as a dual protein kinase C/calmodulin inhibitor whereas staurosporine and CP 46'665-1 do not antagonize calmodulin function, it might be possible that not only protein kinase C but also calmodulin is involved in the process leading to the morphological changes. PMID:1376142

  16. Solution structure of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.; Olah, G.A.; Walsh, D.A.; Mitchell, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Protein phosphorylation is well established as one of the most important mechanisms of signal transduction and cellular regulation. Two of the key enzymes that catalyze these phosphorylation reactions are the cAMP- (PKA) and cGMP- (PKG) dependent protein kinases. PKA has served as the prototypic model of this class of enzymes that now comprises in excess of 300 phylogenetically related proteins. A large number of these protein kinases are critical for the regulation of cell function and a full analysis of their similarities and differences is essential to understand their diverse physiological roles. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase has the subunit structure R2C2, in which C and R refer to the catalytic and regulatory subunits, respectively. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is highly homologous to PKA but is distinguished from it by having the regulatory and catalytic domains on a contiguous polypeptide. The studies described here use small-angle scattering and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to study domain movements and conformational changes in these enzymes in different functional states in order to elucidate the molecular bases for the regulation of their activities.

  17. Phosphorylation of spore coat proteins by a family of atypical protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim B; Sreelatha, Anju; Durrant, Eric S; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Muszewska, Anna; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grynberg, Marcin; Yee, Samantha; Pogliano, Kit; Tomchick, Diana R; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Dixon, Jack E; Tagliabracci, Vincent S

    2016-06-21

    The modification of proteins by phosphorylation occurs in all life forms and is catalyzed by a large superfamily of enzymes known as protein kinases. We recently discovered a family of secretory pathway kinases that phosphorylate extracellular proteins. One member, family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), is the physiological Golgi casein kinase. While examining distantly related protein sequences, we observed low levels of identity between the spore coat protein H (CotH), and the Fam20C-related secretory pathway kinases. CotH is a component of the spore in many bacterial and eukaryotic species, and is required for efficient germination of spores in Bacillus subtilis; however, the mechanism by which CotH affects germination is unclear. Here, we show that CotH is a protein kinase. The crystal structure of CotH reveals an atypical protein kinase-like fold with a unique mode of ATP binding. Examination of the genes neighboring cotH in B. subtilis led us to identify two spore coat proteins, CotB and CotG, as CotH substrates. Furthermore, we show that CotH-dependent phosphorylation of CotB and CotG is required for the efficient germination of B. subtilis spores. Collectively, our results define a family of atypical protein kinases and reveal an unexpected role for protein phosphorylation in spore biology. PMID:27185916

  18. Allicin induces apoptosis of the MGC-803 human gastric carcinoma cell line through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/caspase-3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhu, Yong; Duan, Wei; Feng, Chen; He, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common forms of malignant tumor, and the development of anti‑gastric cancer drugs with minimal toxicity is of clinical importance. Allicin is extracted from Allium sativum (garlic). Recent research, including clinical experiments, has shown that garlic has anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of allicin on the MGC‑803 human gastric carcinoma cell line, and to further explore the possible mechanisms of its tumor suppressor effects. The effects of allicin on the MGC‑803 cells were initially examined using an 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hoechst staining was also used, in order to demonstrate the impact of allicin on MGC‑803 cell apoptosis. In addition, western blot analysis was performed to determine the abnormal expression levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins, following the treatment of MGC‑803 cells with allicin. Western blotting was also used to investigate the specific mechanisms underlying allicin‑induced apoptosis of MGC‑803 cells. The rate of MGC‑803 apoptosis was significantly increased, when the concentration and treatment time of allicin were increased. Hoechst staining detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis, and enhanced expression levels of cleaved caspase 3 were determined by western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of p38 were increased when the MGC‑803 cells were treated with allicin. The results of the present study suggest that allicin may inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of MGC‑803 human gastric carcinoma cells, and this may partially be achieved through the enhanced expression of p38 and cleaved caspase 3. PMID:25523417

  19. The WD40-repeat protein Han11 functions as a scaffold protein to control HIPK2 and MEKK1 kinase functions

    PubMed Central

    Ritterhoff, Stefanie; Farah, Carla M; Grabitzki, Julia; Lochnit, Günter; Skurat, Alexander V; Schmitz, Michael Lienhard

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinases are organized in hierarchical networks that are assembled and regulated by scaffold proteins. Here, we identify the evolutionary conserved WD40-repeat protein Han11 as an interactor of the kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2). In vitro experiments showed the direct binding of Han11 to HIPK2, but also to the kinases DYRK1a, DYRK1b and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1). Han11 was required to allow coupling of MEKK1 to DYRK1 and HIPK2. Knockdown experiments in Caenorhabditis elegans showed the relevance of the Han11 orthologs Swan-1 and Swan-2 for the osmotic stress response. Downregulation of Han11 in human cells lowered the threshold and amplitude of HIPK2- and MEKK1-triggered signalling events and changed the kinetics of kinase induction. Han11 knockdown changed the amplitude and time dependence of HIPK2-driven transcription in response to DNA damage and also interfered with MEKK1-triggered gene expression and stress signalling. Impaired signal transmission also occurred upon interference with stoichiometrically assembled signalling complexes by Han11 overexpression. Collectively, these experiments identify Han11 as a novel scaffold protein regulating kinase signalling by HIPK2 and MEKK1. PMID:20940704

  20. The Roles of NDR Protein Kinases in Hippo Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hergovich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of tissue growth through controlling cellular processes such as cell proliferation, death, differentiation and stemness. Traditionally, the core cassette of the Hippo pathway includes the MST1/2 protein kinases, the LATS1/2 protein kinases, and the MOB1 scaffold signal transducer, which together regulate the transcriptional co-activator functions of the proto-oncoproteins YAP and TAZ through LATS1/2-mediated phosphorylation of YAP/TAZ. Recent research has identified additional kinases, such as NDR1/2 (also known as STK38/STK38L) and MAP4Ks, which should be considered as novel members of the Hippo core cassette. While these efforts helped to expand our understanding of Hippo core signalling, they also began to provide insights into the complexity and redundancy of the Hippo signalling network. Here, we focus on summarising our current knowledge of the regulation and functions of mammalian NDR kinases, discussing parallels between the NDR pathways in Drosophila and mammals. Initially, we provide a general overview of the cellular functions of NDR kinases in cell cycle progression, centrosome biology, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage signalling, immunology and neurobiology. Finally, we put particular emphasis on discussing NDR1/2 as YAP kinases downstream of MST1/2 and MOB1 signalling in Hippo signalling. PMID:27213455

  1. Ethanol increases affinity of protein kinase C for phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    Protein kinase C is a calcium-dependent enzyme that requires phospholipid for its activation. It is present in relatively high concentration in the brain and may be involved in neuronal function. The present experiments test whether the membrane disorder induced by ethanol affects the activity of kinase C by changing its interaction with membrane lipid. Fractions rich in kinase C were purified from rat brain cytosol by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Enzyme activity was assayed by measuring the phosphorylation of histone H1. As expected, phosphatidylserine activated the enzyme, and the stimulation was further increased by the addition of calcium and/or diacylglycerol. At low concentration of free calcium (0.5-1..mu..M), ethanol (800 mM0 enhanced kinase C activity if the presence of phospholipid. similar results were observed in the absence of calcium. Double reciprocal plots of the data showed that ethanol increased the affinity of the enzyme for phosphatidylserine without affecting the V/sub max. The stimulation of kinase C activity by ethanol was not observed at high calcium concentrations. These experiments suggest that ethanol may activated protein kinase C at physiological levels of calcium by facilitating its transfer into the hydrophobic membrane environment.

  2. Role of Protein Kinase C, PI3-kinase and Tyrosine Kinase in Activation of MAP Kinase by Glucose and Agonists of G-protein Coupled Receptors in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (also called Erk 1/2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its impact on secretory events is less well established. The interplay of protein kinase C (PKC), PI3-kinase nd cellular tyrosine kinase with MAP kinase activity using inhibitors and compounds such as glucose, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and agonists of G-protein coupled receptors like gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), oxytocin (OT) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was investigated in INS-1 cells, an insulin secreting cell line. MAP kinase activity was determined by using a peptide derived from the EGF receptor as a MAP kinase substrate and [ P 32 ]ATP. Glucose as well as GRP, OT and GIP exhibited a time-dependent increase in MAP kinase activity with a maximum at time point 2.5 min. All further experiments were performed using 2.5 min incubations. The flavone PD 098059 is known to bind to the inactive forms of MEK1 (MAPK/ERK-Kinase) thus preventing activation by upstream activators. 20 μM PD 098059 ( IC 50 =51 μM) inhibited MAP kinase stimulated by either glucose, GRP, OT, GIP or PMA. Inhibiton (“downregulation”) of PKC by a long term (22h) pretreatment with 1 μM PMA did not influence MAP kinase activity when augmented by either of the above mentioned compound. To investigate whether PI3-kinase and cellular tyrosine kinase are involved in G-protein mediated effects on MAP kinase, inhibitors were used: 100 nM wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor) reduced the effects of GRP, OT and GIP but not that of PMA; 100 μM genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the stimulatory effect of either above mentioned compound on MAP kinase activation. Inhibition of MAP kinase by 20 μM PD 098059 did not influence insulin secretion modulated by either compound (glucose, GRP, OT or GIP). [ H 3 ]Thymidine incorporation, however, was severely inhibited by PD 098059. Thus MAP kinase is important for INS-1 cell proliferation but

  3. Molecular cloning and expression of the human deoxythymidylate kinase gene in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Su, J Y; Sclafani, R A

    1991-01-01

    (Deoxy)thymidylate (dTMP) kinase is an enzyme which phosphorylates dTMP to dTDP in the presence of ATP and magnesium. This enzyme is important in cellular DNA synthesis because the synthesis of dTTP, either via the de novo pathway or through the exogenous supply of thymidine, requires the activity of this enzyme. It has been suggested that the activities of the enzymes involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis, such as thymidine kinase, thymidylate synthase, thymidylate kinase, and dihydrofolate reductase, are subjected to cell cycle regulation. Here we describe the cloning of a human dTMP kinase cDNA by functional complementation of a yeast dTMP kinase temperature-sensitive mutant at the non-permissive temperature. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned human cDNA is predicted to encode a 24 KD protein that shows considerable homology with the yeast and vaccinia virus dTMP kinase enzymes. The human enzyme activity has been investigated by expressing it in yeast. In this work, we demonstrate that the cloned human cDNA, when expressed in yeast, produces dTMP kinase activity. Images PMID:2017365

  4. Identification of Aurora Kinase B and Wee1-Like Protein Kinase as Downstream Targets of V600EB-RAF in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arati; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Gowda, Raghavendra; Berg, Arthur; Neves, Rogerio I.; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2014-01-01

    BRAF is the most mutated gene in melanoma, with approximately 50% of patients containing V600E mutant protein. V600EB-RAF can be targeted using pharmacological agents, but resistance develops in patients by activating other proteins in the signaling pathway. Identifying downstream members in this signaling cascade is important to design strategies to avoid the development of resistance. Unfortunately, downstream proteins remain to be identified and therapeutic potential requires validation. A kinase screen was undertaken to identify downstream targets in the V600EB-RAF signaling cascade. Involvement of aurora kinase B (AURKB) and Wee1-like protein kinase (WEE1) as downstream proteins in the V600EB-RAF pathway was validated in xenografted tumors, and mechanisms of action were characterized in size- and time-matched tumors. Levels of only AURKB and WEE1 decreased in melanoma cells, when V600EB-RAF, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2, or extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 protein levels were reduced using siRNA compared with other identified kinases. AURKB and WEE1 were expressed in tumors of patients with melanoma at higher levels than observed in normal human melanocytes. Targeting these proteins reduced tumor development by approximately 70%, similar to that observed when inhibiting V600EB-RAF. Furthermore, protein or activity levels of AURKB and WEE1 decreased in melanoma cells when pharmacological agents targeting upstream V600EB-RAF or mitogen-activated protein kinase were used to inhibit the V600EB-RAF pathway. Thus, AURKB and WEE1 are targets and biomarkers of therapeutic efficacy, lying downstream of V600EB-RAF in melanomas. PMID:23416158

  5. Systematic discovery of linear binding motifs targeting an ancient protein interaction surface on MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Zeke, András; Bastys, Tomas; Alexa, Anita; Garai, Ágnes; Mészáros, Bálint; Kirsch, Klára; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Kalinina, Olga V; Reményi, Attila

    2015-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are broadly used regulators of cellular signaling. However, how these enzymes can be involved in such a broad spectrum of physiological functions is not understood. Systematic discovery of MAPK networks both experimentally and in silico has been hindered because MAPKs bind to other proteins with low affinity and mostly in less-characterized disordered regions. We used a structurally consistent model on kinase-docking motif interactions to facilitate the discovery of short functional sites in the structurally flexible and functionally under-explored part of the human proteome and applied experimental tools specifically tailored to detect low-affinity protein-protein interactions for their validation in vitro and in cell-based assays. The combined computational and experimental approach enabled the identification of many novel MAPK-docking motifs that were elusive for other large-scale protein-protein interaction screens. The analysis produced an extensive list of independently evolved linear binding motifs from a functionally diverse set of proteins. These all target, with characteristic binding specificity, an ancient protein interaction surface on evolutionarily related but physiologically clearly distinct three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38). This inventory of human protein kinase binding sites was compared with that of other organisms to examine how kinase-mediated partnerships evolved over time. The analysis suggests that most human MAPK-binding motifs are surprisingly new evolutionarily inventions and newly found links highlight (previously hidden) roles of MAPKs. We propose that short MAPK-binding stretches are created in disordered protein segments through a variety of ways and they represent a major resource for ancient signaling enzymes to acquire new regulatory roles. PMID:26538579

  6. Protein Kinase CK2 Content in GL261 Mouse Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Font, Laura; Alcaraz, Estefania; Plana, Maria; Candiota, Ana Paula; Itarte, Emilio; Arús, Carles

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive human glial tumour with a median survival of 14-15 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard chemotherapeutic choice for GBM treatment. Unfortunately, chemoresistence always ensues with concomitant tumour regrowth. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) contributes to tumour development, proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis in cancer and it is overexpressed in human GBM. Targeting CK2 in GBM treatment may benefit patients. With this translational perspective in mind, we have studied the CK2 expression level by Western blot analysis in a preclinical model of GBM: GL261 cells growing orthotopically in C57BL/6 mice. The expression level of the CK2 catalytic subunit (CK2α) was higher in tumour (about 4-fold) and in contralateral brain parenchyma (more than 2-fold) than in normal brain parenchyma (p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant changes were found in CK2 regulatory subunit (CK2β) expression, suggesting an increased unbalance of CK2α/CK2β in GL261 tumours with respect to normal brain parenchyma, in agreement with a differential role of these two subunits in tumours. PMID:26466942

  7. Orexin-stimulated MAP kinase cascades are activated through multiple G-protein signalling pathways in human H295R adrenocortical cells: diverse roles for orexins A and B.

    PubMed

    Ramanjaneya, Manjunath; Conner, Alex C; Chen, Jing; Kumar, Prashanth; Brown, James E P; Jöhren, Olaf; Lehnert, Hendrik; Stanfield, Peter R; Randeva, Harpal S

    2009-08-01

    Orexins A and B (ORA and ORB) are neuropeptide hormones found throughout the central nervous system and periphery. They are required for a host of physiological processes including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulation, steroidogenesis, appetite control and energy regulation. While some signalling mechanisms have been proposed for individual recombinant orexin receptors in generic mammalian cell types, it is clear that the peripheral effects of orexin are spatially and temporally complex. This study dissects the different G-protein signalling and MAPK pathways activated in a pluripotent human adrenal H295R cell line capable of all the physiological steps involved in steroidogenesis. Both extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 were phosphorylated rapidly with a subsequent decline, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, in response to both ORA and ORB. Conversely, there was little or no direct activation of the ERK5 or JNK pathway. Analysis using signalling and MAPK inhibitors as well as receptor-specific antagonists determined the precise mediators of the orexin response in these cells. Both ERK1/2 and p38 activation were predominantly G(q)- and to a lesser extent G(s)-mediated; p38 activation even had a small G(i)-component. Effects were broadly comparable for both orexin sub-types ORA and ORB and although most of the effects were transmitted through the orexin receptor-1 subtype, we did observe a role for orexin receptor-2-mediated activation of both ERK1/2 and p38. Cortisol secretion also differed in response to ORA and ORB. These data suggest multiple roles for orexin-mediated MAPK activation in an adrenal cell-line, this complexity may help to explain the diverse biological actions of orexins with wide-ranging consequences for our understanding of the mechanisms initiated by these steroidogenic molecules. PMID:19460850

  8. Inhibitory effects of total saponin from Korean Red Ginseng on [Ca2+]i mobilization through phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type I in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Hae; Kwon, Hyuk-Woo; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Rhee, Man Hee; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracellular Ca2+([Ca2+]i) is a platelet aggregation-inducing molecule. Therefore, understanding the inhibitory mechanism of [Ca2+]i mobilization is very important to evaluate the antiplatelet effect of a substance. This study was carried out to understand the Ca2+-antagonistic effect of total saponin from Korean Red Ginseng (KRG-TS). Methods We investigated the Ca2+-antagonistic effect of KRG-TS on cyclic nucleotides-associated phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type I (IP3RI) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in thrombin (0.05 U/mL)-stimulated human platelet aggregation. Results The inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization by KRG-TS was increased by a PKA inhibitor (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS), which was more stronger than the inhibition by a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor (Rp-8-Br-cGMPS). In addition, Rp-8-Br-cAMPS inhibited phosphorylation of PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) (Thr197) by KRG-TS. The phosphorylation of IP3RI (Ser1756) by KRG-TS was very strongly inhibited by Rp-8-Br-cAMPS compared with that by Rp-8-Br-cGMPS. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of [Ca2+]i mobilization by KRG-TS is more strongly dependent on a cAMP/PKA pathway than a cGMP/PKG pathway. KRG-TS also inhibited the release of adenosine triphosphate and serotonin. In addition, only G-Rg3 of protopanaxadiol in KRG-TS inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Conclusion These results strongly indicate that KRG-TS is a potent beneficial compound that inhibits [Ca2+]i mobilization in thrombin–platelet interactions, which may result in the prevention of platelet aggregation-mediated thrombotic disease. PMID:26869828

  9. Conventional protein kinase C isoforms differentially regulate ADP- and thrombin-evoked Ca²⁺ signalling in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Lever, Robert A; Hussain, Azhar; Sun, Benjamin B; Sage, Stewart O; Harper, Alan G S

    2015-12-01

    Rises in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) are central in platelet activation, yet many aspects of the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Most studies examine how experimental manipulations affect agonist-evoked rises in [Ca(2+)]cyt, but these only monitor the net effect of manipulations on the processes controlling [Ca(2+)]cyt (Ca(2+) buffering, sequestration, release, entry and removal), and cannot resolve the source of the Ca(2+) or the transporters or channels affected. To investigate the effects of protein kinase C (PKC) on platelet Ca(2+) signalling, we here monitor Ca(2+) flux around the platelet by measuring net Ca(2+) fluxes to or from the extracellular space and the intracellular Ca(2+) stores, which act as the major sources and sinks for Ca(2+) influx into and efflux from the cytosol, as well as monitoring the cytosolic Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]cyt), which influences platelet Ca(2+) fluxes via Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. The intracellular store Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]st) was monitored using Fluo-5N, the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]ext) was monitored using Fluo-4 whilst [Ca(2+)]cyt and [Na(+)]cyt were monitored using Fura-2 and SFBI, respectively. PKC inhibition using Ro-31-8220 or bisindolylmaleimide I potentiated ADP- and thrombin-evoked rises in [Ca(2+)]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). PKC inhibition potentiated ADP-evoked but reduced thrombin-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) removal into the extracellular medium. SERCA inhibition using thapsigargin and 2,5-di(tert-butyl) l,4-benzohydroquinone abolished the effect of PKC inhibitors on ADP-evoked changes in [Ca(2+)]cyt but only reduced the effect on thrombin-evoked responses. Thrombin evokes substantial rises in [Na(+)]cyt which would be expected to reduce Ca(2+) removal via the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). Thrombin-evoked rises in [Na(+)]cyt were potentiated by PKC inhibition, an effect which was not due to altered changes in non

  10. Microfluidic IEF technique for sequential phosphorylation analysis of protein kinases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Nakchul; Song, Simon; Choi, Hoseok; Lim, Bu-Taek; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-11-01

    Sequential phosphorylation of protein kinases play the important role in signal transduction, protein regulation, and metabolism in living cells. The analysis of these phosphorylation cascades will provide new insights into their physiological functions in many biological functions. Unfortunately, the existing methods are limited to analyze the cascade activity. Therefore, we suggest a microfluidic isoelectric focusing technique (μIEF) for the analysis of the cascade activity. Using the technique, we show that the sequential phosphorylation of a peptide by two different kinases can be successfully detected on a microfluidic chip. In addition, the inhibition assay for kinase activity and the analysis on a real sample have also been conducted. The results indicate that μIEF is an excellent means for studies on phosphorylation cascade activity.

  11. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation. PMID:25346443

  12. Cyclophilin represents a novel class of protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M.W.; Gorelick, F.S.; Handschumacher, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    Cyclophilin (CyP, Mr 17,737, pI 9.6), a highly specific cytosolic receptor for cyclosporin A (CsA) has ser/thr protein kinase activity. Incorporation of /sup 32/P into bovine histone H/sub 3/ (BH/sub 3/) was catalyzed by major and minor CyP isozymes at the same rate. Salt effects were biphasic with optimal kinase activity between 50-100 mM Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/. Kinase activity was maximal at 37/sup 0/C, stable for 5 min at 45/sup 0/, labile at 56/sup 0/, optimal between pH 6.8 and 8.0 and had an apparent Km of 20 uM ATP with both isozymes. The specific activity of CyP was 1.0 nmole P/mg protein/min with chicken histone H/sub 1/ (CH/sub 1/), 0.2 nmoles P/mg prot/min with BH/sub 3/ and less than 0.01 nmoles P/mg prot/min with synapsin, casein, phosvitin, and ribosomal protein S6. Cofactors including Mn/sup + +/, Zn/sup + +/, Ca/sup + +/, phosphatidyl serine, diolein and phorbol ester, cAMP, cGMP and Ca/sup + +/ did not affect basal CyP kinase activity. CsA (<200 ng/ml) inhibited phosphorylation of CH/sub 3/ by 50% but did not inhibit phosphorylation of other histones; 2ug CsA/ml was required to cause 50% inhibition of cAMP and Ca/sup + +//CaM dependent kinases. A non-immunosuppressive analog (Me-leu-11-CsA) that does not bind to CyP did not inhibit CH/sub 3/ phosphorylation. Thus, CyP is a novel protein kinase that mediates immunosuppression by CsA.

  13. Dual bradykinin B2 receptor signalling in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells: activation of protein kinase C is counteracted by a GS-mediated stimulation of the cyclic AMP pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Liebmann, C; Graness, A; Ludwig, B; Adomeit, A; Boehmer, A; Boehmer, F D; Nürnberg, B; Wetzker, R

    1996-01-01

    Cell membranes of the human epidermoid cell line A431 express classical bradykinin (BK) B2 receptors, as assessed by [3H]BK binding studies. Furthermore, stimulation by BK induced a time-dependent modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in A431 cells: a rapid activation (t1/2 approximately 1 min) is followed by a slow inhibition (t1/2 approximately 20 min) of PKC translocation measured by [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding. In addition, BK stimulated both adenylate cyclase activity in A431 membranes and accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in intact cells in a retarded manner. A possible BK-induced activation of the cAMP pathway mediated via PKC, phospholipase D, prostaglandins or Ca2+/calmodulin was excluded. A 35 kDa protein was found in A431 membranes to be specifically phosphorylated in the presence of both BK and protein kinase A (PKA). An anti-alpha s-antibody, AS 348, abolished stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in response to BK, cholera toxin and isoprenaline, strongly suggesting the involvement of Gs proteins in the BK action. The BK-activated cAMP signalling system might be important for the observed inactivation of PKC slowly evoked by BK: the BK-induced rapid activation of PKC is decreased by dibutyryl cAMP, and the slow inhibition of PKC is prevented by an inhibitor of PKA, adenosine 3':5'-monophosphothioate (cyclic, Rp isomer). The inhibition of PKC translocation might be exerted directly at the level of PKC activation, since stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by BK was affected by neither dibutyryl cAMP nor forskolin. Thus our results provide the first evidence that A431 cells BK is able to activate two independent signal-transduction pathways via a single class of B2 receptors but two different G proteins. The lagging stimulation of the cAMP signalling pathway via Gs might serve to switch off PKC, which is rapidly activated via Gq-mediated stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis. PMID:8546671

  14. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Mitogen Kinase Phosphatase 1: A Critical Interplay in Macrophage Biology

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Jorge; Valverde-Estrella, Lorena; Tur, Juan; Vico, Tania; Celada, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are necessary in multiple processes during the immune response or inflammation. This review emphasizes the critical role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and mitogen kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in the functional activities of macrophages. While the phosphorylation of MAPKs is required for macrophage activation or proliferation, MKP-1 dephosphorylates these kinases, thus playing a balancing role in the control of macrophage behavior. MKP-1 is a nuclear-localized dual-specificity phosphatase whose expression is regulated at multiple levels, including at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The regulatory role of MKP-1 in the interplay between MAPK phosphorylation/dephosphorylation makes this molecule a critical regulator of macrophage biology and inflammation. PMID:27446931

  15. Contractions Activate Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Rat Muscle by Protein Kinase C and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction-induced activation of HSL was abolished by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I and calphostin C and reduced 50 % by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, which also completely blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation. None of the inhibitors reduced adrenaline-induced HSL activation in soleus muscle. Both phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which activates PKC and, in turn, ERK, and caffeine, which increases intracellular Ca2+ without eliciting contraction, increased HSL activity. Activated ERK increased HSL activity in supernatant from basal but not from electrically stimulated muscle. In conclusion, in muscle, PKC can stimulate HSL through ERK. Contractions and adrenaline enhance muscle HSL activity by different signalling mechanisms. The effect of contractions is mediated by PKC, at least partly via the ERK pathway. PMID:12794177

  16. Regulation of cholesterol esterification by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-03-05

    They have recently identified acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase as the key enzyme for cholesterol esterification in the central nervous system. They found that the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase could be controlled by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism. However, repeated attempts to identify cyclic AMP as the bioregulator for this reaction failed. Recently, they have studied the possible involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of glial cholesterol esterification. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can activate cellular cholesterol esterification in a complex, time-dependent manner. Phorbol analogues inactive toward protein kinase C are also ineffective in this assay. Furthermore, oleoyl-acetyl-glycerol mimics the effect of PMA, confirming the proposal that protein kinase C mediates the effect of these compounds and that the natural bioregulator is probably diacylglycerol. Receptor-mediated polyphosphatidyl-inositol cleavage often produces diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate. The synergic effects of these two compounds are known to be necessary to elicit other biological responses. Their preliminary studies using calcium ionophore A23187 indicates that Ca/sup + +/ is not required for cellular cholesterol esterification. In sum, glial cholesterol esterification is probably regulated by a calcium-independent and protein kinase C-dependent reaction.

  17. Isoform Specificity of Protein Kinase Cs in Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sossin, Wayne S.

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are implicated in many forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the specific isoform(s) of PKC that underlie(s) these events are often not known. We have used "Aplysia" as a model system in order to investigate the isoform specificity of PKC actions due to the presence of fewer isoforms and a large number of documented…

  18. Targeting protein kinases to reverse multidrug resistance in sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-02-01

    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. PMID:26827688

  19. Leishmania amazonensis: PKC-like protein kinase modulates the (Na++K+)ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo de; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Lara, Lucienne Silva; Pinheiro, Carla Mônica; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2007-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify the presence of protein kinase C-like (PKC-like) in Leishmania amazonensis and to elucidate its possible role in the modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity. Immunoblotting experiments using antibody against a consensus sequence (Ac 543-549) of rabbit protein kinase C (PKC) revealed the presence of a protein kinase of 80 kDa in L. amazonensis. Measurements of protein kinase activity showed the presence of both (Ca(2+)-dependent) and (Ca(2+)-independent) protein kinase activity in plasma membrane and cytosol. Phorbol ester (PMA) activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase stimulated the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity, while activation of the Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase was inhibitory. Both effects of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase of the plasma membrane were lower than that observed in intact cells. PMA induced the translocation of protein kinase from cytosol to plasma membrane, indicating that the maximal effect of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity depends on the synergistic action of protein kinases from both plasma membrane and cytosol. This is the first demonstration of a protein kinase activated by PMA in L. amazonensis and the first evidence for a possible role in the regulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity in this trypanosomatid. Modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase by protein kinase in a trypanosomatid opens up new possibilities to understand the regulation of ion homeostasis in this parasite. PMID:17475255

  20. Coronin 1B Regulates S1P-Induced Human Lung Endothelial Cell Chemotaxis: Role of PLD2, Protein Kinase C and Rac1 Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijay; Pendyala, Srikanth; He, Donghong; Ebenezer, David L.; Harijith, Anantha; Fu, Panfeng; Huang, Long Shuang; Bear, James E.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Coronins are a highly conserved family of actin binding proteins that regulate actin-dependent processes such as cell motility and endocytosis. We found that treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) with the bioactive lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) rapidly stimulates coronin 1B translocation to lamellipodia at the cell leading edge, which is required for S1P-induced chemotaxis. Further, S1P-induced chemotaxis of HPAECs was attenuated by pretreatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting coronin 1B (∼36%), PLD2 (∼45%) or Rac1 (∼50%) compared to scrambled siRNA controls. Down regulation PLD2 expression by siRNA also attenuated S1P-induced coronin 1B translocation to the leading edge of the cell periphery while PLD1 silencing had no effect. Also, S1P-induced coronin 1B redistribution to cell periphery and chemotaxis was attenuated by inhibition of Rac1 and over-expression of dominant negative PKC δ, ε and ζ isoforms in HPAECs. These results demonstrate that S1P activation of PLD2, PKC and Rac1 is part of the signaling cascade that regulates coronin 1B translocation to the cell periphery and the ensuing cell chemotaxis. PMID:23667561

  1. Competing G protein-coupled receptor kinases balance G protein and β-arrestin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Domitille; Durand, Guillaume; Gallay, Nathalie; Rizk, Aurélien; Ahn, Seungkirl; Kim, Jihee; Violin, Jonathan D; Dupuy, Laurence; Gauthier, Christophe; Piketty, Vincent; Crépieux, Pascale; Poupon, Anne; Clément, Frédérique; Fages, François; Lefkowitz, Robert J; Reiter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) are involved in nearly all aspects of chemical communications and represent major drug targets. 7TMRs transmit their signals not only via heterotrimeric G proteins but also through β-arrestins, whose recruitment to the activated receptor is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). In this paper, we combined experimental approaches with computational modeling to decipher the molecular mechanisms as well as the hidden dynamics governing extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation by the angiotensin II type 1A receptor (AT1AR) in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells. We built an abstracted ordinary differential equations (ODE)-based model that captured the available knowledge and experimental data. We inferred the unknown parameters by simultaneously fitting experimental data generated in both control and perturbed conditions. We demonstrate that, in addition to its well-established function in the desensitization of G-protein activation, GRK2 exerts a strong negative effect on β-arrestin-dependent signaling through its competition with GRK5 and 6 for receptor phosphorylation. Importantly, we experimentally confirmed the validity of this novel GRK2-dependent mechanism in both primary vascular smooth muscle cells naturally expressing the AT1AR, and HEK293 cells expressing other 7TMRs. PMID:22735336

  2. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-03-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis, since the onset of meiosis and spermiogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular, at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin-binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  3. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis since the onset of spermatogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  4. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-02-10

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the ..cap alpha.. subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single ..beta.. subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the ..cap alpha.. subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub s..cap alpha../ relative to G/sub ichemically bond/ and G/sub ochemically bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with (/sup 125/I)protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the ..beta.. subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the ..cap alpha.. subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium.

  5. Dysfunctional conformational dynamics of protein kinase A induced by a lethal mutant of phospholamban hinder phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonggul; Masterson, Larry R.; Cembran, Alessandro; Verardi, Raffaello; Shi, Lei; Gao, Jiali; Taylor, Susan S.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic interplay between kinases and substrates is crucial for the formation of catalytically committed complexes that enable phosphoryl transfer. However, a clear understanding on how substrates modulate kinase structural dynamics to control catalytic efficiency is still missing. Here, we used solution NMR spectroscopy to study the conformational dynamics of two complexes of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A with WT and R14 deletion phospholamban, a lethal human mutant linked to familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Phospholamban is a central regulator of heart muscle contractility, and its phosphorylation by protein kinase A constitutes a primary response to β-adrenergic stimulation. We found that the single deletion of arginine in phospholamban’s recognition sequence for the kinase reduces its binding affinity and dramatically reduces phosphorylation kinetics. Structurally, the mutant prevents the enzyme from adopting conformations and motions committed for catalysis, with concomitant reduction in catalytic efficiency. Overall, these results underscore the importance of a well-tuned structural and dynamic interplay between the kinase and its substrates to achieve physiological phosphorylation levels for proper Ca2+ signaling and normal cardiac function. PMID:25775607

  6. Trophoblast Cell Fusion and Differentiation Are Mediated by Both the Protein Kinase C and A Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Omata, Waka; Ackerman, William E.; Vandre, Dale D.; Robinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is an epithelial barrier that interacts with maternal blood and is a key for the transfer of nutrients and other solutes to the developing fetus. The syncytiotrophoblast is a true syncytium and fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts is the cardinal event leading to the formation of this layer. BeWo cells are often used as a surrogate for cytotrophoblasts, since they can be induced to fuse, and then express certain differentiation markers associated with trophoblast syncytialization. Dysferlin, a syncytiotrophoblast membrane repair protein, is up-regulated in BeWo cells induced to fuse by treatment with forskolin; this fusion is thought to occur through cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that dysferlin may also be up-regulated in response to fusion through other pathways. Here, we show that BeWo cells can also be induced to fuse by treatment with an activator of protein kinase C, and that this fusion is accompanied by increased expression of dysferlin. Moreover, a dramatic synergistic increase in dysferlin expression is observed when both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways are activated in BeWo cells. This synergy in fusion is also accompanied by dramatic increases in mRNA for the placental fusion proteins syncytin 1, syncytin 2, as well as dysferlin. Dysferlin, however, was shown to be dispensable for stimulus-induced BeWo cell syncytialization, since dysferlin knockdown lines fused to the same extent as control cells. The classical trophoblast differentiation marker human chorionic gonadotropin was also monitored and changes in the expression closely parallel that of dysferlin in all of the experimental conditions employed. Thus different biochemical markers of trophoblast fusion behave in concert supporting the hypothesis that activation of both protein kinase C and A pathways lead to trophoblastic differentiation. PMID:24236208

  7. Selective Phosphorylation Inhibitor of Delta Protein Kinase C-Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Protein-Protein Interactions: Application for Myocardial Injury in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Qvit, Nir; Disatnik, Marie-Hélène; Sho, Eiketsu; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2016-06-22

    Protein kinases regulate numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, metabolism, and cell death. Because the primary sequence and the three-dimensional structure of many kinases are highly similar, the development of selective inhibitors for only one kinase is challenging. Furthermore, many protein kinases are pleiotropic, mediating diverse and sometimes even opposing functions by phosphorylating multiple protein substrates. Here, we set out to develop an inhibitor of a selective protein kinase phosphorylation of only one of its substrates. Focusing on the pleiotropic delta protein kinase C (δPKC), we used a rational approach to identify a distal docking site on δPKC for its substrate, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). We reasoned that an inhibitor of PDK's docking should selectively inhibit the phosphorylation of only PDK without affecting phosphorylation of the other δPKC substrates. Our approach identified a selective inhibitor of PDK docking to δPKC with an in vitro Kd of ∼50 nM and reducing cardiac injury IC50 of ∼5 nM. This inhibitor, which did not affect the phosphorylation of other δPKC substrates even at 1 μM, demonstrated that PDK phosphorylation alone is critical for δPKC-mediated injury by heart attack. The approach we describe is likely applicable for the identification of other substrate-specific kinase inhibitors. PMID:27218445

  8. Baculovirus protein PK2 subverts eIF2α kinase function by mimicry of its kinase domain C-lobe

    PubMed Central

    Li, John J.; Cao, Chune; Fixsen, Sarah M.; Young, Janet M.; Bando, Hisanori; Elde, Nels C.; Katsuma, Susumu; Dever, Thomas E.; Sicheri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) by eIF2α family kinases is a conserved mechanism to limit protein synthesis under specific stress conditions. The baculovirus-encoded protein PK2 inhibits eIF2α family kinases in vivo, thereby increasing viral fitness. However, the precise mechanism by which PK2 inhibits eIF2α kinase function remains an enigma. Here, we probed the mechanism by which PK2 inhibits the model eIF2α kinase human RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as well as native insect eIF2α kinases. Although PK2 structurally mimics the C-lobe of a protein kinase domain and possesses the required docking infrastructure to bind eIF2α, we show that PK2 directly binds the kinase domain of PKR (PKRKD) but not eIF2α. The PKRKD–PK2 interaction requires a 22-residue N-terminal extension preceding the globular PK2 body that we term the “eIF2α kinase C-lobe mimic” (EKCM) domain. The functional insufficiency of the N-terminal extension of PK2 implicates a role for the adjacent EKCM domain in binding and inhibiting PKR. Using a genetic screen in yeast, we isolated PK2-activating mutations that cluster to a surface of the EKCM domain that in bona fide protein kinases forms the catalytic cleft through sandwiching interactions with a kinase N-lobe. Interaction assays revealed that PK2 associates with the N- but not the C-lobe of PKRKD. We propose an inhibitory model whereby PK2 engages the N-lobe of an eIF2α kinase domain to create a nonfunctional pseudokinase domain complex, possibly through a lobe-swapping mechanism. Finally, we show that PK2 enhances baculovirus fitness in insect hosts by targeting the endogenous insect heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)–like eIF2α kinase. PMID:26216977

  9. Protein kinase A signaling during bidirectional axenic differentiation in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Bachmaier, Sabine; Witztum, Ronit; Tsigankov, Polina; Koren, Roni; Boshart, Michael; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania are obligatory intracellular parasites that cycle between the phagolysosome of mammalian macrophages, where they proliferate as intracellular amastigotes, and the midgut of female sand flies, where they proliferate as extracellular promastigotes. Shifting between the two environments induces signaling pathway-mediated developmental processes that enable adaptation to both host and vector. Developmentally regulated expression and phosphorylation of protein kinase A subunits in Leishmania and in Trypanosoma brucei point to an involvement of protein kinase A in parasite development. To assess this hypothesis in Leishmania donovani, we determined proteome-wide changes in phosphorylation of the conserved protein kinase A phosphorylation motifs RXXS and RXXT, using a phospho-specific antibody. Rapid dephosphorylation of these motifs was observed upon initiation of promastigote to amastigote differentiation in culture. No phosphorylated sites were detected in axenic amastigotes. To analyse the kinetics of (re)phosphorylation during axenic reverse differentiation from L. donovani amastigotes to promastigotes, we first established a map of this process with morphological and molecular markers. Upon initiation, the parasites rested for 6-12h before proliferation of an asynchronous population resumed. After early changes in cell shape, the major changes in molecular marker expression and flagella biogenesis occurred between 24 and 33h after initiation. RXXS/T re-phosphorylation and expression of the regulatory subunit PKAR1 correlated with promastigote maturation, indicating a promastigote-specific function of protein kinase A signaling. This is supported by the localization of PKAR1 to the flagellum, an organelle reduced to a remnant in amastigote forms. We conclude that a significant increase in protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation is part of the ordered changes that characterise the amastigote to promastigote differentiation

  10. Phosphoproteins and protein kinases of the Golgi apparatus membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Capasso, J.M.; Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1985-11-25

    Incubation of a highly purified fraction derived from rat liver Golgi apparatus with (gamma-TSP)ATP results in phosphorylation of several endogenous phosphoproteins. One phosphoprotein with an apparent Mr of 48,300 is radiolabeled to an apparent extent at least 5-fold higher than any other phosphoprotein as part of either the Golgi apparatus or highly purified rat liver fractions derived from the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plasma membrane, coated vesicles, cytosol, and total homogenate. Approximately 70% of the 48.3-kDa phosphoprotein appears to be a specific extrinsic Golgi membrane protein with the phosphorylated amino acid being threonine. The protein kinase which phosphorylates the 48.3-kDa protein is an intrinsic Golgi membrane protein and is dependent on MgS , independent of CaS , calmodulin, and cAMP, and is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. Preliminary evidence suggests that there are also intrinsic membrane protein kinases in the Golgi apparatus which are dependent on CaS and cAMP. The physiological role of the above phosphoproteins and protein kinases is not known.

  11. Protein kinase inhibitors against malignant lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    D’Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are intimately involved in multiple signal transduction pathways regulating survival, activation, proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid cells. Deregulation or overexpression of specific oncogenic TKs is implicated in maintaining the malignant phenotype in B-lineage lymphoid malignancies. Several novel targeted TK inhibitors (TKIs) have recently emerged as active in the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphomas that inhibit critical signaling pathways, promote apoptotic mechanisms or modulate the tumor microenvironment. Areas covered In this review, the authors summarize the clinical outcomes of newer TKIs in various B-cell lymphomas from published and ongoing clinical studies and abstracts from major cancer and hematology conferences. Expert opinion Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated that robust antitumor activity can be obtained with TKIs directed toward specific oncogenic TKs that are genetically deregulated in various subtypes of B-cell lymphomas. Clinical success of targeting TKIs is dependent upon on identifying reliable molecular and clinical markers associated with select cohorts of patients. Further understanding of the signaling pathways should stimulate the identification of novel molecular targets and expand the development of new therapeutic options and individualized therapies. PMID:23496343

  12. Comprehensive Characterization of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Catalytic Domain by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deyang; Peng, Ying; Ayaz-Guner, Serife; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Ge, Ying

    2016-02-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is essential in regulating energy metabolism in all eukaryotic cells. It is a heterotrimeric protein complex composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ). C-terminal truncation of AMPKα at residue 312 yielded a protein that is active upon phosphorylation of Thr172 in the absence of β and γ subunits, which is refered to as the AMPK catalytic domain and commonly used to substitute for the AMPK heterotrimeric complex in in vitro kinase assays. However, a comprehensive characterization of the AMPK catalytic domain is lacking. Herein, we expressed a His-tagged human AMPK catalytic domin (denoted as AMPKΔ) in E. coli, comprehensively characterized AMPKΔ in its basal state and after in vitro phosphorylation using top-down mass spectrometry (MS), and assessed how phosphorylation of AMPKΔ affects its activity. Unexpectedly, we found that bacterially-expressed AMPKΔ was basally phosphorylated and localized the phosphorylation site to the His-tag. We found that AMPKΔ had noticeable basal activity and was capable of phosphorylating itself and its substrates without activating phosphorylation at Thr172. Moreover, our data suggested that Thr172 is the only site phosphorylated by its upstream kinase, liver kinase B1, and that this phosphorylation dramatically increases the kinase activity of AMPKΔ. Importantly, we demonstrated that top-down MS in conjunction with in vitro phosphorylation assay is a powerful approach for monitoring phosphorylation reaction and determining sequential order of phosphorylation events in kinase-substrate systems.

  13. Knockdown of the C. elegans Kinome identifies Kinases required for normal protein Homeostasis, Mitochondrial network structure, and Sarcomere structure in muscle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kinases are important signalling molecules for modulating cellular processes and major targets of drug discovery programs. However, functional information for roughly half the human kinome is lacking. We conducted three kinome wide, >90%, RNAi screens and epistasis testing of some identified kinases against known intramuscular signalling systems to increase the functional annotation of the C. elegans kinome and expand our understanding of kinome influence upon muscle protein degradation. Results 96 kinases were identified as required for normal protein homeostasis, 74 for normal mitochondrial networks and 50 for normal sarcomere structure. Knockdown of kinases required only for normal protein homeostasis and/or mitochondrial structure was significantly less likely to produce a developmental or behavioural phenotype than knockdown of kinases required for normal sarcomere structure and/or other sub-cellular processes. Lastly, assessment of kinases for which knockdown produced muscle protein degradation against the known regulatory pathways in C. elegans muscle revealed that close to half of kinase knockdowns activated autophagy in a MAPK dependent fashion. Conclusions Roughly 40% of kinases studied, 159 of 397, are important in establishing or maintaining muscle cell health, with most required for both. For kinases where decreased expression triggers protein degradation, autophagy is most commonly activated. These results increase the annotation of the C. elegans kinome to roughly 75% and enable future kinome research. As 33% of kinases identified have orthologues expressed in human muscle, our results also enable testing of whether identified kinases function similarly in maintaining human muscle homeostasis. PMID:24060339

  14. The Pim-1 Protein Kinase Is an Important Regulator of MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Levels and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ying; Song, Jin H.; Mahajan, Sandeep; DuPont, Rachel; McEachern, Kristen; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Cortes, Jorge E.; Minden, Mark D.; Ebens, Allen; Mims, Alice; LaRue, Amanda C.

    2014-01-01

    MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), plays an important role in signaling normal and tumor cell migration and invasion. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism that promotes MET expression in multiple tumor cell types. The levels of the Pim-1 protein kinase show a positive correlation with the levels of MET protein in human tumor cell lines and patient-derived tumor materials. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), Pim knockout mice, small-molecule inhibitors, and overexpression of Pim-1, we confirmed this correlation and found that Pim-1 kinase activity regulates HGF-induced tumor cell migration, invasion, and cell scattering. The novel biochemical mechanism for these effects involves the ability of Pim-1 to control the translation of MET by regulating the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) on S406. This targeted phosphorylation is required for the binding of eIF4B to the eIF3 translation initiation complex. Importantly, Pim-1 action was validated by the evaluation of patient blood and bone marrow from a phase I clinical trial of a Pim kinase inhibitor, AZD1208. These results suggest that Pim inhibitors may have an important role in the treatment of patients where MET is driving tumor biology. PMID:24777602

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the kinase domain of human tousled-like kinase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Garrote, Ana M.; Redondo, Pilar; Montoya, Guillermo; Muñoz, Inés G.

    2014-02-19

    The C-terminal kinase domain of TLK2 (a human tousled-like kinase) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in chromatin dynamics, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and chromosome segregation. The two members of the family reported in humans, namely TLK1 and TLK2, localize to the cell nucleus and are capable of forming homo- or hetero-oligomers by themselves. To characterize the role of TLK2, its C-terminal kinase domain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-γ-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. The latter produced the best diffracting crystal (3.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation), with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 126.05 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contained one protein molecule, with a Matthews coefficient of 4.59 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 73.23%.

  16. Glucose Activates TORC2-Gad8 Protein via Positive Regulation of the cAMP/cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) Pathway and Negative Regulation of the Pmk1 Protein-Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adiel; Kupiec, Martin; Weisman, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase belongs to the highly conserved eukaryotic family of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases. TOR proteins are found at the core of two evolutionary conserved complexes, known as TORC1 and TORC2. In fission yeast, TORC2 is dispensable for proliferation under optimal growth conditions but is required for starvation and stress responses. TORC2 has been implicated in a wide variety of functions; however, the signals that regulate TORC2 activity have so far remained obscure. TORC2 has one known direct substrate, the AGC kinase Gad8, which is related to AKT in human cells. Gad8 is phosphorylated by TORC2 at Ser-546 (equivalent to AKT Ser-473), leading to its activation. Here, we show that glucose is necessary and sufficient to induce Gad8 Ser-546 phosphorylation in vivo and Gad8 kinase activity in vitro. The glucose signal that activates TORC2-Gad8 is mediated via the cAMP/PKA pathway, a major glucose-sensing pathway. By contrast, Pmk1, similar to human extracellular signal-regulated kinases and a major stress-induced mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in fission yeast, inhibits TORC2-dependent Gad8 phosphorylation and activation. Inhibition of TORC2-Gad8 also occurs in response to ionic or osmotic stress, in a manner dependent on the cAMP/PKA and Pmk1-MAPK signaling pathways. Our findings highlight the significance of glucose availability in regulation of TORC2-Gad8 and indicate a novel link between the cAMP/PKA, Pmk1/MAPK, and TORC2-Gad8 signaling. PMID:24928510

  17. Phosphorylation of the mRNA cap binding protein and eIF-4A by different protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Hagedorn, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    These studies were done to determine the identity of a protein kinase that phosphorylates the mRNA cap binding protein (CBP). Two chromatographic steps (dye and ligand and ion exchange HPLC) produced a 500x purification of an enzyme activity in rabbit reticulocytes that phosphorylated CBP at serine residues. Isoelectric focusing analysis of kinase treated CBP demonstrated 5 isoelectric species of which the 2 most anodic species were phosphorylated (contained /sup 32/P). This kinase activity phosphorylated CBP when it was isolated or in the eIF-4F complex. Purified protein kinase C, cAMP or cGMP dependent protein kinase, casein kinase I or II, myosin light chain kinase or insulin receptor kinase did not significantly phosphorylate isolated CBP or CBP in the eIF-4F complex. However, cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinases and casein kinase II phosphorylated eIF-4A but did not phosphorylate the 46 kDa component of eIF-4F. cAMP dependent protein kinase phosphorylated a approx. 220 kDa protein doublet in eIF-4F preparations. These studies indicate that CBP kinase activity probably represents a previously unidentified protein kinase. In addition, eIF-4A appears to be phosphorylated by several protein kinases whereas the 46 kDa component of the eIF-4F complex was not.

  18. Cyclin-dependent kinase-like function is shared by the beta- and gamma- subset of the conserved herpesvirus protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Kuny, Chad V; Chinchilla, Karen; Culbertson, Michael R; Kalejta, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    The UL97 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, or HHV-5 (human herpesvirus 5)), is a kinase that phosphorylates the cellular retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor and lamin A/C proteins that are also substrates of cellular cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). A functional complementation assay has further shown that UL97 has authentic Cdk-like activity. The other seven human herpesviruses each encode a kinase with sequence and positional homology to UL97. These UL97-homologous proteins have been termed the conserved herpesvirus protein kinases (CHPKs) to distinguish them from other human herpesvirus-encoded kinases. To determine if the Cdk-like activities of UL97 were shared by all of the CHPKs, we individually expressed epitope-tagged alleles of each protein in human Saos-2 cells to test for Rb phosphorylation, human U-2 OS cells to monitor nuclear lamina disruption and lamin A phosphorylation, or S. cerevisiae cdc28-13 mutant cells to directly assay for Cdk function. We found that the ability to phosphorylate Rb and lamin A, and to disrupt the nuclear lamina, was shared by all CHPKs from the beta- and gamma-herpesvirus families, but not by their alpha-herpesvirus homologs. Similarly, all but one of the beta and gamma CHPKs displayed bona fide Cdk activity in S. cerevisiae, while the alpha proteins did not. Thus, we have identified novel virally-encoded Cdk-like kinases, a nomenclature we abbreviate as v-Cdks. Interestingly, we found that other, non-Cdk-related activities reported for UL97 (dispersion of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) and disruption of cytoplasmic or nuclear aggresomes) showed weak conservation among the CHPKs that, in general, did